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Sample records for macaca mulatta electronic

  1. Analysis of the Macaca mulatta transcriptome and the sequence divergence between Macaca and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magness, Charles L; Fellin, P Campion; Thomas, Matthew J; Korth, Marcus J; Agy, Michael B; Proll, Sean C; Fitzgibbon, Matthew; Scherer, Christina A; Miner, Douglas G; Katze, Michael G; Iadonato, Shawn P

    2005-01-01

    We report the initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the Macaca mulatta transcriptome. Cloned sequences from 11 tissues, nine animals, and three species (M. mulatta, M. fascicularis, and M. nemestrina) were sampled, resulting in the generation of 48,642 sequence reads. These data represent an initial sampling of the putative rhesus orthologs for 6,216 human genes. Mean nucleotide diversity within M. mulatta and sequence divergence among M. fascicularis, M. nemestrina, and M. mulatta are also reported.

  2. Nucleotide sequence of the triosephosphate isomerase gene from Macaca mulatta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Old, S.E.; Mohrenweiser, H.W. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1988-09-26

    The triosephosphate isomerase gene from a rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta, charon 34 library was sequenced. The human and chimpanzee enzymes differ from the rhesus enzyme at ASN 20 and GLU 198. The nucleotide sequence identity between rhesus and human is 97% in the coding region and >94% in the flanking regions. Comparison of the rhesus and chimp genes, including the intron and flanking sequences, does not suggest a mechanism for generating the two TPI peptides of proliferating cells from hominoids and a single peptide from the rhesus gene.

  3. Single subcutaneous dosing of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, J.; Thuesen, Line Risager; Braskamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    was to determine whether cefovecin is a suitable antibiotic to prevent skin wound infection in rhesus monkeys. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cefovecin after a single subcutaneous injection at 8 mg/kg bodyweight in four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and sensitivity of bacterial isolates from fresh skin...... wounds were determined. After administration, blood, urine, and feces were collected, and concentrations of cefovecin were determined. Further, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for bacteria isolated from fresh skin wounds of monkeys during a health control program were determined. The mean...... maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ) of cefovecin was 78 µg/mL and was achieved after 57 min. The mean apparent long elimination half-life (t½) was 6.6 h and excretion occurred mainly via urine. The MIC for the majority of the bacteria examined was >100 µg/mL. The PK of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys...

  4. Radiation-induced endometriosis in Macaca mulatta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanton, J.W.; Golden, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Female rhesus monkeys received whole-body doses of ionizing radiation in the form of single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, X rays, and electrons. Endometriosis developed in 53% of the monkeys during a 17-year period after exposure. Incidence rates for endometriosis related to radiation type were: single-energy protons, 54%; mixed-energy protons, 73%; X rays, 71%; and electrons, 57%. The incidence of endometriosis in nonirradiated control monkeys was 26%. Monkeys exposed to single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, and X rays developed endometriosis at a significantly higher rate than control monkeys (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Severity of endometriosis was staged as massive, moderate, and minimal. The incidence of these stages were 65, 16, and 19%, respectively. Observations of clinical disease included weight loss in 43% of the monkeys, anorexia in 35%, space-occupying masses detected by abdominal palpation in 55%, abnormal ovarian/uterine anatomy on rectal examination in 89%, and radiographic evidence of abdominal masses in 38%. Pathological lesions were endometrial cyst formation in 69% of the monkeys, adhesions of the colon in 66%, urinary bladder in 50%, ovaries in 86%, and ureters in 44%, focal nodules of endometrial tissue throughout the omentum in 59%, and metastasis in 9%. Clinical management of endometriosis consisted of debulking surgery and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined in some cases with total abdominal hysterectomy. Postoperative survival rates at 1 and 5 years for monkeys recovering from surgery were 48 and 36%, respectively

  5. Rotational displacement skills in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kelly D; Santos, Laurie R

    2012-11-01

    Rotational displacement tasks, in which participants must track an object at a hiding location within an array while the array rotates, exhibit a puzzling developmental pattern in humans. Human children take an unusually long time to master this task and tend to solve rotational problems through the use of nongeometric features or landmarks as opposed to other kinds of spatial cues. We investigated whether these developmental characteristics are unique to humans by testing rotational displacement skills in a monkey species, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), using a looking-time method. Monkeys first saw food hidden in two differently colored boxes within an array. The array was then rotated 180° and the boxes reopened to reveal the food in an expected or unexpected location. Our first two experiments explored the developmental time-course of performance on this rotational displacement task. We found that adult macaques looked longer at the unexpected event, but such performance was not mirrored in younger-aged macaques. In a third study, we systematically varied featural information and visible access to the array to investigate which strategies adult macaques used in solving rotational displacements. Our results show that adult macaques need both sets of information to solve the task. Taken together, these results suggest both similarities and differences in mechanisms by which human and nonhuman primates develop this spatial skill.

  6. A Macaca mulatta model of fulminant hepatic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zhou; Hong Bu; Jie Xia; Gang Guo; Li Li; Yu-Jun Shi; Zi-Xing Huang; Qiang Lu; Hong-Xia Li

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish an appropriate primate model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). METHODS: We have, for the first time, established a large animal model of FHF in Macaca mulatta by intraperitoneal infusion of amatoxin and endotoxin. Clinical features, biochemical indexes, histopathology and iconography were examined to dynamically investigate the progress and outcome of the animal model. RESULTS: Our results showed that the enzymes and serum bilirubin were markedly increased and the enzyme-bilirubin segregation emerged 36 h after toxin administration. Coagulation activity was significantly decreased. Gradually deteriorated parenchymal abnormality was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography at 48 h. The liver biopsy showed marked hepatocyte steatosis and massive parenchymal necrosis at 36 h and 49 h, respectively. The autopsy showed typical yellow atrophy of the liver. Hepatic encephalopathy of the models was also confirmed by hepatic coma, MRI and pathological changes of cerebral edema. The lethal effects of the extrahepatic organ dysfunction were ruled out by their biochemical indices, imaging and histopathology. CONCLUSION: We have established an appropriate large primate model of FHF, which is closely similar to clinic cases, and can be used for investigation of the mechanism of FHF and for evaluation of potential medical therapies.

  7. Selection and Pairing of ’Normal’ Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-08

    week intervals. Fecal bacteriological cultures did not detect any Salmonella or Shigella car- riers in the population. The male monkeys ranged in age...1Special Roert 78-6 LVEL•$ SELECTION AND PAIRING OF "NORMAL" RHESUS MONKEYS (Macaca mulatto) FOR RESEARC Matthew J. Kessler, James L. Kupper, James D...public release; distribution unlimited. SELECTION AND PAIRING OF "NORMAL" RHESUS MONKEYS (Macaca mulatta) FOR RESEARCH Matthew J. Kessler, James L

  8. Genetic characterization of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyes, Randall C; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Chalise, Mukesh K; Engel, Gregory; Heidrich, John; Grant, Richard; Bajimaya, Shyam S; McDonough, John; Smith, David Glenn; Ferguson, Betsy

    2006-05-01

    Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have long served as an animal model for the study of human disease and behavior. Given the current shortage of Indian-origin rhesus, many researchers have turned to rhesus macaques from China as a substitute. However, a number of studies have identified marked genetic differences between the Chinese and Indian animals. We investigated the genetic characteristics of a third rhesus population, the rhesus macaques of Nepal. Twenty-one rhesus macaques at the Swoyambhu Temple in Kathmandu, Nepal, were compared with more than 300 Indian- and Chinese-origin rhesus macaques. The sequence analyses of two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) loci, from the HVS I and 12 S rRNA regions, showed that the Nepali animals were more similar to Indian-origin than to Chinese-origin animals. The distribution of alleles at 24 short tandem repeat (STR) loci distributed across 17 chromosomes also showed greater similarity between the Nepali and Indian-origin animals. Finally, an analysis of seven major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles showed that the Nepali animals expressed Class I alleles that are common to Indian-origin animals, including Mamu-A*01. All of these analyses also revealed a low level of genetic diversity within this Nepali rhesus sample. We conclude that the rhesus macaques of Nepal more closely resemble rhesus macaques of Indian origin than those of Chinese origin. As such, the Nepali rhesus may offer an additional resource option for researchers who wish to maintain research protocols with animals that possess key genetic features characteristic of Indian-origin rhesus macaques. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Radiographic Incidence of Spinal Osteopathologies in Captive Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Perdigón-Castañeda, Gerardo; Galván-Montaño, Alfonso; de Oca, Guadalupe García-Montes; Zapata-Valdez, Carinthia; Tena-Betancourt, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Degenerative spinal disease is a leading cause of chronic disability both in humans and animals. Although widely seen as a normal occurrence of aging, degenerative spinal disease can be caused by various genetic, iatrogenic, inflammatory, and congenital factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the degenerative spine-related diseases and the age at onset in a random subpopulation of 20 captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; male, 13; female, 7; age: range, 4 to 27 y; median, 1...

  10. Reference values of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Younan; Qin, Shengfang; Ding, Yang; Wei, Lingling; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hongxia; Bu, Hong; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2009-01-01

    Rhesus monkey models are valuable to the studies of human biology. Reference values for clinical chemistry and hematology parameters of rhesus monkeys are required for proper data interpretation. Whole blood was collected from 36 healthy Chinese rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) of either sex, 3 to 5 yr old. Routine chemistry and hematology parameters, and some special coagulation parameters including thromboelastograph and activities of coagulation factors were tested. We presented here the baseline values of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters in normal Chinese rhesus monkeys. These data may provide valuable information for veterinarians and investigators using rhesus monkeys in experimental studies.

  11. Climatic effects on the nasal complex: a CT imaging, comparative anatomical, and morphometric investigation of Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Samuel; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies exploring the effects of climate on the nasal region have largely focused on external craniofacial linear parameters, using dry crania of modern human populations. This investigation augments traditional craniofacial morphometrics with internal linear and volumetric measures of the anatomic units comprising the nasal complex (i.e., internal nasal cavity depth, maxillary sinus volumes). The study focuses on macaques (i.e., Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) living at high and low altitudes, rather than on humans, since the short residency of migratory human populations may preclude using them as reliable models to test the long-term relationship of climate to nasal morphology. It is hypothesized that there will be significant differences in nasal complex morphology among macaques inhabiting different climates. This study integrated three different approaches: CT imaging, comparative anatomy, and morphometrics-in an effort to better understand the morphological structure and adaptive nature of the nasal complex. Results showed statistically significant differences when subsets of splanchnocranial and neurocranial variables were regressed against total maxillary sinus volume for particular taxa. For example, basion-hormion was significant for M. fascicularis, whereas choanal dimensions were significant only for M. mulatta. Both taxa revealed strong correlation between sinus volume and prosthion to staphylion distance, which essentially represents the length of the nasal cavity floor-and is by extension an indicator of the air conditioning capacity of the nasal region. These results clearly show that climatic effects play a major role in shaping the anatomy of the nasal complex in closely related species. The major influence upon these differing structures appears to be related to respiratory-related adaptations subserving differing climatic factors. In addition, the interdependence of the paranasal sinuses with other parts of the complex strongly

  12. Normal Hematological, Biochemical, and Serum Electrolyte Values for a Colony of Rhesus Monkeys ’Macaca mulatta’,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-28

    Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, 1966. Pp 80-87. 3. Banerjee, S., and Chakrabarty, A.S., Anaemia and its relation with iron metabolism in...D.P., Valerjo, M.G., and -f Rininger, B.F., Hematologic changes associated with pregnancy and parturition in Macaca mulatta. Lab. Anim. Care, 20

  13. Radiation-induced mutation frequency in marked chromosome of Macaca mulatta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhemilev, Z.A.; Machavariani, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The symmetric and asymmetric exchange frequencies of marked (nucleolus forming) chromosomes were studied in the lymphocytes and epithelial kidney cells irradiated by X-rays at G 0 , both in vivo and in vitro. Symmetric and asymmetric exchange frequencies were found to be equal. In both the types of Macaca mulatta cells, the exchange frequency in the long arm appeared to be higher than theoretically expected. The increased exchange in the long arm is thought to be due to a greater quantity of late replicating heterochromatin in it. The short arm of marked chromosome of epithelial kidney cells enters the exchange in accordance to its length in mitosis, but exchange number in the short arm chromosome in lymphocytes is lower than in epithelial cells. This difference is caused likely by different functioning of the nucleolus forming heterochromatin. (author)

  14. Perceived control in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - Enhanced video-task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine whether perceived control effects found in humans extend to rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) tested in a video-task format, using a computer-generated menu program, SELECT. Choosing one of the options in SELECT resulted in presentation of five trials of a corresponding task and subsequent return to the menu. In Experiments 1-3, the animals exhibited stable, meaningful response patterns in this task (i.e., they made choices). In Experiment 4, performance on tasks that were selected by the animals significantly exceeded performance on identical tasks when assigned by the experimenter under comparable conditions (e.g., time of day, order, variety). The reliable and significant advantage for performance on selected tasks, typically found in humans, suggests that rhesus monkeys were able to perceive the availability of choices.

  15. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  16. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this species....... Reference intervals established were as follows: SAA, 29.5–87.7 mg/L; CRP, 0–17.5 mg/L; haptoglobin, 354.3–2,414.7 mg/L; albumin, 36.1–53.0 g/L; and iron, 13.3–40.2 lmol/L. Furthermore, changes in the acute-phase reactants were studied in two additional groups of animals: eight rhesus macaques suffering...... from acute traumatic injuries and nine rhesus macaques experimentally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis reflecting a chronic active inflammation. In animals with inflammation, SAA and haptoglobin concentrations were moderately increased, while CRP increased more than 200-fold. In addition, marked...

  17. Thrombotic stroke in the anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta): characterization by MRI - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauberti, Maxime; Gakuba, Clement; Orset, Cyrille; Obiang, Pauline; Guedin, Pierre; Balossier, Anne; Diependaele, Anne-Sophie; Young, Alan R.; Agin, Veronique; Chazalviel, Laurent; Vivien, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The lack of a relevant stroke model in large nonhuman primates hinders the development of innovative diagnostic/therapeutic approaches concerned with this cerebrovascular disease. Our objective was to develop a novel and clinically relevant model of embolic stroke in the anesthetized monkey that incorporates readily available clinical imaging techniques and that would allow the possibility of drug delivery including strategies of reperfusion. Thrombin was injected into the lumen of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 12 anesthetized (sevoflurane) male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Sequential MRI studies (including angiography, FLAIR, PWI, DWI, and gadolinium-enhanced T1W imaging) were performed in a 3 T clinical MRI. Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the investigations. Once standardized, the surgical procedure induced transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in all operated animals. All animals studied showed spontaneous reperfusion, which occurred some time between 2 h and 7 days post-ictus. Eighty percent of the studied animals showed diffusion/perfusion mismatch. The ischemic lesions at 24 h spared both superficial and profound territories of the MCA. Some animals presented hemorrhagic transformation at 7 days post-ictus. In this study, we developed a pre-clinically relevant model of embolic stroke in the anesthetized nonhuman primate. (authors)

  18. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta held in captivity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  19. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available. PMID:24850977

  20. Change detection by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, L Caitlin; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A

    2012-08-01

    Two monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned a color change-detection task where two colored circles (selected from a 4-color set) were presented on a 4 × 4 invisible matrix. Following a delay, the correct response was to touch the changed colored circle. The monkeys' learning, color transfer, and delay transfer were compared to a similar experiment with pigeons. Monkeys, like pigeons (Columba livia), showed full transfer to four novel colors, and to delays as long as 6.4 s, suggesting they remembered the colors as opposed to perceptual based attentional capture process that may work at very short delays. The monkeys and pigeons were further tested to compare transfer with other dimensions. Monkeys transferred to shape and location changes, unlike the pigeons, but neither species transferred to size changes. Thus, monkeys were less restricted in their domain to detect change than pigeons, but both species learned the basic task and appear suitable for comparative studies of visual short-term memory. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Effects on executive function following damage to the prefrontal cortex in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tara L; Schettler, Stephen P; Killiany, Ronald J; Rosene, Douglas L; Moss, Mark B

    2009-04-01

    Executive function is a term used to describe the cognitive processes subserved by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). An extensive body of work has characterized the effects of damage to the PFC in nonhuman primates, but it has focused primarily on the capacity of recognition and working memory. One limitation in studies of the functional parcellation of the PFC has been the absence of tests that assess executive function or its functional components. The current study used an adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a classic test of frontal lobe and executive function in humans, to assess the effects of bilateral lesions in the dorsolateral PFC on executive function in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). The authors used the category set-shifting task, which requires the monkey to establish a pattern of responding to a specific category (color or shape) based on reward contingency, maintain that pattern of responding, and then shift to responding to a different category when the reward contingency changes. Rhesus monkeys with lesions of the dorsolateral PFC were impaired in abstraction, establishing a response pattern to a specific category and maintaining and shifting that response pattern on the category set-shifting task. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Impaired performance from brief social isolation of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A multiple video-task assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Social isolation has been demonstrated to produce profound and lasting psychological effects in young primates. In the present investigation, two adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were isolated from one another for up to 6 days and tested on 7 video tasks designed to assess psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Both the number and quality (i.e., speed and accuracy) of responses were significantly compromised in the social isolation condition relative to levels in which the animals were tested together. It is argued that adult rhesus are susceptible to performance disruption by even relatively brief social isolation, and that these effects can best be assessed by a battery of complex and sensitive measures.

  4. Retinal response of Macaca mulatta to picosecond laser pulses of varying energy and spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, William P; Cain, Clarence P; Narayan, Drew G; Noojin, Gary D; Boppart, Stephen A; Birngruber, Reginald; Fujimoto, James G; Toth, Cynthia A

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the laser beam at the retina (spot size) and the extent of retinal injury from single ultrashort laser pulses. From previous studies it is believed that the retinal effect of single 3-ps laser pulses should vary in extent and location, depending on the occurrence of laser-induced breakdown (LIB) at the site of laser delivery. Single 3-ps pulses of 580-nm laser energy are delivered over a range of spot sizes to the retina of Macaca mulatta. The retinal response is captured sequentially with optical coherence tomography (OCT). The in vivo OCT images and the extent of pathology on final microscopic sections of the laser site are compared. With delivery of a laser pulse with peak irradiance greater than that required for LIB, OCT and light micrographs demonstrate inner retinal injury with many intraretinal and/or vitreous hemorrhages. In contrast, broad outer retinal injury with minimal to no choriocapillaris effect is seen after delivery of laser pulses to a larger retinal area (60 to 300 microm diam) when peak irradiance is less than that required for LIB. The broader lesions extend into the inner retina when higher energy delivery produces intraretinal injury. Microscopic examination of stained fixed tissues provide better resolution of retinal morphology than OCT. OCT provides less resolution but could be guided over an in vivo, visible retinal lesion for repeated sampling over time during the evolution of the lesion formation. For 3-ps visible wavelength laser pulses, varying the spot size and laser energy directly affects the extent of retinal injury. This again is believed to be partly due to the onset of LIB, as seen in previous studies. Spot-size dependence should be considered when comparing studies of retinal effects or when pursuing a specific retinal effect from ultrashort laser pulses. Copyright 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  5. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sex Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Federica; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes. Generalized linear mixed models revealed that social behaviors mostly followed different developmental trajectories in males and females and were highly dependent on the social context. In particular, sex differences in social behavior varied through development depending on the partner’s sex and age. Females engaged in more social interactions than males, especially with other females, and were more involved in grooming around the time of maturation. In contrast, males interacted more with males and age peers, especially around maturation. Sex differences in social behavior varied through development, but also depended on rank, partner’s rank, and kin line, although not consistently. High-ranking individuals, especially older females, were generally preferred as social partners. Moreover, both male and female individuals interacted mostly with maternal kin, although males also preferred paternal kin over nonkin. Importantly, most developmental changes in sociality happened when individuals were ca. 2 yr old, suggesting that this might be a milestone in the development of sociality in rhesus macaques. The only notable exception to this pattern was play, which was more pronounced in males from the beginning of their lives. We propose that play might serve as a trigger of sex differences in social behavior, with sex differences emerging early in development and

  8. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm).

  9. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

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    Henkjan Honing

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1. Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2 and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3. In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm, the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group, but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm.

  10. No-scalpel vasectomy by electrocauterization in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    A. Raj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to standardize a new method of vasectomy in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. A total of 208 free range male rhesus macaques captured from different locations in Shivalik Hills in a population control programme of the rhesus macaques in India. General anaesthesia was achieved by using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride at 8 mg/kg body weight and xylazine hydrochloride at 2mg/kg body weight intramuscularly in squeeze cage. Surgical procedure of vasectomy was carried out by single-hole no-scalpel technique using a single pre-scrotal skin incision above the median raphae. Spermatic cord was grasped with ringed forceps and was pulled out through the single-hole incision. Vas deferens was separated from the artery-vein complexus and about 3-4 cm portion of vas deferens was resected. Cauterization of both ends of the vas deferens was achieved with electrocautery. The induction time for anaesthesia was 1.40±0.18 min while surgical time for vasectomy was found to be 5.09±0.22 min. Recovery from general anaesthesia was without side-effects after a mean duration of 36.07±1.22 min, whereas the duration of anaesthesia was observed to be 82.27±4.96 min. There were no major complications following the surgery and recovery of animals was smooth. Animals were kept in postoperative care for five days and released at the same capturing site.

  11. Sex Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Lars; Amici, Federica; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes. Generalized linear mixed models revealed that social behaviors mostly followed different developmental trajectories in males and females and were highly dependent on the social context. In particular, sex differences in social behavior varied through development depending on the partner's sex and age. Females engaged in more social interactions than males, especially with other females, and were more involved in grooming around the time of maturation. In contrast, males interacted more with males and age peers, especially around maturation. Sex differences in social behavior varied through development, but also depended on rank, partner's rank, and kin line, although not consistently. High-ranking individuals, especially older females, were generally preferred as social partners. Moreover, both male and female individuals interacted mostly with maternal kin, although males also preferred paternal kin over nonkin. Importantly, most developmental changes in sociality happened when individuals were ca . 2 yr old, suggesting that this might be a milestone in the development of sociality in rhesus macaques. The only notable exception to this pattern was play, which was more pronounced in males from the beginning of their lives. We propose that play might serve as a trigger of sex differences in social behavior, with sex differences emerging early in development and increasing

  12. Analogical reasoning and the differential outcome effect: transitory bridging of the conceptual gap for rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Thompson, Roger K R; Beran, Michael J; Washburn, David A

    2011-07-01

    Monkeys, unlike chimpanzees and humans, have a marked difficulty acquiring relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks that likely reflect the cognitive foundation upon which analogical reasoning rests. In the present study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed a categorical (identity and nonidentity) RMTS task with differential reward (pellet ratio) and/or punishment (timeout ratio) outcomes for correct and incorrect choices. Monkeys in either differential reward-only or punishment-only conditions performed at chance levels. However, the RMTS performance of monkeys experiencing both differential reward and punishment conditions was significantly better than chance. Subsequently when all animals experienced nondifferential outcomes tests, their RMTS performance levels were at chance. These results indicate that combining differential reward and punishment contingencies provide an effective, albeit transitory, scaffolding for monkeys to judge analogical relations-between-relations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Computed tomography or necropsy diagnosis of multiple bullae and the treatment of pneumothorax in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Min; Han, Sungyoung; Shin, Jun-Seop; Min, Byoung-Hoon; Jeong, Won Young; Lee, Ga Eul; Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Ju Eun; Chung, Hyunwoo; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Pulmonary bullae and pneumothorax have various etiologies in veterinary medicine. We diagnosed multiple pulmonary bullae combined with or without pneumothorax by computed tomography (CT) or necropsy in seven rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) imported from China. Two of seven rhesus macaques accompanied by pneumothorax were cured by fixation of ruptured lung through left or right 3rd intercostal thoracotomy. Pneumonyssus simicola, one of the etiologies of pulmonary bullae, was not detected from tracheobronchiolar lavage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report on the CT-aided diagnosis of pulmonary bullae and the successful treatment of combined pneumothorax by thoracotomy in non-human primates (NHPs). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Piracetam-induced changes on the brainstem auditory response in anesthetized juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Report of two clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Rivera, A; Gonzalez-Pina, R; Hernandez-Godinez, B; Ibanez-Contreras, A; Bueno-Nava, A; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A

    2012-10-01

    We describe two clinical cases and examine the effects of piracetam on the brainstem auditory response in infantile female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We found that the interwave intervals show a greater reduction in a 3-year-old rhesus monkey compared to a 1-year-old rhesus monkey. In this report, we discuss the significance of these observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Individual differences in scanpaths correspond with serotonin transporter genotype and behavioral phenotype in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R Gibboni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanpaths (the succession of fixations and saccades during spontaneous viewing contain information about the image but also about the viewer. To determine the viewer-dependent factors in the scanpaths of monkeys, we trained three adult males (Macaca mulatta to look for 3 s at images of conspecific facial expressions with either direct or averted gaze. The subjects showed significant differences on four basic scanpath parameters (number of fixations, fixation duration, saccade length, and total scanpath length when viewing the same facial expression/gaze direction combinations. Furthermore, we found differences between monkeys in feature preference and in the temporal order in which features were visited on different facial expressions. Overall, the between-subject variability was larger than the within- subject variability, suggesting that scanpaths reflect individual preferences in allocating visual attention to various features in aggressive, neutral, and appeasing facial expressions. Individual scanpath characteristics were brought into register with the genotype for the serotonin transporter regulatory gene (5-HTTLPR and with behavioral characteristics such as expression of anticipatory anxiety and impulsiveness/hesitation in approaching food in the presence of a potentially dangerous object.

  16. Use of photogrammetry as a means to assess hybrids of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadejaroen, Janya; Hamada, Yuzuru; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques are the most commonly used non-human primate models for biomedical research, but it is difficult to identify these two species in the hybrid zone (15-20°N). In this work, we used morphological values obtained via photogrammetry to assess hybrids of rhesus and long-tailed macaques at Khao Khieow Open Zoo (KKZ; 13°21'N, 101°06'E), eastern Thailand. Long-tailed and rhesus macaques have species-specific tail lengths and contrasts of their yellowish pelages. The accuracy and precision of the relative tail length (%RTL) and the contrast of the yellow hue (Cb*) of the pelage, as obtained from photographs, were compared with the corresponding direct measurements (morphometrics). The photogrammetric and morphometric measurements of %RTL and Cb* were highly significantly correlated (r = 0.989 and 0.980, p photogrammetry can be utilized to identify macaque species or hybrids when species identification relies mainly on tail length and pelage color.

  17. Early maternal rejection affects the development of monoaminergic systems and adult abusive parenting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Higley, J Dee; Lindell, Stephen G; Newman, Timothy K; McCormack, Kai M; Sanchez, Mar M

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of early exposure to variable parenting style and infant abuse on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine metabolites and examined the role of monoaminergic function in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Forty-three infants reared by their biological mothers and 15 infants that were cross-fostered at birth and reared by unrelated mothers were followed longitudinally through their first 3 years of life or longer. Approximately half of the infants were reared by abusive mothers and half by nonabusive controls. Abused infants did not differ from controls in CSF concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylgycol (MHPG). Abused infants, however, were exposed to higher rates of maternal rejection, and highly rejected infants had lower CSF 5-HIAA and HVA than low-rejection infants. The abused females who became abusive mothers in adulthood had lower CSF 5-HIAA than the abused females who did not. A similar trend was also observed among the cross-fostered females, suggesting that low serotonergic function resulting from early exposure to high rates of maternal rejection plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse.

  18. Effect of vaccination schedule on immune response of Macaca mulatta to cell culture-grown Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, L S; Kenyon, R H; Pedersen, C E

    1976-01-01

    The effect of vaccination schedule on the immune response of Macaca mulatta to formalin-inactivated chicken embryo cell culture (CEC)-grown Rickettsia rickettsii vaccine was studied. Schedules consisted of inoculation on day 1 only, on days 1 and 15, on days 1 and 30, on days 1, 8, and 15, or on days 1, 15, and 45. Humoral antibody measured by microagglutination and indirect immunofluorescence and resistance to challenge with 10(4) plaque-forming units of yolk sac-grown R. rickettsii were assessed. Seroconversion was noted in all monkeys after the first dose of vaccine. A second dose administered 8 or 15 days after the primary infection, or a third given 7 or 30 days after the second, produced no long-term effect on antibody titer. Only monkeys given two doses of vaccine at a 30-day interval showed an increase in antibody titer during the period before challenge. Vaccination with one, two, or three doses of CEC vaccine prevented development of rash and rickettsemia after challenge. The two-dose schedules appeared to induce the highest degree of resistance to challenge, as indicated by unaltered hematological parameters and body temperature in monkeys. The one- and three-dose schedules were somewhat less effective, in that some challenged monkeys within each group displayed febrile and leukocyte responses associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection. Our data suggest that administration of two doses of CEC vaccine at 15- or 30-day intervals is the immunization schedule of choice. PMID:823173

  19. Bilateral neurotoxic amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Consistent pattern of behavior across different social contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Christopher J.; Emery, Nathan J.; Capitanio, John P.; Mason, William A.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Amaral, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Although the amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in normal primate social behavior, great variability exists in the specific social and nonsocial behavioral changes observed after bilateral amygdala lesions in nonhuman primates. One plausible explanation pertains to differences in social context. To investigate this idea, we measured the social behavior of amygdala-lesioned and unoperated rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in two contexts. Animals interacted in four-member social groups over 32 test days. These animals were previously assessed in pairs (Emery et al., 2001), and were, therefore, familiar with each other at the beginning of this study. Across the two contexts, amygdala lesions produced a highly consistent pattern of social behavior. Operated animals engaged in more affiliative social interactions with control group partners than did control animals. In the course of their interactions, amygdala-lesioned animals also displayed an earlier decrease in nervous and fearful personality qualities than controls. The increased exploration and sexual behavior recorded for amygdala-lesioned animals in pairs was not found in the four-member groups. We conclude that the amygdala contributes to social inhibition and this function transcends various social contexts. PMID:18410164

  20. Evaluation of a therapy for Idiopathic Chronic Enterocolitis in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta and linked microbial community correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Taylor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic enterocolitis (ICE is one of the most commonly encountered and difficult to manage diseases of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. The etiology is not well understood, but perturbations in gut microbial communities have been implicated. Here we evaluated the effects of a 14-day course of vancomycin, neomycin, and fluconazole on animals affected with ICE, comparing treated, untreated, and healthy animals. We performed microbiome analysis on duodenal and colonic mucosal samples and feces in order to probe bacterial and/or fungal taxa potentially associated with ICE. All treated animals showed a significant and long-lasting improvement in stool consistency over time when compared to untreated and healthy controls. Microbiome analysis revealed trends associating bacterial community composition with ICE, particularly lineages of the Lactobacillaceae family. Sequencing of DNA from macaque food biscuits revealed that fungal sequences recovered from stool were dominated by yeast-derived food additives; in contrast, bacteria in stool appeared to be authentic gut residents. In conclusion, while validation in larger cohorts is needed, the treatment described here was associated with significantly improved clinical signs; results suggested possible correlates of microbiome structure with disease, though no strong associations were detected between single microbes and ICE.

  1. Expression analysis of taste signal transduction molecules in the fungiform and circumvallate papillae of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta.

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    Yoshiro Ishimaru

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of the mammalian gustatory system have been examined in many studies using rodents as model organisms. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression of molecules involved in taste signal transduction in the fungiform papillae (FuP and circumvallate papillae (CvP of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, using in situ hybridization. TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS2Rs, and PKD1L3 were exclusively expressed in different subsets of taste receptor cells (TRCs in the FuP and CvP. This finding suggests that TRCs sensing different basic taste modalities are mutually segregated in macaque taste buds. Individual TAS2Rs exhibited a variety of expression patterns in terms of the apparent level of expression and the number of TRCs expressing these genes, as in the case of human TAS2Rs. GNAT3, but not GNA14, was expressed in TRCs of FuP, whereas GNA14 was expressed in a small population of TRCs of CvP, which were distinct from GNAT3- or TAS1R2-positive TRCs. These results demonstrate similarities and differences between primates and rodents in the expression profiles of genes involved in taste signal transduction.

  2. Differential Responding by Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Humans (Homo sapiens to Variable Outcomes in the Assurance Game

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    Audrey E. Parrish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral flexibility in how one responds to variable partner play can be examined using economic coordination games in which subjects play against a variety of partners and therefore may need to alter their behavior to produce the highest payoff. But how do we study this behavioral flexibility once players have settled on a response? Here, we investigated how responding by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and humans (Homo sapiens playing a computerized single-player version of a coordination game, the Assurance game, changed as a function of the variable responses (Stag/Hare generated by multiple simulations (SIMs. We were interested in whether individuals could track and differentially respond to changing frequencies of Stag and Hare play by the SIMs, especially with regard to the payoff dominant (Stag-Stag outcome, something that could not be done with real partners as they quickly settled on the Stag response. For both monkeys and humans, there was a linear relationship between proportion of Stag play by the subject and the likelihood of the Stag choice by the SIM such that both species increased their use of Stag as the SIM increased its use of the Stag response. However, humans more closely matched their proportion of Stag responses to that of the SIM, whereas monkeys adopted a different, but equally effective, strategy of exploiting the higher-paying Stag alternative. These results suggest that monkeys and humans demonstrate sensitivity to a dynamic game environment in which they encounter variable contingencies for the same response options, although they may employ different strategies to maximize reward.

  3. The influence of kinship and dominance hierarchy on grooming partner choice in free-ranging Macaca mulatta brevicaudus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Feng; Liao, Zhi-Jie; Sueur, Cedric; Sha, John Chih Mun; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Peng

    2018-04-18

    In group-living animals, individuals do not interact uniformly with their conspecifics. Among primates, such heterogeneity in partner choice can be discerned from affiliative grooming patterns. While the preference for selecting close kin as grooming partners is ubiquitous across the primate order, the selection of higher-ranking non-kin individuals as grooming partners is less common. We studied a group of provisioned rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta brevicaudus) on Hainan Island, China, to examine rank-related benefits of grooming exchanges and the influence of kin relationships. We tested four hypotheses based on Seyfarth's model: (1) there will be kin preference in grooming relationships; (2) grooming between non-kin individuals will be directed up the dominance rank; (3) grooming between non-kin individuals will reduce aggression from higher-ranking ones; and (4) non-kin individuals will spend more time grooming with adjacent ranked ones. We found that grooming relationships between kin individuals were stronger than those between non-kin individuals. For non-kin relationships, lower-ranking individuals received less aggression from higher-ranking ones through grooming; a benefit they could not derive through grooming exchanges with individuals related by kinship. Individuals spent more time grooming adjacent higher-ranking non-kin individuals and higher-ranking individuals also received more grooming from non-kin individuals. Our results supported Seyfarth's model for predicting partner choice between non-kin individuals. For relationships between kin individuals, we found results that were not consistent with prediction for the exchanges of aggression and grooming, indicating the importance to control for the influence of kinship in future studies.

  4. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  5. Social network community structure and the contact-mediated sharing of commensal E. coli among captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Krishna; Beisner, Brianne; Guan, Jiahui; Vandeleest, Jessica; Fushing, Hsieh; Atwill, Edward; McCowan, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    In group-living animals, heterogeneity in individuals' social connections may mediate the sharing of microbial infectious agents. In this regard, the genetic relatedness of individuals' commensal gut bacterium Escherichia coli may be ideal to assess the potential for pathogen transmission through animal social networks. Here we use microbial phylogenetics and population genetics approaches, as well as host social network reconstruction, to assess evidence for the contact-mediated sharing of E. coli among three groups of captively housed rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ), at multiple organizational scales. For each group, behavioral data on grooming, huddling, and aggressive interactions collected for a six-week period were used to reconstruct social network communities via the Data Cloud Geometry (DCG) clustering algorithm. Further, an E. coli isolate was biochemically confirmed and genotypically fingerprinted from fecal swabs collected from each macaque. Population genetics approaches revealed that Group Membership, in comparison to intrinsic attributes like age, sex, and/or matriline membership of individuals, accounted for the highest proportion of variance in E. coli genotypic similarity. Social network approaches revealed that such sharing was evident at the community-level rather than the dyadic level. Specifically, although we found no links between dyadic E. coli similarity and social contact frequencies, similarity was significantly greater among macaques within the same social network communities compared to those across different communities. Moreover, tests for one of our study-groups confirmed that E. coli isolated from macaque rectal swabs were more genotypically similar to each other than they were to isolates from environmentally deposited feces. In summary, our results suggest that among frequently interacting, spatially constrained macaques with complex social relationships, microbial sharing via fecal-oral, social contact-mediated routes may

  6. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

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    Amanda M Dettmer

    Full Text Available Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous, to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1, in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1, and in peak lactation (LACT2. We also assessed infants' neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02, but only in primiparous monkeys (p<0.001. HPCs declined across pregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (p<0.01, and primiparous monkeys had higher HPCs overall than multiparous monkeys (p=0.02. Infants of primiparous mothers had lower sensorimotor reflex scores (p=0.02 and tended to be more irritable (p=0.05 and less consolable (p=0.08 in the first month of life. Moreover, across all subjects, HCCs in PREG2/LACT1 were positively correlated with irritability (r(s=0.43, p=0.03 and negatively correlated with sensorimotor scores (r(s=-0.41, p=0.04. Together, the present results indicate that primiparity influences both chronic maternal hormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in

  7. Alloscardovia macacae sp. nov., isolated from the milk of a macaque (Macaca mulatta), emended description of the genus Alloscardovia and proposal of Alloscardovia criceti comb. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Ročková, Š.; Vlková, E.; Rada, V.; Havlík, J.; Kopečný, Jan; Bunešová, V.; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Pechar, R.; Profousová, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 12 (2013), s. 4439-4446 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) QJ1210093 Program:QJ Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : alanine * asparagine * Alloscardovia macacae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.798, year: 2013

  8. Real-Time Telemetric Monitoring in Whole-Body 60Co Gamma-Photon Irradiated Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    clinically healthy adult male rhesus maca - ques (M. mulatta), 7–13 kg and 5–14 years of age, were obtained from the non-naı̈ve pool of NHPs of the US...11/9/2009. 15 Reinhardt V: Space utilization by captive rhesus maca - ques. Anim Technol 1992; 43:11–7. 16 Rosoff CB: Role of intestinal bacteria in the

  9. What meaning means for same and different: Analogical reasoning in humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Beran, Michael J; Thompson, Roger K R; Kleider, Heather M; Washburn, David A

    2008-05-01

    Thus far, language- and token-trained apes (e.g., D. Premack, 1976; R. K. R. Thompson, D. L. Oden, & S. T. Boysen, 1997) have provided the best evidence that nonhuman animals can solve, complete, and construct analogies, thus implicating symbolic representation as the mechanism enabling the phenomenon. In this study, the authors examined the role of stimulus meaning in the analogical reasoning abilities of three different primate species. Humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed the same relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks with both meaningful and nonmeaningful stimuli. This discrimination of relations-between-relations serves as the basis for analogical reasoning. Meaningfulness facilitated the acquisition of analogical matching for human participants, whereas individual differences among the chimpanzees suggest that meaning can either enable or hinder their ability to complete analogies. Rhesus monkeys did not succeed in the RMTS task regardless of stimulus meaning, suggesting that their ability to reason analogically, if present at all, may be dependent on a dimension other than the representational value of stimuli. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Study of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of attenuated and killed Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta model of the human disease

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    VF Amaral

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We have compared the efficacy of two Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines, one genetically attenuated (DHFR-TS deficient organisms, the other inactivated [autoclaved promastigotes (ALM with bacillus Calmete-Guérin (BCG], in protecting rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta against infection with virulent L. (L. major. Positive antigen-specific recall proliferative response was observed in vaccinees (79% in attenuated parasite-vaccinated monkeys, versus 75% in ALM-plus-BCG-vaccinated animals, although none of these animals exhibited either augmented in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-g production or positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to the leishmanin skin test prior to the challenge. Following challenge, there were significant differences in blastogenic responses (p < 0.05 between attenuated-vaccinated monkeys and naïve controls. In both vaccinated groups very low levels of antibody were found before challenge, which increased after infective challenge. Protective immunity did not follow vaccination, in that monkeys exhibited skin lesion at the site of challenge in all the groups. The most striking result was the lack of pathogenicity of the attenuated parasite, which persisted in infected animals for up to three months, but were incapable of causing disease under the conditions employed. We concluded that both vaccine protocols used in this study are safe in primates, but require further improvement for vaccine application.

  12. Measurement of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) apolipoprotein B in serum by radioimmunoassay: comparison of immunoreactivities of rhesus and human low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, J.B.; Juhn, D.J.; Fless, G.; Scanu, A.M.; Rubenstein, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay for the major apolipoprotein (apoB) of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) is described. The antiserum was raised to LDL (d 1.030 to 1.040 g/ml) and the LDL 2 (d 1.020 to 1.050 g/ml) was labeled with 125 I by the chloramine-T or iodine monochloride method. The assay, which was sensitive to 0.02 to 0.5 μg of LDL 2 , had an interassay coefficient of variation of 4.5%. This assay was successfully used to measure apoB in the whole serum and low density lipoproteins of control monkeys maintained on a standard Purina monkey chow (PMC) diet and of three groups of monkeys fed atherogenic diets: an average American diet, a 25% peanut oil and 2% cholesterol-supplemented PMC diet, and a 25% coconut oil and 2% cholesterol-supplemented PMC diet

  13. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS: A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

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    Eric J Feczko

    Full Text Available Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD, has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS. Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological

  14. The effect of site (deltoid or gluteus muscle of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta

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    Ladislav Hess

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of site of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta. Twenty macaque monkeys were given medetomidine (25 µg·kg-1 and ketamine (3 mg·kg-1 intramuscularly to the deltoid (n = 10 animals or gluteus (n = 10 animals muscles. Behavioural changes, loss of aggressiveness, immobilisation time and cardiorespiratory changes were recorded. The effect of drugs was reversed after 20 min by i.m. administration of atipamezole at the dose of 250 µg·kg-1. Highly significant differences (P < 0.001 were found between groups with gluteal or deltoid administration of drugs on the onset of immobilisation effect (71.3 s and 108.3 s, respectively, and immobilisation time (152.7 s and 254.4 s, respectively. In the gluteus muscle group, the grasp reflex was still present at the beginning of immobilisation and slowly wore off in 15–45 s. The same was valid for muscle tone. There were no differences in cardiorespiratory parameters in any of the groups. Animals of both groups recovered in 3–6 min after atipamezole administration. Administration of drugs to the deltoid muscle resulted in a more rapid onset and increased effect of immobilisation than administration to the gluteus muscle. Both in veterinary and human medicine, injection to the deltoid muscle may be more convenient in all cases, when rapid and more prominent effect is desirable as in premedication before surgery or in emergency medicine. The study is the first to compare the effect of administering drugs to different muscles and the results may improve the practice of intramuscular injections in animals and in humans.

  15. Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta living in urban and semi-rural North-West India

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    John J. Debenham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. are intestinal protozoa capable of infecting a range of host species, and are important causes of human morbidity and mortality. Understanding their epidemiology is important, both for public health and for the health of the animals they infect. This study investigated the occurrence of these protozoans in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta in India, with the aim of providing preliminary information on the potential for transmission of these pathogens between macaques and humans. Faecal samples (n = 170 were collected from rhesus macaques from four districts of North-West India. Samples were analysed for Giardia/Cryptosporidium using a commercially available direct immunofluorescent antibody test after purification via immunomagnetic separation. Positive samples were characterised by sequencing of PCR products. Occurrence of Entamoeba was investigated first by using a genus-specific PCR, and positive samples further investigated via species-specific PCRs for Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Giardia cysts were found in 31% of macaque samples, with all isolates belonging to Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 1 sample, however this sample did not result in amplification by PCR. Entamoeba spp. were found in 79% of samples, 49% of which were positive for E. coli. Multiplex PCR for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, did not result in amplification in any of the samples. Thus in 51% of the samples positive at the genus specific PCR, the Entamoeba species was not identified. This study provides baseline information on the potential for transmission of these zoonotic parasites at the wildlife-human interface.

  16. Behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta is related to the airways response, but not immune measures, commonly associated with asthma.

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    Katie Chun

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition reflects a disposition to react warily to novel situations, and has been associated with atopic diseases such as asthma. Retrospective work established the relationship between behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and airway hyperresponsiveness, but not atopy, and the suggestion was made that behavioral inhibition might index components of asthma that are not immune-related. In the present study, we prospectively examined the relationship between behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and whether hormonal and immune measures often associated with asthma were associated with behavioral inhibition and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. In a sample of 49 yearling rhesus monkeys (mean=1.25 years, n=24 behaviorally inhibited animals, we measured in vitro cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ in response to stimulation, as well as peripheral blood cell percentages, cortisol levels, and percentage of regulatory T-cells (CD3+CD4+CD25+FOXP3+. Airway reactivity was assessed using an inhaled methacholine challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the proportion of immune cells was determined. Behaviorally inhibited monkeys had airway hyperresponsiveness as indicated by the methacholine challenge (p=0.031, confirming our earlier retrospective result. Airway hyperresponsiveness was also associated with lower lymphocyte percentages in lavage fluid and marginally lower plasma cortisol concentrations. However, none of the tested measures was significantly related to both behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and so could not mediate their relationship. Airway hyperresponsiveness is common to atopic and non-atopic asthma and behavioral inhibition has been related to altered autonomic activity in other studies. Our results suggest that behavioral inhibition might index an autonomically mediated reactive airway phenotype, and that a variety of stimuli (including inflammation within

  17. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    Steve W. C. Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  18. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  19. Noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M D; Burton, J A; Hauser, S N; Hackett, T A; Ramachandran, R; Liberman, M C

    2017-09-01

    Cochlear synaptopathy can result from various insults, including acoustic trauma, aging, ototoxicity, or chronic conductive hearing loss. For example, moderate noise exposure in mice can destroy up to ∼50% of synapses between auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) and inner hair cells (IHCs) without affecting outer hair cells (OHCs) or thresholds, because the synaptopathy occurs first in high-threshold ANFs. However, the fiber loss likely impairs temporal processing and hearing-in-noise, a classic complaint of those with sensorineural hearing loss. Non-human primates appear to be less vulnerable to noise-induced hair-cell loss than rodents, but their susceptibility to synaptopathy has not been studied. Because establishing a non-human primate model may be important in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics, we examined cochlear innervation and the damaging effects of acoustic overexposure in young adult rhesus macaques. Anesthetized animals were exposed bilaterally to narrow-band noise centered at 2 kHz at various sound-pressure levels for 4 h. Cochlear function was assayed for up to 8 weeks following exposure via auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). A moderate loss of synaptic connections (mean of 12-27% in the basal half of the cochlea) followed temporary threshold shifts (TTS), despite minimal hair-cell loss. A dramatic loss of synapses (mean of 50-75% in the basal half of the cochlea) was seen on IHCs surviving noise exposures that produced permanent threshold shifts (PTS) and widespread hair-cell loss. Higher noise levels were required to produce PTS in macaques compared to rodents, suggesting that primates are less vulnerable to hair-cell loss. However, the phenomenon of noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy in primates is similar to that seen in rodents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic methylmercury exposure in the monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luschei, E.; Mottet, N.K.; Shaw, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    Small daily doses of methylmercury hydroxide were administered to rhesus monkeys for periods of up to 17 months. Behavioral tests of peripheral vision and of the accuracy and rapidity of hand movements did not disclose any early subtle deficits preceding the onset of obvious signs of neurotoxicity. These signs appeared suddenly and involved reduced food intake (anorexia), clumsiness of jumping, loss of fine control of the digits, and uncoordinated mastication. With a constant daily dose of 0.1 mg/kg or less, blood concentration of mercury reached a peak after about 2 months, and then decreased to about half the peak value. Subsequently, increasing the daily dose level above 0.1 mg/kg (range of 0.12 to 0.21 mg/kg) produced an increase of blood concentration which tended to stabilize in the range of 2.0 to 2.5 ppM. After several months at these elevated concentrations all animals exhibited signs of neurotoxicity.

  1. Control of Working Memory in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Hampton, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control is critical for efficiently using the limited resources in working memory. It is well established that humans use rehearsal to increase the probability of remembering needed information, but little is known in nonhumans, with some studies reporting the absence of active control and others subject to alternative explanations. We trained monkeys in a visual matching-to-sample paradigm with a post-sample memory cue. Monkeys either saw a remember cue that predicted the occurrence of a matching test that required memory for the sample, or a forget cue that predicted a discrimination test that did not require memory of the sample. Infrequent probe trials on which monkeys were given tests of the type not cued on that trial were used to assess whether memory was under cognitive control. Our procedures controlled for reward expectation and for the surprising nature of the probes. Monkeys matched less accurately after forget cues, while discrimination accuracy was equivalent in the two cue conditions. We also tested monkeys with lists of two consecutive sample images that shared the same cue. Again, memory for expected memory tests was superior to that on unexpected tests. Together these results show that monkeys cognitively control their working memory. PMID:25436219

  2. Executive-Attentional Uncertainty Responses by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Church, Barbara A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty response has been influential in studies of human perception, and it is crucial in the growing research literature that explores animal metacognition. However, the uncertainty response's interpretation is still sharply debated. The authors sought to clarify this interpretation using the dissociative technique of cognitive loads…

  3. Familial circadian rhythm disorder in the diurnal primate, Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Zhdanova

    Full Text Available In view of the inverse temporal relationship of central clock activity to physiological or behavioral outputs in diurnal and nocturnal species, understanding the mechanisms and physiological consequences of circadian disorders in humans would benefit from studies in a diurnal animal model, phylogenetically close to humans. Here we report the discovery of the first intrinsic circadian disorder in a family of diurnal non-human primates, the rhesus monkey. The disorder is characterized by a combination of delayed sleep phase, relative to light-dark cycle, mutual desynchrony of intrinsic rhythms of activity, food intake and cognitive performance, enhanced nighttime feeding or, in the extreme case, intrinsic asynchrony. The phenotype is associated with normal length of intrinsic circadian period and requires an intact central clock, as demonstrated by an SCN lesion. Entrainment to different photoperiods or melatonin administration does not eliminate internal desynchrony, though melatonin can temporarily reinstate intrinsic activity rhythms in the animal with intrinsic asynchrony. Entrainment to restricted feeding is highly effective in animals with intrinsic or SCN lesion-induced asynchrony. The large isolated family of rhesus macaques harboring the disorder provides a powerful new tool for translational research of regulatory circuits underlying circadian disorders and their effective treatment.

  4. The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) as a flight candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debourne, M. N. G.; Bourne, G. H.; Mcclure, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    The intelligence and ruggedness of rhesus monkeys, as well as the abundance of normative data on their anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry, and the availability of captive bred animals qualify them for selection as candidates for orbital flight and weightlessness studies. Baseline data discussed include: physical characteristics, auditory thresholds, visual accuity, blood, serological taxomony, immunogenetics, cytogenics, circadian rhythms, respiration, cardiovascular values, corticosteroid response to charr restraint, microscopy of tissues, pathology, nutrition, and learning skills. Results from various tests used to establish the baseline data are presented in tables.

  5. Characterization of Cardiac Time Intervals in Healthy Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata) by Using an Electronic Stethoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Haroon; Salciccioli, Louis; Pushilin, Sergei; Kumar, Paraag; Carter, John; Kuo, John; Novotney, Carol; Lazar, Jason M

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are used frequently in cardiovascular research. Cardiac time intervals derived by phonocardiography have long been used to assess left ventricular function. Electronic stethoscopes are simple low-cost systems that display heart sound signals. We assessed the use of an electronic stethoscope to measure cardiac time intervals in 48 healthy bonnet macaques (age, 8 ± 5 y) based on recorded heart sounds. Technically adequate recordings were obtained from all animals and required 1.5 ± 1.3 min. The following cardiac time intervals were determined by simultaneously recording acoustic and single-lead electrocardiographic data: electromechanical activation time (QS1), electromechanical systole (QS2), the time interval between the first and second heart sounds (S1S2), and the time interval between the second and first sounds (S2S1). QS2 was correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and left ventricular ejection time determined by using echocardiography. S1S2 correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection time, and age. S2S1 correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and left ventricular ejection time. QS1 did not correlate with any anthropometric or echocardiographic parameter. The relation S1S2/S2S1 correlated with systolic blood pressure. On multivariate analyses, heart rate was the only independent predictor of QS2, S1S2, and S2S1. In conclusion, determination of cardiac time intervals is feasible and reproducible by using an electrical stethoscope in nonhuman primates. Heart rate is a major determinant of QS2, S1S2, and S2S1 but not QS1; regression equations for reference values for cardiac time intervals in bonnet macaques are provided. PMID:21439218

  6. γ-Ray-induced reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.; Yamagiwa, J.; Utsugi, T.; Kitazume, M.; Nakai, S.

    1984-01-01

    The yield of translocations induced by γ-rays in the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia were studied by cytological analysis in spermatocytes derived from them. The frequencies of translocations were 0.09 per cent at 0 Gy, 1.9 per cent at 1 Gy, 2.5 per cent at 2 Gy and 1.3 per cent at 3 Gy, showing a humped dose-response curve with a peak yield around 2 Gy. No remarkable inter-seasonal or inter-animal variations in the induction of translocation were observed. The frequencies in the crab-eating monkey were significantly higher than those in the same Macaca genus, the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This inter-species difference in radiosensitivity might be affected by the condition of spermatogonial stem cells at the time of exposure to radiation, depending on the seasonal change in spermatogenetic activity. (orig.)

  7. Development of a cerebrospinal fluid lateral reservoir model in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester McCully, Cynthia M; Bacher, John; MacAllister, Rhonda P; Steffen-Smith, Emilie A; Saleem, Kadharbatcha; Thomas, Marvin L; Cruz, Rafael; Warren, Katherine E

    2015-02-01

    Rapid, serial, and humane collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in nonhuman primates (NHP) is an essential element of numerous research studies and is currently accomplished via two different models. The CSF reservoir model (FR) combines a catheter in the 4th ventricle with a flexible silastic reservoir to permit circulating CSF flow. The CSF lateral port model (LP) consists of a lateral ventricular catheter and an IV port that provides static access to CSF and volume restrictions on sample collection. The FR model is associated with an intensive, prolonged recovery and frequent postsurgical hydrocephalus and nonpatency, whereas the LP model is associated with an easier recovery. To maximize the advantages of both systems, we developed the CSF lateral reservoir model (LR), which combines the beneficial features of the 2 previous models but avoids their limitations by using a reservoir for circulating CSF flow combined with catheter placement in the lateral ventricle. Nine adult male rhesus monkeys were utilized in this study. Pre-surgical MRI was performed to determine the coordinates of the lateral ventricle and location of choroid plexus (CP). The coordinates were determined to avoid the CP and major blood vessels. The predetermined coordinates were 100% accurate, according to MRI validation. The LR system functioned successfully in 67% of cases for 221 d, and 44% remain functional at 426 to 510 d postoperatively. Compared with established models, our LR model markedly reduced postoperative complications and recovery time. Development of the LR model was successful in rhesus macaques and is a useful alternative to the FR and LP methods of CSF collection from nonhuman primates.

  8. Development of a Cerebrospinal Fluid Lateral Reservoir Model in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Lester McCully, Cynthia M; Bacher, John; MacAllister, Rhonda P; Steffen-Smith, Emilie A; Saleem, Kadharbatcha; Thomas, Marvin L; Cruz, Rafael; Warren, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    Rapid, serial, and humane collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in nonhuman primates (NHP) is an essential element of numerous research studies and is currently accomplished via two different models. The CSF reservoir model (FR) combines a catheter in the 4th ventricle with a flexible silastic reservoir to permit circulating CSF flow. The CSF lateral port model (LP) consists of a lateral ventricular catheter and an IV port that provides static access to CSF and volume restrictions on sample...

  9. Hair loss and hair-pulling in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Corrine K; Coleman, Kristine; Worlein, Julie; Novak, Melinda A

    2013-07-01

    Alopecia is a common problem in rhesus macaque colonies. A possible cause of this condition is hair-pulling; however the true relationship between hair-pulling and alopecia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hair loss and hair-pulling in 1258 rhesus macaques housed in 4 primate colonies across the United States. Alopecia levels ranged from 34.3% to 86.5% (mean, 49.3%) at the primate facilities. At facilities reporting a sex-associated difference, more female macaques were reported to exhibit alopecia than were males. In contrast, more males were reported to hair-pull. Animals reported to hair-pull were significantly more likely to have some amount of alopecia, but rates of hair-pulling were substantially lower than rates of alopecia, ranging from 0.6% to 20.5% (mean, 7.7%) of the populations. These results further demonstrate that hair-pulling plays only a small role in alopecia in rhesus macaques.

  10. Exploring decoy effects on computerized task preferences in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey E. Parrish

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric dominance effect or decoy effect emerges when a third inferior option is introduced to a choice set. The decoy option, although typically not chosen, impacts relative preference for the original two options. This decisional bias stands in contrast with rational choice theory, which dictates that choice behavior should remain consistent for the original options with the addition of different alternatives to a choice set such as the decoy. In the current study, we assessed the decoy effect in rhesus monkeys using a computerized task battery that introduced two different computerized tasks, including a matching-to-sample task and a psychomotor task called PURSUIT. Decoy tasks were designed such that they were inferior versions of these original task options, requiring longer time to completion (via slowed cursor speeds and subsequently reduced reinforcement rates. Monkeys learned to associate unique icons for each task (including for decoy tasks, and used these icons to select their preferred task from a choice set of two to three task options. Monkeys learned to perform all tasks, but did not show evidence of the decoy effect using this task preference paradigm. We discuss the role of initial task preference (and task biases, task type (symbolic vs. perceptual, and decoy effect sizes in light of these findings. We contrast the current results to previous findings of the decoy effect in rhesus monkeys using a perceptual paradigm as well as to other evidence of the decoy effect in non-primate animal species.

  11. Hair cortisol predicts object permanence performance in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Novak, Matthew F S X; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2009-12-01

    Although high circulating levels of glucocorticoids are associated with impaired cognitive performance in adults, less is known about this relationship in infancy. Furthermore, because studies have relied on acute cortisol measures in blood plasma or saliva, interpretation of the results may be difficult as acute measures may in part reflect emotional responses to testing procedures. In this study we examined whether hair cortisol, an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, predicted performance of nursery-reared (NR) infant rhesus monkeys (n = 32) on Piagetian object permanence tasks. Testing of NR infants began at 19.8 +/- 2.2 (mean +/- SE) days of age and continued for the next several months. Hair cortisol concentrations from the 32 NR monkeys were compared to those of 20 mother-peer-reared (MPR) infants. Hair was shaved at Day 14, allowed to regrow, and obtained again at month 6, thus representing integrated cortisol over a 5.5-month period of time. NR and MPR infants did not differ in month 6 hair cortisol values (t((50)) = 0.02, p = 0.98). Linear regression revealed that hair cortisol predicted object permanence performance in the NR infants. Infants with higher hair cortisol reached criterion at later ages on the well (p < 0.01), screen (p < 0.05), and A-not-B (p < 0.05) tasks and required more test sessions to complete the well (p < 0.01) and screen tasks (p < 0.05). These data are the first to implicate hair cortisol as a reliable predictor of early cognitive performance in infant macaque monkeys.

  12. Metabolism of 14C-labeled doxylamine succinate (Bendectin) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Lipe, G.W.; Korfmacher, W.A.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Bailey, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The time-course of the metabolic fate of [ 14 C]doxylamine was determined after the p.o. administration of 13 mg/kg doxylamine succinate as Bendectin plus [ 14 C]doxylamine succinate to the rhesus monkey. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chemical derivatization, and mass spectrometry. The cumulative 48-hr urinary metabolic profile contained 81% of the administered radiolabeled dose and consisted of at least six radiolabeled peaks. They were peak 1: unknown polar metabolites (8% of dose); peak 2: 2-[1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy] acetic acid, 1-[1-phenyl-1(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy] methanol, and another minor metabolite(s) (31%); peak 3: doxylamine-N-oxide (1%); peak 4a: N,N-didesmethyldoxylamine (17%); peak 4b: doxylamine (4%); and peak 5: N-desmethyldoxylamine (20%). The plasma metabolic profile was the same as the urinary profile except for the absence of doxylamine-N-oxide. The maximum plasma concentrations and elapsed time to attain these concentrations were as follows. Peak 1: 540 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 2: 1700 ng/mL, 1 hr; peak 4a: 430 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 4b: 930 ng/mL, 2 hr; and peak 5: 790 ng/mL, 2 hr. These data suggest that in the monkey, doxylamine metabolism follows at least four pathways: a minor pathway to the N-oxide; a minor pathway to unknown polar metabolites; a major pathway to mono- and didesmethyldoxylamine via successive N-demethylation; and a major pathway to side-chain cleavage products (peak 2) via direct side-chain oxidation and/or deamination

  13. Fading Perceptual Resemblance: A Path for Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to Conceptual Matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Flemming, Timothy M.; Boomer, Joseph; Beran, Michael J.; Church, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive, comparative, and developmental psychologists have long been intrigued by humans’ and animals’ capacity to respond to abstract relations like sameness and difference, because this capacity may underlie crucial aspects of cognition like analogical reasoning. Recently, this capacity has been explored in higher-order, relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks in which humans and animals try to complete analogies of sameness and difference between disparate groups of items. The authors introduced a new paradigm to this area, by yoking the relational-matching cue to a perceptual-matching cue. Then, using established algorithms for shape distortion, the perceptual cue was weakened and eliminated. Humans’ RMTS performance easily transcended the elimination of perceptual support. In contrast, RMTS performance by six macaques faltered as they were weaned from perceptual support. No macaque showed evidence of mature RMTS performance, even given more than 260,000 training trials during which we tried to coax a relational-matching performance from them. It is an important species difference that macaques show so hesitant a response to conceptual relations when humans respond to them so effortlessly. It raises theoretical questions about the emergence of this crucial capacity during humans’ cognitive evolution and during humans’ cognitive development. PMID:24076537

  14. The transfer of category knowledge by macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive psychologists distinguish implicit, procedural category learning (stimulus-response associations learned outside declarative cognition) from explicit-declarative category learning (conscious category rules). These systems are dissociated by category learning tasks with either a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. In the present experiments, humans and two monkeys learned II and RB category tasks fostering implicit and explicit learning, respectively. Then they received occasional transfer trials-never directly reinforced-drawn from untrained regions of the stimulus space. We hypothesized that implicit-procedural category learning-allied to associative learning-would transfer weakly because it is yoked to the training stimuli. This result was confirmed for humans and monkeys. We hypothesized that explicit category learning-allied to abstract category rules-would transfer robustly. This result was confirmed only for humans. That is, humans displayed explicit category knowledge that transferred flawlessly. Monkeys did not. This result illuminates the distinctive abstractness, stimulus independence, and representational portability of humans' explicit category rules. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Nature of the Refractive Errors in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Experimentally Induced Ametropias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao-Grider, Ying; Hung, Li-Fang; Kee, Chea-su; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Smith, Earl L.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the contribution of individual ocular components to vision-induced ametropias in 210 rhesus monkeys. The primary contribution to refractive-error development came from vitreous chamber depth; a minor contribution from corneal power was also detected. However, there was no systematic relationship between refractive error and anterior chamber depth or between refractive error and any crystalline lens parameter. Our results are in good agreement with previous studies in humans, suggesting that the refractive errors commonly observed in humans are created by vision-dependent mechanisms that are similar to those operating in monkeys. This concordance emphasizes the applicability of rhesus monkeys in refractive-error studies. PMID:20600237

  16. Correction of refractive errors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jude F; Boisvert, Chantal J; Reuter, Jon D; Reynolds, John H; Leblanc, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    Macaques are the most common animal model for studies in vision research, and due to their high value as research subjects, often continue to participate in studies well into old age. As is true in humans, visual acuity in macaques is susceptible to refractive errors. Here we report a case study in which an aged macaque demonstrated clear impairment in visual acuity according to performance on a demanding behavioral task. Refraction demonstrated bilateral myopia that significantly affected behavioral and visual tasks. Using corrective lenses, we were able to restore visual acuity. After correction of myopia, the macaque's performance on behavioral tasks was comparable to that of a healthy control. We screened 20 other male macaques to assess the incidence of refractive errors and ocular pathologies in a larger population. Hyperopia was the most frequent ametropia but was mild in all cases. A second macaque had mild myopia and astigmatism in one eye. There were no other pathologies observed on ocular examination. We developed a simple behavioral task that visual research laboratories could use to test visual acuity in macaques. The test was reliable and easily learned by the animals in 1 d. This case study stresses the importance of screening macaques involved in visual science for refractive errors and ocular pathologies to ensure the quality of research; we also provide simple methodology for screening visual acuity in these animals.

  17. Reproductive efficiency of captive Chinese- and Indian-origin rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, H. Michael; Falkenstein, Kathrine P.; Deroche, Chelsea B.; Franke, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive and survival records (n = 2,913) from 313 Chinese-origin and 365 Indian-derived rhesus macaques at the Tulane National Primate Research Center spanning 3 generations were studied. Least-squares analysis of variance procedures were used to compare reproductive and infant survival traits while proportional hazards regression procedures were used to study female age at death, number of infants born per female and time from last birth to death. Chinese females were older at first parturition than Indian-females because they were older when placed with males, but the two subspecies had similar first and lifetime post-partum birth intervals. Females that gave birth to stillborn infants had shorter first post-partum birth intervals than females giving birth to live infants. Post-partum birth intervals decreased in females from 3 to 12 years of age but then increased again with advancing age. Chinese infants had a greater survival rate than Indian infants at 30 d, 6 mo and 1yr of age. Five hundred and forty-three females (80.01 %) had uncensored, or true records for age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from the birth until death whereas 135 females (19.91 %) had censored records for these traits. Low and high uncensored observations for age at death were 3 and 26 years of age for Chinese and 3 and 23 years of age for Indian females. Uncensored number of infants born per female ranged from 1 to 15 for Chinese females and 1 to 18 for Indian females. Each of these traits was significantly influenced by the origin × generation interaction in the proportional hazards regression analyses, indicating that probabilities associated with age at death, number of infants born per female and time from last birth to death for Chinese and Indian females did not rank the same across generations. PMID:22512021

  18. Inhaled oxytocin amplifies both vicarious reinforcement and self reinforcement in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Barter, Joseph W; Ebitz, R Becket; Watson, Karli K; Platt, Michael L

    2012-01-17

    People attend not only to their own experiences, but also to the experiences of those around them. Such social awareness profoundly influences human behavior by enabling observational learning, as well as by motivating cooperation, charity, empathy, and spite. Oxytocin (OT), a neurosecretory hormone synthesized by hypothalamic neurons in the mammalian brain, can enhance affiliation or boost exclusion in different species in distinct contexts, belying any simple mechanistic neural model. Here we show that inhaled OT penetrates the CNS and subsequently enhances the sensitivity of rhesus macaques to rewards occurring to others as well as themselves. Roughly 2 h after inhaling OT, monkeys increased the frequency of prosocial choices associated with reward to another monkey when the alternative was to reward no one. OT also increased attention to the recipient monkey as well as the time it took to render such a decision. In contrast, within the first 2 h following inhalation, OT increased selfish choices associated with delivery of reward to self over a reward to the other monkey, without affecting attention or decision latency. Despite the differences in species typical social behavior, exogenous, inhaled OT causally promotes social donation behavior in rhesus monkeys, as it does in more egalitarian and monogamous ones, like prairie voles and humans, when there is no perceived cost to self. These findings potentially implicate shared neural mechanisms.

  19. Low Level (Sub Threshold), Large Spot Laser Irradiations of the Foveas of Macaca Mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    spherules. In a portion of the block containing the macula a degenerating patch is seen, displaying considerable edema, with pyknotic and missing nuclei...6 Peripheral areas 11 Macula 11 Eye # 3 M31 2KD 15 (enucleated 7 days after focal irradiation jby gallium arsenide laser). Control areas 15 Neodymium...laser irradiations peripheral areas 23 Macula 28 TABLE OF CONTENTS continued Page Eye # 5 M443 2JD Patched Eye 32 Most areas 32 area nasal to optic disc

  20. Mycobacterium kansasii Isolated from Tuberculinpositive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the Absence of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Steven T; Johnson, David K; Roodgar, Morteza; Smith, David Glenn; Montgomery, Charles A; Lloyd, Steven M; Higgins, James A; Kriel, Edwin H; Klein, Hilton J; Porter, William P; Nazareno, Jerome B; Houghton, Paul W; Panda, Aruna; DeTolla, Louis J

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterial infections are of primary health concern in NHP colonies in biomedical research. NHP are constantly monitored and screened for Mycobacterium spp. We report 6 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with Mycobacterium kansasii that exhibited positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease. Two of these macaques were being used for research purposes; the remaining 4 macaques were residing at the contract quarantine company. Histopathology and acid-fast staining of fixed tissues from all macaques showed that all were free of disease. Thoracic radiographs were negative for any signs of disease or infection. Samples from bronchial lavage and tissues including lung, spleen, hilar and mesenteric lymph nodes tested negative by PCR assay for Mycobacterium spp. One of the research macaques tested culture-positive for M. kansasii and a poorly characterized M. avium complex organism. One macaque from the contract quarantine facility tested culture positive for M. kansasii. Genomic testing and target gene RNA expression analysis of the 2 M. kansasii isolates were performed to evaluate possible kinship and affected genes that might contribute to susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. Genotyping of the 2 isolates revealed 2 genetically distinct strains (strains 1 and 4). The presence of positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease raises serious concerns regarding diagnostic methods used for infected NHP.

  1. Real-time bioluminescence imaging of macroencapsulated fibroblasts reveals allograft protection in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantal, Alice F; Lee, C Chang I; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2009-07-15

    Encapsulation of cells has the potential to eliminate the need for immunosuppression for cellular transplantation. Recently, the TheraCyte device was shown to provide long-term immunoprotection of murine islets in a mouse model of diabetes. In this report, translational studies were undertaken using skin fibroblasts from an unrelated rhesus monkey donor that were transduced with an HIV-1-derived lentiviral vector expressing firefly luciferase permitting the use of bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to monitor cell survival over time and in a noninvasive manner. Encapsulated cells were transplanted subcutaneously (n=2), or cells were injected without encapsulation (n=1) and outcomes compared. BLI was performed to monitor cell survival. The BLI signal from the encapsulated cells remained robust postinsertion and in one animal persisted for up to 1 year. In contrast, the control animal that received unencapsulated cells exhibited a complete loss of cell signal within 14 days. These data demonstrate that TheraCyte encapsulation of allogeneic cells provides robust immune protection in transplanted rhesus monkeys.

  2. Studies on ’Macaca mulatta’ Infected with Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-10

    Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) rickettsiae. The LD50 in monkeys of the yolk-sac-grown seed stock was 10 to the 1.35th power plaque-forming units. Blood...acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin and albumin) were measured during a study in 16 male rhesus monkeys to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of Rocky

  3. Prepulse Inhibition of Auditory Cortical Responses in the Caudolateral Superior Temporal Gyrus in Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuyue; Parkkonen, Lauri; Wei, Jingkuan; Dong, Jin-Run; Ma, Yuanye; Carlson, Synnöve

    2018-04-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to a decreased response to a startling stimulus when another weaker stimulus precedes it. Most PPI studies have focused on the physiological startle reflex and fewer have reported the PPI of cortical responses. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in four monkeys and investigated whether the PPI of auditory cortical responses (alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations and evoked potentials) can be demonstrated in the caudolateral belt of the superior temporal gyrus (STGcb). We also investigated whether the presence of a conspecific, which draws attention away from the auditory stimuli, affects the PPI of auditory cortical responses. The PPI paradigm consisted of Pulse-only and Prepulse + Pulse trials that were presented randomly while the monkey was alone (ALONE) and while another monkey was present in the same room (ACCOMP). The LFPs to the Pulse were significantly suppressed by the Prepulse thus, demonstrating PPI of cortical responses in the STGcb. The PPI-related inhibition of the N1 amplitude of the evoked responses and cortical oscillations to the Pulse were not affected by the presence of a conspecific. In contrast, gamma oscillations and the amplitude of the N1 response to Pulse-only were suppressed in the ACCOMP condition compared to the ALONE condition. These findings demonstrate PPI in the monkey STGcb and suggest that the PPI of auditory cortical responses in the monkey STGcb is a pre-attentive inhibitory process that is independent of attentional modulation.

  4. Shigella flexneri infection in a newly acquired rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Sang-Joon; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    A 3.4 year-old rhesus macaque weighing 4.5 kg, was suffering from anorexia, acute mucous and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination, the monkey showed a loss of activity, hunched posture, abdominal pain, dehydration, mild gingivitis and unclean anus with discharge. Whole blood was collected for the examination of electrolytes, hematology and serum chemistry; fresh stool was also collected for bacterial culture. Blood profiles showed leukocytosis (14.5 K/?L) and neutrophilia (11.0 K/?L) on c...

  5. Metabolism of lead-210 in juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounds, J.G.; Marlar, R.J.; Allen, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted measuring the gastrointestinal absorption and elimination of a single dose of lead-210 acetate in infant and adult rhesus monkeys. Urinary and fecal excretion of absorbed lead was followed for 23 days. Infant monkeys eliminated less and absorbed more orally administered lead. Adult animals excreted more absorbed lead in feces, while urinary excretion between adults and infants was similar. Increased absorption of administered lead and reduced fecal excretion of absorbed lead resulted in significantly greater body burden of lead-210 in infant animals. Blood lead values were increased in the infant animals, and were inversely correlated with body burden and percent absorption of ingested lead

  6. Age-dependent changes in innate immune phenotype and function in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Asquith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aged individuals are more susceptible to infections due to a general decline in immune function broadly referred to as immune senescence. While age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well documented, aging of the innate immune system remains less well understood, particularly in nonhuman primates. A more robust understanding of age-related changes in innate immune function would provide mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infection. Rhesus macaques have proved a critical translational model for aging research, and present a unique opportunity to dissect age-dependent modulation of the innate immune system. We examined age-related changes in: (i innate immune cell frequencies; (ii expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and innate signaling molecules; (iii cytokine responses of monocytes and dendritic cells (DC following stimulation with PRR agonists; and (iv plasma cytokine levels in this model. We found marked changes in both the phenotype and function of innate immune cells. This included an age-associated increased frequency of myeloid DC (mDC. Moreover, we found toll-like receptor (TLR agonists lipopolysaccharide (TLR4, fibroblast stimulating ligand-1 (TLR2/6, and ODN2006 (TLR7/9 induced reduced cytokine responses in aged mDC. Interestingly, with the exception of the monocyte-derived TNFα response to LPS, which increased with age, TNFα, IL-6, and IFNα responses declined with age. We also found that TLR4, TLR5, and innate negative regulator, sterile alpha and TIR motif containing protein (SARM, were all expressed at lower levels in young animals. By contrast, absent in melanoma 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I expression was lowest in aged animals. Together, these observations indicate that several parameters of innate immunity are significantly modulated by age and contribute to differential immune function in aged macaques.

  7. Prevalence of Balantidium coli Infection in Bred Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Guangxi, southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Long Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Balantidium coli infects humans, primates and pigs, causing serious diarrhea and dysentery. Little information on the prevalence of B. coli in primates is available in China. This investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence of B. coli infection in bred rhesus monkeys in Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region (GZNAR, southern China.A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from rhesus monkeys bred in cages in GZNAR and B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites were examined microscopically after sedimentation with water in May 2013.(64.2% samples were tested positive. The prevalence was 65% (39/60 and 63.3% (38/60 in female and male monkeys, respectively. 80% (48/60 cages in this nonhuman primate center were positive for B. coli.The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in bred rhesus monkeys in GZNAR, which poses potential threats to animal and human health.

  8. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are natural hosts of specific Staphylococcus aureus lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no animal model known that mimics natural nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in humans. We investigated whether rhesus macaques are natural nasal carriers of S. aureus. Nasal swabs were taken from 731 macaques. S. aureus isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa repeat sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and compared with human strains. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by several PCRs. Thirty-nine percent of 731 macaques were positive for S. aureus. In general, the macaque S. aureus isolates differed from human strains as they formed separate PFGE clusters, 50% of the isolates were untypeable by agr genotyping, 17 new spa types were identified, which all belonged to new sequence types (STs. Furthermore, 66% of macaque isolates were negative for all superantigen genes. To determine S. aureus nasal colonization, three nasal swabs from 48 duo-housed macaques were taken during a 5 month period. In addition, sera were analyzed for immunoglobulin G and A levels directed against 40 staphylococcal proteins using a bead-based flow cytometry technique. Nineteen percent of the animals were negative for S. aureus, and 17% were three times positive. S. aureus strains were easily exchanged between macaques. The antibody response was less pronounced in macaques compared to humans, and nasal carrier status was not associated with differences in serum anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. In conclusion, rhesus macaques are natural hosts of S. aureus, carrying host-specific lineages. Our data indicate that rhesus macaques are useful as an autologous model for studying S. aureus nasal colonization and infection prevention.

  9. Sex-specific heritability of spontaneous lipid levels in an extended pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Vinson

    Full Text Available The rhesus macaque is an important model for human atherosclerosis but genetic determinants of relevant phenotypes have not yet been investigated in this species. Because lipid levels are well-established and heritable risk factors for human atherosclerosis, our goal was to assess the heritability of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in a single, extended pedigree of 1,289 Indian-origin rhesus macaques. Additionally, because increasing evidence supports sex differences in the genetic architecture of lipid levels and lipid metabolism in humans and macaques, we also explored sex-specific heritability for all lipid measures investigated in this study. Using standard methods, we measured lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels from fasted plasma in a sample of 193 pedigreed rhesus macaques selected for membership in large, paternal half-sib cohorts, and maintained on a low-fat, low cholesterol chow diet. Employing a variance components approach, we found moderate heritability for total cholesterol (h²=0.257, P=0.032, LDL cholesterol (h²=0.252, P=0.030, and triglyceride levels (h²=0.197, P=0.034 in the full sample. However, stratification by sex (N=68 males, N=125 females revealed substantial sex-specific heritability for total cholesterol (0.644, P=0.004, females only, HDL cholesterol (0.843, P=0.0008, females only, VLDL cholesterol (0.482, P=0.018, males only, and triglyceride levels (0.705, P=0.001, males only that was obscured or absent when sexes were combined in the full sample. We conclude that genes contribute to spontaneous variation in circulating lipid levels in the Indian-origin rhesus macaque in a sex-specific manner, and that the rhesus macaque is likely to be a valuable model for sex-specific genetic effects on lipid risk factors for human atherosclerosis. These findings are a first-ever report of heritability for cholesterol levels in this species, and support the need for expanded analysis of these traits in this population.

  10. Post-encoding control of working memory enhances processing of relevant information in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Ryan J; Hampton, Robert R

    2018-06-01

    Working memory is a system by which a limited amount of information can be kept available for processing after the cessation of sensory input. Because working memory resources are limited, it is adaptive to focus processing on the most relevant information. We used a retro-cue paradigm to determine the extent to which monkey working memory possesses control mechanisms that focus processing on the most relevant representations. Monkeys saw a sample array of images, and shortly after the array disappeared, they were visually cued to a location that had been occupied by one of the sample images. The cue indicated which image should be remembered for the upcoming recognition test. By determining whether the monkeys were more accurate and quicker to respond to cued images compared to un-cued images, we tested the hypothesis that monkey working memory focuses processing on relevant information. We found a memory benefit for the cued image in terms of accuracy and retrieval speed with a memory load of two images. With a memory load of three images, we found a benefit in retrieval speed but only after shortening the onset latency of the retro-cue. Our results demonstrate previously unknown flexibility in the cognitive control of memory in monkeys, suggesting that control mechanisms in working memory likely evolved in a common ancestor of humans and monkeys more than 32 million years ago. Future work should be aimed at understanding the interaction between memory load and the ability to control memory resources, and the role of working memory control in generating differences in cognitive capacity among primates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Development of an Instrument to Measure Global Dimensions of Maternal Care in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, K.; Howell, B. R.; Guzman, D.; Villongco, C.; Pears, K.; Kim, H.; Gunnar, M.R.; Sanchez, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the strongest predictors of healthy child development is the quality of maternal care. Although many measures of observation and self-report exist in humans to assess global aspects of maternal care, such qualitative measures are lacking in nonhuman primates. In this study we developed an instrument to measure global aspects of maternal care in rhesus monkeys, with the goal of complementing the individual behavioral data collected using a well-established rhesus macaque ethogram during the first months postpartum. The 22 items of the instrument were adapted from human maternal sensitivity assessments and a maternal Q-sort instrument already published for macaques. The 22 items formed four dimensions with high levels of internal reliability that represented major constructs of maternal care: 1) Sensitivity/Responsivity, 2) Protectiveness, 3) Permissiveness, and 4) Irritability. These dimensions yielded high construct validity when correlated with mother-infant frequency and duration behavior that was collected from focal observations across the first three postnatal months. In addition, comparisons of two groups of mothers (Maltreating versus Competent mothers), showed significant differences across the dimensions suggesting that this instrument has strong concurrent validity, even after controlling for focal observation variables that have been previously shown to significantly differentiate these groups. Our findings suggest that this Instrument of Macaque Maternal Care (IMMC) has the potential to capture global aspects of the mother-infant relationship that complement individual behaviors collected through focal observations. PMID:25066041

  12. Variation in reproductive outcomes for captive male rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) differing in CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Melissa S; Higley, Sue; Lussier, I sabelle D; Westergaard, Greg C; Suomi, Stephen J; Higley, J Dee

    2002-01-01

    In rhesus macaque males, lower than average cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the principle metabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), have been linked to impulsivity, involvement in escalated aggression, failure to elicit consort relationships, production of fewer sperm plugs, and a relatively early age of mortality. Given these potential fitness costs, we performed two studies aimed at elucidating the effects of CSF 5-HIAA on reproduction. Study 1 retrospectively evaluated over a four-year period, the relative reproductive outcome for pairs of adult male rhesus macaques (n = 15) who lived in social groups and who differed in concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA. Study 2 examined the relationship between CSF 5-HIAA and sperm motility and density (n = 12), as a potential mechanism for maintaining variability in CSF 5-HIAA. For Study 1, an average measure from two CSF 5-HIAA samples was calculated for the two males who were present during the time when conception most likely took place (offspring birth date -165 +/- 14 days). Within-pair comparisons of CSF 5-HIAA concentrations between the sire and the non-successful male were drawn for each of the 72 offspring in the study. We found that while sires were typically the male with relatively higher CSF 5-HIAA within the pair, there were no absolute differences in CSF 5-HIAA between males who sired at least one offspring (sires) and those who failed to reproduce (non-sires). Furthermore, while absolute age was not predictive of reproductive outcome, sires with relatively high CSF 5-HIAA also tended to be also relatively older than their competitors. By contrast, for the males with relatively low CSF 5-HIAA who reproduced, sires were relatively younger than the non-sires. These differences in reproductive outcome for males differing in CSF 5-HIAA could not be explained by variability in sperm quantity or quality as we did not find evidence of a relationship between CSF 5-HIAA and either sperm measure. The results of this study suggest that as serotonergic function affects many aspects of behavior and survivorship, it might also be associated with reproductive outcome and different life-history strategies for males differing in concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Transitive inference in humans (Homo sapiens) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after massed training of the last two list items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Alkan, Yelda; Muñoz, Fabian; Ferrera, Vincent P; Terrace, Herbert S

    2017-08-01

    Transitive inference (TI) is a classic learning paradigm for which the relative contributions of experienced rewards and representation-based inference have been debated vigorously, particularly regarding the notion that animals are capable of logic and reasoning. Rhesus macaque subjects and human participants performed a TI task in which, prior to learning a 7-item list (ABCDEFG), a block of trials presented exclusively the pair FG. Contrary to the expectation of associative models, the high prior rate of reward for F did not disrupt subsequent learning of the entire list. Monkeys (who each completed many sessions with novel stimuli) learned to anticipate that novel stimuli should be preferred over F. We interpret this as evidence of a task representation of TI that generalizes beyond learning about specific stimuli. Humans (who were task-naïve) showed a transitory bias to F when it was paired with novel stimuli, but very rapidly unlearned that bias. Performance with respect to the remaining stimuli was consistent with past reports of TI in both species. These results are difficult to reconcile with any account that assigns the strength of association between individual stimuli and rewards. Instead, they support sophisticated cognitive processes in both species, albeit with some species differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Hormones in infant rhesus monkeys' (Macaca mulatta) hair at birth provide a window into the fetal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele; Hedman, Curtis; Ziegler, Toni E; Coe, Christopher L

    2014-04-01

    It is established that maternal parity can affect infant growth and risk for several disorders, but the prenatal endocrine milieu that contributes to these outcomes is still largely unknown. Recently, it has been shown that hormones deposited in hair can provide a retrospective reflection of hormone levels while the hair was growing. Taking advantage of this finding, our study utilized hair at birth to investigate if maternal parity affected fetal hormone exposure during late gestation. Hair was collected from primiparous and multiparous mother and infant monkeys at birth and used to determine steroid hormones embedded in hair while the infant was in utero. A high-pressure liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry technique was refined, which enabled the simultaneous measurement of eight hormones. Hormone concentrations were dramatically higher in neonatal compared to maternal hair, reflecting extended fetal exposure as the first hair was growing. Further, hair cortisone was higher in primiparous mothers and infants when compared to the multiparous dyads. This research demonstrates that infant hair can be used to track fetal hormone exposure and a panel of steroid hormones can be quantified from hair specimens. Given the utility in nonhuman primates, this approach can be translated to a clinical setting with human infants.

  15. Application of three-dimensional culture systems to study mammalian spermatogenesis, with an emphasis on the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Huleihel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs has generally been performed using two-dimensional (2D culture systems; however, such cultures have not led to the development of complete spermatogenesis. It seems that 2D systems do not replicate optimal conditions of the seminiferous tubules (including those generated by the SSC niche and necessary for spermatogenesis. Recently, one of our laboratories has been able to induce proliferation and differentiation of mouse testicular germ cells to meiotic and postmeiotic stages including generation of sperm in a 3D soft agar culture system (SACS and a 3D methylcellulose culture system (MCS. It was suggested that SACS and MCS form a special 3D microenvironment that mimics germ cell niche formation in the seminiferous tubules, and thus permits mouse spermatogenesis in vitro. In this review, we (1 provide a brief overview of the differences in spermatogenesis in rodents and primates, (2 summarize data related to attempts to generate sperm in vitro, (3 report for the first time formation of colonies/clusters of cells and differentiation of meiotic (expression of CREM-1 and postmeiotic (expression of acrosin germ cells from undifferentiated spermatogonia isolated from the testis of prepubertal rhesus monkeys and cultured in SACS and MCS, and (4 indicate research needed to optimize 3D systems for in vitroprimate spermatogenesis and for possible future application to man.

  16. The development of an instrument to measure global dimensions of maternal care in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, K; Howell, B R; Guzman, D; Villongco, C; Pears, K; Kim, H; Gunnar, M R; Sanchez, M M

    2015-01-01

    One of the strongest predictors of healthy child development is the quality of maternal care. Although many measures of observation and self-report exist in humans to assess global aspects of maternal care, such qualitative measures are lacking in nonhuman primates. In this study, we developed an instrument to measure global aspects of maternal care in rhesus monkeys, with the goal of complementing the individual behavioral data collected using a well-established rhesus macaque ethogram during the first months postpartum. The 22 items of the instrument were adapted from human maternal sensitivity assessments and a maternal Q-sort instrument already published for macaques. The 22 items formed four dimensions with high levels of internal reliability that represented major constructs of maternal care: (1) Sensitivity/Responsivity, (2) Protectiveness, (3) Permissiveness, and (4) Irritability. These dimensions yielded high construct validity when correlated with mother-infant frequency and duration behavior that was collected from focal observations across the first 3 postnatal months. In addition, comparisons of two groups of mothers (Maltreating vs. Competent mothers) showed significant differences across the dimensions suggesting that this instrument has strong concurrent validity, even after controlling for focal observation variables that have been previously shown to significantly differentiate these groups. Our findings suggest that this Instrument of Macaque Maternal Care has the potential to capture global aspects of the mother-infant relationship that complement individual behaviors collected through focal observations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. I scan, therefore I decline: The time course of difficulty monitoring in humans (homo sapiens) and macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Boomer, Joseph; Church, Barbara A; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Beran, Michael J; Baum, Michael L

    2018-05-01

    The study of nonhumans' metacognitive judgments about trial difficulty has grown into an important comparative literature. However, the potential for associative-learning confounds in this area has left room for behaviorist interpretations that are strongly asserted and hotly debated. This article considers how researchers may be able to observe animals' strategic cognitive processes more clearly by creating temporally extended problems within which associative cues are not always immediately available. We asked humans and rhesus macaques to commit to completing spatially extended mazes or to decline completing them through a trial-decline response. The mazes could sometimes be completed successfully, but other times had a constriction that blocked completion. A deliberate, systematic scanning process could preevaluate a maze and determine the appropriate response. Latency analyses charted the time course of the evaluative process. Both humans and macaques appeared, from the pattern of their latencies, to scan the mazes through before committing to completing them. Thus monkeys, too, can base trial-decline responses on temporally extended evaluation processes, confirming that those responses have strategic cognitive-processing bases in addition to behavioral-reactive bases. The results also show the value of temporally and spatially extended problems to let researchers study the trajectory of animals' online cognitive processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Visual artificial grammar learning by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): exploring the role of grammar complexity and sequence length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Conway, Christopher M; Christiansen, Morten H; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2018-03-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates can learn about the organization of stimuli in the environment using implicit sequential pattern learning capabilities. However, most previous artificial grammar learning studies with nonhuman primates have involved relatively simple grammars and short input sequences. The goal in the current experiments was to assess the learning capabilities of monkeys on an artificial grammar-learning task that was more complex than most others previously used with nonhumans. Three experiments were conducted using a joystick-based, symmetrical-response serial reaction time task in which two monkeys were exposed to grammar-generated sequences at sequence lengths of four in Experiment 1, six in Experiment 2, and eight in Experiment 3. Over time, the monkeys came to respond faster to the sequences generated from the artificial grammar compared to random versions. In a subsequent generalization phase, subjects generalized their knowledge to novel sequences, responding significantly faster to novel instances of sequences produced using the familiar grammar compared to those constructed using an unfamiliar grammar. These results reveal that rhesus monkeys can learn and generalize the statistical structure inherent in an artificial grammar that is as complex as some used with humans, for sequences up to eight items long. These findings are discussed in relation to whether or not rhesus macaques and other primate species possess implicit sequence learning abilities that are similar to those that humans draw upon to learn natural language grammar.

  19. Local and systemic changes associated with long-term, percutaneous, static implantation with titanium alloys in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydman, Galit F.; Marini, Robert P.; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Biddle, Kathleen; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Lai, Barry; Bendapudi, Pavan K.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Fox, James G.

    2017-04-01

    Metal alloys are frequently used as implant materials in veterinary medicine. Recent studies suggest that many types of metal alloys may induce both local and systemic inflammatory responses. In this study, 37 rhesus macaques with long-term skull-anchored percutaneous titanium alloy implants (0-14 years duration) were evaluated for changes in their hematology, coagulation and serum chemistry profiles. Negative controls (n=28) did not have implants. All of the implanted animals were on IACUC-approved protocols and were not implanted for the purpose of this study. Animals with implants had significantly higher plasma D-dimer and lower antithrombin III concentrations compared with nonimplanted animals (p-values < 0.05). Additionally, animals with implants had significantly higher globulin, and lower albumin and calcium concentrations compared with nonimplanted animals (p-values < 0.05). Many of these changes were positively correlated with duration of implantation as well as the number of implants. Chronic bacterial infection was observed on the skin around many of the implant sites, and within deeper tissues. Representative histopathology around the implant site of two implanted animals revealed chronic suppurative to pyogranulomatous inflammation extending from the skin to the dura mater. X-ray fluorescence microscopy of tissue biopsies from the implant site of the same two animals revealed significant increases in free metal ions within the tissue, including titanium and iron. Free metal ions persisted in the tissues up to 6 months postexplant. These results suggest that long-term skull-anchored percutaneous titanium alloy implants results in localized inflammation, chronic infection, and leaching of metal ions into local tissues.

  20. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) show robust primacy and recency in memory for lists from small, but not large, image sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2010-02-01

    The combination of primacy and recency produces a U-shaped serial position curve typical of memory for lists. In humans, primacy is often thought to result from rehearsal, but there is little evidence for rehearsal in nonhumans. To further evaluate the possibility that rehearsal contributes to primacy in monkeys, we compared memory for lists of familiar stimuli (which may be easier to rehearse) to memory for unfamiliar stimuli (which are likely difficult to rehearse). Six rhesus monkeys saw lists of five images drawn from either large, medium, or small image sets. After presentation of each list, memory for one item was assessed using a serial probe recognition test. Across four experiments, we found robust primacy and recency with lists drawn from small and medium, but not large, image sets. This finding is consistent with the idea that familiar items are easier to rehearse and that rehearsal contributes to primacy, warranting further study of the possibility of rehearsal in monkeys. However, alternative interpretations are also viable and are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Medicinal management of corneal opacity in free ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta of Shivalik hills in Western Himalayas, Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corneal opacification was diagnosed in 17 free ranging rhesus macaques during detailed ophthalmic examination as a part of clinical health examination, at the monkey rescue sterilization centre in Hamirpur Himachal Pradesh, India. The cornea was completely opaque permitting only a little vision with respect to the affected eye. Medical management with topical ciprofloxacin and prednisolone along with ketoprofen and vitamin A was instituted. The corneal lesions subsided completely within one week following treatment. The treatment protocol successfully eliminated the discomfort and intraocular lesions with no serious subsequent irritation due to the treatment in these animals.

  2. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  3. Working and waiting for better rewards: self-control in two monkey species (Cebus apella and Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Self-control is typically defined as choosing a greater, delayed reward over a lesser, more immediate reward. However, in nature, there are other costs besides delay associated with obtaining the greatest outcome including increased effort, potential punishment, and low probability of reward. Effort is an interesting case because it sometimes impairs self-control, by acting as an additional cost, and at other times facilitates self-control, by distracting one from impulsive options. Additionally, different species may perform differently in effortful self-control tasks, based on their natural ecology. To gain insight into these aspects of self-control behavior, we examined capuchin monkeys' and rhesus monkeys' self-control in separate working and waiting choice tasks. We hypothesized that capuchins would show greater self-control in the working task, given their naturally higher activity level, whereas rhesus would perform similarly in both tasks. Rhesus performed as predicted, whereas contrary to our hypothesis, capuchins exhibited lesser performance in the working task. Nonetheless, these results may still stem from inherent species differences interacting with details of the methodology. Capuchins, being highly energetic and social monkeys, may have divided their energy and attention between the working task and other elements of the test environment such as visible group mates or manipulanda. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Video-task assessment of learning and memory in Macaques (Macaca mulatta) - Effects of stimulus movement on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of stimulus movement on learning, transfer, matching, and short-term memory performance were assessed with 2 monkeys using a video-task paradigm in which the animals responded to computer-generated images by manipulating a joystick. Performance on tests of learning set, transfer index, matching to sample, and delayed matching to sample in the video-task paradigm was comparable to that obtained in previous investigations using the Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus. Additionally, learning, transfer, and matching were reliably and significantly better when the stimuli or discriminanda moved than when the stimuli were stationary. External manipulations such as stimulus movement may increase attention to the demands of a task, which in turn should increase the efficiency of learning. These findings have implications for the investigation of learning in other populations, as well as for the application of the video-task paradigm to comparative study.

  5. Effect of Chronic Social Stress on Prenatal Transfer of Antitetanus Immunity in Captive Breeding Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammen, Rachelle L; Cohen, Joyce K; Meeker, Tracy L; Crane, Maria M; Amara, Rama R; Hicks, Sakeenah L; Meyer, Jerrold S; Ethun, Kelly F

    2018-05-15

    Because tetanus can cause significant morbidity and mortality in NHP, colonywide vaccination with tetanus toxoid is recommendedfor outdoor breeding colonies of rhesus macaques, with primary immunizations commonly given to infants at 6 mo of age followed by booster vaccines every 10 y. Maternal antibodies are thought to offer protective immunity to infants younger than 6 mo. However, historical colony data from the Yerkes National Primate Research Center show a higher incidence of tetanus among infants (≤ 6 mo old) born to subordinate dams. Whether this higher incidence of infantile tetanus is due to a higher incidence of trauma among subordinate animals or is a stress-induced impairment of maternal antibody protection is unknown. Studies in other NHP species suggest that chronic exposure to social stressors interferes with the receptor-mediated transplacental transfer of IgG. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic stress associated with social subordination impairs prenatal transfer of antitetanus immunity in breeding female rhesus macaques. Subjects included 26 high- and 26 low-ranking adult female rhesus macaques that were nearly 5 or 10 y after their initial immunization and their nonimmunized infants. We hypothesized that infants born to subordinate dams that were nearly 10 y after immunization would have the lowest infant-to-dam antibody ratios and thus would be at greatest risk for infection. Results revealed no significant intergroup differences in infant antitetanus IgG levels. However, infant-to-dam IgG ratios against tetanus were significantly lower among subordinate animals compared with dominant macaques, after accounting for the number of years since the dam's initial vaccination. In addition, higher maternal hair cortisol levels predicted lower infant-to-dam tetanus toxoid IgG ratios. Together, these findings suggest that chronic social stress in female rhesus macaques may hamper the prenatal transfer of antitetanus immunity to offspring.

  6. Development of space perception in relation to the maturation of the motor system in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Valentina; Simpson, Elizabeth A; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2015-04-01

    To act on the environment, organisms must perceive object locations in relation to their body. Several neuroscientific studies provide evidence of neural circuits that selectively represent space within reach (i.e., peripersonal) and space outside of reach (i.e., extrapersonal). However, the developmental emergence of these space representations remains largely unexplored. We investigated the development of space coding in infant macaques and found that they exhibit different motor strategies and hand configurations depending on the objects' size and location. Reaching-grasping improved from 2 to 4 weeks of age, suggesting a broadly defined perceptual body schema at birth, modified by the acquisition and refinement of motor skills through early sensorimotor experience, enabling the development of a mature capacity for coding space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  8. On the nature of directed behavior to drug-associated light cues in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Mark P; Berndt, Sonja I; Woods, James H

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigated the role of drug-paired stimuli in controlling the behavior of rhesus monkeys. Systematic observations were made with nine monkeys who had a history of drug self-administration; they had been lever pressing to produce intravenous infusions of various drugs. These observations revealed that the stimulus light co-occurring with drug infusion produced robust and cue-directed behavior such as orienting, touching and biting. Experiment 1 showed that this light-directed behavior would occur in naïve monkeys exposed to a Pavlovian pairing procedure. Four monkeys were given response-independent injections of cocaine. In two monkeys, a red light preceded cocaine injections by 5 s, and a green light co-occurred with the 5-s cocaine injections. In the other two monkeys, the light presentations and cocaine injections occurred independently. Light-directed behavior occurred in all four monkeys within the first couple of trials and at high levels but decreased across sessions. The cocaine-paired stimulus maintained behavior longer and at higher levels than the uncorrelated stimuli. Furthermore, light-directed behavior was not maintained when cocaine was replaced with saline. Light-directed behavior did not occur in the absence of the lights. When these monkeys were subsequently trained to lever press for cocaine, light-directed behavior increased to levels higher than previously observed. Behavior directed towards drug-paired stimuli is robust, reliable and multiply determined; the mechanisms underlying this activity likely include Pavlovian conditioning, stimulus novelty, habituation and operant conditioning.

  9. Pathogenic infection of Macaca nemestrina with a CCR5-tropic subtype-C simian-human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ruijiang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina have been used in AIDS research for years, less is known about the early immunopathogenic events in this species, as compared to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. Similarly, the events in early infection are well-characterized for simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, but less so for chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV, although the latter have been widely used in HIV vaccine studies. Here, we report the consequences of intrarectal infection with a CCR5-tropic clade C SHIV-1157ipd3N4 in pig-tailed macaques. Results Plasma and cell-associated virus was detectable in peripheral blood and intestinal tissues of all four pig-tailed macaques following intrarectal inoculation with SHIV-1157ipd3N4. We also observed a rapid and irreversible loss of CD4+ T cells at multiple mucosal sites, resulting in a marked decrease of CD4:CD8 T cell ratios 0.5–4 weeks after inoculation. This depletion targeted subsets of CD4+ T cells expressing the CCR5 coreceptor and having a CD28-CD95+ effector memory phenotype, consistent with the R5-tropism of SHIV-1157ipd3N4. All three animals that were studied beyond the acute phase seroconverted as early as week 4, with two developing cross-clade neutralizing antibody responses by week 24. These two animals also demonstrated persistent plasma viremia for >48 weeks. One of these animals developed AIDS, as shown by peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion starting at 20 weeks post inoculation. Conclusion These findings indicate that SHIV-1157ipd3N4-induced pathogenesis in pig-tailed macaques followed a similar course as SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Thus, R5 SHIV-C-infection of pig-tailed macaques could provide a useful and relevant model for AIDS vaccine and pathogenesis research.

  10. Mitsuda's reactions: induced by BCG in the normal Rhesus ("Macacca mulatta"

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    M. J. Pereira Filho

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available The reversals of Mitsuda's reactions induced by BCG have been objected to based on the possiblem interference of other determination causes of the phenomenon: tuberculous primo-infections, communicants of unsuspected leprosy, revearsals due to other causes, such as anti-diphteric and anti-tetanic vaccination, etc. In order to study the problem, we have used Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, which were reared in isolation, in an attempt to avoid the referred to interferences. Prior to the experiments, all animals were tested and found negative to radiograph, tuberculin and lepromin tests and were then submitted to the application of BCG vaccine (from 1 to 3 days old, in different doses and by different via. At different times, after the application of BCG, they were again submitted to the radiographic, tuberculin and lepromin tests. In the tables I to IV the experiences were summarised. From the experiments, the following conclusions were reached: 1 - From 12 Rhesus that received BCG 11 showed reversals of the Mitsuda reaction (91.7%. 2 - These reverseals took place both in tests effected shortly after BCG (from 6 days to 2 months, and tests effected much later (from 7 to 12 months after BCG. 3 - Some differences were found in the results, according to the dosis and the application via of the BCG. a - The testicular and peritonela via (0,02g were the only that determined strong positive Mitsuda's reactions (+++. b - By oral via, animals that received high dosis (0.6g and 1.2 g, there resulted uniform and regular reversals, even though of low intensity (+; but from those who got small doses (0.2 g. one showed no reversals in all tests, and the other presented reversals in the 2nd and 3rd tests only, also with low positivity (+. 4 In the 2nd and 3rd Mitsuda's reactions in the same animals, positivity was always precocious (generally within 48 hours, one getting the impression that there occurs a sensibilization of the animal body by the antigen with

  11. Osseointegration of dental implants in Macaca fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, R. S.; Odang, R. W.; Odelia, L.

    2017-08-01

    Osseointegration is an important factor in determining the success of a dental implant. It can be assessed from the osseointegration that occurs between the implant and the bone. The implant stability is determined by the osseous support at the implant-bone interface, which is commonly evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether the osseointegration level measured by a Low Resonance Frequency Analyzer (LRFA) gave results as good as those obtained by histomorphometric examination. Six male Macaca fascicularis were used in this study. In each animal, two types of loading were performed: immediate and delayed loading. Clinical examination and LRFA measurement were performed to determine osseointegration at the first and second weeks and at the first, second, third, and fourth months. After four months, histomorphometric examination was performed. The relationship between the histomorphometric examination and LRFA measurement was compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient. There was no significant difference in the osseointegration between immediate loading and delayed loading (p > 0.05) The bone-implant contact percentage in the first group did not differ significantly from that in the second group. Statistical analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between LRFA measurement and histomorphometric examination. Osseointegration could be evaluated through LRFA measurement as well as through histomorphometric examination.

  12. West Nile Virus Encephalitis in a Barbary Macaque (Macaca sylvanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Ian K.; Crawshaw, Graham J.; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Drebot, Michael A.; Andonova, Maya

    2004-01-01

    An aged Barbary ape (Macaca sylvanus) at the Toronto Zoo became infected with naturally acquired West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis that caused neurologic signs, which, associated with other medical problems, led to euthanasia. The diagnosis was based on immunohistochemical assay of brain lesions, reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation. PMID:15200866

  13. Reconciliation and relationship quality in Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, M.A.; Bernstein, I.S.; Hemelrijk, C.K.

    A consistent conclusion in reconciliation research is that animals that reconcile are likely to have strong social bonds. This has led to the hypothesis that reconciliation occurs most often between valuable social partners. We tested this hypothesis in a group of Assamese macaques (Macaca

  14. Gene : CBRC-PTRO-07-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TED: hypothetical protein [Macaca mulatta] 7e-96 66% MEVSEPMMKAVLVSEPALEGVEVSEPVVQAVLVSEPEVEAVVVSEPAVEAVVVSEPSIEAVVVSELSVEVVMVVSEP...AVEAGMVSEPAVETVVVSEAVVEATVVSEFSMKTVVILELAVETLVVSEPMVEAIVVSEPMVDAMVVSELVVEAEVVSEPVVEAEVVSEPVVEAEVVSEPSVESVVVSEP...VMEAVVISEPSVEVVVVSEPVVETLVVSEPVMETVVVPEPSVETVVVSEPVADTVVVSEPSVEVMVVSEP...VVETMVVSDSVVETVVVSEPSVEAVVVSELVVEAVVVSEPVVEAEVVSXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXSKPPVRGR ...

  15. Characterization of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) scrub typhus model: Susceptibility to intradermal challenge with the human pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyakumthorn, Piyanate; Somponpun, Suwit J.; Im-erbsin, Rawiwan; Anantatat, Tippawan; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Dunachie, Susanna J.; Lombardini, Eric D.; Burke, Robin L.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Jones, James W.; Mason, Carl J.; Richards, Allen L.; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is an important endemic disease in tropical Asia caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi for which no effective broadly protective vaccine is available. The successful evaluation of vaccine candidates requires well-characterized animal models and a better understanding of the immune response against O. tsutsugamushi. While many animal species have been used to study host immunity and vaccine responses in scrub typhus, only limited data exists in non-human primate (NHP) models. Methodology/Principle findings In this study we evaluated a NHP scrub typhus disease model based on intradermal inoculation of O. tsutsugamushi Karp strain in rhesus macaques (n = 7). After an intradermal inoculation with 106 murine LD50 of O. tsutsugamushi at the anterior thigh (n = 4) or mock inoculum (n = 3), a series of time course investigations involving hematological, biochemical, molecular and immunological assays were performed, until day 28, when tissues were collected for pathology and immunohistochemistry. In all NHPs with O. tsutsugamushi inoculation, but not with mock inoculation, the development of a classic eschar with central necrosis, regional lymphadenopathy, and elevation of body temperature was observed on days 7–21 post inoculation (pi); bacteremia was detected by qPCR on days 6–18 pi; and alteration of liver enzyme function and increase of white blood cells on day 14 pi. Immune assays demonstrated raised serum levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules, anti-O. tsutsugamushi-specific antibody responses (IgM and IgG) and pathogen-specific cell-mediated immune responses in inoculated macaques. The qPCR assays detected O. tsutsugamushi in eschar, spleen, draining and non-draining lymph nodes, and immuno-double staining demonstrated intracellular O. tsutsugamushi in antigen presenting cells of eschars and lymph nodes. Conclusions/Significance These data show the potential of using rhesus macaques as a scrub typhus model, for evaluation of correlates of protection in both natural and vaccine induced immunity, and support the evaluation of future vaccine candidates against scrub typhus. PMID:29522521

  16. Effects of transportation, relocation, and acclimation on phenotypes and functional characteristics of peripheral blood lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehete, Pramod N; Shelton, Kathryn A; Nehete, Bharti P

    2017-01-01

    . These findings have implications on the research participation of transported and relocated nonhuman primates in immunologic research studies, suggesting that 30 days is not sufficient to ensure return to baseline immune homeostasis. These data should be considered when planning research studies in order...... of transport, relocation, and acclimation on the phenotype and function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a group of rhesus monkeys that were transported by road for approximately 21 hours from one facility to another. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune...... assays, we evaluated the phenotype of lymphocyte subsets by flow, mitogen-specific immune responses of PBMCs in vitro, and levels of circulating cytokines and cortisol in plasma at various time points including immediately before transport, immediately upon arrival, and after approximately 30 days...

  17. The effect of urban and rural habitats and resource type on activity budgets of commensal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaman, M Firoj; Huffman, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Macaques are characterized by their wide distribution and ability to adapt to a variety of habitats. Activity budgets are affected by habitat type, season, and food availability in relation to differing age-sex class and individual requirements. We conducted a comparative study on two commensal rhesus groups, one living in a rural village and the other in the center of urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. The study was conducted in three different seasons between 2007 and 2009 in order to evaluate how habitat type and season affects their behavioral activities. Differences in food type and its availability between these two habitats were mainly responsible for the variations in activity budgets between groups. Feeding time in the rural group was significantly longer than that in the urban group. In contrast, grooming and object manipulation/play were significantly greater in the urban than the rural group. Seasonal variations in all major behaviors were significantly affected by group, with more time spent feeding in summer than in winter/dry season, and more time spent grooming and moving in winter/dry season than summer in the rural group. In contrast, time spent resting was greater in the monsoon and summer seasons than the winter/dry season in the urban group. Grooming time was greater in the winter/dry season than the monsoon and summer seasons. In both groups, immature of both sexes spent significantly more time on feeding and object manipulation/playing and less time resting than adults. Adult females spent more time grooming than males and immatures, of both sexes, in both groups. Moreover, the rural group spent most of their time feeding on garden/crop produce and wild plant food resources, while the urban group spent more time feeding on provisioned foods. These results showed that differences in the activity budgets of rural and urban dwelling macaques were due largely to the differences in available food resources. Commensal rhesus macaques show a high degree of behavioral flexibility in response to habitat and resource variability, and knowledge of these differences is important for the conservation and management of highly commensal primates.

  18. Milk composition of captive vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with observations on gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and white handed gibbon (Hylobates lar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; de Wit, M; Nguyen, T P M; Seier, J

    2009-04-01

    The nutrient content and fatty acid composition of vervet monkey milk has been determined and is compared with rhesus macaque, and two hominoid apes, the white handed gibbon and gorilla. With 15.7+/-4.1 g protein, 33.1+/-9.4 g fat, and 85.1+/-7.5 g lactose per kg milk, vervet monkey milk does not differ from that of rhesus macaque, and is within the range of other primates. Small amounts (>1 g kg(-1)) of oligosaccharides, glucose, galactose and fucose were noted. In comparison, gorilla milk has a low fat content of 13.8 g kg(-1), but contains high levels of oligosaccharides at 7.0 g kg(-1) milk. The hominoid partner, the white handed gibbon, contains no oligosaccharides and a milk fat content similar to other hominoid species. Differences between vervet monkey and rhesus macaque milks were observed in the electrophoretic pattern of the milk proteins, mainly amongst the kappa- and gamma-caseins, which also differ from that of the hominids. The fatty acid contents of these milks differ from studies where a natural diet of leafy material was available in that a low content of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) was noted. A phylogenetic effect is observed for the content of 8:0, 10:0 fatty acids between the Cercopithecidae and Hominoidea, and a further phylogenetic effect suggested between the Hylobatidae and Hominidae.

  19. Effects of a Mechanical Response-Contingent Surrogate on the Development of Behaviors in Nursery-Reared Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Rebecca L; Blake, Jennifer; Willits, Neil; Rommeck, Ina; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Nursery-reared infants have several behavioral and physiologic differences from their mother-reared counterparts. We investigated whether a response-contingent surrogate mitigated some of those differences by decreasing fearfulness and partner-clinging and increasing environmental exploration in nursery-reared infants continuously paired with a peer. Six nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques (in pairs) were given a mechanical responsive surrogate (RS), and 6 (in pairs) were given an identical but nonresponsive surrogate (NRS). The 2 treatment groups were compared and then combined into a single group of all 12 of surrogate-exposed animals (CS) that was compared with a nonsurrogate control group (NS) of 10 nursery-reared infants. Results showed significant differences between CS and NS infants but no significant differences between the RS and NRS infants. As compared with NS infants, CS infants showed less partner-clinging, less affiliation directed toward only partner, and more foraging and tactile–oral exploration of the environment. These advantageous effects support additional research to develop improved surrogate and the implementation of surrogate programs for nursery-reared infants. PMID:25255068

  20. Changes in food intake and abnormal behavior using a puzzle feeder in newly acquired sub-adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): a short term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Il; Lee, Chi-Woo; Kwon, Hyouk-Sang; Kim, Young-Tae; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kim, Sang-Joon; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2008-10-01

    The majority of newly acquired nonhuman primates encounter serious problems adapting themselves to new environments or facilities. In particular, loss of appetite and abnormal behavior can occur in response to environmental stresses. These adaptation abnormalities can ultimately have an affect on the animal's growth and well-being. In this study, we evaluated the affects of a puzzle feeder on the food intake and abnormal behavior of newly acquired rhesus monkeys for a short period. The puzzle feeder was applied to 47- to 58-month-old animals that had never previously encountered one. We found that there was no difference in the change of food intake between the bucket condition and the puzzle feeder condition. In contrast, the time spent for consumption of food was three times longer in the puzzle feeder condition than in the bucket condition. Two monkeys initially exhibited stereotypic behavior. One showed a decreasing, and the other an increasing pattern of abnormal behavior after introduction of the puzzle feeder. In conclusion, this result suggests that over a short period, the puzzle feeder can only affect the time for food consumption since it failed to affect the food intake and did not consistently influence stereotypic behaviors in newly acquired rhesus monkeys.

  1. Testing visual short-term memory of pigeons (Columba livia) and a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) with a location change detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Kenneth J; Elmore, L Caitlin; Rivera, Jacquelyne J; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A

    2013-09-01

    Change detection is commonly used to assess capacity (number of objects) of human visual short-term memory (VSTM). Comparisons with the performance of non-human animals completing similar tasks have shown similarities and differences in object-based VSTM, which is only one aspect ("what") of memory. Another important aspect of memory, which has received less attention, is spatial short-term memory for "where" an object is in space. In this article, we show for the first time that a monkey and pigeons can be accurately trained to identify location changes, much as humans do, in change detection tasks similar to those used to test object capacity of VSTM. The subject's task was to identify (touch/peck) an item that changed location across a brief delay. Both the monkey and pigeons showed transfer to delays longer than the training delay, to greater and smaller distance changes than in training, and to novel colors. These results are the first to demonstrate location-change detection in any non-human species and encourage comparative investigations into the nature of spatial and visual short-term memory.

  2. Visual Expertise Does Not Predict the Composite Effect across Species: A Comparison between Spider ("Ateles geoffroyi") and Rhesus ("Macaca mulatta") Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Jessica; Parr, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are subject to the composite illusion: two identical top halves of a face are perceived as "different" when they are presented with different bottom halves. This observation suggests that when building a mental representation of a face, the underlying system perceives the whole face, and has difficulty decomposing facial features. We…

  3. 125I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for 125 I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for 125 I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific 125 I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors

  4. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Demonstrate Robust Memory for What and Where, but Not When, in an Open-Field Test of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, R.R.; Hampstead, B.M.; Murray, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    We adapted a paradigm developed by Clayton and Dickinson (1998), who demonstrated memory for what, where, and when in scrub jays, for use with rhesus monkeys. In the study phase of each trial, monkeys found a preferred and a less-preferred food reward in a trial-unique array of three locations in a large room. After 1h, monkeys returned to the…

  5. Induction of a hypothyroid state during juvenile development delays pubertal reactivation of the neuroendocrine system governing luteinising hormone secretion in the male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, D R; Bhat, G K; Stah, C D; Pohl, C R; Plant, T M

    2006-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the influence of thyroid status on the timing of the pubertal resurgence in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse generator activity [tracked by circulating luteinising hormone (LH) levels] in male rhesus monkeys. Six juvenile monkeys were orchidectomised and then treated with the antithyroid drug, methimazole, from 15-19 months until 36 months of age, at which time thyroxine (T(4)) replacement was initiated. Four additional agonadal monkeys served as controls. Blood samples were drawn weekly for hormonal assessments. Body weight, crown-rump length and bone age were monitored at regular intervals. By 8 weeks of methimazole treatment, plasma T(4) had fallen sharply, and the decline was associated with a plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone increase. In controls, plasma LH levels remained undetectable until the pubertal rise occurred at 29.3 +/- 0.2 months of age. This developmental event occurred in only half of the methimazole-treated animals before 36 months of age when T(4) replacement was initiated. The hypothyroid state was associated with a profound arrest of growth and bone maturation, but increased body mass indices and plasma leptin levels. T(4) replacement in methimazole-treated monkeys was associated with the pubertal rise in LH in the remaining three animals and accelerated somatic development in all six animals. Although pubertal resurgence in LH secretion occurred at a later chronological age in methimazole-treated animals compared to controls, bone age, crown-rump length and body weight at that time did not differ between groups. There were no long-term differences in plasma prolactin between groups. We conclude that juvenile hypothyroidism in male primates causes a marked delay in the pubertal resurgence of LH secretion, probably occasioned at the hypothalamic level. Whether this effect is meditated by an action of thyroid hormone directly on the hypothalamus or indirectly as a result of the concomitant deficit in somatic development remains to be determined.

  6. Evaluation of an intragastric challenge model for Shigella dysenteriae 1 in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for the pre-clinical assessment of Shigella vaccine formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Dilara; Ruamsap, Nattaya; Khantapura, Patchariya; Aksomboon, Ajchara; Srijan, Apichai; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Gettayacamin, Montip; Venkatesan, Malabi M; Mason, Carl J

    2013-01-01

    Shigellosis is a worldwide disease, characterized by abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, and the passage of blood- and mucus-streaked stools. Rhesus monkeys and other primates are the only animals that are naturally susceptible to shigellosis. A suitable animal model is required for the pre-clinical evaluation of vaccines candidates. In this study, the minimal dose of Shigella dysenteriae1 1617 strain required to produce dysentery in four of five (80% attack rate) monkeys using an escalating dos...

  7. Evaluation of an intragastric challenge model for Shigella dysenteriae 1 in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for the pre-clinical assessment of Shigella vaccine formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Dilara; Ruamsap, Nattaya; Khantapura, Patchariya; Aksomboon, Ajchara; Srijan, Apichai; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Gettayacamin, Montip; Venkatesan, Malabi M; Mason, Carl J

    2014-06-01

    Shigellosis is a worldwide disease, characterized by abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, and the passage of blood- and mucus-streaked stools. Rhesus monkeys and other primates are the only animals that are naturally susceptible to shigellosis. A suitable animal model is required for the pre-clinical evaluation of vaccines candidates. In this study, the minimal dose of Shigella dysenteriae1 1617 strain required to produce dysentery in four of five (80% attack rate) monkeys using an escalating dose range for three groups [2 × 10(8) , 2 × 10(9) and 2 × 10(10) colony forming unit (CFU)] was determined. In addition, the monkeys were re-infected. The identified optimal challenge dose was 2 × 10(9) CFU; this dose elicited 60% protection in monkeys when they were re-challenged with a one log higher dose (2 × 10(10) CFU). The challenge dose, 2 × 10(10) CFU, produced severe dysentery in all monkeys, with one monkey dying within 24 h, elicited 100% protection when re-challenged with the same dose. All monkeys exhibited immune responses. This study concludes that the rhesus monkey model closely mimics the disease and immune response seen in humans and is a suitable animal model for the pre-clinical evaluation of Shigella vaccine candidates. Prior infection with the 1617 strain can protect monkeys against subsequent re-challenges with homologous strains. © 2013 The Authors. APMIS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Selective estrogen receptor modulator promotes weight loss in ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by decreasing food intake and increasing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Elinor L; Shearin, Jean; Koegler, Frank H; Cameron, Judy L

    2012-04-01

    The effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on body weight in postmenopausal women is controversial, with studies reporting an increase, a decrease, and no change in body weight. To examine estrogen receptor actions on body weight, we investigated the effects of treatment with a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) on body weight, food intake, and activity and metabolic rate in a nonhuman primate model. Eighteen ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys were treated with a nonsteroidal SERM (GSK232802A, 5 mg/kg po) for 3 mo. GSK232802A decreased lutenizing hormone (P Physical activity increased during the 3rd mo of treatment (P = 0.04). Baseline activity level and the change in activity due to treatment were correlated, with the most sedentary individuals exhibiting increased physical activity during the 1st mo of treatment (P = 0.02). Metabolic rate did not change (P = 0.58). These results indicate that GSK232802A treatment reduces body weight and adiposity in ovariectomized nonhuman primates by suppressing food intake and increasing activity, particularly in the most sedentary individuals. These findings suggest that SERM treatment may counteract weight gain in postmenopausal women.

  9. Early experience and sex interact to influence limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis function after acute alcohol administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, C S; Newman, T K; Lindell, S; Becker, M L; Shannon, C; Champoux, M; Suomi, S J; Higley, J D

    2004-07-01

    Studies in rodents demonstrate sex differences in neuroendocrine stress axis activity after treatment with alcohol. In abstinent alcoholics, atypical depressives, and individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder, limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA)-axis activity is often blunted; among females in these patient populations, however, resistance to glucocorticoid feedback and increased pituitary reactivity is observed. Early parental loss is a major life stressor and is a risk factor for both affective disturbances and LHPA-axis abnormalities later in life. We wanted to determine whether sex and early life parental absence would interact to influence alcohol-induced alterations in LHPA-axis activity after exposure to ethanol in macaques. Animals were reared with their mothers in social groups (MR, n = 94) or without adults in peer-only groups (PR, n = 79). At 5 years of age, they received an intravenous infusion of alcohol (2-2.2 g/kg), and the effects of alcohol, sex, and rearing condition on ACTH and cortisol levels were analyzed by ANOVA. Peer-reared females had higher ACTH levels than did PR males, MR females, and MR males after alcohol infusion. Alcohol-induced cortisol levels were not affected by sex and rearing condition. These findings suggest that there are sex differences in glucocorticoid negative feedback, pituitary responsivity, or release of ACTH secretagogues among individuals exposed to early life stress and emphasize the importance of considering sex effects when studying LHPA-axis dysregulation in alcoholism and other stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. Using Hematology Data from Malaria Vaccine Research Trials in Humans and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) To Guide Volume Limits for Blood Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Sara R; Hickey, Bradley W; Mcgrath, Shannon M; Stewart, V Ann

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines on safe volume limits for blood collection from research participants in both humans and laboratory animals vary widely between institutions. The main adverse event that may be encountered in large blood volume withdrawal is iron-deficiency anemia. Monitoring various parameters in a standard blood panel may help to prevent this outcome. To this end, we analyzed the Hgb and MCV values from 43 humans and 46 macaques in malaria vaccine research trials. Although the percentage of blood volume removed was greater for macaques than humans, macaques demonstrated an overall increase of MCV over time, indicating the ability to respond appropriately to frequent volume withdrawals. In contrast, humans showed a consistent declining trend in MCV. These declines in human MCV and Hgb were significant from the beginning to end of the study despite withdrawals that were smaller than recommended volume limits. Limiting the volume withdrawn to no more than 12.5% seemed to be sufficient for macaques, and at 14% or more individual animals tended to fail to respond appropriately to large-volume blood loss, as demonstrated by a decrease in MCV. The overall positive erythropoietic response seen in macaques was likely due to the controlled, iron-fortified diet they received. The lack of erythropoietic response in the human subjects may warrant iron supplementation or reconsideration of current blood volume withdrawal guidelines.

  11. The use of Aotus Trivirgatus and Macaca Mulatta as Tools for Studies on Prevention and Therapy of Infections with Plasmodium Falciparum and Plasmodium Vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-13

    t U w < s _. H S I § CO o Q I til w w f fe > o §1 En ^ w M Q E-" § CO SS S H 5 ^^ H I < in tu EL4 § w H | u EH "t H...with the continued invasion of hepatic cells . In that setting, cure could be achieved by delivery of an effective blood schizonticide such as

  12. Toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, D.W.; Elwell, M.R.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-04-01

    The toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF), a ubiquitous and acutely toxic environmental contaminant, was examined in three adult male Rhesus monkeys administered a single iv dose of 34 micrograms (0.1 mumol)/kg. Within 20 min, 4PeCDF was eliminated from the blood and was distributed to the liver, skin, adipose, and muscle tissues. Excretion occurred primarily via the feces with a minimum whole body half-life approximately 38 days. Within 7-14 days after administration, the packed cell volume and serum triglyceride and bile acid concentrations were significantly increased while serum cholesterol, protein, and albumin concentrations were decreased relative to pretreatment levels. Thyroid hormone levels were also altered with an increase in TSH and a decrease in T3 and T4 concentrations. After 28 days, two monkeys began exhibiting alopecia, hyperkeratinization of the toe and finger nails, facial chloracne-like lesions, and loss of body weight. They subsequently died 40 and 48 days after treatment. Similar symptoms of toxicity were observed in the third animal 58 days after 4PeCDF administration, but this animal appeared to fully recover and was administered 4PeCDF orally and (3H)1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran (1PeCDF) dermally 238 days after the initial iv dose. In this animal, approximately 2% of an oral dose of (14C)-4PeCDF was absorbed from the stomach and small intestine in 6 hr and was distributed mainly to the muscle and skin and less than 99% of a dermal dose of 1PeCDF remained at the site of application. Pathological findings in the monkeys that died indicated hyperplastic and metaplastic changes in the gastric mucosa, the Meibomian glands of the eyelid, and the ceruminous glands of the ear. Regression of these lesions was present in the surviving animal.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  14. Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis sebagai Model Diabetes Melitus: Pengaruh Hiperglikemia pada Lipid Darah, Serum Oksida Nitrik, dan Tingkah Laku Klinis (THE LONG TAILED MACAQUE (MACACA FASCICULARIS AS A MODEL OF DIABETES MELITUS : EFFECT OF HYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kayati Widyastuti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis sebagai Model Diabetes Melitus: Pengaruh Hiperglikemia pada Lipid Darah, Serum Oksida Nitrik, dan Tingkah Laku Klinis   (THE LONG TAILED MACAQUE (MACACA FASCICULARIS AS A MODEL OF DIABETES MELITUS : EFFECT OF HYPERGLICEMIA ON BLOOD LIPID, SERUM NITRIC OXIDE, AND CLINICAL BEHAVIOUR

  15. Localization of glycine-containing neurons in the Macaca monkey retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, A.E.; Koontz, M.A.; Pourcho, R.G.; Sarthy, P.V.; Goebel, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Autoradiography following 3H-glycine (Gly) uptake and immunocytochemistry with a Gly-specific antiserum were used to identify neurons in Macaca monkey retina that contain a high level of this neurotransmitter. High-affinity uptake of Gly was shown to be sodium dependent whereas release of both endogenous and accumulated Gly was calcium dependent. Neurons labeling for Gly included 40-46% of the amacrine cells and nearly 40% of the bipolars. Synaptic labeling was seen throughout the inner plexiform layer (IPL) but with a preferential distribution in the inner half. Bands of labeled puncta occurred in S2, S4, and S5. Both light and postembedding electron microscopic (EM) immunocytochemistry identified different types of amacrine and bipolar cell bodies and their synaptic terminals. The most heavily labeled Gly+ cell bodies typically were amacrine cells having a single, thick, basal dendrite extending deep into the IPL and, at the EM level, electron-dense cytoplasm and prominent nuclear infoldings. This cell type may be homologous with the Gly2 cell in human retina and the AII/Gly2 of cat retina. Gly+ amacrines synapse most frequently onto Gly- amacrines and both Gly- and Gly+ bipolars. Gly+ bipolar cells appeared to be cone bipolars because their labeled dendrites could be traced only to cone pedicles. The pattern of these labeled dendritic trees indicated that both diffuse and midget types of biopolars were Gly+. The EM distribution of labeled synapses showed Gly+ amacrine synapses throughout the IPL, but these composed only 11-23% of the amacrine population. Most of the Gly+ bipolar terminals were in the inner IPL, where 70% of all bipolar terminals were labeled

  16. High resolution karyotype of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method very well suited to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB-applying probes derived from Homo sapiens were used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result highlights that morphological differences within the Cercopithecoidea must be found rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  17. Risk Factors for Dystocia in Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Diane E; Torrence, Anne E; Hukkanen, Renee R; Vogel, Keith W; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Ha, James C

    2011-01-01

    Dystocia (difficult labor) is an important component of the management of nonhuman primates and results in significant fetal and maternal morbidity and increased use of veterinary resources. Dystocias can arise from abnormalities of the maternal pelvis or fetus or uncoordinated uterine activity. Although risk factors for stillbirths have been established in nonhuman primates, risk factors for dystocias have not. The objective of this study was to determine maternal and fetal risk factors for dystocia in macaques. Retrospective data were collected from 83 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) diagnosed with dystocia. The diagnosis of dystocia was made based on clinical or pathologic evidence. Maternal records of age, reproductive history, experimental history, clinical records, and fetal birth weight and any applicable fetal necropsy reports were reviewed. The gestational age of the fetus, the infant's birth weight, total previous births by the dam, and the proportions of both viable delivery (inverse effect) and surgical pregnancy interventions (direct effect) in the dam's history generated a model that maximized the experimental variance for predicting dystocia in the current pregnancy and explained 24% of the dystocia deliveries. The number of total previous births and proportion of previous cesarean sections accounted for the greatest effect. This model can identify individual dams within a colony that are at risk for dystocias and allow for changes in breeding colony management, more intense monitoring of dams at risk, or allocation of additional resources. PMID:21535929

  18. Effects of synthetic glycosides on steroid balance in Macaca fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinow, M.R.; Elliott, W.H.; McLaughlin, P.; Upson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The predominantly beta-anomer of diosgenin glucoside (DG) was synthesized and its effects on cholesterol homeostasis were tested in monkeys. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed, during two 3-week periods, a semipurified diet with 0.1% cholesterol and a similar ration containing 1% DG, respectively. A Chow diet was given for 5 weeks between the experimental periods. Cholesterol and bile acid balance were analyzed during the last week of each semipurified diet. Diosgenin glucoside reduced cholesterolemia from 292 mg/dl to 172 mg/dl, decreased intestinal absorption of exogenous cholesterol from 62.4% to 26.0%, and increased secretion of endogenous cholesterol from -0.8 to 93.5 mg/day. The fecal excretion of neutral steroids rose from 40.7 to 157.3 mg/day; that of bile acids changed, nonsignificantly, from 23.1 to 16.0 mg/day. The cholesterol balance was -44 mg/day in the control period, and 88 mg/day in the DG-fed animals. No toxic signs were observed. Thus, when long-term studies demonstrate that the glucoside is well tolerated, DG and other synthetic glycosides with similar activities may be of use in the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis

  19. Latitudinal variation in cranial dimorphism in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A

    2010-02-01

    This study examines latitudinal and insular variation in the expression of sexual dimorphism in cranial length in three geographical groupings of Macaca fascicularis. In addition, the relationship between cranial length dimorphism (CLD) and sex-specific size is examined. The results of the study identified a significant relationship between CLD and latitude for only one of the three geographic groupings. Sex-specific relationships between cranial length and CLD were detected. The pattern of these relationships varied by geographic grouping. This study is important because it demonstrates that despite very similar levels of CLD in a single primate species, there exists important geographic variability in the correlates of that dimorphism. I suggest that geographically varying ecological factors may influence sex-specific natural selection and the intensity of CLD in M. fascicularis. Gaining a better understanding of this geographical variability will require that future research examines morphological variation, including CLD, within its corresponding ecological and social contexts. Such research should be comparative, and incorporate multiple geographically separated populations with disparate environmental settings.

  20. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Like Mother, Like Daughter?: Matrilineal Opposition in African American Mulatta Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pochmara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article juxtaposes representations of mothers and daughters in selected African American novels that feature near-white female protagonists: W. W. Brown’s Clotel, Or the President’s Daughter (1853, Frances E. W. Harper’s Iola Leroy (1892, Charles Chesnutt’s The House behind the Cedars (1900, and Pauline Hopkins’s Hagar’s Daughter (1902. It explores the matrilineal opposition through a formalist close analysis of the melodramatic poetics of the texts and examines the political significance of such aesthetic choices. The novels expose the American history of interracial relations through their foregrounding of the mulatta protagonists and numerous scenes of anagnorisis of their multiracial identities. Simultaneously, their “erotics of politics” rewards the choice of a black spouse and thus celebrates the emergence of the self-determined black community.

  2. Emotional states after grooming interactions in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In animal societies, the effect of grooming interactions on anxiety reduction is unclear. This study examined the effects of giving and receiving grooming on anxiety reduction in free ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by measuring rates of self-scratching as an index of anxiety. In this study, the authors used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama prefecture, Japan. They evaluated affiliative relationships, which were defined by standard proximity rates, and found that females' self-scratching rates were lower after grooming affiliated partners than during matched-control periods (occurring on another day, beginning at approximately the same time of day as the corresponding postgrooming period) and not after grooming unaffiliated partners. Moreover, regardless of affiliative relationships, self-scratching rates were lower after receiving grooming than during matched-control periods. These findings did not change after excluding data in which groomer and groomee were in proximity after the grooming interaction. In addition, multivariable analysis showed that affiliative relationships, but not kinship or rank distances, were related to differences in the rates of self-scratching between giving grooming and matched-control periods. In contrast, neither affiliative relationships nor kinship nor rank distances affected differences in self-scratching rates between receiving grooming and matched-control periods. Therefore, individuals' anxiety levels decreased both after giving grooming to affiliated partners and after receiving grooming, regardless of affiliative relationships. This is the first empirical study to support the notion that giving grooming to affiliated partners is self-rewarding in Japanese macaques. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Macaca munzala: a new species from Western Arunachal Pradesh, Northeastern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, A.; Datta, A.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Mishra, C.

    2005-01-01

    Macaca, comprising 20 well-characterized species, represents the largest and one of the most ecologically and socially diverse of all the nonhuman primate genera. We report the discovery of a macaque that is new to science from the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, a biodiversity-rich

  4. STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COCHLEAR NUCLEI OF MONKEY (MACACA FASCICULARIS AFTER DEAFFERENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Insausti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cochlear nuclei (CN in the brainstem receive the input signals from the inner ear through the cochlear nerve, and transmit these signals to higher auditory centres. A variety of lesions of the cochlear nerve cause deafness. As reported in the literature, artificial removal of auditive input, or 'deafferentation', induces structural alterations in the CN. The purpose of this study was to estimate a number of relevant stereological parameters of the CN in control and deafferented Macaca fascicularis monkeys.

  5. Probing around implants and teeth with healthy or inflamed peri-implant mucosa/gingival. A histologic comparison in cynomolgus monkeys. (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Stoltze, K.

    2002-01-01

    Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis......Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis...

  6. DINAMIKA POPULASI MONYET EKOR PANJANG (MACACA FASCICULARIS DI HUTAN WISATA ALAS KEDATON TABANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Soma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Overall population dynamic were observed in identified individuals between August andOctober 2008, in large group of long failed macaques in the AlasKedaton, Bali. Totalpopulation was 364 monkeys consisted of 54 (14,8% adult males, 104 (28,6% adultfemales, 164 (45,1% juvenile and 42 (11,5% infant. They were divided into 4 differentsmall social groups i.e., Parking area group, North area group, Centre area group and Southarea group. Ratio of adult male and adult female was 1: 2.Population densitiesof Macaca fascicularisin Alas Kedaton were 30 monkeys / Ha andpopulation natalities were 11, 5%.

  7. Effect of chronic administration of Tamoxifen on fertility in male bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A J; Ramachandra, S G; Ramesh, V; Krishnamurthy, H N; Jayaraman, S; Gopalakrishnan, K; Juneja, H S

    1998-01-01

    Administration of Tamoxifen via the Alzet pump at a rate of 50 micrograms hr-1 for 90 days in the adult male bonnet monkeys Macaca radiata had no effect on the serum testosterone concentration determined at 10 AM and 10 PM as well as total sperm count determined at 15-day intervals over a period of 260 days. However, a significant reduction in sperm motility was observed beyond 90 days up until the 225th day. Breeding studies conducted from day 90 to 260 revealed that these males were infertile.

  8. Co-localization of glycine and gaba immunoreactivity in interneurons in Macaca monkey cerebellar cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, J; Hendrickson, A; Robinson, F R

    2006-09-15

    Previous work demonstrates that the cerebellum uses glycine as a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter [Ottersen OP, Davanger S, Storm-Mathisen J (1987) Glycine-like immunoreactivity in the cerebellum of rat and Senegalese baboon, Papio papio: a comparison with the distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity and with [3H]glycine and [3H]GABA uptake. Exp Brain Res 66(1):211-221; Ottersen OP, Storm-Mathisen J, Somogyi P (1988) Colocalization of glycine-like and GABA-like immunoreactivities in Golgi cell terminals in the rat cerebellum: a postembedding light and electron microscopic study. Brain Res 450(1-2):342-353; Dieudonne S (1995) Glycinergic synaptic currents in Golgi cells of the rat cerebellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:1441-1445; Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2001) IPSC kinetics at identified GABAergic and mixed GABAergic and glycinergic synapses onto cerebellar Golgi cells. J Neurosci 21(16):6045-6057; Dugue GP, Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2005) Target-dependent use of coreleased inhibitory transmitters at central synapses. J Neurosci 25(28):6490-6498; Zeilhofer HU, Studler B, Arabadzisz D, Schweizer C, Ahmadi S, Layh B, Bosl MR, Fritschy JM (2005) Glycinergic neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice. J Comp Neurol 482(2):123-141]. In the rat cerebellum glycine is not released by itself but is released together with GABA by Lugaro cells onto Golgi cells [Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2001) IPSC kinetics at identified GABAergic and mixed GABAergic and glycinergic synapses onto cerebellar Golgi cells. J Neurosci 21(16):6045-6057] and by Golgi cells onto unipolar brush and granule cells [Dugue GP, Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2005) Target-dependent use of coreleased inhibitory transmitters at central synapses. J Neurosci 25(28):6490-6498]. Here we report, from immunolabeling evidence in Macaca cerebellum, that interneurons in the granular cell layer are glycine+ at a density

  9. [Ferumoxide labeled Flk1+ CD31- CD34- human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and its in vivo tracing in the brains of Macaca Fascicularis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming; Wang, Ren-Zhi; Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Chang-Jun; Wei, Jun-Ji; Lu, Shan; Li, Qin; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Han, Qin; Ma, Wen-Bin; Qin, Chuang; Zhao, Chun-Hua; An, Yi-Hua; Kong, Yan-Guo

    2008-10-01

    To explore the method for labeling Flk1+ CD31- CD34- human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) with ferumoxide-PLL and evaluate the feasibility of its tracing after transplantation into the brains of Macaca Fascicularis. The hBMSCs were incubated with ferumoxide-PLL. Trypan blue staining, Prussian blue staining, and transmission electron microscope were performed to show intracellular iron, marking efficiency, and the vigor of the labeled cells. After the hBMSCs were transplanted into the brains of cynomolgus monkeys by stereotaxis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to trace the cells in vivo. Cell survival and differentiation were studied with immunohistochemistry, Prussian blue staining, and HE staining. The marking efficiency of the ferumoxide-PLL was 96%. Iron particles were found intracytoplasmic of the hBMSCs by Prussian blue staining and transmission electron microscopy. The relaxation rates of labeled cells in MRI were 4.4 and 4.2 times higher than those of the unlabeled cells. Hypointensity area was found by MRI three weeks after transplantation. Many hBMSCs and new vessels were found in the transplantation zone by pathological and immunofluorescence methods. Ferumoxide-PLL can effectively label hBMSCs and thus increase its contrast in MRI results. The cells can survive in the brains of cynomolgus monkeys. The labeled hBMSCs can be traced in vivo by MRI.

  10. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  11. Alkylmercurial encephalopathy in the monkey (Saimiri sciureus and Macaca Arctoides); a histopathologic and autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garman, R H; Weiss, B; Evans, H L

    1975-01-01

    Histopathologic and autoradiographic studies were performed on monkeys of the genera Saimiri and Macaca after acute and chronic oral exposure to several dosage regimens of methylmercuric chloride (MeHg). Neuropathologic changes were primarily cortical, although subcortical lesions also were observed. Autoradiographic localization of /sup 203/Hg was greatest within glial cells (particularly Nissl-plump astrocytes, subependymal glia and Bergmann's glia) and mast cells. High levels of label within normal appearing large neurons (particularly those within Gasserian and dorsal root ganglia) indicate a lower susceptibility of these neurons to the toxic effects of MeHg. Blood and brain levels of mercury correlated well with the degree of neuropathologic change, but individual variations in susceptibility to intoxication also existed. (auth)

  12. Applicability of Non-Invasive Sampling in Population Genetic Study of Taiwanese Macaques (Macaca cyclopis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Chu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pilot study conducted to test the applicability of non-invasive sampling approach in population genetic studies of Taiwanese macaques (Macaca cyclopis. Monkey feces were collected in the field and used as non-invasive DNA sources. PCR success rates of both microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers were examined. When compared with other studies by non-invasive genetic sampling of different mammal species, success rate of microsatellite PCR amplification is low (42.4%, N = 181 while that of mtDNA PCR amplification is acceptable (66.5%, N = 334. The low PCR success rate and poor PCR repeatability of microsatellite alleles due to allelic dropout and false alleles make it difficult to obtain a reliable microsatellite data set. However, the difficulties may be overcome by new techniques.

  13. The Effect Of PHA And SEA On Mitotic Index Of Lymphocyte Cell Of Macaca Fasciulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Masnelli; Iwiq-Indrawati

    2003-01-01

    The observation of influences of PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and SEA (staphilucoccal enterotoxin A) on mitotic index of lymphocyte of Macaca Fascicularis had been done. Half milliliters of lymphocyte cells stimulated with PHA or SEA were cultured in 10 ml RPMI + 1.0 ml Fetal Bouvine Serum (FBS ) + 0.1 ml L-glutamine + 0.15 ml PHA or 0.1 ml SEA ( 0.5 μg/ml ) + 0.1 ml Colchisin on 37 degree C for 96 hours. The result demonstrated that the frequency of mitotic index stimulated with PHA was higher than that of SEA. The average of mitotic index with PHA was 18.56 %, and with SEA was 8.3 %. (author)

  14. Rosalie: the brazilian female monkey of Charcot Rosalie: a pequenina macaca brasileira de Charcot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Martin Charcot, the father of Neurology, a very austere and reserved man that did not express affection freely for human being, had a profound affection to animals, particularly to a small female monkey, called "Rosalie", which came from Brazil and was a gift of Dom Pedro II to Charcot.Jean-Martin Charcot, considerado o pai da Neurologia, foi um homem de aspecto austero e reservado, que tinha dificuldades de expressar os seus sentimentos para outros seres humanos. Contudo ele tinha profunda afeição por animais, particularmente por uma pequena macaca, chamada de "Rosalie", oriunda do Brasil e que foi um presente dado a ele por Dom Pedro II.

  15. Comparative anatomy of the arm muscles of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with some comments on locomotor mechanics and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A G M F; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    The anatomical literature on the genus Macaca has focused mainly on the rhesus monkey. However, some aspects in the positional behaviors of the Japanese monkey may be different from those in rhesus monkey, suggesting that the anatomical details of these species are divergent. Four thoracic limbs of Macaca fuscata adults were dissected. The arm muscles in Japanese macaques are more similar to rhesus monkeys and Papio; these characteristics are closer to those of bearded capuchins than apes, indicating more proximity of this genus to New World primates. The anatomical features observed favor quadrupedal locomotor behaviors on the ground and in arboreal environments. Japanese monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and bearded capuchins, which share more primitive characteristics in their arm muscles, present features that favor both arboreal and quadrupedal locomotor behaviors, whereas apes, mainly Pan and Gorilla, which spend more time on the ground, present more quadrupedal specializations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A difference in [14C]deoxyglucose autoradiographic patterns in striate cortex between Macaca and Saimiri monkeys following monocular stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, A.E.; Wilson, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Since the apparent absence of ocular dominance columns (ODC) in some New World primates could be caused by deficiencies of the transsynaptic autoradiographic technique, such as spillage of label in the poorly laminated dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, the authors have examined this question using a functional autoradiographic tracing technique based on the uptake of [ 14 C]2-deoxyglucose ([ 14 C]dG) by active neurons. When only one eye is stimulated, this innovative method graphically demonstrates a repetitive pattern in Macaca monkey striate cortex which has been interpreted to be the ODC driven by the open eye. They now report on the results of a comparative study of Old World Macaca and New World Saimiri monkeys using [ 14 C]dG autoradiography in which evidence is found for repetitive patterns of [ 14 C]dG in Saimiri for layers above, but not in, layer IV. (Auth.)

  17. Macaca silenus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    severity of conflict, pattern of post-conflict resolution and grooming relationships ..... Puthuthotam Estates for permission to work in their private property. ... Press) pp 157–181. Hemelrijk C K 2004 The use of artificial life-models for the study.

  18. Novel Serum Proteomic Signatures in a Non-Human Primate Model of Retinal Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...OS=Macaca mulatta GN=TMEM57 PE=2 SV=1 DB=sp 11 17 3 4 0.860319 0.768643 Q6UIN1 Protein kinase C iota (Fragment) OS=Macaca mulatta GN=PRKCI PE=2 SV=1...06 Q6UIN1 Protein kinase C iota (Fragment) OS=Macaca mulatta GN=PRKCI PE=2 SV=1 DB=tr 7 26 6 3 0.300602 0.002578 Q3YAL2 Kinesin family member 27

  19. Implicit and Explicit Categorization: A Tale of Four Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans ( Homo sapiens ). J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process., 36, 54-65. Smith, J.D., Chapman, W.P., Redford, J.S...2010 (b). Stages of category learning in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and humans ( Homo sapiens ). J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process., 36, 39-53...Smith, J.D., Coutinho, M.V.C., Couchman, J.J., 2011 (b). The learning of exclusive-or categories by monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and humans ( Homo sapiens ). J

  20. Early development of peer dominance relationships in a captive group of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIZALDI, Kunio WATANABE

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied early development of peer dominance relationships in a captive group of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata fuscata at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University. This study aims to give detailed descriptions on characteristic patterns of maternal rank acquisition from infant to juvenile. Focal subjects were 22 young monkeys belonging to three cohorts born in 2002, 2003 and 2005. Data were collected with a total 2130 sessions of 30-minute continuous recording of focal subjects combined with all occurrence-sampling methods. The onset of aggressive behavior varied per cohort and was delayed in cohorts with fewer close-aged associates. More than 60% of dyadic combinations in agonistic interactions between peers were unidirectional throughout the study period. Although some bidirectional interactions could have involved unstable relationships between particular individuals, most of the bidirectional interactions included a few continuous series of alternating one-sided interactions. A linear order could be found among peers from the first appearance of aggressive behavior, and nearly 90% of those dyads were concordant with that of their mother’s rank order. Young males were responsible for most of the dominance relations that would not be predicted based on their mother’s rank. These results suggest that infant monkeys may recognize their own social status relative to their opponent’s before onset of aggressive behavior and adjust themselves into the matrilineal rank system accordingly[Current Zoology 56 (2: 190–197, 2010].

  1. Evaluation of cell sheet application on one wall bone defect in Macaca nemestrina through periostin expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamin, R. Y.; Soeroso, Y.; Amir, L.; Idrus, E.

    2017-08-01

    Chronic periodontitis is an oral disease in which the destruction of periodontal tissue leads to tooth loss. Regenerative therapy for attachment cannot be applied to one wall bone defects owing to the minimal existing healthy bone. Tissue engineering in the form of cell sheets has been developed to overcome this limitation. In a previous study, cell sheet application to a one wall bone defect in Macaca nemestrina showed good clinical results. To evaluate the effectiveness of cell sheet application histologically, the level of periostin expression in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of M. nemestrina was determined. Periostin is a 90-kDa protein that regulates coordination and interaction for regeneration and tissue repair. A laboratory observation study was performed to see the differences in periostin levels in samples collected from M. nemestrina’s GCF, where a cell sheet was applied to the bone defect. Gel electrophoresis with SDS-PAGE was performed to detect periostin expression based on its molecular weight and to compare the expression band between the cell sheet and the control at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after treatment. The gel electrophoresis result shows different thicknesses of the protein band around the molecular weight of periostin between the cell sheet groups.

  2. No costly prosociality among related long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterck, Elisabeth H M; Olesen, Caroline U; Massen, Jorg J M

    2015-08-01

    Altruism, benefiting another at a cost to the donor, may be achieved through prosocial behavior. Studies of nonhuman animals typically investigate prosocial behavior with paradigms in which the donor can choose to give a recipient a food item, and the choice does not affect the donor's reward (which is either present or absent). In such tasks, long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) show prosocial behavior, especially toward kin. Here, we tested captive long-tailed macaques with related recipients in an alternative task, in which the donor had to give up a preferred reward to benefit the recipient; that is, they had to choose a lower valued reward for themselves to provide food to their kin. Overall, the macaques did not provide their kin with food. The task forced the donor to balance its prosocial behavior with its selfish choice for a higher value reward, a balance that turned out to favor selfish motives. Consequently, our study shows that a prosocial tendency is not sufficient to elicit costly prosocial behavior in long-tailed macaques. Subsequently, we feel that tasks in which the donor must choose a lower value reward to benefit another individual may allow the titration of the strength of prosocial behavior, and thus provides interesting possibilities for future comparative studies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Transdermal Fentanyl in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Amy M; Kelly, Richard; Fetterer, David P; Rico, Pedro J; Bailey, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is a μ-opioid agonist that often is used as the analgesic component for balanced anesthesia in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing, and the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl are unknown in NHP. The pharmacokinetic properties of 2 transdermal fentanyl delivery methods, a solution (2.6 and 1.95 mg/kg) and a patch (25 µg/h), were determined when applied topically to the dorsal scapular area of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Serum fentanyl concentrations were analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Compared with the patch, the transdermal fentanyl solution generated higher drug concentrations over longer time. Adverse reactions occurred in the macaques that received the transdermal fentanyl solution at 2.6 mg/kg. Both preparations showed significant interanimal variability in the maximal serum drug levels, time to achieve maximal fentanyl levels, elimination half-life, and AUC values. Both the maximal concentration and the time at which this concentration occurred were increased in macaques compared with most other species after application of the transdermal fentanyl patch and compared with dogs after application of the transdermal fentanyl solution. The pharmacokinetic properties of transdermal fentanyl in macaques are markedly different from those in other veterinary species and preclude its use as a long-acting analgesic drug in NHP. PMID:27423151

  4. An experimental investigation of referential looking in free-ranging Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sam G B; McComb, Karen; Ruffman, Ted

    2008-02-01

    The authors examined looking behavior between 15 Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) infants and their mothers in the presence of a rubber snake (experimental period) and in the absence of the snake (control period). Two of the 15 infants looked referentially at their mother in the experimental period. Including both referential and nonreferential looks, the six older infants (aged 5 to 12 months) displayed a higher frequency of looks to mother than nine younger infants (aged 3 to 4.5 months) in the experimental period, but not in the control period. Older infants looked more to the mother in the experimental condition, whereas the younger infants looked more to the mother in the control condition, or looked equally in the two conditions. These results suggest that age is an important factor in determining looking behavior to mother in situations of uncertainty. Compared to hand-reared chimpanzees or human infants tested in standard social referencing paradigms, the infant macaques displayed a low rate of referential looking. Possible explanations for this are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borgi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species.

  6. Immunohistochemical and morphological features of a small bowel leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristizabal-Arbelaez Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous gastrointestinal neoplasms in non-human primates are commonly seen in aged individuals. Due to genetic similarities between human and non-human primates, scientists have shown increasing interest in terms of comparative oncology studies. Case presentation The present study is related to a case of an intestinal leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra, kept on captivity by Matecaña Zoo, Pereira City, Colombia. The animal had abdominal distension, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea and behavioral changes. Clinical examination showed an increased volume in the upper right abdominal quadrant caused by a neoplastic mass. The patient died during the surgical procedure. Necropsy revealed several small nodules in the peritoneum with adhesion to different portions of the small and large intestines, liver, stomach and diaphragm. Tissue samples were collected, routinely processed and stained by H&E. Microscopic examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor limited to tunica muscularis, resembling normal smooth muscle cells. Neoplastic cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, and negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 by immunohistochemistry. Those morphological and immunohistochemical findings allowed to diagnose the intestinal leiomyoma referred above. Conclusion Neoplastic diseases in primates have multifaceted causes. Their manifestations are understudied, leading to a greater difficulty in detection and measurement of the real impact provides by this disease.

  7. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Mark H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk.

  8. Continental monophyly and molecular divergence of Peninsular Malaysia's Macaca fascicularis fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Faiq, Hamdan; Hairul, Mohd Salleh; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) populations distributed in Peninsular Malaysia in relation to other regions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to reveal the phylogeography and population genetics of Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis based on the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. Sixty-five haplotypes were detected in all populations, with only Vietnam and Cambodia sharing four haplotypes. The minimum-spanning network projected a distant relationship between Peninsular Malaysian and insular populations. Genetic differentiation (F(ST), Nst) results suggested that the gene flow among Peninsular Malaysian and the other populations is very low. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions indicated a monophyletic clade of Malaysia's population with continental populations (NJ = 97%, MP = 76%, and Bayesian = 1.00 posterior probabilities). The results demonstrate that Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis belonged to Indochinese populations as opposed to the previously claimed Sundaic populations. M. f. fascicularis groups are estimated to have colonized Peninsular Malaysia ~0.47 million years ago (MYA) directly from Indochina through seaways, by means of natural sea rafting, or through terrestrial radiation during continental shelf emersion. Here, the Isthmus of Kra played a central part as biogeographical barriers that then separated it from the remaining continental populations.

  9. Establishment of reference values for complete blood count and blood gases in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAYAMA, Shunya; KOIE, Hiroshi; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; KATAKAI, Yuko; ITO-FUJISHIRO, Yasuyo; SANKAI, Tadashi; YASUTOMI, Yasuhiro; AGEYAMA, Naohide

    2017-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are closely related to humans phylogenetically, and this has resulted in their widespread use as a preclinical model. Hematological data with regard to these monkeys are thus important. Although reference values for blood components and sex hormones have been established for cynomolgus monkeys, those for arterial blood gases have not. The arterial blood gases quickly reflect respiratory and circulatory dynamics, and are thus useful for animal management and safe general anesthesia and surgical operations. Furthermore, since O2 is transported by RBC, CBC and blood gases are closely related. The present study aimed to establish reference values for arterial blood gases and CBC in cynomolgus monkeys over a wide age range. Blood gases and CBC of arterial blood, collected from 41 female and 21 male anesthetized monkeys, were measured. Age correlated with RBC, HGB and HCT in the CBC. Values differed significantly between males and females in pCO2, CO2 concentration, MCV and MCH. The pH of blood was equivalent to that of humans and pCO2 was more stable, whereas MCV and MCH were lower than those in humans. Erythrocytes were smaller and less pigmented than in other Macaca species. Several relationships between gender and age, and blood gases and CBC were identified in cynomolgus monkeys. In conclusion, these reference values will be useful as markers for veterinary applications and in the care and maintenance of these animals. PMID:28381665

  10. New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Transplantation in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fasicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kristin A; Tonsho, Makoto; Madsen, Joren C

    2015-08-01

    A 5.5-y-old intact male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fasicularis) presented with inappetence and weight loss 57 d after heterotopic heart and thymus transplantation while receiving an immunosuppressant regimen consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone to prevent graft rejection. A serum chemistry panel, a glycated hemoglobin test, and urinalysis performed at presentation revealed elevated blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (727 mg/dL and 10.1%, respectively), glucosuria, and ketonuria. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and insulin therapy was initiated immediately. The macaque was weaned off the immunosuppressive therapy as his clinical condition improved and stabilized. Approximately 74 d after discontinuation of the immunosuppressants, the blood glucose normalized, and the insulin therapy was stopped. The animal's blood glucose and HbA1c values have remained within normal limits since this time. We suspect that our macaque experienced new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation, a condition that is commonly observed in human transplant patients but not well described in NHP. To our knowledge, this report represents the first documented case of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation in a cynomolgus macaque.

  11. Distribution of an 125I-labelled chloroquine analogue in a pregnant macaca monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dencker, L.; Lindquist, N.G.; Ullberg, S.

    1975-01-01

    Whole body autoradiography of a pregnant monkey (Macaca irus) of late gestation was performed 72 h after an intravenous injection of the 125 I-labelled chloroquine analogue 4-(3-dimethylaminopropylamino)-7-iodoquinoline (DAPQ). The overall distribution pattern in the monkey was similar to that which was earlier observed in rodents. A few species differences, however, were found in the monkey as compared to the rodents: a high accumulation in the inner part of the adrenal cortex, a high level in the central nervous system, and generally a higher retention in the tissues. The accumulation in the cortex may be of significance for the cortisone-like effects of the 4-aminoquinolines in rheumatoid arthritis and allied conditions. The fact that no accumulation was found in the adrenal cortex of mice and rats indicates that these species may not be appropriate in studies on the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of the 4-aminoquinolines. As was earlier observed in small rodents the melanin containing structures accumulated the drug. In both the mother and the fetus a high concentration was thus seen in the uveal tract of the eye, in the inner ear (in the stria vascularis of the cochlea and the planum semilunatum of the ampullae) and in the hair follicles. This accumulation can be related to reported disturbances-also transplacentally induced-in vision and hearing

  12. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in Macaca fascicularis: acute and chronic stroke evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arceuil, Helen E; Duggan, Michael; He, Julian; Pryor, Johnny; de Crespigny, Alex

    2006-04-01

    An intravascular stroke model designed for magnetic resonance imaging was developed in Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis) to characterize serial stroke lesion evolution. This model produces a range of stroke lesion sizes which closely mimics human stroke evolution. This paper describes the care of animals undergoing this stroke procedure, the range of outcomes we experienced and the cause of mortality in this model. Anesthesia was induced with atropine and ketamine and maintained with isoflurane or propofol. Non-invasive blood pressure, oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate, temperature and end tidal CO2 were monitored continuously. The stroke was created by occluding a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery. During catheter placement animals were heparinized and vasospasm was minimized using verapamil. Anesthetic induction and maintenance were smooth. Animals with small strokes showed very rapid recovery, were able to ambulate and self-feed within 2 hours of recovery. Animals with strokes of >or=4% of the hemispheric volume required lengthy observation during recovery and parenteral nutrition. Large strokes resulted in significant brain edema, herniation and brainstem compression. Intracerebral hemorrhage and or subarachnoid hemorrhage coupled with a stroke of any size was acutely fatal. In the absence of an effective acute stroke therapy, the spectrum of outcomes seen in our primate model is very similar to that observed in human stroke patients.

  13. Diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in lime-stone habitats of Nonggang, China

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    Qihai ZHOU, Hua WEI, Zhonghao HUANG, Chengming HUANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance our understanding of dietary adaptations in macaques we studied the diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in limestone seasonal rain forests at Nonggang Nature Reserve, China from September 2005 to August 2006. Our results show that although macaques fed on many plant species, 85.2% of the diet came from only 12 species, of which a bamboo species, Indocalamus calcicolus contributed to 62% of the diet. Young leaves were staple food items (74.1% of the diet for Assamese macaques at Nonggang, and constituted the bulk of monthly diets almost year-round, ranging from 44.9% (July to 92.9% (May. Young parts of Indocalamus calcicolus unexpanded leaves contributed to a large proportion of the young leaf diet in most months. Fruit accounted for only 17.4% of the diet, with a peak of consumption in July. We suggest that this highly folivorous diet may be related to the long lean season of fruit availability in limestone habitats as well as the utilization of cliffs of low fruit availability [Current Zoology 57 (1: 18–25, 2011].

  14. Study of the gastrointestinal parasitic fauna of captive non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Epis, Sara; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine helminths and protozoans in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) imported from registered breeding facilities in China and their relation to health risks for non-human primate handlers in biomedical research centers and in breeding facilities. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 443 M. fascicularis and analyzed by copromicroscopical analysis, immunoenzymatic, or molecular assays. As to helminths, whose eggs were shed in 2.03% of the samples, Trichuris and Oesophagostomum were the only two taxa found, with low prevalence and low eggs per gram (EPG) values. Protozoans were more frequently detected (87.40%), with Entamoeba coli (85.19%) and Endolimax nana (79.26%) as the most prevalent species shed. Other parasites found by fecal smear examination were uninucleated-cyst-producing Entamoebas (78.52%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (42.96%), and Chilomastix mesnili (24.44%), while cysts of Balantidium coli (22.2%) were only observed by sedimentation. No coproantigens of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica complex were detected. Blastocystis sp. infection was noticed in 87.63% of macaques by PCR. These cynomolgus monkeys were infected with many subtypes (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5, and ST7), where the predominant Blastocystis sp. subtypes were ST2 (77.5%), followed by ST1 (63.5%). Data collected confirmed the presence of potentially zoonotic parasites and a high parasite diversity, suggesting the need for appropriate and sensitive techniques to adequately control them and related health risks for handlers of non-human primates in biomedical research centers and in breeding facilities.

  15. Anatomical aspects of the male reproductive system in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S; Suresh, S; Prithiviraj, E

    2009-04-01

    The normal anatomy of the male reproductive system in Macaca radiata is presented here. The external genitalia consist of a triangular button-shaped glans penis. The corpus cavernosum, and spongiosum form the vascular component of the penis and the baculum or os penis forms the non-vascular erectile component. The baculum is one of the longest in the genus macaques. The scrotal sac is non-pigmented, slightly pendulous, with scattered hairs, faintly corrugated, and does not reach the ischial callosities in the sitting posture. The testicles are ovoid in shape without appendix. Right and left testicular arteries originate at the level of the inter-vertebral disc between T12-L1 and L2-L3, respectively. Seminiferous tubules present mixed stages of spermatogenesis, i.e. single/multistage. The epididymis is crescent shaped, attached to the postero-lateral border of the testis without an appendix. Light microscopic observation revealed a characteristic high columnar epithelium with stereocilia. Clear cells or light cells are seen in the caudal region. The ductus deferens display a lumen lined by pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium separated by concentric layers of smooth muscle cells covered by serosa. The seminal vesicles are pyramidal in shape, prominently projecting above the urinary bladder, and are the largest of the accessory glands, typical of polyandrous primate genera. The prostate is conical in shape. Its base is in contact with the trigone of the bladder. Its posterior surface shows a transverse cleft separating an upper quarter, the cranial lobe, from the lower three-quarters of the gland. Compared with other macaques there are many distinguishing features in M. radiata. Excellent adaptability and spermatogenic efficiency in the laboratory environment makes this animal a good primate model for andrological research.

  16. Choriodecidual infection downregulates angiogenesis and morphogenesis pathways in fetal lungs from Macaca nemestrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M McAdams

    Full Text Available Intrauterine exposure to amniotic fluid (AF cytokines is thought to predispose to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. We evaluated the effects of GBS exposure on RNA expression in fetal lung tissue to determine early molecular pathways associated with fetal lung injury that may progress to BPD.Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term = 172 days received choriodecidual inoculation of either: 1 Group B Streptococcus (n = 5 or 2 saline (n = 5. Cesarean section and fetal necropsy was performed in the first week after GBS or saline inoculation regardless of labor. RNA was extracted from fetal lungs and profiled by microarray. Results were analyzed using single gene, Gene Set, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Validation was by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, fetal lung injury occurred in four GBS cases (intra-alveolar neutrophils, interstitial thickening and one control (peri-mortem hemorrhage. Significant elevations of AF cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 were detected in GBS versus controls (p<0.05. Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable by culture and PCR in the AF and fetal lungs. A total of 335 genes were differentially expressed greater than 1.5 fold (p<0.05 with GBS exposure associated with a striking upregulation of genes in innate and adaptive immunity and downregulation of pathways for angiogenesis, morphogenesis, and cellular growth and development.A transient choriodecidual infection may induce fetal lung injury with profound alterations in the genetic program of the fetal lung before signs of preterm labor. Our results provide a window for the first time into early molecular pathways disrupting fetal lung angiogenesis and morphogenesis before preterm labor occurs, which may set the stage for BPD. A strategy to prevent BPD should target the fetus in utero to attenuate alterations in the fetal lung

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  18. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals

  19. Analysis of Macular Drusen and Blood Test Results in 945 Macaca fascicularis.

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    Koji M Nishiguchi

    Full Text Available Age-dependent formation of macular drusen caused by the focal accumulation of extracellular deposits beneath the retinal pigment epithelium precede the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. It is established that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of drusen and AMD. However, development of a preemptive therapeutic strategy targeting macular drusen and AMD has been impeded by the lack of relevant animal models because most laboratory animals lack macula, an anatomic feature present only in humans and a subset of monkeys. Reportedly, macular drusen and macular degeneration develop in monkeys in an age-dependent manner. In this study, we analyzed blood test results from 945 Macaca fascicularis, 317 with and 628 without drusen. First, a trend test for drusen frequency (the Cochran-Armitage test was applied to the quartile data for each parameter. We selected variables with an increasing or decreasing trend with higher quartiles at P < 0.05, to which multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied. This revealed a positive association of age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.10 per year, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.12 and white blood cell count (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00-1.01 with drusen. When the monkeys were divided by age, the association between drusen and white blood cell count was only evident in younger monkeys (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02. In conclusion, age and white blood cell count may be associated with drusen development in M. fascicularis. Systemic inflammation may contribute to drusen formation in monkeys.

  20. Speech-like orofacial oscillations in stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) facial and vocal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Aru; Maruhashi, Tamaki; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Koda, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Speech is unique to humans and characterized by facial actions of ∼5 Hz oscillations of lip, mouth or jaw movements. Lip-smacking, a facial display of primates characterized by oscillatory actions involving the vertical opening and closing of the jaw and lips, exhibits stable 5-Hz oscillation patterns, matching that of speech, suggesting that lip-smacking is a precursor of speech. We tested if facial or vocal actions exhibiting the same rate of oscillation are found in wide forms of facial or vocal displays in various social contexts, exhibiting diversity among species. We observed facial and vocal actions of wild stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides), and selected video clips including facial displays (teeth chattering; TC), panting calls, and feeding. Ten open-to-open mouth durations during TC and feeding and five amplitude peak-to-peak durations in panting were analyzed. Facial display (TC) and vocalization (panting) oscillated within 5.74 ± 1.19 and 6.71 ± 2.91 Hz, respectively, similar to the reported lip-smacking of long-tailed macaques and the speech of humans. These results indicated a common mechanism for the central pattern generator underlying orofacial movements, which would evolve to speech. Similar oscillations in panting, which evolved from different muscular control than the orofacial action, suggested the sensory foundations for perceptual saliency particular to 5-Hz rhythms in macaques. This supports the pre-adaptation hypothesis of speech evolution, which states a central pattern generator for 5-Hz facial oscillation and perceptual background tuned to 5-Hz actions existed in common ancestors of macaques and humans, before the emergence of speech. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Social object play among young Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in Arashiyama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masaki

    2006-10-01

    Social object play (SOP), i.e., social play using portable object(s), among young Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata; 0-4 years old) in the Arashiyama E troop was studied using a modified sequence sampling method from July to October 2000. SOP was a relatively common activity for most of the young macaques and often continued for long periods. Participants used many kinds of object, including edible natural objects and artificial objects, such as plastic bottles, but they never used provisioned food or wild fruit in SOP bouts. An analysis of long bouts (>/=0.5 min) revealed the following interactive SOP features: (1) at any given time, participants used only one object, and only one participant held the object; (2) during SOP play-chasing, the object holder was likely to be chased by others; (3) during long bouts, the object changed hands frequently; and (4) agonistic competition for an object among young macaques was rare. Combinations of sexes, ages, relative ranks, or matrilines of the object holder and non-holder did not affect the tendency that the holder was chased by non-holder(s) during play-chasing. Even when there was a change in object holders, the repetitiveness of this interactive pattern, i.e., that the holder would be chased during SOP bouts, distinguished the SOP structure from that of other types of social play without object(s). General proximate social play mechanisms, such as self-handicapping or role taking, were associated with SOP. Other mechanisms that affected SOP included the following: (1) young macaques treated an object as a target in play competition, and (2) 'being the holder of a target object' was associated with the 'role of the chasee.'

  2. Whom to groom and for what? Patterns of grooming in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubová, Veronika; Konečná, Martina; Šmilauer, Petr; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates.

  3. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  4. Developmental Anatomy of Cerebellum of Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis at the First Trimester of Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wahyu Pangestiningsih

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Long tailed macaque was one of animal models in biomedical research because it has  many similarities with humans, both anatomical and physiological properties. There were many research about cerebellum associated with its role in the coordination of muscle activity. Understanding of normal development of cerebellum long tailed macaque may help to understand about the development in human cerebellum and its abnormalities. Embryonic and fetal brain samples were obtained through caesarean section and were  then made for histological preparation stained with cresyl violet. Staining results were observed using a microscope with a digital camera. Images obtained are processed by graphics software Adobe Photoshop CS 8.0. Cerebellum Macaca fascicularis Ed40 showed the isthmus and rhombic lip that were composed of ventricular layer, mantle layer, and marginal layer. Cerebellum Macaca fascicularis Fd55 showed future lobes and future  fissures, but the cortex and medulla are not bounded clear. The cortex consisted of the external granular layer, neuroblast basket, and neuroblast stellate, while the  medulla consisted of neuroblast deep cerebellar nuclei. From this research, we concluded that neurons were on stage of proliferation and migration in the embryo aged 40 days, then differentiated and migrated to form cortex  cerebellum and deep cerebellar nuclei at the age of 55 days, but the development of the cerebellum was not fully completed yet.

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-16-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-16-0005 ref|XP_001106072.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader...-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106137.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprint...oform 4 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106265.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 5 [Macaca mulatta] XP_001106072.1 1e-114 79% ... ...DICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a is...ed in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 3 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106204.1| PRE

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2632 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2632 ref|XP_001106072.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader...-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106137.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprint...oform 4 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106265.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 5 [Macaca mulatta] XP_001106072.1 1e-142 88% ... ...DICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a is...ed in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 3 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106204.1| PRE

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-15-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-15-0013 ref|XP_001106072.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader...-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106137.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprint...oform 4 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106265.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 5 [Macaca mulatta] XP_001106072.1 1e-115 79% ... ...DICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a is...ed in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 3 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106204.1| PRE

  8. Modes of transmission and genetic diversity of foamy viruses in a Macaca tonkeana colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saib Ali

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foamy viruses are exogenous complex retroviruses that are highly endemic in several animal species, including monkeys and apes, where they cause persistent infection. Simian foamy viral (SFV infection has been reported in few persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP in zoos, primate centers and laboratories, and recently in few hunters from central Africa. Most of the epidemiological works performed among NHP populations concern cross-sectional studies without long-term follow-up. Therefore, the exact timing and the modes of transmission of SFVs remain not well known, although sexual and oral transmissions have been suspected. We have conducted a longitudinal study in a free-breeding colony of Macaca tonkeana in order (1 to determine the prevalence of the infection by foamy viruses, (2 to characterize molecularly the viruses infecting such animals, (3 to study their genetic variability overtime by long-term follow-up of several DNA samples in a series of specific animals, and (4 to get new insights concerning the timing and the modes of SFVs primary infection in these monkeys by combining serology and molecular means, as well as studies of familial structures and long-term behavioral observations. Results/conclusion We first demonstrated that this colony was highly endemic for SFVs, with a clear increase of seroprevalence with age. Only 4.7% of immatures, and 43,7% of sub-adults were found seropositive, while 89.5% of adults exhibited antibodies directed against SFV. We further showed that 6 different strains of foamy viruses (exhibiting a very low intra-strain and overtime genetic variability in the integrase gene are circulating within this group. This suggests a possible infection by different strains within an animal. Lastly, we provide strong evidence that foamy viruses are mostly acquired through severe bites, mainly in sub-adults or young adults. Most cases of seroconversion occur after 7 years of age

  9. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A multi-atlas based method for automated anatomical Macaca fascicularis brain MRI segmentation and PET kinetic extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballanger, Bénédicte; Tremblay, Léon; Sgambato-Faure, Véronique; Beaudoin-Gobert, Maude; Lavenne, Franck; Le Bars, Didier; Costes, Nicolas

    2013-08-15

    MRI templates and digital atlases are needed for automated and reproducible quantitative analysis of non-human primate PET studies. Segmenting brain images via multiple atlases outperforms single-atlas labelling in humans. We present a set of atlases manually delineated on brain MRI scans of the monkey Macaca fascicularis. We use this multi-atlas dataset to evaluate two automated methods in terms of accuracy, robustness and reliability in segmenting brain structures on MRI and extracting regional PET measures. Twelve individual Macaca fascicularis high-resolution 3DT1 MR images were acquired. Four individual atlases were created by manually drawing 42 anatomical structures, including cortical and sub-cortical structures, white matter regions, and ventricles. To create the MRI template, we first chose one MRI to define a reference space, and then performed a two-step iterative procedure: affine registration of individual MRIs to the reference MRI, followed by averaging of the twelve resampled MRIs. Automated segmentation in native space was obtained in two ways: 1) Maximum probability atlases were created by decision fusion of two to four individual atlases in the reference space, and transformation back into the individual native space (MAXPROB)(.) 2) One to four individual atlases were registered directly to the individual native space, and combined by decision fusion (PROPAG). Accuracy was evaluated by computing the Dice similarity index and the volume difference. The robustness and reproducibility of PET regional measurements obtained via automated segmentation was evaluated on four co-registered MRI/PET datasets, which included test-retest data. Dice indices were always over 0.7 and reached maximal values of 0.9 for PROPAG with all four individual atlases. There was no significant mean volume bias. The standard deviation of the bias decreased significantly when increasing the number of individual atlases. MAXPROB performed better when increasing the number of

  11. Occupational transmission of an Orthopoxvirus infection during an outbreak in a colony of Macaca tonkeana in Lazio Region, Italy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puro, V; Fusco, F M; Castilletti, C; Carletti, F; Colavita, F; Agrati, C; Di Caro, A; Capobianchi, M R; Ippolito, G

    2018-03-07

    Orthopoxviruses spill over from animal reservoirs to accidental hosts, sometimes causing human infections. We describe the surveillance and infection control measures undertaken during an outbreak due to an Orthopoxvirus occurred in January 2015 in a colony of Macaca tonkeana in the province of Rieti, Latio, Italy, which caused a human asymptomatic infection. According to the epidemiological investigation, the human transmission occurred after an unprotected exposure. The contacts among wild, captive and domestic animals and humans, together with decreased immunity against Orthopoxviruses in the community, may put animal handlers at risk of infection, especially after the cessation of smallpox vaccination. To reduce these threats, standard precautions including respiratory hygiene and transmission-based precautions should be carefully applied also in veterinary medicine. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya virus antibody prevalence among captive monkey (Macaca nemestrina) colonies of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakgoi, Khajornpong; Nitatpattana, Narong; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Kaewchot, Supakarn; Yoksan, Sutee; Siripolwat, Voravit; Souris, Marc; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The potential of macaque Macaca nemestrina leonina in Thailand to be infected by endemic arboviruses was assessed. The prevalence of antibodies of three arboviruses actively circulating in Thailand was determined by Plaque Reduction Neutralization assay procedures using samples from captive colonies in Northern Thailand. Out of 38 macaques, 9 (24%) presented reacting antibodies against dengue virus, 5 (13%) against Japanese encephalitis virus, and 4 (10%) against Chikungunya virus. Our results indicate that the northern pig-tailed macaque in Thailand can be infected by these arboviruses, inferring therefore that their virus specific vectors have bitten them. Given that, northern pig-tailed macaque represents an abundant population, living in close range to human or in peridomestic setting, they could play a role as potential reservoir host for arboviruses circulating in Thailand. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Radiographic measurement of the cardiothoracic ratio in a feral population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Michael A. [Department of Social Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada)], E-mail: schillaci@utsc.utoronto.ca; Lischka, Andrea R.; Karamitsos, Anisah A. [Department of Social Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada); Engel, Gregory A. [Swedish/Cherry Hill Family Medicine Residency, 550 16th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98122 (United States); Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Paul, Narinder [Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada); Ramoul, Rima [Department of Social Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada); Rompis, Aida; Putra, Arta; Wandia, I. Nengah [Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali 80361 (Indonesia); Jones-Engel, Lisa [Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The cardiothoracic ratio is often used as a proxy measure of cardiovascular pathophysiology in humans but less frequently in nonhuman primates, for whom little published data are available to establish normal values. The present study is the first to examine relative cardiac size in a feral population of primates. This report presents estimates of the cardiothoracic ratio in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Bali, Indonesia. The mean cardiothoracic ratio for the study sample was 0.55, above the commonly used threshold of 0.50 for identifying an enlarged heart in human medicine. Future research on wild populations of macaques is needed and should include multiple assessments of cardiac function including both radiography and echocardiography.

  14. Radiographic measurement of the cardiothoracic ratio in a feral population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Lischka, Andrea R.; Karamitsos, Anisah A.; Engel, Gregory A.; Paul, Narinder; Ramoul, Rima; Rompis, Aida; Putra, Arta; Wandia, I. Nengah; Jones-Engel, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The cardiothoracic ratio is often used as a proxy measure of cardiovascular pathophysiology in humans but less frequently in nonhuman primates, for whom little published data are available to establish normal values. The present study is the first to examine relative cardiac size in a feral population of primates. This report presents estimates of the cardiothoracic ratio in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Bali, Indonesia. The mean cardiothoracic ratio for the study sample was 0.55, above the commonly used threshold of 0.50 for identifying an enlarged heart in human medicine. Future research on wild populations of macaques is needed and should include multiple assessments of cardiac function including both radiography and echocardiography.

  15. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU, Lin; LEI, Ai-Hua; ZHENG, Hong-Yi; LYU, Long-Bao; ZHANG, Zhi-Gang; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, littl...

  16. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm

  17. Ancestry, Plasmodium cynomolgi prevalence and rhesus macaque admixture in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) bred for export in Chinese breeding farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjun; Meng, Yuhuan; Houghton, Paul; Liu, Mingyu; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Oldt, Robert; Ng, Jillian; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; Huang, Ren; Singh, Balbir; Du, Hongli; Smith, David Glenn

    2017-04-01

    Most cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) used in the United States as animal models are imported from Chinese breeding farms without documented ancestry. Cynomolgus macaques with varying rhesus macaque ancestry proportions may exhibit differences, such as susceptibility to malaria, that affect their suitability as a research model. DNA of 400 cynomolgus macaques from 10 Chinese breeding farms was genotyped to characterize their regional origin and rhesus ancestry proportion. A nested PCR assay was used to detect Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in sampled individuals. All populations exhibited high levels of genetic heterogeneity and low levels of inbreeding and genetic subdivision. Almost all individuals exhibited an Indochinese origin and a rhesus ancestry proportion of 5%-48%. The incidence of P. cynomolgi infection in cynomolgus macaques is strongly associated with proportion of rhesus ancestry. The varying amount of rhesus ancestry in cynomolgus macaques underscores the importance of monitoring their genetic similarity in malaria research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  20. Investigating biogeographic boundaries of the Sunda shelf: A phylogenetic analysis of two island populations of Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegarth, A R; Sanders, S A; Gloss, A D; Lane-deGraaf, K E; Jones-Engel, L; Fuentes, A; Hollocher, H

    2017-08-01

    Cyclical submergence and re-emergence of the Sunda Shelf throughout the Pleistocene served as a dynamic biogeographic landscape, across which long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have migrated and evolved. Here, we tested the integrity of the previously reported continental-insular haplotype divide reported among Y and mitochondrial DNA lineages across multiple studies. The continental-insular haplotype divide was tested by heavily sampling wild macaques from two important biogeographic regions within Sundaland: (1) Singapore, the southernmost tip of continental Asia and (2) Bali, Indonesia, the southeastern edge of the Indonesian archipelago, immediately west of Wallace's line. Y DNA was haplotyped for samples from Bali, deep within the Indonesian archipelago. Mitochondrial D-loop from both islands was analyzed against existing data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches. We uncovered both "continental" and "insular" Y DNA haplotypes in Bali. Between Singapore and Bali we found 52 unique mitochondrial haplotypes, none of which had been previously described. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed a major haplogroup division within Singapore and identified five new Singapore subclades and two primary subclades in Bali. While we confirmed the continental-insular divide among mtDNA haplotypes, maintenance of both Y DNA haplotypes on Bali, deep within the Indonesian archipelago calls into question the mechanism by which Y DNA diversity has been maintained. It also suggests the continental-insular designation is less appropriate for Y DNA, leading us to propose geographically neutral Y haplotype designations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Molecular cloning and anti-HIV-1 activities of APOBEC3s from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang ZHANG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs, Macaca leonina are susceptible to HIV-1 infection largely due to the loss of HIV-1-restricting factor TRIM5α. However, great impediments still exist in the persistent replication of HIV-1 in vivo, suggesting some viral restriction factors are reserved in this host. The APOBEC3 proteins have demonstrated a capacity to restrict HIV-1 replication, but their inhibitory effects in NPMs remain elusive. In this study, we cloned the NPM A3A-A3H genes, and determined by BLAST searching that their coding sequences (CDSs showed 99% identity to the corresponding counterparts from rhesus and southern pig-tailed macaques. We further analyzed the anti-HIV-1 activities of the A3A-A3H genes, and found that A3G and A3F had the greatest anti-HIV-1 activity compared with that of other members. The results of this study indicate that A3G and A3F might play critical roles in limiting HIV-1 replication in NPMs in vivo. Furthermore, this research provides valuable information for the optimization of monkey models of HIV-1 infection.

  2. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis Fed with High Soluble Carbohydrate Diet: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI APRI ASTUTI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available High carbohydrate as obese diet is not yet available commercially for monkeys. Therefore, this preliminary study was to carry out nutrient intake and digestibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis fed with high soluble carbohydrate diet compared to monkey chow. Five adult female macaques (average body weight 2.67 kg were made to consume freshly diet. Commercial monkey chows (contains 3500 cal/g energy and 35% starch were fed to three adult females (average body weight 3.62 kg. Nutrient intakes and digestibility parameters were measured using modified metabolic cages. Result showed that average of protein, fat, starch, and energy intakes in treatment diet were higher than control diet (T-test. Fat intake in the treatment diet was three times higher, while starch and energy intakes were almost two times higher than monkey chow. Digestibility percentage of all nutrients were the same in both diets except for the protein. The study concludes that the freshly prepared high sugar diet was palatable and digestible for the cynomolgus monkeys. Further studies are in progress to develop obese diet high in energy content based on fat and source of starch treatments.

  3. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Redescription of Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) based on material collected from wild Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata (Primates: Cercopithecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Sato, Hiroshi; Torii, Harumi

    2012-02-01

    Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) was collected from a Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata, in Nara and Yamaguchi Prefectures, Honshu Island, Japan, for the first time. A redescription is presented along with DNA sequence data. This pinworm is a typical member of the subgenus Enterobius and is characteristic in the spicule morphology, being readily distinguished from other congeners. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cox1 gene assign its position in the pinworm lineage adapted to the Old World primates, showing divergence before the splitting of the chimpanzee and human pinworms.

  5. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velankar, Avadhoot D; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Pal, Arijit; Mishra, Partha Sarathi; Singh, Mewa

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species.

  6. Differential host response to LPS variants in amniochorion and the TLR4/MD-2 system in Macaca nemestrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Justine; Jain, Sumita; Carl, David J.; Paolella, Louis; Darveau, Richard P.; Gravett, Michael G.; Waldorf, Kristina M. Adams

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Microbial-specific factors are likely critical in determining whether bacteria trigger preterm labor. Structural variations in lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacteria, can determine whether LPS has an inflammatory (agonist) or anti-inflammatory (antagonist) effect through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Our objective was to determine whether amniochorion can discriminate between LPS variants in a nonhuman primate model. We also cloned Macaca nemestrina TLR4 and MD-2 and compared this complex functionally to the human homologue to establish whether nonhuman primates could be used to study TLR4 signaling in preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN Amniochorion explants from M. nemestrina were stimulated with a panel of LPS variants for 24 hours. Supernatants were analyzed for IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and prostaglandins E2 and F2α. Tissue expression of TLR1, 2, 4, 6, MyD88 and NF-kB was studied by RT-PCR. M. nemestrina TLR4 and MD2 genes were cloned and compared with their human counterparts in a recombinant TLR4 signaling system to determine LPS sensitivity. RESULTS LPS variants differentially stimulated cytokines and prostaglandins, which was not related to transcriptional changes of TLR4 or other TLRs. Nearly all elements of LPS binding and TLR4 leucine-rich repeats were conserved between humans and M. nemestrina. TLR4/MD-2 signaling complexes from both species were equally sensitive to LPS variants. CONCLUSIONS LPS variants elicit a hierarchical inflammatory response within amniochorion that may contribute to preterm birth. LPS sensitivity is similar between M. nemestrina and humans, validating M. nemestrina as an appropriate model to study TLR4 signaling in preterm birth. PMID:20619890

  7. Choriodecidual group B streptococcal inoculation induces fetal lung injury without intra-amniotic infection and preterm labor in Macaca nemestrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Adams Waldorf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early events leading to intrauterine infection and fetal lung injury remain poorly defined, but may hold the key to preventing neonatal and adult chronic lung disease. Our objective was to establish a nonhuman primate model of an early stage of chorioamnionitis in order to determine the time course and mechanisms of fetal lung injury in utero. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term=172 days received one of two treatments: 1 choriodecidual and intra-amniotic saline (n=5, or 2 choriodecidual inoculation of Group B Streptococcus (GBS 1×10(6 colony forming units (n=5. Cesarean section was performed regardless of labor 4 days after GBS or 7 days after saline infusion to collect fetal and placental tissues. Only two GBS animals developed early labor with no cervical change in the remaining animals. Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, blinded review found histopathological evidence of fetal lung injury in four GBS animals characterized by intra-alveolar neutrophils and interstitial thickening, which was absent in controls. Significant elevations of cytokines in amniotic fluid (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and fetal plasma (IL-8 were detected in GBS animals and correlated with lung injury (p<0.05. Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable in amniotic fluid (~10 samples tested/animal, maternal and fetal blood by culture and polymerase chain reaction. In only two cases was GBS cultured from the inoculation site in low numbers. Chorioamnionitis occurred in two GBS animals with lung injury, but two others with lung injury had normal placental histology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transient choriodecidual infection can induce cytokine production, which is associated with fetal lung injury without overt infection of amniotic fluid, chorioamnionitis or preterm labor. Fetal lung injury may, thus, occur silently without

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo’s population was distinguished from Peninsula’s population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia’s M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations

  9. Detection and Quantification of Male-Specific Fetal DNA in the Serum of Pregnant Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Lubna; Takano, Jun-ichiro; Nagai, Yasushi; Otsuki, Junko; Sankai, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Because of their developmental similarities to humans, nonhuman primates are often used as a model to study fetal development for potential clinical applications in humans. The detection of fetal DNA in maternal plasma or serum offers a source of fetal genetic material for prenatal diagnosis. However, no such data have been reported for cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), an important model in biomedical research. We have developed a specific, highly sensitive PCR system for detecting and quantifying male-specific fetal DNA in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. We used multiplex quantitative real-time PCR to analyze cell-free DNA in maternal blood serum obtained from 46 pregnant monkeys at gestational weeks 5, 12, and 22. The presence of SRY gene and DYS14 Y chromosomal sequences was determined in 28 monkeys with male-bearing pregnancies. According to confirmation of fetal sex at birth, the probe and primers for detecting the Y chromosomal regions at each time point revealed 100% specificity of the PCR test and no false-positive or false-negative results. Increased levels of the SRY-specific sequences (mean, 4706 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 1731 to 12,625) and DYS14-specific sequences (mean, 54,814 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 4175–131,250 copies) were detected at week 22. The SRY- and DYS14-specific probes appear to be an effective combination of markers in a multiplex PCR system. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the detection of cell-free DNA in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:25730760

  10. Dose-response relationship for translocation induction in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) by chronic γ-ray-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobari, Izuo; Matsuda, Yoichi; Xiaohung, Gu; Yamagiwa, Junju; Utsugi, Toyoko; Kitazume, Masayuki; Okamoto, Masanori

    1988-01-01

    The induction of reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) by chronic γ-irradiation was examined. The frequencies of translocation per cell were 0.15% at 0.3 Gy, 0.27% at 1.0 Gy and 0.33% at 1.5 Gy. The dose-response relationship for translocation yield was a linear one with a regression coefficient (b) of 0.16 · 10 -2 . When the slope (b) of the regression line was compared with that at a high dose rate (0.25 Gy/min, b = 1.79 · 10 -2 , it was clear that the induction rate of translocations after chronic γ-irradiation was only about one-tenth of that after high-dose-rate irradiation. Thus, there was evidence for a pronounced dose-rate effect in the crab-eating monkey. (author). 27 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Dose-response relationship of γ-ray-induced reciprocal translocations at low doses in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Tobari, Izuo; Yamagiwa, Junji; Utsugi, Toyoko; Okamoto, Masanori; Nakai, Sayaka

    1985-01-01

    The yield of translocations induced by acute γ-irradiation at low doses in the crab-eating monkey's (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia was examined. Over the low dose range from 0 to 1 Gy, the dose-response relationship for translocation yield was a linear one. To estimate the sensitivity to the induction of translocations in the crab-eating monkey's spermatogonia, the slope of the regression line was compared with those in other mammalian species. Consequently, over the low dose range below 1 Gy, the sensitivity of the crab-eating monkey's spermatogonia to translocation induction was similar to several mammalian species, the mouse, Chinese hamster, and the rabbit, but significantly higher than that of the rhesus monkey and lower than that of the marmoset. (Auth.)

  12. Genotyping of TRIM5 locus in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina, a primate species susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xue-Long

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig-tailed macaques are the only Old World monkeys known to be susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. We have previously reported that the TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp fusion in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina is dysfunctional in restricting HIV-1, which may explain why pig-tailed macaques are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Similar results have also been reported by other groups. However, according to the current primate taxonomy, the previously reported M. nemestrina are further classified into three species, which all belong to the Macaca spp. This calls for the need to look into the previous studies in more details. Results The local species Northern pig-tailed macaque (M. leonina was analyzed for the correlation of TRIM5 structure and HIV-1 infection. Eleven M. leonina animals were analyzed, and all of them were found to possess TRIM5-CypA fusion at the TRIM5 locus. The transcripts encoding the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA should result from the G-to-T mutation in the 3'-splicing site of intron 6. Polymorphism in the putative TRIMCyp recognition domain was observed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of M. leonina were susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Consistent with the previous results, expression of the M. leonina TRIMCyp in HeLa-T4 cells rendered the cells resistant to HIV-2ROD but not to SIVmac239 infection. Conclusion The susceptibility of M. leonina to HIV-1 infection is due to the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA fusion in the TRIM5 locus. This finding should broaden our perspective in developing better HIV/AIDS non-human primate animal models.

  13. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0952 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0952 ref|NP_003851.1| barrier to autointegration factor 1 [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_892033.1| barrier to autointegration factor 1 [Bos taurus] ref|XP_854776.1| PREDICTED: similar to barrier to autointegratio...n factor 1 [Canis familiaris] ref|XP_001111817.1| PREDICTED: similar to barrier to autointegration...: similar to barrier to autointegration factor 1 isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001111884.1| PREDICTED: s...imilar to barrier to autointegration factor 1 isoform 3 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001111924.1| PREDICTED: similar to barrier to autoint

  15. Visual Acuity and Its Dependence Upon Receptor Density and Retinal Ganglion Cell Receptive Field Overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    organization of retinal receptive fields in monkeys and cats has been used to model the information flow to the retina in relation to the psychophysical...EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Types of Animals Used Three types of monkeys were used in the present study, rhesus (Macaca mulatta), the Himalayan Macaque (Macaca...during the course of the program, although one died of Shigella infection. Attempts were made to trade the animals with local users in order to obtain

  16. Colour cues for leaf food selection by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with a new suggestion for the evolution of trichromatic colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, P W; Darvell, B W; Lee, P K; Yuen, T D; Choong, M F

    1998-01-01

    Leaf colour, size and toughness were investigated in five plant species important in the diet of Macaca fascicularis in Singapore. Leaf colour and size were examined as potential visual cues for food selection, whereas toughness mirrored fibre content, the inverse of food quality. As leaves matured, they changed colour and toughened. Leaf lightness and yellowness were strongly negatively correlated with toughness, but variation in both the red-green axis of the CIE Lab colour space and leaf size were not. Leaves selected as food by the macaques were distinguished by being very light, yellow to slightly green. Some leaves were dappled with red. The literature suggests that these leaves are relatively rich in protein without being tough and therefore would be sought after by primates. We argue that leaf colour is an important indicator of the nutritive value of leaves. Trichromatic vision is an important advantage in finding those palatable leaves that are dappled red. These would appear dark to dichromatic primates and be deceptive by making leaves look older (lower in quality) than they actually are. This would decrease the perceived window of feeding opportunity for such primates who would be at a disadvantage in trying to find these leaves. It is possible that trichromatic vision in catarrhine primates may have originally evolved for the detection of red coloration in the leaves of shade-tolerant tropical plants, enabling the better exploitation of a food resource.

  17. Aiding pest control management of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) in Malaysia by using molecular markers of mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff, M. A. B.; Abdul-Patah, P.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    The long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) has been the center of human wildlife conflict in Malaysia since 1970s. This well-adapted and opportunistic primates have been dominating wide range of habitat in Malaysia such as primary and secondary forest, mangrove, as well as human settlements. The conventional practices of translocation by the authorities are threatening the uniqueness of gene pool for this species and ironically contradicting with the ultimate purpose of genetic conservation of this species. The objectives of this study is to determine the level of genetic separation between populations of long-tailed macaques, primarily focusing on populations distributed in northern Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 954 base pairs of control regions mtDNA was sequenced and analyzed from 27 samples of M. fascicularis. The results exhibited a highly homogenous state of populations for long-tailed macaques genetically and this ultimately indicate unsuitable management and planning in terms of pest control management of the species. Authorities are suggested to translocate the species at least within the state boundaries to avoid homogeneity of gene pools for the particular species.

  18. The Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopithecidae: conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus is a threatened species inhabiting the rainforests of the Western Ghats mountain range in southern India. Once assessed to be less than a thousand individuals remaining in the wild habitats, the population is now estimated to be between 3000 and 3500 individuals. However, the rainforest habitats of the species are highly fragmented. During the past three decades or less, the population of this species has severely declined due to habitat degradation and illegal hunting in several areas of its occurrence. In situ conservation programs included notification of certain areas as Lion-tailed Macaque conservation regions. Several captive breeding programs have been initiated in order to have a viable captive population of the species. However, the analysis reveals that both in situ and ex situ conservation programs have not achieved the desired success and the species is even more endangered than it was a few decades ago. In this article, we discuss these conservation programs and suggest further measures for effective conservation of Lion-tailed Macaques.

  19. Social networks dynamics revealed by temporal analysis: An example in a non-human primate (Macaca sylvanus) in "La Forêt des Singes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Sebastian; Zhang, Peng; Cabanes, Guénaël

    2017-06-01

    This study applied a temporal social network analysis model to describe three affiliative social networks (allogrooming, sleep in contact, and triadic interaction) in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus. Three main social mechanisms were examined to determine interactional patterns among group members, namely preferential attachment (i.e., highly connected individuals are more likely to form new connections), triadic closure (new connections occur via previous close connections), and homophily (individuals interact preferably with others with similar attributes). Preferential attachment was only observed for triadic interaction network. Triadic closure was significant in allogrooming and triadic interaction networks. Finally, gender homophily was seasonal for allogrooming and sleep in contact networks, and observed in each period for triadic interaction network. These individual-based behaviors are based on individual reactions, and their analysis can shed light on the formation of the affiliative networks determining ultimate coalition networks, and how these networks may evolve over time. A focus on individual behaviors is necessary for a global interactional approach to understanding social behavior rules and strategies. When combined, these social processes could make animal social networks more resilient, thus enabling them to face drastic environmental changes. This is the first study to pinpoint some of the processes underlying the formation of a social structure in a non-human primate species, and identify common mechanisms with humans. The approach used in this study provides an ideal tool for further research seeking to answer long-standing questions about social network dynamics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Chronic suppression of testicular function by constant infusion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and testosterone supplementation in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, N; Ramesh, V; Krishnamurthy, H N; Rao, A J; Moudgal, R N

    1992-03-01

    To study the efficacy of long-term buserelin acetate infusion to desensitize pituitary and block testicular function in adult male monkeys (Macaca radiata). Proven fertile male monkeys exhibiting normal testicular function. Each of the control (n = 5) and experimental monkeys (n = 10) received a fresh miniosmotic pump every 21 days, whereas pumps in controls delivered vehicle of experimentals released 50 micrograms buserelin acetate every 24 hours. On day 170 (renewed every 60 days) a silastic capsule containing crystalline testosterone (T) was implanted in the experimental monkeys. At the end of 3 years, treatment was stopped, and recovery of testicular function and fertility monitored. (1) Treatment resulted in marked reduction of nocturnal but not basal serum T; (2) the pituitary remained desensitized to buserelin acetate throughout the 3-year period; (3) animals were largely azoospermic with occasional oligospermia exhibited by two monkeys; and (4) withdrawal of treatment restored testicular function, with 70% of animals regaining fertility. Long-term infertility (but restorable) can be induced in male monkeys by constant infusion of buserelin acetate and T.

  1. Injection of Carica papaya L. Seed Extract of Cibinong Variety to Macaca fascicularis L. and its Effect to Quality of Spermatozoa and Level of Testosterone Hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Nuraini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lack of contraceptive choices which meet the requirements is one of the contributing factors to less participation of man in contraceptive use. This research aimed to study the effectiveness of natural material for alternative male contraception, by injecting papaya seed extract with Cibinong variety (Carica papaya L. to long tail monkey (Macaca fascicularis L. The research was conducted at Primates Study Center, Institute of Agriculture, Bogor. Total samples of this research were 8 monkeys, with three intervention groupsand one control group. Papaya seed extract was injected via intramuscular in 21 days, with dose for each group were 40 mg/monkey, 80 mg/monkey, and 120 mg/monkey. Data analysis of spermatozoa quality (motility, viability, morfology was done by using Cochran test before and after intervention stages, and during recovery stage. Meanwhile, data aalysis of spermatozoa concentration and testosterone hormone level was done by using Friedman test. Result of this reseachdemonstrated reduction of motility, viability, and morfology ofspermatozoa after inejction of papaya seed extract and increase to normal level at recovery stage (p ≤ 0.05. These results was supported with cement aglutination. The most effective dose was at 40 mg/monkey/day, with reduction of spermatozoa motility from 87.5 % to 40%, and reduction of testosterone level from 2.35 ng/mL to 1.83 ng/mL. Even though spermatozoa motility and testosterone hormone levelreduced, but its conditions were still in good condition category.

  2. Chitinase mRNA Levels Determined by QPCR in Crab-Eating Monkey (Macaca fascicularis) Tissues: Species-Specific Expression of Acidic Mammalian Chitinase and Chitotriosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Maiko; Tabata, Eri; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Sawa, Akira; Ohno, Misa; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Matoska, Vaclav; Bauer, Peter O; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2018-05-09

    Mice and humans express two active chitinases: acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1). Both chitinases are thought to play important roles in specific pathophysiological conditions. The crab-eating monkey ( Macaca fascicularis ) is one of the most frequently used nonhuman primate models in basic and applied biomedical research. Here, we performed gene expression analysis of two chitinases in normal crab-eating monkey tissues by way of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using a single standard DNA molecule. Levels of AMCase and CHIT1 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were highest in the stomach and the lung, respectively, when compared to other tissues. Comparative gene expression analysis of mouse, monkey, and human using monkey⁻mouse⁻human hybrid standard DNA showed that the AMCase mRNA levels were exceptionally high in mouse and monkey stomachs while very low in the human stomach. As for the CHIT1 mRNA, we detected higher levels in the monkey lung when compared with those of mouse and human. The differences of mRNA expression between the species in the stomach tissues were basically reflecting the levels of the chitinolytic activities. These results indicate that gene expression of AMCase and CHIT1 differs between mammalian species and requiring special attention in handling data in chitinase-related studies in particular organisms.

  3. Echography of the Cervix and Uterus during the Proliferative and Secretory Phases of the Menstrual Cycle in Bonnet Monkeys (Macaca radiata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Uddhav K; Metkari, Siddnath M; Manjaramkar, Dhyananjay D; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Katkam, Rajendra; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H; Mahajan, Abhishek; Thakur, Meenakshi H; Kholkute, Sanjiv D

    2014-01-01

    We undertook the present study to investigate the echographic characteristics of the uterus and cervix of female bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. The cervix was tortuous in shape and measured 2.74 ± 0.30 cm (mean ± SD) in width by 3.10 ± 0.32 cm in length. The cervical lumen contained 2 or 3 colliculi, which projected from the cervical canal. The echogenicity of cervix varied during proliferative and secretory phases. The uterus was pyriform in shape (2.46 ± 0.28 cm × 1.45 ± 0.19 cm) and consisted of serosa, myometrium, and endometrium. The endometrium generated a triple-line pattern; the outer and central lines were hyperechogenic, whereas the inner line was hypoechogenic. The endometrium was significantly thicker during the secretory phase (0.69 ± 0.12 cm) than during the proliferative phase (0.43 ± 0.15 cm). Knowledge of the echogenic changes in the female reproductive organs of bonnet monkeys during a regular menstrual cycle may facilitate understanding of other physiologic and pathophysiologic changes. PMID:24411775

  4. Discovery of novel MHC-class I alleles and haplotypes in Filipino cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing: Mafa-class I polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Takashi; Yamada, Yukiho; Aarnink, Alice; Suzuki, Shingo; Masuya, Anri; Ito, Sayaka; Ido, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Iwatani, Chizuru; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Itoh, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Kulski, Jerzy K; Blancher, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    Although the low polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) transplantation genes in the Filipino cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is expected to have important implications in the selection and breeding of animals for medical research, detailed polymorphism information is still lacking for many of the duplicated class I genes. To better elucidate the degree and types of MHC polymorphisms and haplotypes in the Filipino macaque population, we genotyped 127 unrelated animals by the Sanger sequencing method and high-resolution pyrosequencing and identified 112 different alleles, 28 at cynomolgus macaque MHC (Mafa)-A, 54 at Mafa-B, 12 at Mafa-I, 11 at Mafa-E, and seven at Mafa-F alleles, of which 56 were newly described. Of them, the newly discovered Mafa-A8*01:01 lineage allele had low nucleotide similarities (Filipino macaque population would identify these and other high-frequency Mafa-class I haplotypes that could be used as MHC control animals for the benefit of biomedical research.

  5. Simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation and single-neuron recording in alert non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jerel K; Grigsby, Erinn M; Prevosto, Vincent; Petraglia, Frank W; Rao, Hrishikesh; Deng, Zhi-De; Peterchev, Angel V; Sommer, Marc A; Egner, Tobias; Platt, Michael L; Grill, Warren M

    2014-08-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used, noninvasive method for stimulating nervous tissue, yet its mechanisms of effect are poorly understood. Here we report new methods for studying the influence of TMS on single neurons in the brain of alert non-human primates. We designed a TMS coil that focuses its effect near the tip of a recording electrode and recording electronics that enable direct acquisition of neuronal signals at the site of peak stimulus strength minimally perturbed by stimulation artifact in awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We recorded action potentials within ∼1 ms after 0.4-ms TMS pulses and observed changes in activity that differed significantly for active stimulation as compared with sham stimulation. This methodology is compatible with standard equipment in primate laboratories, allowing easy implementation. Application of these tools will facilitate the refinement of next generation TMS devices, experiments and treatment protocols.

  6. Simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation and single neuron recording in alert non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jerel K.; Grigsby, Erinn M.; Prevosto, Vincent; Petraglia, Frank W.; Rao, Hrishikesh; Deng, Zhi-De; Peterchev, Angel V.; Sommer, Marc A.; Egner, Tobias; Platt, Michael L.; Grill, Warren M.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used, noninvasive method for stimulating nervous tissue, yet its mechanisms of effect are poorly understood. Here we report novel methods for studying the influence of TMS on single neurons in the brain of alert non-human primates. We designed a TMS coil that focuses its effect near the tip of a recording electrode and recording electronics that enable direct acquisition of neuronal signals at the site of peak stimulus strength minimally perturbed by stimulation artifact in intact, awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We recorded action potentials within ~1 ms after 0.4 ms TMS pulses and observed changes in activity that differed significantly for active stimulation as compared to sham stimulation. The methodology is compatible with standard equipment in primate laboratories, allowing for easy implementation. Application of these new tools will facilitate the refinement of next generation TMS devices, experiments, and treatment protocols. PMID:24974797

  7. Ebola virus acceptors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... genome sequencing centre; HSP, High scoring Segment pair;. NHGRI, National ... the genome of the rhesus monkey (rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta). The sequencing and comparative analysis was funded by the National ... Definition. Accession ..... Marburg virus genomics and association with a large.

  8. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  9. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied...

  10. AcEST: DK950059 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Large structural protein OS=Rabies virus (stra... 32 3.7 sp|Q153Z0|CASPC_MACMU Caspase-12 OS=Macaca mulatta...rge structural protein OS=Rabies virus (strain China/DRV) GN=L PE=3 SV=1 Length = 2127 Score = 32.0 bits (71

  11. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE VITREOUS BODY IN RHESUS-MONKEYS AND MAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WORST, JGF; LOS, LI

    1992-01-01

    In the isolated unfixed vitreous body a structural organization can be visualized by slitlamp microscopy or by an ink-injection technique. We discuss the observations on human and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vitreous bodies using the ink-injection technique. Advantages and disadvantages of this

  12. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  13. Comparison of protection from homologous cell-free vs cell-associated SIV challenge afforded by inactivated whole SIV vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Heeney (Jonathan); P. de Vries (Petra); R. Dubbes (Rob); W. Koornstra (Willem); H. Niphuis; P. ten Haaft (Peter); J. Boes (Jolande); M.E.M. Dings (Marlinda); B. Morein (Bror); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis study attempted to determine if SIV vaccines could protect against challenge with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from an SIV infected rhesus monkey. Mature Macaca mulatta were vaccinated four times with formalin inactivated SIVmac32H administered in MDP adjuvant (n = 8)

  14. Hemopoietic stem cells in rhesus monkeys : surface antigens, radiosensitivity, and responses to GM-CSF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Wielenga (Jenne)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractRhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were bred at the Primate Center TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands!. Both male and female animals were used for the experiments. The monkeys weighed 2.5-4 kg and were 2-4 years old at the time of the experiment. They were all typed for RhLA-A, -B and -DR

  15. Maintaining social cohesion is a more important determinant of patch residence time than maximizing food intake rate in a group-living primate, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazahari, Nobuko

    2014-04-01

    Animals have been assumed to employ an optimal foraging strategy (e.g., rate-maximizing strategy). In patchy food environments, intake rate within patches is positively correlated with patch quality, and declines as patches are depleted through consumption. This causes patch-leaving and determines patch residence time. In group-foraging situations, patch residence times are also affected by patch sharing. Optimal patch models for groups predict that patch residence times decrease as the number of co-feeding animals increases because of accelerated patch depletion. However, group members often depart patches without patch depletion, and their patch residence time deviates from patch models. It has been pointed out that patch residence time is also influenced by maintaining social proximity with others among group-living animals. In this study, the effects of maintaining social cohesion and that of rate-maximizing strategy on patch residence time were examined in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). I hypothesized that foragers give up patches to remain in the proximity of their troop members. On the other hand, foragers may stay for a relatively long period when they do not have to abandon patches to follow the troop. In this study, intake rate and foraging effort (i.e., movement) did not change during patch residency. Macaques maintained their intake rate with only a little foraging effort. Therefore, the patches were assumed to be undepleted during patch residency. Further, patch residence time was affected by patch-leaving to maintain social proximity, but not by the intake rate. Macaques tended to stay in patches for short periods when they needed to give up patches for social proximity, and remained for long periods when they did not need to leave to keep social proximity. Patch-leaving and patch residence time that prioritize the maintenance of social cohesion may be a behavioral pattern in group-living primates.

  16. Antibody responses of Macaca fascicularis against a new inactivated polio vaccine derived from Sabin strains (sIPV) in DTaP-sIPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Shiosaki, K; Goto, Y; Sonoda, K; Kino, Y

    2013-05-01

    Antibody responses of Macaca fascicularis against a new tetravalent vaccine composed of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis antigens, and inactivated poliovirus derived from Sabin strains (sIPV) was investigated to predict an optimal dose of sIPV in a new tetravalent vaccine (DTaP-sIPV) prior to conducting a dose-defined clinical study. Monkeys were inoculated with DTaP-sIPVs containing three different antigen units of sIPVs: Vaccine A (types 1:2:3 = 3:100:100 DU), Vaccine B (types 1:2:3 = 1.5:50:50 DU), and Vaccine C (types 1:2:3 = 0.75:25:25 DU). There was no difference in the average titers of neutralizing antibody against the attenuated or virulent polioviruses between Vaccines A and B. The average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine C tended to be lower than those of Vaccines A and B. The sIPV antigens did not affect the anti-diphtheria or anti-tetanus antibody titers of DTaP-sIPV. Furthermore, the average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine A against the attenuated and virulent polioviruses were comparable between M. fascicularis and humans. These results suggest that M. fascicularis may be a useful animal model for predicting the antibody responses to sIPVs in humans, and that it may be likely to reduce the amount of sIPVs contained in DTaP-sIPVs, even for humans. Copyright © 2013 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA analyses and ecological niche modeling reveal post-LGM expansion of the Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis) in the foothills of Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Laxman; Chalise, Mukesh K; He, Kai; Acharya, Bipin K; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Jiang, Xuelong

    2018-03-01

    Genetic diversity of a species is influenced by multiple factors, including the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and geophysical barriers. Such factors are not yet well documented for fauna from the southern border of the Himalayan region. This study used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and ecological niche modeling (ENM) to explore how the late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex geography of the Himalayan region have shaped genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and demographic history of the Nepalese population of Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis) in the Himalayan foothills. A total of 277 fecal samples were collected from 39 wild troops over almost the entire distribution of the species in Nepal. The mtDNA fragment encompassing the complete control region (1121 bp) was recovered from 208 samples, thus defining 54 haplotypes. Results showed low nucleotide diversity (0.0075 ± SD 0.0001) but high haplotype diversity (0.965 ± SD 0.004). The mtDNA sequences revealed a shallow population genetic structure with a moderate but statistically significant effect of isolation by distance. Demographic history analyses using mtDNA sequences suggested a post-pleistocene population expansion. Paleodistribution reconstruction projected that the potential habitat of the Assam macaque was confined to the lower elevations of central Nepal during the Last Glacial Maximum. With the onset of the Holocene climatic optimum, the glacial refugia population experienced eastward range expansion to higher elevations. We conclude that the low genetic diversity and shallow population genetic structure of the Assam macaque population in the Nepal Himalaya region are the consequence of recent demographic and spatial expansion. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-09-18

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states.

  19. COMPARISON OF INTRAMUSCULAR FENTANYL-MIDAZOLAM, FENTANYL-MIDAZOLAM-KETAMINE, AND KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF JAPANESE MACAQUES ( MACACA FUSCATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ølberg, Rolf-Arne; Sinclair, Melissa; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham

    2018-03-01

    The combination of fentanyl and midazolam is commonly used as a sedative in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sedative properties and physiological effects of fentanyl-midazolam and fentanyl-midazolam-ketamine compared with medetomidine-ketamine given intramuscularly in Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata). In a randomized crossover design, eight Japanese macaques were hand-injected with either 30 μg/kg fentanyl + 0.3 mg/kg midazolam (FM), 15 μg/kg fentanyl + 0.3 mg/kg midazolam + 5.0 mg/kg ketamine (FMK), or 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine + 5.0 mg/kg ketamine (MedK). Heart rate; indirect systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial pressure; respiratory rate; blood gas concentrations; rectal temperature; and duration of immobilization were recorded. Mixed linear models were used to evaluate the effects of drug treatment on all continuous variables, with a significance level of P < 0.05. Only three of seven animals receiving FM were successfully immobilized. All eight animals in both the FMK and MedK treatment groups had a rapid, smooth induction and were successfully immobilized. Both FMK and MedK treatments resulted in significant hypoxia and the animals required supplemental oxygen via face mask. The mean duration of FMK immobilization was 42 ± 10 min, significantly shorter than the 65 ± 14 min for the animals receiving MedK. Immobilization with MedK resulted in significantly lower heart rates, and significantly higher arterial pressure compared with FMK. Hypoventilation was significantly more pronounced in FMK-treated animals compared with MedK treatments. Immobilization with FMK resulted in a gradual, slow recovery whereas MedK-treated animals woke up more rapidly. Fentanyl-midazolam alone is not a useful sedative in Japanese macaques. A combination of fentanyl and midazolam with ketamine can be used as an alternative to medetomidine-ketamine in this species.

  20. Allelic variation of the COMT gene in a despotic primate society: A haplotype is related to cortisol excretion in Macaca fuscata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflüger, Lena S; Gutleb, Daria R; Hofer, Martin; Fieder, Martin; Wallner, Bernard; Steinborn, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Sequence variations in genes of the monoamine neurotransmitter system and their common function in human and non-human primate species are an ongoing issue of investigation. However, the COMT gene, coding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase, has not yet attracted much scientific attention regarding its functional role in non-human primates. Considering that a polymorphism of the human COMT gene affects the enzyme activity and cortisol level in response to a social stressor, this study investigated the impact of COMT on endocrine stress and behavioural parameters in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The species exemplifies a despotic hierarchy in which males' social rank positions require an adaptation of behaviour strategies. During the mating period steroid secretion and the frequency of aggressive encounters between males increase. We addressed i) whether this species exhibits potential functional COMT variants, ii) whether these variants are associated with faecal cortisol excretion of males, iii) how they are distributed among different social rank positions and iv) whether they are associated with behavioural strategies during times of mate competition. By genotyping 26 males we identified three COMT haplotypes (HT), including a putative splice mutant (HT3). This variant was associated with increased cortisol excretion. Given the observed inverse correlation between cortisol and physical aggression, we assume that different COMT haplotypes may predispose individuals to pursue more or less aggressive strategies. How these gene-stress effects might favour a specific social role is discussed. Our study of non-invasive genotyping in combination with behavioural and endocrine parameters represents an important step towards the understanding of gene-stress effects in a hierarchically organised primate society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Giuliano Zippo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and 3 the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1 to 8V, 1 to 10 Hz, 500ms, biphasic waves, we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being < 1ms and interblock intervals of 1.5 to 4 s have been analyzed. We found 150 to 250ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  2. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  3. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  4. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  6. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical characterization of ameloblast-enamel adhesion at maturation stage in amelogenesis in Macaca fuscata tooth germ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Maturation-stage ameloblasts are firmly bound to the tooth enamel by a basal lamina-like structure. The mechanism underlying this adhesion, however, remains to be fully clarified. The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying adhesion between the basal lamina-like structure and the enamel in monkey tooth germ. High-resolution immunogold labeling was performed to localize amelotin and laminin 332 at the interface between ameloblasts and tooth enamel. Minute, electron-dense strands were observed on the enamel side of the lamina densa, extending into the degrading enamel matrix to produce a well-developed fibrous layer (lamina fibroreticularis). In un-demineralized tissue sections, mineral crystals smaller than those in the bulk of the enamel were observed adhering to these strands where they protruded into the surface enamel. Immunogold particles reactive for amelotin were preferentially localized on these strands in the fibrous layer. On the other hand, those for laminin 332 were localized solely in the lamina densa; none were observed in the fibrous layer. These results suggest that the fibrous layer of the basal lamina-like structure is partly composed of amelotin molecules, and that these molecules facilitate ameloblast-enamel adhesion by promoting mineralization of the fibrous layer during the maturation stage of amelogenesis.

  7. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  8. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  9. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  10. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  11. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Diaz Cordero, Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces

  12. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    "[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.

  13. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  14. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  15. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  16. Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  17. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  18. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  19. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  20. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø

    2016-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  1. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  2. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  3. `Twisted' electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2018-04-01

    Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.

  4. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  5. Advanced Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-21

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0114 TR-2017-0114 ADVANCED ELECTRONICS Ashwani Sharma 21 Jul 2017 Interim Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...NUMBER Advanced Electronics 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 Ashwani Sharma 5e. TASK NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (RDMX-17-14919 dtd 20 Mar 2018) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Space Electronics

  6. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  7. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  8. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Robert; Carroll-Garrison, Martina; Donovan, Daniel; Fisher, John; Guemmer, Paul; Harms, Robert; Kelly, Timothy; Love, Mattie; McReynolds, James; Ward, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    .... Government action to preserve strategic access to semiconductor producers is clearly needed to ensure DoD electronic systems can be built without compromising sensitive technology, though every...

  9. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  10. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  11. The electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestenes, David; Weingartshofer, Antonio

    1991-01-01

    The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs

  12. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Crain, John M. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  13. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  14. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  15. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  16. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  17. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  18. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  19. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  20. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  1. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  3. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.

  4. Electron Emitters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2002-01-01

    When two carbon-nanotube coated electrodes are placed at a small distance from each other, electron emission from carbon nanotubes allows a DC or AC electrical current to flow between these two electrodes...

  5. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  6. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  7. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Zvolánková, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  8. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jessica; Hollis, Joseph Razzell; Wood, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    The combination of printing technology with manufacturing electronic devices enables a new paradigm of printable electronics, where 'smart' functionality can be readily incorporated into almost any product at low cost. Over recent decades, rapid progress has been made in this field, which is now emerging into the industrial andcommercial realm. However, successful development and commercialisation on a large scale presents some significant technical challenges. For fully-printable electronic systems, all the component parts must be deposited from solutions (inks), requiring the development of new inorganic, organic and hybrid materials.A variety of traditional printing techniques are being explored and adapted forprinting these new materials in ways that result in the best performing electronicdevices. Whilst printed electronics research has initially focused on traditional typesof electronic device such as light-emitting diodes, transistors, and photovoltaics, it is increasingly apparent that a much wider range of applications can be realised. The soft and stretchable nature of printable materials makes them perfect candidates forbioelectronics, resulting in a wealth of research looking at biocompatible printable inks and biosensors. Regardless of application, the properties of printed electronicmaterials depend on the chemical structures, processing conditions, device architecture,and operational conditions, the complex inter-relationships of which aredriving ongoing research. We focus on three particular 'hot topics', where attention is currently focused: novel materials, characterisation techniques, and device stability. With progress advancing very rapidly, printed electronics is expected to grow over the next decade into a key technology with an enormous economic and social impact.

  9. The influence of gender, age, matriline and hierarchical rank on individual social position, role and interactional patterns in Macaca sylvanus at ‘La Forêt des singes’: A multilevel social network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian OROZCO SOSA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank on affiliative (allogrooming and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e. centric, peripheral and role (i.e. implication in the network cohesiveness of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

  10. The Influence of Gender, Age, Matriline and Hierarchical Rank on Individual Social Position, Role and Interactional Patterns in Macaca sylvanus at 'La Forêt des Singes': A Multilevel Social Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank) on affiliative (allogrooming) and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

  11. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  12. Electron tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  13. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  14. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  15. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G; Bumgarner, Roger; Weinstock, George M; Mardis, Elaine R; Remington, Karin A; Strausberg, Robert L; Venter, J Craig; Wilson, Richard K; Batzer, Mark A; Bustamante, Carlos D; Eichler, Evan E; Hahn, Matthew W; Hardison, Ross C; Makova, Kateryna D; Miller, Webb; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Palermo, Robert E; Siepel, Adam; Sikela, James M; Attaway, Tony; Bell, Stephanie; Bernard, Kelly E; Buhay, Christian J; Chandrabose, Mimi N; Dao, Marvin; Davis, Clay; Delehaunty, Kimberly D; Ding, Yan; Dinh, Huyen H; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Fulton, Lucinda A; Gabisi, Ramatu Ayiesha; Garner, Toni T; Godfrey, Jennifer; Hawes, Alicia C; Hernandez, Judith; Hines, Sandra; Holder, Michael; Hume, Jennifer; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Kirkness, Ewen F; Cree, Andrew; Fowler, R Gerald; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora R; Li, Zhangwan; Liu, Yih-Shin; Moore, Stephanie M; Muzny, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne V; Ngo, Dinh Ngoc; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Pai, Grace; Parker, David; Paul, Heidie A; Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Pohl, Craig S; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Ruiz, San Juana; Sabo, Aniko; Santibanez, Jireh; Schneider, Brian W; Smith, Scott M; Sodergren, Erica; Svatek, Amanda F; Utterback, Teresa R; Vattathil, Selina; Warren, Wesley; White, Courtney Sherell; Chinwalla, Asif T; Feng, Yucheng; Halpern, Aaron L; Hillier, Ladeana W; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Minx, Pat; Nelson, Joanne O; Pepin, Kymberlie H; Qin, Xiang; Sutton, Granger G; Venter, Eli; Walenz, Brian P; Wallis, John W; Worley, Kim C; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Jones, Steven M; Marra, Marco A; Rocchi, Mariano; Schein, Jacqueline E; Baertsch, Robert; Clarke, Laura; Csürös, Miklós; Glasscock, Jarret; Harris, R Alan; Havlak, Paul; Jackson, Andrew R; Jiang, Huaiyang; Liu, Yue; Messina, David N; Shen, Yufeng; Song, Henry Xing-Zhi; Wylie, Todd; Zhang, Lan; Birney, Ewan; Han, Kyudong; Konkel, Miriam K; Lee, Jungnam; Smit, Arian F A; Ullmer, Brygg; Wang, Hui; Xing, Jinchuan; Burhans, Richard; Cheng, Ze; Karro, John E; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; She, Xinwei; Cox, Michael J; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dumas, Laura J; Han, Sang-Gook; Hopkins, Janet; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Kim, Young H; Pollack, Jonathan R; Vinar, Tomas; Addo-Quaye, Charles; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Denby, Alexandra; Hubisz, Melissa J; Indap, Amit; Kosiol, Carolin; Lahn, Bruce T; Lawson, Heather A; Marklein, Alison; Nielsen, Rasmus; Vallender, Eric J; Clark, Andrew G; Ferguson, Betsy; Hernandez, Ryan D; Hirani, Kashif; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Kolb, Jessica; Patil, Shobha; Pu, Ling-Ling; Ren, Yanru; Smith, David Glenn; Wheeler, David A; Schenck, Ian; Ball, Edward V; Chen, Rui; Cooper, David N; Giardine, Belinda; Hsu, Fan; Kent, W James; Lesk, Arthur; Nelson, David L; O'brien, William E; Prüfer, Kay; Stenson, Peter D; Wallace, James C; Ke, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Peng; Xiang, Andy Peng; Yang, Fan; Barber, Galt P; Haussler, David; Karolchik, Donna; Kern, Andy D; Kuhn, Robert M; Smith, Kayla E; Zwieg, Ann S

    2007-04-13

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of the species.

  16. Electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan.

    1981-01-01

    The USSR produces an electron accelerator family of a simple design powered straight from the mains. The specifications are given of accelerators ELITA-400, ELITA-3, ELT-2, TEUS-3 and RIUS-5 with maximum electron energies of 0.3 to 5 MeV, a mean power of 10 to 70 kW operating in both the pulsed and the continuous (TEUS-3) modes. Pulsed accelerators ELITA-400 and ELITA-3 and RIUS-5 in which TESLA resonance transformers are used are characterized by their compact size. (Ha)

  17. Electronic cigarette

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    As we know E-cigarette is becoming increasingly popular all over the world. It is a new product that the most of smoking people would like to buy and use. However, we are not realizing advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarette clearly. My objective was to research the development of electronic cigarette whether it is under control or a good way of marketing. The thesis has two main parts. They include answers to questions what is electronic cigarette and how to manage the whole industry...

  18. Electronic School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Educator, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "The Electronic School" features a special forum on computer networking. Articles specifically focus on network operating systems, cabling requirements, and network architecture. Tom Wall argues that virtual reality is not yet ready for classroom use. B.J. Novitsky profiles two high schools experimenting with CD-ROM…

  19. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  20. Electronics department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities in 1978 of some of the groups within the Electronics Department. The work covered includes plant protection and operator studies, reliability techniques, application of nuclear techniques to mineral exploration, applied laser physics, computing and, lastly, research instrumentation. (author)

  1. Power electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishore Chatterjee

    This special issue of Sadhana is a compilation of papers selected from those presented at the 7th National Power. Electronics Conference (NPEC), held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, on 21–23 December 2015. From among the papers presented in NPEC-2017, selected papers were peer-reviewed for ...

  2. Electron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, G A; Schriber, S O [ed.

    1976-11-01

    A study was made of the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field. These machines were classified according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for x-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. Industrial machines discussed include linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a c-w, 1 GeV, 100..mu..A electron linac is raised, and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of rf superconductivity is summarized. A review is given of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e/sup +-/ storage rings, and recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC, is described.

  3. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  4. Electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyck, E.

    1981-01-01

    An electronic seal is presented for a volume such as container for fissile materials. The seal encloses a lock for barring the space as well as a device for the detection and the recording of the intervention of the lock. (AF)

  5. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friese, T.

    1981-09-01

    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.) [de

  6. Electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    To study the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field, we have classified these machines according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for X-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. The section on industrial machines includes linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a C.W., 1 GeV, 100 μA electron linac is raised and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of RF superconductivity is summarized. Following, there is a review of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e +- storage rings. The paper ends with a description of recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC. (author)

  7. A Species Difference in Visuospatial Memory: A Failure of Memory for What, Where, or What is Where?

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.; Martin, Bridgette

    2003-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine why rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perform so poorly on a visuospatial memory test modeled after a popular children’s game (Concentration). In these studies, four different memory tasks were administered to ascertain whether monkeys show limitations in visual memory (memory for which images had been seen), limitations in spatial memory (limitations of what locations had been visited), or limitations in the coordination of these two modalities (mem...

  8. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due...

  9. Radiation-induced genetic effects in germ cells of mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buul, P.P.W.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the project is to gain information on the effects of ionizing radiation on germ cells of rodents and primates as measured by induced chromosomal translocations. Different aspects of the very significant interspecies differences between the mouse and the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) for translocation induction in spermatogonial stem cells were studied. In addition, possible mechanisms for the well established reduced transmission of induced mouse translocations were investigated. (R.P.) 6 refs

  10. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  11. Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    countries in developing market nations in Asia (such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia , China and Vietnam). The competition for the knowledge, economic...Intel, Infineon Technologies, STMicroelectronics, Samsung Electronics, Texas Instruments, AMD Spansion, Philips Semiconductor, Freescale... Samsung ($19.7B), #5 Toshiba ($9.8B), #6 TSMC ($9.7B), #7 Hynix ($8.0B) and #8 Renesas ($7.9B) (McGrath, 2007, p. 3). Samsung , headquartered in

  12. Electronic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gradišnik, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology is one of the most important reasons for the incredibly fast changes in business. Electronic commerce is spreading unstoppably in the operations of companies. The creation of new models, such as online banking, online shopping and the like, has sped up the development of the World Wide Web. Owing to the rapid progress of the World Wide Web and technologies for secure business operations, we can barely imagine life today without e...

  13. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  14. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  15. Electronic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic sputtering covers a range of phenomena from electron and photon stimulated desorption from multilayers to fast heavy ion-induced desorption (sputtering) of biomolecules. In this talk the author attempted. Therefore, to connect the detailed studies of argon ejection from solid argon by MeV ions and keV electrons to the sputtering of low temperatures molecular ices by MeV ions then to biomolecule ejection from organic solids. These are related via changing (dE/dx) e , molecular size, and transport processes occurring in materials. In this regard three distinct regions of (dE/dx) e have been identified. Since the talk this picture has been made explicit using a simple spike model for individual impulsive events in which spike interactions are combined linearly. Since that time also the molecular dynamics programs (at Virginia and Uppsala) have quantified both single atom and dimer processes in solid Ar and the momentum transport in large biomolecule sputtering. 5 refs

  16. Red nucleus of Macaca fascicularis : an electron microscopic study of its synaptic organization in relation to afferent and efferent connectivity and proposals for the role of the red nucleus in motor mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ralston, Diane Cornelia Daly

    1994-01-01

    Dit proefschrift heeft betrekking op de verbindingen en de synaptische organisatie binnen het parvicellularaire en magnocellulaire deel van de nucleus ruber of de rode kern van de aap (macaque). De nucleus ruber is gemakkelijk herkenbaar in de middenhersenen of het mesencephalon, het hart van het

  17. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  18. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  19. Electronic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    E-waste amount is growing at about 4% annually, and has become the fastest growing waste stream in the industrialized world. Over 50 million tons of e-waste are produced globally each year, and some of them end up in landfills causing danger of toxic chemicals leakage over time. E-waste is also sent to developing countries where informal processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) causes serious health and pollution problems. A huge interest in recovery of valuable metals from WEEE is clearly visible in a great number of scientific, popular scientific publications or government and industrial reports.

  20. Electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-Y.; Hughes, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described relates to cathode ray tubes, and particularly to color picture tubes of the type useful in home television receivers and therefore to electron guns. The invention is especially applicable to self-converging tube-yoke combinations with shadow mask tubes of the type having plural-beam in-line guns disposed in a horizontal plane, an apertured mask with vertically oriented slit-shaped apertures, and a screen with vertically oriented phosphor stripes. The invention is not, however, limited to use in such tubes and may in fact be used, e.g., in dot-type shadow mask tubes and index-type tubes. (Auth.)

  1. Bolometer electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenig, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    High quality is required to the electronic which works with bolometer made of metal for measuring the radiation power in plasmaphysical experiments. If the bandwidth is to be 1 kHz, and the time constant of the bolometer is about 160 ms by high overall gain the critical parameters are the noise of the amplifier, pick up to the system, stability and decoupling of common mode signals. The high overall gain is necessary to be able to measure lowest radiation power. The design made is a good approach to the desired property. (orig.) [de

  2. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  3. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero B, E.

    1989-01-01

    The rapid technical development of Colombia over the past years, resulted among others, a considerable increase in the number of measuring instrumentation and testing laboratories, scientific research and metrology centers, in industry, agriculture, public health, education on the nuclear field, etc. IAN is a well organized institution with qualified management, trained staff and reasonably equipped laboratories to carry out tasks as: Metrology, standardization, quality control and maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments. The government of Colombia has adopted a policy to establish and operate through the country maintenance and repair facilities for nuclear instrumentation. This policy is reflected in the organization of electronic laboratories in Bogota-IAN

  4. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  5. Electron foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimas, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    ISEE particle and wave data are noted to furnish substantial support for the basic features of the velocity dispersed model at the foreshock boundary that was proposed by Filbert and Kellogg (1979). Among many remaining discrepancies between this model and observation, it is noted that unstable reduced velocity distributions have been discovered behind the thin boundary proposed by the model, and that these are at suprathermal energies lying far below those explainable in terms of an oscillating, two-stream instability. Although the long-theorized unstable beam of electrons has been found in the foreshock, there is still no ready explanation of the means by which it could have gotten there. 16 references

  6. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  7. Advanced electron beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    After 100 years from the time of discovery of electron, we now have many applications of electron beam in science and technology. In this report, we review two important applications of electron beam: electron microscopy and pulsed-electron beam. Advanced electron microscopy techniques to investigate atomic and electronic structures, and pulsed-electron beam for investigating time-resolved structural change are described. (author)

  8. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  9. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  10. Electron-electron Bremsstrahlung for bound target electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, E.

    2008-01-01

    For the process of electron-electron (e-e) Bremsstrahlung the momentum and energy distributions of the recoiling electrons are calculated in the laboratory frame. In order to get the differential cross section and the photon spectrum for target electrons which are bound to an atom, these formulae are multiplied by the incoherent scattering function and numerically integrated over the recoil energy. The effect of atomic binding is most pronounced at low energies of the incident electrons and for target atoms of high atomic numbers. The results are compared to those of previous calculations. (authors)

  11. Electron Beam Generation in Tevatron Electron Lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.

    2006-01-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices

  12. Electron beam generation in Tevatron electron lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.

    2006-01-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices

  13. Interplay between electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, O.; Gunnarsson, O.; Han, J.E.; Crespi, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the interplay between electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions for alkali-doped fullerides and high temperature superconductors. Due to the similarity of the electron and phonon energy scales, retardation effects are small for fullerides. This raises questions about the origin of superconductivity, since retardation effects are believed to be crucial for reducing effects of the Coulomb repulsion in conventional superconductors. We demonstrate that by treating the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions on an equal footing, superconductivity can be understood in terms of a local pairing. The Jahn-Teller character of the important phonons in fullerides plays a crucial role for this result. To describe effects of phonons in cuprates, we derive a t-J model with phonons from the three-band model. Using exact diagonalization for small clusters, we find that the anomalous softening of the half-breathing phonon as well as its doping dependence can be explained. By comparing the solution of the t-J model with the Hartree-Fock approximation for the three-band model, we address results obtained in the local-density approximation for cuprates. We find that genuine many-body results, due to the interplay between the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, play an important role for the the results in the t-J model. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance.

  15. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance

  16. Electronics and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Previously founded as CCPITMachinery and Electronics Sub-council and CCOIC Machinery and Electronics Chamber of Corn-merce in June, 1988, CCPIT Electronics Sub-Council and CCOIC Electronics Chamber of Commerce were established in May, 1993, and then renamed as CCPIT Electronics and Information Industry Sub-council and CCOIC Electronics and Infor-mation Industry Chamber of Commerce (CCPITECC) in September 1999.

  17. Constancy and variability in cortical structure. A study on synapses and dendritic spines in hedgehog and monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, A; Demianenko, G P

    1995-01-01

    Synapses and dendritic spines were investigated in the parietal cortex of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and the monkey (Macaca mulatta). There was no significant difference in the density of synapses between the two species (14 synapses/100 microns2 in the hedgehog, 15/100 microns2 in the monkey), neither in the size of the synaptic junctions, in the proportion of Type I and Type II synapses (8-10% were of Type II in the hedgehog, 10-14% in the monkey) nor in the proportion of perforated synapses (8% in the hedgehog, 5% in the monkey). The only striking difference at the electron microscopic level concerned the frequency of synapses in which the postsynaptic profile was deeply indented into the presynaptic terminal. Such synapses were 10 times more frequent in the monkey. Dendritic spines were investigated in Golgi-preparations. The density of spines along dendrites was similar in both species. The results are discussed with regard to connectivity in the cortex of small and large brains.

  18. Electron-electron coincidence spectroscopies at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, G.; Iacobucci, S.; Ruocco, A.; Gotter, R.

    2002-01-01

    In the past 20 years, a steadily increasing number of electron-electron coincidence experiments on atoms and molecules have contributed to a deeper understanding of electron-electron correlation effects. In more recent years this technique has been extended to the study of solid surfaces. This class of one photon IN two electrons OUT experiments will be discussed with an emphasis on grazing incidence geometry, that is expected to be particularly suited for studying surfaces. The crucial question of which is the dominant mechanism that leads to ejection of pairs of electron from the surface will be addressed. It will be shown that, depending on the kinematics chosen, the correlated behaviour of the pairs of electrons detected might be singled out from independent particle one

  19. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  20. Plasmaspheric electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, G.K.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the plasmaspheric electron content are reviewed with particular reference to the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment. From the review, it appears likely that measurement of the plasmaspheric electron content is the only one capable of monitoring electron fluxes continuously between L 1 and L 2. Some recent important results deduced from plasmaspheric electron content measurements are discussed

  1. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  2. Introduction to Electronics course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  3. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  4. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  5. Electron-electron interactions in artificial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Esa

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in the creation and modulation of graphenelike systems are introducing a science of ``designer Dirac materials.'' In its original definition, artificial graphene is a man-made nanostructure that consists of identical potential wells (quantum dots) arranged in an adjustable honeycomb lattice in the two-dimensional electron gas. As our ability to control the quality of artificial graphene samples improves, so grows the need for an accurate theory of its electronic properties, including the effects of electron-electron interactions. Here we determine those effects on the band structure and on the emergence of Dirac points, and discuss future investigations and challenges in this field.

  6. Autoshaping in Japanese Monkeys (Macaca Fuscata)

    OpenAIRE

    Itakura, Shoji; Fushimi, Takao; Asano, Toshio; Shoji, Itakura; Takao, Fushimi; Toshio, Asano

    1992-01-01

    Three Japanese monkeys were exposed to autoshaping and omission procedures. The Japanese momkeys seemed to be more sensitive to response-reinforcer contingency than to stimulus-reinforcer contingency. These results were compared with pigeons and squirrel monkeys in the previous reports.

  7. Electronic payment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mláka, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis analysis issue of electronic payment systems. It discusses their use for payments on the internet and sending funds via e-mail. The first part is devoted to the theoretical definition and legislation of the issuance of electronic money and activities of electronic money institutions. The main part of the work clearly focuses on the use of e-wallets, which is an integral part of electronic payment systems. E-wallet of electronic payment system Moneybookers is considered as...

  8. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  9. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  10. Neutrinos in the Electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koschmieder, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    I will show that one half of the rest mass of the electron consists of electron neutrinos and that the other half of the rest mass of the electron consists of the mass in the energy of electric oscillations. With this composition we can explain the rest mass of the electron, its charge, its spin and its magnetic moment We have also determined the rest masses of the muon neutrino and the electron neutrino

  11. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  12. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  13. Practical XHV electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Cho, Boklae; Oshima, Chuhei

    2008-01-01

    We have developed practical XHV chambers of a electron gun, of which the operating pressures are 1x10 -9 Pa in a stainless-steel one and 4x10 -9 Pa in a permalloy one. By mounting a noble single-atom electron source with high brightness and high spatial coherence on the electron gun including electron optics, we demonstrated highly collimated electron-beam emission: ∼80% of the total emission current entered the electron optics. This ratio was two or three orders of magnitude higher than those of the conventional electron sources. In XHV, in addition, we confirmed stable electron emission up to 20 nA, which results in the specimen current high enough for scanning electron microscopes. (author)

  14. A superconducting electron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Huebel, H.; Grumbkow, A. von

    1983-03-01

    The set-up and tests of an electron spectrometer for in-beam conversion electron measurements are described. A superconducting solenoid is used to transport the electrons from the target to cooled Si(Li) detectors. The solenoid is designed to produce either a homogeneous axially symmetric field of up to 2 Tesla or a variety of field profiles by powering the inner and outer set of coils of the solenoid separately. The electron trajectories resulting for various field profiles are discussed. In-beam electron spectra taken in coincidence with electrons, gammas and alpha-particles are shown. (Auth.)

  15. Electronics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamieh

    2015-01-01

    Explore the basic concepts of electronics, build your electronics workbench, and begin creating fun electronics projects right away! Electronics For Dummies, 3rd Edition is your guide to the world of electronics. Spanning circuitry, wiring, robotics, transmitters, amplifiers, and more, this book demystifies electricity basics and beyond. The third edition offers new content revised to reflect the latest advancements in the electronics field, and it offers full color project examples to spark your creativity and inspire you to put your new skills to use! Packed with projects that can be comple

  16. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  17. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Pincosy, P.A.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes an electron emitting device for use in an electron discharge system. It comprises: a filament having a pair of terminal ends, electrical supply means for supplying electrical power to the terminal ends of the filament for directly heating the filament by the passage of an electrical current along the filament between the terminal ends, the filament being substantially tapered in cross section continuously in one direction from one of its pair of terminal ends to another of its pair of terminal ends to achieve uniform heating of the filament along the length thereof by compensating for the nonuniform current along the filament due to the emission of electrons therefrom

  18. Narrow electron injector for ballistic electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kast, M.; Pacher, C.; Strasser, G.; Gornik, E.

    2001-01-01

    A three-terminal hot electron transistor is used to measure the normal energy distribution of ballistic electrons generated by an electron injector utilizing an improved injector design. A triple barrier resonant tunneling diode with a rectangular transmission function acts as a narrow (1 meV) energy filter. An asymmetric energy distribution with its maximum on the high-energy side with a full width at half maximum of ΔE inj =10 meV is derived. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  19. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  20. Electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenares, Rafael; Fuss, Martina C; García, Gustavo; Oller, Juan C; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; Almeida, Diogo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Electron scattering from pyrimidine (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following different experimental and theoretical approaches, total, elastic and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  1. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  2. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  3. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  4. Chapter 9: Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques

  5. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  6. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent

  7. Electronic Signature Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establishes the United States Environmental Protection Agency's approach to adopting electronic signature technology and best practices to ensure electronic signatures applied to official Agency documents are legally valid and enforceable

  8. Electronics Industry Study Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belt, David; Fellows, John R; Kameru, Philip; Nazaroff, Boris-Frank A; Pauroso, Anthony; Schulz, Frederick; Ballew, Bob; Bond, Thomas; Demers, Stephy; Kirkpatrick, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a national strategy for the US electronics industry. Electronics is one of the largest industries in the US and plays a critical role in almost every aspect of national security...

  9. Electron microscopy for Engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, I P

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of (mainly) Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) in an engineering context. The first two sections are TEM and chemical in nature; the final three sections are more general and include aspects of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

  10. ELSA electron stretcher devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The use of an electron stretcher ring at the Bonn electron synchrotron is discussed. The construction of the proposed ring is described, and the costs are estimated. Possible experiments using this ring are discussed. (HSI)

  11. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  12. Electronic Science Seminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geidarov P.Sh.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure of electronic scientific seminar, which provides a high level of quality of the objectivity in the evaluation of scientific papers, including dissertations, is described. Conditions for the implementation of electronic scientific seminar are also considered.

  13. Copyright of Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Elaine; Wang, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the importance of copyright, considers the main causes of copyright infringement in electronic publishing, discusses fair use of a copyrighted work, and suggests methods to safeguard copyrighted electronic publishing, including legislation, contracts, and technology. (Author/LRW)

  14. Paleoclassical electron heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Radial electron heat transport in low collisionality, magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas is shown to result from paleoclassical Coulomb collision processes (parallel electron heat conduction and magnetic field diffusion). In such plasmas the electron temperature equilibrates along magnetic field lines a long length L, which is the minimum of the electron collision length and a maximum effective half length of helical field lines. Thus, the diffusing field lines induce a radial electron heat diffusivity M ≅ L/(πR 0q ) ∼ 10 >> 1 times the magnetic field diffusivity η/μ 0 ≅ ν e (c/ω p ) 2 . The paleoclassical electron heat flux model provides interpretations for many features of 'anomalous' electron heat transport: magnitude and radial profile of electron heat diffusivity (in tokamaks, STs, and RFPs), Alcator scaling in high density plasmas, transport barriers around low order rational surfaces and near a separatrix, and a natural heat pinch (or minimum temperature gradient) heat flux form. (author)

  15. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  16. Electronic theodolite intersection systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bingley, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of electronic surveying instruments, such as electronic theodolites, and concurrent advances in computer technology, has revolutionised engineering surveying; one of the more recent examples being the introduction of Electronic Theodolite Intersection Systems (ETISs). An ETIS consists of two or more electronic theodolites and a computer, with peripheral hardware and suitable software. The theoretical principles on which they are based have been known for a long time, but ...

  17. Electron-attachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Christodoulides, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), (5) molecular parent negative ions, and (6) negative ions formed by ion-pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms

  18. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  19. Electron Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, Christine; Celata, C.M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Yu, Jennifer W.

    2008-01-01

    We report a previously unknown resonance for electron cloud dynamics. The 2D simulation code 'POSINST' was used to study the electron cloud buildup at different z positions in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring wiggler. An electron equilibrium density enhancement of up to a factor of 3 was found at magnetic field values for which the bunch frequency is an integral multiple of the electron cyclotron frequency. At low magnetic fields the effects of the resonance are prominent, but when B exceeds ∼(2 pi mec/(elb)), with lb = bunch length, effects of the resonance disappear. Thus short bunches and low B fields are required for observing the effect. The reason for the B field dependence, an explanation of the dynamics, and the results of the 2D simulations and of a single-particle tracking code used to elucidate details of the dynamics are discussed

  20. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  1. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  2. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    three freely moving electrons. The value at room temperature is 3.1 k B; the electronic specific heat is missing! The next stage in the electronic theory of solids clears up ..... a big dog? We do not know the reasons yet. As it turns out for many fundamentally interesting phenomena, colossal magneto- resistance may also find ...

  3. Arduino electronics blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcher, Don

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn about electronics and coding by building amazing devices and gadgets with Arduino. If you are an experienced developer who understands the basics of electronics, then you can quickly learn how to build smart devices using Arduino. The only experience needed is a desire to learn about electronics, circuit breadboarding, and coding.

  4. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  5. Embracing Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Electronic publishing is the grandest revolution in the capture and dissemination of academic and professional knowledge since Caxton developed the printing press. This article examines electronic publishing, describes different electronic publishing scenarios (authors' cooperative, consolidator/retailer/agent oligopsony, publisher oligopoly), and…

  6. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  7. Quantitative secondary electron detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Joy, David C.; Nayak, Subuhadarshi

    2018-05-08

    Quantitative Secondary Electron Detection (QSED) using the array of solid state devices (SSD) based electron-counters enable critical dimension metrology measurements in materials such as semiconductors, nanomaterials, and biological samples (FIG. 3). Methods and devices effect a quantitative detection of secondary electrons with the array of solid state detectors comprising a number of solid state detectors. An array senses the number of secondary electrons with a plurality of solid state detectors, counting the number of secondary electrons with a time to digital converter circuit in counter mode.

  8. Electron distribution function in electron-beam-excited plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    In monatomic plasmas excited by high-intensity relativistic electron beams, the electron secondary distribution function is dominated by elastic electron-electron collisions at low electron energies and by inelastic electron-atom collisions at high electron energies (above the excitation threshold). Under these conditions, the total rate of excitation by inelastic collisions is limited by the rate at which electron-electron collisions relax the distribution function in the neighborhood of the excitation threshold. To describe this effect quantitatively, an approximate analytic solution of the electron Boltzmann equation is obtained, including both electron-electron and inelastic collisions. The result provides a simple formula for the total rate of excitation

  9. Molecular electron affinities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, E.K.

    1983-01-01

    Molecular electron affinities have historically been difficult quantities to measure accurately. These difficulties arise from differences in structure between the ion and neutral as well as the existence of excited negative ion states. To circumvent these problems, relative electron affinities were determined in this dissertation by studying equilibrium electron transfer reactions using a pulsed ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) spectrometer. Direct measurement of ion and neutral concentrations for reactions of the general type, A - + B = B - + A, allow calculation of the equilibrium constant and, therefore, the free energy change. The free energy difference is related to the difference in electron affinities between A and B. A relative electron affinity scale covering a range of about 45 kcal/mol was constructed with various substituted p-benzoquinones, nitrobenzenes, anhydrides, and benzophenones. To assign absolute electron affinities, various species with accurately known electron affinities are tied to the scale via ion-cyclotron double resonance bracketing techniques. After the relative scale is anchored to these species with well-known electron affinities, the scale is then used as a check on other electron affinity values as well as generating new electron affinity values. Many discrepancies were found between the electron affinities measured using the ICR technique and previous literature determinations

  10. Nonambipolar electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmier, B.; Baalrud, S.; Hershkowitz, N.

    2006-01-01

    A radio frequency (rf) plasma-based electron source that does not rely on electron emission at a cathode surface has been constructed. All of the random electron flux incident on an exit aperture is extracted through an electron sheath resulting in total nonambipolar flow within the device when the ratio of the ion loss area to the electron loss area is approximately equal to the square root of the ratio of the ion mass to the electron mass, and the ion sheath potential drop at the chamber walls is much larger than T e /e. The nonambipolar electron source (NES) has an axisymmetric magnetic field of 100 G at the extraction aperture that results in a uniform plasma potential across the aperture, allowing the extraction of all the incident electron flux without the use of grids. A prototype NES has produced 15 A of continuous electron current, using 15 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) Ar, 1200 W rf power at 13.56 MHz, and 6 times gas utilization. Alternatively 8 A of electron current can be produced, using 3 SCCM Ar at 1200 W rf and 20 times gas utilization. NES could replace hollow cathode electron sources in a wide variety of applications

  11. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  12. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  13. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  14. Ion plasma electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakalopulos, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the disclosed electron gun positive ions generated by a hollow cathode plasma discharge in a first chamber are accelerated through control and shield grids into a second chamber containing a high voltage cold cathode. These positive ions bombard a surface of the cathode causing the cathode to emit secondary electrons which form an electron beam having a distribution adjacent to the cathode emissive surface substantially the same as the distribution of the ion beam impinging upon the cathode. After passing through the grids and the plasma discharge chamber, the electron beam exits from the electron gun via a foil window. Control of the generated electron beam is achieved by applying a relatively low control voltage between the control grid and the electron gun housing (which resides at ground potential) to control the density of the positive ions bombarding the cathode

  15. Seeing with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellist, P.

    2006-01-01

    Commercially available lens correctors are extending the reach of electron microscopes to unprecedented atomic scales, as Peter Nellist describes. The electron microscope was invented in 1933 and is based on the principle that electrons have a wavelength that is inversely proportional to their momentum. There are two basic types: transmission electron microscopes and scanning electron microscopes, plus a hybrid of the two. The lenses in an electron microscope are provided by electromagnetic fields, but they suffer from spherical aberration. The addition of octupole and quadrupole corrector fields has improved the resolution of the electron microscope to better than 0.1 nm in the last decade. The next step is to correct for chromatic aberration, after which the resolution of the microscope will probably be limited by the size of the atom itself. (U.K.)

  16. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Decal electronics for printed high performance cmos electronic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Sevilla, Galo Torres; Cordero, Marlon Diaz; Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-01-01

    High performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are critical for any full-fledged electronic system. However, state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are rigid and bulky making them unusable for flexible electronic applications

  18. Electronic Publishing or Electronic Information Handling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.

    The current dramatic evolution in information technology is bringing major modifications in the way scientists communicate. The concept of 'electronic publishing' is too restrictive and has often different, sometimes conflicting, interpretations. It is thus giving way to the broader notion of 'electronic information handling' encompassing the diverse types of information, the different media, as well as the various communication methodologies and technologies. New problems and challenges result also from this new information culture, especially on legal, ethical, and educational grounds. The procedures for validating 'published material' and for evaluating scientific activities will have to be adjusted too. 'Fluid' information is becoming a common concept. Electronic publishing cannot be conceived without link to knowledge bases nor without intelligent information retrieval tools.

  19. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  20. Electrons in Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian

    2007-01-01

    in the possibilities o®ered by the quantum mechanical behavior of electrons when it comes to informa- tion processing. This branch of research is also concerned with fundamental questions in physics. Besides an introduction to the above-mentioned subjects, the thesis con- tains a number of contributions to the ¯elds...... of coherent electron manip- ulation and the statistical description of electron transport through nano- devices. The physics of the electrons are described with a combination of numerical methods, developed and applied in the thesis, and more analytical approaches, which are also discussed. The thesis......-based communication. The statistical description of electron transport through nanostructures is based on rate equations, and the primary contribution of the thesis in that respect is the development of a method that allows for the calculation of the distribution of electrons passing through a device. The method...

  1. Transition to electronic publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowning, Sam

    Previous communications have described some of the many changes that will occur in the next few months as AGU makes the transition to fully electronic publishing. With the advent of the new AGU electronic publishing system, manuscripts will be submitted, edited, reviewed, and published in electronic formats. This piece discusses how the electronic journals will differ from the print journals. Electronic publishing will require some adjustments to the ways we currently think about journals from our perspective of standard print versions. Visiting the Web site of AGU's Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (G-Cubed) is a great way to get familiar with the look and feel of electronic publishing. However, protocols, especially for citations of articles, are still evolving. Some of the biggest changes for users of AGU publications may be the lack of page numbers, the use of a unique identifier (DOI),and changes in citation style.

  2. Electron microscopy of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venables, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Electron beam techniques used to study clean surfaces and surface processes on a microscopic scale are reviewed. Recent experimental examples and possible future developments are discussed. Special emphasis is given to (i) transmission diffraction and microscopy techniques, including atomic imaging; (ii) Auger microscopy on bulk and thin film samples; (iii) secondary electron microscopy, especially low energy secondaries for work-function imaging and photoelectron imaging; and (iv) reflection electron microscopy and diffraction. (orig.)

  3. New electronics stuff chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Su Il

    2003-04-01

    The first part of this book is about equilibrium electrochemistry on electric thermo dynamic equilibrium state of electrochemistry, crystal defect of solid, thermodynamics on defect electron and election in semiconductor, Gawani potential, volta potential and equilibrium potential and thermodynamics application in Gawani battery. The second part deals with dynamic electrochemistry electrode reaction kinetics and corrosion potential in normal state, diffusion and transport of ion and electron and current impedance spectroscopy. It also mentions industrial electrochemistry and laboratory works in electronics chemistry course.

  4. Ceramic Electron Multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Ceramic Electron Multipliers (CEM) is a compact, robust, linear and fast multi-channel electron multiplier. The Multi Layer Ceramic Technique (MLCT) allows to build metallic dynodes inside a compact ceramic block. The activation of the metallic dynodes enhances their secondary electron emission (SEE). The CEM can be used in multi-channel photomultipliers, multi-channel light intensifiers, ion detection, spectroscopy, analysis of time of flight events, particle detection or Cherenkov imaging detectors. (auth)

  5. Organizing the Electronic Century

    OpenAIRE

    Richard N. Langlois

    2007-01-01

    This paper's title is an echo of Alfred Chandler's (2001) chronicle of the electronics industry, Inventing the Electronic Century. The paper attempts (A) a general reinterpretation of the pattern of technological advance in (American) electronics over the twentieth century and (B) a somewhat revisionist account of the role of organization and institution in that advance. The paper stresses the complex effects of product architecture and intellectual property regime on industrial organization ...

  6. Introduction to printed electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail modern technologies for printed electronics, explaining how nanotechnology and modern printing technology are merging to revolutionize electronics fabrication of thin, lightweight, large, and inexpensive products. Readers will benefit from the explanations of materials, devices and circuits used to design and implement the latest applications of printed electronics, such as thin flexible OLED displays, organic solar cells, OLED lighting, smart wallpaper, sensors, logic, memory and more.

  7. Interoperability for electronic ID

    OpenAIRE

    Zygadlo, Zuzanna

    2009-01-01

    Electronic Business, including eBanking, eCommerce and eGovernmental services, is today based on a large variety of security solutions, comprising electronic IDs provided by a broad community of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) vendors. Significant differences in implementations of those solutions introduce a problem of lack of interoperability in electronic business, which have not yet been resolved by standardization and interoperability initiatives based on existing PKI trust models. It i...

  8. TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0169 TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION Dr. Burhan Bayraktaroglu Devices for Sensing Branch Aerospace Components & Subsystems...SUBTITLE TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Burhan...88ABW-2017-3747, Clearance Date 31 July 2017. Paper contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Transient electronics is an emerging technology area that lacks proper

  9. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Korneff, Theodore

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Electronics focuses on the study of electronics and electronic devices. Composed of 14 chapters, the book starts with discussions on dc circuits, including resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, galvanometer, internal resistance, and positive and negative currents. This topic is followed by discussions on ac circuits, particularly addressing voltage and current, average power, resistive load, complex plane, and parallel circuits. Discussions also focus on filters and tuned circuits, diodes, and power supplies. Particularly given attention are the processes, diagrams, and analyses

  10. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  11. Electron-beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriott, L.; Liddle, A.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a commemorative series of articles to mark the hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the electron, this article describes the use of electron beams to write features on silicon wafers. Recent advances in electron beam lithography, as it is known, could enable this technology to be used for the mass manufacture of silicon chips. The validation of space-charge optimization and evaluation of printing techniques is underway. (UK)

  12. Electron beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriott, L.; Liddle, A.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a commemorative series of articles to mark the hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the electron, this article describes the use of electron beams to write features on silicon wafers. Recent advances in electron beam lithography, as it is known, could enable this technology to be used for the mass manufacture of silicon chips. The validation of space-charge optimization and evaluation of printing techniques is underway. 5 figs

  13. Electron microscopy and diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoennes, J.; Olsen, A.

    1986-01-01

    This report is a description of research activities and plans at the electron microscopy laboratorium, Physics Department, University of Oslo. Since the first electron microscope was installed in 1968, the research has covered inorganic structures, physical metallurgy, as well as theory of electron scattering and the development of methods in this field. The current plans involve efforts in the development of crystallographic and spectroscopic methods

  14. The Electronic Notebook Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Chalk, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Science is rapidly being brought into the electronic realm and electronic laboratory notebooks (ELN) are a big part of this activity. The representation of the scientific process in the context of an ELN is an important component to making the data recorded in ELNs semantically integrated. This presentation will outline initial developments of an Electronic Notebook Ontology (ENO) that will help tie together the ExptML ontology, HCLS Community Profile data descriptions, and the VIVO-ISF ontol...

  15. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  16. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  17. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich

    1966-01-01

    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  18. The auroral electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.A.; Hall, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    A model of the auroral electron acceleration process is presented in which the electrons are accelerated resonantly by lower-hybrid waves. The essentially stochastic acceleration process is approximated for the purposes of computation by a deterministic model involving an empirically derived energy transfer function. The empirical function, which is consistent with all that is known of electron energization by lower-hybrid waves, allows many, possibly all, observed features of the electron distribution to be reproduced. It is suggested that the process occurs widely in both space and laboratory plasmas. (author)

  19. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  20. Two electron Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper addresses the study of two-electron Rydberg atoms. With Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT), there is a technique for characterizing a spectra in terms of a small number of parameters. A survey of some important effects specific to two-electon Rydberg states, using primarily the alkaline earth atoms for examples, is made. The remainder of the paper deals with a discussion of the electron-electron interaction, including some of the basic points of MQDT. Energy exchange between two electrons is also addressed

  1. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  2. Electronic signal conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    NEWBY, BRUCE

    1994-01-01

    At technician level, brief references to signal conditioning crop up in a fragmented way in various textbooks, but there has been no single textbook, until now!More advanced texts do exist but they are more mathematical and presuppose a higher level of understanding of electronics and statistics. Electronic Signal Conditioning is designed for HNC/D students and City & Guilds Electronics Servicing 2240 Parts 2 & 3. It will also be useful for BTEC National, Advanced GNVQ, A-level electronics and introductory courses at degree level.

  3. Electronics pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, E A

    1981-01-01

    Electronics Pocket Book, Fourth Edition is a nonmathematical presentation of the many varied topics covered by electronics. The book tackles electron physics, electronic components (i.e. resistors, capacitors, and conductors), integrated circuits, and the principles of a.c. and d.c. amplifiers. The text also discusses oscillators, digital circuits, digital computers, and optoelectronics (i.e., sensors, emitters, and devices that utilize light). Communications (such as line and radio communications, transmitters, receivers, and digital techniques); the principles and examples of servosystems; a

  4. Electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.M.

    1974-01-01

    Electron-beam equipment is considered along with fixed and mobile electron-beam guns, questions of weld environment, medium and nonvacuum welding, weld-joint designs, tooling, the economics of electron-beam job shops, aspects of safety, quality assurance, and repair. The application of the process in the case of individual materials is discussed, giving attention to aluminum, beryllium, copper, niobium, magnesium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, metal alloys, superalloys, and various types of steel. Mechanical-property test results are examined along with the areas of application of electron-beam welding

  5. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  6. Free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, J.M.; Billardon, M.

    1986-01-01

    Operation principle of a laser and an oscillator are recalled together with the klystron one. In the free electron laser, electrons go through an undulator or an optical klystron. Principles of the last one are given. The two distinct ways of producing coherent radiation with an undulator and an optical klystron are presented. The first one is the use of the free electron laser, the second is to make use of the spontaneous emission generation (harmonics generation). The different current types of free electron lasers are presented (Stanford, Los Alamos, Aco at Orsay). Prospects and applications are given in conclusion [fr

  7. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  8. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  9. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  10. Electrons in water radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverne, J.A.; Pimblott, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrated electron is the main reducing species produced in the radiolysis of water. Many studies have examined its reactivity using pulsed radiolysis techniques and competition kinetics. Data bases list hundreds of rate coefficients for reaction of the hydrated electron with substances ranging from inorganic ions like nitrate to biopolymers like DNA. Although the chemistry of the hydrated electron is often examined, its mechanism of formation and variation in yield are considerable less known, especially under extreme conditions such as in high temperature water or with heavy ion radiolysis. This work will examine various aspects of the radiation chemistry of the hydrated electron beginning with the generation of secondary electrons in primary energy loss events during the passage of ionizing radiation to the radiolytic yields of the hydrated electron produced by different types of radiation. Ion radiation is a 'white light source.' Energy losses range from the minimum excitation energy of the medium up to the kinematic maximum determined by the collision parameters. However, certain energy loss events are more probable than others. The dipole oscillator strength distributions of media essentially give the probability of energy loss events in collisions with no momentum transfer. Dipole oscillator distributions have been constructed from experimental data for a wide variety of materials including all the phases of water. Calculations using cross sections based on dipole oscillator distributions show that the most probable energy loss event in water is only about 20 eV with an average value closer to 60 eV. The preponderance of energy loss events of less than 100 eV means that many low energy electrons are formed by the passage of a single ion. Low energy electrons have short mean free paths and they remain in the vicinity of the primary energy loss events. The spatial distribution of these low energy electrons defines the radial track structure of the incident

  11. INDRA. Electronic Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganil Team.

    1993-01-01

    The INDRA multidetector electronics is described. The system is a set of 17 rings consisting of 96 ionization chambers and 180 silicon detectors plus 324 cesium iodide and 12 Phoswich scintillators. Their integrated electronic lines, the trigger modules, the control and data acquisition units are presented briefly. (R.P.) 6 figs

  12. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...

  13. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  14. Scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1970-05-15

    The JSM-11 scanning electron microscope at CRNL has been used extensively for topographical studies of oxidized metals, fracture surfaces, entomological and biological specimens. A non-dispersive X-ray attachment permits the microanalysis of the surface features. Techniques for the production of electron channeling patterns have been developed. (author)

  15. Electron scattering from tetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M C; Sanz, A G; García, G; Muñoz, A; Oller, J C; Blanco, F; Do, T P T; Brunger, M J; Almeida, D; Limão-Vieira, P

    2012-01-01

    Electron scattering from Tetrahydrofuran (C 4 H 8 O) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following a mixed experimental and theoretical approach, total scattering, elastic scattering and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  16. Paradoxes of unstable electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okun, L.B.; Zeldovich, Ya.B.

    1978-01-01

    The hypothesis that electron is unstable - when it is consistent with the vanishing mass of the photon- leads to a number of paradoxical statements. The lifetime of the electron is determined by emission of a huge number of longitudinal photons and exponentially depends on the amount of emitted energy. This suggests to discuss searches for charge nonconservation in experiments with high energy particles

  17. Electron scattering violates parity

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Parity violation has been observed in collisions between electrons at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US. The resuls, which are in agreement with the Stanford Model of particle physics, also provide a new measurement of the weak charge of the electron (½ page)

  18. Electronically Controlled Resistor Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Walter L.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance quickly varied in small steps over wide range. Device with no moving parts provides variable electrical resistance. Used with analog or digital circuity to provide electronic selection of large number of resistance values for testing, simulation, control, or other purposes. Nearest electromechanical equivalent of all-electronic device is potentiometer driven by servomotor.

  19. Voltmeter with Compton electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N R; Gorbics, S G; Weidenheimer, D M [Berkeley Research Associates, Springfield, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A technique to measure the electron end point energy of bremsstrahlung in the MV regime using only two detectors is described. One of the detector measures the total radiation, the other filters out all except the hardest photons by looking only at their Compton electrons, whose average energy is determined with a magnetic field. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs.

  20. Advances in Opto Electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Advances in Opto Electronics. Optoelectronics is where electronics was 15 years back. All Optical Amplifiers and Semiconductor Amplifiers. Fastest Semiconductor (InP) switch is at 170GHz- where is terrabit ? MEMS based switches that route traffic at wavelength level ...

  1. Electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbay, M.

    1972-01-01

    The bead characteristics and the possible mechanisms of the electron beam penetration are presented. The different welding techniques are exposed and the main parts of an electron beam welding equipment are described. Some applications to nuclear, spatial and other industries are cited [fr

  2. Electron beam simulation applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A system for simulating electron beam treatment portals using low-temperature melting point alloy is described. Special frames having the same physical dimensions as the electron beam applicators used on the Varian Clinac 20 linear accelerator were designed and constructed

  3. Radiative electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, J.A.; Appleton, B.R.; Datz, S.; Moak, C.D.; Neelavathi, V.N.; Noggle, T.S.; Ritchie, R.H.; VerBeek, H.

    1975-01-01

    Some data are presented for radiative electron capture by fast moving ions. The radiative electron capture spectrum is shown for O 8+ in Ag, along with the energy dependence of the capture cross-section. A discrepancy between earlier data, theoretical prediction, and the present data is pointed out. (3 figs) (U.S.)

  4. Electronics and Lithuanian Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Zajankauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the vacuum triode, transistor, monolithic circuit and microprocessor were the most important inventions of traditional electronics. Thus, the origins of the traditional electronics should be associated with the invention of the vacuum triode, but not with the invention of vacuum diode. It is shown that the science of electronics is not as young as computer science or up-to-date information technologies: electronics, including active electronics, had already celebrated the centenary, and the period of 2004–2008 is the period of numerous already solid jubilees. Thus, the terminology of electronics is not at initial stage of evolution as well – general terms should be already systematized and normalized. However, Lithuanian terms for electronic devices invented before tens of years and terms for old-defined notions associated with these devices are still varying, some are worsened. Especially, the incorrectly motivated terms used for variations of transistors and microcircuits are analyzed in the article. It is motivated which terms are preferable, systematic and exact. The paper is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of monolithic circuit, as well as the 60th anniversary of transistor, the 40th jubilee of microprocessor and centenary of electronics.

  5. Electron tunneling in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamaraev, K.I.; Khajrutdinov, R.F.; Zhdanov, V.P.; Molin, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations are outlined systematically on electron tunnelling in chemical reactions. Mechanism of electron transport to great distances is shown to be characteristic to chemical compounds of a wide range. The function of tunnel reactions is discussed for various fields of chemistry, including radiation chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry of solids, chemistry of surface and catalysis

  6. Managing electronic records

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Julie

    2005-01-01

    For records management courses, this book covers the theory and practice of managing electronic records as business and information assets. It focuses on the strategies, systems and procedures necessary to ensure that electronic records are appropriately created, captured, organized and retained over time to meet business and legal requirements.

  7. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEN-ZVI, I.; AHRENS, L.; BRENNAN, M.; HARRISON, M.; KEWISCH, J.; MACKAY, W.; PEGGS, S.; ROSER, T.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; YAKIMENKO, V.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce plans for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This project has a number of new features as electron coolers go: It will cool 100 GeV/nucleon ions with 50 MeV electrons; it will be the first attempt to cool a collider at storage-energy; and it will be the first cooler to use a bunched beam and a linear accelerator as the electron source. The linac will be superconducting with energy recovery. The electron source will be based on a photocathode gun. The project is carried out by the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics

  8. Electron - proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiik, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    Electron-proton storage rings allow us to study the interaction between the two basic constituents of matter, electrons and quarks at very short distances. Such machines were first discussed in connection with the ISR but the idea was abandoned because of the anticipated low counting rate. The interest in electron-proton storage rings was rekindeled by the discovery of large pointlike cross sections in lepton-hardon interactions and several/sup 2-15/ projects have been discussed during the past decade. However, despite a glorious past, which includes the discovery of quarks and neutral currents, and a multitude of proposals no electron-proton storage ring has ever been built. What we might learn by studying electron-proton collisions at high energies is discussed. After some brief comments on present proposals the proposed DESY ep project HERA is described as an example of how to realize such a machine

  9. Electron: Cluster interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidemann, A.A.; Knight, W.D.

    1994-02-01

    Beam depletion spectroscopy has been used to measure absolute total inelastic electron-sodium cluster collision cross sections in the energy range from E ∼ 0.1 to E ∼ 6 eV. The investigation focused on the closed shell clusters Na 8 , Na 20 , Na 40 . The measured cross sections show an increase for the lowest collision energies where electron attachment is the primary scattering channel. The electron attachment cross section can be understood in terms of Langevin scattering, connecting this measurement with the polarizability of the cluster. For energies above the dissociation energy the measured electron-cluster cross section is energy independent, thus defining an electron-cluster interaction range. This interaction range increases with the cluster size

  10. Practical electronics for inventors

    CERN Document Server

    Scherz, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Spark your creativity and gain the electronics skills required to transform your innovative ideas into functioning gadgets. This hands-on, updated guide outlines electrical principles and provides thorough, easy-to-follow instructions, schematics, and illustrations. Findout how to select components, safely assemble circuits, perform error tests, and build plug-and-play prototypes. Practical Electronics for Inventors, Third Edition, features all-new chapters on sensors, microcontrollers, modular electronics, and the latest software tools. Coverage includes: Resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transformers Diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits Optoelectronics, solar cells, and phototransistors Sensors, GPS modules, and touch screens Op amps, regulators, and power supplies Digital electronics, LCD displays, and logic gates Microcontrollers and prototyping platforms, including Arduino DC motors, RC servos, and stepper motors Microphones, audio amps, and speakers Modular electronics and prototyping.

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-1316 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1316 ref|NP_057167.2| cannabinoid receptor 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001013035.1| cann...abinoid receptor 1 [Pan troglodytes] ref|NP_001027997.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Mac...aca mulatta] ref|NP_001153698.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001153730.1| cannabi...noid receptor 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001153731.1| cannabinoid receptor... 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001153732.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] sp|P21554|CN

  12. Database Description - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 Database Description General information of database Database name FANTOM5 Alternati...me: Rattus norvegicus Taxonomy ID: 10116 Taxonomy Name: Macaca mulatta Taxonomy ID: 9544 Database descriptio...l Links: Original website information Database maintenance site RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, ...ilable Web services Not available URL of Web services - Need for user registration Not available About This Database Database... Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  13. Processing of pro-opiomelanocortin-derived amidated joining peptide and glycine-extended precursor in monkey pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1991-01-01

    The molecular forms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derived amidated and C-terminal glycine-extended joining peptide from monkey (Macaca mulatta) pituitary were determined. The predominant forms of joining peptide found were the low molecular peptides POMC(76-105) and POMC(76-106), respectively...... sequence of monkey and human POMC extremely conserved, but also the processing patterns are similar. The monkey therefore serves as a suitable model for studying regulation of the processing of POMC and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in man....

  14. Emesis in monkeys following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, G.R.; Young, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    There were 129 male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exposed to prompt radiations (neutron/gamma = 0.4 and pulse width = 50 ms) ranging from 700 to 5600 rad (midhead dose). The animals were fasted 18 h preexposure and observed for incidence of vomiting for 2 h postexposure. For doses less than 1000 rads, the number of animals that vomited increased directly with dose. Above 1000 rads, the number of animals that vomited decreased with increasing dose. The total number of vomits per dose group followed a nearly identical pattern to the incidence of emesis. In all dose groups, most of the emetic episodes occurred between 20 and 50 min postirradiation

  15. Functional analysis of frequently expressed Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules Mamu-A1*02601 and Mamu-B*08301 reveals HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 supertypic specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southwood, Scott; Solomon, Christopher; Hoof, Ilka

    2011-01-01

    The Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection and AIDS-related research, despite the potential that macaques of Chinese origin is a more relevant model. Ongoing efforts to further characterize the Chinese...... populations. In this study, we have characterized two additional alleles expressed with high frequency in Chinese rhesus macaques, Mamu-A1*02601 and Mamu-B*08301. Upon the development of MHC–peptide-binding assays and definition of their associated motifs, we reveal that these Mamu alleles share peptide...

  16. The most common Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecule shares peptide binding repertoire with the HLA-B7 supertype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, C.; Southwood, S.; Hoof, Ilka

    2010-01-01

    Of the two rhesus macaque subspecies used for AIDS studies, the Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection, providing both insight into pathogenesis and a system for testing novel vaccines. Despite the Chinese rhesus.......3%) of the sequences identified were novel. From all MHC alleles detected, we prioritized Mamu-A1*02201 for functional characterization based on its higher frequency of expression. Upon the development of MHC/peptide binding assays and definition of its associated motif, we revealed that this allele shares peptide...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1589 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1589 ref|NP_057307.2| protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons... 3 [Homo sapiens] ref|XP_001110379.1| PREDICTED: similar to protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons...asein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001166571.1...| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 1 [Pan troglodytes] ref|XP_00...1166605.1| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Pan troglodytes

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0155 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0155 ref|NP_057307.2| protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons... 3 [Homo sapiens] ref|XP_001110379.1| PREDICTED: similar to protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons...asein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001166571.1...| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 1 [Pan troglodytes] ref|XP_00...1166605.1| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Pan troglodytes

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0587 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0587 ref|NP_057307.2| protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons... 3 [Homo sapiens] ref|XP_001110379.1| PREDICTED: similar to protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons...asein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001166571.1...| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 1 [Pan troglodytes] ref|XP_00...1166605.1| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Pan troglodytes

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1696 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1696 ref|NP_057307.2| protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons... 3 [Homo sapiens] ref|XP_001110379.1| PREDICTED: similar to protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons...asein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001166571.1...| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 1 [Pan troglodytes] ref|XP_00...1166605.1| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Pan troglodytes

  1. Nervus terminalis, olfactory nerve, and optic nerve representation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, J W

    1987-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) system was examined immunocytochemically in olfactory bulbs of adult monkeys, including two New World species (squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus and owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus) and one Old World species (cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fasciculata), and in the brain and nasal region of a fetal rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta. LHRH neurons and fibers were found sparsely distributed in the olfactory bulbs in all adult monkeys. There was more LHRH in the accessory olfactory bulb (which is absent in Old World monkeys). In the fetal macaque there was a rich distribution of LHRH neurons and fibers along the pathway of the nervus terminalis, anterior and ventral to the olfactory bulb, and in the nasal septum, with fibers branching into the olfactory epithelium. In addition, there were LHRH neurons and fibers in the optic nerve.

  2. Electronically cloaked nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenqing

    The concept of electronic cloaking is to design objects invisible to conduction electrons. The approach of electronic cloaking has been recently suggested to design invisible nanoparticle dopants with electronic scattering cross section smaller than 1% of the physical cross section (pi a2), and therefore to enhance the carrier mobility of bulk materials. The proposed nanoparticles have core-shell structures. The dopants are incorporated inside the core, while the shell layer serves both as a spacer to separate the charge carriers from their parent atoms and as a cloaking shell to minimize the scattering cross section of the electrons from the ionized nanoparticles. Thermoelectric materials are usually highly doped to have enough carrier density. Using invisible dopants could achieve larger thermoelectric power factors by enhancing the electronic mobility. Core-shell nanoparticles show an advantage over one-layer nanoparticles, which are proposed in three-dimensional modulation doping. However designing such nanoparticles is not easy as there are too many parameters to be considered. This thesis first shows an approach to design hollow nanoparticles by applying constrains on variables. In the second part, a simple mapping approach is introduced where one can identify possible core-shell particles by comparing the dimensionless parameters of chosen materials with provided maps. In both parts of this work, several designs with realistic materials were made and proven to achieve electronic cloaking. Improvement in the thermoelectric power factor compared to the traditional impurity doping method was demonstrated in several cases.

  3. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  4. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  5. Dose calculation for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    The joint working group of ICRP/ICRU is advancing the works of reviewing the ICRP publication 51 by investigating the data related to radiation protection. In order to introduce the 1990 recommendation, it has been demanded to carry out calculation for neutrons, photons and electrons. As for electrons, EURADOS WG4 (Numerical Dosimetry) rearranged the data to be calculated at the meeting held in PTB Braunschweig in June, 1992, and the question and request were presented by Dr. J.L. Chartier, the responsible person, to the researchers who are likely to undertake electron transport Monte Carlo calculation. The author also has carried out the requested calculation as it was the good chance to do the mutual comparison among various computation codes regarding electron transport calculation. The content that the WG requested to calculate was the absorbed dose at depth d mm when parallel electron beam enters at angle α into flat plate phantoms of PMMA, water and ICRU4-element tissue, which were placed in vacuum. The calculation was carried out by the versatile electron-photon shower computation Monte Carlo code, EGS4. As the results, depth dose curves and the dependence of absorbed dose on electron energy, incident angle and material are reported. The subjects to be investigated are pointed out. (K.I.)

  6. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepost, R.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented

  7. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  8. Electron collisions with biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoy, V; Winstead, C

    2008-01-01

    We report on results of recent studies of collisions of low-energy electrons with nucleobases and other DNA constituents. A particular focus of these studies has been the identification and characterization of resonances that play a role in electron attachment leading to strand breaks in DNA. Comparison of the calculated resonance positions with results of electron transmission measurements is quite encouraging. However, the higher-lying π* resonances of the nucleobases appear to be of mixed elastic and core-excited character. Such resonant channel coupling raises the interesting possibility that the higher π*resonances in the nucleobases may promote dissociation of DNA by providing doorway states to triplet excited states.

  9. Field emission electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to field emission electronics, a promising field at the interface between “classic” vacuum electronics and nanotechnology. In addition to theoretical models, it includes detailed descriptions of experimental and research techniques and production technologies for different types of field emitters based on various construction principles. It particularly focuses on research into and production of field cathodes and electron guns using recently developed nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes. Further, it discusses the applications of field emission cathodes in new technologies such as light sources, flat screens, microwave and X-ray devices.

  10. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  11. Power Electronics for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid (MG) is a stand-alone or grid-connected hybrid renewable system that uses distributed renewable and nonrenewable energy sources and energy storage systems (ESSs) to supply power to local loads. The system is ordinarily based on power electronics, with interface converters allowing...... a continuous supply of power in the presence of variable RES production. This chapter describes some specific features of DC MGs in terms of power architecture, control, and protection. It also reviews several uncommon power electronic interfaces. Regarding control, operation without critical communication...... are explained in this chapter. The chapter concludes with a review of power electronic intensive protection solutions for DC MGs....

  12. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  13. BEPCII electronic logbook system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shu; Zhao Jijiu; Wang Chunhong

    2007-01-01

    According to demands of BEPCII construction and future operation, we are going to supply an open electronic logbook platform for people to record their message in developing and running BEPCII, and browse the log-book on website. That gives people an open and transparent logbook, rather than traditional paper notebook. With the template of DESY's Elogbook, the BEPCII electronic logbook was developed, using the popular JSP technology to develop dynamic Web applications. This paper will introduce the development of BEPCII electronic logbook system. (authors)

  14. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  15. A simple electron multiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L; Akjouj, A; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Al-Wahsh, H; Zielinski, P

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple multiplexing device made of two atomic chains coupled by two other transition metal atoms. We show that this simple atomic device can transfer electrons at a given energy from one wire to the other, leaving all other electron states unaffected. Closed-form relations between the transmission coefficients and the inter-atomic distances are given to optimize the desired directional electron ejection. Such devices can be adsorbed on insulating substrates and characterized by current surface technologies. (letter to the editor)

  16. Electron paramagnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Al'tshuler, S A

    2013-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is a comprehensive text on the field of electron paramagnetic resonance, covering both the theoretical background and the results of experiment. This book is composed of eight chapters that cover theoretical materials and experimental data on ionic crystals, since these are the materials that have been most extensively studied by the methods of paramagnetic resonance. The opening chapters provide an introduction to the basic principles of electron paramagnetic resonance and the methods of its measurement. The next chapters are devoted to the theory of spectra an

  17. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  18. Auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalaraman, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    General features of electron excited Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) which is a nondestructive technique for the analysis of surfaces upto about 15 Adeg depth with a detection limit of about 0.1% of a monolayer. Methods of measuring the Auger electron energies and recent improvements in the instrumentation are reviewed. Typical energy resolution is found to be about 0.5% which is specially suited for the detection of light elements. It is widely used in metallurgy, surface chemistry and thin film studies. (K.B.)

  19. Modern dictionary of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1999-01-01

    Included in this fully revised classic are well over 28,000 terms, phrases, acronyms, and abbreviations from the ever-expanding worlds of consumer electronics, optics, microelectronics, computers, communications, and medical electronics. From the basic elements of theory to the most cutting-edge circuit technology, this book explains it all in both words and pictures.For easy reference, the author has provided definitions for standard abbreviations and equations as well as tables of SI (International System of Units) units, measurements, and schematic symbolsModern Dictionary of Electronics is

  20. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 4 reviews trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the silicon-on-insulator for VLSI and VHSIC, X-ray lithography, and transient response of electron transport in GaAs using the Monte Carlo method. The technology and manufacturing of high-density magnetic-bubble memories, metallic superlattices, challenge of education for VLSI, and impact of VLSI on medical signal processing are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the impact of VLSI t

  1. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  2. Consulting in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Loredana Tache

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of electronic services provide advice and many agents of existingreferral systems to recommend and provide products, information and customized views of thecommunity through a personalized interaction in real time. Distributed systems of autonomous agentsare becoming increasingly important in electronic comet because the basic decisions of agents adviceon trust and reputation are taken in a similar way human society. If these decisions will be as a realconsumer protection, when new aspects of online consumer legislation will become usefulinformation in advice and consulting of electronic commerce.

  3. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  4. The art of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Paul

    2015-01-01

    At long last, here is the thoroughly revised and updated third edition of the hugely successful Art of Electronics. It is widely accepted as the best single authoritative book on electronic circuit design. In addition to new or enhanced coverage of many topics, the Third Edition includes: 90 oscilloscope screenshots illustrating the behavior of working circuits; dozens of graphs giving highly useful measured data of the sort that's often buried or omitted in datasheets but which you need when designing circuits; 80 tables (listing some 1650 active components), enabling intelligent choice of circuit components by listing essential characteristics (both specified and measured) of available parts. The new Art of Electronics ​​retains the feeling of informality and easy access that helped make the earlier editions so successful and popular. It is an indispensable reference and the gold standard​​ for anyone, student or researcher, professional or amateur, who works with electronic circuits.

  5. Electron and Photon ID

    CERN Document Server

    Hryn'ova, Tetiana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background coming mostly from photons from hadron decays relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification used in ATLAS for run 2 is based on a likelihood discrimination to separate isolated electron candidates from candidates originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavor decays. In addition, isolation variables are used as further handles to separate signal and background. Several methods are used to measure with data the efficiency of the photon identification requirements, to cover a broad energy spectrum. At low energy, photons from radiative Z decays are used. In the medium energy range, similarities between electrons and photon showers are exploited using Z->ee decays. At high energy, inclusive photon samples are used. The measurement of the efficiencies of the electron identification and isolation cuts are performed with the data using tag and probe techniques with large statis...

  6. Channel electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, A.; Avrahami, Z.; Sheinfux, B.; Grinberg, J.

    1976-01-01

    A channel electron multiplier is described having a tubular wall coated with a secondary-electron emitting material and including an electric field for accelerating the electrons, the electric field comprising a plurality of low-resistive conductive rings each alternating with a high-resistive insulating ring. The thickness of the low-resistive rings is many times larger than that of the high-resistive rings, being in the order of tens of microns for the low-resistive rings and at least one order of magnitude lower for the high-resistive rings; and the diameter of the channel tubular walls is also many times larger than the thickness of the high-resistive rings. Both single-channel and multiple-channel electron multipliers are described. A very important advantage, particularly in making multiple-channel multipliers, is the simplicity of the procedure that may be used in constructing such multipliers. Other operational advantages are described

  7. Typewriting by Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etier, Faborn

    1971-01-01

    By using the electronic typewriting teaching aid, it is believed by those closely associated with its use in teaching typing that as much can be accomplished in one semester as in two semesters using the conventional method of teaching. (Editor)

  8. Electron identification at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shinhong

    1990-01-01

    Electron identification at CDF is performed using the information of lateral and longitudinal shower spread, the track-cluster position match and the energy-momentum match. The tracking chamber with a solenoidal magnetic field at CDF is powerful for rejecting the backgrounds such as the π ± - π 0 overlaps, the π 0 /γ conversions and interactive π ± in electromagnetic calorimeter: The energy- momentum match cut can decrease the background due to the π ± - π 0 overlaps for non-isolated electrons with Et above 10 GeV by a factor of 20. The conversion electrons are identified using track information with an efficiency of 80 ± 3%. The charge of electrons from W decay can be determined in the pseudorapidity range of |η| < 1.7 at CDF. The charge determination is useful for background estimation of Drell-Yan physics and heavy flavor physics. 5 refs., 5 figs

  9. The electron accelerator Ridgetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashizaki, N.; Hattori, T.; Odera, M.; Fujisawa, T.

    1999-01-01

    Many electron accelerators of DC or RF type have been widely used for electron beam irradiation (curing, crosslinking of polymers, sterilization of medical disposables, preservation of food, etc.). Regardless of the acceleration energy, the accelerators to be installed in industrial facilities, have to satisfy the requires of compact size, low power consumption and stable operation. The DC accelerator is realized very compact in the energy under 300 keV, however, it is large to prevent the discharge of an acceleration column in the energy over 300 keV. The RF electron accelerator Ridgetron has been developed to accelerate the continuous beam of the 0.5-10 MeV range in compact space. It is the first example as an electron accelerator incorporated a ridged RF cavity. A prototype system of final energy of 2.5 MeV has been studied to confirm the feasibility at present

  10. Advanced Electron Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R.

    2005-02-14

    The research into advanced acceleration concepts for electron linear accelerators being pursued at SLAC is reviewed. This research includes experiments in laser acceleration, plasma wakefield acceleration, and mmwavelength RF driven accelerators.

  11. Electronic Universal Vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian USCATU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the days of informational society everything is going online. Most aspects of our lives have online components. Since democracy is a big issue, it could not escape this trend. Governments themselves are moving to the online environment for the purpose of improving their internal efficiency and their availability to the citizens, businesses and other parties interested. Since governments are the result of elections, elections have also been touched by the electronic fever. New electronic voting solutions arise and each one brings new debates with many arguments in their favor and against them. Accessibility and ease of use leads the arguments in favor of electronic voting over the internet, while fear of fraud is the main reason people are avoiding electronics and clinging on classic paper ballots.

  12. ORELA electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, O.W.; Lewis, T.A.

    1981-09-01

    The most recent information concerning the production and performance of ORELA electron guns is presented. Included are descriptions of procedures for gun fabrication, cathode conditioning and high voltage processing. Highlights of the performance characteristics are also included

  13. Corrosion in Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Gudla, Helene Virginie Conseil; Verdingovas, Vadimas

    2017-01-01

    Electronic control units, power modules, and consumer electronics are used today in a wide variety of varying climatic conditions. Varying external climatic conditions of temperature and humidity can cause an uncontrolled local climate inside the device enclosure. Uncontrolled humidity together...... and high density packing combined with the use of several materials, which can undergo electrochemical corrosion in the presence of water film formed due to humidity exposure and bias conditions on the PCBA surface. This article provides a short review of the corrosion reliability issues of electronics due...... to the use of electronics under varying humidity conditions. Important PCBA aspects, which are fundamental to the corrosion cell formation under humid conditions, are discussed. Effect of hygroscopic residues from the process and service and their role in assisting water film build up and corrosion...

  14. Paper based electronics platform

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna Mohammad; Sevilla, Galo Andres Torres; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A flexible and non-functionalized low cost paper-based electronic system platform fabricated from common paper, such as paper based sensors, and methods of producing paper based sensors, and methods of sensing using the paper based sensors

  15. Electronic personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.O.; Bartlett, D.T.; Burgess, P.H.; Cranston, C.S.; Higginbottom, D.J.; Sutton, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Personal dosimetry services approved by their national authorities for category A workers, invariably use passive dosemeters incorporating photographic film or thermoluminescent detectors. However, the performance characteristics of electronic dosemeters has improved substantially over the past decade to such an extent that in the opening lecture of the Solid State Dosimetry Conference at Oxford in 1986 the development of an electronic 'smart card' based on a silicon detector was briefly discussed. This idea has been taken up and at least one development programme is in progress aimed at the production of an electronic dosemeter suitable for use as a legal device. The more important performance requirements of personal dosemeters for this purpose are discussed and the earlier electronic dosemeter designs and the latest devices under development to meet this specification are compared. (author)

  16. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  17. Issues in Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadow, Charles T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses issues related to electronic publishing. Topics include writing; reading; production, distribution, and commerce; copyright and ownership of intellectual property; archival storage; technical obsolescence; control of content; equality of access; and cultural changes. (Author/LRW)

  18. Modular Lego-Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    . Here, a generic manufacturable method of converting state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based ICs into modular Lego-electronics is shown with unique geometry that is physically identifiable to ease manufacturing and enhance

  19. Electron linac injector developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    There is a continuing demand for improved injectors for electron linacs. Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators require pulse trains of high brightness and, in some applications, high average power at the same time. Wakefield-accelerator and laser-acceleration experiments require isolated bunches of high peak brightness. Experiments with alkali-halide photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for injector applications are described. For isolated pulses, metal photocathodes (illuminated by intense laser pulses) are being employed. Reduced emittance growth in high-peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by linearizing the cavity electric field's radial component and by using high field strengths at the expense of lower shunt impedance. Harmonically excited cavities have been proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance of linac cavities and thereby reducing the energy spread produced in the acceleration process. Operation of injector linacs at a subharmonic of the main linac frequency is also proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance

  20. Electronics for guitarists

    CERN Document Server

    Dailey, Denton J

    2014-01-01

    Electronics for Guitarists focuses on analog circuitry, and is written for the guitarist interested in transistor and vacuum tube-based amplifiers. Topics include discrete transistors and diodes, classical filter circuits, and vacuum tube-based amplifiers.