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Sample records for macaca fascicularis skull

  1. Osseointegration of dental implants in Macaca fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, R. S.; Odang, R. W.; Odelia, L.

    2017-08-01

    Osseointegration is an important factor in determining the success of a dental implant. It can be assessed from the osseointegration that occurs between the implant and the bone. The implant stability is determined by the osseous support at the implant-bone interface, which is commonly evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether the osseointegration level measured by a Low Resonance Frequency Analyzer (LRFA) gave results as good as those obtained by histomorphometric examination. Six male Macaca fascicularis were used in this study. In each animal, two types of loading were performed: immediate and delayed loading. Clinical examination and LRFA measurement were performed to determine osseointegration at the first and second weeks and at the first, second, third, and fourth months. After four months, histomorphometric examination was performed. The relationship between the histomorphometric examination and LRFA measurement was compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient. There was no significant difference in the osseointegration between immediate loading and delayed loading (p > 0.05) The bone-implant contact percentage in the first group did not differ significantly from that in the second group. Statistical analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between LRFA measurement and histomorphometric examination. Osseointegration could be evaluated through LRFA measurement as well as through histomorphometric examination.

  2. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Macaca fascicularis by EST Analysis

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    Hao Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which repress gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. In this study, an expressed sequence tag (EST-based combined method was applied for the detection of miRNAs in Macaca fascicularis which is used as a model animal extensively in medical experiments, particularly those involved with neuroscience and disease. Initially, previously known miRNA sequences from metazoans were used to blast with the EST databases of Macaca fascicularis, and then a range of filtering criteria was conducted to remove some pseudo ones. At last a total of 8 novel conserved miRNAs were identified; their functions were further predicted and analyzed. Together, our study provides insight into miRNAs and their functions in Macaca fascicularis, indicating that the EST analysis is an efficient and affordable alternative approach for identifying novel miRNA candidates.

  3. Construction and Validation of a Systematic Ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a Free Enclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Xu; Liang Xie; Xin Li; Qi Li; Tao Wang; Yongjia Ji; Fei Kong; Qunlin Zhan; Ke Cheng; Liang Fang; Peng Xie

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of th...

  4. Evaluation of Infrared Thermometry in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffins, Michael M; Mellal, Nacera; Almlie, Cynthia L; Regalia, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Recording an accurate body temperature is important to assess an animal's health status. We compared temperature data from sedated cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to evaluate differences between rectal, infrared (inguinal and chest), and implanted telemetry techniques with the objective of demonstrating the diagnostic equivalence of the infrared device with other approaches. Infrared thermometer readings are instantaneous and require no contact with the animal. Body temperature data were obtained from 205 (137 male, 68 female) cynomolgus macaques under ketamine (10 mg/kg IM) sedation over a 3-mo period during scheduled physical examinations. Infrared measurements were taken 5 cm from the chest and inguinal areas. We evaluated 10 (9 functional devices) sedated cynomolgus macaques (5 male, 5 female) implanted with telemetry units in a muscular pouch between the internal and external abdominal oblique muscles. We determined that the mean body temperature acquired by using telemetry did not differ from either the mean of inguinal and chest infrared measurements but did differ from the mean of temperature obtained rectally. In addition, the mean rectal temperature differed from the mean of the inguinal reading but not the mean of the chest temperature. The results confirm our hypothesis that the infrared thermometer can be used to replace standard rectal thermometry. PMID:28905720

  5. Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) immunoglobulin heavy chain locus description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo-Yun; Mate, Suzanne; Garcia, Karla; Ward, Michael D; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hall, Matthew; Kenny, Tara; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have become an important animal model for biomedical research. In particular, it is the animal model of choice for the development of vaccine candidates associated with emerging dangerous pathogens. Despite their increasing importance as animal models, the cynomolgus macaque genome is not fully characterized, hindering molecular studies for this model. More importantly, the lack of knowledge about the immunoglobulin (IG) locus organization directly impacts the analysis of the humoral response in cynomolgus macaques. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to analyze IG repertoires open the opportunity to deeply characterize the humoral immune response. However, the IG locus organization for the animal is required to completely dissect IG repertoires. Here, we describe the localization and organization of the rearranging IG heavy (IGH) genes on chromosome 7 of the cynomolgus macaque draft genome. Our annotation comprises 108 functional genes which include 63 variable (IGHV), 38 diversity (IGHD), and 7 joining (IGHJ) genes. For validation, we provide RNA transcript data for most of the IGHV genes and all of the annotated IGHJ genes, as well as proteomic data to validate IGH constant genes. The description and annotation of the rearranging IGH genes for the cynomolgus macaques will significantly facilitate scientific research. This is particularly relevant to dissect the immune response during vaccination or infection with dangerous pathogens such as Ebola, Marburg and other emerging pathogens where non-human primate models play a significant role for countermeasure development.

  6. Construction and validation of a systematic ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Xie, Liang; Li, Xin; Li, Qi; Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations.

  7. Construction and validation of a systematic ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure.

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    Fan Xu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations.

  8. Experimental and postexperimental effects of posteriorly directed extraoral traction in adult Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, H C; Shapiro, P A; Kokich, V G

    1979-03-01

    The experimental, postexperimental, and postretention effects of continuous high-pull headgear force application to the maxilla were evaluated in four adult, nongrowing Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Force was applied at 450 grams per side to face-bows attached to cast maxillary splints with an implanted occipital plug for anchorage. The active experimental phase lasted from 84 days to 205 days, and its effects were documented histologically, cephalometrically, and with dry skull preparations. Postexperimental, retention, and postretention responses were documented cephalometrically. The findings of the present investigation lead to the following conclusions: 1. The termination active sutural growth is of little significance to the remodeling potential of the sutural articulations and the morphologic adaptability of the facial skeletal complex. 2. The length of time necessary for resorptive remodeling of the sutural bony projections is partially responsible for the slower rate of detectable skeletal movement in adult animals. 3. The sutural ligament in adult animals is initially less responsive to the effects of extraoral force application, possibly because of a diminished level of cellular activity at older ages. 4. Increases in age do not appear to affect the osteogenic potential of the periosteal envelope. 5. Retention aids in establishing a maintainable equilibrium following experimentally induced sutural and skeletal remodeling, but it is of little importance in maintaining the altered position of the denition. 6. The amount of postexperimental skeletal reorientation following force application to the maxilla may be related to the force level and the duration of force.

  9. Jaw-muscle architecture and mandibular morphology influence relative maximum jaw gapes in the sexually dimorphic Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Claire E; Hylander, William L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-05-01

    Maximum jaw gape is a performance variable related to feeding and non-feeding oral behaviors, such as canine gape displays, and is influenced by several factors including jaw-muscle fiber architecture, muscle position on the skull, and jaw morphology. Maximum gape, jaw length, and canine height are strongly correlated across catarrhine primates, but relationships between gape and other aspects of masticatory apparatus morphology are less clear. We examine the effects of jaw-adductor fiber architecture, jaw-muscle leverage, and jaw form on gape in an intraspecific sample of sexually dimorphic crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis). As M. fascicularis males have relatively larger maximum gapes than females, we predict that males will have muscle and jaw morphologies that facilitate large gape, but these morphologies may come at some expense to bite force. Male crab-eating macaques have relatively longer jaw-muscle fibers, masseters with decreased leverage, and temporomandibular joint morphologies that facilitate the production of wide gapes. Because relative canine height is correlated with maximum gape in catarrhines, and males have relatively longer canines than females, these results support the hypothesis that male M. fascicularis have experienced selection to increase maximum gape. The sexes do not differ in relative masseter physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA), but males compensate for a potential trade-off between muscle excursion versus muscle force with increased temporalis weight and PCSA. This musculoskeletal configuration is likely functionally significant for behaviors involving aggressive canine biting and displays in male M. fascicularis and provides additional evidence supporting the multifactorial nature of the catarrhine masticatory apparatus. Our results have implications for the evolution of craniofacial morphology in catarrhine primates and reinforce the importance of evaluating additional factors other than feeding behavior and diet

  10. STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COCHLEAR NUCLEI OF MONKEY (MACACA FASCICULARIS AFTER DEAFFERENTATION

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    Ana M Insausti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cochlear nuclei (CN in the brainstem receive the input signals from the inner ear through the cochlear nerve, and transmit these signals to higher auditory centres. A variety of lesions of the cochlear nerve cause deafness. As reported in the literature, artificial removal of auditive input, or 'deafferentation', induces structural alterations in the CN. The purpose of this study was to estimate a number of relevant stereological parameters of the CN in control and deafferented Macaca fascicularis monkeys.

  11. Probing around implants and teeth with healthy or inflamed peri-implant mucosa/gingival. A histologic comparison in cynomolgus monkeys. (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Stoltze, K.

    2002-01-01

    Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis......Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis...

  12. High resolution karyotype of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

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    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method very well suited to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB-applying probes derived from Homo sapiens were used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result highlights that morphological differences within the Cercopithecoidea must be found rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  13. High resolution karyotype of thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

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    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH-banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method suited very well to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB applying probes derived from Homo sapiens was used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result pinpoints, that morphological differences within the Ceropithecoidae must be founded rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  14. Large-scale analysis of Macaca fascicularis transcripts and inference of genetic divergence between M. fascicularis and M. mulatta

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    Sugano Sumio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis are widely used as experimental animals in biomedical research and are closely related to other laboratory macaques, such as rhesus macaques (M. mulatta. We isolated 85,721 clones and determined 9407 full-insert sequences from cynomolgus monkey brain, testis, and liver. These sequences were annotated based on homology to human genes and stored in a database, QFbase http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. Results We found that 1024 transcripts did not represent any public human cDNA sequence and examined their expression using M. fascicularis oligonucleotide microarrays. Significant expression was detected for 544 (51% of the unidentified transcripts. Moreover, we identified 226 genes containing exon alterations in the untranslated regions of the macaque transcripts, despite the highly conserved structure of the coding regions. Considering the polymorphism in the common ancestor of cynomolgus and rhesus macaques and the rate of PCR errors, the divergence time between the two species was estimated to be around 0.9 million years ago. Conclusion Transcript data from Old World monkeys provide a means not only to determine the evolutionary difference between human and non-human primates but also to unveil hidden transcripts in the human genome. Increasing the genomic resources and information of macaque monkeys will greatly contribute to the development of evolutionary biology and biomedical sciences.

  15. AKTIVITAS HARIAN KERA EKOR PANJANG (Macaca fascicularis DI TAMAN WISATA ALAM SANGEH, KABUPATEN BADUNG, BALI

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    Komang Gede Wahyu Saputra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang aktivitas harian kera ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis telah dilakukan di Taman Wisata Alam Sangeh, Kabupaten Badung, Bali dari bulan Oktober – Desember 2012. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perilaku harian kera ekor panjang (M.  fascicularis di Taman Wisata Alam Sangeh. Penelitian perilaku harian kera dilakukan dengan metode Focal Animal Sampling. Data yang terkumpul dari berbagai jenis perilaku di analisa secara deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa frekuensi aktivitas harian kera ekor panjang didominasi oleh perilaku bergerak, kemudian berturut-turut diikuti oleh perilaku istirahat, makan, grooming, mendekap di dada, objek manipulasi, cuddling, agresif. sedangkan perilaku yang paling jarang dilakukan adalah kawin. Berdasarkan jenis kelamin individu dewasa, perilaku istirahat, makan, bergerak, agresif, objek manipulasi dan kawin didominasi oleh jantan sedangkan perilaku mendekap di dada, cuddling, dan grooming di dominasi oleh betina.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA and two Y-chromosome genes of common long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) throughout Thailand and vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunlungsup, Srichan; Imai, Hiroo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Matsudaira, Kazunari; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2017-02-01

    Macaca fascicularis fascicularis is distributed over a wide area of Southeast Asia. Thailand is located at the center of their distribution range and is the bridge connecting the two biogeographic regions of Indochina and Sunda. However, only a few genetic studies have explored the macaques in this region. To shed some light on the evolutionary history of M. f. fascicularis, including hybridization with M. mulatta, M. f. fascicularis and M. mulatta samples of known origins throughout Thailand and the vicinity were analyzed by molecular phylogenetics using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including the hypervariable region 1, and Y-chromosomal DNA, including SRY and TSPY genes. The mtDNA phylogenetic analysis divided M. f. fascicularis into five subclades (Insular Indonesia, Sundaic Thai Gulf, Vietnam, Sundaic Andaman sea coast, and Indochina) and revealed genetic differentiation between the two sides of the Thai peninsula, which had previously been reported as a single group of Malay peninsular macaques. From the estimated divergence time of the Sundaic Andaman sea coast subclade, it is proposed that after M. f. fascicularis dispersed throughout Southeast Asia, some populations on the south-easternmost Indochina (eastern Thailand, southern Cambodia and southern Vietnam at the present time) migrated south-westwards across the land bridge, which was exposed during the glacial period of the late Pleistocene epoch, to the southernmost Thailand/northern peninsular Malaysia. Then, some of them migrated north and south to colonize the Thai Andaman sea coast and northern Sumatra, respectively. The SRY-TSPY phylogenetic analysis suggested that male-mediated gene flow from M. mulatta southward to M. f. fascicularis was restricted south of, but close to, the Isthmus of Kra. There was a strong impact of the geographical factors in Thailand, such as the Isthmus of Kra, Nakhon Si Thammarat, and Phuket ranges and Sundaland, on M. f. fascicularis biogeography and their hybridization

  17. Biologic data of Macaca mulatta, Macaca fascicularis, and Saimiri sciureusused for research at the fiocruz primate center

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    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological parameters of laboratory animals used for biomedical research is crucial for following several experimental procedures. With the intent to establish baseline biologic parameters for non-human primates held in closed colonies, hematological and morphometric data of captive monkeys were determined. Data of clinically healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus were collected over a period of five years. Animals were separated according to sex and divided into five age groups. Hematological data were compared with those in the literature by Student's t test. Discrepancies with significance levels of 0.1, 1 or 5% were found in the hematological studies. Growth curves showed that the sexual dimorphism of rhesus monkeys appeared at an age of four years. In earlier ages, the differences between sexes could not be distinguished (p < 0.05. Sexual dimorphism in both squirrel monkeys and cynomolgus monkeys occurred at an age of about 32 months. Data presented in this paper could be useful for comparative studies using primates under similar conditions.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Buprenorphine in Macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the ...

  20. Infeksi Cacing Saluran Pencernaan Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis Yang Diperdagangkan Di Pasar Satria Denpasar

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    Kadek Ari Dwipayanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis dan intensitas serta prevalensi infeksi cacing saluran pencernaan pada monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis yang diperdagangkan di Pasar Satria Denpasar. Empat puluh lima sampel feses M. fascicularis (24 ekor monyet betina dan 21 ekor monyet jantan diambil secara aseptis, diberi label dan selanjutnya diperiksa di laboratorium Parasitologi FKH Universitas Udayana. Sampel diperiksa menggunakan metode konsentrasi sedimentasi untuk mengidentifikasi jenis cacing dan modifikasi McMaster untuk mengetahui intensitas infeksi. Jenis cacing saluran pencernaan yang berhasil diidentifikasi berturut-turut adalah Ancylostoma sp. (91,1%, Trichostrongylus sp./Oesophagostonum sp. (73,3%, Trichuris sp. (22,2%, Ascaris sp. dan Taenia sp. (4,4%. Rataan intensitas infeksi cacing      Ancylostoma sp. 4913 ± 4849 telur per gram tinja, Thrichostrongylus sp./ Oesophagostonum sp. 871 ± 816 telur per gram tinja, Trichuris sp. berkisar      171 ± 111 telur per gram tinja. Ascaris sp. dan Taenia sp. memiliki intensitas terendah yakni <100 telur per gram tinja. Secara umum prevalensi kecacingan adalah 93,3%. Prevalensi kecacingan pada monyet betina (52,2% sedangkan pada monyet jantan (48,8%. Berdasarkan umur, prevalensi kecacingan pada anakan, bayi, dan dewasa berturut-turut (72,1%, (25,6%, dan (2,3%. Pola infeksi umumnya tipe infeksi campuran (82,3% dibandingkan infeksi tunggal (17,7%.

  1. Dietary Variation of Long Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis in Telaga Warna, Bogor, West Java

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    Sarah Nila

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Macaca, member of sub-family Cercopithecinae, is the most widely distributed non-human primates in Asian countries. The habitats are strongly influence the dietary variation of the populations. The dietary variation of the macaques reflect ecological plasticity in coping with differences both in availability and abundance of food. The macaques are plastic in taking any kind of food that available in their home range and adjust their behaviour according to its abundance. Here, we present the dietary variation of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis in the high altitude rain forest of Telaga Warna, West Java, Indonesia. The proportion of their food from natural sources is greater than those from visitors. The natural food consisted of plants, small animals (insects and earthworm, fungi and water from lake. The plant food comprised of 29 species plus a few mosses. The frequency of eating artificial food was influenced by visitors who come for picnic. In this site, the macaques learned that the visiting of tourists is identical with food.

  2. Collection of Macaca fascicularis cDNAs derived from bone marrow, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus

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    Kameoka Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consolidating transcriptome data of non-human primates is essential to annotate primate genome sequences, and will facilitate research using non-human primates in the genomic era. Macaca fascicularis is a macaque monkey that is commonly used for biomedical and ecological research. Findings We constructed cDNA libraries of Macaca fascicularis, derived from tissues obtained from bone marrow, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus of a young male, and kidney of a young female. In total, 5'-end sequences of 56,856 clones were determined. Including the previously established cDNA libraries from brain and testis, we have isolated 112,587 cDNAs of Macaca fascicularis, which correspond to 56% of the curated human reference genes. Conclusion These sequences were deposited in the public sequence database as well as in-house macaque genome database http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. These data will become valuable resources for identifying functional parts of the genome of macaque monkeys in future studies.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of 2 formulations of buprenorphine in macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Halliday, Lisa C; Moody, David E; Fang, Wenfang B; Lindeblad, Matthew; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the tested doses. The low and high doses of buprenorphine had elimination half-lives of 2.6 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 2.0 h, respectively, but the low-dose data were constrained by the sensitivity of the analytical method. Sustained-release buprenorphine had an elimination half-life of 42.6 ± 26.2 h. The AUC0-Tlast of buprenorphine were 9.1 ± 4.3 and 39.0 ± 25.1 ng × h/mL for the low and high doses, respectively, and sustained-release buprenorphine had an AUC0-Tlast of 177 ± 74 ng × h/mL. Assuming a hypothesized therapeutic buprenorphine plasma concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL in macaques, these results suggest that buprenorphine doses of 0.01 mg/kg IM should be administered every 6 to 8 h, whereas doses of 0.03 mg/kg IM can be administered every 12 h. These results further demonstrate that a single 0.2-mg/kg SC injection of sustained-release buprenorphine maintains plasma concentrations above 0.1 ng/mL for 5 d in macaques. These findings support a new dosing strategy using sustained-release buprenorphine to improve pain management, decrease animal stress, improve animal welfare, and simplify the postoperative management of nonhuman primates in laboratory animal and zoological settings.

  4. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

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    Vickers Mark H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk.

  5. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia.

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    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia.

  6. Development of an integrative database with 499 novel microsatellite markers for Macaca fascicularis

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    Higashino Atsunori

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis are a valuable resource for linkage studies of genetic disorders, but their microsatellite markers are not sufficient. In genetic studies, a prerequisite for mapping genes is development of a genome-wide set of microsatellite markers in target organisms. A whole genome sequence and its annotation also facilitate identification of markers for causative mutations. The aim of this study is to establish hundreds of microsatellite markers and to develop an integrative cynomolgus macaque genome database with a variety of datasets including marker and gene information that will be useful for further genetic analyses in this species. Results We investigated the level of polymorphisms in cynomolgus monkeys for 671 microsatellite markers that are covered by our established Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones. Four hundred and ninety-nine (74.4% of the markers were found to be polymorphic using standard PCR analysis. The average number of alleles and average expected heterozygosity at these polymorphic loci in ten cynomolgus macaques were 8.20 and 0.75, respectively. Conclusion BAC clones and novel microsatellite markers were assigned to the rhesus genome sequence and linked with our cynomolgus macaque cDNA database (QFbase. Our novel microsatellite marker set and genomic database will be valuable integrative resources in analyzing genetic disorders in cynomolgus macaques.

  7. Allele frequency of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in wild-caught cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Higashino, Atsunori; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Ikoma, Tomoko; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ami, Yasushi; Shioda, Tatsuo; Nakayama, Emi E.; Akari, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    A recent study showed that the frequency of an antiretroviral factor TRIM5 gene-derived isoform, TRIMCyp, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) varies widely according to the particular habitat examined. However, whether the findings actually reflect the prevalence of TRIMCyp in wild cynomolgus macaques is still uncertain because the previous data were obtained with captive monkeys in breeding and rearing facilities. Here, we characterized the TRIM5 gene in cynomolgus macaques captured in the wild, and found that the frequency of the TRIMCyp allele was comparable to those in captive monkeys. This suggests that the previous results with captive monkeys do indeed reflect the natural allele frequency and that breeding and rearing facilities may not affect the frequency of TRIM5 alleles. Interestingly, the prevalence of a minor haplotype of TRIMCyp in wild macaques from the Philippines was significantly lower than in captive ones, suggesting that it is advantageous for wild monkeys to possess the major haplotype of TRIMCyp. Overall, our results add to our understanding of the geographic and genetic prevalence of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp. PMID:22969754

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Peninsular Malaysia.

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    Nikzad, Sonia; Tan, Soon Guan; Yong Seok Yien, Christina; Ng, Jillian; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Khan, Razib; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine J; Valdiani, Alireza; Khajeaian, Parastoo; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2014-12-01

    The genetic diversity and structure of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Peninsular Malaysia, a widely used non-human primate species in biomedical research, have not been thoroughly characterized. Thirteen sites of wild populations of long-tailed macaques representing six states were sampled and analyzed with 18 STR markers. The Sunggala and Penang Island populations showed the highest genetic diversity estimates, while the Jerejak Island population was the most genetically discrete due to isolation from the mainland shelf. Concordant with pairwise F(st) estimates, STRUCTURE analyses of the seven PCA-correlated clusters revealed low to moderate differentiation among the sampling sites. No association between geographic and genetic distances exists, suggesting that the study sites, including island study sites, are genetically if not geographically contiguous. The status of the genetic structure and composition of long-tailed macaque populations require further scrutiny to develop this species as an important animal model in biomedical research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Blood genomic profiles of exposures to Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis

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    Hammamieh Rasha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocytes provide invaluable whistle blowers of changes due to infections. We use the information registered by these cells using their mRNAs as they encounter the pathogen to develop patterns of expression that correspond to that specific pathogen. Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE is a mosquito-borne viral disease characterized by fever and one or more of the following: severe headache, back pain, myalgias, prostration, chills, nausea, vomiting, weakness and other flu-like symptoms. Screening for host mRNA obtained from blood samples after exposure to VEEV may provide the means for early detection of surrogate markers of the impending illness and provide appropriate strategies for treatment. Results We have been carrying out gene expression analysis of PBMC exposed to VEEV to extract signatures and diagnostic markers of early exposure to be used in non invasive blood analysis methods. In this study, we used high throughput gene expression analysis to identify markers of early and late exposures to VEEV in vivo in Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis. We carried out cDNA microarrays and real time PCR on blood samples obtained from the NHP model resulting in a panel of host genes that are altered in response to VEEV. Conclusion Screening for host mRNA obtained from blood samples after exposure to VEEV may provide the means for early detection of surrogate markers of the impending illness and provide appropriate strategies for treatment.

  10. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia. PMID:28228918

  11. Influence of testosterone and a novel SARM on gene expression in whole blood of Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmaier, Irmgard; Tichopad, Ales; Reiter, Martina; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic hormones, including testosterone, have been suggested as a therapy for aging-related conditions, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia. These therapies are sometimes associated with severe androgenic side effects. A promising alternative to testosterone replacement therapy are selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SARMs have the potential to mimic the desirable central and peripheral androgenic anabolic effects of testosterone without having its side effects. In this study we evaluated the effects of LGD2941, in comparison to testosterone, on mRNA expression of selected target genes in whole blood in an non-human model. The regulated genes can act as potential blood biomarker candidates in future studies with AR ligands. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated either with testosterone or LGD2941 for 90 days in order to compare their effects on mRNA expression in blood. Blood samples were taken before SARM application, on day 16 and on day 90 of treatment. Gene expression of 37 candidate genes was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Our study shows that both testosterone and LGD2941 influence mRNA expression of 6 selected genes out of 37 in whole blood. The apoptosis regulators CD30L, Fas, TNFR1 and TNFR2 and the interleukins IL-12B and IL-15 showed significant changes in gene expression between control and the treatment groups and represent potential biomarkers for androgen receptor ligands in whole blood.

  12. The influence of exposure to UVβ of fluorescent light on the bone remodeling of hypoestrogenic Macaca fascicularis

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    I. A. Rachman

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of osteoporosis is a spesific problem that should be dealt with by increasing the women's lift expectation. The decrease of calcitriol and estrogen levels, which have a receptor in the osteoblast, will result in bone mineralization (due to calcitriol and the information of type 1 collagen (due to estrogen. The formation of calcitriol with the main basic materials from vitamin D3 is achieved with the aid of sunray UVβ, The changes in the lifestyle of women, which make them now accustomed to performing indoor activities and prevent them from being exposed to UVβ all day, have resulted in the decrease of vitamin D3 in calcitriol in women. In addition, when entering the menopausal age they will be threatened with early osteoporosis. The exposure to the UVβ of fluorescent light with the wave length identical to sun of 290-320 nm has long been known as a modality for treating skin diseases in the hope that the production of vitamin D3  will be increased. We exposed Macaca fascicularis, whose estrogen levels were set at normal, beginning low, beginning very low levels, to UVβ of fluorescent light. It showed that the Macaca fascicularis that were exposed to UVβ experienced an increase in osteocalcin with unchanged DPD which means that bone remodeling remains unchanged. By contrast, Macaca fascicularis with normal, beginning low, and beginning very low estrogen levels which were not exposed to UVβ were found to experience a decrease in osteocalcin and unchanged DPD levels. This means that a change has occurred in the bone remodeling toward bone resorption. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 63-8Keywords: UVβ, osteoporosis, estrogen, vitamin D3, calcitriol, osteocalcin, DPD

  13. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental oral toxicity of domoic acid in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and rats. Preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryphonas, L; Truelove, J; Todd, E; Nera, E; Iverson, F

    1990-10-01

    A recent outbreak of marine food poisoning in humans was attributed to the consumption of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) contaminated with domoic acid (DA) that was produced by the diatom Nitzschia pungens. The clinical and morphological effects of single oral doses of extracts of mussels contaminated with DA or of DA isolated from toxic mussels were investigated in small groups (one to six) of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; 0.5-10 mg DA/kg body weight) and of Sprague-Dawley rats (60 to 80 mg DA/kg body weight). Control animals were either given saline or were not treated. To test whether monosodium glutamate, present in the food consumed by some affected humans, and dimethylsulphoxide, suspected of being present in the plankton, enhanced the response, monosodium glutamate (at 0.25% of mussel extract bolus) or dimethylsulphoxide (at 1 g per bolus) were co-administered to two (one each) of the DA-treated monkeys. DA-treated monkeys developed transient excitation characterized by vomiting. DA-treated rats showed withdrawal followed by hyperexcitation and death (in one case). Mild to moderate central nervous system lesions consistent with neuroexcitation were present in both monkeys and rats. The addition of monosodium glutamate and dimethylsulphoxide had no significant effect on the appearance and severity of central nervous system clinical signs and lesions. The wide variations in the response of test animals to orally administered DA were attributed to the protective effect of vomiting, and to suspected incomplete or slow gastro-intestinal absorption of the toxic agent. The results reinforce the view that DA is an emetic and that under appropriate conditions may also inflict excitotoxic central nervous system damage.

  15. Maxillary nerve compression in cynomolgus monkey Macaca fascicularis: altered somatic sensation and peripheral nerve firing

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    Guo Ning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trigeminal nerve is a major source of the sensory input of the face, and trigeminal neuropathology models have been reported in rodents with injury to branches of the maxillary or mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Non-human primates are neuroanatomically more closely related to human than rodents; however, nerve injury studies in non-human primates are limited. Results We describe here a nerve injury model of maxillary nerve compression (MNC in the cynomolgus macaque monkey, Macaca fascicularis, and the initial characterization of the consequences of damage to this trigeminal nerve branch. The nerve injury from the compression appeared to be mild, as we did not observe overt changes in home-cage behavior in the monkeys. When mechanical stimulation was applied to the facial area, monkeys with MNC displayed increased mechanical sensitivity, as the avoidance response scores were lower than those from the control animals. Such a change in mechanical sensitivity appeared to be somewhat bilateral, as the contralateral side also showed increased mechanical sensitivity, although the change on the ipsilateral side was more robust. Multiple-unit recording of the maxillary nerve showed a general pattern of increasing responsiveness to escalating force in mechanical stimulation on the contralateral side. Ipsilateral side of the maxillary nerve showed a lack of responsiveness to escalating force in mechanical stimulation, possibly reflecting a maximum stimulation threshold effect from sensitized nerve due to MNC injury. Conclusions These results suggest that MNC may produce increased sensitivity of the ipsilateral maxillary nerve, and that this model may serve as a non-human primate model to evaluate the effect of injury to trigeminal nerve branches.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effects elicited by toxaphene in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, F; Iverson, F; Andrews, P; Barker, M; Cherry, W; Mueller, R; Pulido, O; Hayward, S; Fernie, S; Arnold, D L

    2001-12-01

    Toxaphene, which was added to glycerol/corn oil, was administered at a level of 1 mg/kg body weight/day in gelatin capsules to four healthy young adult cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys for 52 weeks. Four control monkeys ingested capsules containing only glycerol/corn oil. Each group had two males and two females. On a daily basis, each monkey's feed and water consumption was determined, its health was monitored and the females were swabbed to evaluate menstrual status. On a weekly basis, each monkey's body weight was determined and a detailed clinical evaluation was performed. At 4-week intervals, blood samples were taken for serum biochemistry, haematology and toxaphene analysis. Also, a local anaesthetic was administered to the nuchal fat pad area of each monkey, and adipose samples were obtained for toxaphene analysis. 1 day prior to the biopsies, a 24-h urine and faecal collection was obtained for toxaphene analysis. After 34 weeks of treatment, the immune system of the monkeys was evaluated. After 52 weeks of dosing, all treated and two control animals were necropsied. Liver samples were obtained and microsomal fractions were prepared immediately. A portion of liver and kidney was taken for toxaphene analysis. All of the major internal organs were weighed and bone marrow evaluations were conducted. Organ and tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and processed for light microscopy. There was no effect of treatment on body weight gain, feed consumption, water consumption or haematological parameters. Two major clinical findings were inflammation and/or enlargement of the tarsal gland and impacted diverticulae in the upper and lower eye lids. At necropsy, the relative spleen and thymus weights were greater for the treated monkeys than the controls. Toxaphene administration produced an increase in metabolism of aminopyrene, methoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin, three substrates that are altered specifically by cytochrome P450-based hepatic

  18. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  19. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  20. Physiological and behavioural stress responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to noise associated with construction work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, K; Fernström, A-L; Wergård, E-M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioural and physiological responses to environmental disturbances (live and recorded dynamite explosions) in laboratory non-human primates in preparation for a future tunnel construction underneath our animal facility. In a pilot study (A) on 20...... detonations on the behaviour and CICM in 16 M. fascicularis. In the latter study we introduced a predictive signal, serving as a conditional stimulus, to half of the animals. We found no significant effects of the noise in the Signal group; while the Control groups' CICM values were affected. The behaviour...... was largely unaffected in the two groups. It was decided not to introduce a research moratorium on biomedical research planned to be conducted during the future tunnel construction, and that a conditional stimulus ('warning signal') will be used....

  1. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Neil; Witzel, Ulrich; Fitton, Laura; O'higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Computational finite element analyses (FEAs) of the skull predict structural deformations under user specified loads and constraints, with results normally presented as stress and strain distributions over the skull's surface. The applied loads are generally a representation of the major adductor musculature, with the skull constrained at bite positions and at the articulating joints. However, virtually all analyses ignore potentially important anatomical structures, such as the fasciae that cover the temporalis muscle and attach onto the zygomatic arch. In vivo experimental studies have shown that removal of the temporal fasciae attachment onto the zygomatic arch in Cebus monkeys results in significant bone adaptation and remodeling in this region, suggesting the fasciae play an important role in stabilising the arch during biting. Here we investigate this potential stabilising role by carrying out FEAs of a macaque skull with and without temporal fasciae included. We explore the extent to which the zygomatic arch might be stabilized during biting by a synchronized tensioning of the temporal fasciae, acting to oppose masseteric contraction forces. According to our models, during temporalis muscle bulging the forces generated within the tensioned temporal fasciae are large enough to oppose the pull of the masseter. Further, a near bending-free state of equilibrium within the arch can be reached, even under forceful biting. We show that it is possible to eliminate the high strain gradients in and around the zygomatic arch that are present in past computational studies, with strains being more uniform in magnitude than previously thought.

  2. The trade balance of grooming and its coordination of reciprocation and tolerance in Indonesian long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumert, Michael D; Ho, Moon-Ho R

    2008-07-01

    We collected data on grooming, proximity, and aggression in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan, Indonesia. We used this data to study how grooming influenced a receiver's (B) behavior towards the bout's initiator (A). In our first analysis, post-grooming samples were collected after A groomed B. These were compared to matched-control samples of similar conditions but A had not previously groomed B. This comparison was performed on 26 individuals (16 female, 3 male, 7 immature) and tested whether A's initial act of grooming increased the pair's time in proximity and the amount of time B groomed A. We also tested if A's grooming decreased B's aggression towards A per time in proximity. Rates of B-->A aggression per time in proximity with A for 39 individuals (18 female, 5 male, 16 immature) were compared between post-grooming and focal sample data. Finally, we studied 248 grooming bouts to test if the first two grooming episodes were time matched. We assessed the influence of age, sex, rank and inferred kinship on time matching, and controlled for individual variation and tendency to groom using a general linear mixed model. Our results showed that A-->B grooming acted to increase B-->A grooming and the pair's proximity, while lowering B-->A aggression. Despite these effects, episodes in grooming bouts were generally not matched, except weakly among similar partners (i.e., female pairs and immature pairs). Grooming imbalance was greatest across age-sex class (i.e., male-female and adult-immature pairs). In similar pairs, grooming duration was skewed in favor of high-ranking individuals. We conclude grooming established tolerance and increased the likelihood that grooming reciprocation would occur, but grooming durations were not typically matched within bouts. Lack of time matching may be the result of grooming that is performed to coordinate interchanges of other social services.

  3. Experimental hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): evidence of active extrahepatic site of HAV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Luciane A; Marchevsky, Renato S; de Paula, Vanessa S; Hooper, Cleber; Freire, Marcos da S; Gaspar, Ana Maria C; Pinto, Marcelo A

    2010-02-01

    This work studied the replication sites of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after intravenous inoculation. The cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with the Brazilian hepatitis A virus strain (HAF-203). Monkeys were euthanized on days 15, 30, 45 and 60 postinoculation (pi). Liver samples, submandibular salivary gland, mesenteric lymph node and tonsils were removed for virological and pathological evaluation. Immunofluorescence analyses on liver and salivary gland sections using confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of HAV antigen (HAV Ag). The presence of HAV genome was monitored by real-time PCR. The HAV RNA was detected at 7 days postinoculation (dpi), concomitantly in serum, saliva and faeces. The highest HAV viral load was observed in faeces at 15 dpi (10(5) copies/ml), followed by serum viral load of 10(4) copies/ml at 20 dpi and saliva viral load of 10(3 )copies/ml at 7 dpi. The animals showed first histological and biochemical signs of hepatitis at 15 dpi. The HAV antigen (Ag) was present from day 7 until day 60 pi in the liver and salivary glands. The HAV replicative intermediate was also detected in the liver (4.5 x 10(4) copies/mg), salivary glands (1.9 x 10(3) copies/mg), tonsils (4.2 x 10(1) copies/mg) and lymph nodes (3.4 x 10(1) copies/mg). Our data demonstrated that the salivary gland as an extrahepatic site of early HAV replication could create a potential risk of saliva transmitted infection. In addition, the cynomolgus monkey was confirmed as a suitable model to study the pathogenesis of HAV human infection.

  4. The acquisition of Streptococcus mutans by infant monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and its relationship to the initiation of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighton, D; Hayday, H; Walker, J

    1982-08-01

    The acquisition and transmission of Streptococcus mutans by 16 consecutively born infant monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) was studied. The 16 infant monkeys were weaned in four groups and caged together to form a commune. Transmission from mother to infant occurred infrequently. Streptococcus mutans was isolated from nine of the mothers but only from the dental plaque of two infant monkeys at weaning at which time the predominant streptococci were S. sanguis and S. mitior. One further animal was colonized by S. mutants during the formation of the commune, but only after it was caged with an infant harbouring the same organism. For 46 d after the completion of the commune, the monkeys were fed a starch-based diet during which time S. mutans of serotypes c, e or h were isolated from the faeces of all 16 animals and from the dental plaque taken from the developmental groove of the first deciduous molar of 11 animals. Faecal transmission appeared to be an important factor in the spread of S. mutans between monkeys in the commune. The monkeys were then fed a caries-promoting high sucrose diet resulting in a rapid increase in the proportion of S. mutans in the plaque and in the faeces. Streptococcus mutans serotype e was more frequently isolated from both plaque and faeces and its predominance may in part be due to the production of a bacteriocin active in vitro against S. mutans serotype h and other species of oral streptococci isolated from monkey dental plaque. The proportion of S. mutans in the developmental groove 8 d after the introduction of the high sucrose diet was significantly related to both the caries status of the groove and the total caries score 6 months later. The results suggest that, in this model of human dental caries, S. mutans is the major bacterial factor in the initiation of tooth decay.

  5. DINAMIKA PROFIL HEMATOLOGI DAN RASIO NETROFIL:LIMFOSIT MONYET EKOR PANJANG (MACACA FASCICULARIS PADA PENGATURAN MIKROKLIMAT RUANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridzki M.F. Binol

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain the profile of physiological hematology (erythrocyte, PCV, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and leukocyte and the profile of ratio between neutrophil and lymphocyte of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis in different microclimate conditions due to the room’s temperature and humidity setting. The symptom of stress was also observed in this study. The research used 10 male macaques aged of 4 until 5 years old which placed in room temperature and humidity of 29,00±1,95°C and 79,52±1,57% respectively 7 days for adaptation period. Further more, the room temperature and humidity were set into 25,79±1,16°C and 80,19±9,05% during 14 days for treatment period. For the last treatment, macaques were reconditioned in room temperature and humidity of 29,00±1,95°C and 79,52±1,57% during 14 days for post-treatment period. Blood samplings were collected through femoralis vein on last day of adaptation period, continued with treatment and post-treatment periods as the day 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28. The results showed that there were not significant difference by room temperature and humidity setting to hematology and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. It could be proven by all parameters score obtained were still in normal ranges compared to literatures. There was also no stress symptom based on neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio measurement. Condition with room temperature and humidity of 25,79±1,16°C dan 80,19±9,05% regarded as the most suitable condition for long-tailed macaque’s life

  6. Urban primate ranging patterns: GPS-collar deployments for Macaca fascicularis and M. sylvanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegarth, Amy R; Hollocher, Hope; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Shaw, Eric; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Feeney, Tessa; Holmes, Damian; Laguea, Dale; Fuentes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    The global increase in urbanization is leading to heavier interface between humans and wildlife. Within these anthropogenic landscapes, little is known about ranging patterns, particularly with regard to urban primates. Here we present the results of the first long-term deployment of multiple GPS collars on two species of macaques to investigate the impacts of urbanization on urban primate ranging patterns in Singapore and Gibraltar. Collars data acquisition were excellent with respect to the amount, quality, and accuracy of data collected; however, remote connectivity and drop-off functionality was poor across all deployments. Analyses highlighted high variability in ranging patterns between individuals within each species that aligned with access to human food resources and patterns of tourism. Individuals from troops with less access to human food had much larger home, core, and day ranges relative to those with regular provisioning or raiding opportunities. Almost no temporal range overlap was observed between any focal individuals at either site and spatial overlap was low for all but two troops at each site. We found no relationship between anthropogenic schedules and changes in ranging patterns. Significant seasonal variation existed for daily path length and day range size for both the Singapore long-tailed and the Gibraltar Barbary macaques, with long-tailed macaques increasing their range during the equatorial monsoon season and Barbary macaques increasing their range during drier, summer months. This study highlights how the behavioral plasticity found within the genus Macaca is reflected in ranging pattern variability within urban environments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Functional MRI of brain in macaca fascicularis under alcohol scent stimulation%乙醇气味刺激食蟹猴的脑fMRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐惠; 朱建忠; 孙向东; 赵梦; 李传福

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the fMRl changes of brain in macaca fascicularis with alcohol scent stimulation. Methods Six healthy macaca fascicularis were selected and anesthetized. The block design was "rest-stimulation-rest". fMRI under alcohol scent stimulation and resting state were performed, respectively. The animals inhaled air mixed with 95% alcohol in the stimulation period, while inhaled pure air in rest period. BOLD-fMRI sequences and 128 phases scanning were performed, 16 slices axial images of the entire brain and total 2048 images were obtained. Data were analyzed using SPM2. The outcomes were superposed on the template of macaca fascicularis at last. Random effect mode group analysis was applied in estimating and calculating with f-test Results When alcohol scent stimulation was given, increased or decreased BOLD signals were observed in frontal lobe, temporal lobe, paracentral lobules, cingulate gyri, and lenticular nucleus, and anterior central gyrus, respectively. Conclusion Uncus gyri hippocampi and orbitofrontal are the most advanced center of olfaction. The central reaction induced by scent stimulation had an affinity with paracentral lobule, cingulate gyrus and lenticular nucleus.%目的 应用3.0T fMRI探讨食蟹猴经乙醇气味刺激引起的脑功能活动.方法 选取健康食蟹猴6只,麻醉后行乙醇气味刺激下的fMRI.采取“静息-刺激-静息”组块设计.刺激组块予乙醇气味刺激,静息组块无气味刺激.BOLDfMRI扫描128 phase,整个猴脑扫描16层.采用SPM2软件随机效应模式t检验进行组分析.将统计结果覆盖于食蟹猴模板图像上.结果 乙醇气味刺激下,在额叶、颞叶、中央旁小叶、扣带回、豆状核、中央前回分别可以检测到正激活和负激活.结论 海马回钩和眶额回为嗅觉最高级中枢.fMRI可以显示额叶、颞叶的激活.气味刺激引起的中枢反应与中央旁小叶、扣带回、豆状核有密切关系.

  8. Generation of Macaca fascicularis iPS cell line ATCi-MF1 from adult skin fibroblasts using non-integrative Sendai viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Coppiello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We generated ATCi-MF1 induced pluripotent stem (iPS cell line from Macaca fascicularis adult skin fibroblasts using non-integrative Sendai viruses carrying OCT3/4, KLF4, SOX2 and c-MYC. Once established, ATCi-MF1 cells present a normal karyotype, are Sendai virus-free and express pluripotency associated markers. Microsatellite markers analysis confirmed the origin of the iPS cells from the parental fibroblasts. Pluripotency was tested with the in vivo teratoma formation assay. ATCi-MF1 cell line may be a useful primate iPS cell model to test different experimental conditions where the use of human cells can imply ethical issues, as microinjection of pluripotent stem cells in pre-implantational embryos.

  9. 小鼠抗食蟹猴IgG单克隆抗体的制备%Preparation Monoclonal Antibodies Of Mice Against Macaca fascicularis IgG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张段玲; 张彦龙; 白素英

    2012-01-01

    目的 制备抗食蟹猴、恒河猴等非人灵长类实验动物免疫球蛋白二级抗体,开展对其传染病血清学快速诊断方法的建立.方法 采用饱和硫酸铵盐析、Agarose-Protein G亲和层析技术,从食蟹猴血清中提纯IgG.经SDS-PAGE电泳鉴定,采用常规法免疫C57BL/6小鼠,三次免疫后取脾细胞与Sp2/0-Agl4骨髓瘤细胞通过PEG4000融合制备杂交瘤细胞,利用间接ELISA、Western blot等方法进行筛选、鉴定.结果 得到5株阳性杂交瘤,分别命名为2B6、2B7、2D9、3B2、5E4,并且5株杂交瘤分泌的抗体均与恒河猴的IgG或血清发生交叉反应,而与其他物种如东北虎、犬等动物的IgG或血清无交叉反应.结论 5株杂交瘤产生的单克隆抗体(McAb)具有较好免疫活性,且能长期、稳定地分泌抗体.此项研究工作为后续研究食蟹猴、恒河猴传染病血清学诊断方法奠定基础.%Objective In order to prepare imraunoglobulin G (IgG) secondary antibody of non-human primates such as Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta and establish a quick serological method to diagnose their diseases. Methods Macaco fascicularis IgG was isolated and purified from Macaco fascicularis serum by precipitated use saturated ammonium sulfate and affinity chromatography technology with Agarose-Protein G. After identified by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis murine monoclonal antibody ( McAb) were produced by conventional immune method and hybridoma technology. Monoclonal antibody was produced when C57BL/6 mice was immunized three times and its spleen cells were fused with SP2/0-Agl4 myeloma cells. Indirect ELISA and Western blot methods were used for identification. Result 5 strains of myeloma cells acquired which were named 2B6, 2B7, 3B2, 5E4, 2D9. The antibodies they secret can all react well with both IgG and their serum of Macaco fascicularis and Macaca mulatto. There are no cross reaction with other species such as east-northern tigers and dogs. Conclusion The 5

  10. The Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell repertoire in Macaca fascicularis: functional responses to phosphoantigen stimulation by the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 subset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Propp, Nadia; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2005-06-01

    Circulating Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T cells in human and non-human primates respond to small molecular weight non-peptidic phosphoantigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted manner. These responses are encoded by the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 chain of the T-cell receptor and are positively selected during early development to create a biased repertoire in adults. We characterized the Vgamma2 chain in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to develop a non-human primate model for studying the effects of infection and therapy on the circulating Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell subset. The cynomolgus macaque Vgamma2 chain was highly homologous to the Vgamma2 chain from human beings and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), though we noted conserved substitutions in critical residues within the CDR3 for both macaque species. Despite these substitutions, Vgamma2/Vdelta2+ T cells from cynomolgus monkeys exhibited polyclonal responses to two different phosphoantigens. Proliferative responses were observed with both isopentenylpyrophosphate and alendronate, but stronger interferon-gamma secretory responses were observed with isopentenylpyrophosphate. In vitro stimulation and expansion led to selective outgrowth of the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 subset, with a marked shift in the Vgamma2 spectratype. As a result of the less biased starting repertoire for Vgamma2, the cynomolgus macaque constitutes a sensitive model for examining the effects of in vitro or in vivo treatments on the Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell population. Our studies establish the value of cynomolgus macaques as a model for Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell responses to non-peptidic antigens, and further evidence the remarkable evolutionary conservation of this unusual, phosphoantigen-responsive T-cell subset that is found only in primate species.

  11. The Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell repertoire in Macaca fascicularis: functional responses to phosphoantigen stimulation by the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 subset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Propp, Nadia; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2005-01-01

    Circulating Vγ2/Vδ2 T cells in human and non-human primates respond to small molecular weight non-peptidic phosphoantigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted manner. These responses are encoded by the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 chain of the T-cell receptor and are positively selected during early development to create a biased repertoire in adults. We characterized the Vγ2 chain in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to develop a non-human primate model for studying the effects of infection and therapy on the circulating Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell subset. The cynomolgus macaque Vγ2 chain was highly homologous to the Vγ2 chain from human beings and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), though we noted conserved substitutions in critical residues within the CDR3 for both macaque species. Despite these substitutions, Vγ2/Vδ2+ T cells from cynomolgus monkeys exhibited polyclonal responses to two different phosphoantigens. Proliferative responses were observed with both isopentenylpyrophosphate and alendronate, but stronger interferon-γ secretory responses were observed with isopentenylpyrophosphate. In vitro stimulation and expansion led to selective outgrowth of the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 subset, with a marked shift in the Vγ2 spectratype. As a result of the less biased starting repertoire for Vγ2, the cynomolgus macaque constitutes a sensitive model for examining the effects of in vitro or in vivo treatments on the Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell population. Our studies establish the value of cynomolgus macaques as a model for Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell responses to non-peptidic antigens, and further evidence the remarkable evolutionary conservation of this unusual, phosphoantigen-responsive T-cell subset that is found only in primate species. PMID:15885125

  12. Whole-genome sequencing of six Mauritian Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) reveals a genome-wide pattern of polymorphisms under extreme population bottleneck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Naoki; Hettiarachchi, Nilmini; Adeyemi Babarinde, Isaac; Saitou, Naruya; Blancher, Antoine

    2015-03-23

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were introduced to the island of Mauritius by humans around the 16th century. The unique demographic history of the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques provides the opportunity to not only examine the genetic background of well-established nonhuman primates for biomedical research but also understand the effect of an extreme population bottleneck on the pattern of polymorphisms in genomes. We sequenced the whole genomes of six Mauritian cynomolgus macaques and obtained an average of 20-fold coverage of the genome sequences for each individual. The overall level of nucleotide diversity was 23% smaller than that of the Malaysian cynomolgus macaques, and a reduction of low-frequency polymorphisms was observed. In addition, we also confirmed that the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques were genetically closer to a representative of the Malaysian population than to a representative of the Indochinese population. Excess of nonsynonymous polymorphisms in low frequency, which has been observed in many other species, was not very strong in the Mauritian samples, and the proportion of heterozygous nonsynonymous polymorphisms relative to synonymous polymorphisms is higher within individuals in Mauritian than Malaysian cynomolgus macaques. Those patterns indicate that the extreme population bottleneck made purifying selection overwhelmed by the power of genetic drift in the population. Finally, we estimated the number of founding individuals by using the genome-wide site frequency spectrum of the six samples. Assuming a simple demographic scenario with a single bottleneck followed by exponential growth, the estimated number of founders (∼20 individuals) is largely consistent with previous estimates.

  13. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R; Caramenti, Gian C; Benabid, Alim L; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1-8 V, 1-10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  14. Toward reduction in animal sacrifice for drugs: molecular modeling of Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 for virtual screening of Homo sapiens P450 2C8 substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 shares 92% identity with human cytochrome P450 2C8, which is involved in the metabolism of more than 8% of all prescribed drugs. To date, only paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two substrate markers of the human P450 2C8, have been experimentally confirmed as M. fascicularis P450 2C20 drugs. To bridge the lack of information on the ligands recognized by M. fascicularis P450 2C20, in this study, a three-dimensional homology model of this enzyme was generated on the basis of the available crystal structure of the human homologue P450 2C8 using YASARA. The results indicated that 90.0%, 9.0%, 0.5%, and 0.5% of the residues of the P450 2C20 model were located in the most favorable, allowed, generously allowed, and disallowed regions, respectively. The root-mean-square deviation of the C-alpha superposition of the M. fascicularis P450 2C20 model with the Homo sapiens P450 2C8 was 0.074 Å, indicating a very high similarity of the two structures. Subsequently, the 2C20 model was used for in silico screening of 58 known P450 2C8 substrates and 62 inhibitors. These were also docked in the active site of the crystal structure of the human P450 2C8. The affinity of each compound for the active site of both cytochromes proved to be very similar, meaning that the few key residues that are mutated in the active site of the M. fascicularis P450 do not prevent the P450 2C20 from recognizing the same substrates as the human P450 2C8.

  15. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Giuliano Zippo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and 3 the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1 to 8V, 1 to 10 Hz, 500ms, biphasic waves, we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being < 1ms and interblock intervals of 1.5 to 4 s have been analyzed. We found 150 to 250ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  16. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R.; Caramenti, Gian C.; Benabid, Alim L.; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1–8 V, 1–10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5–4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150–250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  17. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection alters endogenous retrovirus expression in distinct brain regions of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag Judith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases which are presumably caused by an infectious conformational isoform of the cellular prion protein. Previous work has provided evidence that in murine prion disease the endogenous retrovirus (ERV expression is altered in the brain. To determine if prion-induced changes in ERV expression are a general phenomenon we used a non-human primate model for prion disease. Results Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fasicularis were infected intracerebrally with BSE-positive brain stem material from cattle and allowed to develop prion disease. Brain tissue from the basis pontis and vermis cerebelli of the six animals and the same regions from four healthy controls were subjected to ERV expression profiling using a retrovirus-specific microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. We could show that Class I gammaretroviruses HERV-E4-1, ERV-9, and MacERV-4 increase expression in BSE-infected macaques. In a second approach, we analysed ERV-K-(HML-2 RNA and protein expression in extracts from the same cynomolgus macaques. Here we found a significant downregulation of both, the macaque ERV-K-(HML-2 Gag protein and RNA in the frontal/parietal cortex of BSE-infected macaques. Conclusions We provide evidence that dysregulation of ERVs in response to BSE-infection can be detected on both, the RNA and the protein level. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the differential expression of ERV-derived structural proteins in prion disorders. Our findings suggest that endogenous retroviruses may induce or exacerbate the pathological consequences of prion-associated neurodegeneration.

  18. Molecular composition of drusen and possible involvement of anti-retinal autoimmunity in two different forms of macular degeneration in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Michihiro T; Okamoto, Haru; Ono, Fumiko; Mizota, Atsushi; Terao, Keiji; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Iwata, Takeshi

    2005-10-01

    We have previously reported a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) pedigree with early onset macular degeneration that develops drusen at 2 yr after birth. In this study, the molecular composition of drusen in monkeys affected with late onset and early onset macular degeneration was both characterized. Involvement of anti-retinalautoimmunity in the deposition of drusen and the pathogenesis of the disease was also evaluated. Funduscopic and histological examinations were performed on 278 adult monkeys (mean age=16.94 yr) for late onset macular degeneration. The molecular composition of drusen was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and/or direct proteome analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Anti-retinal autoantibodies in sera were screened in 20 affected and 10 age-matched control monkeys by Western blot techniques. Immunogenic molecules were identified by 2D electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Relative antibody titer against each antigen was determined by ELISA in sera from 42 affected (late onset) and 41 normal monkeys. Yellowish-white spots in the macular region were observed in 90 (32%) of the late onset monkeys that were examined. Histological examination demonstrated that drusen or degenerative retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were associated with the pigmentary abnormalities. Drusen in both late and early onset monkeys showed immunoreactivities for apolipoprotein E, amyloid P component, complement component C5, the terminal C5b-9 complement complex, vitronectin, and membrane cofactor protein. LC-MS/MS analyses identified 60 proteins as constituents of drusen, including a number of common components in drusen of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD), such as annexins, crystallins, immunoglobulins, and complement components. Half of the affected monkeys had single or multiple autoantibodies against 38, 40, 50, and 60 kDa retinal proteins. The reacting antigens of 38 and 40 kDa were identified as annexin II and mu

  19. 食蟹猴动物实验在PET/CT扫描检查中的注意事项%Guidelines for PET/CT scanography in animal experiment of Macaca fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪文; 秦朝军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To search for the best scanning parameters of PET/CT scanning examination in animal experiment of Macaca fascicularis, and to obtain the best images. Methods One male and one female monkeys respectively received the CT multiparameter scanning and PET multi - time period dynamic tomoscan. Results When the scanning conditions were 420 mAs and 120 kV,the best resolution ratio and the lightest constructed defect could be obtained. In the images of PET multi - time period dynamic tomoscan, the best image effects could be obtained from the images within 40-60 min. Conclusion Before the animal experiment of Macaca fascicularis on the PET/CT machine, the monkeys should receive the pre - scanning. And the best scanning parameters should be selected in order to obtain satisfactory results in the experiment.%目的 寻找食蟹猴动物实验在PET/CT扫描检查中最佳的扫描参数,获得最佳图像.方法 两只食蟹猴为一雄一雌,对两只食蟹猴分别采用CT多参数扫描和PET的多时段动态断层扫描.结果 扫描条件采用420 mAs、120 kV时,可以获得最佳的图像分辨率和最轻的伪影.PET扫描多时段动态断层扫描的图像中,40~60 min的图像可以获得最佳图像效果.结论 食蟹猴在PET/CT机上行动物实验前,应进行预扫描,选择最佳的扫描参数,才能获得满意的实验结果.

  20. 靶向食蟹猴NTCP基因的CRISPR/Cas9系统gRNA筛选%gRNA Screening of CRISPR/Cas9 System Targeting Macaca fascicularis NTCP Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂利; 高新; 刘铮铸; 巩元芳; 宋海峰

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to screen gRNA of efficient knockout activity targeting Macaca fascicularis NTCP gene by the CRISPR/Cas9 enzyme digestion method and PCR amplification methods in vitro .Comparing NTCP gene sequences between Macaca fascicularis and human,the sequences of NTCP gene coding amino acid 84 to 87 and 157 to 1 65 were chosen as gene knockout targets.3 to 4 candidate gRNA sequences were designed in two target sequence regions through gRNA software.By screening cleavage activity targeting NTCP gene in vitro ,gRNA1.2 and gRNA2.1 were selected and inserted into pLV hUbC-Cas9-T2A-GFP plasmid,respectively.The genome DNA was extracted from primary hepatocytes after gRNA1.2 and gRNA2.1 being trans-ferred,respectively.Then NTCP sequences were amplified by PCR and sequenced by being cloned into T vector.The results indicated that compared to gRNA1.2,gRNA2.1 had much higher activ-ity to make a frame-shift mutation in NTCP gene.This study laid a theoretical foundation for fur-ther editing NTCP gene and its biological function in Macaca fascicularis .%本研究旨在通过 CRISPR/Cas9体外酶切法及细胞水平上的 PCR 扩增测序筛选出靶向食蟹猴 NTCP 基因具有高敲除活性的 gRNA。首先通过比对食蟹猴与人类 NTCP 氨基酸序列,选择差异位点,即第84—87位和第157—165位氨基酸作为基因靶点序列区;利用 gRNA 软件设计针对上述基因靶点序列的 gRNA,每个靶点设计3~4条候选 gRNA 序列;然后利用 gRNA 体外检测试剂盒,筛选出靶向 NTCP 基因的体外敲除活性较高的两条gRNA 序列:gRNA1.2和 gRNA2.1。将 gRNA1.2和 gRNA2.1分别插入 pLV hUbC-Cas9-T2A-GFP 载体中,转染食蟹猴原代肝细胞。提取转染后细胞基因组 DNA,通过 PCR 扩增 NTCP 基因并将其克隆到 T 载体中进行测序分析。结果表明,gRNA1.2和 gRNA2.1均可使 NTCP 基因产生移码突变,但 gRNA2.1比 gRNA1.2具有更高的敲除活性。本研究为下一步编辑食蟹猴 NTCP

  1. Temporal Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Biomarkers in a Macaca fascicularis Infection Model of Tuberculosis; Comparison with Human Datasets and Analysis with Parametric/Non-parametric Tools for Improved Diagnostic Biomarker Identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Javed

    Full Text Available A temporal study of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary, pulmonary challenge model Macaca fascicularis has been conducted. PBL samples were taken prior to challenge and at one, two, four and six weeks post-challenge and labelled, purified RNAs hybridised to Operon Human Genome AROS V4.0 slides. Data analyses revealed a large number of differentially regulated gene entities, which exhibited temporal profiles of expression across the time course study. Further data refinements identified groups of key markers showing group-specific expression patterns, with a substantial reprogramming event evident at the four to six week interval. Selected statistically-significant gene entities from this study and other immune and apoptotic markers were validated using qPCR, which confirmed many of the results obtained using microarray hybridisation. These showed evidence of a step-change in gene expression from an 'early' FOS-associated response, to a 'late' predominantly type I interferon-driven response, with coincident reduction of expression of other markers. Loss of T-cell-associate marker expression was observed in responsive animals, with concordant elevation of markers which may be associated with a myeloid suppressor cell phenotype e.g. CD163. The animals in the study were of different lineages and these Chinese and Mauritian cynomolgous macaque lines showed clear evidence of differing susceptibilities to Tuberculosis challenge. We determined a number of key differences in response profiles between the groups, particularly in expression of T-cell and apoptotic makers, amongst others. These have provided interesting insights into innate susceptibility related to different host `phenotypes. Using a combination of parametric and non-parametric artificial neural network analyses we have identified key genes and regulatory pathways which may be important in early and adaptive responses to TB. Using

  2. 利用微卫星标记分析4个食蟹猴群体的遗传多样性%Analysis of genetic diversity of four Macaca fascicularis populations with microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮道元; 谢莉萍; 卢晟盛; 卢克焕

    2011-01-01

    利用7个恒河猴源微卫星标记和4个人源微卫星标记共11个标记,分析了来源于束埔寨(Pop1)、老挝(Pop2)、越南1(Pop3)和越南2(Pop4)共4个群体食蟹猴的遗传多样性.研究结果显示,所选择的11个微卫星位点表现出很高的多态性,群体内的多态性较低,存在较严重的近亲交配.Hardy-Weinberg平衡检测说明4个群体在这11个位点上均处于不平衡状态,可能存在较严重的人工选择繁育.亚群体内的固定指数平均为0.526 2,说明群体内存在近亲交配;亚种群间的固定指数均值为0.016 6,说明各群体间的遗传分化很小;各位点上的基因流均值为14.814 2,说明其交流很活跃,可有效地防止因遗传漂移而产生的遗传分化.从基于Nei氏标准遗传距离的UPGMS聚类图看出,先是Pop3和Pop4聚为一类,再和Pop1聚在一起,最后和Pop2聚在一起,其结果和其地理分布所表现的遗传差异一致.%The genetic diversity of Macaca fascicularis from four populations was analyzed by using eleven microsatellite markers including seven rhesus-derived markers and four human-derived makers. The four populations came from Cambodia (Pop 1) ,Laos (Pop 2) ,Vietnam 1 (Pop 3) and Vietnam 2 (Pop 4) ,respectively. It is illuminated that the high polymorphism was showed in 11 microsatellite locus. There was low polymorphism and seriously inbreeding within the groups. The unbalance on 11 locus from four groups was proved according to Hardy-Weinberg test. There may be more serious artificial selection inbreeding. When Fis is 0. 526 2,it showed that inbreeding was existed within groups. The Fst is 0.016 6,meaning that the genetic differentiation between groups is very small. The gene flow on every locus is 14.814 2, showing that the exchange of them is active. It may be effective by preventing genetic from differentiation because of genetic drift. According to dendrogram of UPGMS based on Nei's Unbiased Measures of genetic distance,Pop3

  3. Investigation on Gastrointestinal Parasites in Captive-bred Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis in Guangxi%广西地区人工驯繁猕猴、食蟹猴胃肠道寄生虫感染情况的初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 全琛宇; 施维; 周庆安; 张鸿满; 黄维义; 何国声

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the infection status of gastrointestinal parasites in captive-bred non-human primates (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) in Guangxi,and provide basis for prevention and control strategies.Methods The monkeys were divided into three groups,the growth group,the breeding group,and the quarantine group.Totally 784 fresh feces samples from M.mulatta and M.fascicularis were collected at six monkey shelters in Guangxi,during 2008~2012.The direct smear method (DS),saturation salt solution float method (SSF) and formaldehyde-ether precipitation method (FEP) were used for fecal parasite examination under the microscope.Results The total infection rate was 72.4% among 784 sample.Five protozoan species Ameoba,Trichomonas sp.,Giardia sp.,Balantidium coli and Coccidia),five species of nematodes(Trichuris sp.,Streptopharagus sp.,Physaloptera sp.,Oesophagostmum sp.and Strongyloides sp.),two species of cestodas (Hymenolepis sp.and Bertiella studeri),one speice of trematoda and one speice of arthropod were identified.The gastrointestinal parasites infection of the growth group was possessed of the fewest among three groups,while the quarantine group was the largest.Relatively higher prevalence of protozoan was observed in both the growth monkey group and the breeding group,and the highest infection rate was found in both Amoeba and B.coli.Conclusions The results suggest that the protozoans with simple lifecycle and the soil transmitted nematodes which are difficult to kill by antihelmintic products nowadays,have become the major parasitic species that does serious harm to the captive-bred monkeys for experiment used in Guangxi.Herein,the infestation status could provide reference for prevention and controling strategies on parasitic disease of monkeys.Some species identified from this study have been considered as the pathogens of zoonose,which will have important public sanitation significances of countermeasure on disease spread between humans and

  4. The Establishment of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors Induced Precocious Puberty Macaca Fascicularis Model and the Intervention of Yin Nourishing Fire Purging Chinese Materia Medica%由环境内分泌干扰物引致食蟹猴性早熟疾病模型建立及滋阴泻火中药治疗干预的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 蔡德培

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立灵长类--食蟹猴的由环境内分泌干扰物(environmental endocrine disruptors,EEDs)引致的性早熟疾病模型,验证滋阴泻火中药对EEDs拟雌激素活性的拮抗作用.方法 (1)不同月龄组青春前期雌性食蟹猴喂饲高、低剂量EEDs,通过观察EEDs拟雌激素作用,以确定最佳月龄、染毒剂量及染毒时间.(2)15只青春前期雌性食蟹猴随机分为染毒组、治疗组及对照组,每组5只.染毒组喂饲壬基酚(nonylphenol,4-NP)及双酚A(bisphenol,BPA),治疗组将染毒物质及滋阴泻火中药合剂同时喂饲,对照组喂饲溶剂玉米油.疗程4周.疗程完成时,检测血清雌激素水平、阴道脱落细胞成熟指数,取出子宫,测定其子宫湿重、子宫内膜及环形平滑肌厚度、子宫内膜上皮细胞及腺上皮细胞高度.结果 (1)20月龄为最佳染毒月龄,低剂量EEDs为最佳染毒剂量,4周为最佳染毒时间.(2)与对照组比较,染毒组血清雌激素水平明显升高,阴道脱落细胞成熟指数显著增加,子宫湿重、子宫内膜厚度及环形平滑肌厚度、子宫内膜上皮细胞及腺上皮细胞高度显著增加(P<0.05).与染毒组比较,治疗组上述指标均显著降低(P<0.05).结论 本研究成功地建立了灵长类--食蟹猴由EEDs引致性早熟的疾病模型,证实了EEDs具有显著的拟雌激素活性,并验证了滋阴泻火中药合剂对其拟雌激素活性具有显著的拮抗作用.%Objective To establish the environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) induced precocious puberty macaca fascicularis model, thus verifying the antagonism of yin nourishing fire purging Chinese materia medica (YNFPCMM) against the estrogenic effects. Methods (1) The female prepubescent monkeys at different months old were fed with high dose and low dose EEDs. By observing EEDs' estrogenic effects, the optimal age, the optimal exposure dose, and the optimal exposure time were determined. (2) Fifteen female prepubescent monkeys were

  5. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Roberto E; Radi, Zaher A

    2007-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis characterized by multifocal follicular lymphoid cell infiltrates with germinal centers, thyroid acinar atrophy and pituitary cell hyperplasia/hypertrophy of the adenohypophysis was detected in a vehicle control, 4-year-old female Cynomolgus macaque in a routine toxicology study. Lymphoid cells of germinal centers were positive for the B-cell marker CD20 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), while remaining lymphocytes were positive for the T-cell marker CD3. Hypertrophied/hyperplastic pituitary cells were positive for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) by IHC, consistent with an adaptive response due to removal of hormonal negative feedback from the diseased thyroid gland. Features of this case are similar to chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in humans, an autoimmune disorder also known as Hashimoto's disease. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis with compensatory pituitary changes may occur spontaneously in young, clinically normal cynomolgus macaques and its presence in drug treated animals should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Visuospatial properties of caudal area 7b in Macaca fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Hui JIANG; Ying-Zhou HU; Jian-Hong WANG; Yuan-Ye MA; Xin-Tian HU

    2013-01-01

    To proceed from sensation to movement,integration and transformation of information from different senses and reference frames are required.Several brain areas are involved in this transformation process,but previous neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have implicated the caudal area 7b as one particular component of this transformation system.In this study,we present the first quantitative report on the spatial coding properties of caudal area 7b.The results showed that neurons in this area had intermediate component characteristics in the transformation system; the area contained bimodal neurons,and neurons in this area encode spatial information using a hybrid reference frame.These results provide evidence that caudal area 7b may belong to the reference frame transformation system,thus contributing to our general understanding of the transformation system.

  7. Skull Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1988-01-01

    Disguises a lesson about skulls with some fun to cause less fear among students. Outlines strategies, questions, and answers for use. Includes a skull mask which can be photocopied and distributed to students as a learning tool and a fun Halloween treat. Also shown is a picture of skull parts. (RT)

  8. Fructosamine reference ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Fritze, Misty J; Smith, Peter C; Zelterman, Daniel; Scholz, Jodi A Carlson

    2011-07-01

    Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in several species of Old and New World nonhuman primates. Fructosamine values provide important information about recent glycemic control and can be useful in the diagnosis and management of DM. However, despite an abundance of reports in the literature describing spontaneous and induced DM in monkeys, few reference ranges are available for fructosamine. Reference ranges have been published for woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) but currently are not available for rhesus macaques. At our institution, DM is a common diagnosis in aging rhesus macaques. Here we report a reference range for fructosamine in rhesus macaques. The overall range was 157 to 230 μmol/L, with male rhesus and macaques 10 y or older having significantly higher values than do female rhesus and macaques younger than 10 y, respectively. This range provides clinical veterinarians with an additional tool for evaluating glycemic control in rhesus macaques. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  9. Craniodental variation among Macaques (Macaca, nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ruliang

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In terms of structure and function, the skull is one of the most complicated organs in the body. It is also one of the most important parts in terms of developmental and evolutionary origins. This complexity makes it difficult to obtain evolutionary assessments if, as is usually the case with fossils, only part of the skull is available. For this reason this study involves a set of comparisons whereby the smallest functional units are studied first, and these built up, through a triple-nested hierarchical design, into more complex anatomical regions and eventually into the skull-as-a-whole. This design has been applied to macaques (Macaca in order to reveal patterns of variation at the different levels. The profiles of such variation have been obtained both within and between species. This has lead to a search for the skull parts that have undergone similar selection pressures during evolution and comparable development patterns in both ontogeny and phylogeny. Results Morphometric analysis (Principal Components was used to obtain these profiles of species and sex separations based on 77 cranial variables from 11 species of macaques. The results showed that 7 functional units could be aggregated into three functionally reasonable anatomical regions on the basis of similarities in profiles. These were: the masticatory apparatus containing mandible, lower teeth and upper teeth, the face as a whole combining maxilla (actually lower face and upper face, and the cranium as a whole involving cranium and calvaria. Twenty-six variables were finally selected for analyzing the morphology of the whole skull. This last showed an overall profile similar to that revealed in the masticatory apparatus but also contained additional information pertaining to individual species and species-groups separations. Conclusions The study provides a model for carrying out analysis of species separations and sex variation simultaneously. Through this

  10. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  11. Kadar Kolesterol Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca Fascicularis Obesitas di Pura Uluwatu Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Ratna Wulan Sari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian deskriptif-observasional dengan pendekatan cross-sectional telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui kadar kolesterol total monyet ekor panjang obesitas yang hidup liar di Pura Luhur Uluwatu, Bali. Sebanyak enam belas monyet ekor panjang berhasil ditangkap bius menggunakan ketamin dosis 10 mg/kg berat badan dicampur dengan premedikasi xylazin dosis 1-2 mg/kg berat badan, kemudian dilakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan, pengukuran morfometri dan pengambilan sampel darah. Penentuan kadar kolesterol menggunakan mesin automatic chemistry analyzer by Indiko- Thermo Scientific. Dari 16 ekor monyet, 12 ekor tergolong obesitas berdasarkan Indeks Masa Tubuh dan Berat Badan (IMT ?32,81±1,1 kg/m2 menurut Putra et al. (2006; BB ?8 kg. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rataan kadar kolesterol total monyet obesitas adalah 107,75 ml/dL. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kadar kolesterol monyet ekor panjang obesitas di Pura Uluwatu, Bali masih normal.

  12. Aging, dominance history, and social behavior in Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Veenema, H.C.; Spruijt, B.M.; Vanhooff, J.A.R.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the dominance history of socially housed Java-monkeys on the aging process. In monkeys, social subordinance is generally associated with elevated levels of cortisol, which, in turn, have been suggested to influence cognitive decline. As cogni

  13. Limited Susceptibility of Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to Leprosy after Experimental Administration of Mycobacterium leprae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gerald P.; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C.; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Tan, Esterlina V.; Fajardo, Tranquilino T.; Villahermosa, Laarni G.; Cellona, Roland V.; Balagon, Maria V.; White, Valerie A.; Saunderson, Paul R.; Walsh, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis—importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1–19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration. PMID:22855766

  14. Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar infections in captive macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Windell L; Yason, John Anthony D L; Adao, Davin Edric V

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that infects man and animals. This parasite has a global distribution and the disease it causes is usually characterized by diarrhea. In order to detect the parasite, it is necessary to differentiate it from Entamoeba dispar. E. dispar appears morphologically similar to E. histolytica but does not cause disease and tissue invasion. This study reports on the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar among captive macaques in a primate facility in the Philippines. PCR was used to correctly identify both Entamoeba species. Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was also performed to determine the seroprevalence of amebiasis in the captive macaques. Based on PCR targeting of the peroxiredoxin gene, of the 96 stool samples collected, 23 (24%) contained E. histolytica while 32 (33%) contained E. dispar. IFAT revealed 26 (27%) serum samples positive for antibodies against E. histolytica. Sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene showed that the 23 E. histolytica isolates were identical to human E. histolytica isolates deposited in the GenBank and not Entamoeba nuttalli as found in macaques in other recent reports. The Philippines is a major exporter of monkeys for biomedical research purposes, so screening animals before transporting them to other locations lessens the risk of spreading zoonoses to a wider area. This is the first report of the molecular detection of E. histolytica and E. dispar among macaques in the Philippines. This study complements the limited information available on the animal hosts of E. histolytica in the Philippines.

  15. Cryopreservation of cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatozoa in a chemically defined extender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Hui Li; Ke-Jun Cai; Lei Su; Mo Guan; Xie-Chao He; Hong Wang; Andras Kovacs; Wei-Zhi Ji

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To establish a method for cynomolgus monkey sperm cryopreservation in a chemically defined extender.Methods: Semen samples were collected by electro-ejaculation from four sexually mature male cynomolgus monkeys.The spermatozoa were frozen in straws by liquid nitrogen vapor using egg-yolk-free Tes-Tris (mTTE) synthetic extender and glycerol as cryoprotectant. The effects of glycerol concentration (1%, 3%, 5%, 10% and 15% [v/v])and its equilibration time (10 min, 30 min, 60 min and 90 min) on post-thaw spermatozoa were examined by sperm motility and sperm head membrane integrity. Results: The post-thaw motility and head membrane integrity of spermatozoa were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for 5% glycerol (42.95 ± 2.55 and 50.39 ± 2.42, respectively) than those of the other groups (1%: 19.19 ± 3.22 and 24.84 ± 3.64; 3%: 34.23 ± 3.43 and 41.37 ± 3.42; 10%:15.68 ± 2.36 and 21.39 ± 3.14; 15%: 7.47 ± 1.44 and 12.90 ± 2.18). The parameters for 30 min equilibration (42.95 ± 2.55 and 50.39 ± 2.42) were better (P < 0.05) than those of the other groups (10 min: 31.33 ± 3.06 and 38.98 ± 3.31; 60 min: 32.49 ± 3.86 and 40.01 ± 4.18; 90 min: 31.16 ± 3.66 and 38.30 ± 3.78). Five percent glycerol and 30 min equilibration yielded the highest post-thaw sperm motility and head membrane integrity. Conclusion:Cynomolgus monkey spermatozoa can be successfully cryopreserved in a chemically defined extender, which is related to the concentration and the equilibration time of glycerol.

  16. Experimental Infection of Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with Aerosolized Monkeypox Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    appearance of very few pox lesions and the appearance of observable clinical disease of short duration just prior to death. Finally, perhaps because of...the small size of the marmosets, blood was not drawn with great frequency and serum chemistries and CBCs were not performed, thus leaving many

  17. Structural and functional definition of the motor cortex in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessle, B J; Wiesendanger, M

    1982-02-01

    1. The details of the organization of the motor cortex and its anterior and posterior border were investigated in three monkeys by a combination of techniques including intracortical microstimulation (i.c.m.s.), electrophysiological recording of cutaneous and muscle afferent inputs to single cortical neurones, and electrophysiological and anatomical identification of corticospinal neurones; in addition, data from these methods were related to cortical cytoarchitecture.2. Almost 5000 individual cortical loci were tested with i.c.m.s. in the unanaesthetized monkeys. In this paper, we particularly consider the organization of the forelimb motor representation, and its relation to the representation of other parts of the body. I.c.m.s. thresholds of about 5 muA were common for evoking twitch movements and e.m.g. responses in distal forelimb and face, jaw and tongue muscles, but proximal forelimb, trunk and hind-limb movements also sometimes had such low thresholds.3. The fingers were found to be represented nearest the central sulcus, with horseshoe-shaped bands of cortical tissue representing progressively more proximal muscles situated around this central ;finger core'.4. Cytoarchitectonically, the cortex having these low-threshold motor effects was characteristic of area 4. There was also a close fit between the extent of this ;excitable cortex' and the extent of densely spaced corticospinal neurones identified electro-physiologically or with horseradish peroxidase labelling. In subsequent mapping of forelimb afferents to the cortex when the animal was deeply anaesthetized, low-threshold and short-latency responses to muscle nerve stimulation were rarely found in this ;excitable cortex'.5. The anterior border could be clearly established by i.c.m.s. and by the sharp boundary of corticospinal neurones. It was noted that the motor cortex extends rostrally beyond area 4 and its anterior border appears to reside in the posterior part of area 6aalpha (Vogt & Vogt, 1919) although it is difficult to establish the precise transition from area 4 to area 6.6. Posteriorly, the ;micro-excitable cortex' was found to be limited to regions cytoarchitectonically delineated as area 4 and did not include area 3a. On the other hand, low-threshold forelimb proprioceptive afferent inputs appeared restricted to area 3a neurones in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Corticospinal neurones were very dense in area 4, and there was a clear decrease in their occurrence in more caudal areas. However, scattered nests of corticospinal neurones were noted in areas 3a, 3b, 2, 1 and 5. It remains to be seen whether these scattered nests could be directly involved in motor control or whether they may modulate ascending somatosensory transmission, and whether they rely on sensory feed-back or inputs from other central areas for their spinal effects.

  18. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, van J.A.R.A.M.; Gispen, W.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal's own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These ind

  19. Spontaneous cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a juvenile cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Rogerson, Petrina; Blanco, Ana L; Naylor, Stuart W; Bradley, Alys

    2012-08-01

    A neoplastic mass compressing the left cerebellar hemisphere and hindbrain was observed at trimming in a 3½-year-old male cynomolgus monkey from a control dose group. Microscopically, the neoplastic mass was nonencapsulated, invasive, and showed two morphological patterns. The predominant area consisted of densely packed undifferentiated, polygonal to spindle cells arranged in vague sheets supported by a scant fibrovascular stroma. The other area was less cellular and composed of round neoplastic cells separated by eosinophilic fibrillar material. Immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, and S-100 confirmed the presence of primitive undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells and some cells with neuronal or glial differentiation. On the basis of histopathology and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor with neuronal and glial differentiation was made. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rare in animals including nonhuman primates; this is the first published report in this species.

  20. Characterization of PrPc-immunoreactive cells in monkey (Macaca fascicularis) gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Z; Bodegas, M E; Sesma, M P; Guembe, L

    2005-04-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the most likely entry sites for the pathological isoform of prions (PrP(sc)). To understand how PrP(sc) crosses the digestive mucosa, it is crucial to characterize the cells expressing normal prion protein (PrP(c)). By means of double immunofluorescence applied to sections of the monkey GIT, we demonstrated that, in the stomach, PrP(c) immunostaining occurs in subsets of histamine, somatostatin (Som), ghrelin (Ghr), gastrin (G), and serotonin (5HT) cells. In the small and large bowels, PrP(c) cells were found in subpopulations of cells immunolabeled for 5HT, Som, G, and peptide YY (PYY).

  1. Acute traumatic spinal cord injury induces glial activation in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A D; Westmoreland, S V; Evangelous, N R; Graham, A; Sledge, J; Nesathurai, S

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury leads to direct myelin and axonal damage and leads to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to site of injury. Although rodent models have provided the greatest insight into the genesis of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), recent studies have attempted to develop an appropriate non-human primate model. We explored TSCI in a cynomolgus macaque model using a balloon catheter to mimic external trauma to further evaluate the underlying mechanisms of acute TSCI. Following 1hour of spinal cord trauma, there were focal areas of hemorrhage and necrosis at the site of trauma. Additionally, there was a marked increased expression of macrophage-related protein 8, MMP9, IBA-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages and microglia at the site of injury. This data indicate that acute TSCI in the cynomolgus macaque is an appropriate model and that the earliest immunohistochemical changes noted are within macrophage and microglia populations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals.

  3. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys.

  4. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, van J.A.R.A.M.; Gispen, W.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal's own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These ind

  5. The relationship between masseter force and masseter electromyogram during mastication in the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, W L; Johnson, K R

    1989-01-01

    In five adult monkeys, electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from bipolar surface electrodes positioned over the superficial masseter and from bipolar fine-wire electrodes within both the superficial and deep masseter. Relative masseter force was estimated by measuring surface bone strain from the lateral aspect of the zygomatic arch using rosette strain gauges. Multiple step-wise regression procedures demonstrated that peak values of the averaged masseter EMG could often explain a considerable amount of the variation of peak relative masseter force during mastication, i.e. r2 values ranged from 0.23 to 0.96 for the various single-electrode models and R2 values ranged from 0.78 to 0.96 for the various multiple-electrode models. The r2 values for relative masseter force and EMG data from the surface electrodes ranged from 0.69 to 0.96, and, on average, EMG data from surface electrodes provided somewhat more information about overall relative muscle force than data from fine-wire electrodes. The R2 values for a two-electrode model, consisting of data from surface electrodes over the superficial masseter and fine-wire electrodes in the posterior portion of the deep masseter, ranged from 0.78 to 0.95. The latency between the averaged surface EMG and relative muscle force was determined and the data indicated that the surface EMG usually preceded muscle force. This latency tended to decrease gradually throughout the entire power stroke of mastication. At peak values, the surface EMG preceded muscle force by about 22 ms. Towards the end of the power stroke, i.e. the 25% of peak values during unloading, muscle force may actually precede the average EMG.

  6. Reach–to-grasp movements in macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the ‘isochrony principle’ seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  7. Lower respiratory tract infection in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) infected with group A Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Randall J; Ashraf, Madiha; Gonulal, Vedia E; Ayeras, Ara A; Cantu, Concepcion; Shea, Patrick R; Carroll, Ronan K; Humbird, Tammy; Greaver, Jamieson L; Swain, Jody L; Chang, Ellen; Ragasa, Willie; Jenkins, Leslie; Lally, Kevin P; Blasdel, Terry; Cagle, Philip; Musser, James M

    2010-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), a human-specific pathogen, is best known for causing pharyngitis ("strep-throat") and necrotizing fasciitis ("flesh-eating disease"). However, the organism is also an uncommon but important cause of community-acquired bronchopneumonia, an infection with an exceptionally high mortality rate. Inasmuch as little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of GAS lower respiratory tract infection, we sought to develop a relevant human infection model. Nine cynomolgus macaques were infected by intra-bronchial instillation of either sterile saline or GAS (10(5) or 10(7) CFU). Animals were continuously monitored and sacrificed at five days post-inoculation. Serial bronchial alveolar lavage specimens and tissues collected at necropsy were used for histologic and immunohistochemical examination, quantitative microbial culture, lung and blood biomarker analysis, and in vivo GAS gene expression studies. The lower respiratory tract disease observed in cynomolgus macaques mimicked the clinical and pathological features of severe GAS bronchopneumonia in humans. This new monkey model will be useful for testing hypotheses bearing on the molecular pathogenesis of GAS in the lower respiratory tract.

  8. Monitoring gene expression in muscle tissue of macaca fascicularis under the influence of testosterone and SARM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Martina; Tichopad, Ales; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to evaluate data on the gene expression profiles induced by testosterone and a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM, TAP Pharmaceutical Products Inc., Lake Forest, IL, USA) in androgen sensitive muscle tissue to obtain a better understanding on the molecular mechanisms of action and to identify biomarkers for SARM function in primate organs. A total of 24 male cyomolgus monkeys were divided into four groups: testosterone group, SARM1 group, SARM10 group, and control group, each consisting of six animals. The testosterone group was treated i.m. with 3.0 mg/kg Testostoviron®-depot-250 (Schering, Berlin, Germany) every 2 weeks, the SARM1 and SARM10 groups with 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg SARM LGD2941 daily, and the control group was not treated. Muscle biopsies from musculus quadriceps and musculus triceps were collected at three time points: baseline time point before SARM application (control), on day 16, and on day 90 of treatment. A total of 30 candidate genes were selected according to their functionality by screening the actual literature and were composed to the following functional groups: cell cycle, endocrine factors, energy metabolism, muscle fiber proteins, muscle specific transcription factors, protein metabolism, and satellite cell biology. Biomarkers were identified as genes regulated from baseline in any of the three treatment groups at day 16 or day 90 using analysis of variance with baseline defined as the contrast group. Out of 23 tested candidate genes, 3 were significantly regulated in m. quadriceps after 90 days treatment; in m. triceps no significant differences were identified. Cathepsin L, calpain 3, and insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 could be identified as first biomarkers, and first physiological differences between control and treatment samples were determined. Both testosterone and SARM LGD2941 appear to have similar effects after 90 days treatment, and thus a longer-term therapy with these substances can be recommended.

  9. Reticulospinal neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, S T; Davidson, A G; Buford, J A

    2009-11-10

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate a role for reticulospinal neurons of the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) in motor preparation and goal-directed reaching in the monkey. Although the macaque monkey is an important model for such investigations, little is known regarding the organization of the PMRF in the monkey. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of reticulospinal neurons in the macaque. Bilateral injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made into the cervical spinal cord. A wide band of retrogradely labeled cells was found in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and labeled cells continued rostrally into the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) and into the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO). Additional retrograde tracing studies following unilateral cervical spinal cord injections of cholera toxin subunit B revealed that there were more ipsilateral (60%) than contralateral (40%) projecting cells in Gi, while an approximately 50:50 ratio contralateral to ipsilateral split was found in PnC and more contralateral projections arose from PnO. Reticulospinal neurons in PMRF ranged widely in size from over 50 microm to under 25 microm across the major somatic axis. Labeled giant cells (soma diameters greater than 50 microm) comprised a small percentage of the neurons and were found in Gi, PnC and PnO. The present results define the origins of the reticulospinal system in the monkey and provide an important foundation for future investigations of the anatomy and physiology of this system in primates.

  10. Pedicled Instep Flap and Tibial Nerve Reconstruction in a Cynomolgus Monkey [Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Weiss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male cynomolgus monkey experienced extensive soft tissue trauma to the right caudal calf area. Some weeks after complete healing of the original wounds, the monkey developed a chronic pressure sore on plantar surface of the heel of its right foot. A loss of sensitivity in the sole of the foot was hypothesized. The skin defect was closed by a medial sensate pedicled instep flap followed by counter transplantation of a full thickness graft from the interdigital webspace. The integrity of the tibial nerve was revised and reconstructed by means of the turnover flap technique. Both procedures were successful. This is an uncommon case in an exotic veterinary patient as it demonstrates a reconstructive skin flap procedure for the treatment of a chronic, denervated wound in combination with the successful reconstruction of 2.5 cm gap in the tibial nerve.

  11. Antibody Responses in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis, to Protein Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    your husband’s "educational experiences". And to my greatest of all r’-ildren in the world, Sarah and Jonathan, who did their best to understand when...Monogr Allergy 19:122-133. 118 Hammarstrom, L., Lefranc, G., Lefranc, M.P., Persson, MAA . Smith, C.I.E. 1986. Aberrant pattern of anti-carbohydrate

  12. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  13. Population and landscape genetics of an introduced species (M. fascicularis) on the island of Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkoski Trask, Jessica; George, Debra; Houghton, Paul; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2013-01-01

    The cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, was introduced onto the island of Mauritius in the early 17(th) century. The species experienced explosive population growth, and currently exists at high population densities. Anecdotes collected from nonhuman primate trappers on the island of Mauritius allege that animals from the northern portion of the island are larger in body size than and superior in condition to their conspecifics in the south. Although previous genetic studies have reported Mauritian cynomolgus macaques to be panmictic, the individuals included in these studies were either from the southern/central or an unknown portion of the island. In this study, we sampled individuals broadly throughout the entire island of Mauritius and used spatial principle component analysis to measure the fine-scale correlation between geographic and genetic distance in this population. A stronger correlation between geographic and genetic distance was found among animals in the north than in those in the southern and central portions of the island. We found no difference in body weight between the two groups, despite anecdotal evidence to the contrary. We hypothesize that the increased genetic structure among populations in the north is related to a reduction in dispersal distance brought about by human habitation and tourist infrastructure, but too recent to have produced true genetic differentiation.

  14. Modeling skull electrical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sadleir, R. J.; A Argibay

    2007-01-01

    Accurate representations and measurements of skull electrical conductivity are essential in developing appropriate forward models for applications such as inverse EEG or Electrical Impedance Tomography of the head. Because of its layered structure, it is often assumed that skull is anisotropic, with an anisotropy ratio around 10. However, no detailed investigation of skull anisotropy has been performed. In this paper we investigate four-electrode measurements of conductivities and their relat...

  15. Skull base tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Servico de Radiologia, Rua Professor Lima Basto, 1093 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: borgesalexandra@clix.pt

    2008-06-15

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base.

  16. [Anatomy of the skull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Emil

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the human body based on a special teleological system is one of the greatest miracles of the world. The skull's primary function is the defence of the brain, so every alteration or disease of the brain results in some alteration of the skull. This analogy is to be identified even in the human embryo. Proportions of the 22 bones constituting the skull and of sizes of sutures are not only the result of the phylogeny, but those of the ontogeny as well. E.g. the age of the skeletons in archaeological findings could be identified according to these facts. Present paper outlines the ontogeny and development of the tissues of the skull, of the structure of the bone-tissue, of the changes of the size of the skull and of its parts during the different periods of human life, reflecting to the aesthetics of the skull as well. "Only the human scull can give me an impression of beauty. In spite of all genetical colseness, a skull of a chimpanzee cannot impress me aesthetically"--author confesses. In the second part of the treatise those authors are listed, who contributed to the perfection of our knowledge regarding the skull. First of all the great founder of modern anatomy, Andreas Vesalius, then Pierre Paul Broca, Jacob Benignus Winslow are mentioned here. The most important Hungarian contributors were as follow: Sámuel Rácz, Pál Bugát or--the former assistant of Broca--Aurél Török. A widely used tool for measurement of the size of the skull, the craniometer was invented by the latter. The members of the family Lenhossék have had also important results in this field of research, while descriptive anatomy of the skull was completed by microsopical anatomy thanks the activity of Géza Mihálkovits.

  17. Skull Base Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base.

  18. Growing skull fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Miljan H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Growing skull fracture or craniocerebral erosion is a rare complication of linear skull fracture in childhood. It is characterized by progressive diastatic enlargement of the fracture line, which leads to a cranial defect, dural cleft, and cerebral herniation. It is presented as a soft pulsabile scalp swelling above the fracture, with a clear cranial defect. Case report. In this paper we presented a patient, an 8-month-old boy with the growing skull fracture revealed four weeks after the injury. After the surgical treatment, the boy was in a good general condition without the presence of neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Early recognition of craniocerebral erosion is very important. Timely detection prevents further progression of the disease and the evolution of neurological impairment. Surgery is the method of choice for treating a growing skull fracture .

  19. Modeling skull electrical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, R J; Argibay, A

    2007-10-01

    Accurate representations and measurements of skull electrical conductivity are essential in developing appropriate forward models for applications such as inverse EEG or Electrical Impedance Tomography of the head. Because of its layered structure, it is often assumed that skull is anisotropic, with an anisotropy ratio around 10. However, no detailed investigation of skull anisotropy has been performed. In this paper we investigate four-electrode measurements of conductivities and their relation to tissue anisotropy ratio (ratio of tangential to radial conductivity) in layered or anisotropic biological samples similar to bone. It is shown here that typical values for the thicknesses and radial conductivities of individual skull layers produce tissue with much smaller anisotropy ratios than 10. Moreover, we show that there are very significant differences between the field patterns formed in a three-layered isotropic structure plausible for bone, and those formed assuming that bone is homogeneous and anisotropic. We performed a measurement of conductivity using an electrode configuration sensitive to the distinction between three-layered and homogeneous anisotropic composition and found results consistent with the sample being three-layered. We recommend that the skull be more appropriately represented as three isotropic layers than as homogeneous and anisotropic.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  1. Differences in the morphology of the maxillary sinus and roots of teeth between Macaca fuscata and Macaca fuscata yakui determined using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaizen, Tomonori; Sato, Iwao; Miwa, Yoko; Sunohara, Masataka; Yosue, Takashi; Mine, Kazuharu; Koseki, Hirohisa; Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese macaque is an endemic species consisting of two subspecies: Macaca fuscata fuscata (MFF) and Macaca fuscata yakui (MFY). The MFY is indigenous to Yakushima Island and represents a subspecies of MFF that lives from Honshu to Shikoku and Kyushu, Japan. However, the differences in the skulls of the MFY and MFF are unknown, despite these subspecies having different skull sizes. The maxillary sinus (MS) indicates that the features of the frontal view reflect the transversal growth of the maxilla of the skull. In this study, we show the MS structures of the MFF (n = 9, 18 sides) and MFY (n = 10, 20 sides) using a cone-beam computed tomography instrument. Base on three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed images the MS and nasal cavity were found to present almost to no significant differences between MFF and MFY. However, we designated three classifications of the sinus floor based on the 3D MS images of these Japanese macaques: a round-like shape (type a, MFF = 66.7% (12/18), MFY = 45% (9/20)), a flat-like shape (type b, MFF = 22.2% (4/18), MFY = 35% (7/20)), and an irregular shape (type c, MFF = 11.1% (2/18), MFY = 20.0% (4/20)). The sinus floor shapes of the MFF were mostly type a, while those of the MFY were mostly type b. The prevalence of a root contacting the cortical bone is higher in the canine (26.7%, (8/30)) and second premolar (20%, (6/30) of the MFY at the nasal cavity, moreover, this value is higher in the third molar (42.9%, (9/21)) of the MS in the MFY. These results suggest that the features of the floor of the MS are related to the differences in maxillary root apices teeth between MMF and MMF.

  2. A pair choice test to identify female mating patterns in relation to ovulation in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikitopoulos, E.; Heistermann, M.; Vries, Han de; Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. van; Sterck, E.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Female mammals may exert choice for mates directly by mating selectively. Alternatively, females can mate promiscuously, allowing sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice to operate. Primate sexual behaviour is probably a compromise between conflicting male and female interests, so it may be i

  3. Variation in hair δ13C and δ15N values in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Lee, Benjamin P.Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the primatology literature on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) has focused on African and New World species, with comparatively little research published on Asian primates. Here we present hair δ13C and δ15N isotope values for a sample of 33 long-tailed macaques from Singapore. We evaluate the suggestion by a previous researcher that forest degradation and biodiversity loss in Singapore have led to a decline in macaque trophic level. The results of our analysis indicated significant spatial variability in δ13C but not δ15N. The range of variation in δ13C was consistent with a diet based on C3 resources, with one group exhibiting low values consistent with a closed canopy environment. Relative to other macaque species from Europe and Asia, the macaques from Singapore exhibited a low mean δ13C value but mid-range mean δ15N value. Previous research suggesting a decline in macaque trophic level is not supported by the results of our study.

  4. Observations on healing following endodontic surgery in nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis): effects of rhBMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholtz, Gunnar; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Sorensen, Rachel G; Xiropaidis, Andreas V; Wozney, John M

    2006-01-01

    The potential of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to enhance bone healing following endodontic surgery was tested. The pattern and timing of de novo bone formation and cementum regeneration, and the potential for root resorption and ankylosis to accompany bone formation were evaluated. Pulpal infections were induced in maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth in young adult Cynomolgus monkeys. The teeth received conventional endodontic treatment immediately followed by surgical root resection. In a randomized split-mouth design, contralateral apical bone defects received rhBMP-2 in absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier or served as sham-surgery controls to provide histological and radiographic evaluations following 1 (mandibular incisors) and 4.5 (maxillary incisors) month(s) postsurgery. At 1 month postsurgery trabecular bone filled the apical bone defects. The newly formed bone appeared considerably more mature and had assumed characteristics of the contiguous resident bone at 4.5 months postsurgery. The resected root tips were almost completely covered by new cementum with a maturing functionally oriented periodontal ligament. Localized inflammatory infiltrates were associated with the filled root canals and extruded root-filling material. Root resorption and ankylosis were not observed. There were no apparent differences in healing patterns between sites implanted with rhBMP-2/ACS and those serving as sham-surgery controls. Under conditions where the influence of infectious elements and irritation caused by root filling material are minimized, bone formation and cementum regeneration appears rapid following endodontic surgery. rhBMP-2/ACS did not offer an obvious benefit above and beyond that of the native osteogenic potential in this animal model.

  5. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general...

  6. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ballesta

    Full Text Available 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play. In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors.

  7. Superovulatory responses in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) depend on the interaction between donor status and superovulation method used

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Ji-Su; YOON, Seung-Bin; JEONG, Kang-Jin; SIM, Bo-Woong; CHOI, Seon-A; LEE, Sang-Il; JIN, Yeung Bae; SONG, Bong-Seok; LEE, Sang-Rae; KIM, Sun-Uk; CHANG, Kyu-Tae

    2017-01-01

    The current study was performed to investigate the effect of oocyte donor status, including age and body weight, on metaphase II (MII) oocyte recovery using two superovulation methods in cynomolgus monkeys. The use of Method A [recombinant gonadotrophin (75 IU/kg, 3 ×, 3-day intervals) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)] led to great increases in ovary size and the mean number of MII oocytes retrieved in age- and body-weight-dependent manner; in contrast, both the parameters were similar in Method B [recombinant gonadotrophin (60 IU, twice daily, 6 days), recombinant gonadotropin and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (rhLH) (60 IU, twice daily, 3 days), and hCG]. Importantly, Method A showed maximal MII oocyte recovery rate in > 60-month-old or 4.5–5.0-kg female monkeys, whereas Method B was equally effective regardless of the donor age and body weight. These results indicate that superovulatory responses depend on the interaction between oocyte donor status and the superovulation method used in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:28070055

  8. Efficacy of selective PDE4D negative allosteric modulators in the object retrieval task in female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane S Sutcliffe

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP signalling plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the hippocampal and basal ganglia systems. The augmentation of cAMP signalling through the selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases represents a viable strategy to treat disorders associated with dysfunction of these circuits. The phosphodiesterase (PDE type 4 inhibitor rolipram has shown significant pro-cognitive effects in neurological disease models, both in rodents and primates. However, competitive non-isoform selective PDE4 inhibitors have a low therapeutic index which has stalled their clinical development. Here, we demonstrate the pro-cognitive effects of selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs of PDE4D, D159687 and D159797 in female Cynomolgous macaques, in the object retrieval detour task. The efficacy displayed by these NAMs in a primate cognitive task which engages the corticostriatal circuitry, together with their suitable pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles, suggests that clinical development of these allosteric modulators should be considered for the treatment of a variety of brain disorders associated with cognitive decline.

  9. Use of Operant Performance to Guide and Evaluate Medical Treatment in an Adult Male Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    treatment. The affected monkey received ketoprofen , buprenorphine, or their combination but continued to perform poorly during daily operant behavioral...evening administration of buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg IM) was added to the treatment regimen of ketoprofen (2.0 mg/kg IM) ad- ministration in the...well below the reinforced band. Treatment with ketoprofen or the ketoprofen -buprenorphine combination failed to increase mean response duration

  10. A critical analysis of the cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, as a model to test HIV-1/SIV vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Joseph M; MacDonald, Kelly S

    2015-06-17

    The use of a number of non-rhesus macaque species, but especially cynomolgus macaques as a model for HIV-1 vaccine development has increased in recent years. Cynomolgus macaques have been used in the United Kingdom, Europe, Canada and Australia as a model for HIV vaccine development for many years. Unlike rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques infected with SIV show a pattern of disease pathogenesis that more closely resembles that of human HIV-1 infection, exhibiting lower peak and set-point viral loads and slower progression to disease with more typical AIDS defining illnesses. Several advances have been made recently in the use of the cynomolgus macaque SIV challenge model that allow the demonstration of vaccine efficacy using attenuated viruses and vectors that are both viral and non-viral in origin. This review aims to probe the details of various vaccination trials carried out in cynomolgus macaques in the context of our modern understanding of the highly diverse immunogenetics of this species with a view to understanding the species-specific immune correlates of protection and the efficacy of vectors that have been used to design vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Mandibular reconstruction with a bioactive-coated cementless Ti6Al4V modular endoprosthesis in Macaca fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chanchareonsook, N.; Tideman, H.; Lee, S.; Hollister, S.J.; Flanagan, C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The titanium mandibular modular endoprosthesis fixed with polymethylmethacrylate cement in the medullary space of the mandible has been introduced in previous studies. However, the internal parts of these devices have been found to be prone to loosening and wound dehiscence. The current study introd

  12. Pathology of experimental Machupo virus infection, Chicava strain, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by intramuscular and aerosol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T M; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Robinson, C G; Wilkinson, E R; Hensley, L E; Cashman, K A

    2015-01-01

    Machupo virus, the causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever of which little is known and for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics are available. This study evaluated the cynomolgus macaque as an animal model using the Machupo virus, Chicava strain, via intramuscular and aerosol challenge. The incubation period was 6 to 10 days with initial signs of depression, anorexia, diarrhea, mild fever, and a petechial skin rash. These were often followed by neurologic signs and death within an average of 18 days. Complete blood counts revealed leukopenia as well as marked thrombocytopenia. Serum chemistry values identified a decrease in total protein, marked increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and moderate increases in alkaline phosphatase. Gross pathology findings included a macular rash extending across the axillary and inguinal regions beginning at approximately 10 days postexposure as well as enlarged lymph nodes and spleen, enlarged and friable liver, and sporadic hemorrhages along the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and necrosis/apoptosis in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system (nonsuppurative encephalitis) was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection in cynomolgus macaques and supports the usefulness of cynomolgus macaques as a viable model of human Machupo virus infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features of compressive cervical myelopathy with traumatic intervertebral disc herniation in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Park, Seong Hoe

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) with nucleus pulposus extrusion, traumatic or not, is a devastating clinical condition accompanied by neurological problems. Here we report a cynomolgus macaque suffering from acute and progressive neurological dysfunction by a blunt trauma due to neck collar, an animal handling device. Tetraplegia, urinary incontinence, decreased proprioception, and imperception of pain were shown on physical and neurological examinations. MRI sagittal T2 weighted sequences revealed an extensive protrusion of disc material between C2 and C3 cervical vertebra, and this protrusion resulted in central stenosis of the spinal cord. Histopathologic findings showed a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated at sites of spinal cord injury (SCI). This case is the first report of compressive cervical SCI caused by IVDH associated with blunt trauma. PMID:28053621

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: crab-eating macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NS ...

  15. Pediculosis in Macaca sylvanus of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Douglas L; Smith, Vincent; Pizarro, Mark; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory; Fuentes, Agustin; Shaw, Eric; Cortes, John

    2007-04-10

    Pedicinus spp. parasitize several species of nonhuman primates. This is the first published report confirming the presence of Pedicinus albidus (Rudow) infestation in the free-ranging macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar. The diagnosis of pediculosis was based upon finding adult lice on host animals.

  16. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  17. Cycloartane triterpenes from marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xinping; ZHU Xiaobin; DENG Liping; DENG Zhiwei; LIN Wenhan

    2006-01-01

    Six cycloartanes were isolated from ethanol extract of marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis by column chromatography. Procedure of isolation and description of these compounds are given in this paper. The structures were elucidated as (1). 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25- en-3β-ol; (2).cycloart-25-en-3β 24-diol; (3). 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol; (4). cycloart-23-en-3β, 25-diol; (5).cycloart-23, 25-dien-3β-ol; and (6). cycloart-24-en-3β-ol by spectroscopic (MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analysis. Cycloartane derivatives are widely distributed in terrestrial plants, but only few were obtained in the alga. All these compounds that have been isolated from terrestrial plants, were found in the marine alga for the first time.

  18. Cycloartane triterpenes from marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinping; Zhu, Xiaobin; Deng, Liping; Deng, Zhiwei; Lin, Wenhan

    2006-12-01

    Six cycloartanes were isolated from ethanol extract of marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis by column chromatography. Procedure of isolation and description of these compounds are given in this paper. The structures were elucidated as (1). 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25- en-3β-ol; (2). cycloart-25-en-3β 24-diol; (3). 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol; (4). cycloart-23-en-3β, 25-diol; (5). cycloart-23, 25-dien-3β-ol; and (6). cycloart-24-en-3β-ol by spectroscopic (MS, ID and 2D NMR) data analysis. Cycloartane derivatives are widely distributed in terrestrial plants, but only few were obtained in the alga. All these compounds that have been isolated from terrestrial plants, were found in the marine alga for the first time.

  19. Determination of prey capture rates in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis: a critical reconsideration of the clearance rate concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, R.; Delft, van S.; Lewaru, M.W.; Janse, M.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine optimal feeding regimes for captive corals, prey capture by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis was determined by measuring clearance of prey items from the surrounding water. Colonies of G. fascicularis (sized between 200 and 400 polyps) were incubated in 1300 ml incu

  20. [Iatrogenic evolutive skull fracture (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo, F; Pascual Castroviejo, I; Dabdoub, C; Bordes, M; Jover, P

    1977-03-01

    A case of growing skull fracture secondary to a maxilofacial operation is reported. Frequency, clinical symptoms, phisiopathology and treatment of growing skull fractures are reviewed and the rarity of the iatrogenic mechanism is stressed.

  1. Normal anatomy of the skull base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustrin, E S; Robertson, R L; Tilak, S

    1994-08-01

    CT and MR imaging increasingly are being used for the evaluation of the skull base. New innovative techniques have revolutionized radiologic understanding of normal skull base anatomy. Thus, normal anatomic relationships with radiographic correlation are vital for accurate pathologic assessment.

  2. Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa): redescription and discussion of its phylogenetic position within the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, Maria Pia

    2016-03-31

    Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 was first described off Alligator Reef, Florida, USA, at a depth of 216 m. Presumably a deep-sea species, its validity has often been questioned due to the scarcity of available records. In this paper, T. fascicularis is re-described from some mature colonies from the upper slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, new pictures of the colony, polyps, and medusa buds, are provided. A ~600bp sequence of the large ribosomal subunit of the mitochondrial RNA (lsu-rRNA, 16S), also known as the Hydrozoan barcoding molecule, is used for the first time to confirm the validity of T. fascicularis as a species, and analyze its phylogenetic position within the genus Turritopsis.

  3. Skull development in the muscular dystrophic mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, H; Kirkeby, S; Moss, M L

    1989-01-01

    Roentgencephalometric tracings of skulls of 7-week-old normal and muscular dystrophic mice were compared. A marked size reduction of the dystrophic skulls relative to the normal ones was observed. However, the visceral parts of the dystrophic skull were more reduced in size than the neural parts....

  4. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  5. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  6. Hepatitis G virus genomic RNA is pathogenic to Macaca mulatta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Ren; Fen-Lu Zhu; Ming-Mei Cao; Xin-Yu Wen; Ping Zhao; Zhong-Tian Qi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the pathogenicity and infectivity of hepatitis G virus (HGV) by observing replication and expression of the virus, as well as the serological and histological changes of Macaca mulatta infected with HGV genomic RNA or HGV RNA-positive serum.METHODS: Full-length HGV cDNA clone (HGVqz) was constructed and proved to be infectious, from which HGV genomic RNA was transcribed in vitro. Macaca mulatta BY1 was intra-hepatically inoculated with HGV genomic RNA, HGV RNA-positive serum from BY1 was intravenously inoculated into Macaca mulatta BM1, and then BB1 was infected with serum from BM1. Serum and liver tissue were taken regularly, and checked with RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and other immunological, serological,histological assays.RESULTS: Serum HGV RNA was detectable in all the 3Macaca mulattas, serological and histological examinations showed the experimental animals had slightly elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) and developed HGV viremia during the infectious period. The histology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization in liver tissues of the inoculated animals demonstrated a very mild hepatitis with HGV antigen expression in cytoplasm of hepatocytes.RT-PCR and quantitative PCR results showed that HGV could replicate in liver.CONCLUSION: The genomic RNA from full-length HGV cDNA is infectious to the Macaca mulatta and can cause mild hepatitis. HGV RNA-positive serum, from HGV RNA inoculated Macaca mulatta, is infectious to other Macaca mulattas. Macaca mulatta is susceptible to the inoculated HGV, and therefore can be used as an experimental animal model for the studies of HGV infection and pathogenesis.

  7. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  8. Carotid canal dehiscence in the human skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor Vazquez, J.F.; Gil Verona, J.A. [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Ramon y Cajal, 7, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia Porrero, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    Abnormalities of the floor of the carotid canal have been studied in 538 skulls. These abnormalities range from a fissure to total absence of the floor. This variation may be caused by abnormalities of the internal carotid artery or deficiencies in ossification of the skull base. CT suggests that these changes should be taken into account by surgeons working on the skull base. (orig.) With 4 figs., 8 refs.

  9. Analysis of six Vietnamese trophy skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzik, P S; Ousley, S

    1991-03-01

    This report presents morphologic, metric, and contextual information on six documented trophy skull specimens confiscated from U.S. servicemen during the Vietnam War. Additional information on the history and occurrence of trophy skull collecting is provided. This sample, consisting mostly of young Vietnamese males, exhibits graffiti, painting, and other evidence of postmortem decorative modification. Identification of trophy skulls is important to medicolegal and anthropological researchers in distinguishing trophy remains from archaeological and forensic specimens.

  10. Aspergillus Osteomyelitis of the Skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Simon; King, Richard; Chumas, Paul; Russell, John; Liddington, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Osteomyelitis of the craniofacial skeleton is rare, with fungal pathogens least commonly implicated. The authors present 2 patients of osteomyelitis of the skull caused by Aspergillus spp. and discuss the diagnosis, clinicopathological course, and management strategies.Late recurrence seen in this type of infection warrants long-term follow-up and a high index of suspicion for the clinical signs associated with recurrence.Such patients would benefit from their surgical debridement being planned and managed via a specialist craniofacial unit, so as to utilize the most aesthetically sensitive approach and the experience of specialists from several surgical disciplines.

  11. Skull base development and craniosynostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, Susan I. [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Neuroradiology, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Padfield, Nancy [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Neuroradiology, Toronto (Canada); Chitayat, David [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Toronto (Canada); Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Prenatal Diagnosis and Medical Genetics Program, Toronto (Canada); Forrest, Christopher R. [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Centre for Craniofacial Care and Research, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Abnormal skull shape resulting in craniofacial deformity is a relatively common clinical finding, with deformity either positional (positional plagiocephaly) or related to premature ossification and fusion of the skull sutures (craniosynostosis). Growth restriction occurring at a stenosed suture is associated with exaggerated growth at the open sutures, resulting in fairly predictable craniofacial phenotypes in single-suture non-syndromic pathologies. Multi-suture syndromic subtypes are not so easy to understand without imaging. Imaging is performed to define the site and extent of craniosynostosis, to determine the presence or absence of underlying brain anomalies, and to evaluate both pre- and postoperative complications of craniosynostosis. Evidence for intracranial hypertension may be seen both pre- and postoperatively, associated with jugular foraminal stenosis, sinovenous occlusion, hydrocephalus and Chiari 1 malformations. Following clinical assessment, imaging evaluation may include radiographs, high-frequency US of the involved sutures, low-dose (20-30 mAs) CT with three-dimensional reformatted images, MRI and nuclear medicine brain imaging. Anomalous or vigorous collateral venous drainage may be mapped preoperatively with CT or MR venography or catheter angiography. (orig.)

  12. The evolutionary significance of the Wajak skulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, P.

    1995-01-01

    Ever since their description by Dubois (1920, 1922) the Wajak skulls Java) have played an important role in the discussions on the evolution of modern humans in Australasia. Because of the robust morphology of the skull, Wajak Man was seen as a link between Pleistocene hominids from Java (Solo) and

  13. The evolutionary significance of the Wajak skulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, P.

    1995-01-01

    Ever since their description by Dubois (1920, 1922) the Wajak skulls Java) have played an important role in the discussions on the evolution of modern humans in Australasia. Because of the robust morphology of the skull, Wajak Man was seen as a link between Pleistocene hominids from Java (Solo) and

  14. Skull base chondroblastoma : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorthy R

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma is a rare tumor of the skull. Temporal bone is the commonest site of involvement in the skull. We present a thirty one year old man who presented with painless swelling over the left temporal bone, which was near totally excised after preoperative embolization. Management of this unusual tumor and its complications are discussed.

  15. Biosorption and desorption of Cd2+ from wastewater by dehydrated shreds of Cladophora fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Liping; ZHU Xiaobin; SU Yingying; SU Hua; WANG Xinting

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of algae Cladophora fascicularis and their relation with initial Cd2+ concentration,initial pH,and co-existing ions were studied.Adsorption equilibrium and biosorption kinetics were established from batch experiments.The adsorption equilibrium was adequately described by the Langmuir isotherm,and biosorption kinetics was in pseudo-second order model.The experiment on co-existing ions showed that the biosorption capacity of biomass decreased with an increasing concentration of competing ions.Desorption experiments indicated that EDTA was efficient desorbent for recovery from Cd2+.With high capacities of metal biosorption and desorption,the biomass of Cladophora fascicularis is promising as a cost-effective biosorbent for the removal of Cd2+ from wastewater.

  16. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms impair zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    OpenAIRE

    Wijgerde, T.H.M.; Schots, P.; Onselen, van, E.; Karruppannan, E.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Osinga, R.

    2013-01-01

    Many scleractinian coral species host epizoic acoelomorph flatworms, both in aquaculture and in situ. These symbiotic flatworms may impair coral growth and health through light-shading, mucus removal and disruption of heterotrophic feeding. To quantify the effect of epizoic flatworms on zooplankton feeding, we conducted video analyses of single polyps of Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767) grazing on Artemia nauplii in the presence and absence of symbiotic flatworms. 18S DNA analysis reveale...

  17. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms impair zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Wijgerde; Pauke Schots; Eline Van Onselen; Max Janse; Eric Karruppannan; Verreth, Johan A. J.; Ronald Osinga

    2012-01-01

    Summary Many scleractinian coral species host epizoic acoelomorph flatworms, both in aquaculture and in situ. These symbiotic flatworms may impair coral growth and health through light-shading, mucus removal and disruption of heterotrophic feeding. To quantify the effect of epizoic flatworms on zooplankton feeding, we conducted video analyses of single polyps of Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767) grazing on Artemia nauplii in the presence and absence of symbiotic flatworms. 18S DNA analysis...

  18. Phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jothimani Rajeswari; Karthikeyan Kesavan; Balasundaram Jayakar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis (P. fascicularis) Lam (pandanaceae). And provide experimental evidence for its traditional use such as rheumatoid arthritis and spasmodic. Methods:The anti-inflammatory activity was observed by carrageenan-induced edema of the hind paw of rats. Analgesic activities of prop roots ofP. fascicularis were determined using acetic acid induced writhing model and tail clip method in mice and rat, respectively. The ethanol fraction was then subjected to chromatographic analysis and a compound has been isolated and characterized byIR,1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy.Results: Edema suppressant effect of ethanol extract was found to be37.03% inhibition whereas aqueous extract was found to be 63.22% inhibition after 3 h which was nearly equivalent to that of 10mg/kg of indomethacin (67.81%). Percentage inhibition of writhing compared to control were63.15%, 54.38%, 14.90%for aspirin, aqueous extract and ethanolic extract, respectively. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts show significant activity against appropriate controls after60 min of treatment on tail clip method. The structure of the isolated compound is may be characterized as Hepta deca-5-ene-1-ol by analysis it’sIR,1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy data.Conclusions: The extracts of prop roots ofP. fascicularis produce significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this herb in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  19. ANTIDIURETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PROP ROOTS OF PANDANUS FASCICULARIS LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothimani Rajeswari et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of the prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis Lam (Family: Pandanaceae is claimed as an antidiuretic by some traditional practitioners. However, the validity of this claim has not been scientifically proven or refuted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiuretic potential of ethanol and aqueous extracts of prop roots of P. fascicularis in rats following oral administration. Ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared from P. facicularis by percolation and cold maturation, respectively. Furosemide was used as a diuretic agent to induce diuresis. Vasopressin (ADH was used as a standard. The results demonstrated both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. facicularis and ADH significantly impaired the total urine output. However, antidiuretic potential of ethanolic extract was similar to that of ADH. The extracts caused a significant decrease in natriuresis and kaliuresis. From this study, we can conclude that ethanol extract of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis has beneficial effects on anti diuretic activity. It has the potential to impart therapeutic effect in diuretic.

  20. Broadband acoustic properties of a murine skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Turner, Jake; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-07

    It has been well recognized that the presence of a skull imposes harsh restrictions on the use of ultrasound and optoacoustic techniques in the study, treatment and modulation of the brain function. We propose a rigorous modeling and experimental methodology for estimating the insertion loss and the elastic constants of the skull over a wide range of frequencies and incidence angles. A point-source-like excitation of ultrawideband acoustic radiation was induced via the absorption of nanosecond duration laser pulses by a 20 μm diameter microsphere. The acoustic waves transmitted through the skull are recorded by a broadband, spherically focused ultrasound transducer. A coregistered pulse-echo ultrasound scan is subsequently performed to provide accurate skull geometry to be fed into an acoustic transmission model represented in an angular spectrum domain. The modeling predictions were validated by measurements taken from a glass cover-slip and ex vivo adult mouse skulls. The flexible semi-analytical formulation of the model allows for seamless extension to other transducer geometries and diverse experimental scenarios involving broadband acoustic transmission through locally flat solid structures. It is anticipated that accurate quantification and modeling of the skull transmission effects would ultimately allow for skull aberration correction in a broad variety of applications employing transcranial detection or transmission of high frequency ultrasound.

  1. Quantification of skull deformity for craniofacial research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Irma; Cunningham, Michael; Birgfeld, Craig; Speltz, Matthew; Shapiro, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Craniosynostosis, a disorder in which one or more fibrous joints of the skull fuse prematurely, causes skull malformation and may be associated with increased intracranial pressure and developmental delays. In order to perform medical research studies that relate phenotypic abnormalities to outcomes such as cognitive ability or results of surgery, biomedical researchers need an automated methodology for quantifying the degree of abnormality of the disorder. This paper addresses that need by proposing a set of features derived from CT scans of the skull that can be used for this purpose. A thorough set of experiments is used to evaluate the features as compared to two human craniofacial experts in a ranking evaluation.

  2. Identification of skulls by video superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, P X

    1987-01-01

    A method of matching skulls with photographic portraits or impressions of the face in clay by video superimposition is described. Two different practical cases are presented. The first one deals with the identification of a skull of a six-year-old girl, the second with the identification of the skull of the famous Swiss Pedagogue Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, who died about 160 years ago. The advantages and versatility of this method are shown; also the setup of the equipment and the working technique.

  3. PET Imaging of Skull Base Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, Erik S; Iagaru, Andrei; Quon, Andrew; Fischbein, Nancy

    2007-10-01

    The utility of 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT for the evaluation of skull base tumors is incompletely investigated, as a limited number of studies specifically focus on this region with regard to PET imaging. Several patterns can be ascertained, however, by synthesizing the data from various published reports and cases of primary skull base malignancies, as well as head and neck malignancies that extend secondarily to the skull base, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma, nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumors, parotid cancers, and orbital tumors.

  4. Management of osteomyelitis of the skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benecke, J.E. Jr. (Otologic Medical Group, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Osteomyelitis of the skull base is the most severe form of malignant otitis externa. As a result of having treated 13 patients with skull base osteomyelitis over a 4-year period, we have developed a method of staging and monitoring this malady using gallium and technetium scanning techniques. Stage I is localized to soft tissues, stage II is limited osteomyelitis, and stage III represents extensive skull base osteomyelitis. All stages are treated with appropriate antipseudomonal antibiotics. The duration of therapy depends upon the clearing of inflammation as shown on the gallium scan. Each case must be looked at independently and not subjected to an arbitrary treatment protocol.

  5. Imaging in tuberculosis of the skull and skull-base: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sencer, S.; Aydin, K.; Poyanli, A.; Minareci, O. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul School of Medicine, Istanbul Univ., Istanbul (Turkey); Sencer, A.; Hepguel, K. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Istanbul School of Medicine, Istanbul Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)

    2003-03-01

    We report a 19-year-old girl, who presented with headache and tonic/clonic seizures. Imaging revealed a lytic parietal skull lesion with an adjacent epidural mass, masses in the right parietal lobe and a posterior skull-base mass. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was made after resection of the extradural mass and later verified with culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The parenchymal and skull-base lesions resolved following antituberculous treatment. We present CT, scintigraphic, angiographic and MRI findings. (orig.)

  6. [Skull vibration induced nystagmus test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G; De Waele, C; Hamann, K F; Cohen, B; Negrevergne, M; Ulmer, E; Schmerber, S

    2007-09-01

    To establish during a consensus meeting the fundamental basis, the validity criteria, the main indications and results of the skull vibration induced nystagmus test (SVINT) which explores the vestibule high frequencies. The SVINT is applied on the mastoid process (right and left sides) at 100 Hz during 10 seconds on a sitting upright subject. Total unilateral peripheral lesions (tUVL: operated vestibular shwannomas, vestibular neurectomies) and partial unilateral peripheral lesions (pUVL: preoperative neuromas, Meniere's disease, vestibular neuritis, chemical labyrinthectomies) were studied. Thirty-six patients had brainstem lesions and 173 normal subjects were used as controls. The SVINT is considered positive when the application of the vibrator produces a reproducible sustained nystagmus always beating in the same direction following several trials in various stimulation topographies (on the right and left mastoid). The skull vibratory nystagmus (SVN) begins and ends with the stimulation; the direction of the nystagmus has no secondary reversal. The slow phase velocity (SPV) is>2 degrees /second. In tUVL the SVINT always reveals a lesional nystagmus beating toward the safe side at all frequencies. The mean SVN SPV is 10.8 degrees /s+/-7.5 SD (N=45). The mastoid site was more efficient than the cervical or vertex sites. Mastoïd stimulation efficiency is not correlated with the side of stimulation. The SVN SPV is correlated with the total caloric efficiency on the healthy ear. In pUVL the SVINT is positive in 71 to 76% of cases; the mean SVN. SPV (6.7 degrees /s+/-4.7 SD)(N=30) is significantly lower than in tUVL (P=0.0004). SVINT is positive in 6 to 10% of the normal population, 31% of brain stem lesions and negative in total bilateral vestibular peripheral lesions. SVINT is an effective, rapid and non invasive test used to detect vestibular asymmetry between 20 to 150 Hz stimulation. This test used in important cohorts of patients during the ten last years has

  7. The Skull of Phyllomedusa sauvagii (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Monachesi, Mario R; Lavilla, Esteban O; Montero, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    The hylid genus Phyllomedusa comprises charismatic frogs commonly known as monkey, leaf or green frogs, and is the most diverse genus of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae, including about 31 species. Although there is some information about the anatomy of these frogs, little is known about the osteology. Here the adult skull of Phyllomedusa sauvagii, both articulated and disarticulated, is described and the intraspecific variation is reported. Additionally, cartilage associated with the adult skull, such as the nasal capsules, auditory apparatus, and hyobranchial apparatus, are included in the analysis. Further examination of disarticulated bones reveals their remarkable complexity, specifically in the sphenethmoid and of the oocipital region. The description of disarticulated bones is useful for the identification of fossil remains as well as providing morphological characteristics that are phylogenetically informative. When comparing the skull morphology with the available information of other species of the genus, Phyllomesusa sauvagii skull resembles more that of P. vaillantii and P. venusta than P. atelopoides.

  8. Photoacoustic investigation of a neonatal skull phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volinski, Bridget; Hariri, Ali; Fatima, Afreen; Xu, Qiuyun; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2017-03-01

    There is a need for continued research into the diagnosis, prevention and cure of neonatal brain disease and disorders. These disorders lead to fatalities and developmental disorders in infants. Non-invasive imaging techniques are being researched for this purpose. However, the availability of neonatal skull samples for this work is very low. A phantom can be used to simulate the neonatal skull and brain to improve imaging techniques. This study selects a phantom of polyurethane and titanium dioxide and proves its value as a replacement for neonatal skull in research. The methods used for this proof are validation of choice against the literature, transmissivity and acoustic experimentation compared to existing literature, and finally photoacoustic evaluation of the final choice to show its usefulness as a neonatal skull phantom.

  9. Morphologic, stereologic, and morphometric evaluation of the nervous system in young cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) following maternal administration of tanezumab, a monoclonal antibody to nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Mark; Evans, Mark; Bowman, Christopher J; Cummings, Thomas; Oneda, Satoru; Shelton, David; Zorbas, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Tanezumab, an antibody to nerve growth factor, was administered to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys at 0, 0.5, 4, and 30 mg/kg weekly, beginning gestation day (GD) 20 through parturition (∼GD165). Maternal tanezumab administration appeared to increase stillbirths and infant mortality, but no consistent pattern of gross and/or microscopic change was detected to explain the mortality. Offspring exposed in utero were evaluated at 12 months of age using light microscopy (all tissues), stereology (basal forebrain cholinergic and dorsal root ganglia neurons), and morphometry (sural nerve). Light microscopy revealed decreased number of neurons in sympathetic ganglia (superior mesenteric, cervicothoracic, and ganglia in the thoracic sympathetic trunk). Stereologic assessment indicated an overall decrease in dorsal root ganglion (thoracic) volume and number of neurons in animals exposed to tanezumab 4 mg/kg (n = 9) and 30 mg/kg (n = 1). At all tanezumab doses, the sural nerve was small due to decreases in myelinated and unmyelinated axons. Existing axons/myelin sheaths appeared normal when viewed with light and transmission electron microscopy. There was no indication of tanezumab-related, active neuron/nerve fiber degeneration/necrosis in any tissue, indicating decreased sensory/sympathetic neurons and axonal changes were due to hypoplasia or atrophy. These changes in the sensory and sympathetic portions of the peripheral nervous system suggest some degree of developmental neurotoxicity, although what effect, if any, the changes had on normal function and survival was not apparent. Overall, these changes were consistent with published data from rodent studies.

  10. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Castro, Tatiana Xavier; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group. PMID:27074255

  11. Selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease model of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Youngjeon; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Heui-Soo; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Su; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been widely used to quantify relative gene expression because of the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this technique. In order to obtain reliable gene expression data from RT-qPCR experiments, it is important to utilize optimal reference genes for the normalization of target gene expression under varied experimental conditions. Previously, we developed and validated a novel icv-STZ cynomolgus monkey model for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. However, in order to enhance the reliability of this disease model, appropriate reference genes must be selected to allow meaningful analysis of the gene expression levels in the icv-STZ cynomolgus monkey brain. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of 9 candidate reference genes in 2 matched-pair brain samples (5 regions) of control cynomolgus monkeys and those who had received intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ). Three well-known analytical programs geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to choose the suitable reference genes from the total sample group, control group, and icv-STZ group. Combination analysis of the 3 different programs clearly indicated that the ideal reference genes are RPS19 and YWHAZ in the total sample group, GAPDH and RPS19 in the control group, and ACTB and GAPDH in the icv-STZ group. Additionally, we validated the normalization accuracy of the most appropriate reference genes (RPS19 and YWHAZ) by comparison with the least stable gene (TBP) using quantification of the APP and MAPT genes in the total sample group. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first study to identify and validate the appropriate reference genes in cynomolgus monkey brains. These findings provide useful information for future studies involving the expression of target genes in the cynomolgus monkey.

  12. The placenta in toxicology. Part I : Animal models in toxicology: placental morphology and tolerance molecules in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buse, Eberhard; Häeger, Jan-Dirk; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Markert, Udo R; Faas, Marijke M; Ernerudh, Jan; Dixon, Darlene; Cline, J Mark; Pfarrer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The immune system represents a key defense mechanism against potential pathogens and adverse non-self materials. During pregnancy, the placenta is the point of contact between the maternal organism and non-self proteins of the fetal allograft and hence undoubtedly fulfils immune functions. In the pl

  13. The placenta in toxicology. Part I : Animal models in toxicology: placental morphology and tolerance molecules in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buse, Eberhard; Häeger, Jan-Dirk; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Markert, Udo R; Faas, Marijke M; Ernerudh, Jan; Dixon, Darlene; Cline, J Mark; Pfarrer, Christiane

    The immune system represents a key defense mechanism against potential pathogens and adverse non-self materials. During pregnancy, the placenta is the point of contact between the maternal organism and non-self proteins of the fetal allograft and hence undoubtedly fulfils immune functions. In the

  14. Correlations between serum levels of beta amyloid, cerebrospinal levels of tau and phospho tau, and delayed response tasks in young and aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Sajuthi, D; Kalliokoski, O

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to explore cynomolgus monkeys as an animal model for Alzheimer's disease, the present study focused on the Alzheimer's biomarkers beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42 ) in serum, and total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid.......In an attempt to explore cynomolgus monkeys as an animal model for Alzheimer's disease, the present study focused on the Alzheimer's biomarkers beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42 ) in serum, and total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid....

  15. The Distribution of MAP-2 Phosphorylation in Cerebral Cortex of Long-Tailed Monkey Fetuses (Macaca fascicularis in the Last Trimester of Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wahyu Pangestiningsih

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Memories are storage in cholinoceptive cells, the cells which are enriched with microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2 that localized in the neuronal dendrite and the cell bodies. Phosphorylation of MAP-2 may increase memory with reduce stability of dendrite by altered dendrite length and lead new side-branches of neuronal as a neuronal plasticity processes in cerebral cortex. The aim of this research is to study the distribution of MAP-2 phosphorylation neurons in cerebral cortex of long-tailed macaques in the third semester of gestationalimmunohistochemically using avidin biotin conjugated complex method. Neurons MAP-2 phosphorylation immunoreactive were located in dendrites and cell bodies, mostly in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex. Intensity of MAP-2 phosphorylation immunoreactivity in layer V were stronger than another layer and the neurons that very intensely stained were the pyramidal cells in frontal and parietal lobes, that was suggested that neurons in this areas more responsive to neuroplasticity. From the results we concluded that MAP-2 phosphorylation already distributed in the cerebral cortex of long-tailed macaque fetuses at the last trimester of gestation, mostly in the pyramidal cells of layer V that is suggested plays a role for preparation of memoryformation.Keywords: fetus, long-tailed monkey, cerebral cortex, memory, MAP-2 phosphorylation

  16. The use of a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffold for bone regeneration of tooth socket facial wall defects and simultaneous immediate dental implant placement in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Bee Tin; Chanchareonsook, Nattharee; Tideman, Henk; Teoh, Swee Hin; Chow, James Kwok Fai; Jansen, John A

    2014-05-01

    Bone regeneration and aesthetic outcomes may be compromised when immediate implants are placed at extraction sites with dehiscence defects. The aim of this study was to compare, in a monkey model, peri-implant bone regeneration and implant stability after immediate implant placement into tooth sockets with facial wall defects in two treatment groups. In eight control monkeys, the bony defect was reconstructed with autogenous particulate bone, whereas in 10 test monkeys a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffold was used. The monkeys were sacrificed after 6 months and the specimens were analyzed by histology and histomorphometry. Better maintenance of facial bone contour was noted in the test group; however, bone regeneration was seen only at areas adjacent to a bony wall of the defect. The mean bone-to-implant contact was 27.6 ± 19.1% (control group) versus 6.8 ± 7.9% (test group). The mean bone area percentage was 11.8 ± 10.1% (control group) versus 6.8 ± 6.9% (test group). Implant survival was 100% at 6 months for both the groups. It was concluded that although the use of a PCL-TCP scaffold showed better maintenance of the alveolar contour as compared to autogenous particulate bone at 6 months, there was minimal bone regeneration within the defect.

  17. Amyloid beta1–42 and the phoshorylated tau threonine 231 in brains of aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Gjedde, Albert; Sajuthi, Dondin

    2014-01-01

    Pathological hallmarks indicative of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which are the plaques of amyloid beta1-42 and neurofibrillary tangles, were found in brain of aged cynomolgus monkey. The aim of this study was to investigate if aged monkeys exhibiting spatial memory impairment and levels of biomarke...

  18. Innate-like γδ T cell responses to mycobacterium Bacille Calmette-Guerin using the public Vγ2 repertoire in Macaca fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Propp, Nadia; Bryant, Joseph L; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C. David

    2010-01-01

    The Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset responds to Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization in macaques and may be a component of protective immunity against tuberculosis. We characterized the effects of BCG on the Vγ2Vδ2 T cell receptor repertoire by comparing the starting population of Vγ2 chains in cynomolgus macaques with the repertoire found after priming or booster immunization with BCG. The starting repertoire was dominated by public Vγ2 chain sequences that were found repeatedly among unrelated animals. Primary exposure to BCG triggered expansion of cells expressing public Vγ2 chains and booster immunization was often associated with contraction of these same subsets. Thus, BCG-reactive Vγ2 chains were present at high frequency in the repertoire of mycobacteria-naïve macaques and they comprised the major response to primary or booster immunization. Normal selection processes that created the naïve Vγ2 repertoire in macaques, also encoded the capacity for rapid responses to mycobacteria. The unusual composition of a normal Vγ2 repertoire helps to explain the powerful γδ T cell responses to BCG immunization. PMID:17292671

  19. Innate-like gammadelta T cell responses to mycobacterium Bacille Calmette-Guerin using the public V gamma 2 repertoire in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Propp, Nadia; Bryant, Joseph L; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2007-07-01

    The V gamma 2 V delta 2 T cell subset responds to Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization in macaques and may be a component of protective immunity against tuberculosis. We characterized the effects of BCG on the V gamma 2 V delta 2 T cell receptor repertoire by comparing the starting population of V gamma 2 chains in cynomolgus macaques with the repertoire found after priming or booster immunization with BCG. The starting repertoire was dominated by public V gamma 2 chain sequences that were found repeatedly among unrelated animals. Primary exposure to BCG triggered expansion of cells expressing public V gamma 2 chains and booster immunization was often associated with contraction of these same subsets. Thus, BCG-reactive V gamma 2 chains were present at high frequency in the repertoire of mycobacteria-naïve macaques and they comprised the major response to primary or booster immunization. Normal selection processes that created the naïve V gamma 2 repertoire in macaques, also encoded the capacity for rapid responses to mycobacteria. The unusual composition of a normal V gamma 2 repertoire helps to explain the powerful gammadelta T cell responses to BCG immunization.

  20. The use of a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffold for bone regeneration of tooth socket facial wall defects and simultaneous immediate dental implant placement in Macaca fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, B.T.; Chanchareonsook, N.; Tideman, H.; Teoh, S.H.; Chow, J.K.; Jansen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Bone regeneration and aesthetic outcomes may be compromised when immediate implants are placed at extraction sites with dehiscence defects. The aim of this study was to compare, in a monkey model, peri-implant bone regeneration and implant stability after immediate implant placement into tooth socke

  1. [Anterior skull-base schwannoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Miranda, Miguel; De la O Ríos, Elier; Vargas-Valenciano, Emmanuelle; Moreno-Medina, Eva

    2017-06-24

    Schwannomas are nerve sheath tumours that originate in Schwann cells. They are usually solitary and sporadic and manifest on peripheral, spinal or cranial nerves. Intracranial schwannomas tend to manifest on the eighth cranial nerve, particularly in patients with neurofibromatosis type2. Anterior skull-base schwannomas represent less than 1% of all intracranial schwannomas. They are more frequent in young people and are typically benign. These tumours represent a diagnostic challenge due to their rarity and difficult differential diagnosis, and numerous theories have been postulated concerning their origin and development. In this article, we present the case of a 13-year-old male with a single anterior cranial-base tumour not associated with neurofibromatosis who presented with headache, papilloedema, eye pain and loss of visual acuity. Complete resection of the tumour was performed, which was histopathologically diagnosed as a schwannoma. The patient made a complete clinical recovery with abatement of all symptoms. We conducted a review of the literature and found 66 cases worldwide with this diagnosis. We describe the most relevant epidemiological and clinical characteristics of this kind of tumour and its relation with the recently discovered and similar olfactory schwannoma. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Two Scleractinian Corals: Porites cylindrica (Dana, 1846 and Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus, 1767

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii-Siang Hii

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the effect of elevated pCO2 on Porites cylindrica and Galaxea fascicularis. The corals responded differently under elevated pCO2. Zooxanthellae cell density, cell mitotic index, and photosynthesis rate of P. cylindrica decreased drastically under the elevated pCO2. At the end of the experiment, P. cylindrica suffered from a declining calcium carbonate precipitation rate. G. fascicularis increased its respiration rate and expelled 71% of its symbiotic zooxanthellae algae under elevated pCO2. Photosynthetic pigments in the remaining zooxanthellae algae increased from 1.85 to 11.5 times to sustain its photosynthetic outputs. At the end of the experiment, G. fascicularis managed to increase the rate of its calcium carbonate precipitation. Increase pCO2 in the atmosphere may affect species diversity of coral reefs.

  3. Comparison of the Effects of Ketamine, Ketamine–Medetomidine, and Ketamine–Midazolam on Physiologic Parameters and Anesthesia-Induced Stress in Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Vanessa K; Flynt, Kendall S; Haag, Lauren M; Taylor, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the cardiovascular, respiratory, anesthetic, and glucocorticoid effects of ketamine alone with ketamine–medetomidine and ketamine–midazolam in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. Macaques were given either intramuscular ketamine (10 mg/kg), intramuscular ketamine–medetomidine (3 mg/kg; 0.15 mg/kg), or oral midazolam (1 mg/kg) followed by intramuscular ketamine (8 mg/kg). The addition of medetomidine, but not midazolam, provided muscle relaxation and abolishment of reflexes tha...

  4. Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Reveal Genetic Differentiation between Two Sympatric Types of Galaxea fascicularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Nakajima

    Full Text Available The reef-building, scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis, is classified into soft and hard types, based on nematocyst morphology. This character is correlated with the length of the mitochondrial non-coding region (mt-Long: soft colony type, and nematocysts with wide capsules and long shafts; mt-Short: hard colony type, and nematocysts with thin capsules and short shafts. We isolated and characterized novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for G. fascicularis using next-generation sequencing. Based upon the mitochondrial non-coding region, 53 of the 97 colonies collected were mt-Long (mt-L and 44 were mt-Short (mt-S. Among the 53 mt-L colonies, 27 loci were identified as amplifiable, polymorphic microsatellite loci, devoid of somatic mutations and free of scoring errors. Eleven of those 27 loci were also amplifiable and polymorphic in the 44 mt-S colonies; these 11 are cross-type microsatellite loci. The other 16 loci were considered useful only for mt-L colonies. These 27 loci identified 10 multilocus lineages (MLLs among the 53 mt-L colonies (NMLL/N = 0.189, and the 11 cross-type loci identified 7 MLLs in 44 mt-S colonies (NMLL/N = 0.159. Significant genetic differentiation between the two types was detected based on the genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.080, P = 0.001. Bayesian clustering also indicated that these two types are genetically isolated. While nuclear microsatellite genotypes also showed genetic differentiation between mitochondrial types, the mechanism of divergence is not yet clear. These markers will be useful to estimate genetic diversity, differentiation, and connectivity among populations, and to understand evolutionary processes, including divergence of types in G. fascicularis.

  5. All the Information the Neonate and Infant Skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bajoghli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The art of skull interpretation slowly being lost and trainees in radiology see few plane film of skull. However, skull radiography still provides significant information that is helpful in finding pathologic conditions. Abnormality of skull may be reflected as variation in density, size and shape of the skull, as well as skull defect. Skull dysplasia may manifest as decreased calvarial density (hypophosphatasia, osteogenesis imferfecta, or increased calvarial density (osteopetrosis, or facial increase in density (frontometaphyseal dysplasia. Diffusely decreased or increased clavarial density is more associated with process that affects entire skull. Decrease density of cranial vault at birth seen more in torch and fetal alcoholic. Macrocephaly may be due to skeletal sysplasia, or hydrocephalus. The aim of this review is to evaluate plane film of skull in neonate and infants.

  6. [Stereotaxic: measurements of the skull cap and skull base in merino sheep (Ovis aries L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtová, V

    1978-01-01

    On the 14 skulls of 6-month old merino labms, stereotaxical measurements were carried out. Not only individual variations were found, but they also dependent on sex. A small assymetry was found on the diagrams of frontal measurements of the skull cap and base. The point bregma is more variable than the lambda. The position of the cranial third of the skull base in 6 month old lambs is not yet constant and until adult age it will shift about 30 degrees to 35 degrees dorsalward and forward. Since the skull cap and base do not grow parallely, and their cranial part has not constant position, we do not recommended this age group for chronic experiments with implanted electrodes. Owing to smaller variations of the skull cap and base and nearer position of the sutura sagittalis toward the medial line, male lambs would be more suitable for short-term experiments and for the stereotactic atlas of deep brain structures.

  7. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in Sphenodon, and implications for diapsid skull development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Curtis

    Full Text Available The vertebrate skull evolved to protect the brain and sense organs, but with the appearance of jaws and associated forces there was a remarkable structural diversification. This suggests that the evolution of skull form may be linked to these forces, but an important area of debate is whether bone in the skull is minimised with respect to these forces, or whether skulls are mechanically "over-designed" and constrained by phylogeny and development. Mechanical analysis of diapsid reptile skulls could shed light on this longstanding debate. Compared to those of mammals, the skulls of many extant and extinct diapsids comprise an open framework of fenestrae (window-like openings separated by bony struts (e.g., lizards, tuatara, dinosaurs and crocodiles, a cranial form thought to be strongly linked to feeding forces. We investigated this link by utilising the powerful engineering approach of multibody dynamics analysis to predict the physiological forces acting on the skull of the diapsid reptile Sphenodon. We then ran a series of structural finite element analyses to assess the correlation between bone strain and skull form. With comprehensive loading we found that the distribution of peak von Mises strains was particularly uniform throughout the skull, although specific regions were dominated by tensile strains while others were dominated by compressive strains. Our analyses suggest that the frame-like skulls of diapsid reptiles are probably optimally formed (mechanically ideal: sufficient strength with the minimal amount of bone with respect to functional forces; they are efficient in terms of having minimal bone volume, minimal weight, and also minimal energy demands in maintenance.

  8. Human skull translucency: post mortem studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawosz, P.; Wojtkiewicz, S.; Kacprzak, M.; Weigl, W.; Borowska-Solonynko, A.; Krajewski, P.; Bejm, K.; Milej, D.; Ciszek, B.; Maniewski, R.; Liebert, A.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of optical translucency of human skulls were carried out. An incandescent light source and a CCD camera were used to measure the distribution of light transmitted through the skull in 10 subjects post-mortem. We noticed that intra-individual differences in optical translucency may be up to 100 times but inter-individual translucency differences across the skull reach 105 times. Based on the measurement results, a “theoretical” experiment was simulated. Monte-Carlo calculations were used in order to evaluate the influence of the differences in optical translucency of the skull on results of NIRS measurements. In these calculations a functional stimulation was done, in which the oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations in the brain cortex change by 5μM and −5μM respectively. The maximal discrepancies between assumed hemoglobin concentration changes and hemoglobin concentration changes estimated with Monte-Carlo simulation may reach 50% depending of the translucency of the skull. PMID:28018721

  9. Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Salomon, Rasmus; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh

    are acoustically coupled through an air-filled interaural canal (IAC) often illustrated and modelled as a simple tube, which allows sound to propagate through the skull from one ear to the other and considerably enhance the cues for directional hearing. Theoretically, different combinations of frequency dependent......Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls: what is the functional interaural canal? Ole Næsbye Larsen, Rasmus Salomon, Kenneth Kragh Jensen, and Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark The middle ears of birds...... is IAC trabeculated and irregularly shaped but it also communicates with a set of highly complex, air-filled canals in the skull extending to the base of the beak. We tested the possible influence of these communicating cavities by measuring eardrum directionality and interaural transmission before...

  10. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space

    OpenAIRE

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance...

  11. Lymphocytic adenohypophysitis: skull radiographs and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiwai, S.; Miyamoto, T. [Department of Radiology, Kobe Central Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Inoue, Y.; Nemoto, Y.; Tashiro, T. [Department of Radiology, Osaka City University Medical School (Japan); Ishihara, T. [Department of Endocrinology, Kobe Central Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Matsumoto, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe Central Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Hakuba, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City University Medical School, 1-5-7 Asahimachi, Abeno, Osaka, 545 (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    We report the skull radiograph, CT and MRI findings in three patients with lymphocytic adenohypophysitis mimicking pituitary adenoma. All cases were associated with pregnancy. CT demonstrated a pituitary mass but did not differentiate lymphocytic adenohypophysitis from pituitary adenoma. The skull radiographs showed either a normal sella turcica or minimal abnormalities; they did not show ballooning or destruction. The MRI appearances were distinctive: relatively low signal on T1-weighted images; preservation of the bright posterior pituitary lobe despite the presence of a relatively large pituitary mass, less common in macroadenomas; marked contrast enhancement compared with pituitary macroadenomas; and dural enhancement adjacent to a pituitary mass. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 40 refs.

  12. Dimensional, Geometrical, and Physical Constraints in Skull Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickenmeier, Johannes; Fischer, Cedric; Carter, Dennis; Kuhl, Ellen; Goriely, Alain

    2017-06-01

    After birth, the skull grows and remodels in close synchrony with the brain to allow for an increase in intracranial volume. Increase in skull area is provided primarily by bone accretion at the sutures. Additional remodeling, to allow for a change in curvatures, occurs by resorption on the inner surface of the bone plates and accretion on their outer surfaces. When a suture fuses too early, normal skull growth is disrupted, leading to a deformed final skull shape. The leading theory assumes that the main stimulus for skull growth is provided by mechanical stresses. Based on these ideas, we first discuss the dimensional, geometrical, and kinematic synchrony between brain, skull, and suture growth. Second, we present two mechanical models for skull growth that account for growth at the sutures and explain the various observed dysmorphologies. These models demonstrate the particular role of physical and geometrical constraints taking place in skull growth.

  13. Fitting a temporomandibular joint prosthesis to the skull

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, JP; de Bont, LGM; Stegenga, B; Verkerke, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Fitting a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) prosthesis to the skull by using stock prostheses seems to be an appropriate method. However, fitting the skull with one stock part requires many differently shaped parts. Therefore, we fitted the skull with two connected stock parts. The aim of the study was

  14. Radiopathological evaluation of primary malignant skull tumors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadhar, Kiran; Santhosh, Deepa

    2012-09-01

    Skull tumors comprise a wide variety of entities, ranging from chronic inflammatory disease to primary and secondary neoplasms. There is no valid incidence or data about the incidence of skull tumors in general. Primary malignant skull tumors are rare, with most articles reporting single cases. We would discuss some of the frequent tumors in this group and review of the literature for the same.

  15. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460 Section 882.4460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used...

  16. Skull metastasis from rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Arnaiz, Irene; Martínez-Trufero, Javier; Pazo-Cid, Roberto Antonio; Felipo, Francesc; Lecumberri, María José; Calderero, Verónica

    2009-09-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Rectum localisation is infrequent for these neoplasms, accounting for about 5% of all cases. Distant metastases of GIST are also rare. We present a patient with special features: the tumour is localised in rectum and it has an uncommon metastatic site, the skull, implying a complex differential diagnosis approach.

  17. Sex-diagnosis of human skulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, de Ellen M.A.

    1996-01-01

    For 41 human skulls from the 19th century in the collection of the Zoological Museum Amsterdam the discriminant function score was calculated using a set of twelve variables in order to arrive at a best-as-possible sex-diagnosis. The function used was developed by Van Vark & Pasveer (1994). This led

  18. Skull base tumors; Tumoren der Schaedelbasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Naumann, N.; Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie des Universitaetsklinikums des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Nabhan, A.; Shariat, K. [Neurochirurgische Klinik des Universitaetsklinikums des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    Modern imaging techniques have great importance in the diagnosis and therapy of skull-base pathologies. Many of these lesions, especially in relation to their specific location, can be evaluated using CT and MR imaging. Tumors commonly found in the anterior skull base include carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, esthesioneuroblastoma and meningioma. In the central cranial fossa, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, metastases, meningioma, pituitary adenoma and neurinoma have to be considered. The most common neoplasms of the posterior skull base, including the CP angle, are neurinoma, meningioma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, chordoma and paraganglioma. One major task of imaging is the evaluation of the exact tumor extent as well as its relationship to the neighboring neurovascular structures. The purpose of this review is to recapitulate the most important anatomical landmarks of the skull base. The typical imaging findings of the most common tumors involving the skull base are also presented. (orig.) [German] Die moderne Bildgebung hat einen besonderen Stellenwert bei der Diagnostik und Therapie von Schaedelbasispathologien. Zahlreiche Laesionen koennen anhand ihrer CT- und MRT-Befunde, insbesondere unter Beruecksichtigung ihrer genauen Lokalisation, artdiagnostisch eingeordnet werden. Im Bereich der vorderen Schaedelbasis sind v. a. Karzinome, Rhabdomyosarkome, Aesthesioneuroblastome und Meningeome vorzufinden. Im Bereich der mittleren Schaedelbasis ist in erster Linie an nasopharyngeale Karzinome, Karzinommetastasen, Meningeome, Hypophysenadenome und Neurinome zu denken. Zu den haeufigsten Tumoren der hinteren Schaedelgrube, unter Einschluss des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels, gehoeren Neurinome, Meningeome, nasopharyngeale Karzinome, Karzinommetastasen, Chordome und Paragangliome. Eine wichtige Aufgabe der Schnittbildgebung liegt in der Bestimmung der exakten Tumorausdehnung und in der Beurteilung der Lagebeziehung des Tumors zu den komplexen anatomischen Strukturen wie Hirnnerven und

  19. Skull base tumours part I: Imaging technique, anatomy and anterior skull base tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Servico de Radiologia, Rua Professor Lima Basto, 1093 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: borgesalexandra@clix.pt

    2008-06-15

    Advances in cross-sectional imaging, surgical technique and adjuvant treatment have largely contributed to ameliorate the prognosis, lessen the morbidity and mortality of patients with skull base tumours and to the growing medical investment in the management of these patients. Because clinical assessment of the skull base is limited, cross-sectional imaging became indispensable in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of patients with suspected skull base pathology and the radiologist is increasingly responsible for the fate of these patients. This review will focus on the advances in imaging technique; contribution to patient's management and on the imaging features of the most common tumours affecting the anterior skull base. Emphasis is given to a systematic approach to skull base pathology based upon an anatomic division taking into account the major tissue constituents in each skull base compartment. The most relevant information that should be conveyed to surgeons and radiation oncologists involved in patient's management will be discussed.

  20. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms impair zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijgerde, Tim; Schots, Pauke; Van Onselen, Eline; Janse, Max; Karruppannan, Eric; Verreth, Johan A J; Osinga, Ronald

    2013-01-15

    Many scleractinian coral species host epizoic acoelomorph flatworms, both in aquaculture and in situ. These symbiotic flatworms may impair coral growth and health through light-shading, mucus removal and disruption of heterotrophic feeding. To quantify the effect of epizoic flatworms on zooplankton feeding, we conducted video analyses of single polyps of Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767) grazing on Artemia nauplii in the presence and absence of symbiotic flatworms. 18S DNA analysis revealed that flatworms inhabiting G. fascicularis belonged to the genus Waminoa (Convolutidae), which were hosted at a density of 3.6±0.4 individuals polyp(-1). Polyps hosting flatworms exhibited prey capture rates of 2.2±2.5, 3.4±4.5 and 2.7±3.4 nauplii polyp(-1) 30 min(-1) at prey concentrations of 250, 500 and 1,000 nauplii L(-1), respectively. Polyps that had their flatworms removed displayed prey capture rates of 2.7±1.6, 4.8±4.1 and 16.9±10.3 nauplii polyp(-1) 30 min(-1). Significant main and interactive effects of flatworm presence and ambient prey concentration were found, reflected by the fact that flatworms significantly impaired host feeding rates at the highest prey density of 1,000 nauplii L(-1). In addition, flatworms displayed kleptoparasitism, removing between 0.1±0.3 and 0.6±1.1 nauplii 30 min(-1) from the oral disc of their host, or 5.3±3.3 to 50.0±2.1% of prey acquired by the coral. We suggest classifying the coral-associated Waminoa sp. as an epizoic parasite, as its presence may negatively affect growth and health of the host.

  1. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms impair zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Wijgerde

    2012-10-01

    Many scleractinian coral species host epizoic acoelomorph flatworms, both in aquaculture and in situ. These symbiotic flatworms may impair coral growth and health through light-shading, mucus removal and disruption of heterotrophic feeding. To quantify the effect of epizoic flatworms on zooplankton feeding, we conducted video analyses of single polyps of Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767 grazing on Artemia nauplii in the presence and absence of symbiotic flatworms. 18S DNA analysis revealed that flatworms inhabiting G. fascicularis belonged to the genus Waminoa (Convolutidae, which were hosted at a density of 3.6±0.4 individuals polyp−1. Polyps hosting flatworms exhibited prey capture rates of 2.2±2.5, 3.4±4.5 and 2.7±3.4 nauplii polyp−1 30 min−1 at prey concentrations of 250, 500 and 1,000 nauplii L−1, respectively. Polyps that had their flatworms removed displayed prey capture rates of 2.7±1.6, 4.8±4.1 and 16.9±10.3 nauplii polyp−1 30 min−1. Significant main and interactive effects of flatworm presence and ambient prey concentration were found, reflected by the fact that flatworms significantly impaired host feeding rates at the highest prey density of 1,000 nauplii L−1. In addition, flatworms displayed kleptoparasitism, removing between 0.1±0.3 and 0.6±1.1 nauplii 30 min−1 from the oral disc of their host, or 5.3±3.3 to 50.0±2.1% of prey acquired by the coral. We suggest classifying the coral-associated Waminoa sp. as an epizoic parasite, as its presence may negatively affect growth and health of the host.

  2. Augmented reality-assisted skull base surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrilo, I; Sarrafzadeh, A; Bijlenga, P; Landis, B N; Schaller, K

    2014-12-01

    Neuronavigation is widely considered as a valuable tool during skull base surgery. Advances in neuronavigation technology, with the integration of augmented reality, present advantages over traditional point-based neuronavigation. However, this development has not yet made its way into routine surgical practice, possibly due to a lack of acquaintance with these systems. In this report, we illustrate the usefulness and easy application of augmented reality-based neuronavigation through a case example of a patient with a clivus chordoma. We also demonstrate how augmented reality can help throughout all phases of a skull base procedure, from the verification of neuronavigation accuracy to intraoperative image-guidance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Carcinoma cervix with fat attenuating skull metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anuradha Kapali; Atmakuri Sateesh Kumar; Mukunda Malathi; S D Shamsundar

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis in carcinoma cervix occurs in about 0.8-23% of cases. These lesions are usually radiographically lytic. Very few cases of metastases to the skull have been identiifed, about 5 cases to the best of our knowledge. We present a case of adenosquamous cell carcinoma of cervix with fat attenuating skull metastases in a 38-year-old lady that is not reported till date. The lesion was lytic, expansile and with negative attenuation of -15 to -30 Hounsifeld units corresponding to fat.Metastases must be included in the differentials of scalp lesions. A history of recent onset of swelling and associated lytic areas in calvarium on contrast enhanced computed tomography with multiplicity can give a clue to metastatic nature of disease.

  4. Osteoradionecrosis of the maxilla and skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komisar, A.; Silver, C.; Kalnicki, S.

    1985-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis of the maxilla and base of skull are rare phenomena, usually seen after combined therapy for malignancies of the maxillary sinus. While the mandible is most commonly affected by osteoradionecrosis, the maxilla and skull base may also be affected when preoperative or postoperative radiotherapy is combined with surgery. Contributing factors may be: high radiation dosage delivered to the treatment volume (greater than 6000 rads), loss of tissue protective effects due to surgery, decreased vascularity caused by surgery and radiation, and proximity of a contaminated field. Onset of symptoms may vary. One patient presented 25 years after postoperative radiotherapy. Major symptoms were pain, trismus, and purulent discharge. The best diagnostic modality remains the history and physical exam, as the area is readily accessible. CT scans may be helpful in diagnosis and treatment planning. Therapy should follow time honored principles of local wound care. Home irrigations and hyperbaric therapy have been helpful in encouraging early sequestration and rapid healing.

  5. Meningioma of the Posterior Skull Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Michael Thomas; Fagan, Paul A.; Sheehy, John P.R.; Bentivoglio, Peter J.; Doust, Bruce D.; Tonkin, John

    1991-01-01

    Combined intratemporal and cerebellopontine angle meningiomas are rejatively rare. There are unsolved problems with the stability of the skull and spine and the lower cranial nerves and there is a marked tendency for the tumor to involve the spinal cord. This article reports on five cases of combined intratemporal and cerebellopontine angle meningiomas. ImagesFigure 1p44-bFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17170820

  6. Congenital malformations of the skull and meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanev, Paul M

    2007-02-01

    The surgery and management of children who have congenital malformations of the skull and meninges require multidisciplinary care and long-term follow-up by multiple specialists in birth defects. The high definition of three-dimensional CT and MRI allows precise surgery planning of reconstruction and management of associated malformations. The reconstruction of meningoencephaloceles and craniosynostosis are challenging procedures that transform the child's appearance. The embryology, clinical presentation, and surgical management of these malformations are reviewed.

  7. Reconstruction of anterior skull base defects using frontalis muscle galea aponeurotica skull pedicle flaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Liu; Guanghui Wang; Hong Zhang; Yuping Wu; Yangcheng Lv; Jingsong Liu; Jieke Ma; Cheng Li; Jiang Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to reconstruct soft and hard tissue perforating defects of the anterior skull base in a 1-stage surgical procedure with a combined craniofacial approach. Methods: Soft and hard tissue defects of the anterior skull base were successfully reconstructed in 43 patients during a 1-stage surgery through the use of frontalis muscle galea aponeurotica skull flaps with 1 or 2 vascularized pedicles. The skull flap areas were up approximately 7 cm × 14 cm. Results: Intracranial infection and cerebrospinal fluid leakage were not observed in the 43 patients, and all incisions healed. Of 33 malignant tumor patients, 25 patients received follow-up examinations for longer than 2 years, and 18 patients survived for 2 years. Conclusion: Frontalis muscle galea aponeurotica skull pedicle flaps provided a constant blood supply and resulted in soft and thin tissue. The pedicle flaps, together with the external cranial bone plate, strengthened the support, but still allowed for bending and shaping. In addition, the flap harvesting approach was consistent with surgery approach, without aesthetic compromises.

  8. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans. PMID:27255977

  9. Transcriptome profiling of Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium reveals chronic eutrophication tolerance pathways and metabolic mutualism between partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenyue; Chen, Mingliang; Dong, Xu; Zheng, Xinqing; Huang, Haining; Xu, Xun; Chen, Jianming

    2017-02-01

    In the South China Sea, coastal eutrophication in the Beibu Gulf has seriously threatened reef habitats by subjecting corals to chronic physiological stress. To determine how coral holobionts may tolerate such conditions, we examined the transcriptomes of healthy colonies of the galaxy coral Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium from two reef sites experiencing pristine or eutrophied nutrient regimes. We identified 236 and 205 genes that were differentially expressed in eutrophied hosts and symbionts, respectively. Both gene sets included pathways related to stress responses and metabolic interactions. An analysis of genes originating from each partner revealed striking metabolic integration with respect to vitamins, cofactors, amino acids, fatty acids, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The expression levels of these genes supported the existence of a continuum of mutualism in this coral-algal symbiosis. Additionally, large sets of transcription factors, cell signal transduction molecules, biomineralization components, and galaxin-related proteins were expanded in G. fascicularis relative to other coral species.

  10. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-06-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans.

  11. 'Do not touch' lesions of the skull base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mircea C; Fischbein, Nancy

    2014-08-01

    Imaging of the skull base presents many challenges due to its anatomical complexity, numerous normal variants and lack of familiarity to many radiologists. As the skull base is a region which is not amenable to physical examination and as lesions of the skull base are generally difficult to biopsy and even more difficult to operate on, the radiologist plays a major role in directing patient management via accurate image interpretation. Knowledge of the skull base should not be limited to neuroradiologists and head and neck radiologists, however, as the central skull base is routinely included in the field of view when imaging the brain, cervical spine, or head and neck with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and hence, its nuances should be familiar to general radiologists as well. We herein review the imaging findings of a subcategory of lesions of the central skull base, the 'do not touch' lesions.

  12. Anterior and middle skull base reconstruction after tumor resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bo; WU Sheng-tian; LI Zhi; LIU Pi-nan

    2010-01-01

    Background Surgical management of skull base tumors is still challenging today due to its sophisticated operation procedure. Surgeons who specialize in skull base surgery are making endeavor to promote the outcome of patients with skull base tumor. A reliable skull base reconstruction after tumor resection is of paramount importance in avoiding life-threatening complications, such as cerebrospinal fluid leakage and intracranial infection. This study aimed at investigating the indication, operation approach and operation technique of anterior and middle skull base reconstruction.Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out on 44 patients who underwent anterior and middle skull base reconstruction in the Department of Neurosurgery at Beijing Tiantan Hospital between March 2005 and March 2008. Different surgical approaches were selected according to the different regions involved by the tumor. Microsurgery was carried out for tumor resection and combined endoscopic surgery was performed in some cases. According to the different locations and sizes of various defects after tumor resection, an individualized skull base soft tissue reconstruction was carried out for each case with artificial materials, pedicled flaps, free autologous tissue, and free vascularized muscle flaps, separately. A skull base bone reconstruction was carried out in some cases simultaneously.Results Soft tissue reconstruction was performed in all 44 cases with a fascia lata repair in 9 cases, a free vascularized muscle flap in 1 case, a pedicled muscle flap in 14 cases, and a pedicled periosteal flap in 20 cases. Skull base bone reconstruction was performed on 10 cases simultaneously. The materials for bone reconstruction included titanium mesh, free autogenous bone, and a Medpor implant. The result of skull base reconstruction was satisfactory in all patients. Postoperative early-stage complications occurred in 10 cases with full recovery after conventional treatment.Conclusions The specific

  13. Paleopathological findings in radiographs of ancient and modern Greek skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Karamesinis, Kostas G; Daliouris, Kostas P; Kousoulis, Antonis A; Synodinos, Philippos N; Hatziantoniou, Michail D

    2012-12-01

    The skull, when portrayed radiologically, can be a useful tool in detecting signs of systemic diseases and results of pathological growth mechanisms. The aim of this study was therefore to examine, compare, and classify findings in cranial configuration of pathological origin, in modern and ancient skulls. The material consists of 240 modern and 141 ancient dry skulls. Three radiographs for each skull (lateral, anteroposterior, basilar) provide enough evidence for differential diagnoses. Cases of osteoporosis are among the interesting pathological findings. A prevalence of female modern skulls in those determined as osteoporotic skulls is noted. Special interest is placed on the area of the sella turcica and many variations, regarding the shape and texture, are recognized both in ancient and modern skulls. Malignancies and important causes of cranial destruction are identified in both skull collections. Diploid thickening and osteolytic areas appear commonly among ancient remains. Moreover, from the ancient skull collection, one case possibly recognizable as fibrous dysplasia is noted while another case with an unusual exostosis gives rise to many questions. Interpreted with caution, the results of the present study, which can serve as an approach of paleopathology and paleoradiology, indicate similarity trends in cranial configuration of pathologic origin in modern and ancient people. Radiography and cephalometry were the main diagnostic tools used to gather evidence and are evaluated as a quite appropriate method to examine anthropological material and assess the internal structure of skeletal remains since they are non-destructive techniques.

  14. Development of the cetacean nasal skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, M

    1999-01-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to aquatic life habits is reflected, in their nasal region, in three marked changes from the original relations found in land mammals. These changes include (1) the loss of the sense of smell, (2) translocation of the nostrils from the tip of the rostrum to the vertex of the head, and (3) elongation of the anterior head to form a rostrum protruding far towards anterior. The morphogenetic processes taking place during embryogenesis of the nasal skull play a decisive part in the development of all these changes. The lateral parts of the embryonic nasal capsule, encompassing the nasal passages, change their position from horizontal to vertical. At the same time, the structures of the original nasal floor (the solum nasi) are shifted in front of the nasal passages towards the rostrum. The structures of the original nasal roof (the tectum nasi) and of the nasal side wall (the paries nasi) are translocated behind the nasal passages towards the neurocranium. The medial nasal septum (the septum nasi) mostly loses its connection to the nasal passages and is produced into a point protruding far towards anterior. The transformed embryonic nasal skull of the Cetacea can be divided into three sections: 1. The median structures. These include the cartilaginous structures, viz., the rostrum nasi, the septum interorbitale and the spina mesethmoidalis, which are accompanied by the dermal bones, the vomer and the praemaxillare. In adult cetaceans the rostrum nasi is mostly preserved as a robust cartilage of the skull, which may possibly serve as a sound transmitting structure of the sonar system, or it may be responsible for the sensing of water streams and vibrations. 2. The posterior side wall structures. These include the following cartilaginous structures that are mostly heavily reduced or mutually fused: the cupula nasi anterior, the tectum nasi, the lamina cribrosa, the paries nasi, the commissura orbitonasalis, the cupula nasi posterior, the

  15. Evolutionary origin of the turtle skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, G S; Lyson, Tyler R; Field, Daniel J; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S

    2015-09-10

    Transitional fossils informing the origin of turtles are among the most sought-after discoveries in palaeontology. Despite strong genomic evidence indicating that turtles evolved from within the diapsid radiation (which includes all other living reptiles), evidence of the inferred transformation between an ancestral turtle with an open, diapsid skull to the closed, anapsid condition of modern turtles remains elusive. Here we use high-resolution computed tomography and a novel character/taxon matrix to study the skull of Eunotosaurus africanus, a 260-million-year-old fossil reptile from the Karoo Basin of South Africa, whose distinctive postcranial skeleton shares many unique features with the shelled body plan of turtles. Scepticism regarding the status of Eunotosaurus as the earliest stem turtle arises from the possibility that these shell-related features are the products of evolutionary convergence. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate strong cranial support for Eunotosaurus as a critical transitional form in turtle evolution, thus fortifying a 40-million-year extension to the turtle stem and moving the ecological context of its origin back onto land. Furthermore, we find unexpected evidence that Eunotosaurus is a diapsid reptile in the process of becoming secondarily anapsid. This is important because categorizing the skull based on the number of openings in the complex of dermal bone covering the adductor chamber has long held sway in amniote systematics, and still represents a common organizational scheme for teaching the evolutionary history of the group. These discoveries allow us to articulate a detailed and testable hypothesis of fenestral closure along the turtle stem. Our results suggest that Eunotosaurus represents a crucially important link in a chain that will eventually lead to consilience in reptile systematics, paving the way for synthetic studies of amniote evolution and development.

  16. Leonardo da Vinci's "A Skull Sectioned" : Skull and dental formula revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Veening, Jan G.

    2013-01-01

    What can be learned from historical anatomical drawings and how to incorporate these drawings into anatomical teaching? The drawing A skull sectioned (RL 19058v) by Leonardo da Vinci (14521519), hides more detailed information than reported earlier. A well-chosen section cut explores sectioned paran

  17. Cave crawling in zebra Finch skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Salomon, Rasmus; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh

    2014-01-01

    by anatomical adaptations during evolution. A closer inspection of the zebra finch cranium using micro-CT scanning reveals that not only is IAC trabeculated and irregularly shaped but it also communicates with a set of highly complex, air-filled canals in the skull extending to the base of the beak. We tested...... the possible influence of these communicating cavities by measuring eardrum directionality and interaural transmission before and after filling the frontal cavities with dyed fat but found no dramatic effects. We will discuss what function the cavities serve and whether the ICA should be represented...

  18. Unfavourable results in skull base surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemen Jaju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of skull base tumors involves multiple specialities. The lesions are usually advanced and the treatment is often associated with unfavorable results, which may be functional and/or aesthetic. Here we have done an analysis for the complications and unfavorable results of 546 cases treated surgically by a single craniofacial surgeon over a period of 14 years. The major morbidity ranges from death to permanent impairment of vital organ functions (brain, eye, nose, infections, tissue losses, flap failures, treatment associated complications, psychosocial issues, and aesthesis besides others. This article is aimed at bringing forth these unfavorable results and how to avoid them.

  19. SKULL-STRIPPING WITH DEFORMABLE ORGANISMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Anand A; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Shattuck, David W; Terzopoulos, Demetri

    2011-01-01

    Segmenting brain from non-brain tissue within magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human head, also known as skull-stripping, is a critical processing step in the analysis of neuroimaging data. Though many algorithms have been developed to address this problem, challenges remain. In this paper, we apply the "deformable organism" framework to the skull-stripping problem. Within this framework, deformable models are equipped with higher-level control mechanisms based on the principles of artificial life, including sensing, reactive behavior, knowledge representation, and proactive planning. Our new deformable organisms are governed by a high-level plan aimed at the fully-automated segmentation of various parts of the head in MR imagery, and they are able to cooperate in computing a robust and accurate segmentation. We applied our segmentation approach to a test set of human MRI data using manual delineations of the data as a reference "gold standard." We compare these results with results from three widely used methods using set-similarity metrics.

  20. Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Ζafiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trephination, or trepanning, is considered to be one of the most ancient surgical operations with an especially extensive geographical incidence, both in the New World and in the Old. In Europe, more than 200 finds of trephination have been found, from Scandinavia to the Balkans. The technique of trephination or trepanning covers overall the last 10,000 years and exhibits great versatility and adjustability in the knowledge, technical means, therapeutic needs, prejudices and social standards of each period and of each population group. Hippocrates was the one to classify for the first time the kinds of cranial fractures and define the conditions and circumstances for carrying out a trepanning.Aim: The present research aims to investigate the Greek cranial trephinations on sculls from the collection of the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of Athens that come from archaeological excavations.Method: Skulls were examined by macroscopic observation with reflective light. Furthermore, radiographic representation of the skulls was used.Results: The anthropological researches and the studies of anthropological skeleton remains that came out during archaeological excavations from different eras and areas have given information about the medical practices in the very important geographic area of Greece and in particular, we referred to cases of Greek trephinations.

  1. Variation in Clitoral Length in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Beatriz; Cabello, Pedro H; Kugelmeier, Tatiana; Pereira, Barbara B; Lopes, Claudia A; Fasano, Daniele M; Andrade, Marcia C; Santos, Joice S; Marinho, Antonio M

    2009-01-01

    Clitoromegaly in the neonatal period is an important morphologic sign that can be useful for sexual determination in aberrant cases. In rhesus monkeys, differentiation of the external genitalia occurs early during gestation (at 55 to 60 d) and is complete by approximately 80 d. Most of the critical steps in genital differentiation in primates occur prenatally. We sought to determine clitoral size in normal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and possible effects of age and inheritance. Clitoral length was highly variable and had no relationship to fertility. Statistical evaluation revealed no association in the distribution of daughters with and without clitoris between mothers with and without clitoris. However, even when mated with several female monkeys, some male macaques produced primarily daughters without clitoris. PMID:19807967

  2. The contribution of high-resolution multiplanar reformats of the skull base to the detection of skull-base fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: steve.connor@kch.nhs.uk; Flis, C. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    AIM: To investigate the contribution of routine review of submillimetric multiplanar reformats to the diagnosis of skull-base fractures. METHODS: A prospective analysis was performed of 407 cases referred over a 6-month period for CT of the skull following cranial trauma. The reformatted 5-mm axial sections and subsequently the high-resolution multiplanar reformats (HRMPRs) were viewed on an ADW 4.1 workstation using bone windows and algorithm. All skull-base fractures and related features, recorded by the consensus of two radiologists, were classified as anatomically significant or non-significant on the basis of eight criteria. The clinical features of skull-base injury and any subsequent treatment were noted in all cases of skull-base fracture. RESULTS: HRMPRs detected 80 separate skull-base fractures in 36/407 cases. Of these 80 fractures, 57 were visible on 5-mm axial sections. In 8 of the 36 cases, the significant anatomical features were only evident on review of the HRMPRs. In 6 of the 36 cases, none of the skull-base fractures was visible on 5-mm sections, but these individuals had only minor associated clinical features and no therapeutic requirements. Review of HRMPRs could have been confined to patients with skull-base fractures, abnormal intracranial and extracranial air collections or opacified mastoid air cells revealed by 5-mm axial sections. This policy would have led to the detection of 79/80 (99%) of skull-base fractures and all significant anatomical features. CONCLUSION: The 5-mm axial sections demonstrated 71% of skull-base fractures and 78% of skull-base fractures with significant anatomical features, using HRMPRs as a gold standard. There were no significant clinical sequelae at short-term follow-up of those fractures only evident on HRMPRs.

  3. Parents' decision for helmet therapy ion infants with skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Til, J.A. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Hoir, M.P. L; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; IJzerman, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Helmet therapy is regularly prescribed in infants with positional skull deformation. Evidence on the effectiveness is lacking, which complicates decision making. This study aims to assess the relation between parents’ decision for treatment of skull deformation in their infant and their

  4. Parents’ decision for helmet therapy in infants with skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Renske; van Til, Janine Astrid; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Helmet therapy is regularly prescribed in infants with positional skull deformation. Evidence on the effectiveness is lacking, which complicates decision making. This study aims to assess the relation between parents’ decision for treatment of skull deformation in their infant and their

  5. Intrauterine skull depression and intracranial hemorrhage in a premature infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batton, G.D.; DiCarmine, F.; Boal, D.K.

    1988-04-01

    The authors describe a case of a premature infant born with a parietal skull depression who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage and an ipsilateral intracerebral injury. At 21 months of life the infant's gross motor milestones were delayed and he had moderate spastic hemiplegia. Although skull depressions at birth are usually benign, they may be associated with long-term neurologic sequelae.

  6. Parents’ decision for helmet therapy in infants with skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Renske; van Til, Janine Astrid; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Helmet therapy is regularly prescribed in infants with positional skull deformation. Evidence on the effectiveness is lacking, which complicates decision making. This study aims to assess the relation between parents’ decision for treatment of skull deformation in their infant and their leve

  7. Parents’ decision for helmet therapy in infants with skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van Renske M.; Til, van Janine A.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G.M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; IJzerman, Maarten J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Helmet therapy is regularly prescribed in infants with positional skull deformation. Evidence on the effectiveness is lacking, which complicates decision making. This study aims to assess the relation between parents’ decision for treatment of skull deformation in their infant and their leve

  8. Parents' decision for helmet therapy ion infants with skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Til, J.A. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Hoir, M.P. L; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; IJzerman, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Helmet therapy is regularly prescribed in infants with positional skull deformation. Evidence on the effectiveness is lacking, which complicates decision making. This study aims to assess the relation between parents’ decision for treatment of skull deformation in their infant and their lev

  9. Telomere length of the colonial coral Galaxea fascicularis at different developmental stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuta, H.; Hidaka, M.

    2013-06-01

    The ability to estimate coral age using soft tissue would be useful for population biology or aging studies on corals. In this study, we investigated whether telomere length can be used to estimate coral age. We applied single telomere length analysis to a colonial coral, Galaxea fascicularis, and estimated telomere lengths of specific coral chromosomes at different developmental stages. If the telomere shortened at each cell division, the telomere length of the coral would be longest in sperm and shortest in adult colonies. However, the mean telomere length of sperm, planula larvae, and polyps was approximately 4 kb, with no significant differences among the developmental stages. The telomerase restriction fragment (TRF) analysis also showed no significant difference in the mean TRF length among the developmental stages. Our results suggested that telomere length is maintained during developmental stages and that estimating the age of colonial coral based on telomere length may not be possible. However, our findings can be used to examine avoidance of aging and rejuvenation during regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial corals.

  10. Skull-stripping for Tumor-bearing Brain Images

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan; Reyes, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Skull-stripping separates the skull region of the head from the soft brain tissues. In many cases of brain image analysis, this is an essential preprocessing step in order to improve the final result. This is true for both registration and segmentation tasks. In fact, skull-stripping of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a well-studied problem with numerous publications in recent years. Many different algorithms have been proposed, a summary and comparison of which can be found in [Fennema-Notestine, 2006]. Despite the abundance of approaches, we discovered that the algorithms which had been suggested so far, perform poorly when dealing with tumor-bearing brain images. This is mostly due to additional difficulties in separating the brain from the skull in this case, especially when the lesion is located very close to the skull border. Additionally, images acquired according to standard clinical protocols, often exhibit anisotropic resolution and only partial coverage, which further complicates the task. There...

  11. The Curious History of the Talgai Skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Allen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Australian winter of 1886 William Naish, a shearer in summer and a fencing contractor in the winter, erected a farm fence along Dalrymple Creek on East Talgai Station, c.125 km southwest of Brisbane. Work was interrupted by six days of torrential rain. On returning to the site Naish found that the rain had extended an erosion channel which he now had to cross walking to work, and from the extended section he retrieved a skull, heavily encrusted in carbonate, but clearly of human origin. Although it would take three decades to recognise and a further five to confirm, Naish had discovered the first direct proof of the Pleistocene antiquity of humans in Australia. Details of this history of Talgai are taken principally and extensively from Macintosh (1963, 1965, 1967a, 1967b, 1969, Elkin (1978, Gill (1978 and Langham (1978.

  12. Detection of Early Atherosclerosis in M. Fascicularis with Transcutaneous Ultrasonic Measurement of the Elastic Properties of the Common Carotid Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Farrar, David J; Riley, Ward A.; Bond, M Gene; Barnes, Ralph N.; Love, L. Alan

    1982-01-01

    The elastic properties of 22 common carotid arteries from 13 male cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis) that were fed either a high cholesterol (test) diet or a standard monkey chow (control) diet for 18 months were measured noninvasively with 5MHz ultrasound. A B-mode image of the artery was obtained with a 32-element linear array transducer, and a single line of video ultrasonic information was selected for tracking the echoes from the adventitial side of the near wall to the lumen-intima in...

  13. Chondroma of the skull base and maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiralj Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chondromas are uncommon benign tumors of cartilaginous origin. Although chonodroma of the jaw is extremely rare, the commonly involved are the anterior portion of the maxilla, condyle and coronoid process. A chondroma is a painless, slow growing tumor causing destruction and exfoliation of teeth. On a radiograph, the tumor appears as a cyst-like radiolucent lesion, while some are sclerotic. The borders are usually ill-defined. Irregular calcifications may be seen with radiolucencies and then it is an osteochondroma. Material and Methods. We present a patient with a resected and histologically proven chondroma of the skull base and maxilla. A 65-year-old female was admitted to our clinic with swelling and breathing difficulties. MRI showed a large soft tissue mass of the skull base and maxilla. Clinicopathological and radiological features were examined by computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Discussion and Conclusion. Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF is a rare, benign cartilaginous tumor that often occurs in the metaphyses of proximal tibia, proximal and distal femur and small bones of the foot. The differential diagnosis is wide and includes simple or aneyrismal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, nonossifying fibroma, fibrous dysplasia, enchondroma, chondroblastoma, eosinophilic granuloma and fibrous cortical defect. Our case demonstrates an uncommon occurrence in the maxillary sinus: CMF with nasal, pterygoid and orbital infiltration. In the diagnosis of an intracranial chondrocytic tumor, it is important to distinguish it from enchondroma and chondrosarcoma. MR provides a detailed assessment of soft tissue masses of the craniofacial region, while CT offers superior analysis of bone structure involvement. The present case underlines the importance of MR examination in the diagnosis of soft tissue masses in the craniofacial region.

  14. Development of a neonatal skull phantom for photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolian, Pantea; Todd, Rhiannon; Kosik, Ivan; Chamson-Reig, Astrid; Vasefi, Fartash; St. Lawrence, Keith; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has been proposed as a non-invasive technique for the diagnosis and monitoring of disorders in the neonatal brain. However, PAI of the brain through the intact skull is challenging due to reflection and attenuation of photoacoustic pressure waves by the skull bone. The objective of this work was to develop a phantom for testing the potential limits the skull bone places on PAI of the neonatal brain. Our approach was to make acoustic measurements on materials designed to mimic the neonatal skull bone and construct a semi-realistic phantom. A water tank and two ultrasound transducers were utilized to measure the ultrasound insertion loss (100 kHz to 5MHz) of several materials. Cured mixtures of epoxy and titanium dioxide powder provided the closest acoustic match to neonatal skull bone. Specifically, a 1.4-mm thick sample composed of 50% (by mass) titanium dioxide powder and 50% epoxy was closest to neonatal skull bone in terms of acoustic insertion loss. A hemispherical skull phantom (1.4 mm skull thickness) was made by curing the epoxy/titanium dioxide powder mixture inside a mold. The mold was constructed using 3D prototyping techniques and was based on the hairless head of a realistic infant doll. The head was scanned to generate a 3D model, which in turn was used to build a 3D CAD version of the mold. The mold was CNC machined from two solid blocks of Teflon®. The neonatal skull phantom will enable the study of the propagation of photoacoustic pressure waves under a variety of experimental conditions.

  15. Imaging of the skull base anatomy; Schnittbildanatomie der Schaedelbasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Wolfgang; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Universitaetsklinikum (Germany). Radiologisches Institut

    2016-09-15

    The skull base divides the extracranial from the intracranial compartment and contains a multiplicity of bony and soft tissue structures. For evaluating the skull base profound knowledge of the complex anatomy is mandatory. To limit the number of differential diagnosis it is important to be familiar with the contents of the different compartments. Due to the technical progress and the difficulty in assessing the skull base clinically imaging plays a significant role in diagnosis. For imaging both MRI and CT are used, which represent not competing but complementary methods.

  16. Decalcificated human dentin matrix in autogenous repair of skull defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In the management of traumatic skull defect, the classical treatment has usually been adopted, i.e.,primary debridement and secondary repair of bone defect, especially in cases of open lacerated skull fracture. 1 In general, the use of prosthetic material in repair is often not so satisfactory either in China or abroad. Decalcificated human dentin matrix (DHDM)has been used in autogenous repair of traumatic skull defect in primary operation and a good curative effect has been gained since the time from September 1996 to March 1998. Clinical results and CT scanning observation are reported in the following.

  17. Observation of skull-guided acoustic waves in a water-immersed murine skull using optoacoustic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    The skull bone, a curved solid multilayered plate protecting the brain, constitutes a big challenge for the use of ultrasound-mediated techniques in neuroscience. Ultrasound waves incident from water or soft biological tissue are mostly reflected when impinging on the skull. To this end, skull properties have been characterized for both high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) operating in the narrowband far-field regime and optoacoustic imaging applications. Yet, no study has been conducted to characterize the near-field of water immersed skulls. We used the thermoelastic effect with a 532 nm pulsed laser to trigger a wide range of broad-band ultrasound modes in a mouse skull. In order to capture the waves propagating in the near-field, a thin hydrophone was scanned in close proximity to the skull's surface. While Leaky pseudo-Lamb waves and grazing-angle bulk water waves are clearly visible in the spatio-temporal data, we were only able to identify skull-guided acoustic waves after dispersion analysis in the wavenumber-frequency space. The experimental data was found to be in a reasonable agreement with a flat multilayered plate model.

  18. Water Flow Affects Zooplankton Feeding by the Scleractinian Coral Galaxea fascicularis on a Polyp and Colony Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Wijgerde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several factors may affect heterotrophic feeding of benthic marine invertebrates, including water flow rate and polyp context (i.e., the presence of neighbouring polyps. We tested the interactive effects of water flow rate and polyp context on zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. Single polyps and colonies were incubated in a flow cell for 30 minutes with an ambient Artemia nauplii concentration of 10,000 L−1 and water flow rates ranging from 1.25 to 40 cm s−1. Water flow rate and polyp context showed significant main and interactive effects on feeding rates of G. fascicularis polyps. More specifically, feeding rates were optimal at flow rates of 1.25 cm s−1 for single polyps and 5 to 10 cm s−1 for polyps inhabiting colonies. The presence of epizoic acoelomorph flatworms may have negatively affected the observed feeding rates, especially at high flow. Our results demonstrate that water flow affects coral feeding and thus heterotrophic nutrient input at both a polyp and colony level. These findings are of relevance to our understanding of how biotic and abiotic factors interact on coral heterotrophy and may serve to optimise coral aquaculture.

  19. Sandwich-like reconstruction of anterior skull base defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhengmin; WANG Dehui

    2002-01-01

    @@ RESULTS From October, 1984 to October, 1998, 116 patients underwent transcranial or transcranial-facial approach for the resection of malignant or benign aggressive tumor, and sandwich-like repairs were performed for the anterior skull base defect.

  20. [Osteosarcoma of the skull base: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, H; Benchakroun, N; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2007-12-01

    Osteosarcoma, usually observed in long bones, is the second most frequent primitive malignant bone tumor after myeloma. The skull base is an exceptional localization. We report a case of skull base osteosarcoma managed in our department. A 23-year-old female was admitted for bilateral epistaxis, headache, decreasing visual acuity then blindness. Physical examination revealed bilateral blindness and exophthalmia. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed a voluminous mass in the skull base extending to the nasosinusal area. A rhinoseptal surgical approach was used but the tumor was so huge that excision was impossible. The biopsy identified at an osteoblastic osteosarcoma. Search for extension (chest computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography) was negative. Chemotherapy was to be delivered before combination chemoradiotherapy but the patient died before any treatment could be started. Osteosarcoma of the skull base is very rare. The treatment is based on surgery which should be as complete as possible followed by chemoradiotherapy. Prognosis is poor. Median survival is around six months.

  1. A dynamic skull model for simulation of cerebral cortex folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanbo; Guo, Lei; Nie, Jingxin; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Liu, Tianming

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of human cerebral cortex folding and their interactions during brain development are largely unknown, partly due to the difficulties in biological experiments and data acquisition for the developing fetus brain. Computational modeling and simulation provide a novel approach to the understanding of cortex folding processes in normal or aberrant neurodevelopment. Based on our recently developed computational model of the cerebral cortex folding using neuronal growth model and mechanical skull constraint, this paper presents a computational dynamic model of the brain skull that regulates the cortical folding simulation. Our simulation results show that the dynamic skull model is more biologically realistic and significantly improves our cortical folding simulation results. This work provides further computational support to the hypothesis that skull is an important regulator of cortical folding.

  2. Deformation of skull bone as intracranial pressure changing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... Key words: Deformation, skull bone, intracranial pressure, finite-element model, rat. ... air spontaneously, and the femoral arterial blood pressure was ..... pressure monitoring by flaccid-cuff catheter in an animal model. J.

  3. Effects of the murine skull in optoacoustic brain microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Shoham, Shy; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great promise behind the recent introduction of optoacoustic technology into the arsenal of small-animal neuroimaging methods, a variety of acoustic and light-related effects introduced by adult murine skull severely compromise the performance of optoacoustics in transcranial imaging. As a result, high-resolution noninvasive optoacoustic microscopy studies are still limited to a thin layer of pial microvasculature, which can be effectively resolved by tight focusing of the excitation light. We examined a range of distortions introduced by an adult murine skull in transcranial optoacoustic imaging under both acoustically- and optically-determined resolution scenarios. It is shown that strong low-pass filtering characteristics of the skull may significantly deteriorate the achievable spatial resolution in deep brain imaging where no light focusing is possible. While only brain vasculature with a diameter larger than 60 µm was effectively resolved via transcranial measurements with acoustic resolution, significant improvements are seen through cranial windows and thinned skull experiments.

  4. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques.

  5. Risk factors for dystocia in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Diane E; Torrence, Anne E; Hukkanen, Renee R; Vogel, Keith W; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Ha, James C

    2011-04-01

    Dystocia (difficult labor) is an important component of the management of nonhuman primates and results in significant fetal and maternal morbidity and increased use of veterinary resources. Dystocias can arise from abnormalities of the maternal pelvis or fetus or uncoordinated uterine activity. Although risk factors for stillbirths have been established in nonhuman primates, risk factors for dystocias have not. The objective of this study was to determine maternal and fetal risk factors for dystocia in macaques. Retrospective data were collected from 83 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) diagnosed with dystocia. The diagnosis of dystocia was made based on clinical or pathologic evidence. Maternal records of age, reproductive history, experimental history, clinical records, and fetal birth weight and any applicable fetal necropsy reports were reviewed. The gestational age of the fetus, the infant's birth weight, total previous births by the dam, and the proportions of both viable delivery (inverse effect) and surgical pregnancy interventions (direct effect) in the dam's history generated a model that maximized the experimental variance for predicting dystocia in the current pregnancy and explained 24% of the dystocia deliveries. The number of total previous births and proportion of previous cesarean sections accounted for the greatest effect. This model can identify individual dams within a colony that are at risk for dystocias and allow for changes in breeding colony management, more intense monitoring of dams at risk, or allocation of additional resources.

  6. A Macaca mulatta model of fulminant hepatic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zhou; Hong Bu; Jie Xia; Gang Guo; Li Li; Yu-Jun Shi; Zi-Xing Huang; Qiang Lu; Hong-Xia Li

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish an appropriate primate model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). METHODS: We have, for the first time, established a large animal model of FHF in Macaca mulatta by intraperitoneal infusion of amatoxin and endotoxin. Clinical features, biochemical indexes, histopathology and iconography were examined to dynamically investigate the progress and outcome of the animal model. RESULTS: Our results showed that the enzymes and serum bilirubin were markedly increased and the enzyme-bilirubin segregation emerged 36 h after toxin administration. Coagulation activity was significantly decreased. Gradually deteriorated parenchymal abnormality was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography at 48 h. The liver biopsy showed marked hepatocyte steatosis and massive parenchymal necrosis at 36 h and 49 h, respectively. The autopsy showed typical yellow atrophy of the liver. Hepatic encephalopathy of the models was also confirmed by hepatic coma, MRI and pathological changes of cerebral edema. The lethal effects of the extrahepatic organ dysfunction were ruled out by their biochemical indices, imaging and histopathology. CONCLUSION: We have established an appropriate large primate model of FHF, which is closely similar to clinic cases, and can be used for investigation of the mechanism of FHF and for evaluation of potential medical therapies.

  7. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Caroline B; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots.

  8. Molecular mapping of striatal subdivisions in juvenile Macaca Mulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Joann; Muly, Emil C.; Hemby, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    The striatum of the primate brain can be subdivided into three distinct anatomical subregions: caudate (CAU), putamen (PUT), and ventral striatum (VS). Although these subregions share several anatomical connections, cell morphological, and histochemical features, they differ considerably in their vulnerability to different neurological and psychiatric diseases, and these brain regions have significantly different functions in health and disease. In order to better understand the molecular underpinnings of the different disease and functional vulnerabilities, transcriptional profiles were generated from the CAU, PUT, and VS of five juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using human cDNA neuromicroarrays containing triplicate spots of 1227 cDNAs. Differences in microarray gene expression were assessed using z score analysis and 1.5-fold change between paired subregions. Clustering of genes based on dissimilarity of expression patterns between regions revealed subregion specific expression profiles encoding G-protein-coupled receptor signaling transcripts, transcription factors, kinases and phosphatases, and cell signaling and signal transduction transcripts. Twelve transcripts were examined using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and 81% demonstrated alterations similar to those seen with microarray analysis, some of which were statistically significant. Subregion specific transcription profiles support the anatomical differentiation and potential disease vulnerabilities of the respective subregions. PMID:16455077

  9. Morphological Study of Wormian Bones in Dried Human Skulls

    OpenAIRE

    Divyesh Patel; Ketan Chauhan; Dhananjay Patil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wormian bones may be defined as a those accidental bones found in the cranium having no regular relation to their normal ossification centre. They are assocated with cranial and central nervous system abnormalities. Knowledge of these bones is important for anthropo-logists, forensic experts, radiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons to avoid misleading for multiple fractures of the skull. Materials and Methods: Adult dry human skulls (n= 27) of unknown age and sex availablei...

  10. CHONDROID SKULL BASE TUMORS (A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Gasparyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroid skull base tumors are a rare and little studied pathology; many problems of their classification, diagnosis and treatment remain to be solved. This group of neoplasms is referred to as bone tumors arising from the cartilaginous tissue of the skull base bones, particularly from the bones formed during chondral osteogenesis. The paper details the clinical picture, X-ray and morphological diagnosis of chondroid tumors. Particular attention is given to surgery and radiotherapy for this category of tumors.

  11. Photogrammetric 3D skull/photo superimposition: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Valeria; Lubelli, Sergio; De Donno, Antonio; Inchingolo, Alessio; Lavecchia, Fulvio; Introna, Francesco

    2017-02-13

    The identification of bodies through the examination of skeletal remains holds a prominent place in the field of forensic investigations. Technological advancements in 3D facial acquisition techniques have led to the proposal of a new body identification technique that involves a combination of craniofacial superimposition and photogrammetry. The aim of this study was to test the method by superimposing various computerized 3D images of skulls onto various photographs of missing people taken while they were still alive in cases when there was a suspicion that the skulls in question belonged to them. The technique is divided into four phases: preparatory phase, 3d acquisition phase, superimposition phase, and metric image analysis 3d. The actual superimposition of the images was carried out in the fourth step. and was done so by comparing the skull images with the selected photos. Using a specific software, the two images (i.e. the 3D avatar and the photo of the missing person) were superimposed. Cross-comparisons of 5 skulls discovered in a mass grave, and of 2 skulls retrieved in the crawlspace of a house were performed. The morphologyc phase reveals a full overlap between skulls and photos of disappeared persons. Metric phase reveals that correlation coefficients of this values, higher than 0.998-0,997 allow to confirm identification hypothesis.

  12. A reconstruction of the Vienna skull of Hadropithecus stenognathus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, T. M.; Burney, D. A.; Godfrey, L. R.; Göhlich, U. B.; Jungers, W. L.; Vasey, N.; Ramilisonina; Walker, A.; Weber, G. W.

    2008-01-01

    Franz Sikora found the first specimen and type of the recently extinct Hadropithecus stenognathus in Madagascar in 1899 and sent it to Ludwig Lorenz von Liburnau of the Austrian Imperial Academy of Sciences. Later, he sent several more specimens including a subadult skull that was described by Lorenz von Liburnau in 1902. In 2003, some of us excavated at the locality and found more specimens belonging to this species, including much of a subadult skeleton. Two frontal fragments were found, and these, together with most of the postcranial bones, belong to the skull. CT scans of the skull and other jaw fragments were made in Vienna and those of the frontal fragments at Penn State University. The two fragments have been reunited with the skull in silico, and broken parts from one side of the skull have been replaced virtually by mirror-imaged complete parts from the other side. The parts of the jaw of another individual of a slightly younger dental age have also been reconstructed virtually from CT scans with mirror imaging and by using the maxillary teeth and temporomandibular joints as a guide to finish the reconstruction. Apart from forming a virtual skull for biomechanical and systematic analysis, we were also able to make a virtual endocast. Missing anterior pieces were reconstructed by using part of an endocast of the related Archaeolemur majori. The volume is 115 ml. Hadropithecus and Archaeolemur seem to have had relatively large brains compared with the other large-bodied subfossil lemurs. PMID:18663217

  13. Pervasive genetic integration directs the evolution of human skull shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Esparza, Mireia; Sjøvold, Torstein; González-José, Rolando; Santos, Mauro; Hernández, Miquel; Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    2012-04-01

    It has long been unclear whether the different derived cranial traits of modern humans evolved independently in response to separate selection pressures or whether they resulted from the inherent morphological integration throughout the skull. In a novel approach to this issue, we combine evolutionary quantitative genetics and geometric morphometrics to analyze genetic and phenotypic integration in human skull shape. We measured human skulls in the ossuary of Hallstatt (Austria), which offer a unique opportunity because they are associated with genealogical data. Our results indicate pronounced covariation of traits throughout the skull. Separate simulations of selection for localized shape changes corresponding to some of the principal derived characters of modern human skulls produced outcomes that were similar to each other and involved a joint response in all of these traits. The data for both genetic and phenotypic shape variation were not consistent with the hypothesis that the face, cranial base, and cranial vault are completely independent modules but relatively strongly integrated structures. These results indicate pervasive integration in the human skull and suggest a reinterpretation of the selective scenario for human evolution where the origin of any one of the derived characters may have facilitated the evolution of the others.

  14. [Human skull development and voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, A; Roch, J B

    2006-01-01

    The hominisation of the skull comes with the bipedic posture, due to a network of muscular and aponevrotic forces applied to the cranio-facial skeleton. A brief sight of the morphogenetic origine and issues of these forces help to understand more clearly the postural statement of the larynx, his functions, and his many extrinsic biomechanical bounds; then further his most frequently dysfunctions. The larynx is surrounded by several effective systems of protection: active, activo-passive, passive. The architectural features of the components of the laryngeal system allows us to consider the laryngeal function as an auto-balanced system. All the forces engaged are auto-balanced in a continuum of tension. This lead us to the concept of tensegrity system, neologism coming from tensional integrity described by Buckminster Fuller. The laryngeal employement by extrinsic system is pathological in case of chronicity. Any osteopathic treatment, which aims to restore the losses of laryngeal mobility, has to release first the peripherical structures involved in the laryngeal defense, before normalising the larynx itself Finally, the larynx recovers his functions in a tensegrity system.

  15. Peramorphic traits in the tokay gecko skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Juan D; Mapps, Aurelia A; Lewis, Patrick J; Thies, Monte L; Bauer, Aaron M

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, geckos have been conceived to exhibit paedomorphic features relative to other lizards (e.g., large eyes, less extensively ossified skulls, and amphicoelous and notochordal vertebrae). In contrast, peramorphosis has not been considered an important process in shaping their morphology. Here, we studied different sized specimens of Gekko gecko to document ontogenetic changes in cranial anatomy, especially near maturity. Comparison of this species with available descriptions of other geckos resulted in the identification of 14 cranial characteristics that are expressed more strongly with size increase. These characteristics become move evident in later stages of post-hatching development, especially near maturation, and are, therefore, attributed to peramorphosis (hyperossification). ACCTRAN and DELTRAN character optimizations were applied to these characters using a tree of 11 genera derived from a gekkotan molecular phylogeny. This analysis revealed that G. gecko expresses the majority of these putative peramorphic features near maturity, and that some of these features are also expressed in species closely related to G. gecko. The characters studied have the potential to be applied in future phylogenetic and taxonomic studies of this group of lizards.

  16. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumour of the Skull Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Maire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs are rare benign clinical and pathological entities. IMTs have been described in the lungs, abdomen, retroperitoneum, and extremities but rarely in the head and neck region. A 38-year-old man presented with headache, right exophthalmia, and right 6th nerve palsy. A CT scan revealed enlargement of the right cavernous sinus and osteolytic lesions of the right sphenoid and clivus. MR imaging showed a large tumor of the skull base which was invading the sella turcica, right cavernous sinus, and sphenoidal sinus. A biopsy was performed and revealed an IMT. Corticosteroids were given for 3 months but were inefficient. In the framework of our pluridisciplinary consultation, fractionated conformal radiotherapy (FRT was indicated at a low dose; 20 Gy in 10 fractions of 2 Gy over 12 days were delivered. Clinical response was complete 3 months after FRT. Radiological response was subtotal 6 months after FRT. Two years later, the patient is well.

  17. Leonardo da Vinci's "A skull sectioned": skull and dental formula revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Peter O; Veening, Jan G

    2013-05-01

    What can be learned from historical anatomical drawings and how to incorporate these drawings into anatomical teaching? The drawing "A skull sectioned" (RL 19058v) by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), hides more detailed information than reported earlier. A well-chosen section cut explores sectioned paranasal sinuses and ductus nasolacrimalis. A dissected lateral wall of the maxilla is also present. Furthermore, at the level of the foramen mentale, the drawing displays compact and spongious bony components, together with a cross-section through the foramen mentale and its connection with the canalis mandibulae. Leonardo was the first to describe a correct dental formula (6424) and made efforts to place this formula above the related dental elements. However, taking into account, the morphological features of the individual elements of the maxilla, it can be suggested that Leonardo sketched a "peculiar dental element" on the position of the right maxillary premolar in the dental sketch. The fact that the author did not make any comment on that special element is remarkable. Leonardo could have had sufficient knowledge of the precise morphology of maxillary and mandibular premolars, since the author depicted these elements in the dissected skull. The fact that the author also had access to premolars in situ corroborates our suggestion that "something went wrong" in this part of the drawing. The present study shows that historical anatomical drawings are very useful for interactive learning of detailed anatomy for students in medicine and dentistry.

  18. Sandwich-like Reconstruction of Anterior Skull Base Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zheng-min; Wang De-hui

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of new modality of anterior skull base repair,namely sandwich-like reconstruction of anterior skull base defects. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent transcranial or transcranial-facial resections of malignant or benign aggressive tumors involving the anterior skull base was conducted in our department. We used the sandwich-like reconstruction, using pedicled pericranial flap, frontal muscle flap and free abdominal adipose tissue between them, to separate of cranial cavity and aerodigest tract and keep the frontal lobes in place following resections of anterior skull base tumors. Results: From October, 1984 to October, 1998, 116 patients underwent transcranial or transcranialfacial approach for the resection of malignant or aggressive benign tumor, and sandwich-like repairs were performed for the anterior skull base defect. 54 (46.6 % ) patients had previous operation, with a maximum of 5 surgeries. The average age of patients was 35.9 years old, ranging form 6 to 73 years old. Forty-eight (41.4%)patients had malignant neoplasmas, and sixty-eight (58.6%) patients had benign aggressive tumors. In our series, with the maximal follow-ups for as long as 14 years, NO one had early failure of the one-stage reconstruction. CSF fluid leakage was not encountered, nor was ascending bacterial meningitis observed. No immediate or delayed prolapse of dura or frontal lobes was observed. Conclusion: We conclude that the sandwich-like reconstruction, using pericranial flap, frontal muscle flap and free abdominal adipose between them, is an extremely safe and effective procedure for the repair of skull base defect, even when tumor extensively involves anterior skull base.

  19. Sandwich-like Reconstruction of Anterior Skull Base Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZheng-min,MD; WangDe-hui,MD

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the safety and efficacy of new modality of anterior skull base repair,namely sandwich-like reconstruction of anterior skull base defects. Methods : A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent wanscranial or wanscranial-facial resections of malignant or benign aggressive tumors involving the anterior skull base was conducted in our department. We used the sandwich-like reconstruction, using pedicled pericranial flap, frontal muscle flap and free abdominal adipose tissue between them, to separate of cranial cavity and aerodigest tract and keep the frontal lobes in place following resections of anterior skull base tumors. Results: From October, 1984 to October, 1998, 116 patients underwent tmnscranial or tmnscranial-facial approach for the resection of malignant or aggressive benign tumor, and sandwich-like repairs were performed for the anterior skull base defect.54 (46.6%) patients had previous operation, with a maximum of 5 surgeries. The average age of patients was 35.9 years old, ranging form 6 to 73 years old. Forty-eight (41.4%) patients had malignant neoplasmas, and sixty-eight (58.6%) patients had benign aggressive tumors. In our series, with the maximal follow-ups for as long as 14 years, NO one had early failure of the one-stage reconstruction. CSF fluid leakage was not encountered, nor was ascending bacterial meningitis observed. No immediate or delayed prolapse of dura or frontal lobes was observed. Conclusion: We conclude that the sandwich-like reconstruction, using pericranial flap, frontal muscle flap and free abdominal adipose between them, is an extremely safe and effective procedure for the repair of skull base defect, even when tumor extensively involves anterior skull base.

  20. Earliest directly-dated human skull-cups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M Bello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of human braincases as drinking cups and containers has extensive historic and ethnographic documentation, but archaeological examples are extremely rare. In the Upper Palaeolithic of western Europe, cut-marked and broken human bones are widespread in the Magdalenian (∼15 to 12,000 years BP and skull-cup preparation is an element of this tradition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the post-mortem processing of human heads at the Upper Palaeolithic site of Gough's Cave (Somerset, England and identify a range of modifications associated with the production of skull-cups. New analyses of human remains from Gough's Cave demonstrate the skilled post-mortem manipulation of human bodies. Results of the research suggest the processing of cadavers for the consumption of body tissues (bone marrow, accompanied by meticulous shaping of cranial vaults. The distribution of cut-marks and percussion features indicates that the skulls were scrupulously 'cleaned' of any soft tissues, and subsequently modified by controlled removal of the facial region and breakage of the cranial base along a sub-horizontal plane. The vaults were also 'retouched', possibly to make the broken edges more regular. This manipulation suggests the shaping of skulls to produce skull-cups. CONCLUSIONS: Three skull-cups have been identified amongst the human bones from Gough's Cave. New ultrafiltered radiocarbon determinations provide direct dates of about 14,700 cal BP, making these the oldest directly dated skull-cups and the only examples known from the British Isles.

  1. Emotional states after grooming interactions in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In animal societies, the effect of grooming interactions on anxiety reduction is unclear. This study examined the effects of giving and receiving grooming on anxiety reduction in free ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by measuring rates of self-scratching as an index of anxiety. In this study, the authors used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama prefecture, Japan. They evaluated affiliative relationships, which were defined by standard proximity rates, and found that females' self-scratching rates were lower after grooming affiliated partners than during matched-control periods (occurring on another day, beginning at approximately the same time of day as the corresponding postgrooming period) and not after grooming unaffiliated partners. Moreover, regardless of affiliative relationships, self-scratching rates were lower after receiving grooming than during matched-control periods. These findings did not change after excluding data in which groomer and groomee were in proximity after the grooming interaction. In addition, multivariable analysis showed that affiliative relationships, but not kinship or rank distances, were related to differences in the rates of self-scratching between giving grooming and matched-control periods. In contrast, neither affiliative relationships nor kinship nor rank distances affected differences in self-scratching rates between receiving grooming and matched-control periods. Therefore, individuals' anxiety levels decreased both after giving grooming to affiliated partners and after receiving grooming, regardless of affiliative relationships. This is the first empirical study to support the notion that giving grooming to affiliated partners is self-rewarding in Japanese macaques.

  2. Seed dispersal by rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2014-12-01

    Frugivorous primates are important seed dispersers and their absence from forest patches is predicted to be detrimental to tropical forest regeneration and recruitment. With the reduction of primate populations globally, ecologically resilient primate species, characterized by dietary flexibility and the ability to thrive in a variety of habitats, assume new importance as seed dispersers. The most widely distributed non-human primate, the rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta has been intensively studied but little is known about its role in maintaining ecosystem structure and functions. Due to their frugivorous diet, large group sizes, large home ranges and tolerance to disturbance, rhesus macaques may be effective seed dispersers. We studied seed dispersal by rhesus macaques at the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India, through a combination of behavioural observations and germination experiments. Rhesus macaques dispersed 84% of the 49 species they fed on either through spitting or defecation. Nearly 96% of the handled seeds were undamaged and 61% of the species for which germination tests were performed had enhanced germination. Almost 50% of the monitored seeds among those deposited in situ germinated and 22% established seedlings, suggesting that rhesus macaques are important seed dispersers in tropical forests. Due to their widespread distribution and large populations, rhesus macaques are perceived as common and are categorized as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, effectively excluding them from any conservation plans. Based on the results of our study, we argue that rhesus macaques fulfill critical ecological functions in their habitat and that this parameter must be taken into consideration when they are reviewed for conservation priorities.

  3. Temporomandibular joint forces measured at the condyle of Macaca arctoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R L; Gibbs, C H; Mahan, P E; Richmond, A F; Laskin, J L

    1990-06-01

    Forces were measured at the articular surface of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle in two stump-tail monkeys (Macaca arctoides) during chewing, incisal biting, and drinking and also during aggressive behaviors. Force was measured with a thin piezoelectric foil transducer, which was cemented over the anterior and superior surfaces of the condyle. Wires from the upper and lower surfaces of the foil were insulated between two layers of Teflon tape and run subcutaneously to a telemetry unit, which was implanted in the upper back. Force applied across the foil by the condyle was detected by the telemetry unit and transmitted to an FM radio receiver outside the animal. The FM signals were received and demodulated, and a signal proportional to the force applied between the condyle and the TMJ fossa was displayed on a chart recorder. Data were collected over an 8-day period. The animals were not constrained. The TMJ was found to be load bearing. The greatest force of 39.0 lb (17.7 kg) was measured during feisty vocal aggression. Forces ranged as high as 34.5 lb (15.7 kg) during chewing and 28.5 lb (13.0 kg) during incisal biting. Forces were greater on the working (food) side than on the nonworking (balancing) side by average ratios of 1.4 to 2.6. A large unilateral interference at the most distal molar greatly disturbed chewing. It reduced TMJ forces by 50% or more, and the monkey refused to chew on the side opposite the interference.

  4. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this specie...

  5. Essentialism in the Absence of Language? Evidence from Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Webb; Shankar, Maya; Santos, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    We explored whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) share one important feature of human essentialist reasoning: the capacity to track category membership across radical featural transformations. Specifically, we examined whether monkeys--like children (Keil, 1989)--expect a transformed object to have the internal properties of its original…

  6. Proteasome and NF-κB Inhibiting Phaeophytins from the Green Alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhan Lin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical examination of the green alga Cladophora fascicularis resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new porphyrin derivative, porphyrinolactone (1, along with five known phaeophytins 2-6 and fourteen sterols and cycloartanes. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and by comparison of its NMR data with those of known phaeophytins. Compounds 1-6 displayed moderate inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation, while 2 and 4 displayed potential inhibitory activity toward proteasome chymotripsin-like activation. The primary structure-activity relationship was also discussed.

  7. Skull Triangles: Flinders Petrie, Race Theory and Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Challis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1902 the Egyptian archaeologist William Matthew Flinders Petrie published a graph of triangles indicating skull size, shape and ‘racial ability’. In the same year a paper on Naqada crania that had been excavated by Petrie’s team in 1894–5 was published in the anthropometric journal Biometrika, which played an important part in the methodology of cranial measuring in biometrics and helped establish Karl Pearson’s biometric laboratory at University College London. Cicely D. Fawcett’s and Alice Lee’s paper on the variation and correlation of the human skull used the Naqada crania to argue for a controlled system of measurement of skull size and shape to establish homogeneous racial groups, patterns of migration and evolutionary development. Their work was more cautious in tone and judgement than Petrie’s pronouncements on the racial origins of the early Egyptians but both the graph and the paper illustrated shared ideas about skull size, shape, statistical analysis and the ability and need to define ‘race’. This paper explores how Petrie shared his archaeological work with a broad number of people and disciplines, including statistics and biometrics, and the context for measuring and analysing skulls at the turn of the twentieth century.

  8. Geographical variation of the skull of the lesser mouse deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hideki; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Junpei; Sasaki, Motoki; Stafford, Brian J

    2004-10-01

    We examined the geographical variation of the skull size and shape of the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) from Laos, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Langkawi and some Islands of Tenasserim in Myanmar. Although the influence of the climatic condition on skull size was not confirmed in the mainland populations, the skull became rostro-caudally longer in the populations of Tenasserim and Sumatra because of island isolation effect. The skull size was classified into the following three clusters of localities from the matrix of Q-mode correlation coefficients: 1) Langkawi and Tenasserim, 2) Laos and Thailand, 3) Sumatra and Borneo. The skulls in the population of Java belong to the cluster of Langkawi and Tenasserim in male, however were morphologically similar to those in the cluster of Borneo and Sumatra. The canonical discriminant analysis pointed out that the Laos and Tenasserim populations were separated from the other ones and that the populations of Sumatra, Java and Borneo were intermingled each other.

  9. Image guidance in endoscopic sinus surgery and skull base surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitchell R.Gore; Brent A.Senior

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to review the current clinical applications and impact of intraoperative imaging on endoscopic sinonasal and skull base procedures in adult and pediatric patients.Methods The PubMed database was searched for articles related to the use of image guidance in otolaryngology using the search terms "image guidance otolaryngology".This was supplemented by the authors′ experience utilizing image guidance in nearly 3000 endoscopic sinus and skull base procedures.Results The literature demonstrates that intraoperative image guidance has utility in primary and revision endoscopic sinus surgery,as well as endoscopic surgery of the skull base.Image guidance also has applications in pediatric endoscopic surgery,such as pediatric sinus surgery and repair of choanal atresia.Conclusions Intraoperative image guidance,when combined with a thorough knowledge of paranasal sinus and skull base anatomy and technical proficiency,can provide improved safety when performing otolaryngologic procedures from endoscopic sinus surgery to endoscopic skull base surgery.While not a substitute for knowledge of anatomy,the increased availability and usability of image guidance systems make them a useful tool in the armamentarium of the otolaryngologist/head and neck surgeon and neurosurgeon.

  10. The need for skull radiography in patients presenting for CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tress, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    One thousand patients had both CT of the head and a conventional skull series of radiographs. Radiographic findings were abnormal in 250 patients (25%), but only 64 patients (6.4%) had diagnostically significant abnormalities at radiography that were not detected by CT. If the 163 patients who presented after acute trauma were excluded from the series, only 39 (4.7%) of the remaining patients had radiographically significant abnormal findings that were not seen at CT, and only two (0.2%) of these abnormalities could not be diagnosed by a lateral skull radiograph alone. In only five patients (0.5%) was the management actively changed because an abnormaltiy that was detected at skull radiography was not detected at CT. Thus, in nontrauma patients who have stroke, epilepsy, dementia, or non-specific symptoms without focal signs, or have recently undergone craniotomy, and who have been referred for CT, skull radiographs are not justified. In the patient with a history and findings that are strongly suggestive of a pathological disorder anywhere other than in the sella turcica, cerebello-pontine angle, and paranasal sinuses, only the lateral skull radiograph should be obtained after CT, and only if CT is equivocal.

  11. SPECT/CT in the Diagnosis of Skull Base Osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Praveen; Jaganthan, Sriram; Patnecha, Manish; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Bandopadhyaya, Gurupad; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2011-09-15

    Skull base osteomyelitis is a potentially fatal disease. We demonstrate here the utility of SPECT/CT in diagnosing this entity, which was not obvious on a planar bone scan. A {sup 99mT}c MDP bone scan with SPECT/CT was carried out on a patient with clinically suspected skull base osteomyelitis. Findings were correlated with contrast enhanced CT (CECT) and MRI. Planar images were equivocal, but SPECT/CT showed intense uptake in the body of sphenoid and petrous temporal bone as well as the atlas corresponding to irregular bone destruction on CT and MRI. These findings indicate that SPECT/CT may have an additional role beyond planar imaging in the detection of skull base osteomyelitis.

  12. Properties and architecture of the sperm whale skull amphitheatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Parvez; Amini, Shahrouz; Tadayon, Maryam; Miserez, Ali; Chinsamy, Anusuya

    2016-02-01

    The sperm whale skull amphitheatre cradles an enormous two-tonne spermaceti organ. The amphitheatre separates this organ from the cranium and the cervical vertebrae that lie in close proximity to the base of the skull. Here, we elucidate that this skull amphitheatre is an elastic, flexible, triple-layered structure with mechanical properties that are conjointly guided by bone histology and the characteristics of pore space. We contend that the amphitheatre will flex elastically to equilibrate forces transmitted via the spermaceti organ that arise through diving. We find that collisions from sperm whale aggression do not cause the amphitheatre to bend, but rather localise stress to the base of the amphitheatre on its anterior face. We consider, therefore, that the uniquely thin and extended construction of the amphitheatre, has relevance as an energy absorptive structure in diving.

  13. CT of the base of the skull in bacterial meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H.; Schneider, E.

    1981-12-01

    CT examinations of 42 cases of bacterial meningitis revealed in 38.1% of the cases relevant inflammatory processes at the base of the skull which were of significant importance for a transmitted infection. Such infections were: Sinusitis frontalis, ethmoidalis, maxillaris and sphenoidalis, mastoiditis or petrositis, suppurating mucocele, impression fracture, and an intracranially penetrated foreign body. Excepting the identification of fine fractures, conventional X-ray films were diagnostically superior. Hence, especially in the acute stages, special projections can be omitted, if CT is effected in the region of the osseous base of the skull. CT performed in inflammatory diseases of the brain must include the base of the skull, since this will yield reliable pointers to original focus of the inflammation requiring appropriate treatment and elimination.

  14. Skull defects in finite element head models for source reconstruction from magnetoencephalography signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eLau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoencephalography (MEG signals are influenced by skull defects. However, there is a lack of evidence of this influence during source reconstruction. Our objectives are to characterize errors in source reconstruction from MEG signals due to ignoring skull defects and to assess the ability of an exact finite element head model to eliminate such errors.A detailed finite element model of the head of a rabbit used in a physical experiment was constructed from magnetic resonance and co-registered computer tomography imaging that differentiated nine tissue types. Sources of the MEG measurements above intact skull and above skull defects respectively were reconstructed using a finite element model with the intact skull and one incorporating the skull defects.The forward simulation of the MEG signals reproduced the experimentally observed characteristic magnitude and topography changes due to skull defects. Sources reconstructed from measured MEG signals above intact skull matched the known physical locations and orientations. Ignoring skull defects in the head model during reconstruction displaced sources under a skull defect away from that defect. Sources next to a defect were reoriented. When skull defects, with their physical conductivity, were incorporated in the head model, the location and orientation errors were mostly eliminated. The conductivity of the skull defect material non-uniformly modulated the influence on MEG signals.We propose concrete guidelines for taking into account conducting skull defects during MEG coil placement and modeling. Exact finite element head models can improve localization of brain function, specifically after surgery.

  15. Radiologic assessment of maxillofacial, mandibular, and skull base trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuknecht, Bernhard [University Hospital of Zurich, Institute of Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland); MRI-Medizinisch Radiodiagnostisches Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Graetz, Klaus [University Hospital of Zurich, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-03-01

    Cranio-maxillofacial injuries affect a significant proportion of trauma patients either in isolation or concurring with other serious injuries. Contrary to maxillofacial injuries that result from a direct impact, central skull base and lateral skull base (petrous bone) fractures usually are caused by a lateral or sagittal directed force to the skull and therefore are indirect fractures. The traditional strong role of conventional images in patients with isolated trauma to the viscerocranium is decreasing. Spiral multislice CT is progressively replacing the panoramic radiograph, Waters view, and axial films for maxillofacial trauma, and is increasingly being performed in addition to conventional films to detail and classify trauma to the mandible as well. Imaging thus contributes to accurately categorizing mandibular fractures based on location, into alveolar, mandibular proper, and condylar fractures - the last are subdivided into intracapsular and extracapsular fractures. In the midface, CT facilitates attribution of trauma to the categories central, lateral, or combined centrolateral fractures. The last frequently encompass orbital trauma as well. CT is the imaging technique of choice to display the multiplicity of fragments, the degree of dislocation and rotation, or skull base involvement. Transsphenoid skull base fractures are classified into transverse and oblique types; lateral base (temporal bone) trauma is subdivided into longitudinal and transverse fractures. Supplementary MR examinations are required when a cranial nerve palsy occurs in order to recognize neural compression. Early and late complications of trauma related to the orbit, anterior cranial fossa, or lateral skull base due to infection, brain concussion, or herniation require CT to visualize the osseous prerequisites of complications, and MR to define the adjacent brain and soft tissue involvement. (orig.)

  16. Recurrent mandibular ameloblastoma with anterior skull base invasion: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, L; Varoquaux, A; Giovanni, A; Dessi, P; Michel, J

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent ameloblastoma with skull base invasion is a rare clinical entity with poor prognosis. We report a case of a mandibular ameloblastoma recurrence involving the anterior skull base. The diagnostic and therapeutic processes are presented with emphasis on the radiologic features of ameloblastoma. Another aim of this case report is to underline the importance of close and long-term follow-up after resection. Ameloblastoma recurrences are frequent and mainly occur after incomplete surgical resection. These recurrences may be diagnosed late because of lack of symptoms in the mandibular area.

  17. Skull lichens: a curious chapter in the history of phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenesi, P

    2009-04-01

    Lichens growing on skulls were known in late medieval times as usnea or moss of a dead man's skull and were recommended as highly beneficial in various diseases. They were, in addition, the main ingredient of Unguentum armariun, a liniment used in a curious medical practice: the magnetic cure of wounds. We can place this chapter of the history of phytotherapy within the wider cultural context of the period, which saw the definition of nature become increasingly more fluid and open to a variety of novel interpretations.

  18. Case report 476: Chondrosarcoma of base of skull (CBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorstein, J.M.; Spizarny, D.L.

    1988-04-01

    In summary, focal neurologic findings in a 29-year-old woman were secondary to a mass at the skull base. Skull roentgenograms and CT localized a partially calcified, non-enhancing, left parasellar mass, which was partially resected. Two years later the patient presented with similar symptoms and locally recurrent mass. Oseochondroma was originally considered; however, tumor recurrence, radiographic manifestations, and morphologic features were felt more consistent with chondrosarcoma. This patient illustrates that diagnosis of low grade chondrosarcoma requires cooperation between skeletal radiologist, skeletal pathologist and surgeon. (orig./SHA).

  19. Skull-base Ewing sarcoma with multifocal extracranial metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Thakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial occurrence of Ewing sarcoma (ES is unusual, with a skull-base location being anecdotal. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with rapidly progressive ophthalmoplegia, and was found to be harboring an infiltrative lesion involving the sphenoid sinus, sella, and clivus. He underwent trans-sphenoidal decompression of the lesion which was histologically suggestive of ES. He developed paraparesis 2 weeks after commencing adjuvant therapy. Imaging revealed two thoracic extradural lesions and florid vertebral and pulmonary metastases. This is the first report in indexed literature of a primary intracranial ES on the skull-base with disseminated extracranial disease.

  20. Cavernous Hemangioma of the Skull and Meningioma: Association or Coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kilani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas of the skull are rare. Meningiomas are quite frequently encountered in a neurosurgical practice. The association between these two entities is nevertheless very uncommon. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old woman suffering from headache. The MRI showed a parietal meningioma with adjacent thick bone. The meningioma and the bone were removed. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of meningioma and revealed a cavernoma of the skull. The relationship between the lesions suggests more than a coincidental association. Several hypotheses are proposed to explain common causal connections.

  1. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (< 1 MHz) are used to reconstruct the TAT images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head co...

  2. A case of elongated styloid process in a modern-age skull from Puerto Cabello, Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dąbrowski, P; Gronkiewicz, S; Soliński, D; Pers, A; Lachowski, K; Domagała, Z

    2015-01-01

    .... The paper presents a case of an elongated SP in a modern skull from Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, obtained from a series of skulls of African slaves kept at the Department of Anthropology, Polish...

  3. The Effects of TCDD on Pregnant Cynomolgus Macaque (MacacaFascicularis) and its Pregnancy Outcome%TCDD对猕猴妊娠期及其妊娠结局的毒性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉梅; Lasley,B

    2000-01-01

    在雌猴妊娠第12天采用灌胃法一次性给予TCDD,剂量为1.0、2.0、4.0μg/kg.bw,每个剂量组4个动物。对照组(7个动物)给予相同体积的溶媒(丙酮-色拉油)。结果发现母猴在染毒10天后相继出现食欲下降、体重降低、脱毛、皮炎和贫血等中毒症状,染毒组12只猴子有10只在怀孕的第22到32天发生早期胚胎丢失。结果表明,低剂量TCDD可导致妊娠期猕猴出现中毒症状,并影响妊娠结局。%Females macaques were administrated single doses of 1, 2,4pg/kg TCDD(n = 4 per dose group)on gestational day (GD)12.The controls(n = 7)received the same dosing volume of acetone-coin oil. The results showed that poor appetite, weight loss, alope-cia, dermatitis, anemia and other toxic reactions were recordedsince rtrteatment day 10, and early fetal loss occurred between GDs22 and 32 in 10 of the 12 animals treated, with TCDD. The resultsdemonstrated that toxicity was induced by low level TCDD inpregnant macaques and pregnancy outcomes were affected too.

  4. Bases estructurales de la memoria declarativa. Estudio de la interacción entre la formación del hipocampo y la corteza cerebral en el primate Macaca fascicularis.

    OpenAIRE

    Legidos García, María Ester

    2014-01-01

    La memoria otorga al ser humano una biografía y un conjunto de hechos que le proporciona una identidad, le orienta en el mundo y en su entorno cultural (memoria declarativa). Evidencias clínicas y experimentales muestran que los centros nerviosos cuyo epicentro es el lóbulo temporal medial, son imprescindibles para la consolidación y evocación de los recuerdos. Entre estos centros nerviosos destaca la Formación del Hipocampo (FH) compuesta de giro dentado, campos amónicos CA3, CA2, CA1, subíc...

  5. Extended cleavage specificity of the mast cell chymase from the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis): an interesting animal model for the analysis of the function of the human mast cell chymase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Michael; Yu, Jing; Boinapally, Vamsi; Ahooghalandari, Parvin; Kervinen, Jukka; Garavilla, Lawrence de; Hellman, Lars

    2012-12-01

    Serine proteases are the major protein constituents within mast cell secretory granules. These proteases are subdivided into chymases and tryptases depending on their primary cleavage specificity. Here, we present the extended cleavage specificity of the macaque mast cell chymase and compare the specificity with human chymase (HC) and dog chymase (DC) that were produced in the same insect cell expression host. The macaque chymase (MC) shows almost identical characteristics as the HC, including both primary and extended cleavage specificities as well as sensitivity to protease inhibitors, whereas the DC differs in several of these characteristics. Although previous studies have shown that mouse mast cell protease-4 (mMCP-4) is similar in its hydrolytic specificity to the HC, mouse mast cells contain several related enzymes. Thus mice may not be the most appropriate model organism for studying HC activity and inhibition. Importantly, macaques express only one chymase and, as primates, are closely related to human general physiology. In addition, the human and macaque enzymes both cleave angiotensin I (Ang I) in the same way, generating primarily angiotensin II (Ang II) and they do not further degrade the peptide like most rodent enzymes do. Both enzymes also cleave two additional potential in vivo substrates, fibronectin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in a similar way. Given the fact that both HC and MC are encoded by a single gene with high sequence homology and that many physiological processes are similar between these species, the macaque may be a very interesting model to study the physiological role of the chymase and to determine the potency and potential side-effects of various chymase inhibitors designed for therapeutic human use.

  6. Growing skull fracture in a 5-month old child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Michael; Schmidt, John H; Trenton, Brooke A; Sheets, Nicholas W

    2010-01-01

    Growing skull fractures are a rare complication of linear skull fractures in children. The authors report a case of a growing skull fracture in a 5-month-old patient with a review of the literature. CT and MRI scans revealed a growing skull fracture with complication of leptomeningeal cyst formation. Surgical removal of the cyst, duraplasty and cranial reconstruction were performed. Follow up showed that the patient was stable neurologically and had improving left upper extremity weakness.

  7. Single-layer skull approximations perform well in transcranial direct current stimulation modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rampersad, S.M.; Stegeman, D.F.; Oostendorp, T.F.

    2013-01-01

    In modeling the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation, the representation of the skull is an important factor. In a spherical model, we compared a realistic skull modeling approach, in which the skull consisted of three isotropic layers, to anisotropic and isotropic single-layer approxim

  8. Positional skull deformation in infants: heading towards evidence-based practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van Renske Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The shape of a young infant’s skull can deform as a result of prolonged external forces. The prevalence of positional skull deformation increased dramatically during the last decades. The primary aim of this dissertation was to provide a stronger evidence base for the treatment of skull deformation

  9. Country of my skull/Skull of my country: Krog and Zagajewski, South Africa and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. van Schalkwyk

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In the ninth poem of the cycle “land van genade en verdriet” (“country of grace and sorrow” in the collection “Kleur kom nooit alleen nie” (“Colour never comes on its own”, Antjie Krog contends that the old is “stinking along” ever so cheerfully/ robustly in the new South African dispensation. This could also hold true for the new democratic Poland. Krog and the Polish poet Adam Zagajewksi could, in fact, be described as “intimate strangers”, specifically with regard to the mirrored imagery of “country of my skull”/“skull of my country” present in their work. The notion of “intimate strangers” may be seen as pointing toward the feminine dimension of subjectivity, which could be elaborated along the lines of Bracha Ettinger’s concept of “matrixial borderlinking”. Ettinger has made a significant contribution to the field of psychoanalysis, building on Freud and Lacan. She investigates the subject’s relation to the m/Other, and the intimate matrixial sharing of “phantasm”, “jouissance” and trauma among several entities. Critical of the conventional “phallic” paradigm, Ettinger turns to the womb in exploring the “borderlinking” of the I and the non-I within the matrix (the psychic creative “borderspace”. With these considerations as point of departure, and with specific reference to the closing poem in Krog’s “Country of my skull” and Zagajewski’s “Fire” (both exploring “weaning” experiences in recent personal and public history, I intend to show how the public/political is connected to the personal/psychological, and vice versa, and how committed literary works like those of Krog and Zagajewski can be clarified further from a psychoanalytical perspective. The image of the skull in the texts under scrutiny is investigated with recourse to the Lacanian notion of the “cavity”, as adopted and adapted by Ettinger. True to the mirror experience as described within

  10. Statistical skull models from 3D X-ray images

    CERN Document Server

    Berar, M; Bailly, G; Payan, Y; Berar, Maxime; Desvignes, Michel; Payan, Yohan

    2006-01-01

    We present 2 statistical models of the skull and mandible built upon an elastic registration method of 3D meshes. The aim of this work is to relate degrees of freedom of skull anatomy, as static relations are of main interest for anthropology and legal medicine. Statistical models can effectively provide reconstructions together with statistical precision. In our applications, patient-specific meshes of the skull and the mandible are high-density meshes, extracted from 3D CT scans. All our patient-specific meshes are registrated in a subject-shared reference system using our 3D-to-3D elastic matching algorithm. Registration is based upon the minimization of a distance between the high density mesh and a shared low density mesh, defined on the vertexes, in a multi resolution approach. A Principal Component analysis is performed on the normalised registrated data to build a statistical linear model of the skull and mandible shape variation. The accuracy of the reconstruction is under the millimetre in the shape...

  11. Morphological Study of Wormian Bones in Dried Human Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wormian bones may be defined as a those accidental bones found in the cranium having no regular relation to their normal ossification centre. They are assocated with cranial and central nervous system abnormalities. Knowledge of these bones is important for anthropo-logists, forensic experts, radiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons to avoid misleading for multiple fractures of the skull. Materials and Methods: Adult dry human skulls (n= 27 of unknown age and sex availablein the Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Surat were included in the study. Result: Overall incidence of wormian bone was 44.4%. They occurred more frequently at lambdoid suture (48.14%.Wormian bones were also presentat asterion (18.5%, along the coronal suture (0.03%, along the parito-temporal suture (0.07%, along the occipito-mastoid suture (0.03%,andat pterion (0.03 %. Wormain bones were found 48.1% on left half of skull and 37.03% on right half of skull. Conclusion: The Wormian bones were more frequent at the lambdoid suture. The clinical importances of these variant bones were emphasized with relevant review of literature. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 222-225

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF WORMIAN BONES IN CADAVER SKULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi; Adinarayana; Pujitha

    2015-01-01

    Wormian bones are accessory bones are not normally present in skull . They may or may not be associated with clinical abnormalities . In the present study a significant number of wormian bones were identified at the Department of Anatomy , Andhra Medical College , Visakhapatnam . Their incidence with other population were done in the presen t study

  13. Computed tomography of the human developing anterior skull base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Loosen (J.); A.I.J. Klooswijk (A. I J); D. van Velzen (D.); C.D.A. Verwoerd (Carel)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The ossification of the anterior skull base, especially the lamina cribrosa, has been studied by computed tomography and histopathology. Sixteen human fetuses, (referred to our laboratory for pathological examination after spontaneous abortion between 18 and 32 weeks of ge

  14. Viscoelastic finite-element analysis of human skull - dura mater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... In the work, the dynamic characteristics of the human skull-dura mater ... Ansys' finite element processor, a simplified three-dimensional finite element ... brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brain's blood ... ICP is often not preventable. .... The creep of linear viscoelastic solid can be simulated by the.

  15. Evolution of skull and mandible shape in cats (Carnivora: Felidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Christiansen

    Full Text Available The felid family consists of two major subgroups, the sabretoothed and the feline cats, to which all extant species belong, and are the most anatomically derived of all carnivores for predation on large prey with a precision killing bite. There has been much controversy and uncertainty about why the skulls and mandibles of sabretoothed and feline cats evolved to become so anatomically divergent, but previous models have focused on single characters and no unifying hypothesis of evolutionary shape changes has been formulated. Here I show that the shape of the skull and mandible in derived sabrecats occupy entirely different positions within overall morphospace from feline cats, and that the evolution of skull and mandible shape has followed very different paths in the two subgroups. When normalised for body-size differences, evolution of bite forces differ markedly in the two groups, and are much lower in derived sabrecats, and they show a significant relationship with size and cranial shape, whereas no such relationship is present in feline cats. Evolution of skull and mandible shape in modern cats has been governed by the need for uniform powerful biting irrespective of body size, whereas in sabrecats, shape evolution was governed by selective pressures for efficient predation with hypertrophied upper canines at high gape angles, and bite forces were secondary and became progressively weaker during sabrecat evolution. The current study emphasises combinations of new techniques for morphological shape analysis and biomechanical studies to formulate evolutionary hypotheses for difficult groups.

  16. THE SKULL OF THE PERUVIAN BOOBY SULA VARIEGATA (AVES, SULIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO STUCCHI

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphology of the skull of the Peruvian booby Sula variegata (Tschudi, 1845, considering its ontogeny, and compared with other species of the family Sulidae and, similarly, with other families of the traditional order Pelecaniformes: Phalacrocoracidae, Anhingidae, Fregatidae, Phaetonthidae and Pelecanidae. In the comparisons could be found characteristics which the Peruvian booby shares with other members of Sulidae, and others that, taken together, distinguish it from other species of the genus Sula. Among the former are: (1 during ontogenetic development, they change the proportions between the rostrum and thebraincase, stretching the first and reducing the height of the second. (2 The skulls have a nasal opening in their early stages of development, which is completely closed with the growth of the bird. The respiratory function moves to a space that is below the pre-orbital fenestra and the jugal, which is protected by ranfoteca. (3 Adult individuals present a trabecular space in the inner part of the upper jaw and frontals that confers resistance to the skull. All these features allow the Sulidae to prevent the rupture or buckling of the skull under the force of the impact of the plunge. In the second case there are: (1 cranial roof slightly vaulted over the orbits; (2 Sagittal crest generally narrow, although wide in some individuals; (3 Short temporal region; (4 Straight proximal rostrum in front of the naso-frontal suture.

  17. A Quantitative Analysis of Published Skull Base Endoscopy Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Douglas A; Ponce, Francisco A; Little, Andrew S; Nakaji, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Objectives Skull base endoscopy allows for minimal access approaches to the sinonasal contents and cranial base. Advances in endoscopic technique and applications have been published rapidly in recent decades. Setting We utilized an Internet-based scholarly database (Web of Science, Thomson Reuters) to query broad-based phrases regarding skull base endoscopy literature. Participants All skull base endoscopy publications. Main Outcome Measures Standard bibliometrics outcomes. Results We identified 4,082 relevant skull base endoscopy English-language articles published between 1973 and 2014. The 50 top-cited publications (n = 51, due to articles with equal citation counts) ranged in citation count from 397 to 88. Most of the articles were clinical case series or technique descriptions. Most (96% [49/51])were published in journals specific to either neurosurgery or otolaryngology. Conclusions A relatively small number of institutions and individuals have published a large amount of the literature. Most of the publications consisted of case series and technical advances, with a lack of randomized trials.

  18. Pseudotumoral allergic fungal sinusitis with skull base involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J J; Dupret, A; Veillon, F; Riehm, S

    2014-01-01

    Here we report a case of pseudotumoral recurrence of allergic fungal sinusitis with involvement of the skull base that was successfully treated with systemic corticosteroids and itraconazole without surgery. This report discusses the sometimes misleading radiological and clinical features as well as the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of a condition that should be recognized by ENT specialists, neurosurgeons, ophtalmologists and radiologists.

  19. Use of sodium fluorescein in skull base tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The authors present this study using sodium fluorescein (SF to enhance skull base tumors by performing a quantitative digital analysis of tumor enhancement. The purpose of this study is to observe the grade of SF enhancement by the tumors.Methods: A prospective experiment within-subjects study design was performed which included six patients with skull base lesions. Digital pictures were taken before and after the SF systemic injection, using the same light source of the microsurgical field. The pictures were analyzed by computer software which calculated the wavelength (WL of the SF pre- and post-injection.Results: The group of tumors was as follows: one vestibular schwannoma, three meningiomas, one craniopharyngioma and one pituitary adenoma. The SF enhancement in all tumors was strongly positive. The digital analysis of the pictures, considering the SF WL pre- and post-injection, presented P = 0.028 (Wilcoxon T test.Conclusions: The enhancement of the tumors by SF was consistent and evident. The introductory results suggest the possibility of using SF as an adjuvant tool for the skull base surgery. Further studies should test the clinical application of the SF in skull base tumors.

  20. Comparative skull osteology of Karsenia koreana (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Wake, Marvalee H; Wake, David B

    2010-05-01

    The recent discovery of a plethodontid salamander, Karsenia koreana, in Korea challenged our understanding of the biogeographic history of the family Plethodontidae, by far the largest family of salamanders, which otherwise is distributed in the New World with a few European species. Molecular studies suggest that Karsenia forms a clade with Hydromantes (sensu lato), which includes among its species the only other Old World plethodontids. We studied the skull of K. koreana and compared it with that of other plethodontid genera, especially members of the subfamily Plethodontinae, which it resembles most closely in general anatomy. The anatomy of its skull corresponds to the most generalized and apparently ancestral condition for plethodontids. No clearly autapomorphic states were detected, and no synapomorphies can be found that would link it to other genera. The Karsenia skull is cylindrical and well ossified, giving an impression of strength. In contrast, the skull of Hydromantes is highly derived; the skull is flattened and the bones are weakly ossified and articulated. Hydromantes and Karsenia share no unique anatomical features; differences between them are especially evident in the hyobranchial skeleton, which is generalized in Karsenia but highly modified in Hydromantes, which is well known for its highly projectile tongue. Plethodon and Plethodon-like species, including Karsenia and to a lesser degree Ensatina, represent the more generalized and apparently ancestral plethodontid morphology. Specialized morphologies have evolved along only a few morphological axes within the Plethodontidae, resulting in a pattern of rampant homoplasy. Our analysis of the anatomy of the new Asiatic lineage illuminates some potential mechanisms underlying adaptive morphological evolution within the Plethodontidae.

  1. [Clinical features and comprehensive treatment of skull base osteosarcoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ke; Wan, Jinghai; Ni, Song; Li, Xueji; Liu, Shaoyan; Meng, Xiaoli; Qian, Haipeng

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the clinical features and treatment of skull base osteosarcoma. The clinical data of 18 patients with skull base osteosarcoma, who were admitted to the CAMS Cancer Hospital from January 2005 to November 2013, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were followed up by telephone, outpatient review and other means. Fifteen patients were followed up, 4 cases received surgery only, and 11 cases received surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis was used to analyze the clinical data and Log rank method was used for verification. Nine patients died among the 15 patients who were followed up for 3-103 months (mean 25.0 months): seven patients died of local recurrence, and two patients died of distant metastasis, and six patients were still alive. Four patients received surgery only, with a median survival time of 25.0 months, and 11 patients received comprehensive treatment, with a median survival time of 47.0 months (P = 0.02). Five patients received sub-total resection, with a mean survival time of 47.0 months, and 10 patients received total resection, with a mean survival time of 45.0 months (P = 0.37). The 1- and 2-year recurrence rates were 46.6% and 68.9%, respectively. The overall 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 82.4%, 61.8%, 36.0% and 36.0%, respectively, with a median survival time of 30.0 months. To compare the long bone and head and neck osteosarcoma with skull base osteosarcoma, the skull base osteosarcoma has a lower total resection rate, a higher recurrence rate, and a poorer prognosis. Radical surgery and comprehensive treatment are appropriate for skull base osteosarcoma.

  2. Micrometeorite Impacts in Beringian Mammoth Tusks and a Bison Skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstrum, Jonathon T.; Firestone, Richard B; West, Allen; Stefanka, Zsolt; Revay, Zsolt

    2010-02-03

    We have discovered what appear to be micrometeorites imbedded in seven late Pleistocene Alaskan mammoth tusks and a Siberian bison skull. The micrometeorites apparently shattered on impact leaving 2 to 5 mm hemispherical debris patterns surrounded by carbonized rings. Multiple impacts are observed on only one side of the tusks and skull consistent with the micrometeorites having come from a single direction. The impact sites are strongly magnetic indicating significant iron content. We analyzed several imbedded micrometeorite fragments from both tusks and skull with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These analyses confirm the high iron content and indicate compositions highly enriched in nickel and depleted in titanium, unlike any natural terrestrial sources. In addition, electron microprobe (EMP) analyses of a Fe-Ni sulfide grain (tusk 2) show it contains between 3 and 20 weight percent Ni. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) of a particle extracted from the bison skull indicates ~;;0.4 mg of iron, in agreement with a micrometeorite ~;;1 mm in diameter. In addition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and XRF analyses of the skull show possible entry channels containing Fe-rich material. The majority of tusks (5/7) have a calibrated weighted mean 14C age of 32.9 +- 1.8 ka BP, which coincides with the onset of significant declines<36 ka ago in Beringian bison, horse, brown bear, and mammoth populations, as well as in mammoth genetic diversity. It appears likely that the impacts and population declines are related events, although their precise nature remains to be determined.

  3. Image collection: 44 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 Macaca_fascicularis_NL.png カニクイザル Cynomolgus Macaca fascicularis 9541 生物アイコン,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,哺乳綱,獣亜綱,真獣下綱,霊長目

  4. Surrogate Mobility and Orientation Affect the Early Neurobehavioral Development of Infant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda M Dettmer; Ruggerio, Angela M.; Novak, Melinda A.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    A biological mother’s movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard...

  5. Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, KC; Bloomsmith, MA; Neu, K; Griffis, C; Maloney, M.

    2010-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was evaluated at two large primate facil...

  6. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-01

    We describe a newly discovered Macaca species from the Medog, in southeastern Tibet, China, Macaca leucogenys sp. nov or the "white-cheeked macaque". Based on 738 photos taken during direct observations and captured by camera traps this new species appears to be distinct from the Macaca sinica species group. Moreover, the species is distinguished from all potential sympatric macaque species (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis, and M. munzala) in exhibiting a suite of pelage characteristics including relatively uniform dorsal hair pattern, hairy ventral pelage, relative hairless short tail, prominent pale to white side- and chin-whiskers creating a white cheek and round facial appearance, dark facial skin on the muzzle, long and thick hairs on its neck, and a round rather than arrow-shaped male genitalia. This new macaque species was found to exploit a diverse set of habitat types from tropical forest at 1395 m, to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest at 2000 m, as well as mixed broadleaf-conifer forest at 2700 m. Its range may extend to neighboring counties in Tibet and the part of southeastern Tibet controlled by India. The white-cheeked macaque is threatened by illegal hunting and the construction of hydropower stations. Discovery of this new primate species further highlights the high value for biodiversity conservation of southeastern Tibet and calls for more intensive surveys, studies, and environmental protection in this area.

  7. Clinical characteristics and molecular pathology of skull ectopic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Longxing; Wang, Zhongyong; Ma, Jiawei; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhu, Haojiang; Zhou, Xiaohua; Zhu, Qing; Dong, Jun; Lan, Qing; Huang, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid cancer is very common, but skull ectopic thyroid cancer has not been reported in 50 years of literatures in foreign countries. There are only four cases of the skull ectopic thyroid cancer reported in more than 30 years of domestic literature including the cases in this report. This paper aims to investigate the clinical characteristics and possible molecular mechanisms of this rare disease. Five keywords of "thyroid gland", "ectopic thyroid", "thyroid cancer", "ectopic thyroid cancer" and "metastatic thyroid cancer" were included and 50 years of literatures in the PubMed-MEDLINE and Wanfang database were reviewed. By combining the test data of 2 cases of surgical patient tissue microarray specimens-molecular immunology pathology, the possible molecular mechanisms were analyzed and molecular regulation network diagram was drawn. The skull ectopic thyroid cancer has not been reported in 50 years of literatures in foreign countries and there are only four cases of the skull ectopic thyroid cancer reported in more than 30 years of domestic literature including the cases in this report. The molecular expressions of skull ectopic thyroid cancer, orthotopic thyroid cancer, and metastatic thyroid cancer were not the same: (I) AKT (P=0.012, 0.002) and mTOR (P=0.002, 0.004) were highly expressed in the skull ectopic thyroid cancer; (II) BRAF (P=0.029, 0.014) and ERK (P=0.002, 0.001) were highly expressed in orthotopic thyroid cancer; (III) MMP-9 (P=0.023, 0.016) was highly expressed in metastatic thyroid cancer. According to the molecular information base, the PI3K is predicted to be a key crossing gene of the above three signaling pathways, which showed no significant differences in these three thyroid cancers (P=0.692, 0.388, 0.227), but PI3K has regulation roles in the three signaling pathways of Akt/mTOR, MAPK, and NF-κB. PI3K gene is an important starting gene of thyroid cancers. After the canceration starts, due to the fact that the local microenvironments of

  8. Gene expression analysis of volatile-rich male flowers of dioecious Pandanus fascicularis using expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, M S; Sankararamasubramanian, H M; Priyanka, R; Ganesan, G; Parida, Ajay

    2010-07-15

    Pandanus fascicularis is dioecious with the female plant producing a non-scented fruit while the male produces a flower rich in volatiles. The essential oil extracted from the flowers is economically exploited as a natural flavouring agent as well as for its therapeutic properties. Molecular dissection of this distinct flower for identifying the genes responsible for its aroma by way of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has not been initiated in spite of its economic viability. A male flower-specific cDNA library was constructed and 977 ESTs were generated. CAP3 analysis performed on the dataset revealed 83 contigs (549 ESTs) and 428 singlets, thereby yielding a total of 511 unigenes. Functional annotation using the BLAST2GO software resulted in 1952 Gene ontology (GO) functional classification terms for 621 sequences. Unknown proteins were further analysed with InterProScan to determine their functional motifs. RNA gel blot analysis of 26 functionally distinct transcripts potentially involved in flowering and volatile generation, using vegetative and reproductive tissues of both the sexes, revealed differential expression profiles. In addition to an overview of genes expressed, candidate genes with expression that are modulated predominantly in the male inflorescence were also identified. This is the first report on generation of ESTs to determine the subset of genes that can be used as potential candidates for future attempts aimed towards its genetic and genome analysis including metabolic engineering of floral volatiles in this economically important plant.

  9. Temporal stability of Symbiodinium phylotype in scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis from a tropicalfringing reef in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guowei; HUANG Hui; DONG Zhijun; YU Ziniu

    2011-01-01

    Symbiodinium sp.occurs in a symbiotic association with various marine invertebrates,including the scleractinian corals.Understanding the flexibility and specificity in coral-algal symbiosis can have important implications for predicting the future of coral reefs in the era of global climate change.In the present study.we conducted Symbiodinium phylotype analysis,based on polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism ( PCR-RFLP).in the scleractinian coral,Galaxeafascicularis,from a tropical fringing reef in Hainan Island,over a l-yr period.Our results showed that Galaxea fascicularis could associate with Symbiodinium clade C and D either individually or simultaneously.However,during the sampling period,the Symbiodinium phylotype did not change significantly in the scleractinian coral Galaxeafascicularis,although the seawater temperature decreased sharply in the winter season.This study further suggests that the shift in Symbiodinium communities in response to seasonally fluctuating environments might not be a universal feature of coral-algal associations.

  10. Proton therapy for tumors of the skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munzenrider, J.E.; Liebsch, N.J. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Univ. Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Charged particle beams are ideal for treating skull base and cervical spine tumors: dose can be focused in the target, while achieving significant sparing of the brain, brain stem, cervical cord, and optic nerves and chiasm. For skull base tumors, 10-year local control rates with combined proton-photon therapy are highest for chondrosarcomas, intermediate for male chordomas, and lowest for female chordomas (94%, 65%, and 42%, respectively). For cervical spine tumors, 10-year local control rates are not significantly different for chordomas and chondrosarcomas (54% and 48%, respectively), nor is there any difference in local control between males and females. Observed treatment-related morbidity has been judged acceptable, in view of the major morbidity and mortality which accompany uncontrolled tumor growth. (orig.)

  11. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V

    2006-03-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head containing inserted needles. We also image the coronal and axial sections of a 7-month-old monkey head. Brain features that are 3 cm deep in the head are imaged clearly. Our results demonstrate that TAT has potential for use in portable, cost-effective imagers for pediatric brains.

  12. Trifocal distraction osteogenesis for reconstruction of skull defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Ke; Hai-Song Xu; Zhi-Hong Fan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To apply trifocal distraction osteogenesis in canine model of skull segmental defects and to provide reference for clinical treatment. Methods:Six labrador dogs were selected in this study and divided into observation group and control group randomly. Each group contained 3 dogs. Skull segmental defects models were established by surgery, and dogs in bservation group received trifocal distraction osteogenesis treatment. Bone density was observed and compared between two groups during treatment. Results: There were no significant difference in bone density between two groups on th 1st day (P>0.05). The bone density of observation group on the 30th day, and 60th day were higher than that of control group (P<0.01). Conclusions: Trifocal distraction osteogenesis has significant clinical effect, and it would be widely used in clinical treatment.

  13. Skull anatomy of the miniaturized gecko Sphaerodactylus roosevelti (Squamata: Gekkota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Juan D; Abdala, Virginia; Thomas, Richard; Bauer, Aaron M

    2008-11-01

    A detailed description of the skull and jaw of the gecko Sphaerodactylus roosevelti is presented. The bones are described articulated and isolated with special consideration given to the type of suture among joining elements. S. roosevelti was compared with 109 gekkotan species to evaluate the osteological variation and to find characters for cladistic analysis. Changes in the skull associated with the miniaturization process are discussed within the sphaerodactylid geckos. A noticeable increase of overlapping sutures was observed in the snout of the smallest sphaerodactylids compared to other gekkotans. This pattern is convergent with that in miniaturized pygopodids and may be attributed to adaptations for decreasing mechanical resistance of the cranium during feeding or burrowing. New cranial characters support Sphaerodactylinae as a monophyletic group and should be useful for resolving questions such as their relationship with other gekkotans.

  14. Skull Base Osteomyelitis in the Emergency Department: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Burak Sayhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Skull base osteomyelitis (SBO is a rare clinical presentation and usually occurs as a complication of trauma or sinusitis. A 5-year-old child presented to the emergency department with a three-week history of fever associated with drowsiness and left parietal headache, and a week's history of swelling on the left frontoparietal soft tissue. He had suffered a penetrating scalp injury four month ago. On physical examination, there was a tender swelling with purulent stream on the lateral half of his scalp. His vital signs are within normal limits. Plain X-ray of the skull showed a lytic lesion on the left frontoparietal bone. A cranial computed tomography (CT scan demonstrated a large subgaleal abscess at the left frontoparietal region. SBO possesses a high morbidity and mortality; therefore, prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory to prevent further complications and to reduce morbidity and mortality significantly.

  15. Endoscopic Excision of Symptomatic Simple Bone Cyst at Skull Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawat, Prashant; Karmarkar, Vikram; Deopujari, Chandrashekhar; Shah, Nishit

    2016-01-01

    Seizure is a classical feature of intra axial brain parenchymal lesion. Simple bone cyst is an unusual bony pathology at skull base presenting with unexpected symptoms of complex partial seizures. Skull base neuro-endoscopy has managed such lesions more effectively with reduced post-operative morbidity as compared to transcranial approach. This case report discusses a 20-year-old male who presented with 3 episodes of seizure over a time period of 10 months. MRI brain revealed T1 hypo and T2 hyper intense cystic lesion in middle cranial fossa with no enhancement on contrast administration. CT scan showed cystic lesion involving greater wing and pterygoid plate of sphenoid on left side. CT cisternographic evaluation showed CSF outpouching in the sphenoid air sinus. Excision of the cystic lesion was carried out through endoscopic transmaxillary transpterygoid approach. Histopathological examination showed the lesion to be a simple bone cyst. PMID:27891396

  16. Examining the relationship between skull size and dental anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Krecioch, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This study, reporting the results of a 2012 Master’s dissertation, of 131 skulls from 6 Classical to Medieval populations in Macedonia and England examined the relationship between craniometric variables and dental anomalies of shape, number, and position. Standard craniometric landmarks were measured and dental anomalies of shape, number, and position were recorded and tested for associations using SPSS. Rotations were the most common anomaly and were associated significantly with reduced ...

  17. Primary angiosarcoma of the skull: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish P. Chugh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Primary angiosarcoma of the skull is a rare tumor with less than 20 cases reported worldwide till date. The treatment should include complete surgical excision with a wide bony margin followed by adjuvant radiotherapy, which in our case has given a good locoregional control even at the end of 2 years. However, these patients should be followed up with repeated scans yearly to rule out locoregional as well as distant recurrence.

  18. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Naftulin

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Computed Tomography (CT collect three-dimensional data (3D that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM images to stereolithography (STL files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = <30 min. Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  19. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftulin, Jason S; Kimchi, Eyal Y; Cash, Sydney S

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  20. Surgeon's view of the skull base from the lateral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, R A

    1984-12-01

    This paper presents the surgical anatomy of the skull base and infratemporal fossa. The information has been derived from the author's own experience in surgical and cadaver dissection, standard anatomical references, and selected experience of other skull base surgeons. Because the lateral approach has become the utilitarian method of exposure, the intricate detailed anatomy is demonstrated from this view at five levels of dissection, so the surgeon may gain a practical understanding of the surgical relationship of critical structures. Consistent anatomical landmarks can be used by the surgeon in the location of these critical structures. The styloid process, sphenoidal spine, and middle meningeal artery identify the internal carotid artery as it enters the carotid canal. The bony or fibrous septum that divides the jugular foramen into neural and vascular compartments may be used to better identify nerves IX, X, and XI. The zygomatic root is useful for location of the middle fossa dura. The lateral pterygoid plate leads directly to the foramen ovale. The increased precision of dissection permitted by use of the microscope requires an increased level of knowledge of anatomical structures in this area. It is hoped that the information presented in this paper will assist surgeons in the meticulous and thorough removal of skull base tumors and in the preservation of neural and vascular structures that are presently being sacrificed.

  1. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

    2015-05-01

    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery.

  2. Shape similarities and differences in the skulls of scavenging raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangdi, S I; Dong, Yiyi; Ma, Yujun; Zhang, Zihui

    2015-04-01

    Feeding adaptations are a conspicuous feature of avian evolution. Bill and cranial shape as well as the jaw muscles are closely related to diet choice and feeding behaviors. Diurnal raptors of Falconiformes exhibit a wide range of foraging behaviors and prey preferences, and are assigned to seven dietary groups in this study. Skulls of 156 species are compared from the dorsal, lateral and ventral views, by using geometric morphometric techniques with those landmarks capturing as much information as possible on the overall shape of cranium, bill, orbits, nostrils and attachment area for different jaw muscles. The morphometric data showed that the skull shape of scavengers differ significantly from other raptors, primarily because of different feeding adaptations. As a result of convergent evolution, different scavengers share generalized common morphology, possessing relatively slender and lower skulls, longer bills, smaller and more sideward orbits, and more caudally positioned quadrates. Significant phylogenetic signals suggested that phylogeny also played important role in shape variation within scavengers. New World vultures can be distinguished by their large nostrils, narrow crania and small orbits; Caracaras typically show large palatines, crania and orbits, as well as short, deep and sharp bill.

  3. Synthesis of Refractory Materials by Skull Melting Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Borik, Mikhail A.; Lomonova, Elena E.

    This chapter discusses methods of growing refractory oxide single crystals and synthesis of refractory glasses by skull melting technique in a cold crucible. It shows the advantages of radiofrequency (RF) heating of dielectric materials in a cold crucible and points out some specific problems regarding the process of growing crystals by directional crystallization from the melt and by pulling on a seed from the melt. The distinctive features of the method of directional crystallization from the melt are discussed in detail on the example of technology of materials based on zirconia, i.e., cubic single crystals and partly stabilized single crystals. It is shown that the size and quality of crystals are functions of the process conditions, such as thermal conditions under crystallization, growth rate, and chemical composition. We provide an overview of research on the structure, phase composition, and physicochemical properties of crystals based on zirconia. The optical, mechanical, and electric properties of these crystals make them suitable for a number of technical and industrial applications in optics, electronics, materials processing, and medicine. In this chapter, we also consider some problems regarding the synthesis of refractory glasses by skull melting technique. The physicochemical and optical properties of glasses are given and their practical applications in technology are discussed. We note that one of the better developed and most promising applications of skull melting technique is the immobilization of liquid and solid waste (also radioactive waste) into solid-state materials by vitrification.

  4. Creating physical 3D stereolithograph models of brain and skull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kelley

    Full Text Available The human brain and skull are three dimensional (3D anatomical structures with complex surfaces. However, medical images are often two dimensional (2D and provide incomplete visualization of structural morphology. To overcome this loss in dimension, we developed and validated a freely available, semi-automated pathway to build 3D virtual reality (VR and hand-held, stereolithograph models. To evaluate whether surface visualization in 3D was more informative than in 2D, undergraduate students (n = 50 used the Gillespie scale to rate 3D VR and physical models of both a living patient-volunteer's brain and the skull of Phineas Gage, a historically famous railroad worker whose misfortune with a projectile tamping iron provided the first evidence of a structure-function relationship in brain. Using our processing pathway, we successfully fabricated human brain and skull replicas and validated that the stereolithograph model preserved the scale of the VR model. Based on the Gillespie ratings, students indicated that the biological utility and quality of visual information at the surface of VR and stereolithograph models were greater than the 2D images from which they were derived. The method we developed is useful to create VR and stereolithograph 3D models from medical images and can be used to model hard or soft tissue in living or preserved specimens. Compared to 2D images, VR and stereolithograph models provide an extra dimension that enhances both the quality of visual information and utility of surface visualization in neuroscience and medicine.

  5. The use of free flaps in skull base reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macía, G; Picón, M; Nuñez, J; Almeida, F; Alvarez, I; Acero, J

    2016-02-01

    Skull base tumours are rare, comprising less than 1% of all tumours of the head and neck. Surgical treatment of these tumours involves the approach, the resection, and the reconstruction of the defect, which present a challenge due to the technical difficulty and anatomical complexity. A retrospective study of 17 patients with tumours involving the skull base, treated by resection and immediate reconstruction using microsurgical free flaps, is presented; 11 were men and six were women. The following types of flap were used: osteocutaneous fibula flaps, fasciocutaneous anterolateral thigh flaps, and myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flaps. The most common histology of the tumours was squamous cell carcinoma. The most frequent point of origin was the paranasal sinuses (58.8%). All of the free flaps used for reconstruction were viable. A cerebrospinal fluid fistula occurred in two patients, and in one of these cases, meningoencephalitis led to death. In conclusion, the reconstruction of large defects of the skull base after ablation requires a viable tissue that in many cases can be obtained only through the use of microvascular free flaps. The type of flap to be selected depends on the anatomical structures and size of the defect to be restored.

  6. Complexity of serrated sutures of a human skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochenkova О.V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the variability mechanism of complexity of serrated sutures of a human skull in the correlation with cranial form. Materials and methods. Researches of 253 arches of male and female skulls of patients at the age of 1 day-105 years without signs of cranial trauma or skeletal systemic diseases with absence of morphological signs of increase of intracranial pressure. Minimal (Min and maximal (Max values, average arithmetic (M, a mistake of average arithmetic (m have been studied. For definition of reliability of average size difference parametrical and non-parametric statistical criteria were used: parametrical criterion (t-criterion of Student applied for parameters submitting to the law of normal distribution (Lakin G. R, 1990. Distinctions of average arithmetic size were considered statistically authentic from 95% (p<0,05 a level of correct judgement (Plokhinskiy N.A., 1970. Results. On the surface of the arch lambdoid and coronal sutures in male skulls and lambdoid and sagittal sutures in female were found out to be of the greatest degree of complexity. Conclusion. The increase of complexity of sutures has been observed in children and adolescents; the directed asymmetry of sutures form is absent

  7. Investigation of the elastic modulus, tensile and flexural strength of five skull simulant materials for impact testing of a forensic skin/skull/brain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falland-Cheung, Lisa; Waddell, J Neil; Chun Li, Kai; Tong, Darryl; Brunton, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Conducting in vitro research for forensic, impact and injury simulation modelling generally involves the use of a skull simulant with mechanical properties similar to those found in the human skull. For this study epoxy resin, fibre filled epoxy resin, 3D-printing filaments (PETG, PLA) and self-cure acrylic denture base resin were used to fabricate the specimens (n=20 per material group), according to ISO 527-2 IBB and ISO20795-1. Tensile and flexural testing in a universal testing machine was used to measure their tensile/flexural elastic modulus and strength. The results showed that the epoxy resin and fibre filled epoxy resin had similar tensile elastic moduli (no statistical significant difference) with lower values observed for the other materials. The fibre filled epoxy resin had a considerably higher flexural elastic modulus and strength, possibly attributed to the presence of fibres. Of the simulants tested, epoxy resin had an elastic modulus and flexural strength close to that of mean human skull values reported in the literature, and thus can be considered as a suitable skull simulant for a skin/skull/brain model for lower impact forces that do not exceed the fracture stress. For higher impact forces a 3D printing filament (PLA) may be a more suitable skull simulant material, due to its closer match to fracture stresses found in human skull bone. Influencing factors were also anisotropy, heterogeneity and viscoelasticity of human skull bone and simulant specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull: a computer modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazen, Mehran; Curtis, Neil; O'Higgins, Paul; Jones, Marc E H; Evans, Susan E; Fagan, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Sutures form an integral part of the functioning skull, but their role has long been debated among vertebrate morphologists and palaeontologists. Furthermore, the relationship between typical skull sutures, and those involved in cranial kinesis, is poorly understood. In a series of computational modelling studies, complex loading conditions obtained through multibody dynamics analysis were imposed on a finite element model of the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii, an akinetic herbivorous lizard. A finite element analysis (FEA) of a skull with no sutures revealed higher patterns of strain in regions where cranial sutures are located in the skull. From these findings, FEAs were performed on skulls with sutures (individual and groups of sutures) to investigate their role and function more thoroughly. Our results showed that individual sutures relieved strain locally, but only at the expense of elevated strain in other regions of the skull. These findings provide an insight into the behaviour of sutures and show how they are adapted to work together to distribute strain around the skull. Premature fusion of one suture could therefore lead to increased abnormal loading on other regions of the skull causing irregular bone growth and deformities. This detailed investigation also revealed that the frontal-parietal suture of the Uromastyx skull played a substantial role in relieving strain compared with the other sutures. This raises questions about the original role of mesokinesis in squamate evolution.

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy of simple skull examination in head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Sung Hee; Lee, Sung Woo; Park, Soo Soung [Dongguk University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Kun Sang [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-09-15

    In evaluation of head trauma, simple skull examination have been almost routinely requested in emergency room, regardless of historical, physical or neurologic findings, for fear of an unexpected fracture and medicolegal problem. Considering the low yield rate of positive radiologic findings for skull fracture and poor correlation of skull fracture with intracranial sequelae, simple skull examinations in head trauma patients, especially in those with minor trauma, is overutilized without reasonable clinical criteria of application. A retrospectively review of 1,101 patients was performed to evaluate the efficacy of simple skull examination at the point of diagnosis and treatment, and to predict the risk for skull fracture and significant intracranial sequelae by clinical findings. Eight six patients(7.8%) had skull fracture including two basilar fracture and 12 depressed fractures. 116 patients(10.5%) had significant intracranial sequelae and 62 of these had skull fracture. Of 1,101 patients, 327 had the clinical findings of 'high-yield' features and 70 of these had skull fractures and 99 had intracranial sequelae, so high-yield fractures are very indicative for the skull fracture and intracranial sequelae. Only in nine patients(0.08%) the managements were altered after simple skull examination in that two with basilar fracture were treated with antibiotics and seven with depressed fracture were undergone neurosurgical procedures. Patients who were not admitted nor required further study or treatment because of minor head trauma didn't have any skull fractures or intracranial sequelae in our series, and 62 of 116 patients with intracranial sequelae showed normal skull findings indicating that normal findings can create false sense of security.

  10. Three-dimensional adult male head and skull contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Calvin; Loyd, Andre M; Nightingale, Roger; Myers, Barry S; Damon, Andrew; Bass, Cameron R

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, affecting millions of people annually. Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and finite element models (FEMs) provide a means of understanding factors leading to TBI, potentially reducing the occurrence. Thus, there is a need to ensure that these tools accurately model humans. For example, the Hybrid III was not based on 3-dimensional human head shape data. The objective of this study is to produce average head and skull contours for an average U.S. male that can be used for ATDs and FEMs. Computed tomography (CT) scans of adult male heads were obtained from a database provided by the University of Virginia Center for Applied Biomechanics. An orthographic viewer was used to extract head and skull contours from the CT scans. Landmarks were measured graphically using HyperMesh (Altair, HyperWorks). To determine the head occipital condyle (OC) centroid, surface meshes of the OCs were made and the centroid of the surfaces was calculated. The Hybrid III contour was obtained using a MicroScribe Digitizer (Solution Technologies, Inc., Oella, MD). Comparisons of the average male and ATD contours were performed using 2 methods: (1) the midsagittal and midcoronal ATD contours relative to the OC centroid were compared to the corresponding 1 SD range of the average male contours; (2) the ATD sagittal contour was translated relative to the average male sagittal contour to minimize the area between the 2 contours. Average male head and skull contours were created. Landmark measurements were made for the dorsum sellae, nasion skin, nasion bone, infraorbital foramen, and external auditory meatus, all relative to the OC centroid. The Hybrid III midsagittal contour was outside the 1 SD range for 15.2 percent of the average male head contour but only by a maximum distance of 1.5 mm, whereas the Hybrid III midcoronal head contour was outside the 1 SD range for 12.2 percent of the average male head contour by a maximum distance

  11. Divergent Skull Morphology Supports Two Trophic Specializations in Otters (Lutrinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori L Timm-Davis

    Full Text Available Variation in terrestrial mammalian skull morphology is known to constrain feeding performance, which in turn influences dietary habits and ultimately fitness. Among mustelids, otters have evolved two feeding specializations: underwater raptorial capture of prey (mouth-oriented and capture of prey by hand (hand-oriented, both of which have likely associations with morphology and bite performance. However, feeding biomechanics and performance data for otters are sparse. The first goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between feeding morphology and bite performance among two mouth-oriented piscivores (Pteronura brasiliensis and Lontra canadensis and two hand-oriented invertebrate specialists (Enhydra lutris and Aonyx cinerea. Since other vertebrate taxa that are mouth-oriented piscivores tend to possess longer skulls and mandibles, with jaws designed for increased velocity at the expense of biting capability, we hypothesized that mouth-oriented otters would also possess long, narrow skulls indicative of high velocity jaws. Conversely, hand-oriented otters were expected to possess short, blunt skulls with adaptations to increase bite force and crushing capability. Concomitant with these skull shapes we hypothesized that sea otters would possess a greater mandibular bluntness index, providing for a greater mechanical advantage compared to other otter species investigated. A second goal was to examine morphological variation at a finer scale by assessing variation in cranial morphology among three sea otter subspecies. Since diet varies among these subspecies, and their populations are isolated, we hypothesized that the magnitude of mandibular bluntness and concomitant mechanical advantage, as well as occlusal surface area would also vary within species according to their primary food source (fish versus hard invertebrates. Functional expectations were met for comparisons among and within species. Among species the phylogeny suggests

  12. Polymorphic analysis of Mhc-DPB1 gene exon 2 in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)%藏酋猴 Mhc-DPB1基因 exon2的多态性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳薏; 姚永芳; 周亮; 徐怀亮

    2012-01-01

    主要组织相容性复合体(Major histocompatibility complex,MHC)对许多疾病的易感性和抵抗力起着 重要的作用.为了解藏酋猴(Macaca thibetana)的 MHC 基因遗传背景,以促进藏酋猴遗传资源的保护及其在生 物医学研究中的应用,文章采用 PCR 扩增和克隆测序等方法对来自四川地区的 70 个藏酋猴样品的 Mhc-DPB1 基因 exon 2 进行了检测和分析.首次在藏酋猴中获得了 18 个 DPB1 等位基因(Math-DPB1),其中 1 个为假基因(Math- DPB1*01:06N).18 个等位基因中,Math-DPB1*06:01:01 (67.14%) 的阳性检出率最高,其次为 Math-DPB1*01:03:01 (37.14%)、Math-DPB1*09:02(25.71%)和 Math-DPB1*22:01(15.71%).氨基酸序列比对发现,藏酋猴 Math-DPB1 等位基因编码的氨基酸序列中,有 5 个氨基酸残基变异位点表现出物种特异性.不同物种来源的 DPB1 等位基 因系统发生树表明,藏酋猴、猕猴(Macaca mulatta)和食蟹猴(Macaca fascicularis)的 DPB1 等位基因不是以物种 特异性方式聚类,而是种间混聚在一起,并显示出明显的跨物种多态性(Trans-species polymorphism).选择性检 验表明,平衡选择(Balancing selection)在维持 Math-DPB1 基因的多态性中起着重要的作用.%Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play an important role in the susceptibility and/or resistance to many diseases. To gain an insight into the MHC background of the Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), and thereby facilitate their protection and application in biomedical research, the second exon of the Mhc-DPBl genes from 70 Tibetan macaques in Sichuan Province were characterized by PCR, cloning, sequencing, and statistical analysis. A total of 18 Mhc-DPB1 alleles were identified from Tibetan macaques, of which one (Math-DPB1* 01:06N) was a pseudogene. Math-DPB1*06:01:01 (67.14%) was the most frequent allele in all the 18 alleles detected, followed by Math-DPBl* 01:03:01 (37.14%), Math-DPB 1*09:02 (25.71%), and Math-DPB 1

  13. Anatomy and surgery of the endoscopic endonasal approach to the skull base

    OpenAIRE

    Solari, Domenico; Villa, Alessandro,; De Angelis, Michelangelo; Esposito, Felice; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Summary The midline skull base is an anatomical area, which extends from the anterior limit of the anterior cranial fossa down to the anterior border of the foramen magnum. For many lesions of this area, a variety of skull base approaches including anterior, antero-lateral, and postero-lateral routes, have been proposed over the last decades, either alone or in combination, often requiring extensive neurovascular manipulation. Recently the endoscopic endonasal approach to the skull base has b...

  14. Trepanation and enlarged parietal foramen on skulls from the Loyalty Islands (Melanesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Sergey V; Sviridov, Alexey A

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study is a comprehensive examination of openings discovered on two skulls in the collection of skeletal remains from the Loyalty Islands (Melanesia). The skull No. 1524 displayed an evidence of successful trepanation, and the skull No. 7985 revealed openings that were reminiscent of a trepanation, however, we are inclined to believe that in the latter case we are dealing with a rare genetic anomaly - enlarged parietal foramen.

  15. Phylogeography of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) and the origin of the Gibraltar colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, Lara; Salzburger, Walter; Martin, Robert D

    2005-05-17

    The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is the earliest offshoot of the genus Macaca and the only extant African representative, all other species being Asiatic. Once distributed throughout North Africa, M. sylvanus is now restricted to isolated forest fragments in Algeria and Morocco. The species is threatened; the maximum total wild population size is estimated at 10,000 individuals. Relationships among surviving wild subpopulations in Algeria (96 samples) and Morocco (116 samples) were examined by using 468-bp sequences from hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Twenty-four different haplotypes were identified, differing by 1-26 mutational steps (0.2-5.6%) and 1 insertion. With one exception (attributable to secondary introduction in coastal Morocco), Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes are clearly distinct. However, whereas Moroccan subpopulations show little divergence in hypervariable region I sequences and little correspondence with geographical distribution, there is a deep division between two main subpopulations in Algeria and one marked secondary division, with haplotypes generally matching geographical distribution. Accepting an origin of the genus Macaca of 5.5 million years ago, the Moroccan population and the two main Algerian subpopulations diverged approximately 1.6 million years ago. Distinction between Moroccan and Algerian haplotypes permitted analysis of the origin of the Gibraltar colony of Barbary macaques (68 samples; 30% of the population). It is generally held that the present Gibraltar population descended from a dozen individuals imported during World War II. However, the Gibraltar sample was found to include Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes separated by at least 16 mutational steps, revealing a dual origin of the founding females.

  16. A small skull from Flores dated to the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Persson, Liselott; Alexandersen, Verner

    2012-01-01

    A human skull with mandible from the Ngada District on the island of Flores, Indonesia, is described in order to contribute to the knowledge of variation in cranial architecture, which is important in interpretations of evolutionary cerebralisation. The skull was excavated in 1924 and sent...... to the National Museum in Copenhagen. The "Copenhagen Flores" (CF) male skull is radiocarbon-dated and of modern age. The cranium is small, but larger than e.g. Liang Bua skull (LB1) in every measurement. The (CT-scan based) cranial capacity of 1258 ml is normal for modern humans, but somewhat lower than values...

  17. Contributions to the functional morphology of caudate skulls: kinetic and akinetic forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Natchev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A strongly ossified and rigid skull roof, which prevents parietal kinesis, has been reported for the adults of all amphibian clades. Our μ-CT investigations revealed that the Buresch’s newt (Triturus ivanbureschi possess a peculiar cranial construction. In addition to the typical amphibian pleurokinetic articulation between skull roof and palatoquadrate associated structures, we found flexible connections between nasals and frontals (prokinesis, vomer and parasphenoid (palatokinesis, and between frontals and parietals (mesokinesis. This is the first description of mesokinesis in urodelans. The construction of the skull in the Buresch’s newts also indicates the presence of an articulation between parietals and the exocipitals, discussed as a possible kind of metakinesis. The specific combination of pleuro-, pro-, meso-, palato-, and metakinetic skull articulations indicate to a new kind of kinetic systems unknown for urodelans to this date. We discuss the possible neotenic origin of the skull kinesis and pose the hypothesis that the kinesis in T. ivanbureschi increases the efficiency of fast jaw closure. For that, we compared the construction of the skull in T. ivanbureschi to the akinetic skull of the Common fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. We hypothesize that the design of the skull in the purely terrestrial living salamander shows a similar degree of intracranial mobility. However, this mobility is permitted by elasticity of some bones and not by true articulation between them. We comment on the possible relation between the skull construction and the form of prey shaking mechanism that the species apply to immobilize their victims.

  18. A rapid and reversible skull optical clearing method for monitoring cortical blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yanjie; Shi, Rui; Zhu, Dan

    2016-03-01

    In vivo cortex optical imaging is of great important for revealing both structural and functional architecture of brain with high temporal-spatial resolution. To reduce the limitation of turbid skull, researchers had to establish various skull windows or directly expose cortex through craniotomy. Here we developed a skull optical clearing method to make skull transparent. Laser speckle contrast imaging technique was used to monitor the cortical blood flow after topical treatment with the optical clearing agents. The results indicated that the image contrast increased gradually, and then maintained at a high level after 15 min for adult mice, which made the image quality and resolution of micro-vessels nearly approximate to those of exposed cortex. Both the cortical blood flow velocity almost kept constant after skull became transparent. Besides, the treatment of physiological saline on the skull could make skull return to the initial state again and the skull could become transparent again when SOCS retreated it. Thus, we could conclude that the skull optical clearing method was rapid, valid, reversible and safe, which provided us available approach for performing the cortical structural and functional imaging at high temporal-spatial resolution.

  19. Contributions to the functional morphology of caudate skulls: kinetic and akinetic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natchev, Nikolay; Handschuh, Stephan; Lukanov, Simeon; Tzankov, Nikolay; Naumov, Borislav; Werneburg, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    A strongly ossified and rigid skull roof, which prevents parietal kinesis, has been reported for the adults of all amphibian clades. Our μ-CT investigations revealed that the Buresch's newt (Triturus ivanbureschi) possess a peculiar cranial construction. In addition to the typical amphibian pleurokinetic articulation between skull roof and palatoquadrate associated structures, we found flexible connections between nasals and frontals (prokinesis), vomer and parasphenoid (palatokinesis), and between frontals and parietals (mesokinesis). This is the first description of mesokinesis in urodelans. The construction of the skull in the Buresch's newts also indicates the presence of an articulation between parietals and the exocipitals, discussed as a possible kind of metakinesis. The specific combination of pleuro-, pro-, meso-, palato-, and metakinetic skull articulations indicate to a new kind of kinetic systems unknown for urodelans to this date. We discuss the possible neotenic origin of the skull kinesis and pose the hypothesis that the kinesis in T. ivanbureschi increases the efficiency of fast jaw closure. For that, we compared the construction of the skull in T. ivanbureschi to the akinetic skull of the Common fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. We hypothesize that the design of the skull in the purely terrestrial living salamander shows a similar degree of intracranial mobility. However, this mobility is permitted by elasticity of some bones and not by true articulation between them. We comment on the possible relation between the skull construction and the form of prey shaking mechanism that the species apply to immobilize their victims.

  20. Growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E Marie; Shores, Andrew; Meintel, Sarah; Hathcock, John T

    2014-09-01

    Growing skull fractures have been reported in humans for many years, usually resulting from injury to the soft skull during the rapid growth period of an infant's life. Nestling raptors have thin, fragile skulls, a rapid growth rate, and compete aggressively for food items. Skull trauma may occur, which may lead to the development of a growing skull fracture. Growing skull fractures may be under-diagnosed in raptor rehabilitation facilities that do not have access to advanced technologic equipment. Three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography was used to diagnose a growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). The lesion was surgically repaired and the animal was eventually returned to the wild. This is the first report of a growing skull fracture in an animal. In this case, 3-D computed topographic imaging was utilized to diagnose a growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk, surgical repair was performed, and the bird recovered completely and was ultimately released.

  1. Remote intracranial hemorrhage following surgery for giant orbitofrontal growing skull fracture: A lesson learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Baldawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing skull fracture is an extremely rare complication of pediatric head injury, especially in infants. Repair of the dural tear early in the course of development of growing skull fracture has been suggested for a better outcome. Surgical repair of large, tense growing skull fractures, especially those in the communication of the ventricles can lead to potentially life-threatening complications. The author reports a rare case of remote intracranial hemorrhage following surgery for large, tense growing skull fracture in a 12-year-old girl and discusses the likely pathogenesis and possible ways to avoid this life-threatening complication.

  2. [Injuries of the central base of the skull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendel, K

    1976-09-01

    In different types of lesions, especially in frontobasal and laterobasal ones, the central base of the skull is injured, too (in about 20% of severe frontabasal lesions). Surgical treatment is necessary. Examination of intra- and infrabasal structures and localized intracranial operations may be performed by transthemoidal-transphenoidal or transpyramidal approaches. Main problems are the treatment of dura lesions, the control of hemorrhages, the examination of the optic nerve, and the compensation of disturbances of central regulation. The above experiences we gathered from patients in the ORL Clinic of Jena University.

  3. Telangiectatic osteosarcoma of the skull. A post-Paget case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, G; Lavano, A; Volpentesta, G; Chirchiglia, D; Veraldi, A; De Rose, F; Iannello, A N; Stroscio, C; Signorelli, C D

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of post-Paget telangiectatic osteosarcoma of the skull in a 75-year-old woman. Such a neoplasia is a rare variant of osteosarcoma, a tumor rare in the cranic bones. The patient was submitted for a careful analysis by the following procedures: technetium scintigram, X-rays, CT scan, and MRI. After the surgical procedure, pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Both radiological and pathological pattern of this tumor are discussed in relation to the differential diagnosis. Our report shows that benign lesions may represent a possible cause of diagnostic errors. They must be excluded by histological analysis.

  4. A checklist for endonasal transsphenoidal anterior skull base surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Edward R; Wong, Judith M; Smith, Timothy R; de Los Reyes, Kenneth; Aglio, Linda S; Thorne, Alison J; Cote, David J; Esposito, Felice; Cappabianca, Paolo; Gawande, Atul

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Approximately 250 million surgical procedures are performed annually worldwide, and data suggest that major complications occur in 3%-17% of them. Many of these complications can be classified as avoidable, and previous studies have demonstrated that preoperative checklists improve operating room teamwork and decrease complication rates. Although the authors' institution has instituted a general preoperative "time-out" designed to streamline communication, flatten vertical authority gradients, and decrease procedural errors, there is no specific checklist for transnasal transsphenoidal anterior skull base surgery, with or without endoscopy. Such minimally invasive cranial surgery uses a completely different conceptual approach, set-up, instrumentation, and operative procedure. Therefore, it can be associated with different types of complications as compared with open cranial surgery. The authors hypothesized that a detailed, procedure-specific, preoperative checklist would be useful to reduce errors, improve outcomes, decrease delays, and maximize both teambuilding and operational efficiency. Thus, the object of this study was to develop such a checklist for endonasal transsphenoidal anterior skull base surgery. METHODS An expert panel was convened that consisted of all members of the typical surgical team for transsphenoidal endoscopic cases: neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, circulating nurses, scrub technicians, surgical operations managers, and technical assistants. Beginning with a general checklist, procedure-specific items were added and categorized into 4 pauses: Anesthesia Pause, Surgical Pause, Equipment Pause, and Closure Pause. RESULTS The final endonasal transsphenoidal anterior skull base surgery checklist is composed of the following 4 pauses. The Anesthesia Pause consists of patient identification, diagnosis, pertinent laboratory studies, medications, surgical preparation, patient positioning, intravenous/arterial access, fluid management

  5. Focal electroencephalography rhythm asymmetry due to focal skull fibrous dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Meyer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An unusual pervasive and persistent asymmetry in background rhythm was found on surface electroencephalography (EEG recordings in a 22 year old with new onset of generalized seizure activity. Radiographic correlation with computed tomography, positron emission tomography and bone scan imaging uncovered that the higher amplitude left frontal-parietal background activity was related to a circumscribed area of left frontal-parietal fibrous dysplasia affecting the skull. This case report emphasizes that the presumed higher electrical conductance of fibrous dysplasia lead to a greater transparency of normal background rhythms, and must be taken into account as a form of breach rhythm for accurate EEG interpretation.

  6. Olfaction in Endoscopic Sinus and Skull Base Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Christopher F; Kern, Robert C; Conley, David B

    2015-10-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a common complaint for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, because smell loss decreases a patient's quality of life. Smell loss is caused by obstruction from polyps, nasal discharge, and mucosal edema, as well as inflammatory changes within the olfactory epithelium. Addressing olfaction before endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery is important in order to set postoperative expectations, because an improvement in smell is difficult to predict. Several commercially available olfactory testing measures are available and can easily be administered in clinic. During surgery, careful dissection within the olfactory cleft is recommended in order to optimize postoperative olfactory function.

  7. [Paleopathology of deafness: skulls of the Dupuytren Museum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoussa, Nadia; Muller, A -L; Kerner, J; Josset, P; Conan, P; Charlier, P

    2015-01-01

    In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Dupuytren Museum was indispensable for the knowledge of pathological anatomy for physicians and surgeons. Nowadays, it is more a museum than a learning unit, but it provides an opportunity to understand through numerous scientific studies the origin of diseases, injuries mechanism and the functional consequences of which could suffer some patients. This study illustrates the interest of the study on pieces in pathological anatomy's museums, this time across selected skulls which belonged to hearing loss people. bizarre.

  8. Single Crystal Growth of Zirconia Utilizing a Skull Melting Technique,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    help eliminate many crystal growth problems. The flame-fusion apparatus was invented by A. Verneuil 3 over 75 years ago and has been used for growth of...AOAO2 23 OMEAIRDEVLOPENT CNT RI RIFISS AFB NY F /S .7/ NGLE CRYSTAL GROWTH OF Z RONA UT IXZIN A SKULL MELTING TE-SCUl AUG 79 A C MARSHALL, J A ADAMSK...Crucible-less synthesis 50. ABSTRACT (Ceefiw.. - eooe edi. ,.e.eimwd identiby Slek ~b.,) Investigation into the growth of single crystal materials are

  9. Construction of an integrated welfare assessment system (MacWel) for Macaques (Macaca spp.) in human husbandry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Bakker, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the construction procedure of an assessment protocol for Macaques (Macaca spp.). The authors have chosen an integrative approach, currently frequently used for the construction of such protocols with a clear preference for animal-based parameters to assess the welfare states o...

  10. Skull wounds linked with blunt trauma (hammer example). A report of two depressed skull fractures--elements of biomechanical explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Yann; Becart, Anne; Colard, Thomas; Delille, Rémi; Tournel, Gilles; Hedouin, Valéry; Gosset, Didier

    2012-09-01

    The lesions of the skull following perforating traumas can create complex fractures. The blunt traumas can, according to the swiftness and the shape of the object used, create a depressed fracture. The authors describe through two clinical cases the lesional characteristic of the blunt traumas, perforating the skull using a hammer. In both cases the cranial lesions were very typical: they were geometrical, square shaped, of the same size than the tool (head and tip of the hammer). On the outer table of the skull, the edges of the wounds were sharp and regular. On the inner table, the edges of the wounds were beveled and irregular. The bony penetration in the depressed fracture results from a rupture of the outer table of the bone under tension, in periphery, by the bend of the bone to the impact (outbending) and then, from the inner table with comminuted bony fragmentation. Breeding on the fractures of the size and the shape of the blunt objects used is inconstant and differs, that it is the objects of flat surface or wide in opposition to those of small surface area. Fractures morphologies depend on one hand on these extrinsic factors and on the other hand, of intrinsic factors (structure of the bone). To identify them, we had previously conducted experimental work on cranial bone samples. The bone was submitted to a device for three-point bending. This work had shown properties of thickness and stiffness of the various areas of the vault. Our cases are consistent with these results and illustrate the variability of bone lesions according to region and mode of use of blunt weapons. Many studies have identified criteria for identification of the weapons and the assistance of digital and biomechanical models will be an invaluable contribution with this aim in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g. dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially-housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration (180 words). PMID:25488714

  12. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K R; Pypendop, B H; Christe, K L

    2015-08-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g., dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post-tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration.

  13. Effects of age and sex on the hematology and blood chemistry of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Yi, Yong; Sun, Fei; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Yu Alex; Yue, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), also known as Chinese stump-tailed macaques, are a threatened primate species. Although Tibetan macaques are Old World monkeys in the genus of Macaca, limited age- and sex-related physiologic data are available for this particular species. We used 69 apparently healthy Tibetan male and female macaques to explore the effect of age and sex on physiologic parameters. Somatometric measurements, biochemistry, and hematologic parameters were analyzed. Significant age-related differences were found for weight, BMI, RBC count, Hgb, Hct, neutrophils, eosinophil count, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, creatine kinase (muscle and brain subtypes), LDH, α-amylase, creatinine, apolipoprotein A1, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, HDL, and potassium. Significant differences by sex were noted for weight, BMI, ALT, total bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin. An interaction between age and sex accounted for statistically significant differences in the values for weight, BMI, and lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. These physiologic data will provide veterinarians and researchers with important age- and sex-specific reference ranges for evaluating experimental results from Tibetan macaques.

  14. Reconstruction of skull defects in the middle ages and renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missori, Paolo; Currà, Antonio; Paris, Harry S; Peschillo, Simone; Fattapposta, Francesco; Paolini, Sergio; Domenicucci, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    In Egyptian, Greco-Roman, and Arabic medicine, the closure of a skull defect was not provided at the end of a therapeutic trepanation or in cases of bone removal. The literature from the Middle Ages and Renaissance disclosed some striking and forgotten practices. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1180 to c. 1250) cites the use of a piece of a cup made from wooden bowl (ciphum or mazer) or a gold sheet to cover the gap and protect the brain in these patients; this citation probably reflected a widely known folk practice. Pietro d'Argellata introduced the use of a fixed piece of dried gourd for brain protection to reconstruct a skull defect. In the late Renaissance, the negative folklore describing this outlandish practice likely led to the use of silver and lead sheets. Nevertheless, for centuries, large numbers of surgeons preferred to leave the dura mater uncovered after bone removal, and failed to apply any brain protection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. A skull stripping method using deformable surface and tissue classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Chang, Ming-Ching

    2010-03-01

    Many neuroimaging applications require an initial step of skull stripping to extract the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. We approach this problem by combining deformable surface models and a fuzzy tissue classification technique. Our assumption is that contrast exists between brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) and cerebrospinal fluid, which separates the brain from the extra-cranial tissue. We first analyze the intensity of the entire image to find an approximate centroid of the brain and initialize an ellipsoidal surface around it. We then perform a fuzzy tissue classification with bias field correction within the surface. Tissue classification and bias field are extrapolated to the entire image. The surface iteratively deforms under a force field computed from the tissue classification and the surface smoothness. Because of the bias field correction and tissue classification, the proposed algorithm depends less on particular imaging contrast and is robust to inhomogeneous intensity often observed in magnetic resonance images. We tested the algorithm on all T1 weighted images in the OASIS database, which includes skull stripping results using Brain Extraction Tool; the Dice scores have an average of 0.948 with a standard deviation of 0.017, indicating a high degree of agreement. The algorithm takes on average 2 minutes to run on a typical PC and produces a brain mask and membership functions for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. We also tested the algorithm on T2 images to demonstrate its generality, where the same algorithm without parameter adjustment gives satisfactory results.

  16. HelixFlex: bioinspired maneuverable instrument for skull base surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerboni, Giada; Henselmans, Paul W J; Arkenbout, Ewout A; van Furth, Wouter R; Breedveld, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Endoscopic endonasal surgery is currently regarded as the 'gold standard' for operating on pituitary gland tumors, and is becoming more and more accepted for treatment of other skull base lesions. However, endoscopic surgical treatment of most skull base pathologies, including certain pituitary tumors, is severely impaired by current instruments lack of maneuverability. Especially, gaining access to, and visibility of, difficult-to-reach anatomical corners without interference with surrounding neurovascular structures or other instruments, is a challenge. In this context there is the need for instruments that are able to provide a stable shaft position, while both the orientation and the position of the end-effector can be independently controlled. Current instruments that allow for this level of maneuverability are usually mechanically complex, and hence less suitable for mass production. This study therefore focuses on the development of a new actuation technique that allows for the required maneuverability while reducing the construction complexity. This actuation technique, referred to as multi-actuation, integrates multiple cable routings into a single steerable structure. Multi-actuation has been successfully integrated and tested in a handheld prototype instrument called HelixFlex. HelixFlex contains a 4 degrees of freedom maneuverable 5.8 mm (diameter) tip and shows promising results concerning its maneuverability and potential rigidity.

  17. AUTONOMOUS CT REPLACEMENT METHOD FOR THE SKULL PROSTHESIS MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rudek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The geometric modeling of prosthesis is a complex task from medical and engineering viewpoint. A method based on CT replacement is proposed in order to circumvent the related problems with the missing information to modeling. The method is based on digital image processing and swarm intelligence algorithm. In this approach, a missing region on the defective skull is represented by curvature descriptors. The main function of the descriptors is to simplify the skull’s contour geometry; and they are defined from the Cubic Bezier Curves using a meta-heuristic process for parameter’s estimation. The Artificial Bee Colony (ABC optimization technique is applied in order to evaluate the best solution. The descriptors from a defective CT slice image are the searching parameters in medical image databases, and a similar image, i.e. with similar descriptors, can be retrieval and used to replace the defective slice. Thus, a prosthesis piece is automatically modeled with information extracted from distinct skulls with similar anatomical characteristics.

  18. Penetrating anterior skull base fracture inflicted by a cow's horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adomas Bunevicius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Farm workers are at increased risk for animal-inflicted head injuries that are associated with significant morbidity and occasionally may be fatal. These injuries may cause permanent eye damage with or without concomitant skull base fracture. Here, we present a male farmer who suffered a cow attack that resulted in perforating orbital injury with comminuted frontobasal cranial fracture caused by a cow's horn. The next day, the patient developed nasal and orbital cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leak. Computed Tomography cisternography revealed CSF leakage to frontal and maxillary sinuses. The patient was treated using prophylactic antibiotic therapy, lumbar drainage, and underwent craniotomy for debridement and dural tear plastic. Post operative course was uneventful and there were no signs of CSF leak 1 year after the surgery. The case illustrates unusual injury inflicted by a cow's horn and underscores the importance of careful investigation for underlying skull base fracture and CSF leakage in patients sustaining perforating orbital injuries. Adequate and timely management of dural tears is associated with favorable outcomes.

  19. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma presenting as skull base metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bo; LIU Dian-gang; L(U) Hai-li; ZHANG Qiu-hang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of well-differentiated thyroid cancer and is considered to be a relatively indolent tumor in which distant metastasis and death are rare.1 The metastasis of PTC is usually to regional lymph nodes, especially the cervical and mediastinal nodes. Metastases to the brain are rare, and constitute 0.1%-5.0% of distant metastases of papillary carcinoma.2 Skull metastasis is uncommon,and is found in 2.5%-5.8% of cases of thyroid cancer.3 Skull base metastasis of PTC is extremely rare, with only eight reported cases in the literature involving the clivus,cavernous sinus, sella turcica, and the petrous apex and ridge.4 A metastatic lesion can arise from histologically benign and silent thyroid neoplasms,5 and differential diagnosis between ectopic and metastatic thyroid cancer can be difficult,6 therefore, the management of thyroid cancer is controversial after removal of metastatic disease.Here we reported a case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) that was manifested as a solitary clivus metastasis and discussed the diagnostic and therapeutic management strategies. The 73-year-old patient presented with visual impairment in the right eye,and epistaxis. The patient subsequently underwent complete total thyroidectomy after a diagnosis of papillary microcarcinoma. This finding emphasizes that clinically significant metastases can arise from thyroid papillary microcarcinoma. Total thyroidectomy and careful review of the histology are necessary to prevent delay in proper diagnosis.

  20. A Case of Skull Base Osteomyelitis with Multiple Cerebral Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Miyabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skull base osteomyelitis is classically documented as an extension of malignant otitis externa. Initial presentation commonly includes aural symptoms and cranial nerve dysfunctions. Here we present a case that emerged with multiple infarctions in the right cerebrum. A male in his 70s with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure presented with left hemiparesis. Imaging studies showed that blood flow in the carotid artery remained at the day of onset but was totally occluded 7 days later. However, collateral blood supply prevented severe infarction. These findings suggest that artery-to-artery embolization from the petrous and/or cavernous portion of the carotid artery caused the multiple infarctions observed on initial presentation. Osteomyelitis of the central skull base was diagnosed on the basis of the following findings taken together: laboratory results showing high levels of inflammation, presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the otorrhea and blood culture, multiple cranial nerve palsies that appeared later, the bony erosion observed on CT, and the mass lesion on MRI. Osteomyelitis was treated successfully by long-term antibiotic therapy; however, the patient experienced cefepime-induced neurotoxicity during therapy. The potential involvement of the internal carotid artery in this rare and life-threatening disease is of particular interest in this case.

  1. [The Base of the Skull. Rudolf Virchow between Pathology and Anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Throughout his scientific career, the pathologist and anthropologist Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) examined countless skulls, gradually changing his perspective on this object of research. Initially, he was mainly concerned with pathologically deformed skulls. From the 1850s onwards, he gradually developed a more anthropological approach, and anthropology increasingly came to dominate his scientific interest. This article shows how different influences became central for the establishment of his specific and dynamic model of the human skull development and its successful application in anthropology. Crucial for this process were Virchow's collaboration with his teacher Robert Froriep (1804-1861) in the department of pathology of the Charité, his research on cretinism and rickets, as well as his description of the base of the skull as the center of skull development. His research work was attended by and showed a reciprocal interaction with the buildup of large skull collections. This article uses Virchow's original publications on skull pathology as well as his still preserved skull specimens from the collection of the Berlin Museum of Medical History at the Charité for an integrated text and object based analysis.

  2. BASE OF SKULL ANATOMY AND DIFFERENT PATHOLOGIES IN CROSS SECTIONAL IMAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Sharifian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to improvethe radiologic knowledge of skull base anatomy and pathologies. Content: Skull base is composed of multiple complex bones and soft tissues. So many pathologies as tumoral, infectious and traumatic can involve it. With a brief discussion of the anatomy, we review various pathologic conditions in this region.

  3. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G. van; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; IJzerman, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In The Netherlands helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence on the effectiveness of this treatment is lacking. The HEADS study (Helmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls) aims to d

  4. Helmet therapy in infants with positional skull deformation: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Ijzerman, M.J.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of helmet therapy for positional skull deformation compared with the natural course of the condition in infants aged 5-6 months.Design Pragmatic, single blinded, randomised controlled trial (HEADS, HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls) nested in a pro

  5. A high-resolution MRI study of linear growth of the human fetal skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, N. [University Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Anatomy and Development Biology

    2002-04-01

    The skull base, otherwise referred to as the basicranium or cranial base, plays a key role in the process of skull development, providing both support for the brain and an architectural component of the craniofacial complex. Consequently, the fetal skull base has been the focus of numerous studies employing various methods, including sectioning, plain radiography and CT. This paper investigates high-resolution (hr) MRI as an alternative method for looking at and quantifying the fetal skull base. The evaluation tests two basic hypotheses drawn from previous studies. These suggest that the anterior segment of the midline skull base grows more rapidly than the posterior segment and that the width of the posterior cranial fossa increases disproportionately in relation to its length. I imaged 42 formalin preserved human fetuses from museum collections with hrMRI. The T2-weighted image voxels were significantly smaller than those acquired with conventional clinical MRI. Landmarks of the fetal skull base were identified on reformatted axial and sagittal images. Bivariate plots revealed that the growth rate of the anterior skull base is almost twice that of the posterior skull base and that increases in the width of the posterior cranial fossa exceed those in its length. These findings confirm those of previous investigations and show that hrMRI offers a way forward in noninvasive quantification of fetal morphology. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------.

  6. Helmet therapy in infants with positional skull deformation: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; Ploeg, C.P. van der; IJzerman, M.J.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of helmet therapy for positional skull deformation compared with the natural course of the condition in infants aged 5-6 months. DESIGN: Pragmatic, single blinded, randomised controlled trial (HEADS, HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls) nested in a

  7. Helmet therapy in infants with positional skull deformation: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van Renske M.; Vlimmeren, van Leo A.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G.M.; Ploeg, van der Catharina P.B.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of helmet therapy for positional skull deformation compared with the natural course of the condition in infants aged 5-6 months. Design Pragmatic, single blinded, randomised controlled trial (HEADS, HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls) nested in a p

  8. Vertex extradural hematoma in association with Paget′s disease of the skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Paget′s disease of skull usually causes neurological complications such as basilar invagination, cranial neuropathies, etc. Occurrence of extradural hematoma in association with Paget′s disease of skull is rare. A 48 year old man presented with headache and right upper limb weakness, two days after a fall from scooter. CT Scan of brain showed a large extradural hematoma at the vertex with the cranial vault showing features of Paget′s disease. At surgery, no skull fracture or injury to the superior sagittal sinus was evident. There was diffuse oozing from the inner table of the skull, which showed features of Paget′s disease. The extradural hematoma was evacuated and the patient made good recovery.He deteriorated a few hours after surgery. Follow up CT Scan showed diffuse brain swelling with minimal recollection of hematoma. Re-exploration showed a small recollection which was evacuated and the part of the oozing diseased skull was excised. The patient recovered completely. This is the first reported case of vertex extradural hematoma in association with the Paget′s disease of skull. The unusual features are the absence of skull fracture and injury to the superior sagittal sinus. The increased vascularity of the skull due to Paget′s disease has caused the hematoma by diffuse oozing from the inner table.

  9. The Making of a Skull Base Team and the Value of Multidisciplinary Approach in the Management of Sinonasal and Ventral Skull Base Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyderman, Carl H; Wang, Eric W; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Gardner, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    The management of sinonasal and ventral skull base malignancies is best performed by a team. Although the composition of the team may vary, it is important to have multidisciplinary representation. There are multiple obstacles, both individual and institutional, that must be overcome to develop a highly functioning team. Adequate training is an important part of team-building and can be fostered with surgical telementoring. A quality improvement program should be incorporated into the activities of a skull base team.

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0060 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG55054.1| toll...-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 62% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1015 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1015 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG55054.1| toll...-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 85% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0286 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0286 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG55054.1| toll...-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 72% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0960 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0960 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG55054.1| toll...-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 82% ...

  14. Can endocranial volume be estimated accurately from external skull measurements in great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus)?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Logan, Corina J; Palmstrom, Christin R

    2015-01-01

    ...), as measured by computerized tomography (CT) scans, using external skull measurements and/or by filling skulls with beads and pouring them out into a graduated cylinder for male and female great-tailed grackles...

  15. Experimental study of transmission of a pulsed focused beam through a skull phantom in nonlinear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsysar, S. A., E-mail: sergey@acs366.phys.msu.ru; Nikolaeva, A. V.; Khokhlova, V. A.; Yuldashev, P. V. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Svet, V. D. [Andreyev Acoustics Institute, 4, Shvernik Street, Moscow 117036 (Russian Federation); Sapozhnikov, O. A. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th Street, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    In the paper the use of receiving and radiating system, which allows to determine the parameters of bone by nonlinear pulse-echo technique and to image of brain structures through the skull bones, was proposed. Accuracy of the skull bone characterization is due to higher measured harmonic and is significantly better than in linear case. In the experimental part focused piezoelectric transducer with diameter 100 mm, focal distance 100 mm, the frequency of 1.092 MHz was used. It was shown that skull bone profiling can be performed with the use of 3rd harmonic since 1st harmonic can be used for visualization of the underlying objects. The use of wideband systems for both skull profiling and brain visualization is restricted by skull attenuation and resulting low effective sensitivity.

  16. Basilar skull fracture in a Thoroughbred colt: Radiography or computed tomography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kin Lim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A two-year-old Thoroughbred colt was presented to the Equine Clinic, Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital for head trauma after rearing and falling backwards, hitting his head on the ground. Following medical therapy for acute onset neurological impairment secondary to a suspected basilar skull fracture, the horse was anaesthetised and computed tomography of the skull was performed. A diagnosis of a comminuted basilar skull fracture was made and skull radiographs were taken for comparison. The horse was subsequently euthanased owing to the poor prognosis; necropsy findings were compatible with imaging findings. The value and limitation of computed tomography versus radiography for the diagnosis of basilar skull fracture are discussed in this report. Introduction

  17. Basilar skull fracture in a Thoroughbred colt: Radiography or computed tomography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kin Lim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A two-year-old Thoroughbred colt was presented to the Equine Clinic, Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital for head trauma after rearing and falling backwards, hitting his head on the ground. Following medical therapy for acute onset neurological impairment secondary to a suspected basilar skull fracture, the horse was anaesthetised and computed tomography of the skull was performed. A diagnosis of a comminuted basilar skull fracture was made and skull radiographs were taken for comparison. The horse was subsequently euthanased owing to the poor prognosis; necropsy findings were compatible with imaging findings. The value and limitation of computed tomography versus radiography for the diagnosis of basilar skull fracture are discussed in this report.

  18. A STUDY ON METOPIC SUTURE IN CADAVERIC SKULLS OF ASSAMESE PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metopic suture is formed due to failure of union of the two halves of the frontal bone. Usually the suture disappears by early childhood, but in some cases it persists as complete or incomplete metopic suture throughout life. A complete metopic suture extends from anterior aspect of bregma to the nasion which is known as metopism. The present study is carried out in 126 dry human cadaveric skulls collected from the Dept. of Anatomy, Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Institute of Pharmacy at Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, and India. Metopic suture was found in 46(36.5% skulls. Metopism was found in 4(3.17% skulls and incomplete metopic suture was seen in 42(33.33% skulls. 80(63.49% skulls did not have metopic suture in any form.

  19. An historical skull collection and its use in forensic odontology and anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrsen, B; Lynnerup, N; Hejmadi, M

    2005-01-01

    The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Copenhagen, houses a collection of historical skulls of unclear origin, marked with a general geographic or "racial descriptor". Would these historical skulls be of any value for the forensic odontologist and anthropologist concerned with teaching and casework....... The FORDISC programme computed a discriminatory analysis for each skull and thereby assigned the skull to the most probable ethnic category. The results for the non-metric traits showed that the traits generally followed the expected frequencies in 80% of the cases. The FORDISC programme correctly assigned...... ethnicity based on skull measurements in overall 70% of the cases. It was found that this historical collection does show expected dental non-metric and craniometric traits and the collection may be of value in forensic casework in terms of comparison and for teaching purposes....

  20. [Skull cult. Trophy heads and tzantzas in pre-Columbian America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    2012-07-16

    The skull cult is a cultural tradition that dates back to at least Neolithic times. Its main manifestations are trophy heads, skull masks, moulded skulls and shrunken heads. The article reviews the skull cult in both pre-Columbian America and the ethnographic present from a neuro-anthropological perspective. The tradition of shaping and painting the skulls of ancestors goes back to the Indo-European Neolithic period (Natufian culture and Gobekli Tepe). In Mesoamerica, post-mortem decapitation was the first step of a mortuary treatment that resulted in a trophy head, a skull for the tzompantli or a skull mask. The lithic technology utilised by the Mesoamerican cultures meant that disarticulation had to be performed in several stages. Tzompantli is a term that refers both to a construction where the heads of victims were kept and to the actual skulls themselves. Skull masks are skulls that have been artificially modified in order to separate and decorate the facial part; they have been found in the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. The existence of trophy heads is well documented by means of iconographic representations on ceramic ware and textiles belonging to the Paraca, Nazca and Huari cultures of Peru. The Mundurucu Indians of Brazil and the Shuar or Jivaroan peoples of Amazonian Ecuador have maintained this custom down to the present day. The Shuar also shrink heads (tzantzas) in a ritual process. Spanish chroniclers such as Fray Toribio de Benavente 'Motolinia' and Gaspar de Carvajal spoke of these practices. In pre-Columbian America, the tradition of decapitating warriors in order to obtain trophy heads was a wide-spread and highly developed practice.

  1. Bilateral elongated mandibular coronoid process in an Anatolian skull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çorumlu, Ufuk; Demir, Mehmet Tevfik; Pirzirenli, Mennan Ece

    2016-01-01

    Elongation or hyperplasia of coronoid process of mandible is rare condition characterized by abnormal bone development which cause malocclusion and the limited mouth opening. In this study, in an Anatolian skull, a case of bilateral elongation of mandibular coronoid process was presented. Levandoski panographic analysis was performed on the panoramic radiographie to determine the hyperplasia of the coronoid process. The right condylar process was exactly hyperplastic. The measurements of Kr-Go/Cd-Go were 95.10 mm/79.03 mm on right side and 97.53 mm/87.80 mm on left side. The ratio of Kr-Go/Cd-Go on the right side was 1.20. Elongated coronoid process is one of the factors cause mandibular hypomobility, it as reported here might lead to limited mouth opening. The knowledge of this variation or abnormality can be useful for the radiologist and surgeons and prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:27722017

  2. Canteen Kopje: A new look at an old skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chazan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canteen Kopje (CK skull was found by a diamond digger working the Vaal River gravels in 1929. It was hailed by Robert Broom as an exceptionally robust prehistoric individual that was ancestral to modern South African populations. Further exploration of the Vaal Gravels has confirmed the antiquity of the purported find locality, but the heavily restored CK cranium offers limited possibilities for morphometric re-examination or direct dating with which to test Broom’s assertion. We used X-ray tomography to create a computerised 3D image that would provide optimal visualisation of the morphometry of the bony surfaces. The results showed that the CK cranium falls within the range of variation of Holocene Khoesan and lacks archaic features. We propose that it was probably a Late Stone Age intrusion into the Vaal Gravels or the overlying Hutton Sands.

  3. Herida penetrante del cráneo Skull penetrating wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvei González Orlandi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El traumatismo craneoencefálico es común en los servicios de urgencia de instituciones que atienden a pacientes politraumatizados y se ha convertido en un problema de salud para muchos países. El traumatismo penetrante del cráneo ocupa un lugar especial por su baja frecuencia. En este trabajo se presenta el caso de un paciente varón, de 52 años de edad, que sufrió una herida penetrante del cráneo producida por un arma blanca que quedó retenida en la región frontotemporal izquierda. Tras un estudio imaginológico se procedió al tratamiento quirúrgico de urgencia, y el paciente evoluciona satisfactoriamente después de 25 días de hospitalización. En la actualidad se encuentra en tratamiento de rehabilitación por una hemiparesia derecha residual.The cranioencephalic trauma is common in the emergence centers to care for patients with multiple traumata and it becames in a health problem in many countries. Skull penetrating trauma is located in a special place due to its low frequency. In present paper a case of male patient aged 52 severely skull-injured with penetrating wound caused by a cold steel that remained introduced into the left frontotemporal region. After an imaging study the emergence surgical treatment was applied and patient evolves adequately after 25 days of hospitalization. Nowadays, she is under rehabilitation treatment due to a residual right hemiparesis.

  4. Skull Reconstruction with Custom Made Three-Dimensional Titanium Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung Rok; Roh, Tae Suk; Shim, Kyu Won; Kim, Yong Oock; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Source material used to fill calvarial defects includes autologous bones and synthetic alternatives. While autologous bone is preferable to synthetic material, autologous reconstruction is not always feasible due to defect size, unacceptable donor-site morbidity, and other issues. Today, advanced three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques allow for fabrication of titanium implants customized to the exact need of individual patients with calvarial defects. In this report, we present three cases of calvarial reconstructions using 3D-printed porous titanium implants. Methods From 2013 through 2014, three calvarial defects were repaired using custommade 3D porous titanium implants. The defects were due either to traumatic subdural hematoma or to meningioma and were located in parieto-occipital, fronto-temporo-parietal, and parieto-temporal areas. The implants were prepared using individual 3D computed tomography (CT) data, Mimics software, and an electron beam melting machine. For each patient, several designs of the implant were evaluated against 3D-printed skull models. All three cases had a custom-made 3D porous titanium implant laid on the defect and rigid fixation was done with 8 mm screws. Results The custom-made 3D implants fit each patient's skull defect precisely without any dead space. The operative site healed without any specific complications. Postoperative CTs revealed the implants to be in correct position. Conclusion An autologous graft is not a feasible option in the reconstruction of large calvarial defects. Ideally, synthetic materials for calvarial reconstruction should be easily applicable, durable, and strong. In these aspects, a 3D titanium implant can be an optimal source material in calvarial reconstruction.

  5. Skull registration for prone patient position using tracked ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Grace; Ungi, Tamas; Baum, Zachary; Lasso, Andras; Kronreif, Gernot; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE: Tracked navigation has become prevalent in neurosurgery. Problems with registration of a patient and a preoperative image arise when the patient is in a prone position. Surfaces accessible to optical tracking on the back of the head are unreliable for registration. We investigated the accuracy of surface-based registration using points accessible through tracked ultrasound. Using ultrasound allows access to bone surfaces that are not available through optical tracking. Tracked ultrasound could eliminate the need to work (i) under the table for registration and (ii) adjust the tracker between surgery and registration. In addition, tracked ultrasound could provide a non-invasive method in comparison to an alternative method of registration involving screw implantation. METHODS: A phantom study was performed to test the feasibility of tracked ultrasound for registration. An initial registration was performed to partially align the pre-operative computer tomography data and skull phantom. The initial registration was performed by an anatomical landmark registration. Surface points accessible by tracked ultrasound were collected and used to perform an Iterative Closest Point Algorithm. RESULTS: When the surface registration was compared to a ground truth landmark registration, the average TRE was found to be 1.6+/-0.1mm and the average distance of points off the skull surface was 0.6+/-0.1mm. CONCLUSION: The use of tracked ultrasound is feasible for registration of patients in prone position and eliminates the need to perform registration under the table. The translational component of error found was minimal. Therefore, the amount of TRE in registration is due to a rotational component of error.

  6. The Nondestructive Determination of the Aluminum Content in Pressed Skulls of Aluminum Dross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkijan, Varuzan; Škapin, Srečo Davor; Kovačec, Uroš

    2013-02-01

    During production of primary and secondary aluminum, various amounts (in some cases up to 200 kg) of aluminum dross, a mixture consisting of molten aluminum metal and different oxide compounds (the nonmetallic phase), are skimmed per tonne of molten metal. To preserve the maximum aluminum content in hot dross for further extraction, it is necessary to cool the dross immediately after skimming. One way to do this is to press the skimmed hot dross in a press. In this process, the skimmed dross is transformed into so-called pressed skulls, with characteristic geometry convenient for storage, transport, or further in-house processing. Because of its high aluminum content—usually between 30% and 70%—pressed skulls represent a valuable source of aluminum and hence are in great demand in the aluminum recycling industry. Because pressed skulls are generally valued on a free-metal recovery basis, which is influenced by the yield of recovery, or in other words, by the quality of the recycling process, it was recognized as important and useful to develop a method of fast and cost-effective nondestructive measurement of the free aluminum content in pressed skulls, independent of the technology of pressed skulls recycling. In the model developed in this work, the aluminum content in pressed skulls was expressed as a function of the pressed skulls density, the density of the nonmetallic phase, and the volume fraction of closed pores. In addition, the model demonstrated that under precisely defined conditions (i.e., skulls from the dross of the same aluminum alloy and skimmed, transported, cooled, and pressed in the same way and under the same processing conditions), when other parameters except the pressed skulls density remain constant, the aluminum content in pressed skulls can be expressed as a linear function of the pressed skulls density. Following the theoretical considerations presented in this work, a practical industrial methodology was developed for nondestructive

  7. An historical skull collection and its use in forensic odontology and anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejrsen, B; Lynnerup, N; Hejmadi, M

    2005-12-01

    The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Copenhagen, houses a collection of historical skulls of unclear origin, marked with a general geographic or "racial descriptor". Would these historical skulls be of any value for the forensic odontologist and anthropologist concerned with teaching and casework? We tried to clarify this question by recording non-metric dental traits and by performing craniometric analyses. A morphological and morphometric investigation of anatomical/dental traits in 80 adult skulls was performed. For each skull four non-metric dental traits using the ASU-System and three non-metric cranial traits were recorded. Nineteen cranial measures were also taken following the FORDISC programme manual. The non-metrical data were tabulated as frequencies, and the metric data were entered in the FORDISC programme. Observed non-metric trait frequencies were compared with published data. The FORDISC programme computed a discriminatory analysis for each skull and thereby assigned the skull to the most probable ethnic category. The results for the non-metric traits showed that the traits generally followed the expected frequencies in 80% of the cases. The FORDISC programme correctly assigned ethnicity based on skull measurements in overall 70% of the cases. It was found that this historical collection does show expected dental non-metric and craniometric traits and the collection may be of value in forensic casework in terms of comparison and for teaching purposes.

  8. Assessment of craniometric traits in South Indian dry skulls for sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Balakrishnan; Pai, Mangala M; Prabhu, Latha V; Muralimanju, B V; Rai, Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton plays an important role in sex determination in forensic anthropology. The skull bone is considered as the second best after the pelvic bone in sex determination due to its better retention of morphological features. Different populations have varying skeletal characteristics, making population specific analysis for sex determination essential. Hence the objective of this investigation is to obtain the accuracy of sex determination using cranial parameters of adult skulls to the highest percentage in South Indian population and to provide a baseline data for sex determination in South India. Seventy adult preserved human skulls were taken and based on the morphological traits were classified into 43 male skulls and 27 female skulls. A total of 26 craniometric parameters were studied. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS discriminant function. The analysis of stepwise, multivariate, and univariate discriminant function gave an accuracy of 77.1%, 85.7%, and 72.9% respectively. Multivariate direct discriminant function analysis classified skull bones into male and female with highest levels of accuracy. Using stepwise discriminant function analysis, the most dimorphic variable to determine sex of the skull, was biauricular breadth followed by weight. Subjecting the best dimorphic variables to univariate discriminant analysis, high levels of accuracy of sexual dimorphism was obtained. Percentage classification of high accuracies were obtained in this study indicating high level of sexual dimorphism in the crania, setting specific discriminant equations for the gender determination in South Indian people.

  9. [Endoscopic surgery and reconstruction for extensive osteoradionecrosis of skull base after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Qiu, Q H; Zhan, J B; Zhu, Z C; Peng, Y; Liu, H

    2016-12-07

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of endoscopic surgery for extensive osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of skull base in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy. Methods: Seventeen patients diagnosed as ORN of skull base after radiotherapy for NPC and underwent endoscopic surgery were retrospectively studied with their clinic data. Results: Based on the CT and endoscopic examination, all patients had large skull base defects with bone defects averaged 7.02 cm(2) (range, 3.60 - 14.19 cm(2)). Excepting for curetting the sequestra, endoscopic surgery was also used to repair the wound or to protect the internal carotid artery with flap in 12 patients. No bone reconstructions were conducted in all patients with the bone defects of skull base. CT examinations were taken after endoscopic surgery when required. The postoperative follow-up ranged from 8 months to 6 years (average, 14 months). Aside from 1 patient with delayed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), others had no related complications. Conclusions: The patients with extensive ORN can be treated with endoscopic surgery to curette the necrotic bone of skull base, and endoscopic reconstruction provides an alternative technique. It may not be necessary to reconstruct the bone defects at skull base, however, the exposed important structures of skull base, such as internal carotid artery, need to repair with soft tissue such as flap.

  10. Recruitment and monitoring behaviors by leaders predict following in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seltmann

    2016-07-01

    collective movements in a group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus in the Middle Atlas, Morocco. The number of individuals displaying pre-departure behavior predicted the success of an initiation of a collective movement. Pauses of the first departing individual after departure enhanced following behavior and might have served as recruitment signal. However, the opposite was the case for back-glancing, which functions as a monitoring signal in other species. Because in our study frequently back-glancing individuals were also less socially integrated, back glances may better be interpreted as indicators of hesitation and insecurity. To successfully initiate a collective movement, it seemed to be sufficient for a socially integrated group member to take action when other group members signal their willingness prior to departure and to occasionally wait for the group while moving.

  11. Rosalie: the brazilian female monkey of Charcot Rosalie: a pequenina macaca brasileira de Charcot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Martin Charcot, the father of Neurology, a very austere and reserved man that did not express affection freely for human being, had a profound affection to animals, particularly to a small female monkey, called "Rosalie", which came from Brazil and was a gift of Dom Pedro II to Charcot.Jean-Martin Charcot, considerado o pai da Neurologia, foi um homem de aspecto austero e reservado, que tinha dificuldades de expressar os seus sentimentos para outros seres humanos. Contudo ele tinha profunda afeição por animais, particularmente por uma pequena macaca, chamada de "Rosalie", oriunda do Brasil e que foi um presente dado a ele por Dom Pedro II.

  12. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  13. Effects of feeding selenium deficient diets to rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.A.; Whanger, P.D.; Patton, N.M.

    1988-02-01

    Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were fed either selenium (Se) deficient or Se supplemented diets with adequate vitamin E. Except for some cardiac irregularities in the first babies born to these females, no physiological disorders due to Se deficiency were seen in a subsequent offspring. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activities and blood Se levels increased in the Se supplemented monkeys but decreased in the deficient ones. The data indicated that hair Se levels reflect long term exposure to this element. In a very preliminary experiment, evidence was obtained to indicate that dietary protein deficiency along with Se deficiency will generate cardiomyopathic lesions characteristic of Se deficiency. It is hypothesized that, in addition to Se deficiency, another dietary deficiency (or abnormality) is necessary to produce Se deficiency lesions in higher primates. Higher glutathione transferase (or non-Se glutathione peroxidase) activity in tissues of rhesus monkeys may account for this resistance.

  14. Campylobacter pylori isolated from the stomach of the monkey, Macaca nemestrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsdon, M A; Schoenknecht, F D

    1988-09-01

    Campylobacter pylori was isolated from the gastric mucosa in 6 of 24 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) examined by gastric biopsy and culture; 3 isolates were recovered during gastroendoscopy, and 3 were recovered at necropsy. The isolates were morphologically and biochemically similar to the human type strain NCTC 11638, differing only in colony diameter, pigmentation, and rate of growth. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by whole-genomic DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain. Colonization of the monkey stomachs was associated with hypochlorhydria and histologic features resembling type B chronic gastritis in humans. Host animals exhibited no morbid clinical effects of colonization, although endoscopy revealed inflammation, erythema, and friable tissue in some animals. The discovery of C. pylori occurring spontaneously in M. nemestrina extends the known range of the hosts of the organism and offers the possibility of a natural or experimental model of the infection in monkeys.

  15. Compound soft regenerated skull material for repairing dog skull defects using bone morphogenetic protein as an inductor and nanohydroxyapatite as a scaffold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhidong Shi; Mingwang Liu; Zhongzong Qin; Qinmei Wang; Ying Guo; Haiyong He; Zhonghe Yu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In previous studies of skull defects and regeneration, bone morphogenetic protein as an inductor and nanohydroxyapatite as a scaffold have been cocultured with osteoblasts.OBJECTIVE: To verify the characteristics of the new skull regenerated material after compound soft regenerated skull material implantatiom.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The self-control and inter-group control animal experiment was perfurmed at the Sun Yat-sen University, China from February to July 2007.MATERIALS: Twenty-tour healthy adult dogs of both genders weighing 15-20 kg were used in this study. Nanohydroxyapatite as a scaffold was cocultured with osteoblasts. Using demineralized canine bone matrix as a carrier, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 was employed to prepare compound soft regenerated skull material. Self-designed compound soft regenerated skull material was implanted in models of skull defects.METHODS: Animals were randomly assigned into two groups, Group A (n = 16) and Group B (n = 8).Bilateral 2.5-cm-diameter full-thickness parietal skull defects were made in all animals. In Group A, the right side was reconstructed with calcium alginate gel, osteoblasts, and nanomcter bone meal composite;the left side was reconstructed with calcium alginate gel, osteoblasts, nanometer bone meal and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 composite. In Group B, the right side was kept as a simple skull detect, and the left side was reconstructed with calcium alginate gel, osteoblasts, nanometer bone meal and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 composite.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone regeneration and histopathological changes at the site of the skull defect were observed with an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope after surgery.The ability to form bone was measured by alizarin red S staining. In vitro cultured osteoblasts were observed for morphology.RESULTS: One month following surgery, newly formed bone trabeculae mostly covered the

  16. Phrenology between anthropology and neurology in a nineteenth-century collection of skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Alberto; Scattolin, Giuliano; Thiene, Gaetano; Zampieri, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    The University of Padua has many legends about its cultural heritage. One of these concerns a collection of eight skulls still preserved in the Hall of Medicine at Bo Palace, near the old anatomy theatre built in 1545. It is said that some famous professors of the University donated their bodies to medical science, and the skulls were from these bodies. From multidisciplinary research, both historical and anthropological, we have discovered that Francesco Cortese, Professor of Medicine and Rector of the University, started this personal collection of colleagues' skulls, although they had not donated their bodies to science, so that he could make his own detailed phrenology study.

  17. [Brain abscess following the use of skull traction with Gardner-Wells tongs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, J; Iborra, J P; Fargues, P; Pries, P; Clarac, J P

    1999-09-01

    Brain abscess after insertion of skull traction is a rare and serious complication. Its development is secondary to superficial infection. Adequate preventive measures have to be taken: proper sterile dressing and daily care. Signs of local irritation are not always synonymous with skull migration. When gradual loosening of the skull occurs, especially associated with superficial infection, the pins must not be tightened. The more appropriate management is to investigate for penetration of the inner cranial cave. When in doubt, repositioning the pins may be necessary, as well as establishing an aggressive treatment against cutaneous infection.

  18. Congenital skull indentation: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Congenital depressions of the skull are rare in Western countries. The majority relate to obstetric trauma at delivery. We present a case of a congenital depression of a neonate's skull not relating to obstetric trauma. The child had an ovoid indentation behind the right coronal suture in the temperoparietal region. This skull depression was thought to relate to the position of her right hand in utero. We report her management, neuro-imaging and outcome on follow-up. A literature review is gi...

  19. Skull Base Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Presented with Foramen Jugular Syndrome and Multi-Osseous Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Aghaghazvini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC is an expansile bone lesion that usually involves the long bones. Skull base involvement is rare. Hereby, we describe a 17-year-old man with hoarseness, facial asymmetry, left sided sensorineural hearing loss and left jugular foramen syndrome. CT scan and MRI showed a skull base mass that was confirmed as ABC in histopathology. The case was unusual and interesting due to the clinical presentation of jugular foramen syndrome and radiological findings such as severe enhancement and multiosseous involvement.Keywords: Bone Cysts,Aneurysmal,Petrous Bone,Skull Base,Cranial Fossa,Posterior

  20. Is orthopantomography reliable for TMJ diagnosis? An experimental study on a dry skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, S; Pancherz, H

    1995-01-01

    The accuracy of orthopantomography in reproducing the temporomandibular joint area was analyzed on a dry skull. The results based on this study of a single skull revealed that the radiographic image of the temporomandibular joint did not correspond to the anatomic condylar and fossa components or to their actual relationship. To a large extent, changes in skull position affected the radiographic temporomandibular joint image, simulating anterior condylar flattening, osteophytes, narrowing of joint space, and left/right condylar asymmetry. Orthopantomography may have questionable reliability for temporomandibular joint diagnostic purposes.

  1. Performance of computed tomography of the head to evaluate for skull fractures in infants with suspected non-accidental trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culotta, Paige A.; Tran, Quynh-Anh; Donaruma-Kwoh, Marcella [Texas Children' s Hospital, Section of Public Health Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Crowe, James E.; Jones, Jeremy Y.; Mehollin-Ray, Amy R.; Tran, H.B.; Dodge, Cristina T. [Texas Children' s Hospital, The Edward B. Singleton, MD, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Camp, Elizabeth A. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Cruz, Andrea T. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Children' s Hospital, Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Young children with suspected abusive head trauma often receive skull radiographs to evaluate for fractures as well as computed tomography (CT) of the head to assess for intracranial injury. Using a CT as the primary modality to evaluate both fracture and intracranial injury could reduce exposure to radiation without sacrificing performance. To evaluate the sensitivity of CT head with (3-D) reconstruction compared to skull radiographs to identify skull fractures in children with suspected abusive head trauma. This was a retrospective (2013-2014) cross-sectional study of infants evaluated for abusive head trauma via both skull radiographs and CT with 3-D reconstruction. The reference standard was skull radiography. All studies were read by pediatric radiologists and neuroradiologists, with ten percent read by a second radiologist to evaluate for interobserver reliability. One hundred seventy-seven children (47% female; mean/median age: 5 months) were included. Sixty-two (35%) had skull fractures by radiography. CT with 3-D reconstruction was 97% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI]: 89-100%) and 94% specific (CI: 87-97%) for skull fracture. There was no significant difference between plain radiographs and 3-D CT scan results (P-value = 0.18). Kappa was 1 (P-value <0.001) between radiologist readings of CTs and 0.77 (P = 0.001) for skull radiographs. CT with 3-D reconstruction is equivalent to skull radiographs in identifying skull fractures. When a head CT is indicated, skull radiographs add little diagnostic value. (orig.)

  2. Size and shape variability in the skull of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae from two geographic areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bornholdt

    Full Text Available We present a quantitative analysis of sexual dimorphism and geographic variation in the skull of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 assessed by geometric morphometrics. Differences in size and shape of skulls were investigated using 30 landmarks plotted on two-dimensional images of lateral and ventral views. Results of geometric morphometrics revealed sexual dimorphism in the centroid size of the skull in both views. Females were larger than males. Nevertheless, there was no sexual dimorphism in skull shape of M. nigricans. Geographic variation was detected in size and shape of the skull. South Brazilian specimens were significantly larger than Ceará specimens only in the lateral view. Differences in skull shape were statistically significant in both views: specimens from South Brazil were brevirostri and presented a more expanded skull in the posterior region while Ceará specimens were longirostri and do not present any expansion in the brain case. Ecological factors for these phenomena are discussed in the text.

  3. Impact of human pressure and forest fragmentation on the Endangered Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in the Middle Atlas of Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ménard, Nelly; Rantier, Yann; Foulquier, Adrien; Qarro, Mohamed; Chillasse, Lahcen; Vallet, Dominique; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Butet, Alain

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Overexploitation of forests by humans can lead to highly fragmented populations of forest-dependent species that have poor dispersal abilities. We tested the influence of habitat quality, landscape structure and human pressure on densities of the Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in the largest wild population, in the Middle Atlas of Morocco. We surveyed 14 forest fragments of 5-142 km2 that are separated from each other by an inhospitable matrix. We estimated the habita...

  4. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Renske; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; Vlimmeren, L.A.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2012-01-01

    Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed

  5. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; MJ, I.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed

  6. Response to pediatric physical therapy in infants with positional preference and skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Pelsma, M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; IJzerman, M.J.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pediatric physical therapy seems to reduce skull deformation in infants with positional preference. However, not all infants show improvement. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine which infant and parent characteristics were related to responses to pediatric physical therapy

  7. Digital preparation and osteology of the skull of Lesothosaurus diagnosticus (Ornithischia: Dinosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Laura B; Witmer, Lawrence M; Barrett, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Several skulls of the ornithischian dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus (Lower Jurassic, southern Africa) are known, but all are either incomplete, deformed, or incompletely prepared. This has hampered attempts to provide a comprehensive description of skull osteology in this crucial early dinosaurian taxon. Using visualization software, computed tomographic scans of the Lesothosaurus syntypes were digitally segmented to remove matrix, and identify and separate individual cranial and mandibular bones, revealing new anatomical details such as sutural morphology and the presence of several previously undescribed elements. Together with visual inspection of exposed skull bones, these CT data enable a complete description of skull anatomy in this taxon. Comparisons with our new data suggest that two specimens previously identified as Lesothosaurus sp. (MNHN LES 17 and MNHN LES 18) probably represent additional individuals of Lesothosaurus diagnosticus.

  8. Treatment experience of surgical repair for long-term skull defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-cheng FAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective analysis was performed on 30 patients of skull defect who underwent surgical repair. Intraoperative and postoperative curative effect was evaluated on those patients, and the results showed that the incidence rate of intraoperative dura mater defect (P = 0.001, early postoperative complications [new epilepsy (P = 0.035 and effusion (P = 0.021] and late postoperative complications [foreign body sensation (P = 0.035 and dizziness and headache (P = 0.050] in long-term skull defect group were all higher than those in control group. In conclusion, surgical repair of long-term skull defect incurring high risk and various complications will not be an ideal management. Therefore, early surgical treatment for skull defect is suggested. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.12.016

  9. A Comparative Taphonomic Analysis of 24 Trophy Skulls from Modern Forensic Cases().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucha, Josephine M; Pokines, James T; Bartelink, Eric J

    2017-02-01

    Cranial remains retained from fallen enemies are commonly referred to as "trophy skulls," and many such crania were acquired as souvenirs by U.S. servicemembers during WWII and the Vietnam conflict. These remains increasingly have become the subject of forensic anthropological analysis as their possessors, typically veterans or their relatives, try to discard or repatriate them. The present research uses a qualitative analytical approach to review 24 cases of reported trophy skulls (14 previously unpublished cases and 10 from the literature) to determine which perimortem and postmortem characteristics are most useful for generating a taphonomic profile. Overall, the taphonomic signature of trophy remains includes traits relating to acquisition and preparation, ornamental display, and subsequent curation. Contextual evidence and the biological profile also are considered when determining the possible origin of human cranial remains as a trophy skull. Thorough taphonomic analysis will aid in identifying these types of remains as trophy skulls.

  10. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; MJ, I.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed

  11. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van R.M.; Boonekamp, M.M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Vlimmeren, van L.A.; IJzerman, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed

  12. [Geometric method for determining the skull-portrait aspect in craniofacial identification of the body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Ivanov, V N; Narina, N V

    2001-01-01

    Correspondence of the reference graphic images by the aspect is an important condition of craniofacial personality identification. The authors propose methods of determining the skull-portrait aspect by X and Y axes simultaneously. This allows 2 potentialities of comparing the photograph and the skull picture: 1) positioning the skull in a strictly determined aspect estimated by analysis of coordinates of reference points on the photoportrait and 2) positioning the skull and re-estimation of the photoportrait coordinates into the "zero" aspect (zero turning, inclination, and lateral deviation). Hence, all coordinates of the reference points of examined graphic images in the database can be estimated for the zero position and the same scale, which helps automate the search for analogs.

  13. Volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy for skull-base and non-skull-base head and neck cancer: a treatment planning comparison with fixed Beam IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Mok, E; Wang, L; Chen, C; Le, Q-T

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the dose distribution, monitor units (MUs) and radiation delivery time between volumetric-modulated arc (VMAT) and fix-beam intensity modulated radiotherapy (FB-IMRT) in skull-base and non-skull-base head and neck cancer (HNC). CT datasets of 8 skull-base and 7 non-skull-base HNC were identified. IMRT and VMAT plans were generated. The prescription dose ranged 45-70 Gy (1.8-2.2 Gy/fraction). The VMAT delivery time was measured when these plans were delivered to the patients. The FB-IMRT delivery time was generated on a phantom. Comparison of dose-volume histogram data, MUs, and delivery times was performed using T-test. Our results show that both plans yield similar target volume coverage, homogeneity, and conformity. In skull-base cases, compared to FB-IMRT, VMAT generated significantly smaller hot-spot inside PTV (2.0% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.031), lower maximum chiasm dose (32 ± 11 Gy vs. 41 ± 15 Gy, p = 0.026), lower ipsilateral temporal-mandibular joint dose (D33: 41.4 Gy vs. 46.1 Gy, p = 0.016), lower mean ipsilateral middle ear dose (43 ± 9 Gy vs. 38 ± 10 Gy, p = 0.020) and a trend for lower optic nerve, temporal lobe, parotid, and oral cavity dose. In non-skull-base cases, doses to normal tissues were similar between the two plans. There was a reduction of 70% in MUs (486 ± 95 vs. 1614 ± 493, p delivery time.

  14. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize the brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit saccular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) (Colebatch & Halmagyi 1992; Colebatch et al. 1994). Some researchers have reported that airconducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects (Curthoys et al. 2009, Wackym et al., 2012). However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying the vestibular disorders related to otolith deficits. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, pre and post central gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation (Bottini et al., 1994; Dieterich et al., 2003; Emri et al., 2003; Schlindwein et al., 2008; Janzen et al., 2008). Here we hypothesized that the skull tap elicits the similar pattern of cortical activity as the auditory tone burst. Subjects put on a set of MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in supine position, with eyes closed. All subjects received both forms of the stimulation, however, the order of stimulation with auditory tone burst and air-conducted skull tap was counterbalanced across subjects. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular cortex, resulting in vestibular response (Halmagyi et al., 1995). Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate

  15. Solitary skull metastasis as the first symptom of hepatocellular carcinoma: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo X

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Xieli Guo,1,2 Jiangliu Yin,3 Yugang Jiang11Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Jinjiang Hospital of Quanzhou Medical College, Jinjiang, Fujian, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Changsha Central Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Skull metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is reported rarely. In addition, solitary skull metastasis as the first symptom of HCC is reported even less. Here, we reported a case of solitary skull metastasis as the first symptom of HCC and reviewed the literature on skull metastasis. A 49-year-old male patient was admitted to Jinjiang Hospital of Quanzhou Medical College with a painless parietal-occipital scalp mass, and he denied any history of hepatic disease. A cranial computed tomography demonstrated a hypervascular enhancement with osteolytic change in the right parietal-occipital region, cranial magnetic resonance imaging indicated a highly enhanced and osteolytic skull tumor, and abdominal computed tomography showed a huge tumor in the liver. The other examinations showed no other metastases. Laboratory data showed no liver dysfunction while hepatitis B surface antigen was positive, and alpha fetal protein level was high. A craniectomy was performed and the mass was totally removed. The histological diagnosis was skull metastasis from HCC. The patient was subsequently treated by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. In a review of published literature, the incidence of skull metastasis from HCC in the period between 1990 and 2011 has significantly increased. The misdiagnosis rate of skull metastases as the first symptom from HCC was high. Therefore, it is necessary to give each patient with a scalp mass that has invaded the skull a liver ultrasound or computed tomography scan. On the other hand, we found that metastases that occurred

  16. A Meningoencephalocele Caused by a Chronic Growing Skull Fracture in a 76-Year-Old Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudrous, Walid; Boogaarts, Hieronymus D; Grotenhuis, J André

    2016-12-01

    We present a case of a growing skull fracture in adult male, with an interval of 43 years after initial trauma. This finding is extremely rare, especially because growing skull fractures are mostly seen as an uncommon complication of pediatric head trauma with calvarial fracture. In our patient, this finding was incidental, existed for many years, and had no clinical consequences. Therefore, we advised a conservative treatment for our patient.

  17. Quality-of-Life after Anterior Skull Base Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Borg, Anouk; Al-Mousa, Alaa; Haliasos, Nikolaos; Choi, David

    2014-04-01

    Background Improved treatment and survival of patients with skull base tumors has made the assessment of quality-of-life (QoL) in this population increasingly important. This article provides a comprehensive systematic review pertaining to QoL assessment in adults undergoing anterior skull base surgery. Methods We performed a literature search using the electronic databases of Ovid Medline and Embase. Additional articles were identified through a search using the phrase anterior skull base. Further articles were sought through hand-searching relevant journals and reference lists of identified articles. Results Our search strategy identified 29 articles for inclusion in our systematic review, with considerable variation between studies in population characteristics, methodological design and quality, follow-up length, and outcome assessment. The most commonly used QoL tools were the Karnofsky Performance Status and the Anterior Skull Base Questionnaire. QoL following anterior skull base surgery appears to improve beyond preoperative levels in the months after surgery. For patients undergoing endoscopic skull base surgery, the gain in QoL appears to be greater and may manifest earlier, with no clear long-term deleterious effect on sinonasal outcomes compared with open surgery. Conclusions QoL after anterior skull base surgery in adults appears to improve within several months of surgery, but earlier and to a larger extent if the endoscopic approach is used. Given the relative paucity and heterogeneity of anterior skull base tumors, large-scale prospective multicentre studies utilizing valid and reliable multidimensional QoL tools are required. This may result in improved patient care, by understanding patients' needs better and facilitating the provision of reliable outcome data for clinical trials.

  18. Effect of the Rat Skull On Focused US, as Measured by MR Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Randy; Rieke, Viola; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2010-03-01

    MR-guided therapeutic ultrasound is becoming increasingly prominent among a range of brain treatments from localized tumors and pain alleviation to neurostimulation. To investigate the influence of the skull on the acoustic field, an appropriate animal model must be established and so the effect of the rat skull needs to be considered and possibly compensated for, when using it as a model to perform therapeutic ultrasound in the brain. Temperature monitoring of both in-vivo and ex vivo experiments was performed in a 3T MRI (GE Signa, Milwaukee WS) using the PRF method. Sonications were performed with a 2D PZT array comprised of 1024 elements at 0.55 MHz. Intensities were kept low enough to limit temperature rise in the brain to about 10° C. Temperature maps were acquired 2-3 mm from the inner surface of the skull in phantom material, which was placed behind the skull. Three ex-vivo skulls were used. A grid pattern covering the entire skull was laid out for sonications. Only 11/48 sonications created a small single spot showing temperature rise in phantom material. In all other sonications the heat was very diffuse with multiple focal spots. This is compared to the phantom with no skull were 2/41 sonications did not create a small single spots of temperature rise, and in those two spots edge effects can be contributed to the unfocused pattern. All other sonications, performed at the same depth of sonication as in the skull, created an individual thermal spot, which was on average within 0.5 mm in any direction from the expected location.

  19. Optogenetic signaling-pathway regulation through scattering skull using wavefront shaping

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jonghee; Lee, KyeoReh; Kim, Nury; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Jongchan; Choi, Chulhee; Heo, Won Do; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a non-invasive approach for optogenetic regulation in biological cells through highly scattering skull tissue using wavefront shaping. The wavefront of the incident light was systematically controlled using a spatial light modulator in order to overcome multiple light-scattering in a mouse skull layer and to focus light on the target cells. We demonstrate that illumination with shaped waves enables spatiotemporal regulation of intracellular Ca2+ level at the individual-cell level.

  20. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of the skull in malignant otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Bhattacharya, Anish; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2012-01-01

    Malignant otitis externa is a severe, rare infective condition of the external auditory canal and skull base. The diagnosis is generally made from a range of clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy is known to detect osteomyelitis earlier than computed tomography. The authors present a patient with bilateral malignant otitis externa where the extent of skull base involvement was determined on 3-phase bone scintigraphy with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

  1. Dietary hardness, loading behavior, and the evolution of skull form in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Sharlene E; Grosse, Ian R; Dumont, Elizabeth R

    2012-08-01

    The morphology and biomechanics of the vertebrate skull reflect the physical properties of diet and behaviors used in food acquisition and processing. We use phyllostomid bats, the most diverse mammalian dietary radiation, to investigate if and how changes in dietary hardness and loading behaviors during feeding shaped the evolution of skull morphology and biomechanics. When selective regimes of food hardness are modeled, we found that species consuming harder foods have evolved skull shapes that allow for more efficient bite force production. These species have shorter skulls and a greater reliance on the temporalis muscle, both of which contribute to a higher mechanical advantage at an intermediate gape angle. The evolution of cranial morphology and biomechanics also appears to be related to loading behaviors. Evolutionary changes in skull shape and the relative role of the temporalis and masseter in generating bite force are correlated with changes in the use of torsional and bending loading behaviors. Functional equivalence appears to have evolved independently among three lineages of species that feed on liquids and are not obviously morphologically similar. These trends in cranial morphology and biomechanics provide insights into behavioral and ecological factors shaping the skull of a trophically diverse clade of mammals.

  2. Developmental changes in the skull morphology of common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Gen; Kato, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    We investigated growth-related and sex-related morphological changes in the skulls of 144 North Pacific common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Measurement was conducted at 39 points on the skull and mandible to extract individual allometric equations relating the length and zygomatic width of the skull. The results revealed no significant differences in skull morphology by sex except for width of occipital bone. The size relative to the skull of the anatomical parts involved in feeding, such as the rostrum and mandible, increased after birth. In contrast, the sensory organs and the anatomical regions involved in neurological function, such as the orbit, tympanic bullae, and foramen magnum, were fully developed at birth, and their relative size reduced over the course of development. This is the first study to investigate developmental changes in the skull morphology using more than 100 baleen whale specimens, and we believe the results of this study will contribute greatly to multiple areas of baleen whale research, including taxonomy and paleontology.

  3. Prediction and near-field observation of skull-guided acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Hector; Rebling, Johannes; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound waves propagating in water or soft biological tissue are strongly reflected when encountering the skull, which limits the use of ultrasound-based techniques in transcranial imaging and therapeutic applications. Current knowledge on the acoustic properties of the cranial bone is restricted to far-field observations, leaving its near-field unexplored. We report on the existence of skull-guided acoustic waves, which was herein confirmed by near-field measurements of optoacoustically-induced responses in ex-vivo murine skulls immersed in water. Dispersion of the guided waves was found to reasonably agree with the prediction of a multilayered flat plate model. We observed a skull-guided wave propagation over a lateral distance of at least 3 mm, with a half-decay length in the direction perpendicular to the skull ranging from 35 to 300 μm at 6 and 0.5 MHz, respectively. Propagation losses are mostly attributed to the heterogenous acoustic properties of the skull.. It is generally anticipated that our findings may facilitate and broaden the application of ultrasound-mediated techniques in brain diagnostics and therapy.

  4. Association between linear skull fractures and intracranial hemorrhage in children with minor head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlichman, David B.; Blumfield, Einat; Weiss, Amanda [Jacobi Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Rajpathak, Swapnil [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To determine whether skull fractures can be used to associate intracranial hemorrhage with minor head trauma (MHT). We conducted a retrospective study evaluating the association between linear skull fractures and intracranial hemorrhage among children with MHT. Furthermore, we evaluated the significance of small intracranial hemorrhages by assessing the need for neurosurgical interventions. The case group included 114 children with a diagnosis of a linear skull fracture and the control group included 125 children without the diagnosis. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to estimate the odds ratio (OR) between linear skull fractures and intracranial bleeding. Among the cases, 29 of 114 (25%) children were diagnosed with an intracranial hemorrhage on CT, compared to only 14 of 125 (11%) among the controls. The multivariable OR for intracranial hemorrhages comparing cases and controls adjusted for age and gender was 2.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 4.68). All the intracranial hemorrhages were small (3.8 {+-} 2.3 mm) and none of them required any neurosurgical intervention. The presence of a linear skull fracture is an independent risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage. However, all the intracranial hemorrhages associated with the skull fractures were small and did not require any neurosurgical interventions. (orig.)

  5. A realistic phantom for validating MRI-based synthetic CT images of the human skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Abraam S; Burns, Levi; Owrangi, Amir; Lee, Young; Song, William Y; Stanisz, Greg; Chugh, Brige P

    2017-06-23

    To introduce a new realistic human skull phantom for the validation of synthetic CT images of cortical bone from ultra-short echo-time (UTE) sequences. A human skull of an adult female was utilized as a realistic representation of skull cortical bone. The skull was stabilized in a special acrylic container and was filled with contrast agents that have T1 and T2 relaxation times similar to human brain. The phantom was MR scanned at 3T with UTE and T2 -weighted sequences, followed by CT. A clustering approach was developed to extract the cortical bone signal from MR images. T2∗ maps of the skull were calculated. Synthetic CT images of the bone were compared to cortical bone signal extracted from CT images and confounding factors, such as registration errors, were analyzed. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of UTE-detected cortical bone was 0.84 and gradually decreased with decreasing number of spokes. DSC did not significantly depend on echo-time. Registration errors were found to be significant confounding factors, with 25% decrease in DSC for consistent 2 mm error at each axis. This work introduced a new realistic human skull phantom, specifically for the evaluation and analysis of synthetic CT images of cortical bone. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. The non-destructive prediction of the aluminium content in pressed skulls of aluminium dross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varužan Kevorkijan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During production of primary and secondary aluminium, various amounts of aluminium dross, a mixture consisting of molten aluminium metal and different oxide compounds, is skimmed per tonne of molten metal. In order to preserve the maximum aluminium content in hot dross for further extraction, it is necessary to cool the dross (e.g. by pressing immediately after skimming. During pressing, the skimmed dross is transformed into so-called pressed skulls, convenient for storage, transport or further inhouse processing. Pressed skulls, which represent a valuable source of aluminium, are generally valued on a free-metal recovery basis. Therefore, it is important and useful to develop a method of fast and cost-effective non-destructive measurement of the free aluminium content in pressed skulls, independent of the technology of pressed skulls recycling. Following the theoretical considerations presented in this work, a practical industrial methodology was developed for non-destructive prediction of the amount of free aluminium in pressed skulls, wAl, based on non-destructive measurement of the density, ρ, of the pressed skulls.

  7. Prediction and near-field observation of skull-guided acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound waves propagating in water or soft biological tissue are strongly reflected when encountering the skull, which limits the use of ultrasound-based techniques in transcranial imaging and therapeutic applications. Current knowledge on the acoustic properties of the cranial bone is restricted to far-field observations, leaving its near-field unexplored. We report on the existence of skull-guided acoustic waves, which was herein confirmed by near-field measurements of optoacoustically-induced responses in ex-vivo murine skulls immersed in water. Dispersion of the guided waves was found to reasonably agree with the prediction of a multilayered flat plate model. We observed a skull-guided wave propagation over a lateral distance of at least 3 mm, with a half-decay length in the direction perpendicular to the skull ranging from 35 to 300 μm at 6 and 0.5 MHz, respectively. Propagation losses are mostly attributed to the heterogenous acoustic properties of the skull. It is generally anticipated that our findings may facilitate and broaden the application of ultrasound-mediated techniques in brain diagnostics and therapy.

  8. Evaluation of morphological changes in the adult skull with age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jillian E; Weaver, Ashley A; Lillie, Elizabeth M; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Stitzel, Joel D

    2016-12-01

    The morphology of the brain and skull are important in the evaluation of the aging human; however, little is known about how the skull may change with age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of the adult skull using three-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis of thousands of landmarks with the focus on anatomic regions that may be correlated with brain atrophy and head injury. Computed tomography data were collected between ages 20 and 100. Each scan was segmented using thresholding techniques. An atlas image of a 50th percentile skull was registered to each subject scan by computing a series of rigid, affine, and non-linear transformations between atlas space and subject space. Landmarks on the atlas skull were transformed to each subject and partitioned into the inner and outer cranial vault and the cranial fossae. A generalized Procrustes analysis was completed for the landmark sets. The coordinate locations describing the shape of each region were regressed with age to generate a model predicting the landmark location with age. Permutation testing was performed to assess significant changes with age. For the males, all anatomic regions reveal significant changes in shape with age except for the posterior cranial fossa. For the females, only the middle cranial fossa and anterior cranial fossa were found to change significantly in shape. Results of this study are important for understanding the adult skull and how shape changes may pertain to brain atrophy, aging, and injury. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  9. Automatic Sex Determination of Skulls Based on a Statistical Shape Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination from skeletons is an important research subject in forensic medicine. Previous skeletal sex assessments are through subjective visual analysis by anthropologists or metric analysis of sexually dimorphic features. In this work, we present an automatic sex determination method for 3D digital skulls, in which a statistical shape model for skulls is constructed, which projects the high-dimensional skull data into a low-dimensional shape space, and Fisher discriminant analysis is used to classify skulls in the shape space. This method combines the advantages of metrical and morphological methods. It is easy to use without professional qualification and tedious manual measurement. With a group of Chinese skulls including 127 males and 81 females, we choose 92 males and 58 females to establish the discriminant model and validate the model with the other skulls. The correct rate is 95.7% and 91.4% for females and males, respectively. Leave-one-out test also shows that the method has a high accuracy.

  10. Geometric morphometrics of different malocclusions in lateral skull radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthaler, Josef; Čelar, Aleš; Ritt, Christopher; Mitteröcker, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the role of craniofacial shape in malocclusion by application of geometric morphometrics to a set of two-dimensional landmarks and semilandmarks obtained from lateral skull radiographs. Cephalometric radiograph tracings of 88 untreated Caucasians (age range 7-39 years) were assigned to four groups according to their occlusion: neutrocclusion, distocclusion, mesiocclusion, and anterior open bite. The geometric morphometric shape analysis incorporated 66 landmarks and semilandmarks, which underwent generalized Procrustes analysis, between-groups principal component analysis, thin-plate spline deformation grid visualization, permutation tests, and receiver operating characteristic curves. The position and shape of the mandible contributed to differences between the distocclusion and mesiocclusion groups, whereas the maxillary shape showed less variation. The growth-related shape alteration during adolescence was most pronounced in the mesiocclusion group and least pronounced in the neutrocclusion group. The open bite group was associated with an altered orientation of the mandibular body and the maxilla,  showed the most hyperdivergent maxillomandibular pattern but was not an own skeletal entity. Despite clear differences in mean shape across the four groups, the individual distribution of craniofacial shape overlapped between the groups without discrete clusters. Craniofacial shape was clearly associated with dental malocclusion and showed considerable variation. Geometric morphometrics was a powerful research tool but for diagnosing individual malocclusion standard cephalometric measurements including overjet and overbite were equally or more efficient than geometric morphometric descriptors.

  11. Morphometric features of asterion in adult human skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Deepak

    2015-06-01

    Results: Our study revealed that type II (absence of sutural bones was commoner than type I (presence of sutural bones asterion. The asterion was 4.82 +/- 0.58 cm from tip of the mastoid process on the right side and 4.70 +/- 0.70 cm on the left. It was greater in males than in females, p value being statistically significant (P = 0.00 and P = 0.02 for right and left sides respectively. The distance of asterion from supramastoid crest was 4.22 +/- 0.73 cm on the right and 4.23+/-0.58 cm on the left. The distance in males was more than in females. The P value 0.00 was statistically significant on the right side. Regarding the position of the asterion in relation to transverse sinus, it was on the transverse sinus in 62% cases, below it in 32% and above in 6%. Conclusions: The data obtained shows that the asterion is located either at the level or below the level of the transverse sinus in majority of the cases. This information is useful to neurosurgeons to reduce the risk during posterior cranial fossa surgeries. This work will also be useful to anthropologists, forensic science experts for determination of sex of the skull along with other parameters. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1325-1328

  12. Skull of Catopithecus browni, an early tertiary catarrhine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, E L; Rasmussen, D T

    1996-06-01

    Fossil crania from quarry L-41, Fayum, Egypt, representing Catopithecus browni, a primate similar in size to callitrichids but with a catarrhine dental formula, provide the geologically earliest record of an anthropoidean skull. Catopithecus had postorbital closure developed to the stage seen in extant anthropoideans, with direct contact between zygomatic plate and maxillary tuber, isolating an anterior orbital fissure from the inferior orbital fissure. The auditory region also resembles that of later anthropoideans: The posterior carotid foramen is placed adjacent to the jugular fossa; a large promontory canal crosses the promontorium; and the annular ectotympanic is fused ventrally to the bulla. The incisors and canines show an assemblage of features found only among modern anthropoideans and adapoids. The face is characterized by a relatively deep maxilla, broad ascending wing of the premaxilla, and long nasal bones, yielding a moderate muzzle similar to that of Aegyptopithecus. The small braincase bears an anteriorly broad frontal trigon and a posteriorly developed sagittal crest. The mandibular symphysis is unfused even in mature adults. The encephalization quotient (EQ) probably falls within the range of Eocene prosimians, much lower than the EQs of Neogene anthropoideans.

  13. MORPHOMETRIC EVALUATION OF FORAMEN MAGNUM IN DRY HUMAN SKULLS

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    Anil Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The foramen magnum is an important landmark in the posterior part of the cranial base, which is largely formed by the occipital bone. The dimensions of the foramen magnum are clinically important because of the vital structures passing through it. We studied thirty six dry human skulls of known sex and measured antero-posterior and transverse diameters with the help of Vernier caliper. Additionally surface area and Index of foramen magnum were also calculated. Oval shape is the main type of morphological variant found in this study. The transverse diameter of the foramen magnum was in a range of 25.75-34.25mm in males, whereas it was between 26-31.75mm in females. The anteroposterior diameter was in a range of 35 to 39.75mm in males while it was 29.5 to 34.75mm in females. The mean area of foramen magnum in males was 876.88±88.83mm whereas it was 776.87±68.51mm in females. In contrast to the area, the mean foramen magnum index was higher in females (89.01±6.84mm compared to males (81.75±5.99mm and this difference was also statistically significant (p<0.01. The prospective study will help surgeon for reference value for determining feasibility of transcondylar surgical approach, which are being done in an increasing trend in recent times for brain stem lesion.

  14. Development of skull fracture criterion based on real-world head trauma simulations using finite element head model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Debasis; Deck, Caroline; Yoganandan, Narayan; Willinger, Rémy

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance an existing finite element (FE) head model with composite modeling and a new constitutive law for the skull. The response of the state-of-the-art FE head model was validated in the time domain using data from 15 temporo-parietal impact experiments, conducted with postmortem human surrogates. The new model predicted skull fractures observed in these tests. Further, 70 well-documented head trauma cases were reconstructed. The 15 experiments and 70 real-world head trauma cases were combined to derive skull fracture injury risk curves. The skull internal energy was found to be the best candidate to predict skull failure based on an in depth statistical analysis of different mechanical parameters (force, skull internal energy), head kinematic-based parameter, the head injury criterion (HIC), and skull fracture correlate (SFC). The proposed tolerance limit for 50% risk of skull fracture was associated with 453mJ of internal energy. Statistical analyses were extended for individual impact locations (frontal, occipital and temporo-parietal) and separate injury risk curves were obtained. The 50% risk of skull fracture for each location: frontal: 481mJ, occipital: 457mJ, temporo-parietal: 456mJ of skull internal energy.

  15. Repairing skull defects in children with nano-hap/collagen composites:A clinical report of thirteen cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuoyu Chen; Fuzhai Cui; Yuqi Zhang; Huancong Zuo; Yapeng Zhao; Chaoqiang Xue; Bin Luo; Qinglin Zhang; Jin Zhu; Xiumei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical results of repairing skull defects with biomimetic bone (nano-hap/collagen composites, NHACs) in children. Methods:Thirteen children with skull defects were treated with NHACs in our hospital. The NHACs molded with the help of a 3D printer were used in the operations. Results: All 13 operations were successful, and patients recovered without infection. Only one patient suffered from subcutaneous hydrops post-operation. The implanted NHACs remained fixed well after 1 year, and their CT HU values raised gradually. Skull shapes of children developed normally. Recovery of neurological and cognitive function was significant. Conclusions:NHAC, chosen to repair skull defects in children, can coexist with normal skull and reduce the negative effects on growth and development. NHAC could be a good choice for children with skull defects.

  16. Oldest known pantherine skull and evolution of the tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazák, Ji H; Christiansen, Per; Kitchener, Andrew C

    2011-01-01

    The tiger is one of the most iconic extant animals, and its origin and evolution have been intensely debated. Fossils attributable to extant pantherine species-lineages are less than 2 MYA and the earliest tiger fossils are from the Calabrian, Lower Pleistocene. Molecular studies predict a much younger age for the divergence of modern tiger subspecies at tigers would likely have differed markedly anatomically from extant tigers. Such inferences are hampered by the fact that well-known fossil tiger material is middle to late Pleistocene in age. Here we describe a new species of pantherine cat from Longdan, Gansu Province, China, Panthera zdanskyi sp. nov. With an estimated age of 2.55-2.16 MYA it represents the oldest complete skull of a pantherine cat hitherto found. Although smaller, it appears morphologically to be surprisingly similar to modern tigers considering its age. Morphological, morphometric, and cladistic analyses are congruent in confirming its very close affinity to the tiger, and it may be regarded as the most primitive species of the tiger lineage, demonstrating the first unequivocal presence of a modern pantherine species-lineage in the basal stage of the Pleistocene (Gelasian; traditionally considered to be Late Pliocene). This find supports a north-central Chinese origin of the tiger lineage, and demonstrates that various parts of the cranium, mandible, and dentition evolved at different rates. An increase in size and a reduction in the relative size of parts of the dentition appear to have been prominent features of tiger evolution, whereas the distinctive cranial morphology of modern tigers was established very early in their evolutionary history. The evolutionary trend of increasing size in the tiger lineage is likely coupled to the evolution of its primary prey species.

  17. Expression of Cathepsin K in Skull Base Chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kaibing; Ma, Junpeng; Wang, Liang; Wang, Ke; Li, Da; Hao, Shuyu; Yang, Yang; Du, Jiang; Jia, Guijun; Zhang, Liwei; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Junting

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between cathepsin K and the clinical characteristics of skull base chordoma (SBC). This study included 58 paraffin-embedded samples and 85 frozen samples of 94 patients. All clinical data corresponding to these patients were available. Immunohistochemical staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed. Positive rate of immunohistochemical staining slices and delta cycle threshold value of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction represented the cathepsin K expression level in protein and gene level separately. In protein level, expression level (EL) of invasive tumors was increased compared with noninvasive tumors (P = 0.006), EL of tumors with dura erosion was increased compared with tumors without dura erosion (P = 0.001). Tumors with septa exhibited increased EL compared with tumors without septa (P = 0.001). Tumors with lobulation exhibited increased EL compared with tumors without lobulation (P = 0.000). Higher EL of cathepsin K was associated with reduced progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.015). In gene level, tumors with septa showed higher EL than tumors without septa (P = 0.015), and tumors with lobulation showed higher EL than tumors without lobulation (P = 0.049). Cathepsin K EL was an independent risk factor for reduced PFS, and an increased level of cathepsin K in SBC was associated with reduced PFS (P = 0.042). Increased cathepsin K expression in SBC was associated with tumor invasion and reduced PFS. The cathepsin K level in SBC also was associated with tumor stage, tumor lobulation, and septa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oldest known pantherine skull and evolution of the tiger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji H Mazák

    Full Text Available The tiger is one of the most iconic extant animals, and its origin and evolution have been intensely debated. Fossils attributable to extant pantherine species-lineages are less than 2 MYA and the earliest tiger fossils are from the Calabrian, Lower Pleistocene. Molecular studies predict a much younger age for the divergence of modern tiger subspecies at <100 KYA, although their cranial morphology is readily distinguishable, indicating that early Pleistocene tigers would likely have differed markedly anatomically from extant tigers. Such inferences are hampered by the fact that well-known fossil tiger material is middle to late Pleistocene in age. Here we describe a new species of pantherine cat from Longdan, Gansu Province, China, Panthera zdanskyi sp. nov. With an estimated age of 2.55-2.16 MYA it represents the oldest complete skull of a pantherine cat hitherto found. Although smaller, it appears morphologically to be surprisingly similar to modern tigers considering its age. Morphological, morphometric, and cladistic analyses are congruent in confirming its very close affinity to the tiger, and it may be regarded as the most primitive species of the tiger lineage, demonstrating the first unequivocal presence of a modern pantherine species-lineage in the basal stage of the Pleistocene (Gelasian; traditionally considered to be Late Pliocene. This find supports a north-central Chinese origin of the tiger lineage, and demonstrates that various parts of the cranium, mandible, and dentition evolved at different rates. An increase in size and a reduction in the relative size of parts of the dentition appear to have been prominent features of tiger evolution, whereas the distinctive cranial morphology of modern tigers was established very early in their evolutionary history. The evolutionary trend of increasing size in the tiger lineage is likely coupled to the evolution of its primary prey species.

  19. A macaque model for hantavirus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); M.N. Gerding; J.P. Koeman; P.J.M. Roholl (Paul); G. van Amerongen (Geert); H.G.M. Jordans; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with Puumala virus (strain Hallnas), which causes nephropathia epidemica in humans in western Europe. During the first week after intratracheal inoculation, the monkeys exhibited signs of lethargy followed by mild pro

  20. The relationship between skull morphology, masticatory muscle force and cranial skeletal deformation during biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Zapata Muñoz, Víctor; O'Higgins, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The human skull is gracile when compared to many Middle Pleistocene hominins. It has been argued that it is less able to generate and withstand high masticatory forces, and that the morphology of the lower portion of the modern human face correlates most strongly with dietary characteristics. This study uses geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the relationship between skull morphology, muscle force and cranial deformations arising from biting, which is relevant in understanding how skull morphology relates to mastication. The three-dimensional skull anatomies of 20 individuals were reconstructed from medical computed tomograms. Maximal contractile muscle forces were estimated from muscular anatomical cross-sectional areas (CSAs). Fifty-nine landmarks were used to represent skull morphology. A partial least squares analysis was performed to assess the association between skull shape and muscle force, and FEA was used to compare the deformation (strains) generated during incisor and molar bites in two individuals representing extremes of morphological variation in the sample. The results showed that only the proportion of total muscle CSA accounted for by the temporalis appears associated with skull morphology, albeit weekly. However, individuals with a large temporalis tend to possess a relatively wider face, a narrower, more vertically oriented maxilla and a lower positioning of the coronoid process. The FEAs showed that, despite differences in morphology, biting results in similar modes of deformation for both crania, but with localised lower magnitudes of strains arising in the individual with the narrowest, most vertically oriented maxilla. Our results suggest that the morphology of the maxilla modulates the transmission of forces generated during mastication to the rest of the cranium by deforming less in individuals with the ability to generate proportionately larger temporalis muscle forces.

  1. Computer vision and soft computing for automatic skull-face overlay in craniofacial superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campomanes-Álvarez, B Rosario; Ibáñez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Botella, M; Damas, S; Cordón, O

    2014-12-01

    Craniofacial superimposition can provide evidence to support that some human skeletal remains belong or not to a missing person. It involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. Within the craniofacial superimposition process, the skull-face overlay stage just focuses on achieving the best possible overlay of the skull and a single ante mortem image of the suspect. Although craniofacial superimposition has been in use for over a century, skull-face overlay is still applied by means of a trial-and-error approach without an automatic method. Practitioners finish the process once they consider that a good enough overlay has been attained. Hence, skull-face overlay is a very challenging, subjective, error prone, and time consuming part of the whole process. Though the numerical assessment of the method quality has not been achieved yet, computer vision and soft computing arise as powerful tools to automate it, dramatically reducing the time taken by the expert and obtaining an unbiased overlay result. In this manuscript, we justify and analyze the use of these techniques to properly model the skull-face overlay problem. We also present the automatic technical procedure we have developed using these computational methods and show the four overlays obtained in two craniofacial superimposition cases. This automatic procedure can be thus considered as a tool to aid forensic anthropologists to develop the skull-face overlay, automating and avoiding subjectivity of the most tedious task within craniofacial superimposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Breaking symmetry: the marine environment, prey size, and the evolution of asymmetry in cetacean skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C D; Reidenberg, J S; Weller, M; Santos, M B; Herman, J; Goold, J; Pierce, G J

    2007-06-01

    Skulls of odontocetes (toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises) are typified by directional asymmetry, particularly in elements associated with the airway. Generally, it is assumed this asymmetry is related to biosonar production. However, skull asymmetry may actually be a by-product of selection pressure for an asymmetrically positioned larynx. The odontocete larynx traverses the pharynx and is held permanently in place by a ring of muscle. This allows prey swallowing while remaining underwater without risking water entering the lungs and causing injury or death. However, protrusion of the larynx through the pharynx causes a restriction around which prey must pass to reach the stomach. The larynx and associated hyoid apparatus has, therefore, been shifted to the left to provide a larger right piriform sinus (lateral pharyngeal food channel) for swallowing larger prey items. This asymmetry is reflected in the skull, particularly the dorsal openings of the nares. It is hypothesized that there is a relationship between prey size and skull asymmetry. This relationship was examined in 13 species of odontocete cetaceans from the northeast Atlantic, including four narrow-gaped genera (Mesoplodon, Ziphius, Hyperoodon, and Kogia) and eight wide-gaped genera (Phocoena, Delphinus, Stenella, Lagenorhynchus, Tursiops, Grampus, Globicephala, and Orcinus). Skulls were examined from 183 specimens to assess asymmetry of the anterior choanae. Stomach contents were examined from 294 specimens to assess prey size. Results show there is a significant positive relationship between maximum relative prey size consumed and average asymmetry relative to skull size in odontocete species (wide-gape species: R2 = 0.642, P = 0.006; narrow-gape species: R2 = 0.909, P = 0.031). This finding provides support for the hypothesis that the directional asymmetry found in odontocete skulls is related to an aquatic adaptation enabling swallowing large, whole prey while maintaining respiratory

  3. Analysis of Associated Spinal Fractures in Cases of Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage or Skull Fracture

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    Yunoki M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH or skull fracture are typically admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery for fear of delayed neurological deterioration. Neurosurgeons, therefore, must be careful not to overlook a spinal fracture in these patients. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and risk factor of spinal fracture in patients with traumatic ICH or skull fracture. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the hospital records of 134 patients admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery at Kagawa Rosai Hospital for traumatic ICH or skull fracture. The etiology of trauma, level of consciousness, presence or absence of ICH, skull fracture, craniotomy and spinal surgery were investigated. Furthermore, in cases of spinal fracture, its type, neurological symptoms, treatment were investigated. Results: In an analysis of 134 patients, Ground level fall and traffic accident were the most frequent etiologies of trauma (47.0% and 23.9% respectively. Glasgow coma scale on admission was 15-13 for 106 patients (79.1%. Spinal fracture was identified in 10 of 134 patients (7.5%. Two patients had cervical, 8 had thoracolumbar fractures. In the analysis of risk factors, an accidental fall and skull fracture was observed significantly more in the spinal fracture cases. Conclusion: The majority of traumatic ICH or skull fracture cases treated in the Department of Neurosurgery were caused by minor head impacts. When treating these patients, it is necessary to investigate not only the cervical, but also the thoracolumbar spine, especially when the cause of injury is an accidental fall and a skull fracture is identified.

  4. Role of lumbar drains in contemporary endonasal skull base surgery: Meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anza, Brian; Tien, Duc; Stokken, Janalee K; Recinos, Pablo F; Woodard, Troy R; Sindwani, Raj

    2016-11-01

    Historically, lumbar drains (LD) have played a prominent role in endonasal skull base surgery. Over the past few decades, advancements in techniques have augmented our ability to successfully reconstruct complex skull base defects and often obviates the need for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion. Clarity on the appropriate use of LDs is needed. To examine the literature for the need for LDs in contemporary skull base reconstruction after resection of skull base tumors. A systematic literature review of English language articles by using PubMed and Ovid. Search terms included "lumbar drain," "CSF leak," and "endoscopic endonasal reconstruction." Articles were included when they pertained to adults, used current methods for reconstruction (i.e., multilayered repair or vascularized tissue), and addressed CSF leak rates secondary to endoscopic resection of skull base masses. All the studies discussed CSF leaks that resulted from traumatic-, idiopathic-, or sinus surgery-related iatrogenic causes were excluded. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. A total of five articles met inclusion criteria. These comprised 376 endoscopic skull base tumor resection and reconstruction cases; 5.59% developed postoperative CSF leaks. A meta-analysis was conducted by incorporating three studies that met criteria based on testing for heterogeneity. The average odds ratio for postoperative CSF leak for patients who did not have an LD relative to patients who had an LD was 0.590 (95% confidence interval, 0.214-1.630). Given a p value of 0.30, the results demonstrated a lack of statistically significant improvement between patients who had an LD and patients who did not have an LD. Various details, such as the defect size and type of CSF leak, were not consistently reported among studies. Available evidence for the use of LDs in skull base surgery is of poor quality. Analysis of the literature revealed heterogenous and varied

  5. Endoscopic skull base training using 3D printed models with pre-existing pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vairavan; Narayanan, Prepageran; Rajagopalan, Raman; Karuppiah, Ravindran; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Wormald, Peter-John; Van Hasselt, Charles Andrew; Waran, Vicknes

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic base of skull surgery has been growing in acceptance in the recent past due to improvements in visualisation and micro instrumentation as well as the surgical maturing of early endoscopic skull base practitioners. Unfortunately, these demanding procedures have a steep learning curve. A physical simulation that is able to reproduce the complex anatomy of the anterior skull base provides very useful means of learning the necessary skills in a safe and effective environment. This paper aims to assess the ease of learning endoscopic skull base exposure and drilling techniques using an anatomically accurate physical model with a pre-existing pathology (i.e., basilar invagination) created from actual patient data. Five models of a patient with platy-basia and basilar invagination were created from the original MRI and CT imaging data of a patient. The models were used as part of a training workshop for ENT surgeons with varying degrees of experience in endoscopic base of skull surgery, from trainees to experienced consultants. The surgeons were given a list of key steps to achieve in exposing and drilling the skull base using the simulation model. They were then asked to list the level of difficulty of learning these steps using the model. The participants found the models suitable for learning registration, navigation and skull base drilling techniques. All participants also found the deep structures to be accurately represented spatially as confirmed by the navigation system. These models allow structured simulation to be conducted in a workshop environment where surgeons and trainees can practice to perform complex procedures in a controlled fashion under the supervision of experts.

  6. Co-localization of histamine and norepinephrine in sympathetic ganglia and exocytosis of endogenous histamine from cardiac sympathetic nerve endings of macaca mulatto monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-kaiLI; Xiao-xingLUO; Liang-weiCHEN; ZhongCHEN; JiaMENG; JingHU; Yu-meiWU; Jing-ruMENG; ZhengHOU; XueMA

    2005-01-01

    AIM To provide the evidence about localization, biosynthesis, metabolism and release of histamine from the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals, and endogenous sympathetic histamine could inhibit itsel frelease from the nerve terminal through the presynaptic histamine H3 receptor. METHODS Using double-labeled immunohistochemistry to observe the co-localization of histamine and NE in the superior cer-vical ganglia (SCG) of macaca mulatto monkey; Different-speed centrifugation to obtain the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminal model (the cardiac synaptosomes), spectrofluorometer and ELISA techniques to detect the release of histamine from the cardiacsynaptosomes. RESULTS ( 1 ) The coexistence of histamine and norepinephrine immunoreactivities was identified in the same neuron within SCG of macaca mulatto monkey. (2) Depolarization of macaca mulatto monkey cardiac synaptosomes with 50 mmol/L potassium caused the release of endogenous histamine,

  7. Efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R; Kapatkin, Amy R; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Christe, Kari L

    2012-08-01

    Here we describe the successful surgical implementation of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with marked osteomyelitis. The macaque presented to the veterinary clinic with grossly contaminated bite wounds in the left ankle secondary to conspecific trauma. Radiographic findings were highly suggestive of osteomyelitis. Additional differential diagnoses included bony infarct, fracture, and cellulitis. In light of the location of the lesion and extensive tissue trauma, the animal had a poor prognosis. Systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotics were instituted. After 2 wk of care, lesions did not respond to empirical therapies. On consultation, a veterinary orthopedic surgeon at another facility recommended placement of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads at the sites of osteomyelitis. The animal underwent minor surgery in which beads were introduced into the wound. The monkey had a positive response to therapy. The animal regained full function and was returned to outdoor social housing. Veterinarians are encouraged to consider using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads when treating osteomyelitis in other nonhuman primates and in other traditional laboratory animal species.

  8. Troop Takeover and Reproductive Success of Wild Male Japanese Macaques on Yakushima Island (Macaca fuscata yakui

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    Sachiko Hayakawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Troop takeover is common in one-male primate groups, but there are few reports in multimale groups. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata form multimale groups and males commonly join troops at the bottom rank. On Yakushima island, however, where group size is relatively small, entrance into groups at the alpha position is also observed. This paper reports on the general features of troop takeover, on the predictors of takeover events, and on the reproductive success of takeover males. Troop takeovers occurred only in the mating season; nontroop males (NTMs did not cooperate with each other; former alpha males were rarely expelled from the troop; new alpha males did not commit infanticide; new alpha male tenure in the group was usually less than two years. Logistic regression analysis showed that the number of NTMs associating with a troop predicted the occurrence of troop takeover. Paternity discrimination revealed that 33.3% (3/9 of takeover males succeeded in siring offspring. Contrary to this low success rate, binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the takeover males can expect higher reproductive success compared to troop males. Entering a troop and out-competing the alpha male is one of many available strategies to attain reproductive success in male Japanese macaques.

  9. Male mate choice in Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China

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    Min ZHANG, Jinhua LI, Yong ZHU, Xi WANG, Su WANG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Though females are generally more selective in mate choice, males may also benefit from mate choice if male reproductive success is limited by factors other than simply the number of female mates, and if females differ in short-term reproductive potential. We studied male mate choice in a free-ranging troop of Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China, from August 2007 to April 2008. We employed focal animal sampling and all occurrence sampling to record sexual related behaviors. Eight adult females were divided into three female quality categories according to the females’ age, rank and parity. Using male mating effort as a proxy for male mate choice, we found that males do distinguish female quality and show time-variant mating strategies. Specifically, females with dominant rank, high fecundity, and middle age attracted significantly more males. Our results suggest that female short-term reproductive potential appears to be an important variable in determining male mating effort. Male Tibetan macaques do exercise mate choice for higher quality females as well as reduce useless reproductive cost, which is consistent with the direct benefits theory of mate choice [Current Zoology 56 (2: 213–221, 2010].

  10. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta held in captivity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  11. New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Transplantation in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fasicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kristin A; Tonsho, Makoto; Madsen, Joren C

    2015-08-01

    A 5.5-y-old intact male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fasicularis) presented with inappetence and weight loss 57 d after heterotopic heart and thymus transplantation while receiving an immunosuppressant regimen consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone to prevent graft rejection. A serum chemistry panel, a glycated hemoglobin test, and urinalysis performed at presentation revealed elevated blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (727 mg/dL and 10.1%, respectively), glucosuria, and ketonuria. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and insulin therapy was initiated immediately. The macaque was weaned off the immunosuppressive therapy as his clinical condition improved and stabilized. Approximately 74 d after discontinuation of the immunosuppressants, the blood glucose normalized, and the insulin therapy was stopped. The animal's blood glucose and HbA1c values have remained within normal limits since this time. We suspect that our macaque experienced new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation, a condition that is commonly observed in human transplant patients but not well described in NHP. To our knowledge, this report represents the first documented case of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation in a cynomolgus macaque.

  12. Training pair-housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a combination of negative and positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergård, Eva-Marie; Temrin, Hans; Forkman, Björn; Spångberg, Mats; Fredlund, Hélène; Westlund, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    When training animals, time is sometimes a limiting factor hampering the use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) exclusively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of negative and positive reinforcement training (NPRT). Twenty naïve female Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were trained in 30 sessions with either PRT (n=8) or NPRT (n=12) to respond to a signal, move into a selected cage section and accept confinement. In the NPRT-group a signal preceded the presentation of one or several novel, and thus aversive, stimuli. When the correct behaviour was performed, the novel stimulus was removed and treats were given. As the animal learned to perform the correct behaviour, the use of novel stimuli was decreased and finally phased out completely. None of the PRT-trained animals finished the task. Ten out of 12 monkeys in the NPRT-group succeeded to perform the task within the 30 training sessions, a significant difference from the PRT-group (p=0.0007). A modified approach test showed no significant difference between the groups (p=0.67) in how they reacted to the trainer. The results from this study suggest that carefully conducted NPRT can be an alternative training method to consider, especially when under a time constraint.

  13. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca

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    Marta Borgi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species.

  14. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  15. Toxic shock due to Streptococcus pyogenes in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Anapatricia; Paul, Katherine; Beall, Bernard; McClure, Harold

    2006-09-01

    Recent years have seen a worldwide resurgence in serious infections caused by group A streptococci. This group includes Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the most common pathogens among children which causes diverse suppurative infections, such as pharyngitis, as well as nonsuppurative infections with sequelae, such as rheumatoid fever and rheumatic heart disease. S. pyogenes produces several superantigen-like erythrogenic toxins, which are believed to be associated with pyrogenicity, erythromatous skin reactions, and various immunologic and cytotoxic effects. These toxins also can cause myocardial necrosis. In addition, recently reported streptococcal infections in obstetric human patients appear to be clinically different from classic puerperal sepsis. Here, we report a case of spontaneous streptococcal infection in a pregnant female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). In addition to lesions consistent with bacteremia and toxic shock, this animal had severe cardiac lesions resembling those described in humans with rheumatic heart disease. S. pyogenes was isolated from intracardiac blood, liver, placenta, and fetal tissues. This isolate also had a unique M protein gene.

  16. Exploring the components, asymmetry and distribution of relationship quality in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus.

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    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available Social relationships between group members are a key feature of many animal societies. The quality of social relationships has been described by three main components: value, compatibility and security, based on the benefits, tenure and stability of social exchanges. We aimed to analyse whether this three component structure could be used to describe the quality of social relationships in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus. Moreover, we examined whether relationship quality was affected by the sex, age and rank differences between social partners, and investigated the asymmetric nature of social relationships. We collected over 1,900 hours of focal data on seven behavioural variables measuring relationship quality, and used principal component analysis to investigate how these variables clustered together. We found that relationship quality in wild Barbary macaques can be described by a three component structure that represents the value, compatibility and security of a relationship. Female-female dyads had more valuable relationships and same-age dyads more compatible relationships than any other dyad. Rank difference had no effect on the quality of a social relationship. Finally, we found a high degree of asymmetry in how members of a dyad exchange social behaviour. We argue that the asymmetry of social relationships should be taken into account when exploring the pattern and function of social behaviour in animal societies.

  17. Diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in lime-stone habitats of Nonggang, China

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    Qihai ZHOU, Hua WEI, Zhonghao HUANG, Chengming HUANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance our understanding of dietary adaptations in macaques we studied the diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in limestone seasonal rain forests at Nonggang Nature Reserve, China from September 2005 to August 2006. Our results show that although macaques fed on many plant species, 85.2% of the diet came from only 12 species, of which a bamboo species, Indocalamus calcicolus contributed to 62% of the diet. Young leaves were staple food items (74.1% of the diet for Assamese macaques at Nonggang, and constituted the bulk of monthly diets almost year-round, ranging from 44.9% (July to 92.9% (May. Young parts of Indocalamus calcicolus unexpanded leaves contributed to a large proportion of the young leaf diet in most months. Fruit accounted for only 17.4% of the diet, with a peak of consumption in July. We suggest that this highly folivorous diet may be related to the long lean season of fruit availability in limestone habitats as well as the utilization of cliffs of low fruit availability [Current Zoology 57 (1: 18–25, 2011].

  18. Body signals during social play in free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): A systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Akie; Berman, Carol M

    2014-02-01

    Social play involves one of the most sophisticated types of communication, that is, the use of play signals. Most primate research on play signals has focused on the use of the play face. However, some species appear to exhibit a variety of play signals. For example, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have been reported to use body movements or postures that might have signal value during social play, in addition to the play face. However, it is not clear whether these body signals actually meet several criteria necessary to label them as "play signals." Here we examine the forms and possible functions of seven candidate signals that we observed exclusively during social play contexts among free-ranging rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago. We aim to (1) distinguish them from actual play behavior (play involving contact or chasing) using loglinear analysis and (2) determine whether they predict playful behavior using modified PC-MC methods. Two candidate signals did not resemble any behaviors used in actual play. The other five signals contained elements that lasted longer or increased their conspicuousness over similar play behaviors, suggesting ritualized characteristics. Youngsters were likely to initiate contact or chasing play significantly sooner after candidate signals than in their absence. Thus, these candidate signals appear to meet critical criteria of signals that promote, moderate or facilitate play. As such, these findings open the door to questions about why multiple play signals have evolved. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A non-invasive study of alopecia in Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    This article provides information on the phenomenon of alopecia in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, in various environments and proposes a 3-step scoring system for a quantitative assessment of hair loss. Results suggest that alopecia is commonly observed in Japanese macaques, with 20.5% of individuals showing head alopecia and 4.7% showing back alopecia across eight study groups. Alopecia was more commonly observed in adult females (30.8% individuals showing head alopecia and 15.3% showing back alopecia) than in other age-sex classes. Seasonal variation of back alopecia was noted, in particular, individuals with patchy back hair were more frequently observed in winter than in summer. Seasonal variation was not observed in head hair. The distribution of alopecia was also different among study groups. The wild population generally had better hair condition than provisioned populations and captive populations. The present study used a non-invasive alopecia scoring system which can be a useful, rapid and non-invasive tool to monitor animal health and well-being at a population level.

  20. Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K C; Bloomsmith, M A; Neu, K; Griffis, C; Maloney, M

    2010-08-01

    Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was evaluated at two large primate facilities. Training involved body part presentation and basic control behaviours. Baseline data were compared to two treatment phases presented in varying order across individuals, six minutes per week of positive reinforcement training and six minutes per week of unstructured human interaction. While a MANOVA involving behavioural categories and study conditions across study subjects was significant, univariate ANOVAs found no effect of phase within any behavioural category. Categorising subjects according to rearing, housing facility, or baseline levels of abnormal behaviour did not reveal changes in behaviour with positive reinforcement training or human interaction. This study failed to detect, to any degree, the types of behavioural changes documented in the scientific literature to result from pairing singly housed monkeys. Implementing short durations of positive reinforcement training across large numbers of singly housed animals may not be the most effective manner for incorporating positive reinforcement training in the behavioural management of laboratory macaques. Rather, directing efforts toward individuals with specific behavioural, management, clinical, research or therapeutic needs may represent a more fruitful approach to improving psychological well-being with this technique.

  1. Buton macaques (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): crops, conflict, and behavior on farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priston, Nancy E C; Wyper, Rebecca M; Lee, Phyllis C

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of anthropogenic habitat alteration is that many nonhuman primates are forced into conflict interactions with humans and their livelihood activities, especially through crop raiding. These problems are particularly acute for the endemic and threatened Buton Island macaque (Macaca ochreata brunnescens), in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Our study investigated the crop raiding behavior of this species over time. Foods eaten and the behavioral repertoire exhibited by macaques during crop raiding at and inside farm perimeters were observed over a period of 8 years (2002-2009). Storage organ crops (e.g. sweet potato) were abundant and most frequently raided by macaques. Individual macaques were most commonly observed to raid close (0-10 m) to farm perimeters. Activities such as feeding, resting, moving, and social interaction varied significantly as a function of penetration distance into the farm, but only marginally between age-sex classes. The annual average raid frequency per farm decreased over the latter years of the study period, raising questions about changes in macaque foraging and ranging behavior over time and their response to farm management and mitigation strategies.

  2. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation.

  3. Alterations in the upper facial growth of Macaca mulatta resulting from high-pull headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, R J

    1975-04-01

    Four prepubertal Macaca mulatta monkeys, ranging in age from 13 to 24 months, were used in an investigation of the effects of high-pull headgear (to a face-bow) therapy on the growth of the upper facial skeleton. Amalgam bone implants were placed across the frontomaxillary, frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures in each animal. Three of the monkeys wore appliances consisting of a maxillary dental spling, a face-bow, two coil springs, and an acrylic helmet. The fourth monkey (control) wore only a dental splint and a face-bow. A continuous high-pull headgear force of 300 grams per side was applied to the three monkeys for 81, 87 and 89 days, respectively, before death. Procion brilliant red 8-HBS vital stain was administered to all four animals at the start of and 3 days before the end of the treatment period. The facial growth patterns were determined from lateral cephalograms taken before and after treatment, from direct measurement of implant separation at the sutures, and from histologic sections of the four mentioned facial sutures.

  4. Role of vocal tract characteristics in individual discrimination by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I.; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) exhibits a species-specific communication sound called the “coo call” to locate group members and maintain within-group contact. Monkeys have been demonstrated to be capable of discriminating between individuals based only on their voices, but there is still debate regarding how the fundamental frequencies (F0) and filter properties of the vocal tract characteristics (VTC) contribute to individual discrimination in nonhuman primates. This study was performed to investigate the acoustic keys used by Japanese macaques in individual discrimination. Two animals were trained with standard Go/NoGo operant conditioning to distinguish the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. The subjects were required to continue depressing a lever until the stimulus changed from one monkey to the other. The test stimuli were synthesized by combining the F0s and VTC from each individual. Both subjects released the lever when the VTC changed, whereas they did not when the F0 changed. The reaction times to the test stimuli were not significantly different from that to the training stimuli that shared the same VTC. Our data suggest that vocal tract characteristics are important for the identification of individuals by Japanese macaques. PMID:27550840

  5. Thromboelastography values from pigtail macaques ( Macaca nemestrina): effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Derek L; Ha, James C; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2012-01-01

    Thromboelastography is a clinical laboratory test used to assess global hemostasis. With technologic advances and the test's reemergence in human medicine, its utility in veterinary medicine is being explored. Because assays for PT, aPTT, and d-dimers require platelet-poor plasma, whereas thromboelastography is performed on whole blood, thromboelastography provides a more accurate representation of coagulation and allows the identification of hypocoagulable, hypercoagulable, and hyperfibrinolytic states. Conflicting information has been reported about the effects of age and sex on thromboelastog- raphy in humans and animals. Human studies have reported significant effects of age and sex on thromboelastography more often than have animal studies, but few publications are available about thromboelastography in the nonhuman primate and laboratory animal literature. We used a sample of 50 pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) to determine whether age or sex influence thromboelastography values. Of 5 measured and 2 calculated variables produced by thromboelastography, sex had a significant effect only on the lysis-30 parameter, which also showed significant interaction between age and sex; values increased with age in male macaques but decreased with age in female macaques. In addition, we used the data to define reference intervals for thromboelastography parameters in pigtail macaques.

  6. Bilaterally symmetric Fourier approximations of the skull outlines of temnospondyl amphibians and their bearing on shape comparison

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhurjati P Sengupta; Debapriya Sengupta; Parthasarathi Ghosh

    2005-06-01

    Present work illustrates a scheme of quantitative description of the shape of the skull outlines of temnospondyl amphibians using bilaterally symmetric closed Fourier curves. Some special points have been identified on the Fourier fits of the skull outlines, which are the local maxima, or minima of the distances from the centroid of the points at the skull outline. These points denotes break in curvature of the outline and their positions can be compared to differentiate the skull shapes. The ratios of arc-lengths of the posterior and lateral outline of 58 temnospondyl skulls have been plotted to generate a triaguarity series of the skulls. This series grades different families, some of their genera and species as well as some individuals according to their posterior and lateral skull length ratios. This model while comparing different taxa, takes into account the entire arc-length of the outline of the temnospondyl skulls, and does not depend on few geometric or biological points used by earlier workers for comparing skull shapes.

  7. Integration of Brain and Skull in Prenatal Mouse Models of Apert and Crouzon Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Motch Perrine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The brain and skull represent a complex arrangement of integrated anatomical structures composed of various cell and tissue types that maintain structural and functional association throughout development. Morphological integration, a concept developed in vertebrate morphology and evolutionary biology, describes the coordinated variation of functionally and developmentally related traits of organisms. Syndromic craniosynostosis is characterized by distinctive changes in skull morphology and perceptible, though less well studied, changes in brain structure and morphology. Using mouse models for craniosynostosis conditions, our group has precisely defined how unique craniosynostosis causing mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptors affect brain and skull morphology and dysgenesis involving coordinated tissue-specific effects of these mutations. Here we examine integration of brain and skull in two mouse models for craniosynostosis: one carrying the FGFR2c C342Y mutation associated with Pfeiffer and Crouzon syndromes and a mouse model carrying the FGFR2 S252W mutation, one of two mutations responsible for two-thirds of Apert syndrome cases. Using linear distances estimated from three-dimensional coordinates of landmarks acquired from dual modality imaging of skull (high resolution micro-computed tomography and magnetic resonance microscopy of mice at embryonic day 17.5, we confirm variation in brain and skull morphology in Fgfr2cC342Y/+ mice, Fgfr2+/S252W mice, and their unaffected littermates. Mutation-specific variation in neural and cranial tissue notwithstanding, patterns of integration of brain and skull differed only subtly between mice carrying either the FGFR2c C342Y or the FGFR2 S252W mutation and their unaffected littermates. However, statistically significant and substantial differences in morphological integration of brain and skull were revealed between the two mutant mouse models, each maintained on a different strain. Relative

  8. Transfer of children with isolated linear skull fractures: is it worth the cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ian K; Pestereva, Ecaterina; Shaikh, Kashif A; Fulkerson, Daniel H

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Children with skull fractures are often transferred to hospitals with pediatric neurosurgical capabilities. Historical data suggest that a small percentage of patients with an isolated skull fracture will clinically decline. However, recent papers have suggested that the risk of decline in certain patients is low. There are few data regarding the financial costs associated with transporting patients at low risk for requiring specialty care. In this study, the clinical outcomes and financial costs of transferring of a population of children with isolated skull fractures to a Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 9-year period were analyzed. METHODS A retrospective review of all children treated for head injury at Riley Hospital for Children (Indianapolis, Indiana) between 2005 and 2013 was performed. Patients with a skull fracture were identified based on ICD-9 codes. Patients with intracranial hematoma, brain parenchymal injury, or multisystem trauma were excluded. Children transferred to Riley Hospital from an outside facility were identified. The clinical and radiographic outcomes were recorded. A cost analysis was performed on patients who were transferred with an isolated, linear, nondisplaced skull fracture. RESULTS Between 2005 and 2013, a total of 619 pediatric patients with isolated skull fractures were transferred. Of these, 438 (70.8%) patients had a linear, nondisplaced skull fracture. Of these 438 patients, 399 (91.1%) were transferred by ambulance and 39 (8.9%) by helicopter. Based on the current ambulance and helicopter fees, a total of $1,834,727 (an average of $4188.90 per patient) was spent on transfer fees alone. No patient required neurosurgical intervention. All patients recovered with symptomatic treatment; no patient suffered late decline or epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS This study found that nearly $2 million was spent solely on transfer fees for 438 pediatric patients with isolated linear skull fractures over a 9-year period. All patients

  9. Teamwork in skull base surgery: An avenue for improvement in patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Carrau, Ricardo L; Kelly, Daniel F; Prevedello, Daniel M; Kassam, Amin B

    2013-01-01

    During the past several decades, numerous centers have acquired significant expertise in the treatment of skull base pathologies. Favorable outcomes are not only due to meticulous surgical planning and execution, but they are also related to the collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines. We review the impact of teamwork on patient care, elaborate on the key processes for successful teamwork, and discuss its challenges. Pubmed and Medline databases were searched for publications from 1970 to 2012 using the following keywords: "teamwork", "multidisciplinary", "interdisciplinary", "surgery", "skull base", "neurosurgery", "tumor", and "outcome". Current literature testifies to the complexity of establishing and maintaining teamwork. To date, few reports on the impact of teamwork in the management of skull base pathologies have been published. This lack of literature is somewhat surprising given that most patients with skull base pathology receive care from multiple specialists. Common factors for success include a cohesive and well-integrated team structure with well-defined procedural organization. Although a multidisciplinary work force has clear advantages for improving today's quality of care and propelling research efforts for tomorrow's cure, teamwork is not intuitive and requires training, guidance, and executive support. Teamwork is recommended to improve quality over the full cycle of care and consequently patient outcomes. Increased recognition of the value of an integrated team approach for skull base pathologies will hopefully encourage centers, physicians, allied health caregivers, and scientists devoted to treating these patients and advancing the field of knowledge to invest the time, effort, and resources to optimize and organize their collective expertise.

  10. A skull-based multiple dipole phantom for EEG and MEG studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, M.E.; Leahy, R.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mosher, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A versatile phantom for use in evaluating forward and inverse methods for MEG and EEG has been designed and is currently being constructed. The phantom consists of three major components: (i) a 32-element cur- rent dipole array, (ii) a PC-controlled dipole driver with 32 isolated channels allowing independent control of each dipole, (iii) spherical and human-skull mounts in which the dipole array is placed. Materials were selected throughout the phantom to produce minimal field distortions and artifacts to enable acquisition of high quality EEG and MEG data. The dipoles are made from a rigid narrow (0.84 mm) stainless steel coax cable. The dipole drivers can be configured as either current or voltage sources, are independently programmable and fully isolated, and are capable of producing arbitrary bipolar waveforms up to a 200 Hz bandwidth. The spherical mount is a single shell sphere filled with conductive gelatin. The human skull mount has three shells: ``brain`` (conducting gelatin), ``skull`` (the skull is impregnated with a low conductivity conducting gelatin), and ``scalp`` (a thin layer of rubber latex mixed with NaCl to achieve a conductivity matched to the brain). The conductivities will be adjusted to achieve approximately an 80:1:80 ratio. Data collected to date from the spherical phantom shows excellent agreement between measured surface potentials and that predicted from theory (27 of the 32 dipoles give better than 99.9% rms fit) and negligible leakage between dipoles. We are currently completing construction of the skull mount.

  11. Ultrasonic imaging of foreign inclusions and blood vessels through thick skull bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapoori, Kiyanoosh; Sadler, Jeffrey; Ahmed, Zaki; Wydra, Adrian; Maeva, Elena; Malyarenko, Eugene; Maev, Roman

    2015-03-01

    We report a new progress in the development of a portable ultrasonic transcranial imaging system, which is expected to significantly improve the clinical utility of transcranial diagnostic ultrasound. When conventional ultrasonic phased array and Doppler techniques are applied through thick skull bones, the ultrasound field is attenuated, deflected, and defocused, leading to image distortion. To address these deficiencies, the ultrasonic transcranial imaging system implements two alternative ultrasonic methods. The first method improves detection of small foreign objects, such as bone fragments, pieces of shrapnel, or bullets, lodged in the brain tissue. Using adaptive beamforming, the method compensates for phase aberration induced by the skull and refocuses the distorted ultrasonic field at the desired location. The second method visualizes the blood flow through intact human skull using ultrasonic speckle reflections from the blood cells, platelets, or contrast agents. By analyzing these random temporal changes, it is possible to obtain 2D or 3D blood flow images, despite the adverse influence of the skull. Both methods were implemented on an advanced open platform phased array controller driving linear and matrix array probes. They were tested on realistic skull bone and head phantoms with foreign inclusions and blood vessel models.

  12. A comparative study of digital and anatomical techniques in skull base measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H A; Yang, Y; Wang, H W; Meng, Q L; Ren, X H; Liu, Y G

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of measurements of the skull base made using computed tomography (CT) images and an image-guided surgery system with those made using scientific callipers in order to evaluate the practicability of replacing conventional direct anatomical measurements with digitized techniques in skull base surgery. Important bony landmarks and parameters were measured using the three different methods in 25 cadaver skull bases. No statistically significant differences were observed between the methods. Coefficient of variation calculations indicated that data obtained from CT images was the most stable. Digital methods of navigation have the potential to reflect individual skull base anatomical features more accurately than traditional group-based data, but it is important to assess their accuracy. This study demonstrated that CT imageology and image-guided surgery systems can provide accurate anatomical measurements. Digital methods are also more flexible and less variable, and may have wide applications in this field. Though not perfect, digital imaging is a promising tool for skull base surgery.

  13. Infiltrative mass of the skull base and nasopharynx: A diagnostic conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish M. George

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory skull base masses are enigmatic and often behaviourally unpredictable. We present a case of idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (IHP forming a central skull base mass to illustrate the process required when one investigates such skull base lesions. This is the first description of mass forming or tumefactive IHP extending into the nasopharynx. A 32-year old woman presented with frontal headaches and nasal discharge. She then deteriorated and was admitted with worsening headaches, serosanguinous nasal discharge and bilateral ophthalmoplegia. Multimodality imaging confirmed a destructive central skull base soft tissue mass involving the posterior clivus, floor of sphenoid sinus, nasopharynx and extending into both cavernous sinuses. Unfortunately, the patient continued to deteriorate despite treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Cerebrospinal fluid, blood tests and transnasal biopsies for histology and microbiology did not reveal a diagnosis. Further neuroimaging revealed extension of the mass. Early corticosteroid treatment demonstrated radical improvement although an initial reducing regime resulted in significant rebound deterioration. She was stable on discharge with slowly reducing low dose oral prednisolone and azathioprine. We discuss the complexity of this case paying special attention to the process followed in order to arrive at a diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis based on both the clinical progression and the detailed analysis of serial skull base imaging. Knowledge of the potential underlying aetiologies, characteristic radiological features, common pathogens and the impact on blood serology can narrow the potential differentials and may avoid the morbidity associated with extensive resective procedures.

  14. Anatomy and surgery of the endoscopic endonasal approach to the skull base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Domenico; Villa, Alessandro; De Angelis, Michelangelo; Esposito, Felice; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The midline skull base is an anatomical area, which extends from the anterior limit of the anterior cranial fossa down to the anterior border of the foramen magnum. For many lesions of this area, a variety of skull base approaches including anterior, antero-lateral, and postero-lateral routes, have been proposed over the last decades, either alone or in combination, often requiring extensive neurovascular manipulation. Recently the endoscopic endonasal approach to the skull base has been introduced to access the midline skull base. The major potential advantage of the endoscopic endonasal technique is to provide a direct anatomical route to the lesion since it does not traverse any major neurovascular structures, thereby obviating brain retraction. The potential disadvantages include the relatively restricted exposure and the higher risk of CSF leak. In the present study we report the endoscopic endonasal anatomy of different areas of the midline skull base from the olfactory groove to the cranio-vertebral junction and accordingly describe the main features of the surgical approaches to each of these regions.

  15. Are Diet Preferences Associated to Skulls Shape Diversification in Xenodontine Snakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Klaczko

    Full Text Available Snakes are a highly successful group of vertebrates, within great diversity in habitat, diet, and morphology. The unique adaptations for the snake skull for ingesting large prey in more primitive macrostomatan snakes have been well documented. However, subsequent diversification in snake cranial shape in relation to dietary specializations has rarely been studied (e.g. piscivory in natricine snakes. Here we examine a large clade of snakes with a broad spectrum of diet preferences to test if diet preferences are correlated to shape variation in snake skulls. Specifically, we studied the Xenodontinae snakes, a speciose clade of South American snakes, which show a broad range of diets including invertebrates, amphibians, snakes, lizards, and small mammals. We characterized the skull morphology of 19 species of xenodontine snakes using geometric morphometric techniques, and used phylogenetic comparative methods to test the association between diet and skull morphology. Using phylogenetic partial least squares analysis (PPLS we show that skull morphology is highly associated with diet preferences in xenodontine snakes.

  16. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Rr; Yogesh, As; Pandit, Sv; Joshi, M; Trivedi, Gn

    2010-01-01

    Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%). The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  17. Morphological variations of a jugular foramen in North Indian human adult skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchira Sethi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the size and bridging patterns of jugular foramina of adult human skulls. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 56 adult North - Indian skulls procured from Department of Anatomy of Santosh Medical College, Ghaziabad. The jugular foramina were observed by naked eye and with magnifying lens to assess the variations in size and bridging patterns. Results: The jugular foramen was larger on the right side in 53.5% skulls and on the left side in 7.1% skulls. In the remaining skulls (39.4% it was equal on both sides. Complete tripartite division was observed in 10.7% cases. Incomplete division was seen in 7.1% cases on right side and 3.5% cases on the left side. Incomplete division was never observed bilaterally. An additional accessory foramen was observed to be communicating with posterior condylar canal. Conclusion: The variations observed in present study are of immense value to ENT surgeons while performing middle ear surgeries for various jugular foramen tumors. Also, the bridging patterns cause compression to structures passing through this foramen hence accentuating the clinical presentations of Glomus jugulare.

  18. Postnatal development of the skull of Dinilysia patagonica (Squamata-stem Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanferla, Agustín; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S

    2014-03-01

    The snake skull represents a profound transformation of the ancestral squamate cranium in which dermal skull roof bones were integrated with the braincase, in a manner convergent with that which occurred during the origin of mammals. However, the ontogeny of snake characters at the origin of the clade has until now been inaccessible. Here we describe a postnatal ontogenetic series of the Late Cretaceous stem snake Dinilysia patagonica and compare it to that of extant lizards and snakes. Comparative analysis indicates notable ontogenetic changes, including advanced state of ossification, isometric growth of the otic capsule, fusion of the stylohyal to the quadrate, and great posterior elongation of the supratemporal. Of these transformations, the unfused condition of braincase bones and the retention of a large otic capsule in adults are examples of paedomorphic and peramorphic processes, respectively. Some ontogenetic transformations detected, in particular those present in middle ear, skull roof and suspensorium, are strikingly similar to those present in extant snakes. Nevertheless, Dinilysia retains a lizard-like paroccipital process without an epiphyseal extremity, and a calcified epiphysis that caps the sphenoccipital tubercle. Finally, the integration of the dermal skull roof with the braincase is similar to that seen in mammals with regard to the overall closure of the braincase, but the two evolutionary and developmental modules appear less integrated in snakes in that the parietal bone of the dermal skull roof progressively overlaps the supraoccipital of the chondrocranial braincase.

  19. Development of a skull phantom for the assessment of implant X-ray visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the development and test of a skull phantom, which can be used for the assessment of the radiographic visibility of neurovascular implants. State of the art methods are based on specimens of the human skull. These are highly individual and not suitable for comparison of different radiographic data sets. The development process of the skull phantom is described from data generation to image processing, design and manufacturing using 3D printing. An experimental setup is recommended to generate reproducible data sets for implant visibility assessment with bone mimicking structures of the phantom. The model is evaluated by qualitative comparison with equivalent data sets of the original human skull model. The results show, that contrast characteristics of the phantom and the human skull model are similar. X-ray attenuation of the human bone is higher than the polymeric phantom material. The introduced phantom allows the determination of X-ray attenuation characteristics of different neurovascular implants for medical approval and testing processes.

  20. Are Diet Preferences Associated to Skulls Shape Diversification in Xenodontine Snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaczko, Julia; Sherratt, Emma; Setz, Eleonore Z F

    2016-01-01

    Snakes are a highly successful group of vertebrates, within great diversity in habitat, diet, and morphology. The unique adaptations for the snake skull for ingesting large prey in more primitive macrostomatan snakes have been well documented. However, subsequent diversification in snake cranial shape in relation to dietary specializations has rarely been studied (e.g. piscivory in natricine snakes). Here we examine a large clade of snakes with a broad spectrum of diet preferences to test if diet preferences are correlated to shape variation in snake skulls. Specifically, we studied the Xenodontinae snakes, a speciose clade of South American snakes, which show a broad range of diets including invertebrates, amphibians, snakes, lizards, and small mammals. We characterized the skull morphology of 19 species of xenodontine snakes using geometric morphometric techniques, and used phylogenetic comparative methods to test the association between diet and skull morphology. Using phylogenetic partial least squares analysis (PPLS) we show that skull morphology is highly associated with diet preferences in xenodontine snakes.

  1. Skull infarction and epidural hematomas in a patient with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resar, L M; Oliva, M M; Casella, J F

    1996-11-01

    Epidural hematomas are unusual manifestations of sickling disorders. We report a patient with sickle cell anemia and multiple skull infarctions associated with epidural hematomas. The association of skull infarctions and epidural hematomas in sickling hemoglobinopathies is reviewed. A 14-year-old boy with hemoglobin SS presented with lower back pain, left hip pain, headache, and fever. A bone scan was used to evaluate the patient for possible osteomyelitis. Head computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were employed to delineate intracranial pathology. The bone scan showed multiple areas of decreased uptake in the skull consistent with acute infarction before abnormalities were present on physical examination. CT scan showed a bony contour deformity of the right frontal bone, suggestive of infarction. A right frontal extra-axial collection of blood was also observed below the bony abnormality. MRI further delineated bilateral frontal and left parietal collections adjacent to the bony abnormalities consistent with subacute epidural hematomas. This case emphasizes the need to recognize skull infarctions and epidural hematomas as rare but potential complications of sickle cell disease. The diagnosis was facilitated by MRI, which has not been used in previous cases of skull infarctions. Moreover, our patient was successfully managed without surgical intervention.

  2. The remarkable convergence of skull shape in crocodilians and toothed whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Matthew R; Evans, Alistair R; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Adams, Justin W; Clausen, Philip D; McHenry, Colin R

    2017-03-15

    The striking resemblance of long-snouted aquatic mammals and reptiles has long been considered an example of morphological convergence, yet the true cause of this similarity remains untested. We addressed this deficit through three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the full diversity of crocodilian and toothed whale (Odontoceti) skull shapes. Our focus on biomechanically important aspects of shape allowed us to overcome difficulties involved in comparing mammals and reptiles, which have fundamental differences in the number and position of skull bones. We examined whether diet, habitat and prey size correlated with skull shape using phylogenetically informed statistical procedures. Crocodilians and toothed whales have a similar range of skull shapes, varying from extremely short and broad to extremely elongate. This spectrum of shapes represented more of the total variation in our dataset than between phylogenetic groups. The most elongate species (river dolphins and gharials) are extremely convergent in skull shape, clustering outside of the range of the other taxa. Our results suggest the remarkable convergence between long-snouted river dolphins and gharials is driven by diet rather than physical factors intrinsic to riverine environments. Despite diverging approximately 288 million years ago, crocodilians and odontocetes have evolved a remarkably similar morphological solution to feeding on similar prey. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Comparative evaluation of cone-beam CT equipment with micro-CT in the visualization of root canal system

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    Bence Tamas Szabo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare three different cone-beam CT (CBCT instruments used in dental clinical practice with micro-CT as gold standard. Three female monkeys’ (Macaca fascicularis skulls were selected and scanned by the tested CBCT-s. The most apical visible root canal level on the CBCT images was used as reference level (RL. After the image acquisition by CBCT-s dental jaw sections were scanned by micro-CT at a resolution of 17 μm. Out of the left second and third molars 25 root canals were selected and analysed by three observers at RL and following cross sectional parameters were determined: area of the lumen, major and minor diameters, aspect ratio and mean thickness. Results suggest that only high resolution CBCT instruments allow dentists detecting the full length of the root canal.

  4. The skull structure of six species of Mesoamerican plethodontid salamanders (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmcke, Jens; Clemen, Günter

    2003-06-01

    The skulls of six species of plethodontid salamanders of the genus Bolitoglossa from Costa Rica and Panama, Bolitoglossa colonnea, B. dofleini, B. lignicolor, B. marmorea, B. schizodactyla and B. striatula are comparatively analysed. All species are terrestrial or slightly arboreal and show no life-mode-dependent skull characteristics. Heads cleared by transparent preparation and stained in toto were used for examination of the skull structure and paraffin sections of the gonads were prepared to confirm sexual maturity of each individual. Focussing on the size of the premaxillary pars dentalis, the degree of fusion of the processus dorsales praemaxillares and the presence or absence of the paired prefrontals we state that B. dofleini and B. striatula possess more ancestral characteristics, B. marmorea is situated in an intermediate position and B. colonnea, B. lignicolor and B. schizodactyla show more advanced characteristics.

  5. Prediction and near-field observation of skull-guided acoustic waves

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    Estrada, Héctor; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound waves propagating in water or soft biological tissue are strongly reflected when encountering the skull, which limits the use of ultrasound-based techniques in transcranial imaging and therapeutic applications. Current knowledge on the acoustic properties of the cranial bone is restricted to far-field observations, leaving its near-field properties unexplored. We report on the existence of skull-guided acoustic waves, which was herein confirmed by near-field measurements of optoacoustically-induced responses in ex-vivo murine skulls immersed in water. Dispersion of the guided waves was found to reasonably agree with the prediction of a multilayered flat plate model. It is generally anticipated that our findings may facilitate and broaden the application of ultrasound-mediated techniques in brain diagnostics and therapy.

  6. Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring for Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Skull Base: A Technical Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harminder; Vogel, Richard W; Lober, Robert M; Doan, Adam T; Matsumoto, Craig I; Kenning, Tyler J; Evans, James J

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during endoscopic, endonasal approaches to the skull base is both feasible and safe. Numerous reports have recently emerged from the literature evaluating the efficacy of different neuromonitoring tests during endonasal procedures, making them relatively well-studied. The authors report on a comprehensive, multimodality approach to monitoring the functional integrity of at risk nervous system structures, including the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, and the thalamocortical somatosensory system during endonasal surgery of the skull base. The modalities employed include electroencephalography, somatosensory evoked potentials, free-running and electrically triggered electromyography, transcranial electric motor evoked potentials, and auditory evoked potentials. Methodological considerations as well as benefits and limitations are discussed. The authors argue that, while individual modalities have their limitations, multimodality neuromonitoring provides a real-time, comprehensive assessment of nervous system function and allows for safer, more aggressive management of skull base tumors via the endonasal route.

  7. The caroticoclinoid foramen formation in the human skull and its clinical correlations

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    Freire AR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous structures of the skull are well defined in literature. But there are some inconstant structures, which when present may be located in the sphenoid bone by the junction of the anterior and middle clinoid processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of caroticoclinoid foramen in Brazilian human skull. This case report shows a female dry human skull with 2 caroticoclinoid foramina. The largest diameter of this structure was found 5.5 mm on the right side and 5.4 mm on the left. Although being an uncommon foramen, the knowledge is important because it is located in the sphenoid bone, an important region for neurosurgery.

  8. Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring for Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Skull Base: A Technical Guide

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    Harminder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during endoscopic, endonasal approaches to the skull base is both feasible and safe. Numerous reports have recently emerged from the literature evaluating the efficacy of different neuromonitoring tests during endonasal procedures, making them relatively well-studied. The authors report on a comprehensive, multimodality approach to monitoring the functional integrity of at risk nervous system structures, including the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, and the thalamocortical somatosensory system during endonasal surgery of the skull base. The modalities employed include electroencephalography, somatosensory evoked potentials, free-running and electrically triggered electromyography, transcranial electric motor evoked potentials, and auditory evoked potentials. Methodological considerations as well as benefits and limitations are discussed. The authors argue that, while individual modalities have their limitations, multimodality neuromonitoring provides a real-time, comprehensive assessment of nervous system function and allows for safer, more aggressive management of skull base tumors via the endonasal route.

  9. Solitary Osteochondroma of the Skull Base: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Hiroki; Oya, Soichi; Abe, Atsushi; Matsui, Toru

    2015-07-01

    We report a case of an osteochondroma in the posterior clinoid process that occurred in a 43-year-old man with trochlear nerve palsy. Although the potential preoperative diagnoses based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging included other intracranial tumors such as calcified meningioma, thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography effectively differentiated osteochondroma from those possibilities. Via an orbitozygomatic approach, a subtotal resection was achieved with a good relief of symptoms. Twenty-two cases of solitary osteochondromas in the skull base have been reported that have demonstrated little risk of recurrence or malignant transformation. However, surgery for skull base osteochondromas does carry a significant risk with a reported mortality > 10%. Although some previous reports advocate complete resection as the only curative method for skull base osteochondromas, the risks of total resection should be weighed against the chance for recurrence; our review of the literature demonstrated a relatively high mortality and an extremely low incidence of recurrence.

  10. The role of the basal cisterns in the development of posterior fossa skull base meningiomas

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    Florian Ioan Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas account for more than 30% of all intracranial brain tumors, with 25% of them originating somewhere along the skull base and about 20% of these located in the posterior fossa. The intimate relation of these tumors with neural and vascular structures make them difficult to treat, both surgically and nonsurgically. Their treatment is further hampered by the lack of definitive recommendations, which is partially due to the fact that there is no general accepted model of classification. The present report proposes a new concept of classification of posterior fossa skull base meningiomas, one that takes into account the intimate relation of these tumors with arachnoid structures, simplifies the overcrowded landscape of their systematization and can be extended to oher skull base locations.

  11. Paget's disease of the skull causing hyperprolactinemia and erectile dysfunction: a case report

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    Hepherd Rachel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperprolactinemia is an uncommon cause of erectile dysfunction in men. Paget's disease of the skull is a relatively common disease. This case proposes a rare example of a causative link between the two and how treatment of the Paget's disease with bisphosphonates helped the patient regain erectile function. Case presentation A 67-year-old man with Paget's disease of the skull presented with prostatitis, erectile dysfunction, and hyperprolactinemia. Radio-isotope scanning showed increased vascularity around the sphenoid bone. Treatment with intravenous bisphosphonates improved the active Paget's disease as indicated by declining alkaline phosphatase levels and the patient's erectile function while serum prolactin levels became normal and serum testosterone levels remained unchanged. Conclusion It is possible that hyperprolactinemia is unrecognised in other patients with Paget's disease of the skull. Normalizing elevated prolactin levels by using bisphosphonates in treating Paget's disease appears to be more appropriate than traditional treatment for hyperprolactinemia.

  12. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SKULL OF AUROCHS (BOS PRIMIGENIUS BOJANUS 1827 FROM THE TUCHOLA FOREST

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    WITOLD Brudnicki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aurochs skull was found in Tuchola Forest (the Kujawy and Pomorze Province in the vicinity of Tuchola. The skull analyzed has come from adult male aurochs, and it is almost complete, only deprived of small fragments of a single incisive bone and the jaw. The osteometric analysis following the method by Duerst [5] was performed. The observations made and measurements taken make it possible to develop our knowledge with further information concerning that extinct species as well as provide information on the occurrence and distribution of aurochs. The measurements made will also facilitate the confrontation of craniometric parameters in aurochs from the Tuchola Forest with the skulls originated from other parts of the country.

  13. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

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    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  14. An Account of the Inaugural Tessier Skull Exhibition at the University of Paris Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusseldorp, Joseph Richard; Firmin, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Paul Tessier is widely regarded as the father of modern craniofacial surgery. Upon his passing in 2008, his private collection of human skulls was purchased by the French Association of Facial Surgeons to ensure the collection would remain in France. The first public exhibition of the skulls was held in the medical museum of the University of Paris Descartes in April 2014. From this collection of skulls and the imagination of Tessier an entirely new specialty was created. Modern craniofacial surgery, now is an integral part of any pediatric plastic surgery department. Cranial and facial osteotomies have also become commonplace in both traumatic and aesthetic surgery. The goals for craniofacial deformity are now a return to completely normal appearance and function, as Tessier always believed they should be.

  15. Proportion and cluster analyses of the skull in various species of the tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hideki; Hikida, Tsutomu; Chou, Loke Ming; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Stafford, Brian J

    2004-01-01

    The skull adaptation was functional-morphologically examined in 14 species of the tree shrews. From the data of the proportion indices, the similarities were confirmed between T. minor and T. gracilis, T. tana and T. dorsalis, and T. longipes and T. glis. We demonstrated that the splanchnocranium was elongated in terrestrial T. tana and T. dorsalis and shortened in arboreal T. minor and T. gracilis from the proportion data. In both dendrogram from the matrix of the Q-mode correlation coefficients and scattergram from the canonical discriminant analysis, the morphological similarities in the skull shape suggested the terrestrial-insectivorous adaptation of T. tana and T. dorsalis, and the arboreal adaptation of T. minor and T. gracilis. Since the osteometrical skull similarities were indicated among the three species of Tupaia by cluster and canonical discriminant analyses, the arbo-terrestrial behavior and its functional-morphological adaptation may be commonly established in T. montana, T. longipes and T. glis.

  16. Temporalis muscle hypertrophy and reduced skull eccentricity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straathof, C S M; Doorenweerd, N; Wokke, B H A; Dumas, E M; van den Bergen, J C; van Buchem, M A; Hendriksen, J G M; Verschuuren, J J G M; Kan, H E

    2014-10-01

    Muscle hypertrophy and muscle weakness are well known in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Decreased muscle force can have secondary effects on skeletal growth and development such as facial and dental morphology changes. In this study, we quantified temporal muscle thickness, circumference, and eccentricity of the skull and the head on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the head of 15 Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and 15 controls. Average temporal muscle thickness was significantly increased in patients (12.9 ± 5.2 mm) compared to controls (6.8 ± 1.4 mm) (P muscle thickness and skull eccentricity were significantly negatively correlated in patients, and positively in controls. Hypertrophy of the temporal muscles and changes in skull eccentricity appear to occur early in the course of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Further studies in younger patients are needed to confirm a causal relationship. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery using a skull reference array and laser surface scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, J P; Howard, B M; Huang, C; Boockvar, J A

    2008-08-01

    Lesions of the skull base are increasingly being resected via the endoscopic, endonasal, transphenoidal approach. We have successfully treated 33 consecutive patients with pituitary lesions using this technique in combination with BrainLAB skull reference array and laser surface scanning for surgical navigation. This technique affords several advantages over neuronavigation based on adhesive-mounted fiducial registration. Rigid fixation in a Mayfield clamp is not required, which allows for flexibility with respect to positioning of the head during the procedure. This is particularly important as extension and flexion of the head provide greater exposure to the clivus and anterior skull base respectively. Also, this technique obviates the need for additional preoperative MRI, thereby reducing cost and delays.

  18. An exceptional fossil skull from South America and the origins of the archosauriform radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Felipe L.; França, Marco A. G.; Lacerda, Marcel B.; Butler, Richard J.; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2016-03-01

    Birds, dinosaurs, crocodilians, pterosaurs and their close relatives form the highly diverse clade Archosauriformes. Archosauriforms have a deep evolutionary history, originating in the late Permian, prior to the end-Permian mass extinction, and radiating in the Triassic to dominate Mesozoic ecosystems. However, the origins of this clade and its extraordinarily successful body plan remain obscure. Here, we describe an exceptionally preserved fossil skull from the Lower Triassic of Brazil, representing a new species, Teyujagua paradoxa, transitional in morphology between archosauriforms and more primitive reptiles. This skull reveals for the first time the mosaic assembly of key features of the archosauriform skull, including the antorbital and mandibular fenestrae, serrated teeth, and closed lower temporal bar. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Teyujagua as the sister taxon to Archosauriformes, and is congruent with a two-phase model of early archosauriform evolution, in response to two mass extinctions occurring at the end of the Guadalupian and the Permian.

  19. Relationship between skull asymmetry and CT findings. Supine head position preference and brain damage

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    Yamori, Yuriko; Yuge, Mariko; Kanda, Toyoko; Ashida, Hiromi; Fukase, Hiroshi

    1987-07-01

    In order to clarify the relationship between brain damage and skull asymmetry or supine head position preference, we classified CT findings of 330 cases with cerebral palsy or risk of motor disturbance into 6 groups according to skull shape. Those were severe (I, n = 37) and mild (II, n = 114) grades in the right occipital flatness, severe (III, n = 34) and mild (IV, n = 58) grades in the left occipital flatness, long skull with temporal flatness (V, n = 33) and symmetric round skull (control, n = 54). It was considered that the asymmetry of cortical atrophy in appearance was formed physicaly by skull asymmetry but that the asymmetric dilatation in appearance of lateral ventricle was related to the asymmetry of brain damage. The severity and the asymmetry of brain damage were tend to increase the grade of skull asymmetry. The incidence of cases with the right occipital flatness was 1.6 times more frequently than the left sided. The incidence of cases whose left (lateral) ventricle was larger than the right was 4.1 times more than the cases whose right ventricle was larger than the left. The cases with occipital flatness in the contralateral side of the larger lateral ventricle were found more than the cases with occipital flatness in the ipsilateral side of the larger ventricle, that is to say, the direction of supine head position preference during early infant was suspected to be the more severely disturbed side of body. These results suggest that the supine head position preference to the right in newborn babies and infants with scoliosis or cerebral palsy might be the result of transient or permanent asymmetric (left > right) brain dysfunction.

  20. Minimum-norm cortical source estimation in layered head models is robust against skull conductivity error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroos, Matti; Hauk, Olaf

    2013-11-01

    The conductivity profile of the head has a major effect on EEG signals, but unfortunately the conductivity for the most important compartment, skull, is only poorly known. In dipole modeling studies, errors in modeled skull conductivity have been considered to have a detrimental effect on EEG source estimation. However, as dipole models are very restrictive, those results cannot be generalized to other source estimation methods. In this work, we studied the sensitivity of EEG and combined MEG+EEG source estimation to errors in skull conductivity using a distributed source model and minimum-norm (MN) estimation. We used a MEG/EEG modeling set-up that reflected state-of-the-art practices of experimental research. Cortical surfaces were segmented and realistically-shaped three-layer anatomical head models were constructed, and forward models were built with Galerkin boundary element method while varying the skull conductivity. Lead-field topographies and MN spatial filter vectors were compared across conductivities, and the localization and spatial spread of the MN estimators were assessed using intuitive resolution metrics. The results showed that the MN estimator is robust against errors in skull conductivity: the conductivity had a moderate effect on amplitudes of lead fields and spatial filter vectors, but the effect on corresponding morphologies was small. The localization performance of the EEG or combined MEG+EEG MN estimator was only minimally affected by the conductivity error, while the spread of the estimate varied slightly. Thus, the uncertainty with respect to skull conductivity should not prevent researchers from applying minimum norm estimation to EEG or combined MEG+EEG data. Comparing our results to those obtained earlier with dipole models shows that general judgment on the performance of an imaging modality should not be based on analysis with one source estimation method only.

  1. A-mode ultrasound-based registration in computer-aided surgery of the skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstutz, Christoph; Caversaccio, Marco; Kowal, Jens; Bächler, Richard; Nolte, Lutz-Peter; Häusler, Rudolf; Styner, Martin

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the integration and accuracy of A (amplitude)-mode ultrasound-based surface matching for noninvasive registration of the head into a frameless computer-aided surgery system for otorhinology and skull base surgery. Experimental study and case series. Academic medical center. Twelve patients underwent anterior and paranasal skull base surgery with the routine use of a computer-aided surgery system. A computer-aided surgery system, based on an optoelectronic localizer, was used to track the skull and the surgical tools, including the A-mode ultrasound probe. The A-mode probe was a 10-MHz immersion transducer. An acoustic lens attached to the transducer focused the ultrasonic beam to a depth of 1 to 10 mm. Accuracy tests were performed for the ultrasound setup. Different surface point distributions were evaluated with respect to matching accuracy on a human cadaver skull specimen equipped with fiducial markers. The matching comparison was based on the fiducial registration error. For the clinical evaluation, the laboratory setup was transferred to the operating room. Noninvasive registration of the skull by using A-mode ultrasound in computer-aided surgery (practical and clinical measurements). The accuracy tests on the human skull specimen revealed that the mean +/- SD fiducial registration error was 1.00 +/- 0.19 mm in the best series for A-mode ultrasound surface matchings and was robust with respect to different sets of surface points. The mean +/- SD root mean square error from the 12 A-mode ultrasound matchings in the patient study was 0.49 +/- 0.20 mm. A-mode ultrasound surface matching can be used as a noninvasive and accurate registration procedure in computer-aided surgery of the head.

  2. Topographic analysis of the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test with piezoelectric accelerometers and force sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Georges; Lion, Alexis; Perrin, Philippe; Ouedraogo, Evariste; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2016-03-23

    Vibration-induced nystagmus is elicited by skull or posterior cervical muscle stimulations in patients with vestibular diseases. Skull vibrations delivered by the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test are known to stimulate the inner ear structures directly. This study aimed to measure the vibration transfer at different cranium locations and posterior cervical regions to contribute toward stimulus topographic optimization (experiment 1) and to determine the force applied on the skull with a hand-held vibrator to study the test reproducibility and provide recommendations for good clinical practices (experiment 2). In experiment 1, a 100 Hz hand-held vibrator was applied on the skull (vertex, mastoids) and posterior cervical muscles in 11 healthy participants. Vibration transfer was measured by piezoelectric sensors. In experiment 2, the vibrator was applied 30 times by two experimenters with dominant and nondominant hands on a mannequin equipped to measure the force. Experiment 1 showed that after unilateral mastoid vibratory stimulation, the signal transfer was higher when recorded on the contralateral mastoid than on the vertex or posterior cervical muscles (P<0.001). No difference was observed between the different vibratory locations when vibration transfer was measured on vertex and posterior cervical muscles. Experiment 2 showed that the force applied to the mannequin varied according to the experimenters and the handedness, higher forces being observed with the most experienced experimenter and with the dominant hand (10.3 ± 1.0 and 7.8 ± 2.9 N, respectively). The variation ranged from 9.8 to 29.4% within the same experimenter. Bone transcranial vibration transfer is more efficient from one mastoid to the other mastoid than other anatomical sites. The mastoid is therefore the optimal site for skull vibration-induced nystagmus test in patients with unilateral vestibular lesions and enables a stronger stimulation of the healthy side. In clinical practice

  3. Endoscopic endonasal skull base approach for parasellar lesions: Initial experiences, results, efficacy, and complications

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    Shigetoshi Yano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic surgery is suitable for the transsphenoidal approach; it is minimally invasive and provides a well-lit operative field. The endoscopic skull base approach through the large opening of the sphenoid sinus through both nostrils has extended the surgical indication for various skull base lesions. In this study, we describe the efficacy and complications associated with the endoscopic skull base approach for extra- or intradural parasellar lesions based on our experiences. Methods: Seventy-four cases were treated by an endoscopic skull base approach. The indications for these procedures included 55 anterior extended approaches, 10 clival approaches, and 9 cavernous approaches. The operations were performed through both the nostrils using a rigid endoscope. After tumor removal, the skull base was reconstructed by a multilayered method using a polyglactin acid (PGA sheet. Results: Gross total resection was achieved in 82% of pituitary adenomas, 68.8% of meningiomas, and 60% of craniopharyngiomas in anterior extended approach and in 83.3% of chordomas in clival approach, but only in 50% of the tumors in cavernous approach. Tumor consistency, adhesion, and/or extension were significant limitations. Visual function improvements were achieved in 37 of 41 (90.2% cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage (9.5%, infections (5.4%, neural injuries (4.1%, and vascular injuries (2.7% were the major complications. Conclusions: Our experiences show that the endoscopic skull base approach is a safe and effective procedure for various parasellar lesions. Selection of patients who are unlikely to develop complications seems to be an important factor for procedure efficacy and good outcome.

  4. Does skull shape mediate the relationship between objective features and subjective impressions about the face?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marečková, Klára; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Huang, Mei; Lawrence, Claire; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, Bruce G; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2013-10-01

    In our previous work, we described facial features associated with a successful recognition of the sex of the face (Marečková et al., 2011). These features were based on landmarks placed on the surface of faces reconstructed from magnetic resonance (MR) images; their position was therefore influenced by both soft tissue (fat and muscle) and bone structure of the skull. Here, we ask whether bone structure has dissociable influences on observers' identification of the sex of the face. To answer this question, we used a novel method of studying skull morphology using MR images and explored the relationship between skull features, facial features, and sex recognition in a large sample of adolescents (n=876; including 475 adolescents from our original report). To determine whether skull features mediate the relationship between facial features and identification accuracy, we performed mediation analysis using bootstrapping. In males, skull features mediated fully the relationship between facial features and sex judgments. In females, the skull mediated this relationship only after adjusting facial features for the amount of body fat (estimated with bioimpedance). While body fat had a very slight positive influence on correct sex judgments about male faces, there was a robust negative influence of body fat on the correct sex judgments about female faces. Overall, these results suggest that craniofacial bone structure is essential for correct sex judgments about a male face. In females, body fat influences negatively the accuracy of sex judgments, and craniofacial bone structure alone cannot explain the relationship between facial features and identification of a face as female.

  5. Skull-base Osteomyelitis: a Dreaded Complication after Trivial Fall and Inadequate Management

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    Kundan Mittal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Skull-based osteomyelitis is bony infection which generally originates from inadequately treated chronic infection, adjoining tissue infection or after trauma.Case: 11 month female child had a trivial fall while standing near a bucket. The child developed fracture of right clavicle and left orbital swelling which was inadequately treated. This resulted in in spread of infection to adjoining tissues, skull bones, sinuses and brain.Conclusion: Cranial base osteomyelitis is rare but dreaded condition which requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment to avoid mortality and morbidity in form of neurological deficits and permanent disability

  6. The Role of Robotic Surgery in Sinonasal and Ventral Skull Base Malignancy.

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    Hachem, Ralph Abi; Rangarajan, Sanjeet; Beer-Furlan, Andre; Prevedello, Daniel; Ozer, Enver; Carrau, Ricardo L

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade, robotic surgery has gained wide popularity, making a significant impact on multiple surgical specialties. In the head and neck arena, transoral robotic surgery has proven to be safe and associated with acceptable oncological and superior functional outcomes for surgery of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, supraglottis, and glottis; thus, changing the paradigm for the management of tumors in these anatomic locations. Robotic surgery of the ventral skull base is at an early stage of development. In this article reviews the literature discussing the role of robotic surgery in managing sinonasal and ventral skull base malignant lesions.

  7. Eosinophilic granuloma of the skull base: patient with unique clinical moreover, radiographic presentation.

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    Hosein Dalili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report presents an eight-year-old girl having periauricular swelling and severe pain during mouth opening on the right-side temporomandibular joint (TMJ. CBCT showed extensive destruction of the base of the skull and the roof of the glenoid fossa on the right side. The findings based on CT and MRI images with and without contrast are discussed herein. This report highlights a skull base eosinophilic granuloma that mimics TMJ disorder and the importance of proper evaluation of CBCT images to make an early diagnosis.

  8. Resolution of "salt and pepper" appearance of the skull with vitamin D therapy

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    Gursimran Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hypovitaminosis D leads to state of decreased mineralization and generalized osteomalacia. It also results in secondary hyperparathyroidism causing increased bone turn over and decreased bone mass, manifested radiologically as a "salt and pepper" appearance in skull, subperiosteal resorption, bone cysts and lytic lesions. In this case, a young male patient with hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism, radiological features show resolution of "salt and pepper" appearance of the skull with vitamin D in 11 months and regression of other lytic lesions.

  9. Chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst in the anterior skull base

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    Ming Jie Wang, MD, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC, especially in the anterior skull base, is an extremely rare condition. A 5-year-old boy presented with a large space-occupying lesion in the anterior skull base along with a left sided-epistaxis, proptosis and decreased vision. Radical excision of the lesion was performed by an endoscopic transnasal and transethmoidal approach. The patient recovered without any recurrence during a follow-up period of up to 28 months. Here, we review this rare case and discuss the clinical presentation and surgical treatment.

  10. Skull base aneurysmal bone cyst presented with foramen jugular syndrome and multi-osseous involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaghazvini, Leila; Sedighi, Nahid; Karami, Parisa; Yeganeh, Omid

    2012-09-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansile bone lesion that usually involves the long bones. Skull base involvement is rare. Hereby, we describe a 17-year-old man with hoarseness, facial asymmetry, left sided sensorineural hearing loss and left jugular foramen syndrome. CT scan and MRI showed a skull base mass that was confirmed as ABC in histopathology. The case was unusual and interesting due to the clinical presentation of jugular foramen syndrome and radiological findings such as severe enhancement and multiosseous involvement.

  11. Pediatric anterior skull base tumors: Our experience and review of literature

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    N K Venkataramana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery for skull base lesions has advanced considerably in the past few years. The improvement in surgical results could be attributed to the availability of refined imaging modalities, modern technological advances and multidisciplinary team approach. In this report, we present our personal experience in the surgical management of 45 children with a variety of skull base lesions treated over 10 years. This article includes a retrospective analysis of the surgical approaches used and their results with a review of the literature.

  12. A Case of Transient, Isolated Cranial Nerve VI Palsy due to Skull Base Osteomyelitis

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    Brijesh Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Otitis externa affects both children and adults. It is often treated with topical antibiotics, with good clinical outcomes. When a patient fails to respond to the treatment, otitis externa can progress to malignant otitis externa. The common symptoms of skull bone osteomyelitis include ear ache, facial pain, and cranial nerve palsies. However, an isolated cranial nerve is rare. Herein, we report a case of 54-year-old female who presented with left cranial nerve VI palsy due to skull base osteomyelitis which responded to antibiotic therapy.

  13. Studies on the parietal region of the cervid skull. II. The parietooccipital region in the skull of the fallow deer (Dama dama L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, U; Kierdorf, H

    1992-12-01

    In contrast to the situation in roe deer (Kierdorf and Kierdorf, in press) and other cervid species, an os interparietale was missing in the fallow deer cranium. Absence of this skull element in Dama dama is regarded as an apomorphic character state. The area covered by the interparietals in Capreolus was occupied by the parietals in Dama. This condition (loss of interparietals, enlargement of parietals) is in accord with a trend seen in vertebrate evolution, that is, progressive reduction in the number of skull elements concomitant with enlargement of the remaining bones. Synostosis of the parietals in Dama started a few days post partum and was completed at about 7 to 8 months of age. In males, obliteration of the sutura parietooccipitalis commenced in adult life, whereas in females only closure of the central region of this suture was occasionally observed.

  14. Anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to evaluate an experimental model of myelomeningocele in non human primates (Macaca mulatta Anestesia em cirurgia intra-uterina para avaliar um modelo experimental de mielomeningocele em primatas não humanos (Macaca mulatta

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    Alfonso Galván-Montaño

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to induce myelomeningocele in non human primates Macaca mulatta. METHODS: A total of nine fetuses had intrauterine surgery; laminectomy was performed on them in L5 and L6. The studied variables were: maternal death, fetus death, cardiac frequency, respiratory frequency, arterial pressure, temperature, and oxygen saturation. RESULTS: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature. CONCLUSION: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o manejo anestésico em cirurgia intra-uterina para induzir mielomeningocelo em primatas não humanos, Macaca mulatta. MÉTODOS: Operaram-se um total de nove fetos in útero que foram submetidos à laminectomia em L5 e L6. As variáveis a estudar foram mortes maternas ou fetais, freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial, temperatura e saturação de oxigênio. RESULTADOS: Não se apresentaram mortes maternas ou fetais, a temperatura se manteve abaixo dos 36°C, não tendo repercussões no bem-estar dos macacos. CONCLUSÃO: Não ocorreu nenhum óbito materno ou fetal, sendo que a única variável abaixo do normal foi a temperatura.

  15. On the dimensions of three skulls of the species of dolphin Lipotes vexillifer Miller, 1918 (Cetacea, Platanistoidea, Iniidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Purves, P.E.

    1975-01-01

    The dimensions are given of three skulls of Lipotes vexillifer, the only specimens preserved in collections outside of China. At the same time drawings of the Lipotes vexillifer skull in the British Museum (Natural History) have been made and published with a photograph of the London specimen before

  16. On the dimensions of three skulls of the species of dolphin Lipotes vexillifer Miller, 1918 (Cetacea, Platanistoidea, Iniidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Purves, P.E.

    1975-01-01

    The dimensions are given of three skulls of Lipotes vexillifer, the only specimens preserved in collections outside of China. At the same time drawings of the Lipotes vexillifer skull in the British Museum (Natural History) have been made and published with a photograph of the London specimen before

  17. Proptosis, skull infarction, and retro-orbital and epidural hematomas in a child with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallouh, A A; Young, M; Hamdan, J; Salamah, M M

    1987-10-01

    A Saudi child with homozygous sickle cell disease (SS) presented with bilateral periorbital swelling, right-sided proptosis, skull bone infarcts, and retro-orbital and epidural hematomas. The findings of skull bone infarcts, retro-orbital and epidural hematomas are rare in patients with sickle cell disease.

  18. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

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    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  19. Concealed fertility and extended female sexuality in a non-human primate (Macaca assamensis.

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    Ines Fürtbauer

    Full Text Available In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring. A few species, however, lack these cues and potentially conceal fertility from males; yet, to date, little is known about mating patterns and their underlying proximate mechanisms in such species. Here, we investigated mating activity and sexual consortships relative to female reproductive state in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis, a species where females lack prominent anogenital swellings and copulation calls. During two mating seasons (2837 contact hours we recorded sexual and social behaviors, sexual consortships, and collected 1178 fecal samples (n = 15 females which were analyzed for progestogen concentrations to assess female reproductive state and to determine the timing of ovulation and conception. Although mostly conceiving in their first ovarian cycle, females were sexually receptive throughout the entire 4-month mating season, and within-cycle mating frequencies were not increased during fertile phases. Dominant males did not monopolize fertile matings, and consortships by high-ranking males lasted for long periods, which were not exclusively linked to female fertile phases. Furthermore, females copulated promiscuously but not randomly, i.e. for almost every female, matings were concentrated to a certain male, irrespective of male rank. Collectively, we demonstrate that fertility is undisclosed to males. The extreme extended female sexuality facilitated by concealed fertility may allow females to create differentiated mating relationships within a promiscuous mating system. Our study provides important new insight into the plasticity of female sexuality in non-human primates.

  20. Microvasculature of the Olfactory Organ in the Japanese Monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2002-06-01

    Olfaction is an important and primitive sense. As its importance has changed with evolution, anatomic adjustments have occurred in its structure and vasculature. Primates are a family of vertebrates that have had to develop their visual system to adapt to the arboreal environment and have evolved from a macrosmatic to a microsmatic species as the optic system has enlarged. This has resulted in anatomic changes of a small but critical area at the base of the brain. This paper describes the three-dimensional vascular anatomy of the olfactory organ of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata). This is best understood by dividing the organ into three parts: the olfactory tract, olfactory bulb, and olfactory nerves in the nasal mucosa. The bulb can be partitioned into an outer or cortical part and inner or medullary part. The vasculature and tissue were examined grossly and with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. The olfactory tract and bulb were supplied by an arteriole from the anterior cerebral artery on each side. The tract was supplied by capillaries running spirally with a coarse network. At the olfactory bulb, the arteriole ramified into the intracortical and medullary branches that formed capillary networks. The bulbar intracortical capillaries were divided into two layers with different densities and vascular patterns. The capillaries of the superficial layer had a ladder-like pattern. The branches that ran into the medulla of the olfactory bulb were more widely spaced. Twigs from the posterior ethmoidal artery ran along the nerve fiber and formed intra- and extrafascicular networks. Each region of the olfactory organ had characteristic three-dimensional vascular patterns that were related to their cellular architecture.