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Sample records for macaca fascicularis macaca

  1. Osseointegration of dental implants in Macaca fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, R. S.; Odang, R. W.; Odelia, L.

    2017-08-01

    Osseointegration is an important factor in determining the success of a dental implant. It can be assessed from the osseointegration that occurs between the implant and the bone. The implant stability is determined by the osseous support at the implant-bone interface, which is commonly evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether the osseointegration level measured by a Low Resonance Frequency Analyzer (LRFA) gave results as good as those obtained by histomorphometric examination. Six male Macaca fascicularis were used in this study. In each animal, two types of loading were performed: immediate and delayed loading. Clinical examination and LRFA measurement were performed to determine osseointegration at the first and second weeks and at the first, second, third, and fourth months. After four months, histomorphometric examination was performed. The relationship between the histomorphometric examination and LRFA measurement was compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient. There was no significant difference in the osseointegration between immediate loading and delayed loading (p > 0.05) The bone-implant contact percentage in the first group did not differ significantly from that in the second group. Statistical analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between LRFA measurement and histomorphometric examination. Osseointegration could be evaluated through LRFA measurement as well as through histomorphometric examination.

  2. Latitudinal variation in cranial dimorphism in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A

    2010-02-01

    This study examines latitudinal and insular variation in the expression of sexual dimorphism in cranial length in three geographical groupings of Macaca fascicularis. In addition, the relationship between cranial length dimorphism (CLD) and sex-specific size is examined. The results of the study identified a significant relationship between CLD and latitude for only one of the three geographic groupings. Sex-specific relationships between cranial length and CLD were detected. The pattern of these relationships varied by geographic grouping. This study is important because it demonstrates that despite very similar levels of CLD in a single primate species, there exists important geographic variability in the correlates of that dimorphism. I suggest that geographically varying ecological factors may influence sex-specific natural selection and the intensity of CLD in M. fascicularis. Gaining a better understanding of this geographical variability will require that future research examines morphological variation, including CLD, within its corresponding ecological and social contexts. Such research should be comparative, and incorporate multiple geographically separated populations with disparate environmental settings.

  3. Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis sebagai Model Diabetes Melitus: Pengaruh Hiperglikemia pada Lipid Darah, Serum Oksida Nitrik, dan Tingkah Laku Klinis (THE LONG TAILED MACAQUE (MACACA FASCICULARIS AS A MODEL OF DIABETES MELITUS : EFFECT OF HYPE

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    Sri Kayati Widyastuti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis sebagai Model Diabetes Melitus: Pengaruh Hiperglikemia pada Lipid Darah, Serum Oksida Nitrik, dan Tingkah Laku Klinis   (THE LONG TAILED MACAQUE (MACACA FASCICULARIS AS A MODEL OF DIABETES MELITUS : EFFECT OF HYPERGLICEMIA ON BLOOD LIPID, SERUM NITRIC OXIDE, AND CLINICAL BEHAVIOUR

  4. Continental monophyly and molecular divergence of Peninsular Malaysia's Macaca fascicularis fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Faiq, Hamdan; Hairul, Mohd Salleh; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) populations distributed in Peninsular Malaysia in relation to other regions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to reveal the phylogeography and population genetics of Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis based on the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. Sixty-five haplotypes were detected in all populations, with only Vietnam and Cambodia sharing four haplotypes. The minimum-spanning network projected a distant relationship between Peninsular Malaysian and insular populations. Genetic differentiation (F(ST), Nst) results suggested that the gene flow among Peninsular Malaysian and the other populations is very low. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions indicated a monophyletic clade of Malaysia's population with continental populations (NJ = 97%, MP = 76%, and Bayesian = 1.00 posterior probabilities). The results demonstrate that Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis belonged to Indochinese populations as opposed to the previously claimed Sundaic populations. M. f. fascicularis groups are estimated to have colonized Peninsular Malaysia ~0.47 million years ago (MYA) directly from Indochina through seaways, by means of natural sea rafting, or through terrestrial radiation during continental shelf emersion. Here, the Isthmus of Kra played a central part as biogeographical barriers that then separated it from the remaining continental populations.

  5. Effects of synthetic glycosides on steroid balance in Macaca fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinow, M.R.; Elliott, W.H.; McLaughlin, P.; Upson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The predominantly beta-anomer of diosgenin glucoside (DG) was synthesized and its effects on cholesterol homeostasis were tested in monkeys. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed, during two 3-week periods, a semipurified diet with 0.1% cholesterol and a similar ration containing 1% DG, respectively. A Chow diet was given for 5 weeks between the experimental periods. Cholesterol and bile acid balance were analyzed during the last week of each semipurified diet. Diosgenin glucoside reduced cholesterolemia from 292 mg/dl to 172 mg/dl, decreased intestinal absorption of exogenous cholesterol from 62.4% to 26.0%, and increased secretion of endogenous cholesterol from -0.8 to 93.5 mg/day. The fecal excretion of neutral steroids rose from 40.7 to 157.3 mg/day; that of bile acids changed, nonsignificantly, from 23.1 to 16.0 mg/day. The cholesterol balance was -44 mg/day in the control period, and 88 mg/day in the DG-fed animals. No toxic signs were observed. Thus, when long-term studies demonstrate that the glucoside is well tolerated, DG and other synthetic glycosides with similar activities may be of use in the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis

  6. γ-Ray-induced reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.; Yamagiwa, J.; Utsugi, T.; Kitazume, M.; Nakai, S.

    1984-01-01

    The yield of translocations induced by γ-rays in the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia were studied by cytological analysis in spermatocytes derived from them. The frequencies of translocations were 0.09 per cent at 0 Gy, 1.9 per cent at 1 Gy, 2.5 per cent at 2 Gy and 1.3 per cent at 3 Gy, showing a humped dose-response curve with a peak yield around 2 Gy. No remarkable inter-seasonal or inter-animal variations in the induction of translocation were observed. The frequencies in the crab-eating monkey were significantly higher than those in the same Macaca genus, the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This inter-species difference in radiosensitivity might be affected by the condition of spermatogonial stem cells at the time of exposure to radiation, depending on the seasonal change in spermatogenetic activity. (orig.)

  7. High resolution karyotype of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

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    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method very well suited to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB-applying probes derived from Homo sapiens were used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result highlights that morphological differences within the Cercopithecoidea must be found rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  8. STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COCHLEAR NUCLEI OF MONKEY (MACACA FASCICULARIS AFTER DEAFFERENTATION

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    Ana M Insausti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cochlear nuclei (CN in the brainstem receive the input signals from the inner ear through the cochlear nerve, and transmit these signals to higher auditory centres. A variety of lesions of the cochlear nerve cause deafness. As reported in the literature, artificial removal of auditive input, or 'deafferentation', induces structural alterations in the CN. The purpose of this study was to estimate a number of relevant stereological parameters of the CN in control and deafferented Macaca fascicularis monkeys.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

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    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  10. Climatic effects on the nasal complex: a CT imaging, comparative anatomical, and morphometric investigation of Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis.

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    Márquez, Samuel; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies exploring the effects of climate on the nasal region have largely focused on external craniofacial linear parameters, using dry crania of modern human populations. This investigation augments traditional craniofacial morphometrics with internal linear and volumetric measures of the anatomic units comprising the nasal complex (i.e., internal nasal cavity depth, maxillary sinus volumes). The study focuses on macaques (i.e., Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) living at high and low altitudes, rather than on humans, since the short residency of migratory human populations may preclude using them as reliable models to test the long-term relationship of climate to nasal morphology. It is hypothesized that there will be significant differences in nasal complex morphology among macaques inhabiting different climates. This study integrated three different approaches: CT imaging, comparative anatomy, and morphometrics-in an effort to better understand the morphological structure and adaptive nature of the nasal complex. Results showed statistically significant differences when subsets of splanchnocranial and neurocranial variables were regressed against total maxillary sinus volume for particular taxa. For example, basion-hormion was significant for M. fascicularis, whereas choanal dimensions were significant only for M. mulatta. Both taxa revealed strong correlation between sinus volume and prosthion to staphylion distance, which essentially represents the length of the nasal cavity floor-and is by extension an indicator of the air conditioning capacity of the nasal region. These results clearly show that climatic effects play a major role in shaping the anatomy of the nasal complex in closely related species. The major influence upon these differing structures appears to be related to respiratory-related adaptations subserving differing climatic factors. In addition, the interdependence of the paranasal sinuses with other parts of the complex strongly

  11. Probing around implants and teeth with healthy or inflamed peri-implant mucosa/gingival. A histologic comparison in cynomolgus monkeys. (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Stoltze, K.

    2002-01-01

    Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis......Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis...

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences.

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    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  13. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in Macaca fascicularis: acute and chronic stroke evolution.

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    D'Arceuil, Helen E; Duggan, Michael; He, Julian; Pryor, Johnny; de Crespigny, Alex

    2006-04-01

    An intravascular stroke model designed for magnetic resonance imaging was developed in Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis) to characterize serial stroke lesion evolution. This model produces a range of stroke lesion sizes which closely mimics human stroke evolution. This paper describes the care of animals undergoing this stroke procedure, the range of outcomes we experienced and the cause of mortality in this model. Anesthesia was induced with atropine and ketamine and maintained with isoflurane or propofol. Non-invasive blood pressure, oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate, temperature and end tidal CO2 were monitored continuously. The stroke was created by occluding a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery. During catheter placement animals were heparinized and vasospasm was minimized using verapamil. Anesthetic induction and maintenance were smooth. Animals with small strokes showed very rapid recovery, were able to ambulate and self-feed within 2 hours of recovery. Animals with strokes of >or=4% of the hemispheric volume required lengthy observation during recovery and parenteral nutrition. Large strokes resulted in significant brain edema, herniation and brainstem compression. Intracerebral hemorrhage and or subarachnoid hemorrhage coupled with a stroke of any size was acutely fatal. In the absence of an effective acute stroke therapy, the spectrum of outcomes seen in our primate model is very similar to that observed in human stroke patients.

  14. Study of the gastrointestinal parasitic fauna of captive non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis).

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    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Epis, Sara; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine helminths and protozoans in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) imported from registered breeding facilities in China and their relation to health risks for non-human primate handlers in biomedical research centers and in breeding facilities. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 443 M. fascicularis and analyzed by copromicroscopical analysis, immunoenzymatic, or molecular assays. As to helminths, whose eggs were shed in 2.03% of the samples, Trichuris and Oesophagostomum were the only two taxa found, with low prevalence and low eggs per gram (EPG) values. Protozoans were more frequently detected (87.40%), with Entamoeba coli (85.19%) and Endolimax nana (79.26%) as the most prevalent species shed. Other parasites found by fecal smear examination were uninucleated-cyst-producing Entamoebas (78.52%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (42.96%), and Chilomastix mesnili (24.44%), while cysts of Balantidium coli (22.2%) were only observed by sedimentation. No coproantigens of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica complex were detected. Blastocystis sp. infection was noticed in 87.63% of macaques by PCR. These cynomolgus monkeys were infected with many subtypes (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5, and ST7), where the predominant Blastocystis sp. subtypes were ST2 (77.5%), followed by ST1 (63.5%). Data collected confirmed the presence of potentially zoonotic parasites and a high parasite diversity, suggesting the need for appropriate and sensitive techniques to adequately control them and related health risks for handlers of non-human primates in biomedical research centers and in breeding facilities.

  15. Analysis of Macular Drusen and Blood Test Results in 945 Macaca fascicularis.

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    Koji M Nishiguchi

    Full Text Available Age-dependent formation of macular drusen caused by the focal accumulation of extracellular deposits beneath the retinal pigment epithelium precede the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. It is established that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of drusen and AMD. However, development of a preemptive therapeutic strategy targeting macular drusen and AMD has been impeded by the lack of relevant animal models because most laboratory animals lack macula, an anatomic feature present only in humans and a subset of monkeys. Reportedly, macular drusen and macular degeneration develop in monkeys in an age-dependent manner. In this study, we analyzed blood test results from 945 Macaca fascicularis, 317 with and 628 without drusen. First, a trend test for drusen frequency (the Cochran-Armitage test was applied to the quartile data for each parameter. We selected variables with an increasing or decreasing trend with higher quartiles at P < 0.05, to which multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied. This revealed a positive association of age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.10 per year, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.12 and white blood cell count (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00-1.01 with drusen. When the monkeys were divided by age, the association between drusen and white blood cell count was only evident in younger monkeys (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02. In conclusion, age and white blood cell count may be associated with drusen development in M. fascicularis. Systemic inflammation may contribute to drusen formation in monkeys.

  16. No costly prosociality among related long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterck, Elisabeth H M; Olesen, Caroline U; Massen, Jorg J M

    2015-08-01

    Altruism, benefiting another at a cost to the donor, may be achieved through prosocial behavior. Studies of nonhuman animals typically investigate prosocial behavior with paradigms in which the donor can choose to give a recipient a food item, and the choice does not affect the donor's reward (which is either present or absent). In such tasks, long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) show prosocial behavior, especially toward kin. Here, we tested captive long-tailed macaques with related recipients in an alternative task, in which the donor had to give up a preferred reward to benefit the recipient; that is, they had to choose a lower valued reward for themselves to provide food to their kin. Overall, the macaques did not provide their kin with food. The task forced the donor to balance its prosocial behavior with its selfish choice for a higher value reward, a balance that turned out to favor selfish motives. Consequently, our study shows that a prosocial tendency is not sufficient to elicit costly prosocial behavior in long-tailed macaques. Subsequently, we feel that tasks in which the donor must choose a lower value reward to benefit another individual may allow the titration of the strength of prosocial behavior, and thus provides interesting possibilities for future comparative studies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Transdermal Fentanyl in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

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    Carlson, Amy M; Kelly, Richard; Fetterer, David P; Rico, Pedro J; Bailey, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is a μ-opioid agonist that often is used as the analgesic component for balanced anesthesia in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing, and the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl are unknown in NHP. The pharmacokinetic properties of 2 transdermal fentanyl delivery methods, a solution (2.6 and 1.95 mg/kg) and a patch (25 µg/h), were determined when applied topically to the dorsal scapular area of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Serum fentanyl concentrations were analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Compared with the patch, the transdermal fentanyl solution generated higher drug concentrations over longer time. Adverse reactions occurred in the macaques that received the transdermal fentanyl solution at 2.6 mg/kg. Both preparations showed significant interanimal variability in the maximal serum drug levels, time to achieve maximal fentanyl levels, elimination half-life, and AUC values. Both the maximal concentration and the time at which this concentration occurred were increased in macaques compared with most other species after application of the transdermal fentanyl patch and compared with dogs after application of the transdermal fentanyl solution. The pharmacokinetic properties of transdermal fentanyl in macaques are markedly different from those in other veterinary species and preclude its use as a long-acting analgesic drug in NHP. PMID:27423151

  18. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

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    Vickers Mark H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk.

  19. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

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    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

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    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  1. Developmental Anatomy of Cerebellum of Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis at the First Trimester of Gestation

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    Tri Wahyu Pangestiningsih

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Long tailed macaque was one of animal models in biomedical research because it has  many similarities with humans, both anatomical and physiological properties. There were many research about cerebellum associated with its role in the coordination of muscle activity. Understanding of normal development of cerebellum long tailed macaque may help to understand about the development in human cerebellum and its abnormalities. Embryonic and fetal brain samples were obtained through caesarean section and were  then made for histological preparation stained with cresyl violet. Staining results were observed using a microscope with a digital camera. Images obtained are processed by graphics software Adobe Photoshop CS 8.0. Cerebellum Macaca fascicularis Ed40 showed the isthmus and rhombic lip that were composed of ventricular layer, mantle layer, and marginal layer. Cerebellum Macaca fascicularis Fd55 showed future lobes and future  fissures, but the cortex and medulla are not bounded clear. The cortex consisted of the external granular layer, neuroblast basket, and neuroblast stellate, while the  medulla consisted of neuroblast deep cerebellar nuclei. From this research, we concluded that neurons were on stage of proliferation and migration in the embryo aged 40 days, then differentiated and migrated to form cortex  cerebellum and deep cerebellar nuclei at the age of 55 days, but the development of the cerebellum was not fully completed yet.

  2. A multi-atlas based method for automated anatomical Macaca fascicularis brain MRI segmentation and PET kinetic extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballanger, Bénédicte; Tremblay, Léon; Sgambato-Faure, Véronique; Beaudoin-Gobert, Maude; Lavenne, Franck; Le Bars, Didier; Costes, Nicolas

    2013-08-15

    MRI templates and digital atlases are needed for automated and reproducible quantitative analysis of non-human primate PET studies. Segmenting brain images via multiple atlases outperforms single-atlas labelling in humans. We present a set of atlases manually delineated on brain MRI scans of the monkey Macaca fascicularis. We use this multi-atlas dataset to evaluate two automated methods in terms of accuracy, robustness and reliability in segmenting brain structures on MRI and extracting regional PET measures. Twelve individual Macaca fascicularis high-resolution 3DT1 MR images were acquired. Four individual atlases were created by manually drawing 42 anatomical structures, including cortical and sub-cortical structures, white matter regions, and ventricles. To create the MRI template, we first chose one MRI to define a reference space, and then performed a two-step iterative procedure: affine registration of individual MRIs to the reference MRI, followed by averaging of the twelve resampled MRIs. Automated segmentation in native space was obtained in two ways: 1) Maximum probability atlases were created by decision fusion of two to four individual atlases in the reference space, and transformation back into the individual native space (MAXPROB)(.) 2) One to four individual atlases were registered directly to the individual native space, and combined by decision fusion (PROPAG). Accuracy was evaluated by computing the Dice similarity index and the volume difference. The robustness and reproducibility of PET regional measurements obtained via automated segmentation was evaluated on four co-registered MRI/PET datasets, which included test-retest data. Dice indices were always over 0.7 and reached maximal values of 0.9 for PROPAG with all four individual atlases. There was no significant mean volume bias. The standard deviation of the bias decreased significantly when increasing the number of individual atlases. MAXPROB performed better when increasing the number of

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo’s population was distinguished from Peninsula’s population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia’s M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations

  4. Radiographic measurement of the cardiothoracic ratio in a feral population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Michael A. [Department of Social Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada)], E-mail: schillaci@utsc.utoronto.ca; Lischka, Andrea R.; Karamitsos, Anisah A. [Department of Social Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada); Engel, Gregory A. [Swedish/Cherry Hill Family Medicine Residency, 550 16th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98122 (United States); Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Paul, Narinder [Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada); Ramoul, Rima [Department of Social Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada); Rompis, Aida; Putra, Arta; Wandia, I. Nengah [Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali 80361 (Indonesia); Jones-Engel, Lisa [Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The cardiothoracic ratio is often used as a proxy measure of cardiovascular pathophysiology in humans but less frequently in nonhuman primates, for whom little published data are available to establish normal values. The present study is the first to examine relative cardiac size in a feral population of primates. This report presents estimates of the cardiothoracic ratio in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Bali, Indonesia. The mean cardiothoracic ratio for the study sample was 0.55, above the commonly used threshold of 0.50 for identifying an enlarged heart in human medicine. Future research on wild populations of macaques is needed and should include multiple assessments of cardiac function including both radiography and echocardiography.

  5. Radiographic measurement of the cardiothoracic ratio in a feral population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Lischka, Andrea R.; Karamitsos, Anisah A.; Engel, Gregory A.; Paul, Narinder; Ramoul, Rima; Rompis, Aida; Putra, Arta; Wandia, I. Nengah; Jones-Engel, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The cardiothoracic ratio is often used as a proxy measure of cardiovascular pathophysiology in humans but less frequently in nonhuman primates, for whom little published data are available to establish normal values. The present study is the first to examine relative cardiac size in a feral population of primates. This report presents estimates of the cardiothoracic ratio in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Bali, Indonesia. The mean cardiothoracic ratio for the study sample was 0.55, above the commonly used threshold of 0.50 for identifying an enlarged heart in human medicine. Future research on wild populations of macaques is needed and should include multiple assessments of cardiac function including both radiography and echocardiography.

  6. Aiding pest control management of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) in Malaysia by using molecular markers of mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff, M. A. B.; Abdul-Patah, P.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    The long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) has been the center of human wildlife conflict in Malaysia since 1970s. This well-adapted and opportunistic primates have been dominating wide range of habitat in Malaysia such as primary and secondary forest, mangrove, as well as human settlements. The conventional practices of translocation by the authorities are threatening the uniqueness of gene pool for this species and ironically contradicting with the ultimate purpose of genetic conservation of this species. The objectives of this study is to determine the level of genetic separation between populations of long-tailed macaques, primarily focusing on populations distributed in northern Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 954 base pairs of control regions mtDNA was sequenced and analyzed from 27 samples of M. fascicularis. The results exhibited a highly homogenous state of populations for long-tailed macaques genetically and this ultimately indicate unsuitable management and planning in terms of pest control management of the species. Authorities are suggested to translocate the species at least within the state boundaries to avoid homogeneity of gene pools for the particular species.

  7. DINAMIKA POPULASI MONYET EKOR PANJANG (MACACA FASCICULARIS DI HUTAN WISATA ALAS KEDATON TABANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Soma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Overall population dynamic were observed in identified individuals between August andOctober 2008, in large group of long failed macaques in the AlasKedaton, Bali. Totalpopulation was 364 monkeys consisted of 54 (14,8% adult males, 104 (28,6% adultfemales, 164 (45,1% juvenile and 42 (11,5% infant. They were divided into 4 differentsmall social groups i.e., Parking area group, North area group, Centre area group and Southarea group. Ratio of adult male and adult female was 1: 2.Population densitiesof Macaca fascicularisin Alas Kedaton were 30 monkeys / Ha andpopulation natalities were 11, 5%.

  8. Ancestry, Plasmodium cynomolgi prevalence and rhesus macaque admixture in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) bred for export in Chinese breeding farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjun; Meng, Yuhuan; Houghton, Paul; Liu, Mingyu; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Oldt, Robert; Ng, Jillian; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; Huang, Ren; Singh, Balbir; Du, Hongli; Smith, David Glenn

    2017-04-01

    Most cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) used in the United States as animal models are imported from Chinese breeding farms without documented ancestry. Cynomolgus macaques with varying rhesus macaque ancestry proportions may exhibit differences, such as susceptibility to malaria, that affect their suitability as a research model. DNA of 400 cynomolgus macaques from 10 Chinese breeding farms was genotyped to characterize their regional origin and rhesus ancestry proportion. A nested PCR assay was used to detect Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in sampled individuals. All populations exhibited high levels of genetic heterogeneity and low levels of inbreeding and genetic subdivision. Almost all individuals exhibited an Indochinese origin and a rhesus ancestry proportion of 5%-48%. The incidence of P. cynomolgi infection in cynomolgus macaques is strongly associated with proportion of rhesus ancestry. The varying amount of rhesus ancestry in cynomolgus macaques underscores the importance of monitoring their genetic similarity in malaria research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Use of photogrammetry as a means to assess hybrids of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadejaroen, Janya; Hamada, Yuzuru; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques are the most commonly used non-human primate models for biomedical research, but it is difficult to identify these two species in the hybrid zone (15-20°N). In this work, we used morphological values obtained via photogrammetry to assess hybrids of rhesus and long-tailed macaques at Khao Khieow Open Zoo (KKZ; 13°21'N, 101°06'E), eastern Thailand. Long-tailed and rhesus macaques have species-specific tail lengths and contrasts of their yellowish pelages. The accuracy and precision of the relative tail length (%RTL) and the contrast of the yellow hue (Cb*) of the pelage, as obtained from photographs, were compared with the corresponding direct measurements (morphometrics). The photogrammetric and morphometric measurements of %RTL and Cb* were highly significantly correlated (r = 0.989 and 0.980, p photogrammetry can be utilized to identify macaque species or hybrids when species identification relies mainly on tail length and pelage color.

  10. Investigating biogeographic boundaries of the Sunda shelf: A phylogenetic analysis of two island populations of Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegarth, A R; Sanders, S A; Gloss, A D; Lane-deGraaf, K E; Jones-Engel, L; Fuentes, A; Hollocher, H

    2017-08-01

    Cyclical submergence and re-emergence of the Sunda Shelf throughout the Pleistocene served as a dynamic biogeographic landscape, across which long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have migrated and evolved. Here, we tested the integrity of the previously reported continental-insular haplotype divide reported among Y and mitochondrial DNA lineages across multiple studies. The continental-insular haplotype divide was tested by heavily sampling wild macaques from two important biogeographic regions within Sundaland: (1) Singapore, the southernmost tip of continental Asia and (2) Bali, Indonesia, the southeastern edge of the Indonesian archipelago, immediately west of Wallace's line. Y DNA was haplotyped for samples from Bali, deep within the Indonesian archipelago. Mitochondrial D-loop from both islands was analyzed against existing data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches. We uncovered both "continental" and "insular" Y DNA haplotypes in Bali. Between Singapore and Bali we found 52 unique mitochondrial haplotypes, none of which had been previously described. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed a major haplogroup division within Singapore and identified five new Singapore subclades and two primary subclades in Bali. While we confirmed the continental-insular divide among mtDNA haplotypes, maintenance of both Y DNA haplotypes on Bali, deep within the Indonesian archipelago calls into question the mechanism by which Y DNA diversity has been maintained. It also suggests the continental-insular designation is less appropriate for Y DNA, leading us to propose geographically neutral Y haplotype designations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis Fed with High Soluble Carbohydrate Diet: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI APRI ASTUTI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available High carbohydrate as obese diet is not yet available commercially for monkeys. Therefore, this preliminary study was to carry out nutrient intake and digestibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis fed with high soluble carbohydrate diet compared to monkey chow. Five adult female macaques (average body weight 2.67 kg were made to consume freshly diet. Commercial monkey chows (contains 3500 cal/g energy and 35% starch were fed to three adult females (average body weight 3.62 kg. Nutrient intakes and digestibility parameters were measured using modified metabolic cages. Result showed that average of protein, fat, starch, and energy intakes in treatment diet were higher than control diet (T-test. Fat intake in the treatment diet was three times higher, while starch and energy intakes were almost two times higher than monkey chow. Digestibility percentage of all nutrients were the same in both diets except for the protein. The study concludes that the freshly prepared high sugar diet was palatable and digestible for the cynomolgus monkeys. Further studies are in progress to develop obese diet high in energy content based on fat and source of starch treatments.

  12. Establishment of reference values for complete blood count and blood gases in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAYAMA, Shunya; KOIE, Hiroshi; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; KATAKAI, Yuko; ITO-FUJISHIRO, Yasuyo; SANKAI, Tadashi; YASUTOMI, Yasuhiro; AGEYAMA, Naohide

    2017-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are closely related to humans phylogenetically, and this has resulted in their widespread use as a preclinical model. Hematological data with regard to these monkeys are thus important. Although reference values for blood components and sex hormones have been established for cynomolgus monkeys, those for arterial blood gases have not. The arterial blood gases quickly reflect respiratory and circulatory dynamics, and are thus useful for animal management and safe general anesthesia and surgical operations. Furthermore, since O2 is transported by RBC, CBC and blood gases are closely related. The present study aimed to establish reference values for arterial blood gases and CBC in cynomolgus monkeys over a wide age range. Blood gases and CBC of arterial blood, collected from 41 female and 21 male anesthetized monkeys, were measured. Age correlated with RBC, HGB and HCT in the CBC. Values differed significantly between males and females in pCO2, CO2 concentration, MCV and MCH. The pH of blood was equivalent to that of humans and pCO2 was more stable, whereas MCV and MCH were lower than those in humans. Erythrocytes were smaller and less pigmented than in other Macaca species. Several relationships between gender and age, and blood gases and CBC were identified in cynomolgus monkeys. In conclusion, these reference values will be useful as markers for veterinary applications and in the care and maintenance of these animals. PMID:28381665

  13. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velankar, Avadhoot D; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Pal, Arijit; Mishra, Partha Sarathi; Singh, Mewa

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species.

  14. Detection and Quantification of Male-Specific Fetal DNA in the Serum of Pregnant Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Lubna; Takano, Jun-ichiro; Nagai, Yasushi; Otsuki, Junko; Sankai, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Because of their developmental similarities to humans, nonhuman primates are often used as a model to study fetal development for potential clinical applications in humans. The detection of fetal DNA in maternal plasma or serum offers a source of fetal genetic material for prenatal diagnosis. However, no such data have been reported for cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), an important model in biomedical research. We have developed a specific, highly sensitive PCR system for detecting and quantifying male-specific fetal DNA in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. We used multiplex quantitative real-time PCR to analyze cell-free DNA in maternal blood serum obtained from 46 pregnant monkeys at gestational weeks 5, 12, and 22. The presence of SRY gene and DYS14 Y chromosomal sequences was determined in 28 monkeys with male-bearing pregnancies. According to confirmation of fetal sex at birth, the probe and primers for detecting the Y chromosomal regions at each time point revealed 100% specificity of the PCR test and no false-positive or false-negative results. Increased levels of the SRY-specific sequences (mean, 4706 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 1731 to 12,625) and DYS14-specific sequences (mean, 54,814 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 4175–131,250 copies) were detected at week 22. The SRY- and DYS14-specific probes appear to be an effective combination of markers in a multiplex PCR system. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the detection of cell-free DNA in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:25730760

  15. Zinc bioavailability from legumes in non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, S.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc bioavailability from legumes in non-human primates (M. Fascicularis) was studied by: (1) determining zinc requirements of adolescent monkeys, (2) validating the use of extrinsic zinc label in peas, (3) validating the blood appearance and disappearance technique, and (4) measuring zinc absorption and endogenous excretion from control and legume diets. Ten monkeys were assigned to the control (CG) and legume groups (LG) based on their initial body weights and plasma zinc concentrations. Zinc salt or legumes served as the source of zinc for CG and LG, respectively. The animals were adapted for three weeks to 2.23, 5.70, 11.67, 16.70 and 30.00 ppm dietary zinc for the requirement and bioavailability experiments and 5.70 ppm dietary zinc for the extrinsic labeling study and the blood appearance and disappearance study. Zinc requirement was determined using the following criteria: body weight, clinical signs and plasma, leukocyte and erythrocyte zinc concentrations. The use of the extrinsic label was validated by comparing percent absorption of 65 Zn (salt) and intrinsically labeled 65 Zn from peas. The blood appearance and disappearance of orally administered /sup 69m/Zn (CG) and 65 Zn(LG) and intravenously administered 65 Zn was determined serially in blood over an eight hour period. Zinc absorption and regulation in the CG and LG was determined by the fecal balance method and endogenous excretion of intravenously administered 65 Zn. The zinc requirement for adolescent M. Fascicularis was between 11.67 and 16.70 ppm dietary zinc per day

  16. Analysis of the Macaca mulatta transcriptome and the sequence divergence between Macaca and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magness, Charles L; Fellin, P Campion; Thomas, Matthew J; Korth, Marcus J; Agy, Michael B; Proll, Sean C; Fitzgibbon, Matthew; Scherer, Christina A; Miner, Douglas G; Katze, Michael G; Iadonato, Shawn P

    2005-01-01

    We report the initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the Macaca mulatta transcriptome. Cloned sequences from 11 tissues, nine animals, and three species (M. mulatta, M. fascicularis, and M. nemestrina) were sampled, resulting in the generation of 48,642 sequence reads. These data represent an initial sampling of the putative rhesus orthologs for 6,216 human genes. Mean nucleotide diversity within M. mulatta and sequence divergence among M. fascicularis, M. nemestrina, and M. mulatta are also reported.

  17. Dose-response relationship for translocation induction in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) by chronic γ-ray-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobari, Izuo; Matsuda, Yoichi; Xiaohung, Gu; Yamagiwa, Junju; Utsugi, Toyoko; Kitazume, Masayuki; Okamoto, Masanori

    1988-01-01

    The induction of reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) by chronic γ-irradiation was examined. The frequencies of translocation per cell were 0.15% at 0.3 Gy, 0.27% at 1.0 Gy and 0.33% at 1.5 Gy. The dose-response relationship for translocation yield was a linear one with a regression coefficient (b) of 0.16 · 10 -2 . When the slope (b) of the regression line was compared with that at a high dose rate (0.25 Gy/min, b = 1.79 · 10 -2 , it was clear that the induction rate of translocations after chronic γ-irradiation was only about one-tenth of that after high-dose-rate irradiation. Thus, there was evidence for a pronounced dose-rate effect in the crab-eating monkey. (author). 27 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. Dose-response relationship of γ-ray-induced reciprocal translocations at low doses in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Tobari, Izuo; Yamagiwa, Junji; Utsugi, Toyoko; Okamoto, Masanori; Nakai, Sayaka

    1985-01-01

    The yield of translocations induced by acute γ-irradiation at low doses in the crab-eating monkey's (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia was examined. Over the low dose range from 0 to 1 Gy, the dose-response relationship for translocation yield was a linear one. To estimate the sensitivity to the induction of translocations in the crab-eating monkey's spermatogonia, the slope of the regression line was compared with those in other mammalian species. Consequently, over the low dose range below 1 Gy, the sensitivity of the crab-eating monkey's spermatogonia to translocation induction was similar to several mammalian species, the mouse, Chinese hamster, and the rabbit, but significantly higher than that of the rhesus monkey and lower than that of the marmoset. (Auth.)

  19. Antibody responses of Macaca fascicularis against a new inactivated polio vaccine derived from Sabin strains (sIPV) in DTaP-sIPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Shiosaki, K; Goto, Y; Sonoda, K; Kino, Y

    2013-05-01

    Antibody responses of Macaca fascicularis against a new tetravalent vaccine composed of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis antigens, and inactivated poliovirus derived from Sabin strains (sIPV) was investigated to predict an optimal dose of sIPV in a new tetravalent vaccine (DTaP-sIPV) prior to conducting a dose-defined clinical study. Monkeys were inoculated with DTaP-sIPVs containing three different antigen units of sIPVs: Vaccine A (types 1:2:3 = 3:100:100 DU), Vaccine B (types 1:2:3 = 1.5:50:50 DU), and Vaccine C (types 1:2:3 = 0.75:25:25 DU). There was no difference in the average titers of neutralizing antibody against the attenuated or virulent polioviruses between Vaccines A and B. The average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine C tended to be lower than those of Vaccines A and B. The sIPV antigens did not affect the anti-diphtheria or anti-tetanus antibody titers of DTaP-sIPV. Furthermore, the average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine A against the attenuated and virulent polioviruses were comparable between M. fascicularis and humans. These results suggest that M. fascicularis may be a useful animal model for predicting the antibody responses to sIPVs in humans, and that it may be likely to reduce the amount of sIPVs contained in DTaP-sIPVs, even for humans. Copyright © 2013 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Colour cues for leaf food selection by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with a new suggestion for the evolution of trichromatic colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, P W; Darvell, B W; Lee, P K; Yuen, T D; Choong, M F

    1998-01-01

    Leaf colour, size and toughness were investigated in five plant species important in the diet of Macaca fascicularis in Singapore. Leaf colour and size were examined as potential visual cues for food selection, whereas toughness mirrored fibre content, the inverse of food quality. As leaves matured, they changed colour and toughened. Leaf lightness and yellowness were strongly negatively correlated with toughness, but variation in both the red-green axis of the CIE Lab colour space and leaf size were not. Leaves selected as food by the macaques were distinguished by being very light, yellow to slightly green. Some leaves were dappled with red. The literature suggests that these leaves are relatively rich in protein without being tough and therefore would be sought after by primates. We argue that leaf colour is an important indicator of the nutritive value of leaves. Trichromatic vision is an important advantage in finding those palatable leaves that are dappled red. These would appear dark to dichromatic primates and be deceptive by making leaves look older (lower in quality) than they actually are. This would decrease the perceived window of feeding opportunity for such primates who would be at a disadvantage in trying to find these leaves. It is possible that trichromatic vision in catarrhine primates may have originally evolved for the detection of red coloration in the leaves of shade-tolerant tropical plants, enabling the better exploitation of a food resource.

  1. [Ferumoxide labeled Flk1+ CD31- CD34- human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and its in vivo tracing in the brains of Macaca Fascicularis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming; Wang, Ren-Zhi; Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Chang-Jun; Wei, Jun-Ji; Lu, Shan; Li, Qin; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Han, Qin; Ma, Wen-Bin; Qin, Chuang; Zhao, Chun-Hua; An, Yi-Hua; Kong, Yan-Guo

    2008-10-01

    To explore the method for labeling Flk1+ CD31- CD34- human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) with ferumoxide-PLL and evaluate the feasibility of its tracing after transplantation into the brains of Macaca Fascicularis. The hBMSCs were incubated with ferumoxide-PLL. Trypan blue staining, Prussian blue staining, and transmission electron microscope were performed to show intracellular iron, marking efficiency, and the vigor of the labeled cells. After the hBMSCs were transplanted into the brains of cynomolgus monkeys by stereotaxis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to trace the cells in vivo. Cell survival and differentiation were studied with immunohistochemistry, Prussian blue staining, and HE staining. The marking efficiency of the ferumoxide-PLL was 96%. Iron particles were found intracytoplasmic of the hBMSCs by Prussian blue staining and transmission electron microscopy. The relaxation rates of labeled cells in MRI were 4.4 and 4.2 times higher than those of the unlabeled cells. Hypointensity area was found by MRI three weeks after transplantation. Many hBMSCs and new vessels were found in the transplantation zone by pathological and immunofluorescence methods. Ferumoxide-PLL can effectively label hBMSCs and thus increase its contrast in MRI results. The cells can survive in the brains of cynomolgus monkeys. The labeled hBMSCs can be traced in vivo by MRI.

  2. Injection of Carica papaya L. Seed Extract of Cibinong Variety to Macaca fascicularis L. and its Effect to Quality of Spermatozoa and Level of Testosterone Hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Nuraini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lack of contraceptive choices which meet the requirements is one of the contributing factors to less participation of man in contraceptive use. This research aimed to study the effectiveness of natural material for alternative male contraception, by injecting papaya seed extract with Cibinong variety (Carica papaya L. to long tail monkey (Macaca fascicularis L. The research was conducted at Primates Study Center, Institute of Agriculture, Bogor. Total samples of this research were 8 monkeys, with three intervention groupsand one control group. Papaya seed extract was injected via intramuscular in 21 days, with dose for each group were 40 mg/monkey, 80 mg/monkey, and 120 mg/monkey. Data analysis of spermatozoa quality (motility, viability, morfology was done by using Cochran test before and after intervention stages, and during recovery stage. Meanwhile, data aalysis of spermatozoa concentration and testosterone hormone level was done by using Friedman test. Result of this reseachdemonstrated reduction of motility, viability, and morfology ofspermatozoa after inejction of papaya seed extract and increase to normal level at recovery stage (p ≤ 0.05. These results was supported with cement aglutination. The most effective dose was at 40 mg/monkey/day, with reduction of spermatozoa motility from 87.5 % to 40%, and reduction of testosterone level from 2.35 ng/mL to 1.83 ng/mL. Even though spermatozoa motility and testosterone hormone levelreduced, but its conditions were still in good condition category.

  3. Chitinase mRNA Levels Determined by QPCR in Crab-Eating Monkey (Macaca fascicularis) Tissues: Species-Specific Expression of Acidic Mammalian Chitinase and Chitotriosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Maiko; Tabata, Eri; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Sawa, Akira; Ohno, Misa; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Matoska, Vaclav; Bauer, Peter O; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2018-05-09

    Mice and humans express two active chitinases: acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1). Both chitinases are thought to play important roles in specific pathophysiological conditions. The crab-eating monkey ( Macaca fascicularis ) is one of the most frequently used nonhuman primate models in basic and applied biomedical research. Here, we performed gene expression analysis of two chitinases in normal crab-eating monkey tissues by way of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using a single standard DNA molecule. Levels of AMCase and CHIT1 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were highest in the stomach and the lung, respectively, when compared to other tissues. Comparative gene expression analysis of mouse, monkey, and human using monkey⁻mouse⁻human hybrid standard DNA showed that the AMCase mRNA levels were exceptionally high in mouse and monkey stomachs while very low in the human stomach. As for the CHIT1 mRNA, we detected higher levels in the monkey lung when compared with those of mouse and human. The differences of mRNA expression between the species in the stomach tissues were basically reflecting the levels of the chitinolytic activities. These results indicate that gene expression of AMCase and CHIT1 differs between mammalian species and requiring special attention in handling data in chitinase-related studies in particular organisms.

  4. Discovery of novel MHC-class I alleles and haplotypes in Filipino cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing: Mafa-class I polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Takashi; Yamada, Yukiho; Aarnink, Alice; Suzuki, Shingo; Masuya, Anri; Ito, Sayaka; Ido, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Iwatani, Chizuru; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Itoh, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Kulski, Jerzy K; Blancher, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    Although the low polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) transplantation genes in the Filipino cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is expected to have important implications in the selection and breeding of animals for medical research, detailed polymorphism information is still lacking for many of the duplicated class I genes. To better elucidate the degree and types of MHC polymorphisms and haplotypes in the Filipino macaque population, we genotyped 127 unrelated animals by the Sanger sequencing method and high-resolution pyrosequencing and identified 112 different alleles, 28 at cynomolgus macaque MHC (Mafa)-A, 54 at Mafa-B, 12 at Mafa-I, 11 at Mafa-E, and seven at Mafa-F alleles, of which 56 were newly described. Of them, the newly discovered Mafa-A8*01:01 lineage allele had low nucleotide similarities (Filipino macaque population would identify these and other high-frequency Mafa-class I haplotypes that could be used as MHC control animals for the benefit of biomedical research.

  5. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Giuliano Zippo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and 3 the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1 to 8V, 1 to 10 Hz, 500ms, biphasic waves, we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being < 1ms and interblock intervals of 1.5 to 4 s have been analyzed. We found 150 to 250ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  6. Pola Penyebaran Harian Dan Karakteristik Tumbuhan Pakan Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca Fascicularis R. Di Hutan Rakyat Ambender, Pamekasan, Madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Zairina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Primata merupakan salah satu fauna arboreal di hutan yang memiliki arti penting dalam kehidupan alam. Keberadan primata sangat penting artinya dalam regenerasi hutan tropik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pola penyebaran harian, populasi, serta identifikasi jenis tumbuhan pendukung terutama sebagai pakan M. fascicularis. Pengamatan penyebaran dan populasi  monyet dilakukan di kawasan hutan rakyat yang terletak di desa Ambender Kecamatan Pegantenan, Kabupaten Pamekasan. Pemetaan penyebaran harian dan daerah edar dilakukan dengan menggunakan peta dengan plotting area aktivitas harian M. fascicularis. Estimasi populasi monyet dilakukan dengan metode terkonsentrasi di lima titik pengamatan. Parameter yang diamati dalam estimasi populasi adalah jumlah, struktur umur, jenis kelamin, dan arah pergerakannya. Penentuan jenis makanan monyet dilakukan dengan metode focal animal sampling yaitu mengamati satu individu dalam jangka waktu tertentu. Proporsi tumbuhan pendukung dilakukan dengan metode kuadrat dan dihitung proporsinya terhadap seluruh tumbuhan yang ada. Identifikasi jenis tumbuhan dilakukan secara langsung di lapangan dan jika tidak memungkinkan dibuat herbarium dan diidentifikasi di laboratorium. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan monyet melakukan penyebaran harian dengan pola tertentu. Terdapat beberapa jenis tumbuhan yang menjadi pilihan M. fascicularis sebagai pakannya. Diantaranya terdapat sekitar 22 tumbuhan hutan yang teridentifikasi dan diketahui dipilih oleh M. fascicularis sebagai pakannya, jenis tumbuhan tersebut antara lain duwek (Syzygium cumini, nyato (Palaquium eriocalyx, kalak (Uvaria purpurea, polai (Alstonia scholaris, kendal (Cordia gantamensis, dan sanek (Capparis acuminata.   Kata Kunci: M. fascicularis, Pola penyebaran, Karakteristik tumbuhan pakan

  7. West Nile Virus Encephalitis in a Barbary Macaque (Macaca sylvanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Ian K.; Crawshaw, Graham J.; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Drebot, Michael A.; Andonova, Maya

    2004-01-01

    An aged Barbary ape (Macaca sylvanus) at the Toronto Zoo became infected with naturally acquired West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis that caused neurologic signs, which, associated with other medical problems, led to euthanasia. The diagnosis was based on immunohistochemical assay of brain lesions, reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation. PMID:15200866

  8. Reconciliation and relationship quality in Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, M.A.; Bernstein, I.S.; Hemelrijk, C.K.

    A consistent conclusion in reconciliation research is that animals that reconcile are likely to have strong social bonds. This has led to the hypothesis that reconciliation occurs most often between valuable social partners. We tested this hypothesis in a group of Assamese macaques (Macaca

  9. The Effect Of PHA And SEA On Mitotic Index Of Lymphocyte Cell Of Macaca Fasciulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Masnelli; Iwiq-Indrawati

    2003-01-01

    The observation of influences of PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and SEA (staphilucoccal enterotoxin A) on mitotic index of lymphocyte of Macaca Fascicularis had been done. Half milliliters of lymphocyte cells stimulated with PHA or SEA were cultured in 10 ml RPMI + 1.0 ml Fetal Bouvine Serum (FBS ) + 0.1 ml L-glutamine + 0.15 ml PHA or 0.1 ml SEA ( 0.5 μg/ml ) + 0.1 ml Colchisin on 37 degree C for 96 hours. The result demonstrated that the frequency of mitotic index stimulated with PHA was higher than that of SEA. The average of mitotic index with PHA was 18.56 %, and with SEA was 8.3 %. (author)

  10. Nucleotide sequence of the triosephosphate isomerase gene from Macaca mulatta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Old, S.E.; Mohrenweiser, H.W. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1988-09-26

    The triosephosphate isomerase gene from a rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta, charon 34 library was sequenced. The human and chimpanzee enzymes differ from the rhesus enzyme at ASN 20 and GLU 198. The nucleotide sequence identity between rhesus and human is 97% in the coding region and >94% in the flanking regions. Comparison of the rhesus and chimp genes, including the intron and flanking sequences, does not suggest a mechanism for generating the two TPI peptides of proliferating cells from hominoids and a single peptide from the rhesus gene.

  11. Selection and Pairing of ’Normal’ Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-08

    week intervals. Fecal bacteriological cultures did not detect any Salmonella or Shigella car- riers in the population. The male monkeys ranged in age...1Special Roert 78-6 LVEL•$ SELECTION AND PAIRING OF "NORMAL" RHESUS MONKEYS (Macaca mulatto) FOR RESEARC Matthew J. Kessler, James L. Kupper, James D...public release; distribution unlimited. SELECTION AND PAIRING OF "NORMAL" RHESUS MONKEYS (Macaca mulatta) FOR RESEARCH Matthew J. Kessler, James L

  12. Single subcutaneous dosing of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, J.; Thuesen, Line Risager; Braskamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    was to determine whether cefovecin is a suitable antibiotic to prevent skin wound infection in rhesus monkeys. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cefovecin after a single subcutaneous injection at 8 mg/kg bodyweight in four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and sensitivity of bacterial isolates from fresh skin...... wounds were determined. After administration, blood, urine, and feces were collected, and concentrations of cefovecin were determined. Further, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for bacteria isolated from fresh skin wounds of monkeys during a health control program were determined. The mean...... maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ) of cefovecin was 78 µg/mL and was achieved after 57 min. The mean apparent long elimination half-life (t½) was 6.6 h and excretion occurred mainly via urine. The MIC for the majority of the bacteria examined was >100 µg/mL. The PK of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys...

  13. Alloscardovia macacae sp. nov., isolated from the milk of a macaque (Macaca mulatta), emended description of the genus Alloscardovia and proposal of Alloscardovia criceti comb. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Ročková, Š.; Vlková, E.; Rada, V.; Havlík, J.; Kopečný, Jan; Bunešová, V.; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Pechar, R.; Profousová, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 12 (2013), s. 4439-4446 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) QJ1210093 Program:QJ Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : alanine * asparagine * Alloscardovia macacae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.798, year: 2013

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  15. Risk Factors for Dystocia in Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Diane E; Torrence, Anne E; Hukkanen, Renee R; Vogel, Keith W; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Ha, James C

    2011-01-01

    Dystocia (difficult labor) is an important component of the management of nonhuman primates and results in significant fetal and maternal morbidity and increased use of veterinary resources. Dystocias can arise from abnormalities of the maternal pelvis or fetus or uncoordinated uterine activity. Although risk factors for stillbirths have been established in nonhuman primates, risk factors for dystocias have not. The objective of this study was to determine maternal and fetal risk factors for dystocia in macaques. Retrospective data were collected from 83 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) diagnosed with dystocia. The diagnosis of dystocia was made based on clinical or pathologic evidence. Maternal records of age, reproductive history, experimental history, clinical records, and fetal birth weight and any applicable fetal necropsy reports were reviewed. The gestational age of the fetus, the infant's birth weight, total previous births by the dam, and the proportions of both viable delivery (inverse effect) and surgical pregnancy interventions (direct effect) in the dam's history generated a model that maximized the experimental variance for predicting dystocia in the current pregnancy and explained 24% of the dystocia deliveries. The number of total previous births and proportion of previous cesarean sections accounted for the greatest effect. This model can identify individual dams within a colony that are at risk for dystocias and allow for changes in breeding colony management, more intense monitoring of dams at risk, or allocation of additional resources. PMID:21535929

  16. Rotational displacement skills in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kelly D; Santos, Laurie R

    2012-11-01

    Rotational displacement tasks, in which participants must track an object at a hiding location within an array while the array rotates, exhibit a puzzling developmental pattern in humans. Human children take an unusually long time to master this task and tend to solve rotational problems through the use of nongeometric features or landmarks as opposed to other kinds of spatial cues. We investigated whether these developmental characteristics are unique to humans by testing rotational displacement skills in a monkey species, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), using a looking-time method. Monkeys first saw food hidden in two differently colored boxes within an array. The array was then rotated 180° and the boxes reopened to reveal the food in an expected or unexpected location. Our first two experiments explored the developmental time-course of performance on this rotational displacement task. We found that adult macaques looked longer at the unexpected event, but such performance was not mirrored in younger-aged macaques. In a third study, we systematically varied featural information and visible access to the array to investigate which strategies adult macaques used in solving rotational displacements. Our results show that adult macaques need both sets of information to solve the task. Taken together, these results suggest both similarities and differences in mechanisms by which human and nonhuman primates develop this spatial skill.

  17. A Macaca mulatta model of fulminant hepatic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zhou; Hong Bu; Jie Xia; Gang Guo; Li Li; Yu-Jun Shi; Zi-Xing Huang; Qiang Lu; Hong-Xia Li

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish an appropriate primate model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). METHODS: We have, for the first time, established a large animal model of FHF in Macaca mulatta by intraperitoneal infusion of amatoxin and endotoxin. Clinical features, biochemical indexes, histopathology and iconography were examined to dynamically investigate the progress and outcome of the animal model. RESULTS: Our results showed that the enzymes and serum bilirubin were markedly increased and the enzyme-bilirubin segregation emerged 36 h after toxin administration. Coagulation activity was significantly decreased. Gradually deteriorated parenchymal abnormality was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography at 48 h. The liver biopsy showed marked hepatocyte steatosis and massive parenchymal necrosis at 36 h and 49 h, respectively. The autopsy showed typical yellow atrophy of the liver. Hepatic encephalopathy of the models was also confirmed by hepatic coma, MRI and pathological changes of cerebral edema. The lethal effects of the extrahepatic organ dysfunction were ruled out by their biochemical indices, imaging and histopathology. CONCLUSION: We have established an appropriate large primate model of FHF, which is closely similar to clinic cases, and can be used for investigation of the mechanism of FHF and for evaluation of potential medical therapies.

  18. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genetic characterization of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyes, Randall C; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Chalise, Mukesh K; Engel, Gregory; Heidrich, John; Grant, Richard; Bajimaya, Shyam S; McDonough, John; Smith, David Glenn; Ferguson, Betsy

    2006-05-01

    Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have long served as an animal model for the study of human disease and behavior. Given the current shortage of Indian-origin rhesus, many researchers have turned to rhesus macaques from China as a substitute. However, a number of studies have identified marked genetic differences between the Chinese and Indian animals. We investigated the genetic characteristics of a third rhesus population, the rhesus macaques of Nepal. Twenty-one rhesus macaques at the Swoyambhu Temple in Kathmandu, Nepal, were compared with more than 300 Indian- and Chinese-origin rhesus macaques. The sequence analyses of two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) loci, from the HVS I and 12 S rRNA regions, showed that the Nepali animals were more similar to Indian-origin than to Chinese-origin animals. The distribution of alleles at 24 short tandem repeat (STR) loci distributed across 17 chromosomes also showed greater similarity between the Nepali and Indian-origin animals. Finally, an analysis of seven major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles showed that the Nepali animals expressed Class I alleles that are common to Indian-origin animals, including Mamu-A*01. All of these analyses also revealed a low level of genetic diversity within this Nepali rhesus sample. We conclude that the rhesus macaques of Nepal more closely resemble rhesus macaques of Indian origin than those of Chinese origin. As such, the Nepali rhesus may offer an additional resource option for researchers who wish to maintain research protocols with animals that possess key genetic features characteristic of Indian-origin rhesus macaques. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Emotional states after grooming interactions in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In animal societies, the effect of grooming interactions on anxiety reduction is unclear. This study examined the effects of giving and receiving grooming on anxiety reduction in free ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by measuring rates of self-scratching as an index of anxiety. In this study, the authors used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama prefecture, Japan. They evaluated affiliative relationships, which were defined by standard proximity rates, and found that females' self-scratching rates were lower after grooming affiliated partners than during matched-control periods (occurring on another day, beginning at approximately the same time of day as the corresponding postgrooming period) and not after grooming unaffiliated partners. Moreover, regardless of affiliative relationships, self-scratching rates were lower after receiving grooming than during matched-control periods. These findings did not change after excluding data in which groomer and groomee were in proximity after the grooming interaction. In addition, multivariable analysis showed that affiliative relationships, but not kinship or rank distances, were related to differences in the rates of self-scratching between giving grooming and matched-control periods. In contrast, neither affiliative relationships nor kinship nor rank distances affected differences in self-scratching rates between receiving grooming and matched-control periods. Therefore, individuals' anxiety levels decreased both after giving grooming to affiliated partners and after receiving grooming, regardless of affiliative relationships. This is the first empirical study to support the notion that giving grooming to affiliated partners is self-rewarding in Japanese macaques. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Macaca munzala: a new species from Western Arunachal Pradesh, Northeastern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, A.; Datta, A.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Mishra, C.

    2005-01-01

    Macaca, comprising 20 well-characterized species, represents the largest and one of the most ecologically and socially diverse of all the nonhuman primate genera. We report the discovery of a macaque that is new to science from the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, a biodiversity-rich

  2. Radiographic Incidence of Spinal Osteopathologies in Captive Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Perdigón-Castañeda, Gerardo; Galván-Montaño, Alfonso; de Oca, Guadalupe García-Montes; Zapata-Valdez, Carinthia; Tena-Betancourt, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Degenerative spinal disease is a leading cause of chronic disability both in humans and animals. Although widely seen as a normal occurrence of aging, degenerative spinal disease can be caused by various genetic, iatrogenic, inflammatory, and congenital factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the degenerative spine-related diseases and the age at onset in a random subpopulation of 20 captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; male, 13; female, 7; age: range, 4 to 27 y; median, 1...

  3. Reference values of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Younan; Qin, Shengfang; Ding, Yang; Wei, Lingling; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hongxia; Bu, Hong; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2009-01-01

    Rhesus monkey models are valuable to the studies of human biology. Reference values for clinical chemistry and hematology parameters of rhesus monkeys are required for proper data interpretation. Whole blood was collected from 36 healthy Chinese rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) of either sex, 3 to 5 yr old. Routine chemistry and hematology parameters, and some special coagulation parameters including thromboelastograph and activities of coagulation factors were tested. We presented here the baseline values of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters in normal Chinese rhesus monkeys. These data may provide valuable information for veterinarians and investigators using rhesus monkeys in experimental studies.

  4. Effect of chronic administration of Tamoxifen on fertility in male bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A J; Ramachandra, S G; Ramesh, V; Krishnamurthy, H N; Jayaraman, S; Gopalakrishnan, K; Juneja, H S

    1998-01-01

    Administration of Tamoxifen via the Alzet pump at a rate of 50 micrograms hr-1 for 90 days in the adult male bonnet monkeys Macaca radiata had no effect on the serum testosterone concentration determined at 10 AM and 10 PM as well as total sperm count determined at 15-day intervals over a period of 260 days. However, a significant reduction in sperm motility was observed beyond 90 days up until the 225th day. Breeding studies conducted from day 90 to 260 revealed that these males were infertile.

  5. Normal Hematological, Biochemical, and Serum Electrolyte Values for a Colony of Rhesus Monkeys ’Macaca mulatta’,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-28

    Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, 1966. Pp 80-87. 3. Banerjee, S., and Chakrabarty, A.S., Anaemia and its relation with iron metabolism in...D.P., Valerjo, M.G., and -f Rininger, B.F., Hematologic changes associated with pregnancy and parturition in Macaca mulatta. Lab. Anim. Care, 20

  6. Alkylmercurial encephalopathy in the monkey (Saimiri sciureus and Macaca Arctoides); a histopathologic and autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garman, R H; Weiss, B; Evans, H L

    1975-01-01

    Histopathologic and autoradiographic studies were performed on monkeys of the genera Saimiri and Macaca after acute and chronic oral exposure to several dosage regimens of methylmercuric chloride (MeHg). Neuropathologic changes were primarily cortical, although subcortical lesions also were observed. Autoradiographic localization of /sup 203/Hg was greatest within glial cells (particularly Nissl-plump astrocytes, subependymal glia and Bergmann's glia) and mast cells. High levels of label within normal appearing large neurons (particularly those within Gasserian and dorsal root ganglia) indicate a lower susceptibility of these neurons to the toxic effects of MeHg. Blood and brain levels of mercury correlated well with the degree of neuropathologic change, but individual variations in susceptibility to intoxication also existed. (auth)

  7. Applicability of Non-Invasive Sampling in Population Genetic Study of Taiwanese Macaques (Macaca cyclopis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Chu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pilot study conducted to test the applicability of non-invasive sampling approach in population genetic studies of Taiwanese macaques (Macaca cyclopis. Monkey feces were collected in the field and used as non-invasive DNA sources. PCR success rates of both microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers were examined. When compared with other studies by non-invasive genetic sampling of different mammal species, success rate of microsatellite PCR amplification is low (42.4%, N = 181 while that of mtDNA PCR amplification is acceptable (66.5%, N = 334. The low PCR success rate and poor PCR repeatability of microsatellite alleles due to allelic dropout and false alleles make it difficult to obtain a reliable microsatellite data set. However, the difficulties may be overcome by new techniques.

  8. Radiation-induced mutation frequency in marked chromosome of Macaca mulatta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhemilev, Z.A.; Machavariani, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The symmetric and asymmetric exchange frequencies of marked (nucleolus forming) chromosomes were studied in the lymphocytes and epithelial kidney cells irradiated by X-rays at G 0 , both in vivo and in vitro. Symmetric and asymmetric exchange frequencies were found to be equal. In both the types of Macaca mulatta cells, the exchange frequency in the long arm appeared to be higher than theoretically expected. The increased exchange in the long arm is thought to be due to a greater quantity of late replicating heterochromatin in it. The short arm of marked chromosome of epithelial kidney cells enters the exchange in accordance to its length in mitosis, but exchange number in the short arm chromosome in lymphocytes is lower than in epithelial cells. This difference is caused likely by different functioning of the nucleolus forming heterochromatin. (author)

  9. Rosalie: the brazilian female monkey of Charcot Rosalie: a pequenina macaca brasileira de Charcot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Martin Charcot, the father of Neurology, a very austere and reserved man that did not express affection freely for human being, had a profound affection to animals, particularly to a small female monkey, called "Rosalie", which came from Brazil and was a gift of Dom Pedro II to Charcot.Jean-Martin Charcot, considerado o pai da Neurologia, foi um homem de aspecto austero e reservado, que tinha dificuldades de expressar os seus sentimentos para outros seres humanos. Contudo ele tinha profunda afeição por animais, particularmente por uma pequena macaca, chamada de "Rosalie", oriunda do Brasil e que foi um presente dado a ele por Dom Pedro II.

  10. Perceived control in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - Enhanced video-task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine whether perceived control effects found in humans extend to rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) tested in a video-task format, using a computer-generated menu program, SELECT. Choosing one of the options in SELECT resulted in presentation of five trials of a corresponding task and subsequent return to the menu. In Experiments 1-3, the animals exhibited stable, meaningful response patterns in this task (i.e., they made choices). In Experiment 4, performance on tasks that were selected by the animals significantly exceeded performance on identical tasks when assigned by the experimenter under comparable conditions (e.g., time of day, order, variety). The reliable and significant advantage for performance on selected tasks, typically found in humans, suggests that rhesus monkeys were able to perceive the availability of choices.

  11. Comparative anatomy of the arm muscles of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with some comments on locomotor mechanics and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A G M F; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    The anatomical literature on the genus Macaca has focused mainly on the rhesus monkey. However, some aspects in the positional behaviors of the Japanese monkey may be different from those in rhesus monkey, suggesting that the anatomical details of these species are divergent. Four thoracic limbs of Macaca fuscata adults were dissected. The arm muscles in Japanese macaques are more similar to rhesus monkeys and Papio; these characteristics are closer to those of bearded capuchins than apes, indicating more proximity of this genus to New World primates. The anatomical features observed favor quadrupedal locomotor behaviors on the ground and in arboreal environments. Japanese monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and bearded capuchins, which share more primitive characteristics in their arm muscles, present features that favor both arboreal and quadrupedal locomotor behaviors, whereas apes, mainly Pan and Gorilla, which spend more time on the ground, present more quadrupedal specializations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A difference in [14C]deoxyglucose autoradiographic patterns in striate cortex between Macaca and Saimiri monkeys following monocular stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, A.E.; Wilson, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Since the apparent absence of ocular dominance columns (ODC) in some New World primates could be caused by deficiencies of the transsynaptic autoradiographic technique, such as spillage of label in the poorly laminated dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, the authors have examined this question using a functional autoradiographic tracing technique based on the uptake of [ 14 C]2-deoxyglucose ([ 14 C]dG) by active neurons. When only one eye is stimulated, this innovative method graphically demonstrates a repetitive pattern in Macaca monkey striate cortex which has been interpreted to be the ODC driven by the open eye. They now report on the results of a comparative study of Old World Macaca and New World Saimiri monkeys using [ 14 C]dG autoradiography in which evidence is found for repetitive patterns of [ 14 C]dG in Saimiri for layers above, but not in, layer IV. (Auth.)

  13. Macaca silenus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    severity of conflict, pattern of post-conflict resolution and grooming relationships ..... Puthuthotam Estates for permission to work in their private property. ... Press) pp 157–181. Hemelrijk C K 2004 The use of artificial life-models for the study.

  14. Early development of peer dominance relationships in a captive group of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIZALDI, Kunio WATANABE

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied early development of peer dominance relationships in a captive group of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata fuscata at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University. This study aims to give detailed descriptions on characteristic patterns of maternal rank acquisition from infant to juvenile. Focal subjects were 22 young monkeys belonging to three cohorts born in 2002, 2003 and 2005. Data were collected with a total 2130 sessions of 30-minute continuous recording of focal subjects combined with all occurrence-sampling methods. The onset of aggressive behavior varied per cohort and was delayed in cohorts with fewer close-aged associates. More than 60% of dyadic combinations in agonistic interactions between peers were unidirectional throughout the study period. Although some bidirectional interactions could have involved unstable relationships between particular individuals, most of the bidirectional interactions included a few continuous series of alternating one-sided interactions. A linear order could be found among peers from the first appearance of aggressive behavior, and nearly 90% of those dyads were concordant with that of their mother’s rank order. Young males were responsible for most of the dominance relations that would not be predicted based on their mother’s rank. These results suggest that infant monkeys may recognize their own social status relative to their opponent’s before onset of aggressive behavior and adjust themselves into the matrilineal rank system accordingly[Current Zoology 56 (2: 190–197, 2010].

  15. Evaluation of cell sheet application on one wall bone defect in Macaca nemestrina through periostin expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamin, R. Y.; Soeroso, Y.; Amir, L.; Idrus, E.

    2017-08-01

    Chronic periodontitis is an oral disease in which the destruction of periodontal tissue leads to tooth loss. Regenerative therapy for attachment cannot be applied to one wall bone defects owing to the minimal existing healthy bone. Tissue engineering in the form of cell sheets has been developed to overcome this limitation. In a previous study, cell sheet application to a one wall bone defect in Macaca nemestrina showed good clinical results. To evaluate the effectiveness of cell sheet application histologically, the level of periostin expression in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of M. nemestrina was determined. Periostin is a 90-kDa protein that regulates coordination and interaction for regeneration and tissue repair. A laboratory observation study was performed to see the differences in periostin levels in samples collected from M. nemestrina’s GCF, where a cell sheet was applied to the bone defect. Gel electrophoresis with SDS-PAGE was performed to detect periostin expression based on its molecular weight and to compare the expression band between the cell sheet and the control at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after treatment. The gel electrophoresis result shows different thicknesses of the protein band around the molecular weight of periostin between the cell sheet groups.

  16. An experimental investigation of referential looking in free-ranging Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sam G B; McComb, Karen; Ruffman, Ted

    2008-02-01

    The authors examined looking behavior between 15 Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) infants and their mothers in the presence of a rubber snake (experimental period) and in the absence of the snake (control period). Two of the 15 infants looked referentially at their mother in the experimental period. Including both referential and nonreferential looks, the six older infants (aged 5 to 12 months) displayed a higher frequency of looks to mother than nine younger infants (aged 3 to 4.5 months) in the experimental period, but not in the control period. Older infants looked more to the mother in the experimental condition, whereas the younger infants looked more to the mother in the control condition, or looked equally in the two conditions. These results suggest that age is an important factor in determining looking behavior to mother in situations of uncertainty. Compared to hand-reared chimpanzees or human infants tested in standard social referencing paradigms, the infant macaques displayed a low rate of referential looking. Possible explanations for this are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borgi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species.

  18. Immunohistochemical and morphological features of a small bowel leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristizabal-Arbelaez Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous gastrointestinal neoplasms in non-human primates are commonly seen in aged individuals. Due to genetic similarities between human and non-human primates, scientists have shown increasing interest in terms of comparative oncology studies. Case presentation The present study is related to a case of an intestinal leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra, kept on captivity by Matecaña Zoo, Pereira City, Colombia. The animal had abdominal distension, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea and behavioral changes. Clinical examination showed an increased volume in the upper right abdominal quadrant caused by a neoplastic mass. The patient died during the surgical procedure. Necropsy revealed several small nodules in the peritoneum with adhesion to different portions of the small and large intestines, liver, stomach and diaphragm. Tissue samples were collected, routinely processed and stained by H&E. Microscopic examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor limited to tunica muscularis, resembling normal smooth muscle cells. Neoplastic cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, and negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 by immunohistochemistry. Those morphological and immunohistochemical findings allowed to diagnose the intestinal leiomyoma referred above. Conclusion Neoplastic diseases in primates have multifaceted causes. Their manifestations are understudied, leading to a greater difficulty in detection and measurement of the real impact provides by this disease.

  19. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  20. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this species....... Reference intervals established were as follows: SAA, 29.5–87.7 mg/L; CRP, 0–17.5 mg/L; haptoglobin, 354.3–2,414.7 mg/L; albumin, 36.1–53.0 g/L; and iron, 13.3–40.2 lmol/L. Furthermore, changes in the acute-phase reactants were studied in two additional groups of animals: eight rhesus macaques suffering...... from acute traumatic injuries and nine rhesus macaques experimentally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis reflecting a chronic active inflammation. In animals with inflammation, SAA and haptoglobin concentrations were moderately increased, while CRP increased more than 200-fold. In addition, marked...

  1. Thrombotic stroke in the anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta): characterization by MRI - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauberti, Maxime; Gakuba, Clement; Orset, Cyrille; Obiang, Pauline; Guedin, Pierre; Balossier, Anne; Diependaele, Anne-Sophie; Young, Alan R.; Agin, Veronique; Chazalviel, Laurent; Vivien, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The lack of a relevant stroke model in large nonhuman primates hinders the development of innovative diagnostic/therapeutic approaches concerned with this cerebrovascular disease. Our objective was to develop a novel and clinically relevant model of embolic stroke in the anesthetized monkey that incorporates readily available clinical imaging techniques and that would allow the possibility of drug delivery including strategies of reperfusion. Thrombin was injected into the lumen of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 12 anesthetized (sevoflurane) male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Sequential MRI studies (including angiography, FLAIR, PWI, DWI, and gadolinium-enhanced T1W imaging) were performed in a 3 T clinical MRI. Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the investigations. Once standardized, the surgical procedure induced transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in all operated animals. All animals studied showed spontaneous reperfusion, which occurred some time between 2 h and 7 days post-ictus. Eighty percent of the studied animals showed diffusion/perfusion mismatch. The ischemic lesions at 24 h spared both superficial and profound territories of the MCA. Some animals presented hemorrhagic transformation at 7 days post-ictus. In this study, we developed a pre-clinically relevant model of embolic stroke in the anesthetized nonhuman primate. (authors)

  2. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta held in captivity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  3. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available. PMID:24850977

  4. New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Transplantation in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fasicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kristin A; Tonsho, Makoto; Madsen, Joren C

    2015-08-01

    A 5.5-y-old intact male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fasicularis) presented with inappetence and weight loss 57 d after heterotopic heart and thymus transplantation while receiving an immunosuppressant regimen consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone to prevent graft rejection. A serum chemistry panel, a glycated hemoglobin test, and urinalysis performed at presentation revealed elevated blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (727 mg/dL and 10.1%, respectively), glucosuria, and ketonuria. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and insulin therapy was initiated immediately. The macaque was weaned off the immunosuppressive therapy as his clinical condition improved and stabilized. Approximately 74 d after discontinuation of the immunosuppressants, the blood glucose normalized, and the insulin therapy was stopped. The animal's blood glucose and HbA1c values have remained within normal limits since this time. We suspect that our macaque experienced new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation, a condition that is commonly observed in human transplant patients but not well described in NHP. To our knowledge, this report represents the first documented case of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation in a cynomolgus macaque.

  5. Distribution of an 125I-labelled chloroquine analogue in a pregnant macaca monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dencker, L.; Lindquist, N.G.; Ullberg, S.

    1975-01-01

    Whole body autoradiography of a pregnant monkey (Macaca irus) of late gestation was performed 72 h after an intravenous injection of the 125 I-labelled chloroquine analogue 4-(3-dimethylaminopropylamino)-7-iodoquinoline (DAPQ). The overall distribution pattern in the monkey was similar to that which was earlier observed in rodents. A few species differences, however, were found in the monkey as compared to the rodents: a high accumulation in the inner part of the adrenal cortex, a high level in the central nervous system, and generally a higher retention in the tissues. The accumulation in the cortex may be of significance for the cortisone-like effects of the 4-aminoquinolines in rheumatoid arthritis and allied conditions. The fact that no accumulation was found in the adrenal cortex of mice and rats indicates that these species may not be appropriate in studies on the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of the 4-aminoquinolines. As was earlier observed in small rodents the melanin containing structures accumulated the drug. In both the mother and the fetus a high concentration was thus seen in the uveal tract of the eye, in the inner ear (in the stria vascularis of the cochlea and the planum semilunatum of the ampullae) and in the hair follicles. This accumulation can be related to reported disturbances-also transplacentally induced-in vision and hearing

  6. Change detection by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, L Caitlin; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A

    2012-08-01

    Two monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned a color change-detection task where two colored circles (selected from a 4-color set) were presented on a 4 × 4 invisible matrix. Following a delay, the correct response was to touch the changed colored circle. The monkeys' learning, color transfer, and delay transfer were compared to a similar experiment with pigeons. Monkeys, like pigeons (Columba livia), showed full transfer to four novel colors, and to delays as long as 6.4 s, suggesting they remembered the colors as opposed to perceptual based attentional capture process that may work at very short delays. The monkeys and pigeons were further tested to compare transfer with other dimensions. Monkeys transferred to shape and location changes, unlike the pigeons, but neither species transferred to size changes. Thus, monkeys were less restricted in their domain to detect change than pigeons, but both species learned the basic task and appear suitable for comparative studies of visual short-term memory. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Effects on executive function following damage to the prefrontal cortex in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tara L; Schettler, Stephen P; Killiany, Ronald J; Rosene, Douglas L; Moss, Mark B

    2009-04-01

    Executive function is a term used to describe the cognitive processes subserved by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). An extensive body of work has characterized the effects of damage to the PFC in nonhuman primates, but it has focused primarily on the capacity of recognition and working memory. One limitation in studies of the functional parcellation of the PFC has been the absence of tests that assess executive function or its functional components. The current study used an adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a classic test of frontal lobe and executive function in humans, to assess the effects of bilateral lesions in the dorsolateral PFC on executive function in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). The authors used the category set-shifting task, which requires the monkey to establish a pattern of responding to a specific category (color or shape) based on reward contingency, maintain that pattern of responding, and then shift to responding to a different category when the reward contingency changes. Rhesus monkeys with lesions of the dorsolateral PFC were impaired in abstraction, establishing a response pattern to a specific category and maintaining and shifting that response pattern on the category set-shifting task. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in lime-stone habitats of Nonggang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihai ZHOU, Hua WEI, Zhonghao HUANG, Chengming HUANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance our understanding of dietary adaptations in macaques we studied the diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in limestone seasonal rain forests at Nonggang Nature Reserve, China from September 2005 to August 2006. Our results show that although macaques fed on many plant species, 85.2% of the diet came from only 12 species, of which a bamboo species, Indocalamus calcicolus contributed to 62% of the diet. Young leaves were staple food items (74.1% of the diet for Assamese macaques at Nonggang, and constituted the bulk of monthly diets almost year-round, ranging from 44.9% (July to 92.9% (May. Young parts of Indocalamus calcicolus unexpanded leaves contributed to a large proportion of the young leaf diet in most months. Fruit accounted for only 17.4% of the diet, with a peak of consumption in July. We suggest that this highly folivorous diet may be related to the long lean season of fruit availability in limestone habitats as well as the utilization of cliffs of low fruit availability [Current Zoology 57 (1: 18–25, 2011].

  9. Effects of Transportation on Antioxidant Status in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xueying; Lu, Liang; Zeng, Xiancheng; Chang, Yan; Hua, Xiuguo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of transportation on oxidative stress in cynomolgus monkeys, we measured serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (PC) and the activities of total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase in cynomolgus macaques before transportation (day 0), on the day of arrival (day 1), and on days 7, 14, and 21 after transportation. Compared with that on day 0, TAOC and catalase activities on days 1, 7, and 14 after transportation were significantly decreased, reached their nadirs on day 7, and increased thereafter to reach their pretransportation levels by day 21 after transportation. Compared with day 0 levels, mean SOD activity and GSH concentration were decreased significantly on day 1; they thereafter increased to reach their pretransportation measures by day 7 after transportation. In contrast, PC and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum and the activity of GSH-Px were increased on day 1 compared with day 0 and thereafter decreased to reach their pretransportation levels by day 14 after transportation. In summary, GSH, TAOC, catalase, and SOD levels decreased and malondialdehyde, PC, and GSH-Px concentrations increased in cynomolgus macaques after transportation. These results suggest that transportation might imbalance oxidant and antioxidant levels to create excess oxidative stress in cynomolgus macaques. Therefore, cynomolgus macaques should have at least 21 d to recover after transportation and regain their healthy status.

  10. Pedicled Instep Flap and Tibial Nerve Reconstruction in a Cynomolgus Monkey [Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Weiss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male cynomolgus monkey experienced extensive soft tissue trauma to the right caudal calf area. Some weeks after complete healing of the original wounds, the monkey developed a chronic pressure sore on plantar surface of the heel of its right foot. A loss of sensitivity in the sole of the foot was hypothesized. The skin defect was closed by a medial sensate pedicled instep flap followed by counter transplantation of a full thickness graft from the interdigital webspace. The integrity of the tibial nerve was revised and reconstructed by means of the turnover flap technique. Both procedures were successful. This is an uncommon case in an exotic veterinary patient as it demonstrates a reconstructive skin flap procedure for the treatment of a chronic, denervated wound in combination with the successful reconstruction of 2.5 cm gap in the tibial nerve.

  11. Physiological and behavioural stress responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to noise associated with construction work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, K; Fernström, A-L; Wergård, E-M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioural and physiological responses to environmental disturbances (live and recorded dynamite explosions) in laboratory non-human primates in preparation for a future tunnel construction underneath our animal facility. In a pilot study (A) on 2...

  12. Reach–to-grasp movements in macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the ‘isochrony principle’ seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  13. Reach-to-grasp movements in Macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the “isochrony principle” seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment. PMID:23658547

  14. Idiopathic New Bone Formation in the Femoral Shafts of a Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-il; Kim, Young-suk; Kim, Myung-Jin; Hong, Sung-Hyeok

    2008-01-01

    A 6.5-y-old cynomolgus monkey was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at Chungnam National University for suspected bone fracture. The monkey had been reared singly in a cage at a laboratory facility. An animal caretaker incidentally found a bone fragment protruding through the skin of the right leg. Radiographic examination revealed 2 new bone fragments clearly distinguishable from the original femurs; the fragments seemed to be inserted into both femurs. One of the new bone...

  15. The influence of social structure on social isolation in amphetamine-treated Java monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbout, D.A.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cools, A.R.

    1996-10-01

    Amphetamine-induced social isolation in monkeys has often been considered a valid animal model for certain negative symptoms of schizophrenia. However, there appear to be many ambiguities in relation to the exact nature of the isolation. Therefore, the effect of orally administered amphetamine (AMP) on the occurrence of social isolation in Java monkeys was studied. In part I the rank dependency of the effects of AMP (0.5mg/kg) was investigated in four alpha-males and three beta-males. AMP increased 'proximity' and 'passive groom', and decreased 'active allogroom' in alpha-males. In contrast, AMP decreased all three behavioural elements to a certain extent in beta-males. It is concluded that AMP induces social isolation in beta-males, but not in alpha-males. In part II of this study the AMP-induced behaviour of the treated monkey and the simultaneously occurring changes in the non-treated monkeys were investigated in a detailed study of a single social group. AMP significantly reduced the frequency of 'exploration', 'locomotion', 'self-groom', 'swing', 'active groom', 'inspect', 'approach' and originally-present stereotypies. Thus AMP apparently reduces the ability to initiate behaviour which is characteristic for the adult animal. AMP did not affect the frequency of 'present' and 'play' and enhanced that of 'aggression' and 'fear' in the beta-male; it also elicited various juvenile-like behaviours in both alpha- and beta-males, suggesting that AMP induces a behavioural regression. Furthermore, the behaviour of the non-treated monkeys of the group was decisive for the occurrence of social isolation of the treated monkey. Thus, the effects of AMP on the social behaviour of Java monkeys depend on the individual sensitivity, the social position which the subject occupies in its group, and the behaviour of the partners of the treated subject.

  16. Mapping of FGF1 in the Medulla Oblongata of Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisem, Naomi J; Takeuchi, Shigeko; Imamura, Toru; Abdelalim, Essam M; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-12-26

    FGF1 is highly expressed in neurons and it has been proposed to play a role in the neuroprotection and in regeneration. Low FGF1 expression in neurons has been linked to increased vulnerability in cholinergic neurons. Previous reports have shown that the expression of FGF1 in rat brain is localized to the cholinergic nuclei of the medulla oblongata, with low ratio of neurons positive for FGF1 in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The role of FGF1 in the primate brain has yet to be clarified. In this study, we mapped FGF1 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of cynomolgus monkey brainstems. Our results demonstrated that FGF1 immunoreactivity follows the pattern of distribution of cholinergic nuclei in the medulla oblongata; with strong localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, the facial nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus. In contrast, the DMNV shows markedly lower FGF1 immunoreactivity. Localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons was only observed in the lateral region of the DMNV, with higher immunoreactivity in the rostral ventral-lateral region of the DMNV. These findings are consistent with the distribution of FGF1 immunoreactivity in previous studies of the rat brain.

  17. Relationship between Social Rank and Cortisol and Testosterone concentrations in Male Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Czoty, Paul W.; Gould, Robert W.; Nader, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In nonhuman primate social groups, biological differences related to social status have proven useful in investigating mechanisms of sensitivity to various disease states. Physiological and neurobiological differences between dominant and subordinate monkeys have been interpreted in the context of chronic social stress. The present experiments were designed to investigate the relationships between basal cortisol and testosterone concentrations and the establishment and maintenance of the soci...

  18. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals.

  19. Gastrointestinal Endoparasites Diversity of Macaca fascicularis in Goa Monyet Tenau Garden, Kupang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Komang Oka Wirawan

    2015-11-01

    sp./ 80%, Ancylostoma sp./60%, Strongyloides sp./46.7%. The difference percentages of infection were influenced by several factors, such as vegetation, water sources, sanitation, season, temperature and population.

  20. The genetic composition of populations of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) used in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S; Ng, J; Satkoski Trask, J; George, D A; Kou, A J; Hoffman, L N; Doherty, T B; Houghton, P; Smith, D G

    2013-06-01

    The genetic composition of cynomolgus macaques used in biomedical research is not as well-characterized as that of rhesus macaques. Populations of cynomolgus macaques from Sumatra, Corregidor, Mauritius, Singapore, Cambodia, and Zamboanga were analyzed using 24 STRs. The Sumatran and Cambodian populations exhibited the highest allelic diversity, while the Mauritian population exhibited the lowest. Sumatran cynomolgus macaques were the most genetically similar to all others, consistent with an Indonesian origin of the species. The high diversity among Cambodian animals may result from interbreeding with rhesus macaques. The Philippine and Mauritian samples were the most divergent from other populations, the former due to separation from the Sunda Shelf by deepwater and the latter due to anthropogenic translocation and extreme founder effects. Investigators should verify their research subjects' origin, ancestry, and pedigree to minimize risks to biomedical experimentation from genetic variance stemming from close kinship and mixed ancestry as these can obscure treatment effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Antibody Responses in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis, to Protein Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    viscosus, an organ- ism involved in human gingivitis , for up to six months reinforced the role of the NhP as a model in the study of human gingivitis ...have three, three, and two interchain disulfide bridges, respectively, human IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 have two, four, and four- teen , respectively. These...Mackler 1977, 1978a, 1978b). While biopsies from gingivitis sites contained 94% T- cells, biopsies from periodontitis sites revealed a predominance of

  2. Acute traumatic spinal cord injury induces glial activation in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A D; Westmoreland, S V; Evangelous, N R; Graham, A; Sledge, J; Nesathurai, S

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury leads to direct myelin and axonal damage and leads to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to site of injury. Although rodent models have provided the greatest insight into the genesis of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), recent studies have attempted to develop an appropriate non-human primate model. We explored TSCI in a cynomolgus macaque model using a balloon catheter to mimic external trauma to further evaluate the underlying mechanisms of acute TSCI. Following 1hour of spinal cord trauma, there were focal areas of hemorrhage and necrosis at the site of trauma. Additionally, there was a marked increased expression of macrophage-related protein 8, MMP9, IBA-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages and microglia at the site of injury. This data indicate that acute TSCI in the cynomolgus macaque is an appropriate model and that the earliest immunohistochemical changes noted are within macrophage and microglia populations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. The influence of rearing conditions on maternal behavior in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, P.J.A.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the influence of rearing on the adequacy of maternal behavior by comparing 20 harem-reared and 15 peer-reared primiparous cynomolgus monkeys. We used them plus 11 wild-caught females to extend this comparison to multiparous subjects and also to compare primiparae with multiparae. We

  4. Comparative proteomic analyses of macular and peripheral retina of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Haru; Umeda, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Takehiro; Suzuki, Michihiro T; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Etsuko T; Iwata, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The central region of the primate retina is called the macula. The fovea is located at the center of the macula, where the photoreceptors are concentrated to create a neural network adapted for high visual acuity. Damage to the fovea, e.g., by macular dystrophies and age-related macular degeneration, can reduce central visual acuity. The molecular mechanisms leading to these diseases are most likely dependent on the proteins in the macula which differ from those in the peripheral retina in expression level. To investigate whether the distribution of proteins in the macula is different from the peripheral retina, proteomic analyses of tissues from these two regions of cynomolgus monkeys were compared. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identified 26 proteins that were present only in the macular gel spots. The expression levels of five proteins, cone photoreceptor specific arrestin-C, gamma-synuclein, epidermal fatty acid binding protein, tropomyosin 1alpha chain, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1, were significantly higher in the macula than in the peripheral retina. Immunostaining of macula sections by antibodies to each identified protein revealed unique localization in the retina, retinal pigment epithelial cells and the choroidal layer. Some of these proteins were located in cells with higher densities in the macula. We suggest that it will be important to study these proteins to determine their contribution to the pathogenesis and progression of macula diseases.

  5. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  6. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general......, the old monkeys scored significantly worse than did the animals in the two other age groups. Longer delays between stimulus presentation and response increased the performance differences between the old and younger monkeys. The old monkeys in particular showed signs of impaired visuo-spatial memory...

  7. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, van J.A.R.A.M.; Gispen, W.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal's own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These

  8. Young macaques (Macaca fascicularis) preferentially bias attention towards closer, older, and better tool users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amanda W Y; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D

    2018-05-12

    Examining how animals direct social learning during skill acquisition under natural conditions, generates data for examining hypotheses regarding how transmission biases influence cultural change in animal populations. We studied a population of macaques on Koram Island, Thailand, and examined model-based biases during interactions by unskilled individuals with tool-using group members. We first compared the prevalence of interactions (watching, obtaining food, object exploration) and proximity to tool users during interactions, in developing individuals (infants, juveniles) versus mature non-learners (adolescents, adults), to provide evidence that developing individuals are actively seeking information about tool use from social partners. All infants and juveniles, but only 49% of mature individuals carried out interacted with tool users. Macaques predominantly obtained food by scrounging or stealing, suggesting maximizing scrounging opportunities motivates interactions with tool users. However, while interactions by adults was limited to obtaining food, young macaques and particularly infants also watched tool users and explored objects, indicating additional interest in tool use itself. We then ran matrix correlations to identify interaction biases, and what attributes of tool users influenced these. Biases correlated with social affiliation, but macaques also preferentially targeted tool users that potentially increase scrounging and learning opportunities. Results suggest that social structure may constrain social learning, but the motivation to bias interactions towards tool users to maximize feeding opportunities may also socially modulate learning by facilitating close proximity to better tool users, and further interest in tool-use actions and materials, especially during development.

  9. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Mapping of FGF1 in the Medulla Oblongata of Macaca fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisem, Naomi J.; Takeuchi, Shigeko; Imamura, Toru; Abdelalim, Essam M.; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    FGF1 is highly expressed in neurons and it has been proposed to play a role in the neuroprotection and in regeneration. Low FGF1 expression in neurons has been linked to increased vulnerability in cholinergic neurons. Previous reports have shown that the expression of FGF1 in rat brain is localized to the cholinergic nuclei of the medulla oblongata, with low ratio of neurons positive for FGF1 in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The role of FGF1 in the primate brain has yet to be clarified. In this study, we mapped FGF1 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of cynomolgus monkey brainstems. Our results demonstrated that FGF1 immunoreactivity follows the pattern of distribution of cholinergic nuclei in the medulla oblongata; with strong localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, the facial nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus. In contrast, the DMNV shows markedly lower FGF1 immunoreactivity. Localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons was only observed in the lateral region of the DMNV, with higher immunoreactivity in the rostral ventral-lateral region of the DMNV. These findings are consistent with the distribution of FGF1 immunoreactivity in previous studies of the rat brain

  11. Limited Susceptibility of Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to Leprosy after Experimental Administration of Mycobacterium leprae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gerald P.; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C.; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Tan, Esterlina V.; Fajardo, Tranquilino T.; Villahermosa, Laarni G.; Cellona, Roland V.; Balagon, Maria V.; White, Valerie A.; Saunderson, Paul R.; Walsh, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis—importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1–19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration. PMID:22855766

  12. Impaired performance from brief social isolation of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A multiple video-task assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Social isolation has been demonstrated to produce profound and lasting psychological effects in young primates. In the present investigation, two adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were isolated from one another for up to 6 days and tested on 7 video tasks designed to assess psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Both the number and quality (i.e., speed and accuracy) of responses were significantly compromised in the social isolation condition relative to levels in which the animals were tested together. It is argued that adult rhesus are susceptible to performance disruption by even relatively brief social isolation, and that these effects can best be assessed by a battery of complex and sensitive measures.

  13. Localization of glycine-containing neurons in the Macaca monkey retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, A.E.; Koontz, M.A.; Pourcho, R.G.; Sarthy, P.V.; Goebel, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Autoradiography following 3H-glycine (Gly) uptake and immunocytochemistry with a Gly-specific antiserum were used to identify neurons in Macaca monkey retina that contain a high level of this neurotransmitter. High-affinity uptake of Gly was shown to be sodium dependent whereas release of both endogenous and accumulated Gly was calcium dependent. Neurons labeling for Gly included 40-46% of the amacrine cells and nearly 40% of the bipolars. Synaptic labeling was seen throughout the inner plexiform layer (IPL) but with a preferential distribution in the inner half. Bands of labeled puncta occurred in S2, S4, and S5. Both light and postembedding electron microscopic (EM) immunocytochemistry identified different types of amacrine and bipolar cell bodies and their synaptic terminals. The most heavily labeled Gly+ cell bodies typically were amacrine cells having a single, thick, basal dendrite extending deep into the IPL and, at the EM level, electron-dense cytoplasm and prominent nuclear infoldings. This cell type may be homologous with the Gly2 cell in human retina and the AII/Gly2 of cat retina. Gly+ amacrines synapse most frequently onto Gly- amacrines and both Gly- and Gly+ bipolars. Gly+ bipolar cells appeared to be cone bipolars because their labeled dendrites could be traced only to cone pedicles. The pattern of these labeled dendritic trees indicated that both diffuse and midget types of biopolars were Gly+. The EM distribution of labeled synapses showed Gly+ amacrine synapses throughout the IPL, but these composed only 11-23% of the amacrine population. Most of the Gly+ bipolar terminals were in the inner IPL, where 70% of all bipolar terminals were labeled

  14. Retinal response of Macaca mulatta to picosecond laser pulses of varying energy and spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, William P; Cain, Clarence P; Narayan, Drew G; Noojin, Gary D; Boppart, Stephen A; Birngruber, Reginald; Fujimoto, James G; Toth, Cynthia A

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the laser beam at the retina (spot size) and the extent of retinal injury from single ultrashort laser pulses. From previous studies it is believed that the retinal effect of single 3-ps laser pulses should vary in extent and location, depending on the occurrence of laser-induced breakdown (LIB) at the site of laser delivery. Single 3-ps pulses of 580-nm laser energy are delivered over a range of spot sizes to the retina of Macaca mulatta. The retinal response is captured sequentially with optical coherence tomography (OCT). The in vivo OCT images and the extent of pathology on final microscopic sections of the laser site are compared. With delivery of a laser pulse with peak irradiance greater than that required for LIB, OCT and light micrographs demonstrate inner retinal injury with many intraretinal and/or vitreous hemorrhages. In contrast, broad outer retinal injury with minimal to no choriocapillaris effect is seen after delivery of laser pulses to a larger retinal area (60 to 300 microm diam) when peak irradiance is less than that required for LIB. The broader lesions extend into the inner retina when higher energy delivery produces intraretinal injury. Microscopic examination of stained fixed tissues provide better resolution of retinal morphology than OCT. OCT provides less resolution but could be guided over an in vivo, visible retinal lesion for repeated sampling over time during the evolution of the lesion formation. For 3-ps visible wavelength laser pulses, varying the spot size and laser energy directly affects the extent of retinal injury. This again is believed to be partly due to the onset of LIB, as seen in previous studies. Spot-size dependence should be considered when comparing studies of retinal effects or when pursuing a specific retinal effect from ultrashort laser pulses. Copyright 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  15. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Anatomical aspects of the male reproductive system in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S; Suresh, S; Prithiviraj, E

    2009-04-01

    The normal anatomy of the male reproductive system in Macaca radiata is presented here. The external genitalia consist of a triangular button-shaped glans penis. The corpus cavernosum, and spongiosum form the vascular component of the penis and the baculum or os penis forms the non-vascular erectile component. The baculum is one of the longest in the genus macaques. The scrotal sac is non-pigmented, slightly pendulous, with scattered hairs, faintly corrugated, and does not reach the ischial callosities in the sitting posture. The testicles are ovoid in shape without appendix. Right and left testicular arteries originate at the level of the inter-vertebral disc between T12-L1 and L2-L3, respectively. Seminiferous tubules present mixed stages of spermatogenesis, i.e. single/multistage. The epididymis is crescent shaped, attached to the postero-lateral border of the testis without an appendix. Light microscopic observation revealed a characteristic high columnar epithelium with stereocilia. Clear cells or light cells are seen in the caudal region. The ductus deferens display a lumen lined by pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium separated by concentric layers of smooth muscle cells covered by serosa. The seminal vesicles are pyramidal in shape, prominently projecting above the urinary bladder, and are the largest of the accessory glands, typical of polyandrous primate genera. The prostate is conical in shape. Its base is in contact with the trigone of the bladder. Its posterior surface shows a transverse cleft separating an upper quarter, the cranial lobe, from the lower three-quarters of the gland. Compared with other macaques there are many distinguishing features in M. radiata. Excellent adaptability and spermatogenic efficiency in the laboratory environment makes this animal a good primate model for andrological research.

  17. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Choriodecidual infection downregulates angiogenesis and morphogenesis pathways in fetal lungs from Macaca nemestrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M McAdams

    Full Text Available Intrauterine exposure to amniotic fluid (AF cytokines is thought to predispose to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. We evaluated the effects of GBS exposure on RNA expression in fetal lung tissue to determine early molecular pathways associated with fetal lung injury that may progress to BPD.Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term = 172 days received choriodecidual inoculation of either: 1 Group B Streptococcus (n = 5 or 2 saline (n = 5. Cesarean section and fetal necropsy was performed in the first week after GBS or saline inoculation regardless of labor. RNA was extracted from fetal lungs and profiled by microarray. Results were analyzed using single gene, Gene Set, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Validation was by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, fetal lung injury occurred in four GBS cases (intra-alveolar neutrophils, interstitial thickening and one control (peri-mortem hemorrhage. Significant elevations of AF cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 were detected in GBS versus controls (p<0.05. Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable by culture and PCR in the AF and fetal lungs. A total of 335 genes were differentially expressed greater than 1.5 fold (p<0.05 with GBS exposure associated with a striking upregulation of genes in innate and adaptive immunity and downregulation of pathways for angiogenesis, morphogenesis, and cellular growth and development.A transient choriodecidual infection may induce fetal lung injury with profound alterations in the genetic program of the fetal lung before signs of preterm labor. Our results provide a window for the first time into early molecular pathways disrupting fetal lung angiogenesis and morphogenesis before preterm labor occurs, which may set the stage for BPD. A strategy to prevent BPD should target the fetus in utero to attenuate alterations in the fetal lung

  19. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals

  20. Sex Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Federica; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes. Generalized linear mixed models revealed that social behaviors mostly followed different developmental trajectories in males and females and were highly dependent on the social context. In particular, sex differences in social behavior varied through development depending on the partner’s sex and age. Females engaged in more social interactions than males, especially with other females, and were more involved in grooming around the time of maturation. In contrast, males interacted more with males and age peers, especially around maturation. Sex differences in social behavior varied through development, but also depended on rank, partner’s rank, and kin line, although not consistently. High-ranking individuals, especially older females, were generally preferred as social partners. Moreover, both male and female individuals interacted mostly with maternal kin, although males also preferred paternal kin over nonkin. Importantly, most developmental changes in sociality happened when individuals were ca. 2 yr old, suggesting that this might be a milestone in the development of sociality in rhesus macaques. The only notable exception to this pattern was play, which was more pronounced in males from the beginning of their lives. We propose that play might serve as a trigger of sex differences in social behavior, with sex differences emerging early in development and

  1. Speech-like orofacial oscillations in stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) facial and vocal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Aru; Maruhashi, Tamaki; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Koda, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Speech is unique to humans and characterized by facial actions of ∼5 Hz oscillations of lip, mouth or jaw movements. Lip-smacking, a facial display of primates characterized by oscillatory actions involving the vertical opening and closing of the jaw and lips, exhibits stable 5-Hz oscillation patterns, matching that of speech, suggesting that lip-smacking is a precursor of speech. We tested if facial or vocal actions exhibiting the same rate of oscillation are found in wide forms of facial or vocal displays in various social contexts, exhibiting diversity among species. We observed facial and vocal actions of wild stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides), and selected video clips including facial displays (teeth chattering; TC), panting calls, and feeding. Ten open-to-open mouth durations during TC and feeding and five amplitude peak-to-peak durations in panting were analyzed. Facial display (TC) and vocalization (panting) oscillated within 5.74 ± 1.19 and 6.71 ± 2.91 Hz, respectively, similar to the reported lip-smacking of long-tailed macaques and the speech of humans. These results indicated a common mechanism for the central pattern generator underlying orofacial movements, which would evolve to speech. Similar oscillations in panting, which evolved from different muscular control than the orofacial action, suggested the sensory foundations for perceptual saliency particular to 5-Hz rhythms in macaques. This supports the pre-adaptation hypothesis of speech evolution, which states a central pattern generator for 5-Hz facial oscillation and perceptual background tuned to 5-Hz actions existed in common ancestors of macaques and humans, before the emergence of speech. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

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    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm).

  3. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

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    Henkjan Honing

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1. Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2 and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3. In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm, the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group, but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm.

  4. Social object play among young Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in Arashiyama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masaki

    2006-10-01

    Social object play (SOP), i.e., social play using portable object(s), among young Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata; 0-4 years old) in the Arashiyama E troop was studied using a modified sequence sampling method from July to October 2000. SOP was a relatively common activity for most of the young macaques and often continued for long periods. Participants used many kinds of object, including edible natural objects and artificial objects, such as plastic bottles, but they never used provisioned food or wild fruit in SOP bouts. An analysis of long bouts (>/=0.5 min) revealed the following interactive SOP features: (1) at any given time, participants used only one object, and only one participant held the object; (2) during SOP play-chasing, the object holder was likely to be chased by others; (3) during long bouts, the object changed hands frequently; and (4) agonistic competition for an object among young macaques was rare. Combinations of sexes, ages, relative ranks, or matrilines of the object holder and non-holder did not affect the tendency that the holder was chased by non-holder(s) during play-chasing. Even when there was a change in object holders, the repetitiveness of this interactive pattern, i.e., that the holder would be chased during SOP bouts, distinguished the SOP structure from that of other types of social play without object(s). General proximate social play mechanisms, such as self-handicapping or role taking, were associated with SOP. Other mechanisms that affected SOP included the following: (1) young macaques treated an object as a target in play competition, and (2) 'being the holder of a target object' was associated with the 'role of the chasee.'

  5. No-scalpel vasectomy by electrocauterization in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    A. Raj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to standardize a new method of vasectomy in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. A total of 208 free range male rhesus macaques captured from different locations in Shivalik Hills in a population control programme of the rhesus macaques in India. General anaesthesia was achieved by using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride at 8 mg/kg body weight and xylazine hydrochloride at 2mg/kg body weight intramuscularly in squeeze cage. Surgical procedure of vasectomy was carried out by single-hole no-scalpel technique using a single pre-scrotal skin incision above the median raphae. Spermatic cord was grasped with ringed forceps and was pulled out through the single-hole incision. Vas deferens was separated from the artery-vein complexus and about 3-4 cm portion of vas deferens was resected. Cauterization of both ends of the vas deferens was achieved with electrocautery. The induction time for anaesthesia was 1.40±0.18 min while surgical time for vasectomy was found to be 5.09±0.22 min. Recovery from general anaesthesia was without side-effects after a mean duration of 36.07±1.22 min, whereas the duration of anaesthesia was observed to be 82.27±4.96 min. There were no major complications following the surgery and recovery of animals was smooth. Animals were kept in postoperative care for five days and released at the same capturing site.

  6. Whom to groom and for what? Patterns of grooming in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubová, Veronika; Konečná, Martina; Šmilauer, Petr; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates.

  7. Sex Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

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    Kulik, Lars; Amici, Federica; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes. Generalized linear mixed models revealed that social behaviors mostly followed different developmental trajectories in males and females and were highly dependent on the social context. In particular, sex differences in social behavior varied through development depending on the partner's sex and age. Females engaged in more social interactions than males, especially with other females, and were more involved in grooming around the time of maturation. In contrast, males interacted more with males and age peers, especially around maturation. Sex differences in social behavior varied through development, but also depended on rank, partner's rank, and kin line, although not consistently. High-ranking individuals, especially older females, were generally preferred as social partners. Moreover, both male and female individuals interacted mostly with maternal kin, although males also preferred paternal kin over nonkin. Importantly, most developmental changes in sociality happened when individuals were ca . 2 yr old, suggesting that this might be a milestone in the development of sociality in rhesus macaques. The only notable exception to this pattern was play, which was more pronounced in males from the beginning of their lives. We propose that play might serve as a trigger of sex differences in social behavior, with sex differences emerging early in development and increasing

  8. Modes of transmission and genetic diversity of foamy viruses in a Macaca tonkeana colony

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    Saib Ali

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foamy viruses are exogenous complex retroviruses that are highly endemic in several animal species, including monkeys and apes, where they cause persistent infection. Simian foamy viral (SFV infection has been reported in few persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP in zoos, primate centers and laboratories, and recently in few hunters from central Africa. Most of the epidemiological works performed among NHP populations concern cross-sectional studies without long-term follow-up. Therefore, the exact timing and the modes of transmission of SFVs remain not well known, although sexual and oral transmissions have been suspected. We have conducted a longitudinal study in a free-breeding colony of Macaca tonkeana in order (1 to determine the prevalence of the infection by foamy viruses, (2 to characterize molecularly the viruses infecting such animals, (3 to study their genetic variability overtime by long-term follow-up of several DNA samples in a series of specific animals, and (4 to get new insights concerning the timing and the modes of SFVs primary infection in these monkeys by combining serology and molecular means, as well as studies of familial structures and long-term behavioral observations. Results/conclusion We first demonstrated that this colony was highly endemic for SFVs, with a clear increase of seroprevalence with age. Only 4.7% of immatures, and 43,7% of sub-adults were found seropositive, while 89.5% of adults exhibited antibodies directed against SFV. We further showed that 6 different strains of foamy viruses (exhibiting a very low intra-strain and overtime genetic variability in the integrase gene are circulating within this group. This suggests a possible infection by different strains within an animal. Lastly, we provide strong evidence that foamy viruses are mostly acquired through severe bites, mainly in sub-adults or young adults. Most cases of seroconversion occur after 7 years of age

  9. Analogical reasoning and the differential outcome effect: transitory bridging of the conceptual gap for rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Thompson, Roger K R; Beran, Michael J; Washburn, David A

    2011-07-01

    Monkeys, unlike chimpanzees and humans, have a marked difficulty acquiring relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks that likely reflect the cognitive foundation upon which analogical reasoning rests. In the present study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed a categorical (identity and nonidentity) RMTS task with differential reward (pellet ratio) and/or punishment (timeout ratio) outcomes for correct and incorrect choices. Monkeys in either differential reward-only or punishment-only conditions performed at chance levels. However, the RMTS performance of monkeys experiencing both differential reward and punishment conditions was significantly better than chance. Subsequently when all animals experienced nondifferential outcomes tests, their RMTS performance levels were at chance. These results indicate that combining differential reward and punishment contingencies provide an effective, albeit transitory, scaffolding for monkeys to judge analogical relations-between-relations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Occupational transmission of an Orthopoxvirus infection during an outbreak in a colony of Macaca tonkeana in Lazio Region, Italy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puro, V; Fusco, F M; Castilletti, C; Carletti, F; Colavita, F; Agrati, C; Di Caro, A; Capobianchi, M R; Ippolito, G

    2018-03-07

    Orthopoxviruses spill over from animal reservoirs to accidental hosts, sometimes causing human infections. We describe the surveillance and infection control measures undertaken during an outbreak due to an Orthopoxvirus occurred in January 2015 in a colony of Macaca tonkeana in the province of Rieti, Latio, Italy, which caused a human asymptomatic infection. According to the epidemiological investigation, the human transmission occurred after an unprotected exposure. The contacts among wild, captive and domestic animals and humans, together with decreased immunity against Orthopoxviruses in the community, may put animal handlers at risk of infection, especially after the cessation of smallpox vaccination. To reduce these threats, standard precautions including respiratory hygiene and transmission-based precautions should be carefully applied also in veterinary medicine. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Computed tomography or necropsy diagnosis of multiple bullae and the treatment of pneumothorax in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Min; Han, Sungyoung; Shin, Jun-Seop; Min, Byoung-Hoon; Jeong, Won Young; Lee, Ga Eul; Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Ju Eun; Chung, Hyunwoo; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Pulmonary bullae and pneumothorax have various etiologies in veterinary medicine. We diagnosed multiple pulmonary bullae combined with or without pneumothorax by computed tomography (CT) or necropsy in seven rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) imported from China. Two of seven rhesus macaques accompanied by pneumothorax were cured by fixation of ruptured lung through left or right 3rd intercostal thoracotomy. Pneumonyssus simicola, one of the etiologies of pulmonary bullae, was not detected from tracheobronchiolar lavage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report on the CT-aided diagnosis of pulmonary bullae and the successful treatment of combined pneumothorax by thoracotomy in non-human primates (NHPs). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya virus antibody prevalence among captive monkey (Macaca nemestrina) colonies of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakgoi, Khajornpong; Nitatpattana, Narong; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Kaewchot, Supakarn; Yoksan, Sutee; Siripolwat, Voravit; Souris, Marc; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The potential of macaque Macaca nemestrina leonina in Thailand to be infected by endemic arboviruses was assessed. The prevalence of antibodies of three arboviruses actively circulating in Thailand was determined by Plaque Reduction Neutralization assay procedures using samples from captive colonies in Northern Thailand. Out of 38 macaques, 9 (24%) presented reacting antibodies against dengue virus, 5 (13%) against Japanese encephalitis virus, and 4 (10%) against Chikungunya virus. Our results indicate that the northern pig-tailed macaque in Thailand can be infected by these arboviruses, inferring therefore that their virus specific vectors have bitten them. Given that, northern pig-tailed macaque represents an abundant population, living in close range to human or in peridomestic setting, they could play a role as potential reservoir host for arboviruses circulating in Thailand. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Pathogenic infection of Macaca nemestrina with a CCR5-tropic subtype-C simian-human immunodeficiency virus

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    Song Ruijiang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina have been used in AIDS research for years, less is known about the early immunopathogenic events in this species, as compared to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. Similarly, the events in early infection are well-characterized for simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, but less so for chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV, although the latter have been widely used in HIV vaccine studies. Here, we report the consequences of intrarectal infection with a CCR5-tropic clade C SHIV-1157ipd3N4 in pig-tailed macaques. Results Plasma and cell-associated virus was detectable in peripheral blood and intestinal tissues of all four pig-tailed macaques following intrarectal inoculation with SHIV-1157ipd3N4. We also observed a rapid and irreversible loss of CD4+ T cells at multiple mucosal sites, resulting in a marked decrease of CD4:CD8 T cell ratios 0.5–4 weeks after inoculation. This depletion targeted subsets of CD4+ T cells expressing the CCR5 coreceptor and having a CD28-CD95+ effector memory phenotype, consistent with the R5-tropism of SHIV-1157ipd3N4. All three animals that were studied beyond the acute phase seroconverted as early as week 4, with two developing cross-clade neutralizing antibody responses by week 24. These two animals also demonstrated persistent plasma viremia for >48 weeks. One of these animals developed AIDS, as shown by peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion starting at 20 weeks post inoculation. Conclusion These findings indicate that SHIV-1157ipd3N4-induced pathogenesis in pig-tailed macaques followed a similar course as SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Thus, R5 SHIV-C-infection of pig-tailed macaques could provide a useful and relevant model for AIDS vaccine and pathogenesis research.

  14. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Co-localization of glycine and gaba immunoreactivity in interneurons in Macaca monkey cerebellar cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, J; Hendrickson, A; Robinson, F R

    2006-09-15

    Previous work demonstrates that the cerebellum uses glycine as a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter [Ottersen OP, Davanger S, Storm-Mathisen J (1987) Glycine-like immunoreactivity in the cerebellum of rat and Senegalese baboon, Papio papio: a comparison with the distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity and with [3H]glycine and [3H]GABA uptake. Exp Brain Res 66(1):211-221; Ottersen OP, Storm-Mathisen J, Somogyi P (1988) Colocalization of glycine-like and GABA-like immunoreactivities in Golgi cell terminals in the rat cerebellum: a postembedding light and electron microscopic study. Brain Res 450(1-2):342-353; Dieudonne S (1995) Glycinergic synaptic currents in Golgi cells of the rat cerebellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:1441-1445; Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2001) IPSC kinetics at identified GABAergic and mixed GABAergic and glycinergic synapses onto cerebellar Golgi cells. J Neurosci 21(16):6045-6057; Dugue GP, Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2005) Target-dependent use of coreleased inhibitory transmitters at central synapses. J Neurosci 25(28):6490-6498; Zeilhofer HU, Studler B, Arabadzisz D, Schweizer C, Ahmadi S, Layh B, Bosl MR, Fritschy JM (2005) Glycinergic neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice. J Comp Neurol 482(2):123-141]. In the rat cerebellum glycine is not released by itself but is released together with GABA by Lugaro cells onto Golgi cells [Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2001) IPSC kinetics at identified GABAergic and mixed GABAergic and glycinergic synapses onto cerebellar Golgi cells. J Neurosci 21(16):6045-6057] and by Golgi cells onto unipolar brush and granule cells [Dugue GP, Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2005) Target-dependent use of coreleased inhibitory transmitters at central synapses. J Neurosci 25(28):6490-6498]. Here we report, from immunolabeling evidence in Macaca cerebellum, that interneurons in the granular cell layer are glycine+ at a density

  16. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU, Lin; LEI, Ai-Hua; ZHENG, Hong-Yi; LYU, Long-Bao; ZHANG, Zhi-Gang; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, littl...

  17. Piracetam-induced changes on the brainstem auditory response in anesthetized juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Report of two clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Rivera, A; Gonzalez-Pina, R; Hernandez-Godinez, B; Ibanez-Contreras, A; Bueno-Nava, A; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A

    2012-10-01

    We describe two clinical cases and examine the effects of piracetam on the brainstem auditory response in infantile female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We found that the interwave intervals show a greater reduction in a 3-year-old rhesus monkey compared to a 1-year-old rhesus monkey. In this report, we discuss the significance of these observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm

  19. Individual differences in scanpaths correspond with serotonin transporter genotype and behavioral phenotype in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta

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    Robert R Gibboni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanpaths (the succession of fixations and saccades during spontaneous viewing contain information about the image but also about the viewer. To determine the viewer-dependent factors in the scanpaths of monkeys, we trained three adult males (Macaca mulatta to look for 3 s at images of conspecific facial expressions with either direct or averted gaze. The subjects showed significant differences on four basic scanpath parameters (number of fixations, fixation duration, saccade length, and total scanpath length when viewing the same facial expression/gaze direction combinations. Furthermore, we found differences between monkeys in feature preference and in the temporal order in which features were visited on different facial expressions. Overall, the between-subject variability was larger than the within- subject variability, suggesting that scanpaths reflect individual preferences in allocating visual attention to various features in aggressive, neutral, and appeasing facial expressions. Individual scanpath characteristics were brought into register with the genotype for the serotonin transporter regulatory gene (5-HTTLPR and with behavioral characteristics such as expression of anticipatory anxiety and impulsiveness/hesitation in approaching food in the presence of a potentially dangerous object.

  20. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Early maternal rejection affects the development of monoaminergic systems and adult abusive parenting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Higley, J Dee; Lindell, Stephen G; Newman, Timothy K; McCormack, Kai M; Sanchez, Mar M

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of early exposure to variable parenting style and infant abuse on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine metabolites and examined the role of monoaminergic function in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Forty-three infants reared by their biological mothers and 15 infants that were cross-fostered at birth and reared by unrelated mothers were followed longitudinally through their first 3 years of life or longer. Approximately half of the infants were reared by abusive mothers and half by nonabusive controls. Abused infants did not differ from controls in CSF concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylgycol (MHPG). Abused infants, however, were exposed to higher rates of maternal rejection, and highly rejected infants had lower CSF 5-HIAA and HVA than low-rejection infants. The abused females who became abusive mothers in adulthood had lower CSF 5-HIAA than the abused females who did not. A similar trend was also observed among the cross-fostered females, suggesting that low serotonergic function resulting from early exposure to high rates of maternal rejection plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse.

  2. Molecular cloning and anti-HIV-1 activities of APOBEC3s from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang ZHANG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs, Macaca leonina are susceptible to HIV-1 infection largely due to the loss of HIV-1-restricting factor TRIM5α. However, great impediments still exist in the persistent replication of HIV-1 in vivo, suggesting some viral restriction factors are reserved in this host. The APOBEC3 proteins have demonstrated a capacity to restrict HIV-1 replication, but their inhibitory effects in NPMs remain elusive. In this study, we cloned the NPM A3A-A3H genes, and determined by BLAST searching that their coding sequences (CDSs showed 99% identity to the corresponding counterparts from rhesus and southern pig-tailed macaques. We further analyzed the anti-HIV-1 activities of the A3A-A3H genes, and found that A3G and A3F had the greatest anti-HIV-1 activity compared with that of other members. The results of this study indicate that A3G and A3F might play critical roles in limiting HIV-1 replication in NPMs in vivo. Furthermore, this research provides valuable information for the optimization of monkey models of HIV-1 infection.

  3. Effect of vaccination schedule on immune response of Macaca mulatta to cell culture-grown Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, L S; Kenyon, R H; Pedersen, C E

    1976-01-01

    The effect of vaccination schedule on the immune response of Macaca mulatta to formalin-inactivated chicken embryo cell culture (CEC)-grown Rickettsia rickettsii vaccine was studied. Schedules consisted of inoculation on day 1 only, on days 1 and 15, on days 1 and 30, on days 1, 8, and 15, or on days 1, 15, and 45. Humoral antibody measured by microagglutination and indirect immunofluorescence and resistance to challenge with 10(4) plaque-forming units of yolk sac-grown R. rickettsii were assessed. Seroconversion was noted in all monkeys after the first dose of vaccine. A second dose administered 8 or 15 days after the primary infection, or a third given 7 or 30 days after the second, produced no long-term effect on antibody titer. Only monkeys given two doses of vaccine at a 30-day interval showed an increase in antibody titer during the period before challenge. Vaccination with one, two, or three doses of CEC vaccine prevented development of rash and rickettsemia after challenge. The two-dose schedules appeared to induce the highest degree of resistance to challenge, as indicated by unaltered hematological parameters and body temperature in monkeys. The one- and three-dose schedules were somewhat less effective, in that some challenged monkeys within each group displayed febrile and leukocyte responses associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection. Our data suggest that administration of two doses of CEC vaccine at 15- or 30-day intervals is the immunization schedule of choice. PMID:823173

  4. Bilateral neurotoxic amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Consistent pattern of behavior across different social contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Christopher J.; Emery, Nathan J.; Capitanio, John P.; Mason, William A.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Amaral, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Although the amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in normal primate social behavior, great variability exists in the specific social and nonsocial behavioral changes observed after bilateral amygdala lesions in nonhuman primates. One plausible explanation pertains to differences in social context. To investigate this idea, we measured the social behavior of amygdala-lesioned and unoperated rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in two contexts. Animals interacted in four-member social groups over 32 test days. These animals were previously assessed in pairs (Emery et al., 2001), and were, therefore, familiar with each other at the beginning of this study. Across the two contexts, amygdala lesions produced a highly consistent pattern of social behavior. Operated animals engaged in more affiliative social interactions with control group partners than did control animals. In the course of their interactions, amygdala-lesioned animals also displayed an earlier decrease in nervous and fearful personality qualities than controls. The increased exploration and sexual behavior recorded for amygdala-lesioned animals in pairs was not found in the four-member groups. We conclude that the amygdala contributes to social inhibition and this function transcends various social contexts. PMID:18410164

  5. Evaluation of a therapy for Idiopathic Chronic Enterocolitis in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta and linked microbial community correlates

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    Joshua M. Taylor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic enterocolitis (ICE is one of the most commonly encountered and difficult to manage diseases of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. The etiology is not well understood, but perturbations in gut microbial communities have been implicated. Here we evaluated the effects of a 14-day course of vancomycin, neomycin, and fluconazole on animals affected with ICE, comparing treated, untreated, and healthy animals. We performed microbiome analysis on duodenal and colonic mucosal samples and feces in order to probe bacterial and/or fungal taxa potentially associated with ICE. All treated animals showed a significant and long-lasting improvement in stool consistency over time when compared to untreated and healthy controls. Microbiome analysis revealed trends associating bacterial community composition with ICE, particularly lineages of the Lactobacillaceae family. Sequencing of DNA from macaque food biscuits revealed that fungal sequences recovered from stool were dominated by yeast-derived food additives; in contrast, bacteria in stool appeared to be authentic gut residents. In conclusion, while validation in larger cohorts is needed, the treatment described here was associated with significantly improved clinical signs; results suggested possible correlates of microbiome structure with disease, though no strong associations were detected between single microbes and ICE.

  6. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression analysis of taste signal transduction molecules in the fungiform and circumvallate papillae of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta.

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    Yoshiro Ishimaru

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of the mammalian gustatory system have been examined in many studies using rodents as model organisms. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression of molecules involved in taste signal transduction in the fungiform papillae (FuP and circumvallate papillae (CvP of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, using in situ hybridization. TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS2Rs, and PKD1L3 were exclusively expressed in different subsets of taste receptor cells (TRCs in the FuP and CvP. This finding suggests that TRCs sensing different basic taste modalities are mutually segregated in macaque taste buds. Individual TAS2Rs exhibited a variety of expression patterns in terms of the apparent level of expression and the number of TRCs expressing these genes, as in the case of human TAS2Rs. GNAT3, but not GNA14, was expressed in TRCs of FuP, whereas GNA14 was expressed in a small population of TRCs of CvP, which were distinct from GNAT3- or TAS1R2-positive TRCs. These results demonstrate similarities and differences between primates and rodents in the expression profiles of genes involved in taste signal transduction.

  8. Redescription of Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) based on material collected from wild Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata (Primates: Cercopithecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Sato, Hiroshi; Torii, Harumi

    2012-02-01

    Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) was collected from a Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata, in Nara and Yamaguchi Prefectures, Honshu Island, Japan, for the first time. A redescription is presented along with DNA sequence data. This pinworm is a typical member of the subgenus Enterobius and is characteristic in the spicule morphology, being readily distinguished from other congeners. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cox1 gene assign its position in the pinworm lineage adapted to the Old World primates, showing divergence before the splitting of the chimpanzee and human pinworms.

  9. Differential Responding by Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Humans (Homo sapiens to Variable Outcomes in the Assurance Game

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    Audrey E. Parrish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral flexibility in how one responds to variable partner play can be examined using economic coordination games in which subjects play against a variety of partners and therefore may need to alter their behavior to produce the highest payoff. But how do we study this behavioral flexibility once players have settled on a response? Here, we investigated how responding by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and humans (Homo sapiens playing a computerized single-player version of a coordination game, the Assurance game, changed as a function of the variable responses (Stag/Hare generated by multiple simulations (SIMs. We were interested in whether individuals could track and differentially respond to changing frequencies of Stag and Hare play by the SIMs, especially with regard to the payoff dominant (Stag-Stag outcome, something that could not be done with real partners as they quickly settled on the Stag response. For both monkeys and humans, there was a linear relationship between proportion of Stag play by the subject and the likelihood of the Stag choice by the SIM such that both species increased their use of Stag as the SIM increased its use of the Stag response. However, humans more closely matched their proportion of Stag responses to that of the SIM, whereas monkeys adopted a different, but equally effective, strategy of exploiting the higher-paying Stag alternative. These results suggest that monkeys and humans demonstrate sensitivity to a dynamic game environment in which they encounter variable contingencies for the same response options, although they may employ different strategies to maximize reward.

  10. The influence of kinship and dominance hierarchy on grooming partner choice in free-ranging Macaca mulatta brevicaudus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Feng; Liao, Zhi-Jie; Sueur, Cedric; Sha, John Chih Mun; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Peng

    2018-04-18

    In group-living animals, individuals do not interact uniformly with their conspecifics. Among primates, such heterogeneity in partner choice can be discerned from affiliative grooming patterns. While the preference for selecting close kin as grooming partners is ubiquitous across the primate order, the selection of higher-ranking non-kin individuals as grooming partners is less common. We studied a group of provisioned rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta brevicaudus) on Hainan Island, China, to examine rank-related benefits of grooming exchanges and the influence of kin relationships. We tested four hypotheses based on Seyfarth's model: (1) there will be kin preference in grooming relationships; (2) grooming between non-kin individuals will be directed up the dominance rank; (3) grooming between non-kin individuals will reduce aggression from higher-ranking ones; and (4) non-kin individuals will spend more time grooming with adjacent ranked ones. We found that grooming relationships between kin individuals were stronger than those between non-kin individuals. For non-kin relationships, lower-ranking individuals received less aggression from higher-ranking ones through grooming; a benefit they could not derive through grooming exchanges with individuals related by kinship. Individuals spent more time grooming adjacent higher-ranking non-kin individuals and higher-ranking individuals also received more grooming from non-kin individuals. Our results supported Seyfarth's model for predicting partner choice between non-kin individuals. For relationships between kin individuals, we found results that were not consistent with prediction for the exchanges of aggression and grooming, indicating the importance to control for the influence of kinship in future studies.

  11. Differential host response to LPS variants in amniochorion and the TLR4/MD-2 system in Macaca nemestrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Justine; Jain, Sumita; Carl, David J.; Paolella, Louis; Darveau, Richard P.; Gravett, Michael G.; Waldorf, Kristina M. Adams

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Microbial-specific factors are likely critical in determining whether bacteria trigger preterm labor. Structural variations in lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacteria, can determine whether LPS has an inflammatory (agonist) or anti-inflammatory (antagonist) effect through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Our objective was to determine whether amniochorion can discriminate between LPS variants in a nonhuman primate model. We also cloned Macaca nemestrina TLR4 and MD-2 and compared this complex functionally to the human homologue to establish whether nonhuman primates could be used to study TLR4 signaling in preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN Amniochorion explants from M. nemestrina were stimulated with a panel of LPS variants for 24 hours. Supernatants were analyzed for IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and prostaglandins E2 and F2α. Tissue expression of TLR1, 2, 4, 6, MyD88 and NF-kB was studied by RT-PCR. M. nemestrina TLR4 and MD2 genes were cloned and compared with their human counterparts in a recombinant TLR4 signaling system to determine LPS sensitivity. RESULTS LPS variants differentially stimulated cytokines and prostaglandins, which was not related to transcriptional changes of TLR4 or other TLRs. Nearly all elements of LPS binding and TLR4 leucine-rich repeats were conserved between humans and M. nemestrina. TLR4/MD-2 signaling complexes from both species were equally sensitive to LPS variants. CONCLUSIONS LPS variants elicit a hierarchical inflammatory response within amniochorion that may contribute to preterm birth. LPS sensitivity is similar between M. nemestrina and humans, validating M. nemestrina as an appropriate model to study TLR4 signaling in preterm birth. PMID:20619890

  12. Choriodecidual group B streptococcal inoculation induces fetal lung injury without intra-amniotic infection and preterm labor in Macaca nemestrina.

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    Kristina M Adams Waldorf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early events leading to intrauterine infection and fetal lung injury remain poorly defined, but may hold the key to preventing neonatal and adult chronic lung disease. Our objective was to establish a nonhuman primate model of an early stage of chorioamnionitis in order to determine the time course and mechanisms of fetal lung injury in utero. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term=172 days received one of two treatments: 1 choriodecidual and intra-amniotic saline (n=5, or 2 choriodecidual inoculation of Group B Streptococcus (GBS 1×10(6 colony forming units (n=5. Cesarean section was performed regardless of labor 4 days after GBS or 7 days after saline infusion to collect fetal and placental tissues. Only two GBS animals developed early labor with no cervical change in the remaining animals. Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, blinded review found histopathological evidence of fetal lung injury in four GBS animals characterized by intra-alveolar neutrophils and interstitial thickening, which was absent in controls. Significant elevations of cytokines in amniotic fluid (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and fetal plasma (IL-8 were detected in GBS animals and correlated with lung injury (p<0.05. Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable in amniotic fluid (~10 samples tested/animal, maternal and fetal blood by culture and polymerase chain reaction. In only two cases was GBS cultured from the inoculation site in low numbers. Chorioamnionitis occurred in two GBS animals with lung injury, but two others with lung injury had normal placental histology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transient choriodecidual infection can induce cytokine production, which is associated with fetal lung injury without overt infection of amniotic fluid, chorioamnionitis or preterm labor. Fetal lung injury may, thus, occur silently without

  13. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  14. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis.

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    Sébastien Ballesta

    Full Text Available 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play. In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors.

  15. Morphological integration of anatomical, developmental, and functional postcranial modules in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Mark A; Schroeder, Lauren; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2018-03-22

    Integration and modularity reflect the coordinated action of past evolutionary processes and, in turn, constrain or facilitate phenotypic evolvability. Here, we analyze magnitudes of integration in the macaque postcranium to test whether 20 a priori defined modules are (1) more tightly integrated than random sets of postcranial traits, and (2) are differentiated based on mode of definition, with developmental modules expected to be more integrated than functional or anatomical modules. The 3D morphometric data collected for eight limb and girdle bones for 60 macaques were collated into anatomical, developmental, and functional modules. A resampling technique was used to create random samples of integration values for each module for statistical comparison. Our results found that not all a priori defined modules were more strongly integrated than random samples of postcranial traits and that specific types of modules did not present consistent patterns of integration. Rather, girdle and joint modules were consistently less integrated than limb modules, and forelimb elements were less integrated than hindlimbs. The results suggest that morphometrically complex modules tend to be less integrated than simple limb bones, irrespective of the number of available traits. However, differences in integration of the fore- and hindlimb more likely reflects the multitude of locomotory, feeding, and social functions involved. It remains to be tested whether patterns of integration identified here are primate universals, and to what extent they vary depending on phylogenetic or functional factors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Matthieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA) is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg) to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors.

  17. Differences in behaviour and physiology between adult surrogate-reared and mother-reared Cynomolgous monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, I.A.F. van; Timmermans, P.J.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Willems, J.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of rearing conditions on exploratory behaviour revealed that 80% of monkeys reared in peer groups with surrogate mothers developed neophobia, whereas only 15 % of mother-reared monkeys did. Young surrogate-reared and, especially, isolated rhesus monkeys are known to

  18. The Effect Of SEA On Long Tail Monkeys (Macaca Fascicularis) Lymphocyte Culture Gamma Ray-Irradiated In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wa'id, Abdul; Lusiyanti, Yanti

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococus enteroxine (SEA) is one of toxins produced by the bacterium Staphylococus aureus. In the culture, SEA has proven as a potent stimulator of lymphocytes in man event at fg/ml concentrations. This research studied the effect of SEA compared to Phytohaemagglutinine (PHA) on the peripheral blood lymphocytes culture of the long-tail monkeys. About 5 ml blood was collected from 5 monkeys and irradiated using Gamma Cell-220 P3TIR with doses of 0 (control); 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 Gy. The blood samples were cultured in the appropriate growth medium based on standard procedure and added with 1.0 ml (0.5 mug/ml) SEA or 0.15 ml PHA. The cultures were then incubated for 96 hours and prepared the slides. The results showed that on the unirradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes of long-tail monkeys the mitotic indices obtained using PHA and SEA are relatively similar. On the irradiated lymphocytes with doses of 1-3 Gy, the mitotic indices using SEA are relatively higher than that of PHA. Dose responses of dicentric, ring and acentric fragment of both PHA and SEA are relatively the same

  19. [Effect of TSA and VPA treatment on long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis)-pig interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zu-Xing; Huang, Gao-Bo; Luo, Jun; Ning, Shu-Fang; Lu, Sheng-Sheng; Lu, Ke-Huan

    2012-03-01

    Long-tailed macaque-pig interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is beneficial to yield embryonic stem cells from iSCNT embryos with similar genetic background as human, which can be used as materials for medical and basic research. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of concentrations and treatment duration of two histone deacetylase inhibitors-Trichostatin A (TSA) and Valproic acid (VPA) and two different embryo culture media (PZM-3 and HECM-10) on the in vitro development of iSCNT embryos. The results suggested that when PZM-3 was used as the embryo culture medium, the blastocyst rate of 10 nmol/L TSA treatment for 48 h was significantly higher than the control group (22.78% vs 9.86%, PTSA treatment could enhance the in vitro developmental potential of long-tailed macaque-pig iSCNT embryos.

  20. A pair choice test to identify female mating patterns in relation to ovulation in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikitopoulos, E.; Heistermann, M.; Vries, Han de; Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. van; Sterck, E.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Female mammals may exert choice for mates directly by mating selectively. Alternatively, females can mate promiscuously, allowing sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice to operate. Primate sexual behaviour is probably a compromise between conflicting male and female interests, so it may be

  1. Variation in hair δ13C and δ15N values in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Lee, Benjamin P.Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the primatology literature on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) has focused on African and New World species, with comparatively little research published on Asian primates. Here we present hair δ13C and δ15N isotope values for a sample of 33 long-tailed macaques from Singapore. We evaluate the suggestion by a previous researcher that forest degradation and biodiversity loss in Singapore have led to a decline in macaque trophic level. The results of our analysis indicated significant spatial variability in δ13C but not δ15N. The range of variation in δ13C was consistent with a diet based on C3 resources, with one group exhibiting low values consistent with a closed canopy environment. Relative to other macaque species from Europe and Asia, the macaques from Singapore exhibited a low mean δ13C value but mid-range mean δ15N value. Previous research suggesting a decline in macaque trophic level is not supported by the results of our study.

  2. Pathology of experimental Machupo virus infection, Chicava strain, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by intramuscular and aerosol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T M; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Robinson, C G; Wilkinson, E R; Hensley, L E; Cashman, K A

    2015-01-01

    Machupo virus, the causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever of which little is known and for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics are available. This study evaluated the cynomolgus macaque as an animal model using the Machupo virus, Chicava strain, via intramuscular and aerosol challenge. The incubation period was 6 to 10 days with initial signs of depression, anorexia, diarrhea, mild fever, and a petechial skin rash. These were often followed by neurologic signs and death within an average of 18 days. Complete blood counts revealed leukopenia as well as marked thrombocytopenia. Serum chemistry values identified a decrease in total protein, marked increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and moderate increases in alkaline phosphatase. Gross pathology findings included a macular rash extending across the axillary and inguinal regions beginning at approximately 10 days postexposure as well as enlarged lymph nodes and spleen, enlarged and friable liver, and sporadic hemorrhages along the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and necrosis/apoptosis in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system (nonsuppurative encephalitis) was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection in cynomolgus macaques and supports the usefulness of cynomolgus macaques as a viable model of human Machupo virus infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Social network community structure and the contact-mediated sharing of commensal E. coli among captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Krishna; Beisner, Brianne; Guan, Jiahui; Vandeleest, Jessica; Fushing, Hsieh; Atwill, Edward; McCowan, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    In group-living animals, heterogeneity in individuals' social connections may mediate the sharing of microbial infectious agents. In this regard, the genetic relatedness of individuals' commensal gut bacterium Escherichia coli may be ideal to assess the potential for pathogen transmission through animal social networks. Here we use microbial phylogenetics and population genetics approaches, as well as host social network reconstruction, to assess evidence for the contact-mediated sharing of E. coli among three groups of captively housed rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ), at multiple organizational scales. For each group, behavioral data on grooming, huddling, and aggressive interactions collected for a six-week period were used to reconstruct social network communities via the Data Cloud Geometry (DCG) clustering algorithm. Further, an E. coli isolate was biochemically confirmed and genotypically fingerprinted from fecal swabs collected from each macaque. Population genetics approaches revealed that Group Membership, in comparison to intrinsic attributes like age, sex, and/or matriline membership of individuals, accounted for the highest proportion of variance in E. coli genotypic similarity. Social network approaches revealed that such sharing was evident at the community-level rather than the dyadic level. Specifically, although we found no links between dyadic E. coli similarity and social contact frequencies, similarity was significantly greater among macaques within the same social network communities compared to those across different communities. Moreover, tests for one of our study-groups confirmed that E. coli isolated from macaque rectal swabs were more genotypically similar to each other than they were to isolates from environmentally deposited feces. In summary, our results suggest that among frequently interacting, spatially constrained macaques with complex social relationships, microbial sharing via fecal-oral, social contact-mediated routes may

  4. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Dettmer

    Full Text Available Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous, to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1, in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1, and in peak lactation (LACT2. We also assessed infants' neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02, but only in primiparous monkeys (p<0.001. HPCs declined across pregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (p<0.01, and primiparous monkeys had higher HPCs overall than multiparous monkeys (p=0.02. Infants of primiparous mothers had lower sensorimotor reflex scores (p=0.02 and tended to be more irritable (p=0.05 and less consolable (p=0.08 in the first month of life. Moreover, across all subjects, HCCs in PREG2/LACT1 were positively correlated with irritability (r(s=0.43, p=0.03 and negatively correlated with sensorimotor scores (r(s=-0.41, p=0.04. Together, the present results indicate that primiparity influences both chronic maternal hormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in

  5. Genotyping of TRIM5 locus in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina, a primate species susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection

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    Jiang Xue-Long

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig-tailed macaques are the only Old World monkeys known to be susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. We have previously reported that the TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp fusion in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina is dysfunctional in restricting HIV-1, which may explain why pig-tailed macaques are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Similar results have also been reported by other groups. However, according to the current primate taxonomy, the previously reported M. nemestrina are further classified into three species, which all belong to the Macaca spp. This calls for the need to look into the previous studies in more details. Results The local species Northern pig-tailed macaque (M. leonina was analyzed for the correlation of TRIM5 structure and HIV-1 infection. Eleven M. leonina animals were analyzed, and all of them were found to possess TRIM5-CypA fusion at the TRIM5 locus. The transcripts encoding the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA should result from the G-to-T mutation in the 3'-splicing site of intron 6. Polymorphism in the putative TRIMCyp recognition domain was observed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of M. leonina were susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Consistent with the previous results, expression of the M. leonina TRIMCyp in HeLa-T4 cells rendered the cells resistant to HIV-2ROD but not to SIVmac239 infection. Conclusion The susceptibility of M. leonina to HIV-1 infection is due to the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA fusion in the TRIM5 locus. This finding should broaden our perspective in developing better HIV/AIDS non-human primate animal models.

  6. What meaning means for same and different: Analogical reasoning in humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Beran, Michael J; Thompson, Roger K R; Kleider, Heather M; Washburn, David A

    2008-05-01

    Thus far, language- and token-trained apes (e.g., D. Premack, 1976; R. K. R. Thompson, D. L. Oden, & S. T. Boysen, 1997) have provided the best evidence that nonhuman animals can solve, complete, and construct analogies, thus implicating symbolic representation as the mechanism enabling the phenomenon. In this study, the authors examined the role of stimulus meaning in the analogical reasoning abilities of three different primate species. Humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed the same relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks with both meaningful and nonmeaningful stimuli. This discrimination of relations-between-relations serves as the basis for analogical reasoning. Meaningfulness facilitated the acquisition of analogical matching for human participants, whereas individual differences among the chimpanzees suggest that meaning can either enable or hinder their ability to complete analogies. Rhesus monkeys did not succeed in the RMTS task regardless of stimulus meaning, suggesting that their ability to reason analogically, if present at all, may be dependent on a dimension other than the representational value of stimuli. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Study of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of attenuated and killed Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta model of the human disease

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    VF Amaral

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We have compared the efficacy of two Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines, one genetically attenuated (DHFR-TS deficient organisms, the other inactivated [autoclaved promastigotes (ALM with bacillus Calmete-Guérin (BCG], in protecting rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta against infection with virulent L. (L. major. Positive antigen-specific recall proliferative response was observed in vaccinees (79% in attenuated parasite-vaccinated monkeys, versus 75% in ALM-plus-BCG-vaccinated animals, although none of these animals exhibited either augmented in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-g production or positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to the leishmanin skin test prior to the challenge. Following challenge, there were significant differences in blastogenic responses (p < 0.05 between attenuated-vaccinated monkeys and naïve controls. In both vaccinated groups very low levels of antibody were found before challenge, which increased after infective challenge. Protective immunity did not follow vaccination, in that monkeys exhibited skin lesion at the site of challenge in all the groups. The most striking result was the lack of pathogenicity of the attenuated parasite, which persisted in infected animals for up to three months, but were incapable of causing disease under the conditions employed. We concluded that both vaccine protocols used in this study are safe in primates, but require further improvement for vaccine application.

  9. The Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopithecidae: conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India

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    M. Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus is a threatened species inhabiting the rainforests of the Western Ghats mountain range in southern India. Once assessed to be less than a thousand individuals remaining in the wild habitats, the population is now estimated to be between 3000 and 3500 individuals. However, the rainforest habitats of the species are highly fragmented. During the past three decades or less, the population of this species has severely declined due to habitat degradation and illegal hunting in several areas of its occurrence. In situ conservation programs included notification of certain areas as Lion-tailed Macaque conservation regions. Several captive breeding programs have been initiated in order to have a viable captive population of the species. However, the analysis reveals that both in situ and ex situ conservation programs have not achieved the desired success and the species is even more endangered than it was a few decades ago. In this article, we discuss these conservation programs and suggest further measures for effective conservation of Lion-tailed Macaques.

  10. Social networks dynamics revealed by temporal analysis: An example in a non-human primate (Macaca sylvanus) in "La Forêt des Singes".

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    Sosa, Sebastian; Zhang, Peng; Cabanes, Guénaël

    2017-06-01

    This study applied a temporal social network analysis model to describe three affiliative social networks (allogrooming, sleep in contact, and triadic interaction) in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus. Three main social mechanisms were examined to determine interactional patterns among group members, namely preferential attachment (i.e., highly connected individuals are more likely to form new connections), triadic closure (new connections occur via previous close connections), and homophily (individuals interact preferably with others with similar attributes). Preferential attachment was only observed for triadic interaction network. Triadic closure was significant in allogrooming and triadic interaction networks. Finally, gender homophily was seasonal for allogrooming and sleep in contact networks, and observed in each period for triadic interaction network. These individual-based behaviors are based on individual reactions, and their analysis can shed light on the formation of the affiliative networks determining ultimate coalition networks, and how these networks may evolve over time. A focus on individual behaviors is necessary for a global interactional approach to understanding social behavior rules and strategies. When combined, these social processes could make animal social networks more resilient, thus enabling them to face drastic environmental changes. This is the first study to pinpoint some of the processes underlying the formation of a social structure in a non-human primate species, and identify common mechanisms with humans. The approach used in this study provides an ideal tool for further research seeking to answer long-standing questions about social network dynamics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Measurement of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) apolipoprotein B in serum by radioimmunoassay: comparison of immunoreactivities of rhesus and human low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, J.B.; Juhn, D.J.; Fless, G.; Scanu, A.M.; Rubenstein, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay for the major apolipoprotein (apoB) of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) is described. The antiserum was raised to LDL (d 1.030 to 1.040 g/ml) and the LDL 2 (d 1.020 to 1.050 g/ml) was labeled with 125 I by the chloramine-T or iodine monochloride method. The assay, which was sensitive to 0.02 to 0.5 μg of LDL 2 , had an interassay coefficient of variation of 4.5%. This assay was successfully used to measure apoB in the whole serum and low density lipoproteins of control monkeys maintained on a standard Purina monkey chow (PMC) diet and of three groups of monkeys fed atherogenic diets: an average American diet, a 25% peanut oil and 2% cholesterol-supplemented PMC diet, and a 25% coconut oil and 2% cholesterol-supplemented PMC diet

  12. Chronic suppression of testicular function by constant infusion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and testosterone supplementation in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, N; Ramesh, V; Krishnamurthy, H N; Rao, A J; Moudgal, R N

    1992-03-01

    To study the efficacy of long-term buserelin acetate infusion to desensitize pituitary and block testicular function in adult male monkeys (Macaca radiata). Proven fertile male monkeys exhibiting normal testicular function. Each of the control (n = 5) and experimental monkeys (n = 10) received a fresh miniosmotic pump every 21 days, whereas pumps in controls delivered vehicle of experimentals released 50 micrograms buserelin acetate every 24 hours. On day 170 (renewed every 60 days) a silastic capsule containing crystalline testosterone (T) was implanted in the experimental monkeys. At the end of 3 years, treatment was stopped, and recovery of testicular function and fertility monitored. (1) Treatment resulted in marked reduction of nocturnal but not basal serum T; (2) the pituitary remained desensitized to buserelin acetate throughout the 3-year period; (3) animals were largely azoospermic with occasional oligospermia exhibited by two monkeys; and (4) withdrawal of treatment restored testicular function, with 70% of animals regaining fertility. Long-term infertility (but restorable) can be induced in male monkeys by constant infusion of buserelin acetate and T.

  13. Echography of the Cervix and Uterus during the Proliferative and Secretory Phases of the Menstrual Cycle in Bonnet Monkeys (Macaca radiata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Uddhav K; Metkari, Siddnath M; Manjaramkar, Dhyananjay D; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Katkam, Rajendra; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H; Mahajan, Abhishek; Thakur, Meenakshi H; Kholkute, Sanjiv D

    2014-01-01

    We undertook the present study to investigate the echographic characteristics of the uterus and cervix of female bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. The cervix was tortuous in shape and measured 2.74 ± 0.30 cm (mean ± SD) in width by 3.10 ± 0.32 cm in length. The cervical lumen contained 2 or 3 colliculi, which projected from the cervical canal. The echogenicity of cervix varied during proliferative and secretory phases. The uterus was pyriform in shape (2.46 ± 0.28 cm × 1.45 ± 0.19 cm) and consisted of serosa, myometrium, and endometrium. The endometrium generated a triple-line pattern; the outer and central lines were hyperechogenic, whereas the inner line was hypoechogenic. The endometrium was significantly thicker during the secretory phase (0.69 ± 0.12 cm) than during the proliferative phase (0.43 ± 0.15 cm). Knowledge of the echogenic changes in the female reproductive organs of bonnet monkeys during a regular menstrual cycle may facilitate understanding of other physiologic and pathophysiologic changes. PMID:24411775

  14. Maintaining social cohesion is a more important determinant of patch residence time than maximizing food intake rate in a group-living primate, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

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    Kazahari, Nobuko

    2014-04-01

    Animals have been assumed to employ an optimal foraging strategy (e.g., rate-maximizing strategy). In patchy food environments, intake rate within patches is positively correlated with patch quality, and declines as patches are depleted through consumption. This causes patch-leaving and determines patch residence time. In group-foraging situations, patch residence times are also affected by patch sharing. Optimal patch models for groups predict that patch residence times decrease as the number of co-feeding animals increases because of accelerated patch depletion. However, group members often depart patches without patch depletion, and their patch residence time deviates from patch models. It has been pointed out that patch residence time is also influenced by maintaining social proximity with others among group-living animals. In this study, the effects of maintaining social cohesion and that of rate-maximizing strategy on patch residence time were examined in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). I hypothesized that foragers give up patches to remain in the proximity of their troop members. On the other hand, foragers may stay for a relatively long period when they do not have to abandon patches to follow the troop. In this study, intake rate and foraging effort (i.e., movement) did not change during patch residency. Macaques maintained their intake rate with only a little foraging effort. Therefore, the patches were assumed to be undepleted during patch residency. Further, patch residence time was affected by patch-leaving to maintain social proximity, but not by the intake rate. Macaques tended to stay in patches for short periods when they needed to give up patches for social proximity, and remained for long periods when they did not need to leave to keep social proximity. Patch-leaving and patch residence time that prioritize the maintenance of social cohesion may be a behavioral pattern in group-living primates.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA analyses and ecological niche modeling reveal post-LGM expansion of the Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis) in the foothills of Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Laxman; Chalise, Mukesh K; He, Kai; Acharya, Bipin K; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Jiang, Xuelong

    2018-03-01

    Genetic diversity of a species is influenced by multiple factors, including the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and geophysical barriers. Such factors are not yet well documented for fauna from the southern border of the Himalayan region. This study used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and ecological niche modeling (ENM) to explore how the late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex geography of the Himalayan region have shaped genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and demographic history of the Nepalese population of Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis) in the Himalayan foothills. A total of 277 fecal samples were collected from 39 wild troops over almost the entire distribution of the species in Nepal. The mtDNA fragment encompassing the complete control region (1121 bp) was recovered from 208 samples, thus defining 54 haplotypes. Results showed low nucleotide diversity (0.0075 ± SD 0.0001) but high haplotype diversity (0.965 ± SD 0.004). The mtDNA sequences revealed a shallow population genetic structure with a moderate but statistically significant effect of isolation by distance. Demographic history analyses using mtDNA sequences suggested a post-pleistocene population expansion. Paleodistribution reconstruction projected that the potential habitat of the Assam macaque was confined to the lower elevations of central Nepal during the Last Glacial Maximum. With the onset of the Holocene climatic optimum, the glacial refugia population experienced eastward range expansion to higher elevations. We conclude that the low genetic diversity and shallow population genetic structure of the Assam macaque population in the Nepal Himalaya region are the consequence of recent demographic and spatial expansion. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-09-18

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states.

  17. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS: A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

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    Eric J Feczko

    Full Text Available Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD, has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS. Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological

  18. COMPARISON OF INTRAMUSCULAR FENTANYL-MIDAZOLAM, FENTANYL-MIDAZOLAM-KETAMINE, AND KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF JAPANESE MACAQUES ( MACACA FUSCATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ølberg, Rolf-Arne; Sinclair, Melissa; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham

    2018-03-01

    The combination of fentanyl and midazolam is commonly used as a sedative in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sedative properties and physiological effects of fentanyl-midazolam and fentanyl-midazolam-ketamine compared with medetomidine-ketamine given intramuscularly in Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata). In a randomized crossover design, eight Japanese macaques were hand-injected with either 30 μg/kg fentanyl + 0.3 mg/kg midazolam (FM), 15 μg/kg fentanyl + 0.3 mg/kg midazolam + 5.0 mg/kg ketamine (FMK), or 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine + 5.0 mg/kg ketamine (MedK). Heart rate; indirect systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial pressure; respiratory rate; blood gas concentrations; rectal temperature; and duration of immobilization were recorded. Mixed linear models were used to evaluate the effects of drug treatment on all continuous variables, with a significance level of P < 0.05. Only three of seven animals receiving FM were successfully immobilized. All eight animals in both the FMK and MedK treatment groups had a rapid, smooth induction and were successfully immobilized. Both FMK and MedK treatments resulted in significant hypoxia and the animals required supplemental oxygen via face mask. The mean duration of FMK immobilization was 42 ± 10 min, significantly shorter than the 65 ± 14 min for the animals receiving MedK. Immobilization with MedK resulted in significantly lower heart rates, and significantly higher arterial pressure compared with FMK. Hypoventilation was significantly more pronounced in FMK-treated animals compared with MedK treatments. Immobilization with FMK resulted in a gradual, slow recovery whereas MedK-treated animals woke up more rapidly. Fentanyl-midazolam alone is not a useful sedative in Japanese macaques. A combination of fentanyl and midazolam with ketamine can be used as an alternative to medetomidine-ketamine in this species.

  19. Allelic variation of the COMT gene in a despotic primate society: A haplotype is related to cortisol excretion in Macaca fuscata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflüger, Lena S; Gutleb, Daria R; Hofer, Martin; Fieder, Martin; Wallner, Bernard; Steinborn, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Sequence variations in genes of the monoamine neurotransmitter system and their common function in human and non-human primate species are an ongoing issue of investigation. However, the COMT gene, coding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase, has not yet attracted much scientific attention regarding its functional role in non-human primates. Considering that a polymorphism of the human COMT gene affects the enzyme activity and cortisol level in response to a social stressor, this study investigated the impact of COMT on endocrine stress and behavioural parameters in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The species exemplifies a despotic hierarchy in which males' social rank positions require an adaptation of behaviour strategies. During the mating period steroid secretion and the frequency of aggressive encounters between males increase. We addressed i) whether this species exhibits potential functional COMT variants, ii) whether these variants are associated with faecal cortisol excretion of males, iii) how they are distributed among different social rank positions and iv) whether they are associated with behavioural strategies during times of mate competition. By genotyping 26 males we identified three COMT haplotypes (HT), including a putative splice mutant (HT3). This variant was associated with increased cortisol excretion. Given the observed inverse correlation between cortisol and physical aggression, we assume that different COMT haplotypes may predispose individuals to pursue more or less aggressive strategies. How these gene-stress effects might favour a specific social role is discussed. Our study of non-invasive genotyping in combination with behavioural and endocrine parameters represents an important step towards the understanding of gene-stress effects in a hierarchically organised primate society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of site (deltoid or gluteus muscle of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Hess

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of site of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta. Twenty macaque monkeys were given medetomidine (25 µg·kg-1 and ketamine (3 mg·kg-1 intramuscularly to the deltoid (n = 10 animals or gluteus (n = 10 animals muscles. Behavioural changes, loss of aggressiveness, immobilisation time and cardiorespiratory changes were recorded. The effect of drugs was reversed after 20 min by i.m. administration of atipamezole at the dose of 250 µg·kg-1. Highly significant differences (P < 0.001 were found between groups with gluteal or deltoid administration of drugs on the onset of immobilisation effect (71.3 s and 108.3 s, respectively, and immobilisation time (152.7 s and 254.4 s, respectively. In the gluteus muscle group, the grasp reflex was still present at the beginning of immobilisation and slowly wore off in 15–45 s. The same was valid for muscle tone. There were no differences in cardiorespiratory parameters in any of the groups. Animals of both groups recovered in 3–6 min after atipamezole administration. Administration of drugs to the deltoid muscle resulted in a more rapid onset and increased effect of immobilisation than administration to the gluteus muscle. Both in veterinary and human medicine, injection to the deltoid muscle may be more convenient in all cases, when rapid and more prominent effect is desirable as in premedication before surgery or in emergency medicine. The study is the first to compare the effect of administering drugs to different muscles and the results may improve the practice of intramuscular injections in animals and in humans.

  1. Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta living in urban and semi-rural North-West India

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    John J. Debenham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. are intestinal protozoa capable of infecting a range of host species, and are important causes of human morbidity and mortality. Understanding their epidemiology is important, both for public health and for the health of the animals they infect. This study investigated the occurrence of these protozoans in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta in India, with the aim of providing preliminary information on the potential for transmission of these pathogens between macaques and humans. Faecal samples (n = 170 were collected from rhesus macaques from four districts of North-West India. Samples were analysed for Giardia/Cryptosporidium using a commercially available direct immunofluorescent antibody test after purification via immunomagnetic separation. Positive samples were characterised by sequencing of PCR products. Occurrence of Entamoeba was investigated first by using a genus-specific PCR, and positive samples further investigated via species-specific PCRs for Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Giardia cysts were found in 31% of macaque samples, with all isolates belonging to Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 1 sample, however this sample did not result in amplification by PCR. Entamoeba spp. were found in 79% of samples, 49% of which were positive for E. coli. Multiplex PCR for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, did not result in amplification in any of the samples. Thus in 51% of the samples positive at the genus specific PCR, the Entamoeba species was not identified. This study provides baseline information on the potential for transmission of these zoonotic parasites at the wildlife-human interface.

  2. Behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta is related to the airways response, but not immune measures, commonly associated with asthma.

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    Katie Chun

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition reflects a disposition to react warily to novel situations, and has been associated with atopic diseases such as asthma. Retrospective work established the relationship between behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and airway hyperresponsiveness, but not atopy, and the suggestion was made that behavioral inhibition might index components of asthma that are not immune-related. In the present study, we prospectively examined the relationship between behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and whether hormonal and immune measures often associated with asthma were associated with behavioral inhibition and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. In a sample of 49 yearling rhesus monkeys (mean=1.25 years, n=24 behaviorally inhibited animals, we measured in vitro cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ in response to stimulation, as well as peripheral blood cell percentages, cortisol levels, and percentage of regulatory T-cells (CD3+CD4+CD25+FOXP3+. Airway reactivity was assessed using an inhaled methacholine challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the proportion of immune cells was determined. Behaviorally inhibited monkeys had airway hyperresponsiveness as indicated by the methacholine challenge (p=0.031, confirming our earlier retrospective result. Airway hyperresponsiveness was also associated with lower lymphocyte percentages in lavage fluid and marginally lower plasma cortisol concentrations. However, none of the tested measures was significantly related to both behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and so could not mediate their relationship. Airway hyperresponsiveness is common to atopic and non-atopic asthma and behavioral inhibition has been related to altered autonomic activity in other studies. Our results suggest that behavioral inhibition might index an autonomically mediated reactive airway phenotype, and that a variety of stimuli (including inflammation within

  3. Correlations between serum levels of beta amyloid, cerebrospinal levels of tau and phospho tau, and delayed response tasks in young and aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Sajuthi, D; Kalliokoski, O

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to explore cynomolgus monkeys as an animal model for Alzheimer's disease, the present study focused on the Alzheimer's biomarkers beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42 ) in serum, and total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid.......In an attempt to explore cynomolgus monkeys as an animal model for Alzheimer's disease, the present study focused on the Alzheimer's biomarkers beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42 ) in serum, and total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid....

  4. Validation of multi-detector computed tomography as a non-invasive method for measuring ovarian volume in macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeryl C; Appt, Susan E; Werre, Stephen R; Tan, Joshua C; Kaplan, Jay R

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate low radiation dose, contrast-enhanced, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) as a non-invasive method for measuring ovarian volume in macaques. Computed tomography scans of four known-volume phantoms and nine mature female cynomolgus macaques were acquired using a previously described, low radiation dose scanning protocol, intravenous contrast enhancement, and a 32-slice MDCT scanner. Immediately following MDCT, ovaries were surgically removed and the ovarian weights were measured. The ovarian volumes were determined using water displacement. A veterinary radiologist who was unaware of actual volumes measured ovarian CT volumes three times, using a laptop computer, pen display tablet, hand-traced regions of interest, and free image analysis software. A statistician selected and performed all tests comparing the actual and CT data. Ovaries were successfully located in all MDCT scans. The iliac arteries and veins, uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, ureters, urinary bladder, rectum, and colon were also consistently visualized. Large antral follicles were detected in six ovaries. Phantom mean CT volume was 0.702+/-SD 0.504 cc and the mean actual volume was 0.743+/-SD 0.526 cc. Ovary mean CT volume was 0.258+/-SD 0.159 cc and mean water displacement volume was 0.257+/-SD 0.145 cc. For phantoms, the mean coefficient of variation for CT volumes was 2.5%. For ovaries, the least squares mean coefficient of variation for CT volumes was 5.4%. The ovarian CT volume was significantly associated with actual ovarian volume (ICC coefficient 0.79, regression coefficient 0.5, P=0.0006) and the actual ovarian weight (ICC coefficient 0.62, regression coefficient 0.6, P=0.015). There was no association between the CT volume accuracy and mean ovarian CT density (degree of intravenous contrast enhancement), and there was no proportional or fixed bias in the CT volume measurements. Findings from this study indicate that MDCT is a valid non-invasive technique for measuring the ovarian volume in macaques.

  5. Amyloid beta1–42 and the phoshorylated tau threonine 231 in brains of aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Gjedde, Albert; Sajuthi, Dondin

    2014-01-01

    angiopathy, and the tauopathy, to possible neurofibrillary tangles. Six aged monkeys were selected based on their spatial memory performance and profile of biomarkers of AD, divided equally to affected aged subject - with Memory-affected and low amyloid level, and aged with higher performance in memory...

  6. Early changes of cortical blood flow, brain temperature and electrical activity after whole-body irradiation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) (dose range: 3-20 Gy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, L.; Gourmelon, P.; Mestries, J.C.

    1987-02-01

    A polyparametric investigation was carried out on 31 monkeys chronically wearing bioinstrumentation allowing to get and process simultaneously local brain blood flow, cerebral temperature, and energies in various frequency bands of the brain electrical activity. This method, which supplied data during several consecutive days, made it possible to study both the biological rhythms at the level of the various parameters, and their fast variations. The effects of whole-body gamma or neutron-gamma irradiation were studied in the 3-20 Gy dose range. Immediate changes after exposure demonstrated different radiosensitivities at the level of the rhythms of the various parameters, and/or their recovery, as well as dose-effect relationships [fr

  7. The influence of gender, age, matriline and hierarchical rank on individual social position, role and interactional patterns in Macaca sylvanus at ‘La Forêt des singes’: A multilevel social network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian OROZCO SOSA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank on affiliative (allogrooming and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e. centric, peripheral and role (i.e. implication in the network cohesiveness of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

  8. The Influence of Gender, Age, Matriline and Hierarchical Rank on Individual Social Position, Role and Interactional Patterns in Macaca sylvanus at 'La Forêt des Singes': A Multilevel Social Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank) on affiliative (allogrooming) and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

  9. Red nucleus of Macaca fascicularis : an electron microscopic study of its synaptic organization in relation to afferent and efferent connectivity and proposals for the role of the red nucleus in motor mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ralston, Diane Cornelia Daly

    1994-01-01

    Dit proefschrift heeft betrekking op de verbindingen en de synaptische organisatie binnen het parvicellularaire en magnocellulaire deel van de nucleus ruber of de rode kern van de aap (macaque). De nucleus ruber is gemakkelijk herkenbaar in de middenhersenen of het mesencephalon, het hart van het

  10. Bases estructurales de la memoria declarativa. Estudio de la interacción entre la formación del hipocampo y la corteza cerebral en el primate Macaca fascicularis.

    OpenAIRE

    Legidos García, María Ester

    2014-01-01

    La memoria otorga al ser humano una biografía y un conjunto de hechos que le proporciona una identidad, le orienta en el mundo y en su entorno cultural (memoria declarativa). Evidencias clínicas y experimentales muestran que los centros nerviosos cuyo epicentro es el lóbulo temporal medial, son imprescindibles para la consolidación y evocación de los recuerdos. Entre estos centros nerviosos destaca la Formación del Hipocampo (FH) compuesta de giro dentado, campos amónicos CA3, CA2, CA1, subíc...

  11. Autoshaping in Japanese Monkeys (Macaca Fuscata)

    OpenAIRE

    Itakura, Shoji; Fushimi, Takao; Asano, Toshio; Shoji, Itakura; Takao, Fushimi; Toshio, Asano

    1992-01-01

    Three Japanese monkeys were exposed to autoshaping and omission procedures. The Japanese momkeys seemed to be more sensitive to response-reinforcer contingency than to stimulus-reinforcer contingency. These results were compared with pigeons and squirrel monkeys in the previous reports.

  12. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. C. Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  13. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  14. Radiation-induced endometriosis in Macaca mulatta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanton, J.W.; Golden, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Female rhesus monkeys received whole-body doses of ionizing radiation in the form of single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, X rays, and electrons. Endometriosis developed in 53% of the monkeys during a 17-year period after exposure. Incidence rates for endometriosis related to radiation type were: single-energy protons, 54%; mixed-energy protons, 73%; X rays, 71%; and electrons, 57%. The incidence of endometriosis in nonirradiated control monkeys was 26%. Monkeys exposed to single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, and X rays developed endometriosis at a significantly higher rate than control monkeys (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Severity of endometriosis was staged as massive, moderate, and minimal. The incidence of these stages were 65, 16, and 19%, respectively. Observations of clinical disease included weight loss in 43% of the monkeys, anorexia in 35%, space-occupying masses detected by abdominal palpation in 55%, abnormal ovarian/uterine anatomy on rectal examination in 89%, and radiographic evidence of abdominal masses in 38%. Pathological lesions were endometrial cyst formation in 69% of the monkeys, adhesions of the colon in 66%, urinary bladder in 50%, ovaries in 86%, and ureters in 44%, focal nodules of endometrial tissue throughout the omentum in 59%, and metastasis in 9%. Clinical management of endometriosis consisted of debulking surgery and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined in some cases with total abdominal hysterectomy. Postoperative survival rates at 1 and 5 years for monkeys recovering from surgery were 48 and 36%, respectively

  15. Image collection: 44 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 Macaca_fascicularis_NL.png カニクイザル Cynomolgus Macaca fascicularis 9541 生物アイコン,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,哺乳綱,獣亜綱,真獣下綱,霊長目

  16. Detection of cyclospora in captive chimpanzees and macaques by a quantitative PCR-based mutation scanning approach

    OpenAIRE

    Marangi, M.; Koehler, A.V.; Zanzani, S.A.; Manfredi, M.T.; Brianti, E.; Giangaspero, A.; Gasser, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cyclospora is a protistan parasite that causes enteritis in several species of animals including humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Cyclospora in captive non-human primates. Methods A total of 119 faecal samples from Pan troglodytes, Macaca sylvanus, Cercopithecus cephus, Erythrocebus patas, Chlorocebus aethiops and Macaca fascicularis from a wildlife animal rescue center as well as from Macaca fascicularis from an experimental primate research center ...

  17. Noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M D; Burton, J A; Hauser, S N; Hackett, T A; Ramachandran, R; Liberman, M C

    2017-09-01

    Cochlear synaptopathy can result from various insults, including acoustic trauma, aging, ototoxicity, or chronic conductive hearing loss. For example, moderate noise exposure in mice can destroy up to ∼50% of synapses between auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) and inner hair cells (IHCs) without affecting outer hair cells (OHCs) or thresholds, because the synaptopathy occurs first in high-threshold ANFs. However, the fiber loss likely impairs temporal processing and hearing-in-noise, a classic complaint of those with sensorineural hearing loss. Non-human primates appear to be less vulnerable to noise-induced hair-cell loss than rodents, but their susceptibility to synaptopathy has not been studied. Because establishing a non-human primate model may be important in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics, we examined cochlear innervation and the damaging effects of acoustic overexposure in young adult rhesus macaques. Anesthetized animals were exposed bilaterally to narrow-band noise centered at 2 kHz at various sound-pressure levels for 4 h. Cochlear function was assayed for up to 8 weeks following exposure via auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). A moderate loss of synaptic connections (mean of 12-27% in the basal half of the cochlea) followed temporary threshold shifts (TTS), despite minimal hair-cell loss. A dramatic loss of synapses (mean of 50-75% in the basal half of the cochlea) was seen on IHCs surviving noise exposures that produced permanent threshold shifts (PTS) and widespread hair-cell loss. Higher noise levels were required to produce PTS in macaques compared to rodents, suggesting that primates are less vulnerable to hair-cell loss. However, the phenomenon of noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy in primates is similar to that seen in rodents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic methylmercury exposure in the monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luschei, E.; Mottet, N.K.; Shaw, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    Small daily doses of methylmercury hydroxide were administered to rhesus monkeys for periods of up to 17 months. Behavioral tests of peripheral vision and of the accuracy and rapidity of hand movements did not disclose any early subtle deficits preceding the onset of obvious signs of neurotoxicity. These signs appeared suddenly and involved reduced food intake (anorexia), clumsiness of jumping, loss of fine control of the digits, and uncoordinated mastication. With a constant daily dose of 0.1 mg/kg or less, blood concentration of mercury reached a peak after about 2 months, and then decreased to about half the peak value. Subsequently, increasing the daily dose level above 0.1 mg/kg (range of 0.12 to 0.21 mg/kg) produced an increase of blood concentration which tended to stabilize in the range of 2.0 to 2.5 ppM. After several months at these elevated concentrations all animals exhibited signs of neurotoxicity.

  19. Control of Working Memory in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Hampton, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control is critical for efficiently using the limited resources in working memory. It is well established that humans use rehearsal to increase the probability of remembering needed information, but little is known in nonhumans, with some studies reporting the absence of active control and others subject to alternative explanations. We trained monkeys in a visual matching-to-sample paradigm with a post-sample memory cue. Monkeys either saw a remember cue that predicted the occurrence of a matching test that required memory for the sample, or a forget cue that predicted a discrimination test that did not require memory of the sample. Infrequent probe trials on which monkeys were given tests of the type not cued on that trial were used to assess whether memory was under cognitive control. Our procedures controlled for reward expectation and for the surprising nature of the probes. Monkeys matched less accurately after forget cues, while discrimination accuracy was equivalent in the two cue conditions. We also tested monkeys with lists of two consecutive sample images that shared the same cue. Again, memory for expected memory tests was superior to that on unexpected tests. Together these results show that monkeys cognitively control their working memory. PMID:25436219

  20. Executive-Attentional Uncertainty Responses by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Church, Barbara A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty response has been influential in studies of human perception, and it is crucial in the growing research literature that explores animal metacognition. However, the uncertainty response's interpretation is still sharply debated. The authors sought to clarify this interpretation using the dissociative technique of cognitive loads…

  1. Familial circadian rhythm disorder in the diurnal primate, Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Zhdanova

    Full Text Available In view of the inverse temporal relationship of central clock activity to physiological or behavioral outputs in diurnal and nocturnal species, understanding the mechanisms and physiological consequences of circadian disorders in humans would benefit from studies in a diurnal animal model, phylogenetically close to humans. Here we report the discovery of the first intrinsic circadian disorder in a family of diurnal non-human primates, the rhesus monkey. The disorder is characterized by a combination of delayed sleep phase, relative to light-dark cycle, mutual desynchrony of intrinsic rhythms of activity, food intake and cognitive performance, enhanced nighttime feeding or, in the extreme case, intrinsic asynchrony. The phenotype is associated with normal length of intrinsic circadian period and requires an intact central clock, as demonstrated by an SCN lesion. Entrainment to different photoperiods or melatonin administration does not eliminate internal desynchrony, though melatonin can temporarily reinstate intrinsic activity rhythms in the animal with intrinsic asynchrony. Entrainment to restricted feeding is highly effective in animals with intrinsic or SCN lesion-induced asynchrony. The large isolated family of rhesus macaques harboring the disorder provides a powerful new tool for translational research of regulatory circuits underlying circadian disorders and their effective treatment.

  2. VASEKTOMI PADA MONYET EKOR PANJANG (MACACA FASCICULARISDI LOKASI WISATA SANGEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANDIA. I .N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Growth population control on the animal population dwelling a restricted habitat is very important to decrease, especially the negative impact on its surrounding environment. This Community Service was conducted as an application of vasectomy on an adult male of long tailed macaque occupying the tourist destination of Sangeh. This was the choosen method to overcome the overcrowded population. Vasectomy is surgical division of all or part of the vas deferens to induce sterility. One selected adult male monkey was anesthetized successfully using blowpipe. Surgical resection of part of vas deferens used a bilateral slicing method. Vasectomy was fully done nearly in one hour, and the monkey was released to habitat in the following three days of captivity.

  3. The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) as a flight candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debourne, M. N. G.; Bourne, G. H.; Mcclure, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    The intelligence and ruggedness of rhesus monkeys, as well as the abundance of normative data on their anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry, and the availability of captive bred animals qualify them for selection as candidates for orbital flight and weightlessness studies. Baseline data discussed include: physical characteristics, auditory thresholds, visual accuity, blood, serological taxomony, immunogenetics, cytogenics, circadian rhythms, respiration, cardiovascular values, corticosteroid response to charr restraint, microscopy of tissues, pathology, nutrition, and learning skills. Results from various tests used to establish the baseline data are presented in tables.

  4. Response to social challenge in young bonnet (Macaca radiata) and pigtail (Macaca nemestrina) macaques is related to early maternal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ann; Richardson, Rebecca; Worlein, Julie; De Waal, Frans; Laudenslager, Mark

    2004-04-01

    Previous experience affects how young primates respond to challenging social situations. The present retrospective study looked at one aspect of early experience, the quality of the mother-infant relationship, to determine its relationship to young bonnet and pigtail macaques' responses to two social challenges: temporary maternal separation at 5-6 months and permanent transfer to an unfamiliar peer group at 16-17 months. Relationship quality was measured quantitatively on 30 macaque mother-infant pairs with the Relationship Quality Index (RQI), the ratio of relative affiliation to relative agonism as previously applied to capuchin monkeys. Infants with high RQI values had amicable mother-infant relationships and infants with low RQI values had agonistic mother-infant relationships. Young monkeys with amicable and agonistic relationships showed consistent differences in behavior before, during, and after each social challenge, supporting the hypothesis that juveniles from amicable mother-infant relationships based on the RQI coped more effectively with social challenges than did juveniles from agonistic mother-infant relationships. Results suggest 1) characteristic amicability or agonism in early mother-offspring macaque relationships has the potential to influence offspring behavior in tense social contexts and 2) the RQI is useful as one of a coordinated suite of methods for studying the development of social skills. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in the human superior temporal gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, Robert A; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). Current evidence indicates...

  6. Aerosol measles vaccination in macaques: Preclinical studies of immune responses and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); T. Kuiken (Thijs); J. Fernandez-de Castro (Jorge); M.J. Papania (Mark); J.V. Bennett (John); J.L. Valdespino (José); P.D. Minor; C.L. Witham (Clyde); S. Yüksel (Selma); H.W. Vos (Helma); G. van Amerongen (Geert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe comparative efficacy and safety of measles vaccination via the aerosol route versus subcutaneous injection has not been fully resolved. We vaccinated cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with the live-attenuated Edmonston-Zagreb measles virus (MV) vaccine and compared different

  7. GenBank blastx search result: AK105069 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105069 001-045-C01 AB169286.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA, clone: QtsA-18648, similar to human mortali...ty factor 4 like 2 (MORF4L2), mRNA, RefSeq: NM_012286.1.|PRI PRI 3e-20 +3 ...

  8. Dicty_cDB: AFM791 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ts) Value AB170103_1( AB170103 |pid:none) Macaca fascicularis brain cDNA clo... 246 e-130 EU684308_1( EU6843...08 |pid:none) Exorista civilis heat shock protei... 275 e-125 ( P36415 ) RecName: Full=Heat shock cognate 70

  9. GenBank blastx search result: AK106998 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106998 002-120-B12 AB179082.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA clone: QtsA-12630, similar to human oculocer...ebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL), transcriptvariant a, mRNA, RefSeq: NM_000276.3.|PRI PRI 1e-29 +3 ...

  10. GenBank blastx search result: AK059494 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059494 001-028-H05 AB179082.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA clone: QtsA-12630, similar to human oculocer...ebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL), transcriptvariant a, mRNA, RefSeq: NM_000276.3.|PRI PRI 7e-40 +2 ...

  11. Development of a cerebrospinal fluid lateral reservoir model in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester McCully, Cynthia M; Bacher, John; MacAllister, Rhonda P; Steffen-Smith, Emilie A; Saleem, Kadharbatcha; Thomas, Marvin L; Cruz, Rafael; Warren, Katherine E

    2015-02-01

    Rapid, serial, and humane collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in nonhuman primates (NHP) is an essential element of numerous research studies and is currently accomplished via two different models. The CSF reservoir model (FR) combines a catheter in the 4th ventricle with a flexible silastic reservoir to permit circulating CSF flow. The CSF lateral port model (LP) consists of a lateral ventricular catheter and an IV port that provides static access to CSF and volume restrictions on sample collection. The FR model is associated with an intensive, prolonged recovery and frequent postsurgical hydrocephalus and nonpatency, whereas the LP model is associated with an easier recovery. To maximize the advantages of both systems, we developed the CSF lateral reservoir model (LR), which combines the beneficial features of the 2 previous models but avoids their limitations by using a reservoir for circulating CSF flow combined with catheter placement in the lateral ventricle. Nine adult male rhesus monkeys were utilized in this study. Pre-surgical MRI was performed to determine the coordinates of the lateral ventricle and location of choroid plexus (CP). The coordinates were determined to avoid the CP and major blood vessels. The predetermined coordinates were 100% accurate, according to MRI validation. The LR system functioned successfully in 67% of cases for 221 d, and 44% remain functional at 426 to 510 d postoperatively. Compared with established models, our LR model markedly reduced postoperative complications and recovery time. Development of the LR model was successful in rhesus macaques and is a useful alternative to the FR and LP methods of CSF collection from nonhuman primates.

  12. Development of a Cerebrospinal Fluid Lateral Reservoir Model in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Lester McCully, Cynthia M; Bacher, John; MacAllister, Rhonda P; Steffen-Smith, Emilie A; Saleem, Kadharbatcha; Thomas, Marvin L; Cruz, Rafael; Warren, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    Rapid, serial, and humane collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in nonhuman primates (NHP) is an essential element of numerous research studies and is currently accomplished via two different models. The CSF reservoir model (FR) combines a catheter in the 4th ventricle with a flexible silastic reservoir to permit circulating CSF flow. The CSF lateral port model (LP) consists of a lateral ventricular catheter and an IV port that provides static access to CSF and volume restrictions on sample...

  13. Hair loss and hair-pulling in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Corrine K; Coleman, Kristine; Worlein, Julie; Novak, Melinda A

    2013-07-01

    Alopecia is a common problem in rhesus macaque colonies. A possible cause of this condition is hair-pulling; however the true relationship between hair-pulling and alopecia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hair loss and hair-pulling in 1258 rhesus macaques housed in 4 primate colonies across the United States. Alopecia levels ranged from 34.3% to 86.5% (mean, 49.3%) at the primate facilities. At facilities reporting a sex-associated difference, more female macaques were reported to exhibit alopecia than were males. In contrast, more males were reported to hair-pull. Animals reported to hair-pull were significantly more likely to have some amount of alopecia, but rates of hair-pulling were substantially lower than rates of alopecia, ranging from 0.6% to 20.5% (mean, 7.7%) of the populations. These results further demonstrate that hair-pulling plays only a small role in alopecia in rhesus macaques.

  14. Exploring decoy effects on computerized task preferences in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey E. Parrish

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric dominance effect or decoy effect emerges when a third inferior option is introduced to a choice set. The decoy option, although typically not chosen, impacts relative preference for the original two options. This decisional bias stands in contrast with rational choice theory, which dictates that choice behavior should remain consistent for the original options with the addition of different alternatives to a choice set such as the decoy. In the current study, we assessed the decoy effect in rhesus monkeys using a computerized task battery that introduced two different computerized tasks, including a matching-to-sample task and a psychomotor task called PURSUIT. Decoy tasks were designed such that they were inferior versions of these original task options, requiring longer time to completion (via slowed cursor speeds and subsequently reduced reinforcement rates. Monkeys learned to associate unique icons for each task (including for decoy tasks, and used these icons to select their preferred task from a choice set of two to three task options. Monkeys learned to perform all tasks, but did not show evidence of the decoy effect using this task preference paradigm. We discuss the role of initial task preference (and task biases, task type (symbolic vs. perceptual, and decoy effect sizes in light of these findings. We contrast the current results to previous findings of the decoy effect in rhesus monkeys using a perceptual paradigm as well as to other evidence of the decoy effect in non-primate animal species.

  15. Hair cortisol predicts object permanence performance in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Novak, Matthew F S X; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2009-12-01

    Although high circulating levels of glucocorticoids are associated with impaired cognitive performance in adults, less is known about this relationship in infancy. Furthermore, because studies have relied on acute cortisol measures in blood plasma or saliva, interpretation of the results may be difficult as acute measures may in part reflect emotional responses to testing procedures. In this study we examined whether hair cortisol, an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, predicted performance of nursery-reared (NR) infant rhesus monkeys (n = 32) on Piagetian object permanence tasks. Testing of NR infants began at 19.8 +/- 2.2 (mean +/- SE) days of age and continued for the next several months. Hair cortisol concentrations from the 32 NR monkeys were compared to those of 20 mother-peer-reared (MPR) infants. Hair was shaved at Day 14, allowed to regrow, and obtained again at month 6, thus representing integrated cortisol over a 5.5-month period of time. NR and MPR infants did not differ in month 6 hair cortisol values (t((50)) = 0.02, p = 0.98). Linear regression revealed that hair cortisol predicted object permanence performance in the NR infants. Infants with higher hair cortisol reached criterion at later ages on the well (p < 0.01), screen (p < 0.05), and A-not-B (p < 0.05) tasks and required more test sessions to complete the well (p < 0.01) and screen tasks (p < 0.05). These data are the first to implicate hair cortisol as a reliable predictor of early cognitive performance in infant macaque monkeys.

  16. Multimodal Advertisement of Pregnancy in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Rigaill

    Full Text Available The role of multiple sexual signals in indicating the timing of female ovulation, and discrimination of this timing by males, has been particularly well studied among primates. However the exhibition of pregnancy signals, and how such signals might modulate male post-conception mating decisions, is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to determine if Japanese macaque males use changes in female sexual signals (behavioral, visual and auditory to discriminate pregnancy and adjust their socio-sexual behaviors. We combined behavioral observations, digital photography and endocrinological (progestogen and estrogen data, collected systematically during three one-month periods: the pre-conceptive period, the 1st month of pregnancy and the 2nd month of pregnancy. We analyzed variation in the probability of detecting male and female socio-sexual behaviors and estrus calls, as well as changes in female face color parameters, in relation to female reproductive state. Based on our focal observations, we found that males did not copulate during the pregnancy period, and that female socio-sexual behaviors generally decreased from the pre-conceptive to post-conceptive periods. Female face luminance decreased from the pre-conceptive month to the pregnancy period whereas face color only varied between the 1st and 2nd month of gestation. Our results suggest that Japanese macaque females display sexual cues of pregnancy that males might use to reduce energy wasted on non-reproductive copulations with pregnant females. We hypothesize that females advertize their pregnancy through changes in behavioral, visual and potential auditory signals that males can use to adjust their mating behaviors. We finish by discussing implications for male and female post-conception strategies.

  17. Metabolism of 14C-labeled doxylamine succinate (Bendectin) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Lipe, G.W.; Korfmacher, W.A.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Bailey, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The time-course of the metabolic fate of [ 14 C]doxylamine was determined after the p.o. administration of 13 mg/kg doxylamine succinate as Bendectin plus [ 14 C]doxylamine succinate to the rhesus monkey. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chemical derivatization, and mass spectrometry. The cumulative 48-hr urinary metabolic profile contained 81% of the administered radiolabeled dose and consisted of at least six radiolabeled peaks. They were peak 1: unknown polar metabolites (8% of dose); peak 2: 2-[1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy] acetic acid, 1-[1-phenyl-1(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy] methanol, and another minor metabolite(s) (31%); peak 3: doxylamine-N-oxide (1%); peak 4a: N,N-didesmethyldoxylamine (17%); peak 4b: doxylamine (4%); and peak 5: N-desmethyldoxylamine (20%). The plasma metabolic profile was the same as the urinary profile except for the absence of doxylamine-N-oxide. The maximum plasma concentrations and elapsed time to attain these concentrations were as follows. Peak 1: 540 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 2: 1700 ng/mL, 1 hr; peak 4a: 430 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 4b: 930 ng/mL, 2 hr; and peak 5: 790 ng/mL, 2 hr. These data suggest that in the monkey, doxylamine metabolism follows at least four pathways: a minor pathway to the N-oxide; a minor pathway to unknown polar metabolites; a major pathway to mono- and didesmethyldoxylamine via successive N-demethylation; and a major pathway to side-chain cleavage products (peak 2) via direct side-chain oxidation and/or deamination

  18. Fading Perceptual Resemblance: A Path for Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to Conceptual Matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Flemming, Timothy M.; Boomer, Joseph; Beran, Michael J.; Church, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive, comparative, and developmental psychologists have long been intrigued by humans’ and animals’ capacity to respond to abstract relations like sameness and difference, because this capacity may underlie crucial aspects of cognition like analogical reasoning. Recently, this capacity has been explored in higher-order, relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks in which humans and animals try to complete analogies of sameness and difference between disparate groups of items. The authors introduced a new paradigm to this area, by yoking the relational-matching cue to a perceptual-matching cue. Then, using established algorithms for shape distortion, the perceptual cue was weakened and eliminated. Humans’ RMTS performance easily transcended the elimination of perceptual support. In contrast, RMTS performance by six macaques faltered as they were weaned from perceptual support. No macaque showed evidence of mature RMTS performance, even given more than 260,000 training trials during which we tried to coax a relational-matching performance from them. It is an important species difference that macaques show so hesitant a response to conceptual relations when humans respond to them so effortlessly. It raises theoretical questions about the emergence of this crucial capacity during humans’ cognitive evolution and during humans’ cognitive development. PMID:24076537

  19. The transfer of category knowledge by macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive psychologists distinguish implicit, procedural category learning (stimulus-response associations learned outside declarative cognition) from explicit-declarative category learning (conscious category rules). These systems are dissociated by category learning tasks with either a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. In the present experiments, humans and two monkeys learned II and RB category tasks fostering implicit and explicit learning, respectively. Then they received occasional transfer trials-never directly reinforced-drawn from untrained regions of the stimulus space. We hypothesized that implicit-procedural category learning-allied to associative learning-would transfer weakly because it is yoked to the training stimuli. This result was confirmed for humans and monkeys. We hypothesized that explicit category learning-allied to abstract category rules-would transfer robustly. This result was confirmed only for humans. That is, humans displayed explicit category knowledge that transferred flawlessly. Monkeys did not. This result illuminates the distinctive abstractness, stimulus independence, and representational portability of humans' explicit category rules. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Nature of the Refractive Errors in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Experimentally Induced Ametropias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao-Grider, Ying; Hung, Li-Fang; Kee, Chea-su; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Smith, Earl L.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the contribution of individual ocular components to vision-induced ametropias in 210 rhesus monkeys. The primary contribution to refractive-error development came from vitreous chamber depth; a minor contribution from corneal power was also detected. However, there was no systematic relationship between refractive error and anterior chamber depth or between refractive error and any crystalline lens parameter. Our results are in good agreement with previous studies in humans, suggesting that the refractive errors commonly observed in humans are created by vision-dependent mechanisms that are similar to those operating in monkeys. This concordance emphasizes the applicability of rhesus monkeys in refractive-error studies. PMID:20600237

  1. Correction of refractive errors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jude F; Boisvert, Chantal J; Reuter, Jon D; Reynolds, John H; Leblanc, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    Macaques are the most common animal model for studies in vision research, and due to their high value as research subjects, often continue to participate in studies well into old age. As is true in humans, visual acuity in macaques is susceptible to refractive errors. Here we report a case study in which an aged macaque demonstrated clear impairment in visual acuity according to performance on a demanding behavioral task. Refraction demonstrated bilateral myopia that significantly affected behavioral and visual tasks. Using corrective lenses, we were able to restore visual acuity. After correction of myopia, the macaque's performance on behavioral tasks was comparable to that of a healthy control. We screened 20 other male macaques to assess the incidence of refractive errors and ocular pathologies in a larger population. Hyperopia was the most frequent ametropia but was mild in all cases. A second macaque had mild myopia and astigmatism in one eye. There were no other pathologies observed on ocular examination. We developed a simple behavioral task that visual research laboratories could use to test visual acuity in macaques. The test was reliable and easily learned by the animals in 1 d. This case study stresses the importance of screening macaques involved in visual science for refractive errors and ocular pathologies to ensure the quality of research; we also provide simple methodology for screening visual acuity in these animals.

  2. Do infant Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata) categorize objects without specific training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Chizuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Kamegai, Kimi; Terazawa, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether infant Japanese macaques categorize objects without any training, using a similar technique also used with human infants (the paired-preference method). During the familiarization phase, subjects were presented twice with two pairs of different objects from one global-level category. During the test phase, they were presented twice with a pair consisting of a novel familiar-category object and a novel global-level category object. The subjects were tested with three global-level categories (animal, furniture, and vehicle). It was found that they showed significant novelty preferences as a whole, indicating that they processed similarities between familiarization objects and novel familiar-category objects. These results suggest that subjects responded distinctively to objects without training, indicating the possibility that infant macaques possess the capacity for categorization.

  3. Temporary hindlimb paresis following dystocia due to foetal macrosomia in a Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John James; Bettembourg, Vanessa; Østevik, Liv; Modig, Michaela; Jâderlund, Karin Hultin; Lervik, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    A multiparous Celebes crested macaque presented with dystocia due to foetal macrosomia, causing foetal mortality and hindlimb paresis. After emergency caesarean section, recovery of motor function took 1 month before hindlimbs were weight bearing and 2 months before re-integration with the troop. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Interactions among motility, fertilizing ability, and testosterone binding on spermatozoa of bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warikoo, P K; Majumdar, S S; Allag, I S; Das, R P; Roy, S

    1986-01-01

    Fresh ejaculates of bonnet monkeys were separated into fractions rich with highly motile and sluggishly motile spermatozoa. The motility, ability to fertilize zona-free hamster eggs, and distribution of testosterone-binding sites on spermatozoa were assessed to determine the relation between these sperm functions. Two parameters of objective assessment of motility--velocity and degree of flagellar bending--were significantly correlated with the ability to form pronuclei in zona-free hamster eggs. Only spermatozoa with good motility could form pronuclei, which might be important for assessment of the fertilizing ability. The motility was directly related to the distribution of testosterone-binding sites; the fraction having mostly motile spermatozoa was distributed over the sperm surface. The technique is simple and may be used to evaluate semen of nonhuman primates.

  5. Reproductive efficiency of captive Chinese- and Indian-origin rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, H. Michael; Falkenstein, Kathrine P.; Deroche, Chelsea B.; Franke, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive and survival records (n = 2,913) from 313 Chinese-origin and 365 Indian-derived rhesus macaques at the Tulane National Primate Research Center spanning 3 generations were studied. Least-squares analysis of variance procedures were used to compare reproductive and infant survival traits while proportional hazards regression procedures were used to study female age at death, number of infants born per female and time from last birth to death. Chinese females were older at first parturition than Indian-females because they were older when placed with males, but the two subspecies had similar first and lifetime post-partum birth intervals. Females that gave birth to stillborn infants had shorter first post-partum birth intervals than females giving birth to live infants. Post-partum birth intervals decreased in females from 3 to 12 years of age but then increased again with advancing age. Chinese infants had a greater survival rate than Indian infants at 30 d, 6 mo and 1yr of age. Five hundred and forty-three females (80.01 %) had uncensored, or true records for age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from the birth until death whereas 135 females (19.91 %) had censored records for these traits. Low and high uncensored observations for age at death were 3 and 26 years of age for Chinese and 3 and 23 years of age for Indian females. Uncensored number of infants born per female ranged from 1 to 15 for Chinese females and 1 to 18 for Indian females. Each of these traits was significantly influenced by the origin × generation interaction in the proportional hazards regression analyses, indicating that probabilities associated with age at death, number of infants born per female and time from last birth to death for Chinese and Indian females did not rank the same across generations. PMID:22512021

  6. Comparison of feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2015-05-13

    Group-living animals face intragroup scramble and intergroup contest competitions. Many studies have shown that larger groups bear the costs of intragroup scramble competition, which negatively affects the reproductive success of females. Unlike most primate species, Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest show increased reproductive success with group size. However, it remains unclear how group size affects the behavior of macaques. The present study examined the effects of group size on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest. We investigated 9-13 adult females from two different-sized groups via focal animal sampling during October 2012-August 2013. We compared the feeding behavior, including patch use, between the two groups. The larger group had a larger home range and spent more time feeding, especially on mature leaves. This suggests that intragroup feeding competition should be more intense in the larger group than in the smaller group. The feeding of mature leaves might enable the larger group to increase the number of co-feeding individuals. Contrary to the predictions that the larger group travels longer distances and spends more time moving, the smaller group traveled longer distances, and spent more time moving, although the number of visited patches did not differ between the two groups. The immediate consequences of the loss of inter-group encounters could accumulate as daily travel costs, considering that group size is associated with inter-group dominance and that intergroup aggressive encounters occur frequently in the Yakushima coastal forest. This suggests that the smaller group has increased travel costs as a result of intergroup contest competition, which leads to decline in reproductive success. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparison of energy balance between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying the energy balance is essential for testing socio-ecological models. To reveal costs and benefits of group living in Japanese macaques from the perspective of feeding competition, Kurihara and Hanya (Am J Primatol 77:986-1000, 2015) previously compared feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of macaques (larger group 30-35 individuals; smaller group 13-15 individuals) in the coastal forest of Yakushima, Japan. The results suggested that the larger group exhibited greater feeding effort because of intragroup scramble competition and that the smaller group suffered from higher travel costs, possibly owing to intergroup contest competition. However, it remained unclear whether the behavioral differences affected their energy budgets. The present study examined energetic consequences of the different feeding behaviors in the two groups. Using behavioral data from 10 to 13 adult females and nutritional composition of food items, we compared ingestion rates, energetic/nutritional content of diet, and energy budgets between the two groups. Ingestion rates and energetic/nutritional content of diet did not differ between the two groups. Despite the higher feeding effort of the larger group, energy intake did not differ between the two groups. Energy expenditure did not differ between the two groups because higher travel costs were negated by lower feeding effort in the smaller group. Consequently, the energy balance did not differ between the two groups. We demonstrated that the behavioral measures of feeding competition were not translated into their energetic condition; moreover, our findings re-emphasize the importance of quantifying behavioral and fitness measures for interpreting variation in feeding behavior properly.

  8. Characterization of Cardiac Time Intervals in Healthy Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata) by Using an Electronic Stethoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Haroon; Salciccioli, Louis; Pushilin, Sergei; Kumar, Paraag; Carter, John; Kuo, John; Novotney, Carol; Lazar, Jason M

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are used frequently in cardiovascular research. Cardiac time intervals derived by phonocardiography have long been used to assess left ventricular function. Electronic stethoscopes are simple low-cost systems that display heart sound signals. We assessed the use of an electronic stethoscope to measure cardiac time intervals in 48 healthy bonnet macaques (age, 8 ± 5 y) based on recorded heart sounds. Technically adequate recordings were obtained from all animals and required 1.5 ± 1.3 min. The following cardiac time intervals were determined by simultaneously recording acoustic and single-lead electrocardiographic data: electromechanical activation time (QS1), electromechanical systole (QS2), the time interval between the first and second heart sounds (S1S2), and the time interval between the second and first sounds (S2S1). QS2 was correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and left ventricular ejection time determined by using echocardiography. S1S2 correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection time, and age. S2S1 correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and left ventricular ejection time. QS1 did not correlate with any anthropometric or echocardiographic parameter. The relation S1S2/S2S1 correlated with systolic blood pressure. On multivariate analyses, heart rate was the only independent predictor of QS2, S1S2, and S2S1. In conclusion, determination of cardiac time intervals is feasible and reproducible by using an electrical stethoscope in nonhuman primates. Heart rate is a major determinant of QS2, S1S2, and S2S1 but not QS1; regression equations for reference values for cardiac time intervals in bonnet macaques are provided. PMID:21439218

  9. Inhaled oxytocin amplifies both vicarious reinforcement and self reinforcement in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Barter, Joseph W; Ebitz, R Becket; Watson, Karli K; Platt, Michael L

    2012-01-17

    People attend not only to their own experiences, but also to the experiences of those around them. Such social awareness profoundly influences human behavior by enabling observational learning, as well as by motivating cooperation, charity, empathy, and spite. Oxytocin (OT), a neurosecretory hormone synthesized by hypothalamic neurons in the mammalian brain, can enhance affiliation or boost exclusion in different species in distinct contexts, belying any simple mechanistic neural model. Here we show that inhaled OT penetrates the CNS and subsequently enhances the sensitivity of rhesus macaques to rewards occurring to others as well as themselves. Roughly 2 h after inhaling OT, monkeys increased the frequency of prosocial choices associated with reward to another monkey when the alternative was to reward no one. OT also increased attention to the recipient monkey as well as the time it took to render such a decision. In contrast, within the first 2 h following inhalation, OT increased selfish choices associated with delivery of reward to self over a reward to the other monkey, without affecting attention or decision latency. Despite the differences in species typical social behavior, exogenous, inhaled OT causally promotes social donation behavior in rhesus monkeys, as it does in more egalitarian and monogamous ones, like prairie voles and humans, when there is no perceived cost to self. These findings potentially implicate shared neural mechanisms.

  10. Low Level (Sub Threshold), Large Spot Laser Irradiations of the Foveas of Macaca Mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    spherules. In a portion of the block containing the macula a degenerating patch is seen, displaying considerable edema, with pyknotic and missing nuclei...6 Peripheral areas 11 Macula 11 Eye # 3 M31 2KD 15 (enucleated 7 days after focal irradiation jby gallium arsenide laser). Control areas 15 Neodymium...laser irradiations peripheral areas 23 Macula 28 TABLE OF CONTENTS continued Page Eye # 5 M443 2JD Patched Eye 32 Most areas 32 area nasal to optic disc

  11. Mycobacterium kansasii Isolated from Tuberculinpositive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the Absence of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Steven T; Johnson, David K; Roodgar, Morteza; Smith, David Glenn; Montgomery, Charles A; Lloyd, Steven M; Higgins, James A; Kriel, Edwin H; Klein, Hilton J; Porter, William P; Nazareno, Jerome B; Houghton, Paul W; Panda, Aruna; DeTolla, Louis J

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterial infections are of primary health concern in NHP colonies in biomedical research. NHP are constantly monitored and screened for Mycobacterium spp. We report 6 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with Mycobacterium kansasii that exhibited positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease. Two of these macaques were being used for research purposes; the remaining 4 macaques were residing at the contract quarantine company. Histopathology and acid-fast staining of fixed tissues from all macaques showed that all were free of disease. Thoracic radiographs were negative for any signs of disease or infection. Samples from bronchial lavage and tissues including lung, spleen, hilar and mesenteric lymph nodes tested negative by PCR assay for Mycobacterium spp. One of the research macaques tested culture-positive for M. kansasii and a poorly characterized M. avium complex organism. One macaque from the contract quarantine facility tested culture positive for M. kansasii. Genomic testing and target gene RNA expression analysis of the 2 M. kansasii isolates were performed to evaluate possible kinship and affected genes that might contribute to susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. Genotyping of the 2 isolates revealed 2 genetically distinct strains (strains 1 and 4). The presence of positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease raises serious concerns regarding diagnostic methods used for infected NHP.

  12. Parasites may exit immunocompromised northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) infected with SIVmac239.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Ming-Xu; Xia, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yu; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2018-01-18

    Parasites can increase infection rates and pathogenicity in immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, in vitro studies and epidemiological investigations also suggest that parasites might escape immunocompromised hosts during HIV infection. Due to the lack of direct evidence from animal experiments, the effects of parasitic infections on immunocompromised hosts remain unclear. Here, we detected 14 different parasites in six northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs) before or at the 50th week of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection by ELISA. The NPMs all carried parasites before viral injection. At the 50th week after viral injection, the individuals with negative results in parasitic detection (i.e., 08247 and 08287) were characterized as the Parasites Exit (PE) group, with the other individuals (i.e., 09203, 09211, 10205, and 10225) characterized as the Parasites Remain (PR) group. Compared with the PR group, the NPMs in the PE group showed higher viral loads, lower CD4 + T cells counts, and lower CD4/CD8 rates. Additionally, the PE group had higher immune activation and immune exhaustion of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Pathological observation showed greater injury to the liver, cecum, colon, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes in the PE group. This study showed more seriously compromised immunity in the PE group, strongly indicating that parasites might exit an immunocompromised host.

  13. Real-time bioluminescence imaging of macroencapsulated fibroblasts reveals allograft protection in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantal, Alice F; Lee, C Chang I; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2009-07-15

    Encapsulation of cells has the potential to eliminate the need for immunosuppression for cellular transplantation. Recently, the TheraCyte device was shown to provide long-term immunoprotection of murine islets in a mouse model of diabetes. In this report, translational studies were undertaken using skin fibroblasts from an unrelated rhesus monkey donor that were transduced with an HIV-1-derived lentiviral vector expressing firefly luciferase permitting the use of bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to monitor cell survival over time and in a noninvasive manner. Encapsulated cells were transplanted subcutaneously (n=2), or cells were injected without encapsulation (n=1) and outcomes compared. BLI was performed to monitor cell survival. The BLI signal from the encapsulated cells remained robust postinsertion and in one animal persisted for up to 1 year. In contrast, the control animal that received unencapsulated cells exhibited a complete loss of cell signal within 14 days. These data demonstrate that TheraCyte encapsulation of allogeneic cells provides robust immune protection in transplanted rhesus monkeys.

  14. Parasites may exit immunocompromised northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina infected with SIVmac239

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Zhang Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can increase infection rates andpathogenicity in immunocompromised humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV patients. However, invitro studies and epidemiological investigationsalso suggest that parasites might escapeimmunocompromised hosts during HIV infection.Due to the lack of direct evidence from animalexperiments, the effects of parasitic infections onimmunocompromised hosts remain unclear. Here,we detected 14 different parasites in six northernpig-tailed macaques (NPMs before or during the50th week of post-simian immunodeficiency virus(SIV infection by ELISA. The NPMs all carriedparasites before viral injection. At the 50th week afterviral injection, the individuals with negative resultsin parasitic detection (i.e., 08247 and 08287 werecharacterized as the Parasites Exit (PE group, withthe other individuals (i.e., 09203, 09211, 10205, and10225 characterized as the Parasites Remain (PRgroup. Compared with the PR group, the NPMs in thePE group showed higher viral loads, lower CD4+ Tcells counts, and lower CD4/CD8 rates. Additionally,the PE group had higher immune activation andimmune exhaustion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.Pathological observation showed greater injury tothe liver, cecum, colon, spleen, and mesentericlymph nodes in the PE group. This study showedmore seriously compromised immunity in the PEgroup, strongly indicating that parasites might exit animmunocompromised host.

  15. Social play among juvenile wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) strengthens their social bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masaki; Sueur, Cédric

    2018-01-01

    Social play and grooming are typical affiliative interactions for many primate species, and are thought to have similar biological functions. However, grooming increases with age, whereas social play decreases. We proposed the hypothesis that both social grooming and social play in juveniles strengthen their social bonds in daily activities. We carried out field research on the social relationships among juvenile wild Japanese macaques in a troop in Kinkazan, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, from fall 2007 to spring 2008 to investigate this hypothesis. We evaluated three relationships among juveniles, play indices (PI), grooming indices (GI), and 3-m-proximity indices (3mI) of each dyad (i.e., interacting pair), and compared these social networks based on the matrices of the indices. The play and grooming networks were correlated with the association network throughout the two research periods. The multiple network level measurements of the play network, but not the grooming network, resembled those of the association network. Using a causal step approach, we showed that social play and grooming interactions in fall seem to predict associations in the following spring, controlling for the PI and GI matrix in spring, respectively. Social play and grooming for each juvenile were negatively correlated. The results partially support our predictions; therefore, the hypothesis that the biological function of social play among immature Japanese macaques is to strengthen their social bonds in the near future and develop their social life appears to be correct. For juvenile macaques, social play, rather than grooming, functions as an important social mechanism to strengthen affiliative relationships. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Studies on ’Macaca mulatta’ Infected with Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-10

    Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) rickettsiae. The LD50 in monkeys of the yolk-sac-grown seed stock was 10 to the 1.35th power plaque-forming units. Blood...acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin and albumin) were measured during a study in 16 male rhesus monkeys to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of Rocky

  17. Prepulse Inhibition of Auditory Cortical Responses in the Caudolateral Superior Temporal Gyrus in Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuyue; Parkkonen, Lauri; Wei, Jingkuan; Dong, Jin-Run; Ma, Yuanye; Carlson, Synnöve

    2018-04-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to a decreased response to a startling stimulus when another weaker stimulus precedes it. Most PPI studies have focused on the physiological startle reflex and fewer have reported the PPI of cortical responses. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in four monkeys and investigated whether the PPI of auditory cortical responses (alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations and evoked potentials) can be demonstrated in the caudolateral belt of the superior temporal gyrus (STGcb). We also investigated whether the presence of a conspecific, which draws attention away from the auditory stimuli, affects the PPI of auditory cortical responses. The PPI paradigm consisted of Pulse-only and Prepulse + Pulse trials that were presented randomly while the monkey was alone (ALONE) and while another monkey was present in the same room (ACCOMP). The LFPs to the Pulse were significantly suppressed by the Prepulse thus, demonstrating PPI of cortical responses in the STGcb. The PPI-related inhibition of the N1 amplitude of the evoked responses and cortical oscillations to the Pulse were not affected by the presence of a conspecific. In contrast, gamma oscillations and the amplitude of the N1 response to Pulse-only were suppressed in the ACCOMP condition compared to the ALONE condition. These findings demonstrate PPI in the monkey STGcb and suggest that the PPI of auditory cortical responses in the monkey STGcb is a pre-attentive inhibitory process that is independent of attentional modulation.

  18. Alpha male replacements and delayed dispersal in crested macaques (Macaca nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Pascal R; Hodges, Keith; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2017-07-01

    In species with a high male reproductive skew, competition between males for the top dominant position is high and escalated fights are common between competitors. As a consequence, challenges incur potentially high costs. Selection should favor males who time an alpha male challenge to maximize chances of a successful outcome minimizing costs. Despite the importance of alpha male replacements for individual males, we know little about the timing of challenges and the condition of the challenger. We investigated the timing and process of alpha male replacements in a species living in multi-male groups with high male reproductive skew, the crested macaque. We studied four wild groups over 6 years in the Tangkoko Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, during which 16 alpha male replacements occurred. Although unusual for cercopithecines, male crested macaques delayed their natal dispersal until they attained maximum body mass and therefore fighting ability whereupon they emigrated and challenged the alpha male in another group. Accordingly, all observed alpha male replacements were from outside males. Ours is the first report of such a pattern in a primate species living in multi-male groups. Although the majority of alpha male replacements occurred through direct male-male challenges, many also took place opportunistically (i.e., after the alpha male had already been injured or had left the group). Furthermore, alpha male tenures were very short (averaging ca. 12 months). We hypothesize that this unusual pattern of alpha male replacements in crested macaques is related to the species-specific combination of high male reproductive skew with a large number of males per group. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22448, 2017. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Primatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Primatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Shigella flexneri infection in a newly acquired rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Sang-Joon; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    A 3.4 year-old rhesus macaque weighing 4.5 kg, was suffering from anorexia, acute mucous and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination, the monkey showed a loss of activity, hunched posture, abdominal pain, dehydration, mild gingivitis and unclean anus with discharge. Whole blood was collected for the examination of electrolytes, hematology and serum chemistry; fresh stool was also collected for bacterial culture. Blood profiles showed leukocytosis (14.5 K/?L) and neutrophilia (11.0 K/?L) on c...

  20. Metabolism of lead-210 in juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounds, J.G.; Marlar, R.J.; Allen, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted measuring the gastrointestinal absorption and elimination of a single dose of lead-210 acetate in infant and adult rhesus monkeys. Urinary and fecal excretion of absorbed lead was followed for 23 days. Infant monkeys eliminated less and absorbed more orally administered lead. Adult animals excreted more absorbed lead in feces, while urinary excretion between adults and infants was similar. Increased absorption of administered lead and reduced fecal excretion of absorbed lead resulted in significantly greater body burden of lead-210 in infant animals. Blood lead values were increased in the infant animals, and were inversely correlated with body burden and percent absorption of ingested lead

  1. Individual analyses of Lévy walk in semi-free ranging Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana.

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    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available Animals adapt their movement patterns to their environment in order to maximize their efficiency when searching for food. The Lévy walk and the Brownian walk are two types of random movement found in different species. Studies have shown that these random movements can switch from a Brownian to a Lévy walk according to the size distribution of food patches. However no study to date has analysed how characteristics such as sex, age, dominance or body mass affect the movement patterns of an individual. In this study we used the maximum likelihood method to examine the nature of the distribution of step lengths and waiting times and assessed how these distributions are influenced by the age and the sex of group members in a semi free-ranging group of ten Tonkean macaques. Individuals highly differed in their activity budget and in their movement patterns. We found an effect of age and sex of individuals on the power distribution of their step lengths and of their waiting times. The males and old individuals displayed a higher proportion of longer trajectories than females and young ones. As regards waiting times, females and old individuals displayed higher rates of long stationary periods than males and young individuals. These movement patterns resembling random walks can probably be explained by the animals moving from one location to other known locations. The power distribution of step lengths might be due to a power distribution of food patches in the enclosure while the power distribution of waiting times might be due to the power distribution of the patch sizes.

  2. Age-dependent changes in innate immune phenotype and function in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    Mark Asquith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aged individuals are more susceptible to infections due to a general decline in immune function broadly referred to as immune senescence. While age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well documented, aging of the innate immune system remains less well understood, particularly in nonhuman primates. A more robust understanding of age-related changes in innate immune function would provide mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infection. Rhesus macaques have proved a critical translational model for aging research, and present a unique opportunity to dissect age-dependent modulation of the innate immune system. We examined age-related changes in: (i innate immune cell frequencies; (ii expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and innate signaling molecules; (iii cytokine responses of monocytes and dendritic cells (DC following stimulation with PRR agonists; and (iv plasma cytokine levels in this model. We found marked changes in both the phenotype and function of innate immune cells. This included an age-associated increased frequency of myeloid DC (mDC. Moreover, we found toll-like receptor (TLR agonists lipopolysaccharide (TLR4, fibroblast stimulating ligand-1 (TLR2/6, and ODN2006 (TLR7/9 induced reduced cytokine responses in aged mDC. Interestingly, with the exception of the monocyte-derived TNFα response to LPS, which increased with age, TNFα, IL-6, and IFNα responses declined with age. We also found that TLR4, TLR5, and innate negative regulator, sterile alpha and TIR motif containing protein (SARM, were all expressed at lower levels in young animals. By contrast, absent in melanoma 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I expression was lowest in aged animals. Together, these observations indicate that several parameters of innate immunity are significantly modulated by age and contribute to differential immune function in aged macaques.

  3. Fractionated x-radiation damage to developing ovaries in the Bonnet Monkey (Macaca radiata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, A.C.; Hendrickx, A.G.; Momeni, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    Fractionated x-ray exposures of 11.5 rad each (total 200 rad) given twice weekly between 77 and 133 days postcoitum severely damaged the ovaries of eight out of nine fetal bonnet monkeys. This radiation regimen reduced follicle counts by 75% or more

  4. Prevalence of Balantidium coli Infection in Bred Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Guangxi, southern China.

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    Hai Long Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Balantidium coli infects humans, primates and pigs, causing serious diarrhea and dysentery. Little information on the prevalence of B. coli in primates is available in China. This investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence of B. coli infection in bred rhesus monkeys in Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region (GZNAR, southern China.A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from rhesus monkeys bred in cages in GZNAR and B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites were examined microscopically after sedimentation with water in May 2013.(64.2% samples were tested positive. The prevalence was 65% (39/60 and 63.3% (38/60 in female and male monkeys, respectively. 80% (48/60 cages in this nonhuman primate center were positive for B. coli.The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in bred rhesus monkeys in GZNAR, which poses potential threats to animal and human health.

  5. Testing the anxiety reduction function of grooming interactions in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    OpenAIRE

    Molesti, Sandra; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2012-01-01

    Together with its hygienic and social function, grooming is thought to reduce anxiety. However, empirical evidence on the anxiety-reduction function of grooming is scarce. We collected 10-minute focal data on the donor and recipient of grooming using the post-grooming / matchedcontrol (PG-MC) method. In these PGs and MCs sessions, we recorded the occurrence of selfdirected behaviours (i.e. scratching and self-grooming), which are behavioural indicators of anxiety. We found mixed evidenc...

  6. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are natural hosts of specific Staphylococcus aureus lineages.

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    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no animal model known that mimics natural nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in humans. We investigated whether rhesus macaques are natural nasal carriers of S. aureus. Nasal swabs were taken from 731 macaques. S. aureus isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa repeat sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and compared with human strains. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by several PCRs. Thirty-nine percent of 731 macaques were positive for S. aureus. In general, the macaque S. aureus isolates differed from human strains as they formed separate PFGE clusters, 50% of the isolates were untypeable by agr genotyping, 17 new spa types were identified, which all belonged to new sequence types (STs. Furthermore, 66% of macaque isolates were negative for all superantigen genes. To determine S. aureus nasal colonization, three nasal swabs from 48 duo-housed macaques were taken during a 5 month period. In addition, sera were analyzed for immunoglobulin G and A levels directed against 40 staphylococcal proteins using a bead-based flow cytometry technique. Nineteen percent of the animals were negative for S. aureus, and 17% were three times positive. S. aureus strains were easily exchanged between macaques. The antibody response was less pronounced in macaques compared to humans, and nasal carrier status was not associated with differences in serum anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. In conclusion, rhesus macaques are natural hosts of S. aureus, carrying host-specific lineages. Our data indicate that rhesus macaques are useful as an autologous model for studying S. aureus nasal colonization and infection prevention.

  7. Cycloartane triterpenes from marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinping; Zhu, Xiaobin; Deng, Liping; Deng, Zhiwei; Lin, Wenhan

    2006-12-01

    Six cycloartanes were isolated from ethanol extract of marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis by column chromatography. Procedure of isolation and description of these compounds are given in this paper. The structures were elucidated as (1). 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25- en-3β-ol; (2). cycloart-25-en-3β 24-diol; (3). 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol; (4). cycloart-23-en-3β, 25-diol; (5). cycloart-23, 25-dien-3β-ol; and (6). cycloart-24-en-3β-ol by spectroscopic (MS, ID and 2D NMR) data analysis. Cycloartane derivatives are widely distributed in terrestrial plants, but only few were obtained in the alga. All these compounds that have been isolated from terrestrial plants, were found in the marine alga for the first time.

  8. Use-Wear Patterns on Wild Macaque Stone Tools Reveal Their Behavioural History

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Michael; Gumert, Michael D.; Biro, Dora; Carvalho, Susana; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2013-01-01

    Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) are one of a limited number of wild animal species to use stone tools, with their tool use focused on pounding shelled marine invertebrates foraged from intertidal habitats. These monkeys exhibit two main styles of tool use: axe hammering of oysters, and pound hammering of unattached encased foods. In this study, we examined macroscopic use-wear patterns on a sample of 60 wild macaque stone tools from Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand, that...

  9. Spontaneous extracutaneous systemic mastocytosis in a cynomolgus macaque ()

    OpenAIRE

    Martina , Z. Zöller; Joachim , Kaspareit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A uniform cell population of proliferating mast cells with poor cytoplasmic granularity and few eosinophilic infiltrates was observed in hepatic portal tracts and the cecal submucosa of an adult male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) that was part of a drug safety assessment toxicity study. The proliferating mast cells were positive for Giemsa and toluidine blue staining and had strong immunoreactivity for mast cell tryptase and CD68. Considering size, morphology, i...

  10. Influence of Abutment Design on Clinical Status of Peri-Implant Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Taiyeb-Ali, T. B.; Toh, C. G.; Siar, C. H.; Seiz, D.; Ong, S. T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical soft tissue responses around implant tooth-supported 3-unit bridges using tapered abutments with those using butt-joint abutments. Methods: In a split-mouth design study, 8 mm Ankylos (Dentsply Friadent, Germany) implants were placed in the second mandibular molar region of 8 adult Macaca fascicularis monkeys about I month after extraction of all mandibular molars. After 3 months of submerged healing, 3-unit metal bridges were constructed. Clinical data was ...

  11. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

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    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  12. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  13. Food resources, distribution and seasonal variations in ranging in lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinjery, Joseph J; Kavana, T S; Singh, Mewa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and availability of food was examined to see how it influenced ranging patterns and sleeping site selection in a group of lion-tailed macaques. The home range and core area were 130.48 ha (95% kernel) and 26.68 ha (50% kernel) respectively. The lion-tailed macaques had a longer day range, had a greater number of sleeping sites and used more core areas in the summer as compared to the monsoon and the post-monsoon seasons. The ranging patterns and sleeping site use were influenced by the major food resources used in a particular season. The ranging was mainly influenced by Artocarpus heterophyllus in monsoon, Cullenia exarillata and Toona ciliata in post- monsoon, and Artocarpus heterophyllus and Ficus amplissima in summer. The distribution of these four plant species is, therefore, critical to ranging, and thus to conservation of the lion-tailed macaque.

  14. Sex-specific heritability of spontaneous lipid levels in an extended pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta.

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    Amanda Vinson

    Full Text Available The rhesus macaque is an important model for human atherosclerosis but genetic determinants of relevant phenotypes have not yet been investigated in this species. Because lipid levels are well-established and heritable risk factors for human atherosclerosis, our goal was to assess the heritability of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in a single, extended pedigree of 1,289 Indian-origin rhesus macaques. Additionally, because increasing evidence supports sex differences in the genetic architecture of lipid levels and lipid metabolism in humans and macaques, we also explored sex-specific heritability for all lipid measures investigated in this study. Using standard methods, we measured lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels from fasted plasma in a sample of 193 pedigreed rhesus macaques selected for membership in large, paternal half-sib cohorts, and maintained on a low-fat, low cholesterol chow diet. Employing a variance components approach, we found moderate heritability for total cholesterol (h²=0.257, P=0.032, LDL cholesterol (h²=0.252, P=0.030, and triglyceride levels (h²=0.197, P=0.034 in the full sample. However, stratification by sex (N=68 males, N=125 females revealed substantial sex-specific heritability for total cholesterol (0.644, P=0.004, females only, HDL cholesterol (0.843, P=0.0008, females only, VLDL cholesterol (0.482, P=0.018, males only, and triglyceride levels (0.705, P=0.001, males only that was obscured or absent when sexes were combined in the full sample. We conclude that genes contribute to spontaneous variation in circulating lipid levels in the Indian-origin rhesus macaque in a sex-specific manner, and that the rhesus macaque is likely to be a valuable model for sex-specific genetic effects on lipid risk factors for human atherosclerosis. These findings are a first-ever report of heritability for cholesterol levels in this species, and support the need for expanded analysis of these traits in this population.

  15. Post-encoding control of working memory enhances processing of relevant information in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Ryan J; Hampton, Robert R

    2018-06-01

    Working memory is a system by which a limited amount of information can be kept available for processing after the cessation of sensory input. Because working memory resources are limited, it is adaptive to focus processing on the most relevant information. We used a retro-cue paradigm to determine the extent to which monkey working memory possesses control mechanisms that focus processing on the most relevant representations. Monkeys saw a sample array of images, and shortly after the array disappeared, they were visually cued to a location that had been occupied by one of the sample images. The cue indicated which image should be remembered for the upcoming recognition test. By determining whether the monkeys were more accurate and quicker to respond to cued images compared to un-cued images, we tested the hypothesis that monkey working memory focuses processing on relevant information. We found a memory benefit for the cued image in terms of accuracy and retrieval speed with a memory load of two images. With a memory load of three images, we found a benefit in retrieval speed but only after shortening the onset latency of the retro-cue. Our results demonstrate previously unknown flexibility in the cognitive control of memory in monkeys, suggesting that control mechanisms in working memory likely evolved in a common ancestor of humans and monkeys more than 32 million years ago. Future work should be aimed at understanding the interaction between memory load and the ability to control memory resources, and the role of working memory control in generating differences in cognitive capacity among primates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Real-Time Telemetric Monitoring in Whole-Body 60Co Gamma-Photon Irradiated Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    clinically healthy adult male rhesus maca - ques (M. mulatta), 7–13 kg and 5–14 years of age, were obtained from the non-naı̈ve pool of NHPs of the US...11/9/2009. 15 Reinhardt V: Space utilization by captive rhesus maca - ques. Anim Technol 1992; 43:11–7. 16 Rosoff CB: Role of intestinal bacteria in the

  17. The Development of an Instrument to Measure Global Dimensions of Maternal Care in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, K.; Howell, B. R.; Guzman, D.; Villongco, C.; Pears, K.; Kim, H.; Gunnar, M.R.; Sanchez, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the strongest predictors of healthy child development is the quality of maternal care. Although many measures of observation and self-report exist in humans to assess global aspects of maternal care, such qualitative measures are lacking in nonhuman primates. In this study we developed an instrument to measure global aspects of maternal care in rhesus monkeys, with the goal of complementing the individual behavioral data collected using a well-established rhesus macaque ethogram during the first months postpartum. The 22 items of the instrument were adapted from human maternal sensitivity assessments and a maternal Q-sort instrument already published for macaques. The 22 items formed four dimensions with high levels of internal reliability that represented major constructs of maternal care: 1) Sensitivity/Responsivity, 2) Protectiveness, 3) Permissiveness, and 4) Irritability. These dimensions yielded high construct validity when correlated with mother-infant frequency and duration behavior that was collected from focal observations across the first three postnatal months. In addition, comparisons of two groups of mothers (Maltreating versus Competent mothers), showed significant differences across the dimensions suggesting that this instrument has strong concurrent validity, even after controlling for focal observation variables that have been previously shown to significantly differentiate these groups. Our findings suggest that this Instrument of Macaque Maternal Care (IMMC) has the potential to capture global aspects of the mother-infant relationship that complement individual behaviors collected through focal observations. PMID:25066041

  18. Variation in reproductive outcomes for captive male rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) differing in CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Melissa S; Higley, Sue; Lussier, I sabelle D; Westergaard, Greg C; Suomi, Stephen J; Higley, J Dee

    2002-01-01

    In rhesus macaque males, lower than average cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the principle metabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), have been linked to impulsivity, involvement in escalated aggression, failure to elicit consort relationships, production of fewer sperm plugs, and a relatively early age of mortality. Given these potential fitness costs, we performed two studies aimed at elucidating the effects of CSF 5-HIAA on reproduction. Study 1 retrospectively evaluated over a four-year period, the relative reproductive outcome for pairs of adult male rhesus macaques (n = 15) who lived in social groups and who differed in concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA. Study 2 examined the relationship between CSF 5-HIAA and sperm motility and density (n = 12), as a potential mechanism for maintaining variability in CSF 5-HIAA. For Study 1, an average measure from two CSF 5-HIAA samples was calculated for the two males who were present during the time when conception most likely took place (offspring birth date -165 +/- 14 days). Within-pair comparisons of CSF 5-HIAA concentrations between the sire and the non-successful male were drawn for each of the 72 offspring in the study. We found that while sires were typically the male with relatively higher CSF 5-HIAA within the pair, there were no absolute differences in CSF 5-HIAA between males who sired at least one offspring (sires) and those who failed to reproduce (non-sires). Furthermore, while absolute age was not predictive of reproductive outcome, sires with relatively high CSF 5-HIAA also tended to be also relatively older than their competitors. By contrast, for the males with relatively low CSF 5-HIAA who reproduced, sires were relatively younger than the non-sires. These differences in reproductive outcome for males differing in CSF 5-HIAA could not be explained by variability in sperm quantity or quality as we did not find evidence of a relationship between CSF 5-HIAA and either sperm measure. The results of this study suggest that as serotonergic function affects many aspects of behavior and survivorship, it might also be associated with reproductive outcome and different life-history strategies for males differing in concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Cephalic Recording Chambers in Research Macaques (Macaca spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephanie E; Lieberman, Mia T; Lebreton, Francois; Trowel, Elise; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Dzink-Fox, Joanne; Gilmore, Michael S; Fox, James G

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that most belonged to two E. faecalis sequence types (ST): ST 4 and ST 55. The genomes of three representative isolates were sequenced to identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistances and other traits. Antimicrobial resistance genes identified included aac(6')-aph(2"), aph(3')-III, str, ant(6)-Ia, tetM, tetS, tetL, ermB, bcrABR, cat, and dfrG, and polymorphisms in parC (S80I) and gyrA (S83I) were observed. These isolates also harbored virulence factors including the cytolysin toxin genes in ST 4 isolates, as well as multiple biofilm-associated genes (esp, agg, ace, SrtA, gelE, ebpABC), hyaluronidases (hylA, hylB), and other survival genes (ElrA, tpx). Crystal violet biofilm assays confirmed that ST 4 isolates produced more biofilm than ST 55 isolates. The abundance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes in the ST 4 isolates likely relates to the loss of CRISPR-cas. This macaque colony represents a unique model for studying E. faecalis infection associated with indwelling devices, and provides an opportunity to understand the basis of persistence of this pathogen in a healthcare setting.

  20. Transitive inference in humans (Homo sapiens) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after massed training of the last two list items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Alkan, Yelda; Muñoz, Fabian; Ferrera, Vincent P; Terrace, Herbert S

    2017-08-01

    Transitive inference (TI) is a classic learning paradigm for which the relative contributions of experienced rewards and representation-based inference have been debated vigorously, particularly regarding the notion that animals are capable of logic and reasoning. Rhesus macaque subjects and human participants performed a TI task in which, prior to learning a 7-item list (ABCDEFG), a block of trials presented exclusively the pair FG. Contrary to the expectation of associative models, the high prior rate of reward for F did not disrupt subsequent learning of the entire list. Monkeys (who each completed many sessions with novel stimuli) learned to anticipate that novel stimuli should be preferred over F. We interpret this as evidence of a task representation of TI that generalizes beyond learning about specific stimuli. Humans (who were task-naïve) showed a transitory bias to F when it was paired with novel stimuli, but very rapidly unlearned that bias. Performance with respect to the remaining stimuli was consistent with past reports of TI in both species. These results are difficult to reconcile with any account that assigns the strength of association between individual stimuli and rewards. Instead, they support sophisticated cognitive processes in both species, albeit with some species differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Hormones in infant rhesus monkeys' (Macaca mulatta) hair at birth provide a window into the fetal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele; Hedman, Curtis; Ziegler, Toni E; Coe, Christopher L

    2014-04-01

    It is established that maternal parity can affect infant growth and risk for several disorders, but the prenatal endocrine milieu that contributes to these outcomes is still largely unknown. Recently, it has been shown that hormones deposited in hair can provide a retrospective reflection of hormone levels while the hair was growing. Taking advantage of this finding, our study utilized hair at birth to investigate if maternal parity affected fetal hormone exposure during late gestation. Hair was collected from primiparous and multiparous mother and infant monkeys at birth and used to determine steroid hormones embedded in hair while the infant was in utero. A high-pressure liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry technique was refined, which enabled the simultaneous measurement of eight hormones. Hormone concentrations were dramatically higher in neonatal compared to maternal hair, reflecting extended fetal exposure as the first hair was growing. Further, hair cortisone was higher in primiparous mothers and infants when compared to the multiparous dyads. This research demonstrates that infant hair can be used to track fetal hormone exposure and a panel of steroid hormones can be quantified from hair specimens. Given the utility in nonhuman primates, this approach can be translated to a clinical setting with human infants.

  2. Application of three-dimensional culture systems to study mammalian spermatogenesis, with an emphasis on the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Huleihel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs has generally been performed using two-dimensional (2D culture systems; however, such cultures have not led to the development of complete spermatogenesis. It seems that 2D systems do not replicate optimal conditions of the seminiferous tubules (including those generated by the SSC niche and necessary for spermatogenesis. Recently, one of our laboratories has been able to induce proliferation and differentiation of mouse testicular germ cells to meiotic and postmeiotic stages including generation of sperm in a 3D soft agar culture system (SACS and a 3D methylcellulose culture system (MCS. It was suggested that SACS and MCS form a special 3D microenvironment that mimics germ cell niche formation in the seminiferous tubules, and thus permits mouse spermatogenesis in vitro. In this review, we (1 provide a brief overview of the differences in spermatogenesis in rodents and primates, (2 summarize data related to attempts to generate sperm in vitro, (3 report for the first time formation of colonies/clusters of cells and differentiation of meiotic (expression of CREM-1 and postmeiotic (expression of acrosin germ cells from undifferentiated spermatogonia isolated from the testis of prepubertal rhesus monkeys and cultured in SACS and MCS, and (4 indicate research needed to optimize 3D systems for in vitroprimate spermatogenesis and for possible future application to man.

  3. The development of an instrument to measure global dimensions of maternal care in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, K; Howell, B R; Guzman, D; Villongco, C; Pears, K; Kim, H; Gunnar, M R; Sanchez, M M

    2015-01-01

    One of the strongest predictors of healthy child development is the quality of maternal care. Although many measures of observation and self-report exist in humans to assess global aspects of maternal care, such qualitative measures are lacking in nonhuman primates. In this study, we developed an instrument to measure global aspects of maternal care in rhesus monkeys, with the goal of complementing the individual behavioral data collected using a well-established rhesus macaque ethogram during the first months postpartum. The 22 items of the instrument were adapted from human maternal sensitivity assessments and a maternal Q-sort instrument already published for macaques. The 22 items formed four dimensions with high levels of internal reliability that represented major constructs of maternal care: (1) Sensitivity/Responsivity, (2) Protectiveness, (3) Permissiveness, and (4) Irritability. These dimensions yielded high construct validity when correlated with mother-infant frequency and duration behavior that was collected from focal observations across the first 3 postnatal months. In addition, comparisons of two groups of mothers (Maltreating vs. Competent mothers) showed significant differences across the dimensions suggesting that this instrument has strong concurrent validity, even after controlling for focal observation variables that have been previously shown to significantly differentiate these groups. Our findings suggest that this Instrument of Macaque Maternal Care has the potential to capture global aspects of the mother-infant relationship that complement individual behaviors collected through focal observations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Study of the distribution of methyl mercury (203Hg) by whole body autoradiography of macaque monkeys (Macaca irus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, Patrick; Burgat-Sacaze, Viviane; Rico, Andre; Braun, J.-P.; Eghbali, Behrokh

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of methyl-mercury labelled with mercury-203 has been studied in Monkeys by whole body autoradiography technique. The mercury is rapidly absorbed. It is localized in all the body and mainly in well defined areas of the central nervous-system [fr

  5. I scan, therefore I decline: The time course of difficulty monitoring in humans (homo sapiens) and macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Boomer, Joseph; Church, Barbara A; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Beran, Michael J; Baum, Michael L

    2018-05-01

    The study of nonhumans' metacognitive judgments about trial difficulty has grown into an important comparative literature. However, the potential for associative-learning confounds in this area has left room for behaviorist interpretations that are strongly asserted and hotly debated. This article considers how researchers may be able to observe animals' strategic cognitive processes more clearly by creating temporally extended problems within which associative cues are not always immediately available. We asked humans and rhesus macaques to commit to completing spatially extended mazes or to decline completing them through a trial-decline response. The mazes could sometimes be completed successfully, but other times had a constriction that blocked completion. A deliberate, systematic scanning process could preevaluate a maze and determine the appropriate response. Latency analyses charted the time course of the evaluative process. Both humans and macaques appeared, from the pattern of their latencies, to scan the mazes through before committing to completing them. Thus monkeys, too, can base trial-decline responses on temporally extended evaluation processes, confirming that those responses have strategic cognitive-processing bases in addition to behavioral-reactive bases. The results also show the value of temporally and spatially extended problems to let researchers study the trajectory of animals' online cognitive processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Cephalic Recording Chambers in Research Macaques (Macaca spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Woods

    Full Text Available Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that most belonged to two E. faecalis sequence types (ST: ST 4 and ST 55. The genomes of three representative isolates were sequenced to identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistances and other traits. Antimicrobial resistance genes identified included aac(6'-aph(2", aph(3'-III, str, ant(6-Ia, tetM, tetS, tetL, ermB, bcrABR, cat, and dfrG, and polymorphisms in parC (S80I and gyrA (S83I were observed. These isolates also harbored virulence factors including the cytolysin toxin genes in ST 4 isolates, as well as multiple biofilm-associated genes (esp, agg, ace, SrtA, gelE, ebpABC, hyaluronidases (hylA, hylB, and other survival genes (ElrA, tpx. Crystal violet biofilm assays confirmed that ST 4 isolates produced more biofilm than ST 55 isolates. The abundance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes in the ST 4 isolates likely relates to the loss of CRISPR-cas. This macaque colony represents a unique model for studying E. faecalis infection associated with indwelling devices, and provides an opportunity to understand the basis of persistence of this pathogen in a healthcare setting.

  7. Visual artificial grammar learning by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): exploring the role of grammar complexity and sequence length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Conway, Christopher M; Christiansen, Morten H; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2018-03-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates can learn about the organization of stimuli in the environment using implicit sequential pattern learning capabilities. However, most previous artificial grammar learning studies with nonhuman primates have involved relatively simple grammars and short input sequences. The goal in the current experiments was to assess the learning capabilities of monkeys on an artificial grammar-learning task that was more complex than most others previously used with nonhumans. Three experiments were conducted using a joystick-based, symmetrical-response serial reaction time task in which two monkeys were exposed to grammar-generated sequences at sequence lengths of four in Experiment 1, six in Experiment 2, and eight in Experiment 3. Over time, the monkeys came to respond faster to the sequences generated from the artificial grammar compared to random versions. In a subsequent generalization phase, subjects generalized their knowledge to novel sequences, responding significantly faster to novel instances of sequences produced using the familiar grammar compared to those constructed using an unfamiliar grammar. These results reveal that rhesus monkeys can learn and generalize the statistical structure inherent in an artificial grammar that is as complex as some used with humans, for sequences up to eight items long. These findings are discussed in relation to whether or not rhesus macaques and other primate species possess implicit sequence learning abilities that are similar to those that humans draw upon to learn natural language grammar.

  8. Local and systemic changes associated with long-term, percutaneous, static implantation with titanium alloys in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydman, Galit F.; Marini, Robert P.; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Biddle, Kathleen; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Lai, Barry; Bendapudi, Pavan K.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Fox, James G.

    2017-04-01

    Metal alloys are frequently used as implant materials in veterinary medicine. Recent studies suggest that many types of metal alloys may induce both local and systemic inflammatory responses. In this study, 37 rhesus macaques with long-term skull-anchored percutaneous titanium alloy implants (0-14 years duration) were evaluated for changes in their hematology, coagulation and serum chemistry profiles. Negative controls (n=28) did not have implants. All of the implanted animals were on IACUC-approved protocols and were not implanted for the purpose of this study. Animals with implants had significantly higher plasma D-dimer and lower antithrombin III concentrations compared with nonimplanted animals (p-values < 0.05). Additionally, animals with implants had significantly higher globulin, and lower albumin and calcium concentrations compared with nonimplanted animals (p-values < 0.05). Many of these changes were positively correlated with duration of implantation as well as the number of implants. Chronic bacterial infection was observed on the skin around many of the implant sites, and within deeper tissues. Representative histopathology around the implant site of two implanted animals revealed chronic suppurative to pyogranulomatous inflammation extending from the skin to the dura mater. X-ray fluorescence microscopy of tissue biopsies from the implant site of the same two animals revealed significant increases in free metal ions within the tissue, including titanium and iron. Free metal ions persisted in the tissues up to 6 months postexplant. These results suggest that long-term skull-anchored percutaneous titanium alloy implants results in localized inflammation, chronic infection, and leaching of metal ions into local tissues.

  9. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) show robust primacy and recency in memory for lists from small, but not large, image sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2010-02-01

    The combination of primacy and recency produces a U-shaped serial position curve typical of memory for lists. In humans, primacy is often thought to result from rehearsal, but there is little evidence for rehearsal in nonhumans. To further evaluate the possibility that rehearsal contributes to primacy in monkeys, we compared memory for lists of familiar stimuli (which may be easier to rehearse) to memory for unfamiliar stimuli (which are likely difficult to rehearse). Six rhesus monkeys saw lists of five images drawn from either large, medium, or small image sets. After presentation of each list, memory for one item was assessed using a serial probe recognition test. Across four experiments, we found robust primacy and recency with lists drawn from small and medium, but not large, image sets. This finding is consistent with the idea that familiar items are easier to rehearse and that rehearsal contributes to primacy, warranting further study of the possibility of rehearsal in monkeys. However, alternative interpretations are also viable and are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Construction of an integrated welfare assessment system (MacWel) for Macaques (Macaca spp.) in human husbandry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Bakker, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    of these non-human primate species in human husbandry. In collaboration with researchers of this field valid, reliable and feasible indicators were composed to a holistic assessment protocol; agreement was reached with a Delphi method. The four principles from Welfare Quality were used as definition for Animal...

  11. Use of ultrasound imaging for the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding in the bonnet macaque ( Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Uddhav K; Imran, M; Manjramkar, Dhananjay D; Metkari, Siddhanath M; Sable, Nilesh P; Gavhane, Dnyaneshwar S; Katkam, Rajendra R; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Thakur, Meenakshi H; Kholkute, Sanjeeva D

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound is a powerful, low-cost, non-invasive medical tool used by laboratory animal veterinarians for diagnostic imaging. Sonohysterography and transvaginal ultrasound are frequently used to assess uterine anomalies in women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). In the present study, we have evaluated the abdominal ultrasound of bonnet monkeys ( n = 8) showing spontaneous ovulatory ( n = 5) and anovulatory ( n = 3) AUB. The ovulatory ( n = 5) macaques showed cyclic AUB for 7-8 days. The anovulatory ( n = 3) macaques had irregular AUB with menstrual cycles of 40-45 days. The B-mode abdominal, colour Doppler and 3D ultrasound scans were performed during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Ultrasound examination revealed endometrial polyps in five macaques and endometrial hyperplasia in three animals. The width and length of endometrial polyps was around 0.5-1 cm (average 0.51 ± 0.23 cm × 0.96 ± 0.16 cm) with significant increase in endometrial thickness ( P uterine cavity and colour Doppler ultrasound showed increased vascularity in the endometrial polyps. Endometrial hyperplasia characteristically appeared as a thickened echogenic endometrium ( P < 0.0002). This study demonstrates the use of non-invasive ultrasound techniques in the diagnosis of AUB in macaques.

  12. Medicinal management of corneal opacity in free ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta of Shivalik hills in Western Himalayas, Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corneal opacification was diagnosed in 17 free ranging rhesus macaques during detailed ophthalmic examination as a part of clinical health examination, at the monkey rescue sterilization centre in Hamirpur Himachal Pradesh, India. The cornea was completely opaque permitting only a little vision with respect to the affected eye. Medical management with topical ciprofloxacin and prednisolone along with ketoprofen and vitamin A was instituted. The corneal lesions subsided completely within one week following treatment. The treatment protocol successfully eliminated the discomfort and intraocular lesions with no serious subsequent irritation due to the treatment in these animals.

  13. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  14. Working and waiting for better rewards: self-control in two monkey species (Cebus apella and Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Self-control is typically defined as choosing a greater, delayed reward over a lesser, more immediate reward. However, in nature, there are other costs besides delay associated with obtaining the greatest outcome including increased effort, potential punishment, and low probability of reward. Effort is an interesting case because it sometimes impairs self-control, by acting as an additional cost, and at other times facilitates self-control, by distracting one from impulsive options. Additionally, different species may perform differently in effortful self-control tasks, based on their natural ecology. To gain insight into these aspects of self-control behavior, we examined capuchin monkeys' and rhesus monkeys' self-control in separate working and waiting choice tasks. We hypothesized that capuchins would show greater self-control in the working task, given their naturally higher activity level, whereas rhesus would perform similarly in both tasks. Rhesus performed as predicted, whereas contrary to our hypothesis, capuchins exhibited lesser performance in the working task. Nonetheless, these results may still stem from inherent species differences interacting with details of the methodology. Capuchins, being highly energetic and social monkeys, may have divided their energy and attention between the working task and other elements of the test environment such as visible group mates or manipulanda. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Video-task assessment of learning and memory in Macaques (Macaca mulatta) - Effects of stimulus movement on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of stimulus movement on learning, transfer, matching, and short-term memory performance were assessed with 2 monkeys using a video-task paradigm in which the animals responded to computer-generated images by manipulating a joystick. Performance on tests of learning set, transfer index, matching to sample, and delayed matching to sample in the video-task paradigm was comparable to that obtained in previous investigations using the Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus. Additionally, learning, transfer, and matching were reliably and significantly better when the stimuli or discriminanda moved than when the stimuli were stationary. External manipulations such as stimulus movement may increase attention to the demands of a task, which in turn should increase the efficiency of learning. These findings have implications for the investigation of learning in other populations, as well as for the application of the video-task paradigm to comparative study.

  16. Effect of Chronic Social Stress on Prenatal Transfer of Antitetanus Immunity in Captive Breeding Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammen, Rachelle L; Cohen, Joyce K; Meeker, Tracy L; Crane, Maria M; Amara, Rama R; Hicks, Sakeenah L; Meyer, Jerrold S; Ethun, Kelly F

    2018-05-15

    Because tetanus can cause significant morbidity and mortality in NHP, colonywide vaccination with tetanus toxoid is recommendedfor outdoor breeding colonies of rhesus macaques, with primary immunizations commonly given to infants at 6 mo of age followed by booster vaccines every 10 y. Maternal antibodies are thought to offer protective immunity to infants younger than 6 mo. However, historical colony data from the Yerkes National Primate Research Center show a higher incidence of tetanus among infants (≤ 6 mo old) born to subordinate dams. Whether this higher incidence of infantile tetanus is due to a higher incidence of trauma among subordinate animals or is a stress-induced impairment of maternal antibody protection is unknown. Studies in other NHP species suggest that chronic exposure to social stressors interferes with the receptor-mediated transplacental transfer of IgG. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic stress associated with social subordination impairs prenatal transfer of antitetanus immunity in breeding female rhesus macaques. Subjects included 26 high- and 26 low-ranking adult female rhesus macaques that were nearly 5 or 10 y after their initial immunization and their nonimmunized infants. We hypothesized that infants born to subordinate dams that were nearly 10 y after immunization would have the lowest infant-to-dam antibody ratios and thus would be at greatest risk for infection. Results revealed no significant intergroup differences in infant antitetanus IgG levels. However, infant-to-dam IgG ratios against tetanus were significantly lower among subordinate animals compared with dominant macaques, after accounting for the number of years since the dam's initial vaccination. In addition, higher maternal hair cortisol levels predicted lower infant-to-dam tetanus toxoid IgG ratios. Together, these findings suggest that chronic social stress in female rhesus macaques may hamper the prenatal transfer of antitetanus immunity to offspring.

  17. Development of space perception in relation to the maturation of the motor system in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Valentina; Simpson, Elizabeth A; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2015-04-01

    To act on the environment, organisms must perceive object locations in relation to their body. Several neuroscientific studies provide evidence of neural circuits that selectively represent space within reach (i.e., peripersonal) and space outside of reach (i.e., extrapersonal). However, the developmental emergence of these space representations remains largely unexplored. We investigated the development of space coding in infant macaques and found that they exhibit different motor strategies and hand configurations depending on the objects' size and location. Reaching-grasping improved from 2 to 4 weeks of age, suggesting a broadly defined perceptual body schema at birth, modified by the acquisition and refinement of motor skills through early sensorimotor experience, enabling the development of a mature capacity for coding space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  19. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical characterization of ameloblast-enamel adhesion at maturation stage in amelogenesis in Macaca fuscata tooth germ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Maturation-stage ameloblasts are firmly bound to the tooth enamel by a basal lamina-like structure. The mechanism underlying this adhesion, however, remains to be fully clarified. The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying adhesion between the basal lamina-like structure and the enamel in monkey tooth germ. High-resolution immunogold labeling was performed to localize amelotin and laminin 332 at the interface between ameloblasts and tooth enamel. Minute, electron-dense strands were observed on the enamel side of the lamina densa, extending into the degrading enamel matrix to produce a well-developed fibrous layer (lamina fibroreticularis). In un-demineralized tissue sections, mineral crystals smaller than those in the bulk of the enamel were observed adhering to these strands where they protruded into the surface enamel. Immunogold particles reactive for amelotin were preferentially localized on these strands in the fibrous layer. On the other hand, those for laminin 332 were localized solely in the lamina densa; none were observed in the fibrous layer. These results suggest that the fibrous layer of the basal lamina-like structure is partly composed of amelotin molecules, and that these molecules facilitate ameloblast-enamel adhesion by promoting mineralization of the fibrous layer during the maturation stage of amelogenesis.

  20. On the nature of directed behavior to drug-associated light cues in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Mark P; Berndt, Sonja I; Woods, James H

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigated the role of drug-paired stimuli in controlling the behavior of rhesus monkeys. Systematic observations were made with nine monkeys who had a history of drug self-administration; they had been lever pressing to produce intravenous infusions of various drugs. These observations revealed that the stimulus light co-occurring with drug infusion produced robust and cue-directed behavior such as orienting, touching and biting. Experiment 1 showed that this light-directed behavior would occur in naïve monkeys exposed to a Pavlovian pairing procedure. Four monkeys were given response-independent injections of cocaine. In two monkeys, a red light preceded cocaine injections by 5 s, and a green light co-occurred with the 5-s cocaine injections. In the other two monkeys, the light presentations and cocaine injections occurred independently. Light-directed behavior occurred in all four monkeys within the first couple of trials and at high levels but decreased across sessions. The cocaine-paired stimulus maintained behavior longer and at higher levels than the uncorrelated stimuli. Furthermore, light-directed behavior was not maintained when cocaine was replaced with saline. Light-directed behavior did not occur in the absence of the lights. When these monkeys were subsequently trained to lever press for cocaine, light-directed behavior increased to levels higher than previously observed. Behavior directed towards drug-paired stimuli is robust, reliable and multiply determined; the mechanisms underlying this activity likely include Pavlovian conditioning, stimulus novelty, habituation and operant conditioning.

  1. The effect of irradiance on long-term skeletal growth and net photosynthesis in Galaxea fascicularis under four light conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, M.; Velthoven, van B.; Janse, M.; Osinga, R.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between irradiance, skeletal growth and net photosynthesis was studied for the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis to provide experimental evidence for mediation of light-enhanced calcification through photosynthesis. The hypothesis was tested that skeletal growth and

  2. Biosorption and desorption of Cd2+ from wastewater by dehydrated shreds of Cladophora fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liping; Zhu, Xiaobin; Su, Yingying; Su, Hua; Wang, Xinting

    2008-02-01

    The adsorption and desorption of algae Cladophora fascicularis and their relation with initial Cd2+ concentration, initial pH, and co-existing ions were studied. Adsorption equilibrium and biosorption kinetics were established from batch experiments. The adsorption equilibrium was adequately described by the Langmuir isotherm, and biosorption kinetics was in pseudo-second order model. The experiment on co-existing ions showed that the biosorption capacity of biomass decreased with an increasing concentration of competing ions. Desorption experiments indicated that EDTA was efficient desorbent for recovery from Cd2+. With high capacities of metal biosorption and desorption, the biomass of Cladophora fascicularis is promising as a cost-effective biosorbent for the removal of Cd2+ from wastewater.

  3. RNA-Seq Reveals Extensive Transcriptional Response to Heat Stress in the Stony Coral Galaxea fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jing; Xu, Tao; Su, Dingjia; Wu, Ying; Cheng, Li; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Galaxea fascicularis, a stony coral belonging to family Oculinidae, is widely distributed in Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and large areas of the Indo-Pacific oceans. So far there is a lack of gene expression knowledge concerning this massive coral. In the present study, G. fascicularis was subjected to heat stress at 32.0 ± 0.5°C in the lab, we found that the density of symbiotic zooxanthellae decreased significantly; meanwhile apparent bleaching and tissue lysing were observed at 10 h and 18 h after heat stress. The transcriptome responses were investigated in the stony coral G. fascicularis during heat bleaching using RNA-seq. A total of 42,028 coral genes were assembled from over 439 million reads. Gene expressions were compared at 10 and 18 h after heat stress. The significantly upregulated genes found in the Control_10h vs. Heat_10h comparison, presented mainly in GO terms related with DNA integration and unfolded protein response; and for the Control_18h vs. Heat_18h comparison, the GO terms include DNA integration. In addition, comparison between groups of Control_10h vs. Heat_10h and Control_18h vs. Heat_18h revealed that 125 genes were significantly upregulated in common between the two groups, whereas 21 genes were significantly downregulated in common, all these differentially expressed genes were found to be involved in stress response, DNA integration and unfolded protein response. Taken together, our results suggest that high temperature could activate the stress response at the early stage, and subsequently induce the bleaching and lysing through DNA integration and unfolded protein response, which are able to disrupt the balance of coral-zooxanthella symbiosis in the stony coral G. fascicularis. PMID:29487614

  4. RNA-Seq Reveals Extensive Transcriptional Response to Heat Stress in the Stony Coral Galaxea fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Galaxea fascicularis, a stony coral belonging to family Oculinidae, is widely distributed in Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and large areas of the Indo-Pacific oceans. So far there is a lack of gene expression knowledge concerning this massive coral. In the present study, G. fascicularis was subjected to heat stress at 32.0 ± 0.5°C in the lab, we found that the density of symbiotic zooxanthellae decreased significantly; meanwhile apparent bleaching and tissue lysing were observed at 10 h and 18 h after heat stress. The transcriptome responses were investigated in the stony coral G. fascicularis during heat bleaching using RNA-seq. A total of 42,028 coral genes were assembled from over 439 million reads. Gene expressions were compared at 10 and 18 h after heat stress. The significantly upregulated genes found in the Control_10h vs. Heat_10h comparison, presented mainly in GO terms related with DNA integration and unfolded protein response; and for the Control_18h vs. Heat_18h comparison, the GO terms include DNA integration. In addition, comparison between groups of Control_10h vs. Heat_10h and Control_18h vs. Heat_18h revealed that 125 genes were significantly upregulated in common between the two groups, whereas 21 genes were significantly downregulated in common, all these differentially expressed genes were found to be involved in stress response, DNA integration and unfolded protein response. Taken together, our results suggest that high temperature could activate the stress response at the early stage, and subsequently induce the bleaching and lysing through DNA integration and unfolded protein response, which are able to disrupt the balance of coral-zooxanthella symbiosis in the stony coral G. fascicularis.

  5. Effect of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Two Scleractinian Corals: Porites cylindrica (Dana, 1846 and Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus, 1767

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii-Siang Hii

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the effect of elevated pCO2 on Porites cylindrica and Galaxea fascicularis. The corals responded differently under elevated pCO2. Zooxanthellae cell density, cell mitotic index, and photosynthesis rate of P. cylindrica decreased drastically under the elevated pCO2. At the end of the experiment, P. cylindrica suffered from a declining calcium carbonate precipitation rate. G. fascicularis increased its respiration rate and expelled 71% of its symbiotic zooxanthellae algae under elevated pCO2. Photosynthetic pigments in the remaining zooxanthellae algae increased from 1.85 to 11.5 times to sustain its photosynthetic outputs. At the end of the experiment, G. fascicularis managed to increase the rate of its calcium carbonate precipitation. Increase pCO2 in the atmosphere may affect species diversity of coral reefs.

  6. JENIS-JENIS MAMALIA YANG MENGUNJUNGI KUBANGAN BABI HUTAN DI KAWASAN HUTAN KONSERVASI PT TIDAR KERINCI AGUNG DAN PT KENCANA SAWIT INDONESIA, SOLOK SELATAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Insani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai jenis-jenis mamalia yang mengunjungi kubangan babi hutan di hutan konservasi PT Tidar Kerinci Agung dan PT Kencana Sawit Indonesia, Solok Selatan, Sumatera Barat telah dilaksanakan dari 15 Juni sampai dengan 8 Desember 2015. Penelitian dilakukan dengan pemasangan tujuh buah perangkap kamera di sekitar kubangan babi hutan. Selama penelitian didapatkan 18 jenis hewan mamalia dari 12 famili dan 5 ordo. Hewan mamalia yang sering mengunjungi kubangan babi hutan yaitu Sus scrofa (481 foto, Macaca nemestrina (476 foto, Sus barbatus (269 foto, Macaca fascicularis (38 foto dan Muntiacus muntjak (33 foto. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kubangan babi hutan menarik bermacam-macam jenis mamalia dengan frekuensi kunjungan yang berbeda-beda.

  7. Proteasome and NF-kappaB inhibiting phaeophytins from the green alga Cladophora fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinping; Li, Min; Xu, Bo; Zhu, Xiaobin; Deng, Zhiwei; Lin, Wenhan

    2007-03-21

    Chemical examination of the green alga Cladophora fascicularis resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new porphyrin derivative, porphyrinolactone (1), along with five known phaeophytins 2-6 and fourteen sterols and cycloartanes. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and by comparison of its NMR data with those of known phaeophytins. Compounds 1-6 displayed moderate inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, while 2 and 4 displayed potential inhibitory activity toward proteasome chymotripsin-like activation. The primary structure-activity relationship was also discussed.

  8. The effect of different flow regimes on the growth and metabolic rates of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, M.; Crocker, J.; Paijmans, A.J.; Janse, M.; Osinga, R.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    To study the effect of water flow on coral growth, four series of ten coral nubbins of Galaxea fascicularis were exposed to four different flow regimes (0, 10, 20, and 25 cm s-1, bidirectional flow) for 42 weeks. Buoyant weight, surface area, and polyp number were measured at regular intervals. Net

  9. Temperature-Driven Local Acclimatization of Symbiodnium Hosted by the Coral Galaxea fascicularis at Hainan Island, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of coral reef ecosystems largely depends on mutualistic symbiosis between scleractinian corals and the dinoflagellate photosymbiont Symbiodinium spp. However, further investigation is needed to elucidate the flexibility of coral-algae associations in response to environmental changes. In this study, we applied a molecular method (high-throughput internal transcribed spacer 2 region of ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing to explore diversity and flexibility of Symbiodinium associated with Galaxea fascicularis, an ecologically important scleractinian coral species collected at five locations around Hainan Island, South China Sea. The results revealed a high diversity of Symbiodinium subclades with C2r and D17 being dominant in G. fascicularis. Clade D Symbiodinium occurred most frequently in habitats where the annual average sea surface temperatures are the highest, suggesting that temperature is an important factor in determining Symbiodinium D abundance in G. fascicularis. The distribution of coral-Symbiodinium associations are possibly mediated by trade-off mechanisms which change the relative abundance of Symbiodinium clades/subclades under different environmental conditions. These findings provide further evidence that reef-building corals such as G. fascicularis can shuffle their symbionts to cope with environmental changes, and have implications for our understanding of the ecology of flexible coral-algal symbiosis.

  10. Interactive effects of oxygen, carbon dioxide and flow on photosynthesis and respiration in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, Ronald; Derksen-Hooijberg, Marlous; Wijgerde, Tim; Verreth, Johan A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Rates of dark respiration and net photosynthesis were measured for six replicate clonal fragments of the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767), which were incubated under 12 different combinations of dissolved oxygen (20%, 100% and 150% saturation), dissolved carbon dioxide (9.5 and

  11. Radioimmunoassay of class-specific antibodies to Streptococcus mutans in monkey serum and saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.; Colman, G.; Huges, M.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed to measure class-specific antibodies to Streptococcus mutans in the serum and saliva of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Antihuman immunoglobulin antibodies purified by affinity chromatography on immobilised monkey immoglobulins and labelled with 125 I were employed. Formalised cells of S. mutans and an extract of culture supernatant adsorbed to polystyrene wells were used as solid-phase antigens. The coefficients of variation of IgG, IgA, and IgM assays were less than or equal to 10% for both antigen systems. It is shown that this RIA is a sensitive, reproducible and quantitative method. (Auth.)

  12. The influence of high-intensity radiation on the functional status of monkey brain. Postirradiation changes in the bioelectric activity of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legeza, V.I.; Turlakov, Yu.S.

    1991-01-01

    In experiments with Macaca fascicularis it has found that changes in the total bioelectric activity of the brain within the EEG range that occur during the first 60 min following whole-bofy irradiation with a dose of 45 Gy (6.6 Gy/s) are interrelated with the dynamica of nervous and psychic activity of the exposed animals, exhibit a definite stereotype of their development (disorganization of rhythms: generalized synchronization of biopotentials; and development of synchronous processes), and coincide in time with the main stages of the development of the clinical picture of the acute postirradiation period (noncoordinated stimulation, sopor or coma, and partial recovery)

  13. The colonization of carrion by soldier fly, Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in a tropical forest in Malaysia: a new potential species for minimum PMI estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Omar, B

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the colonization of the stratiomyid species Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in monkey carrion and its potential for the determination of the minimum time since death (PMI). A study was conducted in a tropical forest at Bangi, Malaysia from 13 November 2009 to 8 June 2011. Twelve monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were used and divided in equal number into three different field trials. Adults of P. melanurus were first observed on monkey carrions on the second day the carcasses were placed in the field while their penultimate instar larvae were found in the wet soil under and beside carcass from day 8 to 31 days postmortem.

  14. Sorption and desorption of lead (II) from wastewater by green algae Cladophora fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liping; Su, Yingying; Su, Hua; Wang, Xinting; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2007-05-08

    Biosorption is an effective method to remove heavy metals from wastewater. In this work, adsorption features of Cladophora fascicularis were investigated as a function of time, initial pH, initial Pb(II) concentrations, temperature and co-existing ions. Kinetics and equilibria were obtained from batch experiments. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second order model. Adsorption equilibria were well described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity was 198.5 mg/g at 298K and pH 5.0. The adsorption processes were endothermic and the biosorption heat was 29.6 kJ/mol. Desorption experiments indicated that 0.01 mol/L Na(2)EDTA was an efficient desorbent for the recovery of Pb(II) from biomass. IR spectrum analysis suggested amido or hydroxy, CO and C-O could combine intensively with Pb(II).

  15. Gene : CBRC-PTRO-07-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TED: hypothetical protein [Macaca mulatta] 7e-96 66% MEVSEPMMKAVLVSEPALEGVEVSEPVVQAVLVSEPEVEAVVVSEPAVEAVVVSEPSIEAVVVSELSVEVVMVVSEP...AVEAGMVSEPAVETVVVSEAVVEATVVSEFSMKTVVILELAVETLVVSEPMVEAIVVSEPMVDAMVVSELVVEAEVVSEPVVEAEVVSEPVVEAEVVSEPSVESVVVSEP...VMEAVVISEPSVEVVVVSEPVVETLVVSEPVMETVVVPEPSVETVVVSEPVADTVVVSEPSVEVMVVSEP...VVETMVVSDSVVETVVVSEPSVEAVVVSELVVEAVVVSEPVVEAEVVSXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXSKPPVRGR ...

  16. Biosorption of copper(II) from aqueous solutions by green alga Cladophora fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liping; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Xinting; Su, Yingying; Su, Hua

    2007-08-01

    Biosorption is an effective means of removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this work the biosorption behavior of Cladophora fascicularis was investigated as a function of pH, amount of biosorbent, initial Cu2+ concentration, temperature, and co-existing ions. Adsorption equilibria were well described by Langmuir isotherm models. The enthalpy change for the biosorption process was found to be 6.86 kJ mol(-1) by use of the Langmuir constant b. The biosorption process was found to be rapid in the first 30 min. The presence of co-existing cations such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ and anions such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and acetate did not significantly affect uptake of Cu2+ whereas EDTA substantially affected adsorption of the metal. When experiments were performed with different desorbents the results indicated that EDTA was an efficient desorbent for the recovery of Cu2+ from biomass. IR spectral analysis suggested amido or hydroxy, C=O, and C-O could combine strongly with Cu2+.

  17. Human presence increases parasitic load in endangered lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus in its fragmented rainforest habitats in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Hussain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding changes in the host-parasite relationship due to habitat fragmentation is necessary for better management and conservation of endangered species in fragmented landscapes. Pathogens and parasites can pose severe threat to species in restricted environments such as forest fragments where there is increased contact of wildlife with human and livestock populations. Environmental stress and reduced nutritional level in forest fragments can influence parasite infection and intensity on the native species. In this study, we examine the impact of habitat fragmentation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaques in a fragmented rainforest in Western Ghats. METHODS: The prevalence of different gastrointestinal parasites was estimated from 91 fecal samples collected from 9 lion-tailed macaque groups in nine forest fragments. The parasites were identified up to genus level on the basis of the morphology and coloration of the egg, larva and cyst. The covariates included forest fragment area, group size and the presence/absence of human settlements and livestock in proximity. We used a linear regression model to identify the covariates that significantly influenced the prevalence of different parasite taxa. RESULTS: Nine gastrointestinal parasite taxa were detected in lion-tailed macaque groups. The groups near human settlements had greater prevalence and number of taxa, and these variables also had significant positive correlations with group size. We found that these parameters were also greater in groups near human settlements after controlling for group size. Livestock were present in all five fragments that had human settlements in proximity. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that high prevalence and species richness of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaque groups are directly related to habitat fragmentation, high anthropogenic activities and high host density. The parasite load partially explains the reason for the decline in immature survival and birth rate in small and isolated rainforest fragments in Anamalai Hills.

  18. Characterization of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) scrub typhus model: Susceptibility to intradermal challenge with the human pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyakumthorn, Piyanate; Somponpun, Suwit J.; Im-erbsin, Rawiwan; Anantatat, Tippawan; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Dunachie, Susanna J.; Lombardini, Eric D.; Burke, Robin L.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Jones, James W.; Mason, Carl J.; Richards, Allen L.; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is an important endemic disease in tropical Asia caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi for which no effective broadly protective vaccine is available. The successful evaluation of vaccine candidates requires well-characterized animal models and a better understanding of the immune response against O. tsutsugamushi. While many animal species have been used to study host immunity and vaccine responses in scrub typhus, only limited data exists in non-human primate (NHP) models. Methodology/Principle findings In this study we evaluated a NHP scrub typhus disease model based on intradermal inoculation of O. tsutsugamushi Karp strain in rhesus macaques (n = 7). After an intradermal inoculation with 106 murine LD50 of O. tsutsugamushi at the anterior thigh (n = 4) or mock inoculum (n = 3), a series of time course investigations involving hematological, biochemical, molecular and immunological assays were performed, until day 28, when tissues were collected for pathology and immunohistochemistry. In all NHPs with O. tsutsugamushi inoculation, but not with mock inoculation, the development of a classic eschar with central necrosis, regional lymphadenopathy, and elevation of body temperature was observed on days 7–21 post inoculation (pi); bacteremia was detected by qPCR on days 6–18 pi; and alteration of liver enzyme function and increase of white blood cells on day 14 pi. Immune assays demonstrated raised serum levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules, anti-O. tsutsugamushi-specific antibody responses (IgM and IgG) and pathogen-specific cell-mediated immune responses in inoculated macaques. The qPCR assays detected O. tsutsugamushi in eschar, spleen, draining and non-draining lymph nodes, and immuno-double staining demonstrated intracellular O. tsutsugamushi in antigen presenting cells of eschars and lymph nodes. Conclusions/Significance These data show the potential of using rhesus macaques as a scrub typhus model, for evaluation of correlates of protection in both natural and vaccine induced immunity, and support the evaluation of future vaccine candidates against scrub typhus. PMID:29522521

  19. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue’s welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated ‘Monkey schools’ offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn’t have a negative impact on wild populations. PMID:26407173

  20. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus, Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina and Tiger (Panthera tigris Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt-Burbach

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  1. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  2. Effects of transportation, relocation, and acclimation on phenotypes and functional characteristics of peripheral blood lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehete, Pramod N; Shelton, Kathryn A; Nehete, Bharti P

    2017-01-01

    . These findings have implications on the research participation of transported and relocated nonhuman primates in immunologic research studies, suggesting that 30 days is not sufficient to ensure return to baseline immune homeostasis. These data should be considered when planning research studies in order...... of transport, relocation, and acclimation on the phenotype and function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a group of rhesus monkeys that were transported by road for approximately 21 hours from one facility to another. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune...... assays, we evaluated the phenotype of lymphocyte subsets by flow, mitogen-specific immune responses of PBMCs in vitro, and levels of circulating cytokines and cortisol in plasma at various time points including immediately before transport, immediately upon arrival, and after approximately 30 days...

  3. The effect of urban and rural habitats and resource type on activity budgets of commensal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaman, M Firoj; Huffman, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Macaques are characterized by their wide distribution and ability to adapt to a variety of habitats. Activity budgets are affected by habitat type, season, and food availability in relation to differing age-sex class and individual requirements. We conducted a comparative study on two commensal rhesus groups, one living in a rural village and the other in the center of urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. The study was conducted in three different seasons between 2007 and 2009 in order to evaluate how habitat type and season affects their behavioral activities. Differences in food type and its availability between these two habitats were mainly responsible for the variations in activity budgets between groups. Feeding time in the rural group was significantly longer than that in the urban group. In contrast, grooming and object manipulation/play were significantly greater in the urban than the rural group. Seasonal variations in all major behaviors were significantly affected by group, with more time spent feeding in summer than in winter/dry season, and more time spent grooming and moving in winter/dry season than summer in the rural group. In contrast, time spent resting was greater in the monsoon and summer seasons than the winter/dry season in the urban group. Grooming time was greater in the winter/dry season than the monsoon and summer seasons. In both groups, immature of both sexes spent significantly more time on feeding and object manipulation/playing and less time resting than adults. Adult females spent more time grooming than males and immatures, of both sexes, in both groups. Moreover, the rural group spent most of their time feeding on garden/crop produce and wild plant food resources, while the urban group spent more time feeding on provisioned foods. These results showed that differences in the activity budgets of rural and urban dwelling macaques were due largely to the differences in available food resources. Commensal rhesus macaques show a high degree of behavioral flexibility in response to habitat and resource variability, and knowledge of these differences is important for the conservation and management of highly commensal primates.

  4. Milk composition of captive vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with observations on gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and white handed gibbon (Hylobates lar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; de Wit, M; Nguyen, T P M; Seier, J

    2009-04-01

    The nutrient content and fatty acid composition of vervet monkey milk has been determined and is compared with rhesus macaque, and two hominoid apes, the white handed gibbon and gorilla. With 15.7+/-4.1 g protein, 33.1+/-9.4 g fat, and 85.1+/-7.5 g lactose per kg milk, vervet monkey milk does not differ from that of rhesus macaque, and is within the range of other primates. Small amounts (>1 g kg(-1)) of oligosaccharides, glucose, galactose and fucose were noted. In comparison, gorilla milk has a low fat content of 13.8 g kg(-1), but contains high levels of oligosaccharides at 7.0 g kg(-1) milk. The hominoid partner, the white handed gibbon, contains no oligosaccharides and a milk fat content similar to other hominoid species. Differences between vervet monkey and rhesus macaque milks were observed in the electrophoretic pattern of the milk proteins, mainly amongst the kappa- and gamma-caseins, which also differ from that of the hominids. The fatty acid contents of these milks differ from studies where a natural diet of leafy material was available in that a low content of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) was noted. A phylogenetic effect is observed for the content of 8:0, 10:0 fatty acids between the Cercopithecidae and Hominoidea, and a further phylogenetic effect suggested between the Hylobatidae and Hominidae.

  5. Effects of a Mechanical Response-Contingent Surrogate on the Development of Behaviors in Nursery-Reared Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Rebecca L; Blake, Jennifer; Willits, Neil; Rommeck, Ina; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Nursery-reared infants have several behavioral and physiologic differences from their mother-reared counterparts. We investigated whether a response-contingent surrogate mitigated some of those differences by decreasing fearfulness and partner-clinging and increasing environmental exploration in nursery-reared infants continuously paired with a peer. Six nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques (in pairs) were given a mechanical responsive surrogate (RS), and 6 (in pairs) were given an identical but nonresponsive surrogate (NRS). The 2 treatment groups were compared and then combined into a single group of all 12 of surrogate-exposed animals (CS) that was compared with a nonsurrogate control group (NS) of 10 nursery-reared infants. Results showed significant differences between CS and NS infants but no significant differences between the RS and NRS infants. As compared with NS infants, CS infants showed less partner-clinging, less affiliation directed toward only partner, and more foraging and tactile–oral exploration of the environment. These advantageous effects support additional research to develop improved surrogate and the implementation of surrogate programs for nursery-reared infants. PMID:25255068

  6. Changes in food intake and abnormal behavior using a puzzle feeder in newly acquired sub-adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): a short term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Il; Lee, Chi-Woo; Kwon, Hyouk-Sang; Kim, Young-Tae; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kim, Sang-Joon; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2008-10-01

    The majority of newly acquired nonhuman primates encounter serious problems adapting themselves to new environments or facilities. In particular, loss of appetite and abnormal behavior can occur in response to environmental stresses. These adaptation abnormalities can ultimately have an affect on the animal's growth and well-being. In this study, we evaluated the affects of a puzzle feeder on the food intake and abnormal behavior of newly acquired rhesus monkeys for a short period. The puzzle feeder was applied to 47- to 58-month-old animals that had never previously encountered one. We found that there was no difference in the change of food intake between the bucket condition and the puzzle feeder condition. In contrast, the time spent for consumption of food was three times longer in the puzzle feeder condition than in the bucket condition. Two monkeys initially exhibited stereotypic behavior. One showed a decreasing, and the other an increasing pattern of abnormal behavior after introduction of the puzzle feeder. In conclusion, this result suggests that over a short period, the puzzle feeder can only affect the time for food consumption since it failed to affect the food intake and did not consistently influence stereotypic behaviors in newly acquired rhesus monkeys.

  7. The foraging behavior of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata in a forested enclosure: Effects of nutrient composition, energy and its seasonal variation on the consumption of natural plant foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Firoj JAMAN, Michael A. HUFFMAN, Hiroyuki TAKEMOTO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the wild, primate foraging behaviors are related to the diversity and nutritional properties of food, which are affected by seasonal variation. The goal of environmental enrichment is to stimulate captive animals to exhibit similar foraging behavior of their wild counterparts, e.g. to extend foraging time. We conducted a 12-month study on the foraging behavior of Japanese macaques in a semi-naturally forested enclosure to understand how they use both provisioned foods and naturally available plant foods and what are the nutritional criteria of their consumption of natural plants. We recorded time spent feeding on provisioned and natural plant foods and collected the plant parts ingested of their major plant food species monthly, when available. We conducted nutritional analysis (crude protein, crude lipid, neutral detergent fiber-‘NDF’, ash and calculated total non-structural carbohydrate – ‘TNC’ and total energy of those food items. Monkeys spent 47% of their feeding time foraging on natural plant species. The consumption of plant parts varied significantly across seasons. We found that leaf items were consumed in months when crude protein, crude protein-to-NDF ratio, TNC and total energy were significantly higher and NDF was significantly lower, fruit/nut items in months when crude protein and TNC were significantly higher and crude lipid content was significantly lower, and bark items in months when TNC and total energy were higher and crude lipid content was lower. This preliminary investigation showed that the forested enclosure allowed troop members to more fully express their species typical flexible behavior by challenging them to adjust their foraging behavior to seasonal changes of plant item diversity and nutritional content, also providing the possibility for individuals to nutritionally enhance their diet [Current Zoology 56 (2: 198–208, 2010].

  8. Testing visual short-term memory of pigeons (Columba livia) and a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) with a location change detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Kenneth J; Elmore, L Caitlin; Rivera, Jacquelyne J; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A

    2013-09-01

    Change detection is commonly used to assess capacity (number of objects) of human visual short-term memory (VSTM). Comparisons with the performance of non-human animals completing similar tasks have shown similarities and differences in object-based VSTM, which is only one aspect ("what") of memory. Another important aspect of memory, which has received less attention, is spatial short-term memory for "where" an object is in space. In this article, we show for the first time that a monkey and pigeons can be accurately trained to identify location changes, much as humans do, in change detection tasks similar to those used to test object capacity of VSTM. The subject's task was to identify (touch/peck) an item that changed location across a brief delay. Both the monkey and pigeons showed transfer to delays longer than the training delay, to greater and smaller distance changes than in training, and to novel colors. These results are the first to demonstrate location-change detection in any non-human species and encourage comparative investigations into the nature of spatial and visual short-term memory.

  9. Visual Expertise Does Not Predict the Composite Effect across Species: A Comparison between Spider ("Ateles geoffroyi") and Rhesus ("Macaca mulatta") Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Jessica; Parr, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are subject to the composite illusion: two identical top halves of a face are perceived as "different" when they are presented with different bottom halves. This observation suggests that when building a mental representation of a face, the underlying system perceives the whole face, and has difficulty decomposing facial features. We…

  10. 125I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for 125 I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for 125 I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific 125 I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors

  11. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Demonstrate Robust Memory for What and Where, but Not When, in an Open-Field Test of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, R.R.; Hampstead, B.M.; Murray, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    We adapted a paradigm developed by Clayton and Dickinson (1998), who demonstrated memory for what, where, and when in scrub jays, for use with rhesus monkeys. In the study phase of each trial, monkeys found a preferred and a less-preferred food reward in a trial-unique array of three locations in a large room. After 1h, monkeys returned to the…

  12. Induction of a hypothyroid state during juvenile development delays pubertal reactivation of the neuroendocrine system governing luteinising hormone secretion in the male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, D R; Bhat, G K; Stah, C D; Pohl, C R; Plant, T M

    2006-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the influence of thyroid status on the timing of the pubertal resurgence in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse generator activity [tracked by circulating luteinising hormone (LH) levels] in male rhesus monkeys. Six juvenile monkeys were orchidectomised and then treated with the antithyroid drug, methimazole, from 15-19 months until 36 months of age, at which time thyroxine (T(4)) replacement was initiated. Four additional agonadal monkeys served as controls. Blood samples were drawn weekly for hormonal assessments. Body weight, crown-rump length and bone age were monitored at regular intervals. By 8 weeks of methimazole treatment, plasma T(4) had fallen sharply, and the decline was associated with a plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone increase. In controls, plasma LH levels remained undetectable until the pubertal rise occurred at 29.3 +/- 0.2 months of age. This developmental event occurred in only half of the methimazole-treated animals before 36 months of age when T(4) replacement was initiated. The hypothyroid state was associated with a profound arrest of growth and bone maturation, but increased body mass indices and plasma leptin levels. T(4) replacement in methimazole-treated monkeys was associated with the pubertal rise in LH in the remaining three animals and accelerated somatic development in all six animals. Although pubertal resurgence in LH secretion occurred at a later chronological age in methimazole-treated animals compared to controls, bone age, crown-rump length and body weight at that time did not differ between groups. There were no long-term differences in plasma prolactin between groups. We conclude that juvenile hypothyroidism in male primates causes a marked delay in the pubertal resurgence of LH secretion, probably occasioned at the hypothalamic level. Whether this effect is meditated by an action of thyroid hormone directly on the hypothalamus or indirectly as a result of the concomitant deficit in somatic development remains to be determined.

  13. Evaluation of an intragastric challenge model for Shigella dysenteriae 1 in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for the pre-clinical assessment of Shigella vaccine formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Dilara; Ruamsap, Nattaya; Khantapura, Patchariya; Aksomboon, Ajchara; Srijan, Apichai; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Gettayacamin, Montip; Venkatesan, Malabi M; Mason, Carl J

    2013-01-01

    Shigellosis is a worldwide disease, characterized by abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, and the passage of blood- and mucus-streaked stools. Rhesus monkeys and other primates are the only animals that are naturally susceptible to shigellosis. A suitable animal model is required for the pre-clinical evaluation of vaccines candidates. In this study, the minimal dose of Shigella dysenteriae1 1617 strain required to produce dysentery in four of five (80% attack rate) monkeys using an escalating dos...

  14. Evaluation of an intragastric challenge model for Shigella dysenteriae 1 in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for the pre-clinical assessment of Shigella vaccine formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Dilara; Ruamsap, Nattaya; Khantapura, Patchariya; Aksomboon, Ajchara; Srijan, Apichai; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Gettayacamin, Montip; Venkatesan, Malabi M; Mason, Carl J

    2014-06-01

    Shigellosis is a worldwide disease, characterized by abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, and the passage of blood- and mucus-streaked stools. Rhesus monkeys and other primates are the only animals that are naturally susceptible to shigellosis. A suitable animal model is required for the pre-clinical evaluation of vaccines candidates. In this study, the minimal dose of Shigella dysenteriae1 1617 strain required to produce dysentery in four of five (80% attack rate) monkeys using an escalating dose range for three groups [2 × 10(8) , 2 × 10(9) and 2 × 10(10) colony forming unit (CFU)] was determined. In addition, the monkeys were re-infected. The identified optimal challenge dose was 2 × 10(9) CFU; this dose elicited 60% protection in monkeys when they were re-challenged with a one log higher dose (2 × 10(10) CFU). The challenge dose, 2 × 10(10) CFU, produced severe dysentery in all monkeys, with one monkey dying within 24 h, elicited 100% protection when re-challenged with the same dose. All monkeys exhibited immune responses. This study concludes that the rhesus monkey model closely mimics the disease and immune response seen in humans and is a suitable animal model for the pre-clinical evaluation of Shigella vaccine candidates. Prior infection with the 1617 strain can protect monkeys against subsequent re-challenges with homologous strains. © 2013 The Authors. APMIS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Selective estrogen receptor modulator promotes weight loss in ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by decreasing food intake and increasing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Elinor L; Shearin, Jean; Koegler, Frank H; Cameron, Judy L

    2012-04-01

    The effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on body weight in postmenopausal women is controversial, with studies reporting an increase, a decrease, and no change in body weight. To examine estrogen receptor actions on body weight, we investigated the effects of treatment with a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) on body weight, food intake, and activity and metabolic rate in a nonhuman primate model. Eighteen ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys were treated with a nonsteroidal SERM (GSK232802A, 5 mg/kg po) for 3 mo. GSK232802A decreased lutenizing hormone (P Physical activity increased during the 3rd mo of treatment (P = 0.04). Baseline activity level and the change in activity due to treatment were correlated, with the most sedentary individuals exhibiting increased physical activity during the 1st mo of treatment (P = 0.02). Metabolic rate did not change (P = 0.58). These results indicate that GSK232802A treatment reduces body weight and adiposity in ovariectomized nonhuman primates by suppressing food intake and increasing activity, particularly in the most sedentary individuals. These findings suggest that SERM treatment may counteract weight gain in postmenopausal women.

  16. Early experience and sex interact to influence limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis function after acute alcohol administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, C S; Newman, T K; Lindell, S; Becker, M L; Shannon, C; Champoux, M; Suomi, S J; Higley, J D

    2004-07-01

    Studies in rodents demonstrate sex differences in neuroendocrine stress axis activity after treatment with alcohol. In abstinent alcoholics, atypical depressives, and individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder, limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA)-axis activity is often blunted; among females in these patient populations, however, resistance to glucocorticoid feedback and increased pituitary reactivity is observed. Early parental loss is a major life stressor and is a risk factor for both affective disturbances and LHPA-axis abnormalities later in life. We wanted to determine whether sex and early life parental absence would interact to influence alcohol-induced alterations in LHPA-axis activity after exposure to ethanol in macaques. Animals were reared with their mothers in social groups (MR, n = 94) or without adults in peer-only groups (PR, n = 79). At 5 years of age, they received an intravenous infusion of alcohol (2-2.2 g/kg), and the effects of alcohol, sex, and rearing condition on ACTH and cortisol levels were analyzed by ANOVA. Peer-reared females had higher ACTH levels than did PR males, MR females, and MR males after alcohol infusion. Alcohol-induced cortisol levels were not affected by sex and rearing condition. These findings suggest that there are sex differences in glucocorticoid negative feedback, pituitary responsivity, or release of ACTH secretagogues among individuals exposed to early life stress and emphasize the importance of considering sex effects when studying LHPA-axis dysregulation in alcoholism and other stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. Localization of plutonium retention in the small intestine of the neonatal rat, guinea pig, baboon and macaca after Pu-citrate ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, P.; Lataillade, G.; Beauvallet, M.; L'Hullier, I.; Lepage, M.; Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Moutairou, K.; avi, 526, Republique Populaire du Benin)

    1988-01-01

    The retention of Pu-citrate in the gastrointestinal wall was compared at similar post ingestion times after ingestion at 2 days of age by rats and guinea pigs and at 1 to 34 days by neonatal primates. The small intestine was the main site of the Pu retention in all species. In rats and primates, most of the Pu was retained in the distal ileum, whereas in guinea pigs it was more homogeneously distributed. In the rats, Pu was retained in the epithelial cells on villi, but in the guinea pigs and primates it was confined to the macrophages under the epithelial cells in the lacteal region. (author)

  18. Evidence of direct reciprocity, but not of indirect and generalized reciprocity, in the grooming exchanges of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesti, Sandra; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2017-09-01

    Reciprocity is one of the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the exchange of social behaviors, such as grooming, in animals. Reciprocity assumes that individuals act as the donor and recipient of grooming and switch roles over time to balance the benefits and costs of this behavior. Three main patterns of reciprocity may follow a grooming given: (i) direct reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to the former donor; (ii) indirect reciprocity, where another individual returns the grooming to the former donor; and (iii) generalized reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to another individual. While there is evidence that direct reciprocity plays an important role in various species of animals, the role of indirect and generalized reciprocity is less clear and has been rarely analyzed. We tested the role of direct, indirect, and generalized reciprocity in explaining grooming exchanges of wild Barbary macaques, by analyzing the temporal contingency between giving and receiving grooming. We collected the occurrence and latency of the three types of grooming reciprocation during 1 hr long focal sessions run simultaneously on two partners who just stopped grooming (post-grooming session) or who were in proximity (i.e., within 1.5 m) without grooming each other (control session). We ran the analyses on 284 post-grooming and 63 control sessions. The results revealed a temporal contingency of grooming interactions exchanged according to direct reciprocity but not according to indirect or generalized reciprocity. Our results indicate that grooming distribution in Barbary macaques is partner-specific. We discuss the possible role of cognition and emotions in explaining direct reciprocity in animals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Using Hematology Data from Malaria Vaccine Research Trials in Humans and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) To Guide Volume Limits for Blood Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Sara R; Hickey, Bradley W; Mcgrath, Shannon M; Stewart, V Ann

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines on safe volume limits for blood collection from research participants in both humans and laboratory animals vary widely between institutions. The main adverse event that may be encountered in large blood volume withdrawal is iron-deficiency anemia. Monitoring various parameters in a standard blood panel may help to prevent this outcome. To this end, we analyzed the Hgb and MCV values from 43 humans and 46 macaques in malaria vaccine research trials. Although the percentage of blood volume removed was greater for macaques than humans, macaques demonstrated an overall increase of MCV over time, indicating the ability to respond appropriately to frequent volume withdrawals. In contrast, humans showed a consistent declining trend in MCV. These declines in human MCV and Hgb were significant from the beginning to end of the study despite withdrawals that were smaller than recommended volume limits. Limiting the volume withdrawn to no more than 12.5% seemed to be sufficient for macaques, and at 14% or more individual animals tended to fail to respond appropriately to large-volume blood loss, as demonstrated by a decrease in MCV. The overall positive erythropoietic response seen in macaques was likely due to the controlled, iron-fortified diet they received. The lack of erythropoietic response in the human subjects may warrant iron supplementation or reconsideration of current blood volume withdrawal guidelines.

  20. The use of Aotus Trivirgatus and Macaca Mulatta as Tools for Studies on Prevention and Therapy of Infections with Plasmodium Falciparum and Plasmodium Vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-13

    t U w < s _. H S I § CO o Q I til w w f fe > o §1 En ^ w M Q E-" § CO SS S H 5 ^^ H I < in tu EL4 § w H | u EH "t H...with the continued invasion of hepatic cells . In that setting, cure could be achieved by delivery of an effective blood schizonticide such as

  1. Toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, D.W.; Elwell, M.R.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-04-01

    The toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF), a ubiquitous and acutely toxic environmental contaminant, was examined in three adult male Rhesus monkeys administered a single iv dose of 34 micrograms (0.1 mumol)/kg. Within 20 min, 4PeCDF was eliminated from the blood and was distributed to the liver, skin, adipose, and muscle tissues. Excretion occurred primarily via the feces with a minimum whole body half-life approximately 38 days. Within 7-14 days after administration, the packed cell volume and serum triglyceride and bile acid concentrations were significantly increased while serum cholesterol, protein, and albumin concentrations were decreased relative to pretreatment levels. Thyroid hormone levels were also altered with an increase in TSH and a decrease in T3 and T4 concentrations. After 28 days, two monkeys began exhibiting alopecia, hyperkeratinization of the toe and finger nails, facial chloracne-like lesions, and loss of body weight. They subsequently died 40 and 48 days after treatment. Similar symptoms of toxicity were observed in the third animal 58 days after 4PeCDF administration, but this animal appeared to fully recover and was administered 4PeCDF orally and (3H)1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran (1PeCDF) dermally 238 days after the initial iv dose. In this animal, approximately 2% of an oral dose of (14C)-4PeCDF was absorbed from the stomach and small intestine in 6 hr and was distributed mainly to the muscle and skin and less than 99% of a dermal dose of 1PeCDF remained at the site of application. Pathological findings in the monkeys that died indicated hyperplastic and metaplastic changes in the gastric mucosa, the Meibomian glands of the eyelid, and the ceruminous glands of the ear. Regression of these lesions was present in the surviving animal.

  2. Interactive effects of oxygen, carbon dioxide and flow on photosynthesis and respiration in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinga, Ronald; Derksen-Hooijberg, Marlous; Wijgerde, Tim; Verreth, Johan A J

    2017-06-15

    Rates of dark respiration and net photosynthesis were measured for six replicate clonal fragments of the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767), which were incubated under 12 different combinations of dissolved oxygen (20%, 100% and 150% saturation), dissolved carbon dioxide (9.5 and 19.1 µmol l -1 ) and water flow (1-1.6 versus 4-13 cm s -1 ) in a repeated measures design. Dark respiration was enhanced by increased flow and increased oxygen saturation in an interactive way, which relates to improved oxygen influx into the coral tissue. Oxygen saturation did not influence net photosynthesis: neither hypoxia nor hyperoxia affected net photosynthesis, irrespective of flow and pH, which suggests that hyperoxia does not induce high rates of photorespiration in this coral. Flow and pH had a synergistic effect on net photosynthesis: at high flow, a decrease in pH stimulated net photosynthesis by 14%. These results indicate that for this individual of G. fascicularis , increased uptake of carbon dioxide rather than increased efflux of oxygen explains the beneficial effect of water flow on photosynthesis. Rates of net photosynthesis measured in this study are among the highest ever recorded for scleractinian corals and confirm a strong scope for growth. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Proteasome and NF-κB Inhibiting Phaeophytins from the Green Alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhan Lin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical examination of the green alga Cladophora fascicularis resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new porphyrin derivative, porphyrinolactone (1, along with five known phaeophytins 2-6 and fourteen sterols and cycloartanes. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and by comparison of its NMR data with those of known phaeophytins. Compounds 1-6 displayed moderate inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation, while 2 and 4 displayed potential inhibitory activity toward proteasome chymotripsin-like activation. The primary structure-activity relationship was also discussed.

  4. Highly heterogeneous bacterial communities associated with the South China Sea reef corals Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available Coral harbor diverse and specific bacteria play significant roles in coral holobiont function. Bacteria associated with three of the common and phylogenetically divergent reef-building corals in the South China Sea, Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora, were investigated using 454 barcoded-pyrosequencing. Three colonies of each species were sampled, and 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed individually. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities associated with the three coral species were more diverse than previous estimates based on corals from the Caribbean Sea, Indo-Pacific reefs and the Red Sea. Three candidate phyla, including BRC1, OD1 and SR1, were found for the first time in corals. Bacterial communities were separated into three groups: P. lutea and G. fascicular, A. millepora and seawater. P. lutea and G. fascicular displayed more similar bacterial communities, and bacterial communities associated with A. millepora differed from the other two coral species. The three coral species shared only 22 OTUs, which were distributed in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and an unclassified bacterial group. The composition of bacterial communities within each colony of each coral species also showed variation. The relatively small common and large specific bacterial communities in these corals implies that bacterial associations may be structured by multiple factors at different scales and that corals may associate with microbes in terms of similar function, rather than identical species.

  5. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) regulatory region variation in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodgar, Morteza; Ross, Cody T; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Marcelino, Gretchen; Smith, David Glenn

    2015-04-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is an enzyme that plays a key role in intracellular immune response against respiratory infections. Since various species of nonhuman primates exhibit different levels of susceptibility to infectious respiratory diseases, and since variation in regulatory regions of genes is thought to play a key role in expression levels of genes, two candidate regulatory regions of iNOS were mapped, sequenced, and compared across five species of nonhuman primates: African green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and Chinese rhesus macaques (M. mulatta). In addition, we conducted an in silico analysis of the transcription factor binding sites associated with genetic variation in these two candidate regulatory regions across species. We found that only one of the two candidate regions showed strong evidence of involvement in iNOS regulation. Specifically, we found evidence of 13 conserved binding site candidates linked to iNOS regulation: AP-1, C/EBPB, CREB, GATA-1, GATA-3, NF-AT, NF-AT5, NF-κB, KLF4, Oct-1, PEA3, SMAD3, and TCF11. Additionally, we found evidence of interspecies variation in binding sites for several regulatory elements linked to iNOS (GATA-3, GATA-4, KLF6, SRF, STAT-1, STAT-3, OLF-1 and HIF-1) across species, especially in African green monkeys relative to other species. Given the key role of iNOS in respiratory immune response, the findings of this study might help guide the direction of future studies aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of African green monkeys to several viral and bacterial respiratory infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans reveals ancient population structure and recent recombination among host-specific subpopulations

    KAUST Repository

    Diez Benavente, Ernest

    2017-09-18

    The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found. A large segment on chromosome 8 originating from the Mn subpopulation and containing genes encoding proteins expressed in mosquito-borne parasite stages, was found in Mf genotypes. By contrast, non-recombining organelle genomes partitioned into 3 deeply branched lineages, unlinked with nuclear genomic dimorphism. Subpopulations which diverged in isolation have re-connected, possibly due to deforestation and disruption of wild macaque habitats. The resulting genomic mosaics reveal traits selected by host-vector-parasite interactions in a setting of ecological transition.

  7. Analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans reveals ancient population structure and recent recombination among host-specific subpopulations

    KAUST Repository

    Diez Benavente, Ernest; Florez de Sessions, Paola; Moon, Robert W.; Holder, Anthony A.; Blackman, Michael J.; Roper, Cally; Drakeley, Christopher J.; Pain, Arnab; Sutherland, Colin J.; Hibberd, Martin L.; Campino, Susana; Clark, Taane G.

    2017-01-01

    The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found. A large segment on chromosome 8 originating from the Mn subpopulation and containing genes encoding proteins expressed in mosquito-borne parasite stages, was found in Mf genotypes. By contrast, non-recombining organelle genomes partitioned into 3 deeply branched lineages, unlinked with nuclear genomic dimorphism. Subpopulations which diverged in isolation have re-connected, possibly due to deforestation and disruption of wild macaque habitats. The resulting genomic mosaics reveal traits selected by host-vector-parasite interactions in a setting of ecological transition.

  8. Pair housing for female longtailed and rhesus macaques in the laboratory: behavior in protected contact versus full contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C; Crockett, Carolyn M; Lee, Grace H; Oettinger, Brooke C; Schoof, Valérie; Thom, Jinhee P

    2012-01-01

    Pair housing for caged macaques in the laboratory generally allows unrestricted tactile contact but, less commonly, may involve limited contact via grooming-contact bars or perforated panels. The purpose of using this protected contact housing, which prevents entry into pair-mates' cages, typically is to accommodate research and management requirements. The study used behavioral data collected on 12 pairs of female longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the Washington National Primate Research Center and 7 pairs of female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed at the Tulane National Primate Research Center to assess the relative benefits of protected versus full protected contact. The study collected data in stable pairs housed first in protected contact followed by full contact. Species combined, the study found the presence of the panel was associated with lower levels of social grooming and higher levels of self-grooming, abnormal behavior, and tension-related behavior. Within species, only the protected- versus full-contact contrasts for abnormal and tension were statistically significant-and only for rhesus macaques. Results suggest that for female rhesus macaques, potential disadvantages or inconveniences of full contact should be balanced against the improved behavioral profile in comparison to protected contact. The use of protected contact among female longtailed macaques does not appear to require the same cost-benefit analysis. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  9. Control of communicable disease; foreign--requirements for importers of nonhuman primates (NHP). Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), located within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is amending regulations for the importation of live nonhuman primates (NHPs) by extending existing requirements for the importation of Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus), Chlorocebus aethiops (African green), and Macaca mulatta (rhesus) monkeys to all NHPs with the exception of the filovirus testing requirement. Filovirus testing will only be required for Old World NHPs in quarantine that have illness consistent with filovirus infection or that die for any reason other than trauma during quarantine. HHS/CDC is also finalizing a provision to reduce the frequency at which importers of cynomolgus, African green, and rhesus monkeys are required to renew their special permits (from every 180 days to every 2 years). HHS/CDC is incorporating existing guidelines into the regulations and adding new provisions to address the following: NHPs imported as part of an animal act; NHPs imported or transferred by zoological societies; the transfer of NHPs from approved laboratories; and non-live imported NHP products. Finally, HHS/CDC is also requiring that all NHPs be imported only through ports of entry where a HHS/CDC quarantine station is located.

  10. Can monkeys make investments based on maximized pay-off?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Steelandt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible.

  11. Human exposure to herpesvirus B-seropositive macaques, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Schillaci, Michael A; Suaryana, Komang Gde; Putra, Artha; Fuentes, Agustin; Henkel, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. However, the threat of herpesvirus B in nonlaboratory settings worldwide remains to be addressed. We investigated the potential for exposure to herpesvirus B in workers at a "monkey forest" (a temple that has become a tourist attraction because of its monkeys) in Bali, Indonesia. In July 2000, 105 workers at the Sangeh Monkey Forest in Central Bali were surveyed about contact with macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nearly half of those interviewed had either been bitten or scratched by a macaque. Prevalence of injury was higher in those who fed macaques. Serum from 31 of 38 Sangeh macaques contained antibodies to herpesvirus B. We conclude that workers coming into contact with macaques at the Sangeh Monkey Forest are at risk for exposure to herpesvirus B.

  12. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruvolo, M.; Disotell, T.R.; Allard, M.W. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Brown, W.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Honeycutt, R.L. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1991-02-15

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time.

  13. Predation on pupa of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by parasitoid, Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Ophyra spinigera larva (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Heo Chong; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Lim, Lee Han; Jeffery, John; Omar, Baharudin; Dhang, Chen Chee; Weng, Lau Koon; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2009-12-01

    A forensic entomological study was conducted using monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) that were placed in either an outdoor or indoor environment at a coastal area in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia during May until August 2008. We collected pupae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) from the carcasses and kept them individually. The emergence of 13 parasitic microhymenopteran, from one of the pupae occurring within a week were identified as Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Another observation was made whereby a pupa of C. rufifacies was predated by a muscid larva, Ophyra spinigera (Stein). The larva squeezed into the pupa and consumed the contents. This paper report C. rufifacies as a new host record for E. philippinensis in Malaysia and highlighted the predatory behavior of O. spinigera larva in natural environment.

  14. ASPEK ZOONOTIK PARASIT NEMATODA PADA KERA DAN BINATANG MENGERAT DI BENGKULU, SUMATERA. INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twentyfive monkeys and 481 rats were examined for parasitic nematodes in Bengkulu, nine species of nematode were found infecting these animals. Five of filarían nematodes, i.e. Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria magnilarvatum and Edesonfilaria malayensis were infecting monkeys and one speciesTBreinlia booliati, was found infecting rats. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths, i.e. Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Oestophagomomum spp were found in monkeys; a lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was found in rats. The most important nematode species is B. malayi, which was found in Presbytis cristatus (36.8 % and in Macaca fascicularis (20.0 %. T. trichiura was found in R. cristatus (47.9 % and A. cantonensis in Rattus argentiventer (4.0 % and Rattus tiomanicus (2.9%.

  15. The influence of ionizing radiation of high intensity on the functional status of monkey brain. Clinical picture of early postirradiation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legeza, V.I.; Turlakov, Yu.S.

    1990-01-01

    In experiments with Macaca fascicularis a study was made of early manifestations of the central nervous system (CNS) disturbances caused by exposure to 24 MeV electrons (45 Gy). The results obtained permit us to distinguish two main ways (stereotypes) by which a clinical picture of early postirradiation period develops: comatose and noncomatose. A general clinical characteristic of each stereotype and stages of their development are presented. The postirradiation disturbances of nervous and psychis activity of monkeys are considered within the framework of the concept concerning acute reactions of exogenous type. It is suggested that the course of the early postirradiation period is conditioned by the involvement of some phylogenically determined, universal systemic mechanisms of the CNS response to external harmful effects

  16. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruvolo, M.; Disotell, T.R.; Allard, M.W.; Brown, W.M.; Honeycutt, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time

  17. Differential regulation of amyloid-β-protein mRNA expression within hippocampal neuronal subpopulations in Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.A.; Lewis, D.A.; Bahmanyar, S.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Young, W.G.; Morrison, J.H.; Wilson, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have mapped the neuroanatomical distribution of amyloid-β-protein mRNA within neuronal subpopulations of the hippocampal formation in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), normal aged human, and patients with Alzheimer disease. Amyloid-β-protein mRNA appears to be expressed in all hippocampal neurons, but at different levels of abundance. In the central nervous system of monkey and normal aged human, image analysis shows that neurons of the dentate gyrus and cornu Ammonis fields contain a 2.5-times-greater hybridization signal than is present in neurons of the subiculum and entorhinal cortex. In contrast, in the Alzheimer disease hippocampal formation, the levels of amyloid-β-protein mRNA in the cornu Ammonis field 3 and parasubiculum are equivalent. These findings suggest that within certain neuronal subpopulations cell type-specific regulation of amyloid-β-protein gene expression may be altered in Alzheimer disease

  18. The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pain, A; Böhme, U; Berry, A E

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is an intracellular malaria parasite whose natural vertebrate host is Macaca fascicularis (the 'kra' monkey); however, it is now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in southeast Asia. Plasmodium knowlesi was the first malaria parasite...... species in which antigenic variation was demonstrated, and it has a close phylogenetic relationship to Plasmodium vivax, the second most important species of human malaria parasite (reviewed in ref. 4). Despite their relatedness, there are important phenotypic differences between them, such as host blood...... cell preference, absence of a dormant liver stage or 'hypnozoite' in P. knowlesi, and length of the asexual cycle (reviewed in ref. 4). Here we present an analysis of the P. knowlesi (H strain, Pk1(A+) clone) nuclear genome sequence. This is the first monkey malaria parasite genome to be described...

  19. Chromosomal aberrations in Cynomolgus peripheral lymphocytes during and after fractionated whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedeney, G.; Malarbet, J.L.; Doloy, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were exposed to fractionated whole-body γ-irradiation at high and low dose rates for 4 or 5 weeks. The time-dependence of chromosomal aberrations was studied in relation to the number of lymphocytes during irradiation and after exposure for periods of up to about 600 days for chromosomal aberrations and 200 days for lymphocyte counts. Additivity of the daily effects on the number of chromosomal aberrations was observed during the exposures. Immediately after the end of the exposures the number of chromosomal aberrations decreased to reach low values. The disappearance of chromosomal aberrations seemed to be related to recovery of the lymphocyte counts. The data presented here emphasize the different kinetic patterns of chromosomal aberrations after fractionated and acute irradiation. (author)

  20. Molecular phylogeny of the hominoid primates as indicated by two-dimensional protein electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, D.; Giri, P.R.; O'Brien, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    A molecular phylogeny for the hominoid primates was constructed by using genetic distances from a survey of 383 radiolabeled fibroblast polypeptides resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). An internally consistent matrix of Nei genetic distances was generated on the basis of variants in electrophoretic position. The derived phylogenetic tree indicated a branching sequence, from oldest to most recent, of cercopithecoids (Macaca fascicularis), gibbon-siamang, orangutan, gorilla, and human-chimpanzee. A cladistic analysis of 240 electrophoretic characters that varied between ape species produced an identical tree. Genetic distance measures obtained by 2DE are largely consistent with those generated by other molecular procedures. In addition, the 2DE data set appears to resolve the human-chimpanzee-gorilla trichotomy in favor of a more recent association of chimpanzees and humans

  1. Towards an in vitro model of Plasmodium hypnozoites suitable for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Laurent; Gego, Audrey; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Franetich, Jean-François; Silvie, Olivier; Rametti, Armelle; Le Grand, Roger; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Sauerwein, Robert; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Vaillant, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, Alan W; Snounou, Georges; Kocken, Clemens H M; Mazier, Dominique

    2011-03-31

    Amongst the Plasmodium species in humans, only P. vivax and P. ovale produce latent hepatic stages called hypnozoites, which are responsible for malaria episodes long after a mosquito bite. Relapses contribute to increased morbidity, and complicate malaria elimination programs. A single drug effective against hypnozoites, primaquine, is available, but its deployment is curtailed by its haemolytic potential in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient persons. Novel compounds are thus urgently needed to replace primaquine. Discovery of compounds active against hypnozoites is restricted to the in vivo P. cynomolgi-rhesus monkey model. Slow growing hepatic parasites reminiscent of hypnozoites had been noted in cultured P. vivax-infected hepatoma cells, but similar forms are also observed in vitro by other species including P. falciparum that do not produce hypnozoites. P. falciparum or P. cynomolgi sporozoites were used to infect human or Macaca fascicularis primary hepatocytes, respectively. The susceptibility of the slow and normally growing hepatic forms obtained in vitro to three antimalarial drugs, one active against hepatic forms including hypnozoites and two only against the growing forms, was measured. The non-dividing slow growing P. cynomolgi hepatic forms, observed in vitro in primary hepatocytes from the natural host Macaca fascicularis, can be distinguished from similar forms seen in P. falciparum-infected human primary hepatocytes by the differential action of selected anti-malarial drugs. Whereas atovaquone and pyrimethamine are active on all the dividing hepatic forms observed, the P. cynomolgi slow growing forms are highly resistant to treatment by these drugs, but remain susceptible to primaquine. Resistance of the non-dividing P. cynomolgi forms to atovaquone and pyrimethamine, which do not prevent relapses, strongly suggests that these slow growing forms are hypnozoites. This represents a first step towards the development of a practical medium

  2. Towards an in vitro model of Plasmodium hypnozoites suitable for drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dembele

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the Plasmodium species in humans, only P. vivax and P. ovale produce latent hepatic stages called hypnozoites, which are responsible for malaria episodes long after a mosquito bite. Relapses contribute to increased morbidity, and complicate malaria elimination programs. A single drug effective against hypnozoites, primaquine, is available, but its deployment is curtailed by its haemolytic potential in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient persons. Novel compounds are thus urgently needed to replace primaquine. Discovery of compounds active against hypnozoites is restricted to the in vivo P. cynomolgi-rhesus monkey model. Slow growing hepatic parasites reminiscent of hypnozoites had been noted in cultured P. vivax-infected hepatoma cells, but similar forms are also observed in vitro by other species including P. falciparum that do not produce hypnozoites.P. falciparum or P. cynomolgi sporozoites were used to infect human or Macaca fascicularis primary hepatocytes, respectively. The susceptibility of the slow and normally growing hepatic forms obtained in vitro to three antimalarial drugs, one active against hepatic forms including hypnozoites and two only against the growing forms, was measured.The non-dividing slow growing P. cynomolgi hepatic forms, observed in vitro in primary hepatocytes from the natural host Macaca fascicularis, can be distinguished from similar forms seen in P. falciparum-infected human primary hepatocytes by the differential action of selected anti-malarial drugs. Whereas atovaquone and pyrimethamine are active on all the dividing hepatic forms observed, the P. cynomolgi slow growing forms are highly resistant to treatment by these drugs, but remain susceptible to primaquine.Resistance of the non-dividing P. cynomolgi forms to atovaquone and pyrimethamine, which do not prevent relapses, strongly suggests that these slow growing forms are hypnozoites. This represents a first step towards the development of a

  3. Tracing the phylogeographic history of Southeast Asian long-tailed macaques through mitogenomes of museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Li, Hongjie; Martin, Robert D; Moreau, Corrie S; Malhi, Ripan S

    2017-11-01

    The biogeographical history of Southeast Asia is complicated due to the continuous emergences and disappearances of land bridges throughout the Pleistocene. Here, we use long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), which are widely distributed throughout the mainland and islands of Southeast Asia, asa model for better understanding the biogeographical patterns of diversification in this geographically complex region. A reliable intraspecific phylogeny including individuals from localities on oceanic islands, continental islands, and the mainland is needed to trace relatedness along with the pattern and timing of colonization in this region. We used high-throughput sequencing techniques to sequence mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from 95 Southeast Asian M. fascicularis specimens housed at natural history museums around the world. To achieve a comprehensive picture, we more than tripled the mitogenome sample size for M. fascicularis from previous studies, and for the first time included documented samples from the Philippines and several small Indonesian islands. Confirming the result from a previous, recent intraspecific phylogeny for M. fascicularis, the newly reconstructed phylogeny of 135 specimens divides the samples into two major clades: Clade A includes haplotypes from the mainland and some from northern Sumatra, while Clade B includes all insular haplotypes along with lineages from southern Sumatra. This study resolves a previous disparity by revealing a disjunction in the origin of Sumatran macaques, with separate lineages originating within the two major clades, suggesting that at least two major migrations to Sumatra occurred. However, our dated phylogeny reveals that the two major clades split ∼1.88Ma, which is earlier than in previously published phylogenies. Our new data reveal that most Philippine macaque lineages diverged from the Borneo stock within the last ∼0.06-0.43Ma. Finally, our study provides insight into successful sequencing of DNA

  4. The effect of N-acetylated DL-penicillamin and DL-homocysteine thiolactone on the mercury distribution in adult rats, rat foetuses and macaca monkeys after exposure to methyl mercuric chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaseth, J.; Wannag, A.; Norseth, T.; Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway)

    1976-01-01

    The distribution and excretion of mercury was studied in pregnant rats, given a single intravenous dose of 2 μmol/kg of CH 3 203 HgCl on the 13th day of pregnancy. Oral treatment for one week with N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (4 mmol/kg per day) increased the mercury excretion in faces (from 45 to 120 nmol) and urine (from 9 to 160 nmol). Such treatment mobilized mercury from all the organs tested and the foetal and maternal brain levels of mercury were decreased to 1/5 and 1/3 of the controls, respectively. A four-day period of treatment with N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine started three days after the injection of methyl mercury reduced the foetal and maternal brain levels to 1/2 and 2/3 of the controls, respectively. The rapid removal of metal deposits following treatment with N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine is attributed to a free penetration of the complexing thiol into the tissue cells in question. No signs of toxicity were detected in monkeys given an effective daily dose of the agent (4 mmol/kg) for 6 days. In contrast N-acetyl-DL-homocysteine thiolactone was found to be toxic in the monkeys. In addition, the latter agent was ineffective in increasing the mercury elimination from the brains of monkeys, rats and rat foetuses. (author)

  5. Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, S; Moterroso, V; Morales, P; Wagner, J; Kipruto, S; Bukachi, F; Maitai, C; Tshala-Katumbay, D

    2014-04-01

    We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (~8 weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50mg/kg bw) for 6 weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (~12 years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5 weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ~80× faster in the nervous system (14 ms to produce one μmol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In M. fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; pcyanide may result from a "multiple hit" by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring of primate models of tick-borne flaviviruses infection for evaluation of vaccines and drugs efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia S Pripuzova

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV is one of the most prevalent and medically important tick-borne arboviruses in Eurasia. There are overlapping foci of two flaviviruses: TBEV and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV in Russia. Inactivated vaccines exist only against TBE. There are no antiviral drugs for treatment of both diseases. Optimal animal models are necessary to study efficacy of novel vaccines and treatment preparations against TBE and relative flaviviruses. The models for TBE and OHF using subcutaneous inoculation were tested in Cercopithecus aethiops and Macaca fascicularis monkeys with or without prior immunization with inactivated TBE vaccine. No visible clinical signs or severe pathomorphological lesions were observed in any monkey infected with TBEV or OHFV. C. aethiops challenged with OHFV showed massive hemolytic syndrome and thrombocytopenia. Infectious virus or viral RNA was revealed in visceral organs and CNS of C. aethiops infected with both viruses; however, viremia was low. Inactivated TBE vaccines induced high antibody titers against both viruses and expressed booster after challenge. The protective efficacy against TBE was shown by the absence of virus in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS of immunized animals after challenge. Despite the absence of expressed hemolytic syndrome in immunized C. aethiops TBE vaccine did not prevent the reproduction of OHFV in CNS and visceral organs. Subcutaneous inoculation of M. fascicularis with two TBEV strains led to a febrile disease with well expressed viremia, fever, and virus reproduction in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS. The optimal terms for estimation of the viral titers in CNS were defined as 8-16 days post infection. We characterized two animal models similar to humans in their susceptibility to tick-borne flaviviruses and found the most optimal scheme for evaluation of efficacy of preventive and therapeutic preparations. We also identified M. fascicularis to be more susceptible to

  7. Characterization of cellular immune response and innate immune signaling in human and nonhuman primate primary mononuclear cells exposed to Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shahabuddin; Amemiya, Kei; Bernhards, Robert C; Ulrich, Robert G; Waag, David M; Saikh, Kamal U

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei infection causes melioidosis and is often characterized by severe sepsis. Although rare in humans, Burkholderia mallei has caused infections in laboratory workers, and the early innate cellular response to B. mallei in human and nonhuman primates has not been characterized. In this study, we examined the primary cellular immune response to B. mallei in PBMC cultures of non-human primates (NHPs), Chlorocebus aethiops (African Green Monkeys), Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque), and Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque) and humans. Our results demonstrated that B. mallei elicited strong primary pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) equivalent to the levels of B. pseudomallei in primary PBMC cultures of NHPs and humans. When we examined IL-1β and other cytokine responses by comparison to Escherichia coli LPS, African Green Monkeys appears to be most responsive to B. mallei than Cynomolgus or Rhesus. Characterization of the immune signaling mechanism for cellular response was conducted by using a ligand induced cell-based reporter assay, and our results demonstrated that MyD88 mediated signaling contributed to the B. mallei and B. pseudomallei induced pro-inflammatory responses. Notably, the induced reporter activity with B. mallei, B. pseudomallei, or purified LPS from these pathogens was inhibited and cytokine production was attenuated by a MyD88 inhibitor. Together, these results show that in the scenario of severe hyper-inflammatory responses to B. mallei infection, MyD88 targeted therapeutic intervention may be a successful strategy for therapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A wireless transmission neural interface system for unconstrained non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A; Parajuli, Arun; Franklin, Robert; Sorenson, Michael; Felleman, Daniel J; Hansen, Bryan J; Hu, Ming; Dragoi, Valentin

    2015-10-01

    Studying the brain in large animal models in a restrained laboratory rig severely limits our capacity to examine brain circuits in experimental and clinical applications. To overcome these limitations, we developed a high-fidelity 96-channel wireless system to record extracellular spikes and local field potentials from the neocortex. A removable, external case of the wireless device is attached to a titanium pedestal placed in the animal skull. Broadband neural signals are amplified, multiplexed, and continuously transmitted as TCP/IP data at a sustained rate of 24 Mbps. A Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA assembles the digital signals into serial data frames for transmission at 20 kHz though an 802.11n wireless data link on a frequency-shift key-modulated signal at 5.7-5.8 GHz to a receiver up to 10 m away. The system is powered by two CR123A, 3 V batteries for 2 h of operation. We implanted a multi-electrode array in visual area V4 of one anesthetized monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) of a freely moving monkey (Macaca mulatta). The implanted recording arrays were electrically stable and delivered broadband neural data over a year of testing. For the first time, we compared dlPFC neuronal responses to the same set of stimuli (food reward) in restrained and freely moving conditions. Although we did not find differences in neuronal responses as a function of reward type in the restrained and unrestrained conditions, there were significant differences in correlated activity. This demonstrates that measuring neural responses in freely moving animals can capture phenomena that are absent in the traditional head-fixed paradigm. We implemented a wireless neural interface for multi-electrode recordings in freely moving non-human primates, which can potentially move systems neuroscience to a new direction by allowing one to record neural signals while animals interact with their environment.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys and common marmosets in preclinical studies for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-12-23

    Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, Old World Monkeys) and common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, New World Monkeys) have been widely, and expectedly, used as non-human primate models in drug development studies. Major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes information is now available that supports these primate species as animal models, and it is established that multiple forms of cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes have generally similar substrate recognition functionality to human P450 enzymes. This research update provides information on genetic polymorphisms of P450 enzymes in cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset like human P450 enzymes. Information on rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), another macaque species used in drug metabolism studies, is also included for comparison. Among a variety of cynomolgus monkey P450 variants investigated, typical examples include individual pharmacokinetic data for efavirenz and R-warfarin associated with cynomolgus monkey P450 2C9 (formerly 2C43) and 2C19 (2C75) variants, respectively, and for R-omeprazole and S-warfarin associated with marmoset P450 2C19 variants. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the individual pharmacokinetic and toxicological results in non-human primates as preclinical models and will help to further support understanding of molecular mechanisms of human P450 function. In addition to these polymorphic P450 enzymes, effects of aging on some drug clearances mediated by cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes were found in elder animals or animals pretreated with rifampicin. This review describes genetic and acquired individual differences in cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes involved in drug oxidation associated with pharmacological and/or toxicological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Full-length cDNA sequences from Rhesus monkey placenta tissue: analysis and utility for comparative mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sang-Rae

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta are widely-used as experimental animals in biomedical research and are closely related to other laboratory macaques, such as cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, and to humans, sharing a last common ancestor from about 25 million years ago. Although rhesus monkeys have been studied extensively under field and laboratory conditions, research has been limited by the lack of genetic resources. The present study generated placenta full-length cDNA libraries, characterized the resulting expressed sequence tags, and described their utility for comparative mapping with human RefSeq mRNA transcripts. Results From rhesus monkey placenta full-length cDNA libraries, 2000 full-length cDNA sequences were determined and 1835 rhesus placenta cDNA sequences longer than 100 bp were collected. These sequences were annotated based on homology to human genes. Homology search against human RefSeq mRNAs revealed that our collection included the sequences of 1462 putative rhesus monkey genes. Moreover, we identified 207 genes containing exon alterations in the coding region and the untranslated region of rhesus monkey transcripts, despite the highly conserved structure of the coding regions. Approximately 10% (187 of all full-length cDNA sequences did not represent any public human RefSeq mRNAs. Intriguingly, two rhesus monkey specific exons derived from the transposable elements of AluYRa2 (SINE family and MER11B (LTR family were also identified. Conclusion The 1835 rhesus monkey placenta full-length cDNA sequences described here could expand genomic resources and information of rhesus monkeys. This increased genomic information will greatly contribute to the development of evolutionary biology and biomedical research.

  11. A wireless transmission neural interface system for unconstrained non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A.; Parajuli, Arun; Franklin, Robert; Sorenson, Michael; Felleman, Daniel J.; Hansen, Bryan J.; Hu, Ming; Dragoi, Valentin

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Studying the brain in large animal models in a restrained laboratory rig severely limits our capacity to examine brain circuits in experimental and clinical applications. Approach. To overcome these limitations, we developed a high-fidelity 96-channel wireless system to record extracellular spikes and local field potentials from the neocortex. A removable, external case of the wireless device is attached to a titanium pedestal placed in the animal skull. Broadband neural signals are amplified, multiplexed, and continuously transmitted as TCP/IP data at a sustained rate of 24 Mbps. A Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA assembles the digital signals into serial data frames for transmission at 20 kHz though an 802.11n wireless data link on a frequency-shift key-modulated signal at 5.7-5.8 GHz to a receiver up to 10 m away. The system is powered by two CR123A, 3 V batteries for 2 h of operation. Main results. We implanted a multi-electrode array in visual area V4 of one anesthetized monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) of a freely moving monkey (Macaca mulatta). The implanted recording arrays were electrically stable and delivered broadband neural data over a year of testing. For the first time, we compared dlPFC neuronal responses to the same set of stimuli (food reward) in restrained and freely moving conditions. Although we did not find differences in neuronal responses as a function of reward type in the restrained and unrestrained conditions, there were significant differences in correlated activity. This demonstrates that measuring neural responses in freely moving animals can capture phenomena that are absent in the traditional head-fixed paradigm. Significance. We implemented a wireless neural interface for multi-electrode recordings in freely moving non-human primates, which can potentially move systems neuroscience to a new direction by allowing one to record neural signals while animals interact with their environment.

  12. Postsacral vertebral morphology in relation to tail length among primates and other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2015-02-01

    Tail reduction/loss independently evolved in a number of mammalian lineages, including hominoid primates. One prerequisite to appropriately contextualizing its occurrence and understanding its significance is the ability to track evolutionary changes in tail length throughout the fossil record. However, to date, the bony correlates of tail length variation among living taxa have not been comprehensively examined. This study quantifies postsacral vertebral morphology among living primates and other mammals known to differ in relative tail length (RTL). Linear and angular measurements with known biomechanical significance were collected on the first, mid-, and transition proximal postsacral vertebrae, and their relationship with RTL was assessed using phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression methods. Compared to shorter-tailed primates, longer-tailed primates possess a greater number of postsacral vertebral features associated with increased proximal tail flexibility (e.g., craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies), increased intervertebral body joint range of motion (e.g., more circularly shaped cranial articular surfaces), and increased leverage of tail musculature (e.g., longer spinous processes). These observations are corroborated by the comparative mammalian sample, which shows that distantly related short-tailed (e.g., Phascolarctos, Lynx) and long-tailed (e.g., Dendrolagus, Acinonyx) nonprimate mammals morphologically converge with short-tailed (e.g., Macaca tonkeana) and long-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. Multivariate models demonstrate that the variables examined account for 70% (all mammals) to 94% (only primates) of the variance in RTL. Results of this study may be used to infer the tail lengths of extinct primates and other mammals, thereby improving our understanding about the evolution of tail reduction/loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI: DISTRIBUSI, GAMBARAN MIKROSKOPIS, GEJALA PENDERITA DAN VEKTOR POTENSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasbudi Pertama Ambarita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMalaria in humans is caused by an infection of genus Plasmodium, especially P. falciparum, P. vivax.P.mulariae and P. ovate. Types of Plasmodium in animals that can inject humans is P. knowlesi. Animalswhich are found parasites in their body are long tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis and pig-tailedmacaques (Macaca nemestrina. .There have been many cases with positive malaria knowlesi as ithappened in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Myanmar, China, Vietnam and Indonesia. Studyof P. knowlesi aims to give an overview of the • case distribution, microscopic. features, patient characteristic, potential vector, as well as potential spread of malaria knowlesi in Indonesia. The methodused in this study is study literature from various sources. The microscopic features of the parasite inpatient blood films is pretty similar to P. falciparum and P. malariae in certain stadium. Therefore more awareness are needed regarding the spread of this parasite, especially in border areas of malaria endemiccountries and newly arrived immigrants in endemic areas of P. knowlesi.Keywords: Plasmodium knowlesi, malaria, parasite, vector ABSTRAKMalaria pada manusia selama ini disebabkan oleh infeksi genusPlasmodiumkhususnyaP. falciparum, P.vivax, P. malariaedanP. ovate. JenisPlasmodiumpada hewan yang dapat menginfeksi manusia adalahP.knowlesi.Hewan yang banyak ditemukan parasit ini dalam tubuhnya adalah kera ekor panjang(Macacajascicularisdan kera ekor babi(Macaca nemestrina.Sudah banyak kasus penderita malaria yang positif parasit ini seperti yang terjadi di Malaysia, Singapura, Thailand, Filipina, Myanmar, Cina, Vietnam danIndonesia. Kajian tentangP. knowlesiini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran tentang penyebarankasus, gambaran mikroskopis, karakteristik penderita, vektor potensial serta potensi penyebaran malaria knowlesidi Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah studi kepustakaan (literatur dariberbagai sumber. Secara

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a monomeric mutant of Azami-Green (mAG), an Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein-like green-emitting fluorescent protein from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Tatsuki; Yamamura, Akihiro; Kameda, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Kou; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    A monomeric mutant of Azami-Green from G. fascicularis was expressed, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belonged to space group P1 and diffracted X-rays to 2.20 Å resolution. Monomeric Azami-Green (mAG) from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis is the first monomeric green-emitting fluorescent protein that is not a derivative of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP). mAG and avGFP are 27% identical in amino-acid sequence. Diffraction-quality crystals of recombinant mAG were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The mAG crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.20 Å resolution on beamline AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory (Tsukuba, Japan). The crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.78, b = 51.72, c = 52.89 Å, α = 90.96, β = 103.41, γ = 101.79°. The Matthews coefficient (V M = 2.10 Å 3 Da −1 ) indicated that the crystal contained two mAG molecules per asymmetric unit

  15. Novel Serum Proteomic Signatures in a Non-Human Primate Model of Retinal Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...OS=Macaca mulatta GN=TMEM57 PE=2 SV=1 DB=sp 11 17 3 4 0.860319 0.768643 Q6UIN1 Protein kinase C iota (Fragment) OS=Macaca mulatta GN=PRKCI PE=2 SV=1...06 Q6UIN1 Protein kinase C iota (Fragment) OS=Macaca mulatta GN=PRKCI PE=2 SV=1 DB=tr 7 26 6 3 0.300602 0.002578 Q3YAL2 Kinesin family member 27

  16. Implicit and Explicit Categorization: A Tale of Four Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans ( Homo sapiens ). J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process., 36, 54-65. Smith, J.D., Chapman, W.P., Redford, J.S...2010 (b). Stages of category learning in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and humans ( Homo sapiens ). J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process., 36, 39-53...Smith, J.D., Coutinho, M.V.C., Couchman, J.J., 2011 (b). The learning of exclusive-or categories by monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and humans ( Homo sapiens ). J

  17. Impact of the tsunami (December, 2004 on the long tailed macaque of Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppusamy Sivakumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    We carried out a standard survey to assess the distribution and abundance of Macaca fascicularis umbrosa of Nicobar Islands (India after the tsunami which washed the whole region in 2004 and compared them with those reported for 2000. A total of 40 groups, comprising 814 monkeys, was sighted, group size varying from 7 to 98 animals (mean ± SD = 20.35 ± 1.82. There was no significant change in the number of groups sighted in the interior parts of the islands before and after the tsunami, whilst the number of groups sighted in coastal areas was significantly lower after the tsunami. Also, the adults/juveniles ratio in the group varied from ca. 1:1 to 1:0.4. A fairly low ratio of immatures to adult females suggests that the tsunami also affected the population structure of the monkeys. The destruction of major coastal fruit-trees exploited by monkeys might be the reason for their lower presence in coastal areas. Future restoring of fruit plantations could enhance the human-wildlife conflict.

    Riassunto
    Impatto dello tsunami (Dicembre 2004 sul macaco delle Isole Nicobar, India
    La distribuzione e l’abbondanza di Macaca fascicularis umbrosa sulle Isole Nicobar (India sono state stimate tramite campionamenti standardizzati dopo lo tsunami che ha colpito l’intera regione nel 2004 e comparate a quelle ottenute nel 2000. Sono stati avvistati 40 gruppi, formati da 7 a 98 animali (media ± DS = 20.35 ± 1.82, per un totale di 814 macachi. Non sono state rilevate variazioni significative del numero di gruppi presenti nelle parti interne delle isole, mentre sono diminuiti i gruppi osservati nelle foreste costiere. Il rapporto tra adulti e giovani è variato da circa 1:1 a 1:0.4. In particolare, il basso numero di giovani per femmina adulta suggerisce che lo tsunami possa aver influito negativamente sulla struttura della popolazione. La distruzione

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-16-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-16-0005 ref|XP_001106072.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader...-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106137.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprint...oform 4 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106265.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 5 [Macaca mulatta] XP_001106072.1 1e-114 79% ... ...DICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a is...ed in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 3 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106204.1| PRE

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2632 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2632 ref|XP_001106072.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader...-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106137.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprint...oform 4 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106265.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 5 [Macaca mulatta] XP_001106072.1 1e-142 88% ... ...DICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a is...ed in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 3 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106204.1| PRE

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-15-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-15-0013 ref|XP_001106072.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader...-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106137.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprint...oform 4 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106265.1| PREDICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 5 [Macaca mulatta] XP_001106072.1 1e-115 79% ... ...DICTED: similar to non imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a is...ed in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 2 isoform a isoform 3 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001106204.1| PRE

  1. Two distinct gamma-2 herpesviruses in African green monkeys: a second gamma-2 herpesvirus lineage among old world primates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greensill, J.; Sheldon, J. A.; Renwick, N. M.; Beer, B. E.; Norley, S.; Goudsmit, J.; Schulz, T. F.

    2000-01-01

    Primate gamma-2 herpesviruses (rhadinoviruses) have so far been found in humans (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV], also called human herpesvirus 8), macaques (Macaca spp.) (rhesus rhadinovirus [RRV] and retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus [RFHV]), squirrel monkeys (Saimiri

  2. Visual Acuity and Its Dependence Upon Receptor Density and Retinal Ganglion Cell Receptive Field Overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    organization of retinal receptive fields in monkeys and cats has been used to model the information flow to the retina in relation to the psychophysical...EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Types of Animals Used Three types of monkeys were used in the present study, rhesus (Macaca mulatta), the Himalayan Macaque (Macaca...during the course of the program, although one died of Shigella infection. Attempts were made to trade the animals with local users in order to obtain

  3. The Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) of Plasmodium knowlesi from Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo show different binding activity level to human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Khai Lone; Amir, Amirah; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik

    2017-08-11

    The zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi is a major cause of human malaria in Malaysia. This parasite uses the Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) to interact with the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) receptor on human and macaque erythrocytes to initiate invasion. Previous studies on P. knowlesi have reported distinct Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo PkDBPαII haplotypes. In the present study, the differential binding activity of these haplotypes with human and macaque (Macaca fascicularis) erythrocytes was investigated. The PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo were expressed on the surface of COS-7 cells and tested with human and monkey erythrocytes, with and without anti-Fy6 (anti-Duffy) monoclonal antibody treatment. Binding activity level was determined by counting the number of rosettes formed between the transfected COS-7 cells and the erythrocytes. Anti-Fy6 treatment was shown to completely block the binding of human erythrocytes with the transfected COS-7 cells, thus verifying the specific binding of human DARC with PkDBPαII. Interestingly, the PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysia displayed a higher binding activity with human erythrocytes when compared with the Malaysian Borneo PkDBPαII haplotype (mean number of rosettes formed = 156.89 ± 6.62 and 46.00 ± 3.57, respectively; P < 0.0001). However, no difference in binding activity level was seen in the binding assay using M. fascicularis erythrocytes. This study is the first report of phenotypic difference between PkDBPαII haplotypes. The biological implication of this finding is yet to be determined. Therefore, further studies need to be carried out to determine whether this differential binding level can be associated with severity of knowlesi malaria in human.

  4. Non-clinical immuno-toxicological evaluation of HER1 cancer vaccine in non-human primates: a 12-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, Ana M Bada; Rivero, Arianna Iglesias; Goñi, Avelina León; Navarro, Bárbara O González; Angarica, Meilis Mesa; Ramírez, Belinda Sánchez; Bedoya, Darel Martínez; Triana, Consuelo González; Rodríguez, Axel Mancebo; Parada, Ángel Casacó

    2012-12-17

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1) constitutes a tumor associated antigen. Its overexpression in many epithelial tumors has been associated with bad prognosis and poor survival. Cancer vaccine based on the extracellular domain (ECD) of HER1 and adjuvated in very small sized proteoliposomes (VSSP) and Montanide ISA 51-VG is a new and complementary approach for the treatment of epithelial tumors. The present study deals with the immunogenicity of this vaccine in Macaca fascicularis monkeys and evaluation of its toxicity during 12 months. Twelve monkeys were randomized into two groups of 3 animals per sex: control and vaccinated. Treated monkeys received 9 doses of vaccination and were daily inspected for clinical signs. Body weight, rectal temperature, cardiac and respiratory rates were measured during the study. Humoral immune response, clinical pathology parameters and delayed type hypensensitivity were analyzed. Skin biopsy was performed at the end of the study in all animals. Animal's survival in the study was 100% (n=12). Local reactions were observed at the administration site of four treated animals (n=6), with two showing slight inflammatory cutaneous damage. Clinical pathology parameters were not affected. HER1 vaccine induced high IgG antibodies titers in the treated animals even when DTH was not observed. The induced antibodies recognized HER1+ tumor cell lines, decreased HER1 phosphorylation and showed anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in H125 cells. In general the present study showed that HER1 vaccine induced specific immune response in M. fascicularis monkeys and was well tolerated, suggesting it could be safely used in clinical studies in epithelial cancer patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Compositionality in Neural Control:An Interdisciplinary Study of Scribbling Movements in Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe eAbeles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the compositional structure of hand movements by analyzing and modeling neural and behavioral data obtained from experiments where a monkey (Macaca fascicularis performed scribbling movements induced by a search task. Using geometrically based approaches to movement segmentation, it is shown that the hand trajectories are composed of elementary segments that are primarily parabolic in shape. The segments could be categorized into a small number of classes on the basis of decreasing intra-class variance over the course of training. A separate classification of the neural data employing a hidden Markov model showed a coincidence of the neural states with the behavioral categories. An additional analysis of both types of data by a data mining method provided evidence that the neural activity patterns underlying the behavioral primitives were formed by sets of specific and precise spike patterns. A geometric description of the movement trajectories, together with precise neural timing data indicates a compositional variant of a realistic synfire chain model. This model reproduces the typical shapes and temporal properties of the trajectories; hence the structure and composition of the primitives may reflect meaningful behavior.

  6. Alterations to DNA methylation and expression of CXCL14 are associated with suboptimal birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Clara Y; Chng, Keefe; Lim, Mei Kee; Amrithraj, Ajith I; Joseph, Roy; Sukarieh, Rami; Chee Tan, Yong; Chan, Louiza; Tan, Jun Hao; Chen, Li; Pan, Hong; Holbrook, Joanna D; Meaney, Michael J; Seng Chong, Yap; Gluckman, Peter D; Stünkel, Walter

    2014-09-01

    CXCL14 is a chemokine that has previously been implicated in insulin resistance in mice. In humans, the role of CXCL14 in metabolic processes is not well established, and we sought to determine whether CXCL14 is a risk susceptibility gene important in fetal programming of metabolic disease. For this purpose, we investigated whether CXCL14 is differentially regulated in human umbilical cords of infants with varying birth weights. We found an elevated expression of CXCL14 in human low birth weight (LBW) cords, as well as in cords from nutritionally restricted Macaca fascicularis macaques. To further analyze the regulatory mechanisms underlying the expression of CXCL14, we examined CXCL14 in umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that provide an in vitro cell-based system amenable to experimental manipulation. Using both whole frozen cords and MSCs, we determined that site-specific CpG methylation in the CXCL14 promoter is associated with altered expression, and that changes in methylation are evident in LBW infant-derived umbilical cords that may indicate future metabolic compromise through CXCL14.

  7. Discovery of a Cynomolgus Monkey Family With Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nishiguchi, Koji M; Miya, Fuyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Funatsu, Jun; Nakatake, Shunji; Fujiwara, Kohta; Tachibana, Takashi; Murakami, Yusuke; Hisatomi, Toshio; Yoshida, Shigeo; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Nakazawa, Toru; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2018-02-01

    To accelerate the development of new therapies, an inherited retinal degeneration model in a nonhuman primate would be useful to confirm the efficacy in preclinical studies. In this study, we describe the discovery of retinitis pigmentosa in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) pedigree. First, screening with fundus photography was performed on 1443 monkeys at the Tsukuba Primate Research Center. Ophthalmic examinations, such as indirect ophthalmoscopy, ERGs using RETeval, and optic coherent tomography (OCT) measurement, were then performed to confirm diagnosis. Retinal degeneration with cystoid macular edema was observed in both eyes of one 14-year-old female monkey. In her examinations, the full-field ERGs were nonrecordable and the outer layer of the retina in the parafoveal area was not visible on OCT imaging. Moreover, less frequent pigmentary retinal anomalies also were observed in her 3-year-old nephew. His full-field ERGs were almost nonrecordable and the outer layer was not visible in the peripheral retina. His father was her cousin (the son of her mother's older brother) and his mother was her younger half-sibling sister with a different father. The hereditary nature is highly probable (autosomal recessive inheritance suspected). However, whole-exome analysis performed identified no pathogenic mutations in these monkeys.

  8. Effect of long-term treatment with steroid hormones or tamoxifen on the progesterone receptor and androgen receptor in the endometrium of ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cline J Mark

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The progesterone receptor (PR and androgen receptor (AR belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Two isoforms of PR (A and B have been identified with different functions. The expression of AR, each isoform of PR and their involvement in long-term effects on the endometrium after hormonal replacement therapy (HRT or tamoxifen (TAM treatment is not known. The aims of this study were to determine PR(A+B, PRB and AR distribution by immunohistochemistry in the macaque (Macaca fascicularis endometrium. Ovariectomized (OVX animals were orally treated continuously for 35 months with either conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; the combination of CEE/MPA; or TAM. Treatment with CEE/MPA tended to down-regulate PR in the superficial glands, but increased it in the stroma. TAM treatment increased both the PR and PRB levels in the stroma. Overall, less than 20% of the cells were positive for the PRB isoform and less variation was observed after steroid treatment. AR was found in the stroma, mainly distributed in the basal layer of the endometrium in the OVX and steroid treated groups, but was absent in the TAM treated group. No AR was found in the glandular epithelium. The present data show that long-term hormone treatment affects the PR level, and also the ratio between PRA and PRB in the endometrium.

  9. The Resin-Embedded Cornea Prepared Via Rapid Processing Protocol : A Good Histomorphometric Target for Clinical Investigation in Ophthalmology and Optometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Pike See; Mohidin, Norhani; Mohd Ali, Bariah; Maung, Myint; Latif, Azian Abdul

    2008-01-01

    This study illustrates and quantifies the changes on corneal tissue between the paraffin-embedded and resin-embedded blocks and thus, selects a better target in investigational ophthalmology and optometry via light microscopy. Corneas of two cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were used in this study. The formalin-fixed cornea was prepared in paraffin block via the conventional tissue processing protocol (4-day protocol) and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The glutaraldehyde-fixed cornea was prepared in resin block via the rapid and modified tissue processing procedure (1.2-day protocol) and stained with toluidine blue. The paraffin-embedded sample exhibits various undesired tissue damage and artifact such as thinner epithelium (due to the substantial volumic extraction from the tissue), thicker stroma layer (due to the separation of lamellae and the presence of voids) and the distorted endothelium. In contrast, the resin-embedded corneal tissue has demonstrated satisfactory corneal ultrastructural preservation. The rapid and modified tissue processing method for preparing the resin-embedded is particularly beneficial to accelerate the microscopic evaluation in ophthalmology and optometry. PMID:22570589

  10. Induction and inhibition of cytochrome P450 1A1 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in cynomolgus monkey primary hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.; Sanderson, J.T.; Berg, M. van den [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences; Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) make up for 39% of the worldwide flame-retardants market. One groups of BFR, Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flameretardants in plastic materials, paints, and textile fabrics. Some PBDEs have been found to be lipophilic and persistent, and consequently bioaccumulate. Recently, levels of some PBDEs have been increasing in fish, wildlife, and in human tissue. The structural similarity of certain PBDE congeners to other polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has raised concerns that these compounds might act as agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). If some of these PBDEs were to act as Ah receptor agonists, they would warrant inclusion in the toxic equivalence factor (TEF) concept. CYP1A1 is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme that is involved in phase 1 biotransformation of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds such as estrogens. Many CYP enzymes detoxify xenobiotics or bioactivate xenobiotics to reactive intermediates. Although CYP1A1 is expressed in all mammals, there are differences in expression levels among species and tissues. To study the possible dioxin-like effects of environmentally most relevant PBDEs (BDE47, 77, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 209), the Ah receptor-mediated induction CYP1A1 was studied in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) primary hepatocytes. CYP 1A1 is the major enzyme that catalyses the deethylation of 7-ethoxyresorufin to resorufin. This ethoxyresorufin-Odeethylation (EROD) activity was used as a marker for CYP1A1 activity.

  11. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  12. Correlation between the concentration of serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys and their offspring's behavioral scores in eye-contact test and finger maze learning test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negishi, T. [Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Takasuga, T. [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Kawasaki, K. [Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Kuroda, Y. [CREST Japan Science and Technology Corp., Saitama (Japan); Yoshikawa, Y. [The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    A recent review suggested that pre- or perinatal exposure of developing fetuses to dioxins, the widespread environmental contaminants, such as polychrorinated biphenlys (PCBs), induce the irreversible abnormalities in the functions of central nervous system (CNS) in human. These chemicals can be transferred to each fetus and naonate transplacentally and lactationally in rhesus monkey. Several studies also reported the adverse effect of PCB on CNS development in rodents and monkeys as well as on behavior in rodents and monkeys. In the present study, we show a preliminary data about the correlation between the serum concentrations of PCBs in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and the scores of two behavioral tests, eye-contact test and four-step finger maze test, which evaluate consciousness against human observer and learning ability, respectively, in their offspring. This experimental surveillance system using non-human primates would be useful to predict the risk of PCBs exposure in human fetuses because of the similarities of cynomolgus monkey to human with regard to reproduction, developmental parameter, and others.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging and peripheral blood abnormalities in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, L.M.; Alvord, E.C. Jr.; Richards, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in twelve cynomologous macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by sensitization to autologous myelin basic protein (BP) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The white blood cell (WBC) count, absolute number of lymphocytes and absolute numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell subsets were measured weekly. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the animals were monitored twice weekly for the development of central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Conventional spin-warp imaging was performed using a General Electric CSI-II NMR imager/spectrometer (2 Tesla magnet). CNS lesions were detected by MRI in all of the animals sensitized to myelin BP. Longitudinal analysis of their peripheral blood leukocytes revealed a progressive leukocytosis and lymphopenia, which always preceded the onset of clinical signs and almost always also preceded the formation of detectable CNS lesions. These results suggest that frequent analysis of T-cell subsets may provide a more accurate means of predicting episodes of disease activity than clinical or MRI evaluation

  14. Review of sarcocystosis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, S P; Pathmanathan, R

    1991-12-01

    Sarcocystis is a tissue coccidian with an obligatory two-host life cycle. The sexual generations of gametogony and sporogony occur in the lamina propria of the small intestine of definitive hosts which shed infective sporocysts in their stools and present with intestinal sarcocystosis. Asexual multiplication occurs in the skeletal and cardiac muscles of intermediate hosts which harbor Sarcocystis cysts in their muscles and present with muscular sarcocystosis. In Malaysia, Sarcocystis cysts have been reported from many domestic and wild animals, including domestic and field rats, moonrats, bandicoots, slow loris, buffalo, and monkey, and man. The known definitive hosts for some species of Sarcocystis are the domestic cat, dog and the reticulated python. Human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia is a zoonotic infection acquired by contamination of food or drink with sporocysts shed by definitive hosts. The cysts reported in human muscle resembled those seen in the moonrat, Echinosorex gymnurus, and the long-tailed monkey, Macaca fascicularis. While human intestinal sarcocystosis has not been reported in Malaysia so far, it can be assumed that such cases may not be infrequent in view of the occurrence of Sarcocystis cysts in meat animals, such as buffalo. The overall seroprevalence of 19.8% reported among the main racial groups in Malaysia indicates that sarcocystosis (both the intestinal and muscular forms) may be emerging as a significant food-borne zoonotic infection in the country.

  15. Dose-response relations for dicentric yields in G0 lymphocytes of man and crab-eating monkey following acute and chronic γ-irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, E.; Hirai, M.; Tobari, I.; Nakai, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison has been made of dicentric yields in G 0 lymphocytes between man and crab-eating monkey, Macaca fascicularis, after acute and chronic γ-irradiations. With acute irradiation (49.6 rad/min) there was no significant difference between them, but for the chronic irradiation (17.1 rad/h) a significant difference was observed between the species. When the dose-response relations were fitted to the linear-quadratic model (Y = αD + βD 2 ), the species-difference observed for chronic irradiation was almost entirely due to change in the value of β. In addition, after chronic irradiation the β-value for monkey was almost negligible, but that for man was significant. Post-irradiation incubation experiment showed that cells with dicentrics were partly eliminated during the course of chronic irradiation, because there were appreciable reductions of dicentric yields (ca. 25% for both man and monkey at 400 rad) together with mitotic indices (ca. 30% and 60% for man and monkey, respectively, at 400 rad). Accordingly, it would be reasonable to postulate that G 0 repair for dicentrics other than selection mechanism must play a major role in the effects of low dose rate. It can be further suggested that G 0 -repair capacity for chromosal damages leading to dicentrics may be different among different primate species. (Auth.)

  16. Longitudinal changes in reproductive hormones and menstrual cyclicity in cynomolgus monkeys during strenuous exercise training: abrupt transition to exercise-induced amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N I; Caston-Balderrama, A L; Helmreich, D L; Parfitt, D B; Nosbisch, C; Cameron, J L

    2001-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction have documented a high proportion of menstrual cycle disturbances in women involved in strenuous exercise training. However, longitudinal studies have been needed to examine individual susceptibility to exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and to elucidate the progression of changes in reproductive function that occur with strenuous exercise training. Using the female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), we documented changes in menstrual cyclicity and patterns of LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone secretion as the animals developed exercise-induced amenorrhea. As monkeys gradually increased running to 12.3 +/- 0.9 km/day, body weight did not change significantly although food intake remained constant. The time spent training until amenorrhea developed varied widely among animals (7-24 months; mean = 14.3 +/- 2.2 months) and was not correlated with initial body weight, training distance, or food intake. Consistent changes in function of the reproductive axis occurred abruptly, one to two menstrual cycles before the development of amenorrhea. These included significant declines in plasma reproductive hormone concentrations, an increase in follicular phase length, and a decrease in luteal phase progesterone secretion. These data document a high level of interindividual variability in the development of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction, delineate the progression of changes in reproductive hormone secretion that occur with exercise training, and illustrate an abrupt transition from normal cyclicity to an amenorrheic state in exercising individuals, that is not necessarily associated with weight loss.

  17. Evidence for a causal role of low energy availability in the induction of menstrual cycle disturbances during strenuous exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N I; Helmreich, D L; Parfitt, D B; Caston-Balderrama, A; Cameron, J L

    2001-11-01

    Cross-sectional and short-term prospective studies in humans support the concept that low energy availability, and not other factors associated with exercise, causes the development of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction. To rigorously test this hypothesis, we performed a longitudinal study, examining the role of low energy availability on both the development and the reversal of exercise-induced amenorrhea, using a monkey model (Macaca fascicularis). Eight adult female monkeys developed amenorrhea (defined as absence of menses for at least 100 d, with low and unchanging concentrations of LH, FSH, E2, and P4) after gradually increasing their daily exercise to 12.3 +/- 0.9 km/d of running over a 7- to 24-month period. Food intake remained constant during exercise training. To test whether amenorrhea is caused by low energy availability, four of the eight amenorrheic monkeys were provided with supplemental calories (138-181% of calorie intake during amenorrhea) while they maintained their daily training. All four monkeys exhibited increased reproductive hormone levels and reestablished ovulatory cycles, with recovery times for circulating gonadotropin levels ranging from 12-57 d from the initiation of supplemental feeding. The rapidity of recovery within the reproductive axis in a given monkey was directly related to the amount of energy that was consumed during the period of supplemental feeding (r = -0.97; P amenorrhea (P exercise-induced amenorrhea.

  18. Influence of immediate loading on provisional restoration in dental implant stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikbal, M.; Odang, R. W.; Indrasari, M.; Dewi, R. S.

    2017-08-01

    The success of dental implant treatment is determined by the primary stability at placement. One factor that could influence this stability is occlusal loading through provisional restoration. Two types of loading protocols are usually used: immediate and delayed loading. However, some controversies remain about the influence of occlusal loading on implant stability. Therefore, the influence of immediate loading on implant stability must be studied. An animal study was conducted by placing nine dental implants in the mandibular jaw of three Macaca fascicularis. Provisional restorations with various occlusal contacts (no, light, and normal contact) were placed on the implant. The implant stability was measured using the Ostell ISQ three times: immediately (baseline) and at the first and second months after implant placement. The implant stability between implants with no and normal occlusal contact as well as light and normal occlusal contact showed significant differences (p implant placement. However, no significant increase (p > 0.05) in implant stability was seen at the baseline and the first and second months after implant placement for all occlusal contact groups. Immediate loading influenced the implant stability, and provisional restoration of implant without occlusal contact showed the highest implant stability.

  19. Utah optrode array customization using stereotactic brain atlases and 3-D CAD modeling for optogenetic neocortical interrogation in small rodents and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, Ronald W; Merlin, Sam; Yona, Guy; Griffiths, Brandon; Angelucci, Alessandra; Kahn, Itamar; Shoham, Shy; Blair, Steve

    2017-10-01

    As the optogenetic field expands, the need for precise targeting of neocortical circuits only grows more crucial. This work demonstrates a technique for using Solidworks ® computer-aided design (CAD) and readily available stereotactic brain atlases to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the dorsal region of area visual cortex 4 (V4D) of the macaque monkey ( Macaca fascicularis ) visual cortex. The 3-D CAD model of the brain was used to customize an [Formula: see text] Utah optrode array (UOA) after it was determined that a high-density ([Formula: see text]) UOA caused extensive damage to marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) primary visual cortex as assessed by electrophysiological recording of spiking activity through a 1.5-mm-diameter through glass via. The [Formula: see text] UOA was customized for optrode length ([Formula: see text]), optrode width ([Formula: see text]), optrode pitch ([Formula: see text]), backplane thickness ([Formula: see text]), and overall form factor ([Formula: see text]). Two [Formula: see text] UOAs were inserted into layer VI of macaque V4D cortices with minimal damage as assessed in fixed tissue cytochrome oxidase staining in nonrecoverable surgeries. Additionally, two [Formula: see text] arrays were implanted in mice ( Mus musculus ) motor cortices, providing early evidence for long-term tolerability (over 6 months), and for the ability to integrate the UOA with a Holobundle light delivery system toward patterned optogenetic stimulation of cortical networks.

  20. Sex and the stimulus-movement effect: Differences in acquisition of autoshaped responding in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nathaniel C; Makar, Jennifer R; Myers, Todd M

    2017-03-15

    The stimulus-movement effect refers to the phenomenon in which stimulus discrimination or acquisition of a response is facilitated by moving stimuli as opposed to stationary stimuli. The effect has been found in monkeys, rats, and humans, but the experiments conducted did not provide adequate female representation to investigate potential sex differences. The current experiment analyzed acquisition of stimulus touching in a progressive series of classical conditioning procedures in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) as a function of sex and stimulus movement. Classical conditioning tasks arrange two or more stimuli in relation to each other with different temporal and predictive relations. Autoshaping procedures overlay operant contingencies onto a classical-conditioning stimulus arrangement. In the present case, a neutral stimulus (a small gray square displayed on a touchscreen) functioned as the conditional stimulus and a food pellet functioned as the unconditional stimulus. Although touching is not required to produce food, with repeated stimulus pairings subjects eventually touch the stimulus. Across conditions of increasing stimulus correlation and temporal contiguity, male monkeys acquired the response faster with a moving stimulus. In contrast, females acquired the response faster with a stationary stimulus. These results demonstrate that the stimulus-movement effect may be differentially affected by sex and indicate that additional experiments with females are needed to determine how sex interacts with behavioral phenomena discovered and elaborated almost exclusively using males. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Adult carrion arthropod community in a tropical rainforest of Malaysia: analysis on three common forensic entomology animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Nina Keterina, H; Owen, L C; Nurizzati, M D; Omar, B

    2013-09-01

    Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (pforensic cases in Malaysia.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of a 13-mer LNA-inhibitor-miR-221 in Mice and Non-human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Gallo Cantafio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Locked nucleic acid (LNA oligonucleotides have been successfully used to efficiently inhibit endogenous small noncoding RNAs in vitro and in vivo. We previously demonstrated that the direct miR-221 inhibition by the novel 13-mer LNA-i-miR-221 induces significant antimyeloma activity and upregulates canonical miR-221 targets in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate the LNA-i-miR-221 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, novel assays for oligonucleotides quantification in NOD.SCID mice and Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis plasma, urine and tissues were developed. To this aim, a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method, after solid-phase extraction, was used for the detection of LNA-i-miR-221 in plasma and urine, while a specific in situ hybridization assay for tissue uptake analysis was designed. Our analysis revealed short half-life, optimal tissue biovailability and minimal urine excretion of LNA-i-miR-221 in mice and monkeys. Up to 3 weeks, LNA-i-miR-221 was still detectable in mice vital organs and in xenografted tumors, together with p27 target upregulation. Importantly, no toxicity in the pilot monkey study was observed. Overall, our findings indicate the suitability of LNA-i-miR-221 for clinical use and we provide here pilot data for safety analysis and further development of LNA-miRNA-based therapeutics for human cancer.

  3. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes from man and crab-eating monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, E.; Hirai, M.; Tobari, I.; Utsugi, T.; Nakai, S.

    1982-01-01

    To obtain information on the relation between yield of chromosome aberrations and dose at low-dose levels, experiments were conducted with 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 rad of 137 Cs γ-rays, on lymphocytes from man and crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis). The dose-response relationship for dicentrics was obtained from the combined data of these low-dose experiments with those of our previous ones at high doses (100-400 rad). When the difference between observed yields and those expected from the linear-quadratic model were computed, the dose-response curve had a good fit for man, but not for the monkey. The linear regression lines between 0 and 30 rad were calculated, because the expected values of α/β for man and monkey would be about 100 and 60 rad. The human data gave a satisfactory fit to a linear model, i.e., a linear increase in aberration frequency with dose, whereas this was not so for those of the monkey. Furthermore, there was some suggestive evidence for the existence of a plateau in dicentric yields between 10 and 30 rad for the monkey and between 20 and 30 rad for human lymphocytes, but more data would be needed to verify this suggestion, particularly for human lymphocytes. (orig.)

  4. Information processing architecture of functionally defined clusters in the macaque cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kelly; Bezgin, Gleb; Hutchison, R Matthew; Gati, Joseph S; Menon, Ravi S; Everling, Stefan; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2012-11-28

    Computational and empirical neuroimaging studies have suggested that the anatomical connections between brain regions primarily constrain their functional interactions. Given that the large-scale organization of functional networks is determined by the temporal relationships between brain regions, the structural limitations may extend to the global characteristics of functional networks. Here, we explored the extent to which the functional network community structure is determined by the underlying anatomical architecture. We directly compared macaque (Macaca fascicularis) functional connectivity (FC) assessed using spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) to directed anatomical connectivity derived from macaque axonal tract tracing studies. Consistent with previous reports, FC increased with increasing strength of anatomical connection, and FC was also present between regions that had no direct anatomical connection. We observed moderate similarity between the FC of each region and its anatomical connectivity. Notably, anatomical connectivity patterns, as described by structural motifs, were different within and across functional modules: partitioning of the functional network was supported by dense bidirectional anatomical connections within clusters and unidirectional connections between clusters. Together, our data directly demonstrate that the FC patterns observed in resting-state BOLD-fMRI are dictated by the underlying neuroanatomical architecture. Importantly, we show how this architecture contributes to the global organizational principles of both functional specialization and integration.

  5. Human behavior and opportunities for parasite transmission in communities surrounding long-tailed macaque populations in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-DeGraaf, Kelly E; Putra, I G A Arta; Wandia, I Nengah; Rompis, Aida; Hollocher, Hope; Fuentes, Agustin

    2014-02-01

    Spatial overlap and shared resources between humans and wildlife can exacerbate parasite transmission dynamics. In Bali, Indonesia, an agricultural-religious temple system provides sanctuaries for long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), concentrating them in areas in close proximity to humans. In this study, we interviewed individuals in communities surrounding 13 macaque populations about their willingness to participate in behaviors that would put them at risk of exposure to gastrointestinal parasites to understand if age, education level, or occupation are significant determinants of exposure behaviors. These exposure risk behaviors and attitudes include fear of macaques, direct contact with macaques, owning pet macaques, hunting and eating macaques, and overlapping water uses. We find that willingness to participate in exposure risk behaviors are correlated with an individual's occupation, age, and/or education level. We also found that because the actual risk of infection varies across populations, activities such as direct macaque contact and pet ownership, could be putting individuals at real risk in certain contexts. Thus, we show that human demographics and social structure can influence willingness to participate in behaviors putting them at increased risk for exposure to parasites. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparative community-level associations of helminth infections and microparasite shedding in wild long-tailed macaques in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Justin J S; Lane-Degraaf, Kelly E; Fuentes, Agustin; Hollocher, Hope

    2015-03-01

    Helminthes have the capacity to modulate host immunity, leading to positive interactions with coinfecting microparasites. This phenomenon has been primarily studied during coinfections with a narrow range of geo-helminthes and intracellular microparasites in human populations or under laboratory conditions. Far less is known regarding differences in coinfection dynamics between helminth types, the range of microparasites that might be affected or the overall community-level effects of helminth infections on microparasites in wild systems. Here, we analysed the presence/absence and abundance patterns of enteric parasites in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) on the island of Bali, Indonesia, to assess whether naturally occurring helminth infections were associated with increased shedding of the most common intracellular (Cryptosporidium spp., Isospora spp.) and extracellular (Entamoeba spp., Giardia spp.) microparasites. We also comparatively assessed the statistical correlations of different helminth taxa with microparasite shedding to determine if there were consistent relationships between the specific helminth taxa and microparasites. Helminth infections were associated with increased shedding of both intracellular and extracellular microparasites. Platyhelminthes repeatedly displayed strong positive correlations with several microparasites; while nematodes did not. Our results indicate that helminthes can influence microparasite community shedding dynamics under wild conditions, but that trends may be driven by a narrow range of helminthes.

  7. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, G.N.; O' Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.

    1988-06-01

    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease.

  8. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, G.N.; O'Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease

  9. Network structure shapes spontaneous functional connectivity dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kelly; Hutchison, R Matthew; Bezgin, Gleb; Everling, Stefan; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2015-04-08

    The structural organization of the brain constrains the range of interactions between different regions and shapes ongoing information processing. Therefore, it is expected that large-scale dynamic functional connectivity (FC) patterns, a surrogate measure of coordination between brain regions, will be closely tied to the fiber pathways that form the underlying structural network. Here, we empirically examined the influence of network structure on FC dynamics by comparing resting-state FC (rsFC) obtained using BOLD-fMRI in macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to structural connectivity derived from macaque axonal tract tracing studies. Consistent with predictions from simulation studies, the correspondence between rsFC and structural connectivity increased as the sample duration increased. Regions with reciprocal structural connections showed the most stable rsFC across time. The data suggest that the transient nature of FC is in part dependent on direct underlying structural connections, but also that dynamic coordination can occur via polysynaptic pathways. Temporal stability was found to be dependent on structural topology, with functional connections within the rich-club core exhibiting the greatest stability over time. We discuss these findings in light of highly variable functional hubs. The results further elucidate how large-scale dynamic functional coordination exists within a fixed structural architecture. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355579-10$15.00/0.

  10. The Effect of Short Moderate Stress on the Midbrain CRF System in a Macaque Model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Phu, Kenny; Reddy, Arubala P; Cameron, Judy L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of moderate stress on CRF components in the serotonergic midbrain region in a monkey model of FHA. Design After characterization of stress sensitivity, monkeys were moved to a novel room and given 20% less chow for 5 days prior to euthanasia. Setting University of Pittsburgh nonhuman primate facility. Animals Female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) characterized as highly stress resilient (HSR, n=5), medium stress resilient (MSR, N=4) or stress sensitive (SS, n=4). Intervention 5 days of diet in a novel room with unfamiliar conspecifics. Main Outcome Measures Density of CRF axons in the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus; the number of UCN1 cells; the density of UCN1 axons; the expression of CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Results CRF innervation was higher in HSR than SS animals; UCN1 cell number was higher in HSR than SS animals and UCN1 axon bouton density was not different, all opposite of non-stressed animals. CRF-R1 was not different between the sensitivity groups, but CRF-R2 was higher in HSR than SS animals. The relative expression of CRF-R1 and R2 was similar to non-stressed animals. Conclusions HSR animals respond to stress with an increase in CRF delivery to serotonin neurons. With stress, UCN1 transport decreases in HSR animals. CRF receptor expression was similar with or without stress. These changes may contribute to resilience in HSR animals. PMID:23849846

  11. Hearing in action; auditory properties of neurones in the red nucleus of alert primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Murray Lovell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The response of neurones in the Red Nucleus pars magnocellularis (RNm to both tone bursts and electrical stimulation were observed in three cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, in a series of studies primarily designed to characterise the influence of the dopaminergic ventral midbrain on auditory processing. Compared to its role in motor behaviour, little is known about the sensory response properties of neurons in the red nucleus; particularly those concerning the auditory modality. Sites in the RN were recognised by observing electrically evoked body movements characteristic for this deep brain structure. In this study we applied brief monopolar electrical stimulation to 118 deep brain sites at a maximum intensity of 200 µA, thus evoking minimal body movements. Auditory sensitivity of RN neurons was analysed more thoroughly at 15 sites, with the majority exhibiting broad tuning curves and phase locking up to 1.03 kHz. Since the RN appears to receive inputs from a very early stage of the ascending auditory system, our results suggest that sounds can modify the motor control exerted by this brain nucleus. At selected locations, we also tested for the presence of functional connections between the RN and the auditory cortex by inserting additional microelectrodes into the auditory cortex and investigating how action potentials and local field potentials were affected by electrical stimulation of the RN.

  12. Therapeutic effects of arotinolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, on tremor in MPTP-induced parkinsonian monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, S; Mizuta, E; Nishida, J; Takechi, M

    1992-10-01

    The effect of arotinolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic-blocking agent, on postural or kinetic tremor was studied in monkeys with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism. Male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated with three injections of MPTP hydrochloride (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.) at an interval of 3-4 days, followed by several injections of the same dose every 7 days. Four monkeys with persistent parkinsonian symptoms manifested for greater than 1 year were used. The animals developed mild to moderate degrees of postural or kinetic tremor, and their motor activity was reduced. Arotinolol (20-30 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly suppressed postural tremor in a dose-dependent manner. Propranolol (20-30 mg/kg) was also effective in suppressing the tremor. However, the application of propranolol induced emesis, whereas arotinolol had no adverse effects. These results suggest that arotinolol is a useful adjunct to dopaminergic therapy for tremor in Parkinson's disease.

  13. Prenatal methylmercury exposure affects spatial vision in adult monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbacher, Thomas M.; Grant, Kimberly S.; Mayfield, David B.; Gilbert, Steven G.; Rice, Deborah C.

    2005-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, can have both early and long-term neurobehavioral consequences in exposed offspring. The present study assessed visual functioning in adult macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) exposed in utero to 0, 50, 70, or 90 μg/kg/day of MeHg hydroxide. Twenty-one full-term, normal birth weight offspring (9 controls, 12 exposed) were tested at approximately 11-14.5 years of age on a visual contrast sensitivity task. A forced-choice tracking procedure was utilized with spatial frequencies of 1, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle. On each test session, a single spatial frequency was presented across five levels of contrast, each differing by 3 dB. Methylmercury-exposed monkeys exhibited reduced contrast sensitivity thresholds, particularly at the higher spatial frequencies. The degree of visual impairment was not related to MeHg body burden or clearance and almost half of the exposed animals were unimpaired. The results from this study demonstrate that chronic in utero MeHg exposure, at subclinical levels, is associated with permanent adverse effects on spatial vision in adult monkeys

  14. Functional genomics highlights differential induction of antiviral pathways in the lungs of SARS-CoV-infected macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna de Lang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV is likely mediated by disproportional immune responses and the ability of the virus to circumvent innate immunity. Using functional genomics, we analyzed early host responses to SARS-CoV infection in the lungs of adolescent cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis that show lung pathology similar to that observed in human adults with SARS. Analysis of gene signatures revealed induction of a strong innate immune response characterized by the stimulation of various cytokine and chemokine genes, including interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10, which corresponds to the host response seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome. As opposed to many in vitro experiments, SARS-CoV induced a wide range of type I interferons (IFNs and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in the lungs of macaques. Using immunohistochemistry, we revealed that these antiviral signaling pathways were differentially regulated in distinctive subsets of cells. Our studies emphasize that the induction of early IFN signaling may be critical to confer protection against SARS-CoV infection and highlight the strength of combining functional genomics with immunohistochemistry to further unravel the pathogenesis of SARS.

  15. TALEN-based generation of a cynomolgus monkey disease model for human microcephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Qiong; Li, Weiqiang; Lai, Xingqiang; Chen, Hong; Huang, Lihua; Kang, Zhuang; Li, Kai; Ren, Jie; Lin, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Haiqing; Huang, Weijun; Ma, Yunhan; Xu, Dongdong; Chen, Zheng; Song, Xinming; Lin, Xinyi; Zhuang, Min; Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Fengfeng; Xi, Jianzhong; Mao, Frank Fuxiang; Xia, Huimin; Lahn, Bruce T; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Shihua; Xiang, Andy Peng

    2016-01-01

    Gene editing in non-human primates may lead to valuable models for exploring the etiologies and therapeutic strategies of genetically based neurological disorders in humans. However, a monkey model of neurological disorders that closely mimics pathological and behavioral deficits in humans has not yet been successfully generated. Microcephalin 1 (MCPH1) is implicated in the evolution of the human brain, and MCPH1 mutation causes microcephaly accompanied by mental retardation. Here we generated a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) carrying biallelic MCPH1 mutations using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. The monkey recapitulated most of the important clinical features observed in patients, including marked reductions in head circumference, premature chromosome condensation (PCC), hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and upper limb spasticity. Moreover, overexpression of MCPH1 in mutated dermal fibroblasts rescued the PCC syndrome. This monkey model may help us elucidate the role of MCPH1 in the pathogenesis of human microcephaly and better understand the function of this protein in the evolution of primate brain size. PMID:27502025

  16. An Automated Motion Detection and Reward System for Animal Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brad; Lim, Audrey N; Heidbreder, Arnold F; Black, Kevin J

    2015-12-04

    A variety of approaches has been used to minimize head movement during functional brain imaging studies in awake laboratory animals. Many laboratories expend substantial effort and time training animals to remain essentially motionless during such studies. We could not locate an "off-the-shelf" automated training system that suited our needs.  We developed a time- and labor-saving automated system to train animals to hold still for extended periods of time. The system uses a personal computer and modest external hardware to provide stimulus cues, monitor movement using commercial video surveillance components, and dispense rewards. A custom computer program automatically increases the motionless duration required for rewards based on performance during the training session but allows changes during sessions. This system was used to train cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for awake neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The automated system saved the trainer substantial time, presented stimuli and rewards in a highly consistent manner, and automatically documented training sessions. We have limited data to prove the training system's success, drawn from the automated records during training sessions, but we believe others may find it useful. The system can be adapted to a range of behavioral training/recording activities for research or commercial applications, and the software is freely available for non-commercial use.

  17. Characterization of 47 MHC class I sequences in Filipino cynomolgus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kevin J.; Detmer, Ann M.; Karl, Julie A.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Blasky, Alex J.; Hughes, Austin L.; Bimber, Benjamin N.; O’Connor, Shelby L.; O’Connor, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) provide increasingly common models for infectious disease research. Several geographically distinct populations of these macaques from Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius are available for pathogenesis studies. Though host genetics may profoundly impact results of such studies, similarities and differences between populations are often overlooked. In this study we identified 47 full-length MHC class I nucleotide sequences in 16 cynomolgus macaques of Filipino origin. The majority of MHC class I sequences characterized (39 of 47) were unique to this regional population. However, we discovered eight sequences with perfect identity and six sequences with close similarity to previously defined MHC class I sequences from other macaque populations. We identified two ancestral MHC haplotypes that appear to be shared between Filipino and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, notably a Mafa-B haplotype that has previously been shown to protect Mauritian cynomolgus macaques against challenge with a simian/human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV89.6P. We also identified a Filipino cynomolgus macaque MHC class I sequence for which the predicted protein sequence differs from Mamu-B*17 by a single amino acid. This is important because Mamu-B*17 is strongly associated with protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge in Indian rhesus macaques. These findings have implications for the evolutionary history of Filipino cynomolgus macaques as well as for the use of this model in SIV/SHIV research protocols. PMID:19107381

  18. First case of detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Spain by Real Time PCR in a traveller from Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo Eduardo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previously, Plasmodium knowlesi was not considered as a species of Plasmodium that could cause malaria in human beings, as it is parasite of long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis and pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina macaques found in Southeast Asia. A case of infection by P. knowlesi is described in a Spanish traveller, who came back to Spain with daily fever after his last overseas travel, which was a six-month holiday in forested areas of Southeast Asia between 2008 and 2009. His P. knowlesi infection was detected by multiplex Real time quantitative PCR and confirmed by sequencing the amplified fragment. Using nested multiplex malaria PCR (reference method in Spain and a rapid diagnostic test, the P. knowlesi infection was negative. This patient was discharged and asymptomatic when the positive result to P. knowlesi was reported. Prior to this case, there have been two more reports of European travellers with malaria caused by P. knowlesi, a Finnish man who travelled to Peninsular Malaysia during four weeks in March 2007, and a Swedish man who did a short visit to Malaysian Borneo in October 2006. Taken together with this report of P. knowlesi infection in a Spanish traveller returning from Southeast Asia, this is the third case of P. knowlesi infection in Europe, indicating that this simian parasite can infect visitors to endemic areas in Southeast Asia. This last European case is quite surprising, given that it is an untreated-symptomatic P. knowlesi in human, in contrast to what is currently known about P. knowlesi infection. Most previous reports of human P. knowlesi malaria infections were in adults, often with symptoms and relatively high parasite densities, up to the recent report in Ninh Thuan province, located in the southern part of central Vietnam, inhabited mainly by the Ra-glai ethnic minority, in which all P. knowlesi infections were asymptomatic, co-infected with P. malariae, with low parasite densities and two of the three

  19. Comparative sacral morphology and the reconstructed tail lengths of five extinct primates: Proconsul heseloni, Epipliopithecus vindobonensis, Archaeolemur edwardsi, Megaladapis grandidieri, and Palaeopropithecus kelyus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the morphology of the sacrum-the sole bony link between the tail or coccyx and the rest of the body-and tail length (including presence/absence) and function using a comparative sample of extant mammals spanning six orders (Primates, Carnivora, Rodentia, Diprotodontia, Pilosa, Scandentia; N = 472). Phylogenetically-informed regression methods were used to assess how tail length varied with respect to 11 external and internal (i.e., trabecular) bony sacral variables with known or suspected biomechanical significance across all mammals, only primates, and only non-primates. Sacral variables were also evaluated for primates assigned to tail categories ('tailless,' 'nonprehensile short-tailed,' 'nonprehensile long-tailed,' and 'prehensile-tailed'). Compared to primates with reduced tail lengths, primates with longer tails generally exhibited sacra having larger caudal neural openings than cranial neural openings, and last sacral vertebrae with more mediolaterally-expanded caudal articular surfaces than cranial articular surfaces, more laterally-expanded transverse processes, more dorsally-projecting spinous processes, and larger caudal articular surface areas. Observations were corroborated by the comparative sample, which showed that shorter-tailed (e.g., Lynx rufus [bobcat]) and longer-tailed (e.g., Acinonyx jubatus [cheetah]) non-primate mammals morphologically converge with shorter-tailed (e.g., Macaca nemestrina) and longer-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. 'Prehensile-tailed' primates exhibited last sacral vertebrae with more laterally-expanded transverse processes and greater caudal articular surface areas than 'nonprehensile long-tailed' primates. Internal sacral variables performed poorly compared to external sacral variables in analyses of extant primates, and were thus deemed less useful for making inferences concerning tail length and function in extinct primates. The tails lengths of

  20. First case of detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Spain by Real Time PCR in a traveller from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Tang Thuy-Huong; Salas, Ana; Ali-Tammam, Marwa; Martínez, María Del Carmen; Lanza, Marta; Arroyo, Eduardo; Rubio, Jose Miguel

    2010-07-27

    Previously, Plasmodium knowlesi was not considered as a species of Plasmodium that could cause malaria in human beings, as it is parasite of long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis) and pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina) macaques found in Southeast Asia. A case of infection by P. knowlesi is described in a Spanish traveller, who came back to Spain with daily fever after his last overseas travel, which was a six-month holiday in forested areas of Southeast Asia between 2008 and 2009. His P. knowlesi infection was detected by multiplex Real time quantitative PCR and confirmed by sequencing the amplified fragment. Using nested multiplex malaria PCR (reference method in Spain) and a rapid diagnostic test, the P. knowlesi infection was negative. This patient was discharged and asymptomatic when the positive result to P. knowlesi was reported. Prior to this case, there have been two more reports of European travellers with malaria caused by P. knowlesi, a Finnish man who travelled to Peninsular Malaysia during four weeks in March 2007, and a Swedish man who did a short visit to Malaysian Borneo in October 2006. Taken together with this report of P. knowlesi infection in a Spanish traveller returning from Southeast Asia, this is the third case of P. knowlesi infection in Europe, indicating that this simian parasite can infect visitors to endemic areas in Southeast Asia. This last European case is quite surprising, given that it is an untreated-symptomatic P. knowlesi in human, in contrast to what is currently known about P. knowlesi infection. Most previous reports of human P. knowlesi malaria infections were in adults, often with symptoms and relatively high parasite densities, up to the recent report in Ninh Thuan province, located in the southern part of central Vietnam, inhabited mainly by the Ra-glai ethnic minority, in which all P. knowlesi infections were asymptomatic, co-infected with P. malariae, with low parasite densities and two of the three identified cases were very

  1. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Porphyromonas spp. and Fusobacterium spp. in dogs with and without periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senhorinho, Gerusa N A; Nakano, Viviane; Liu, Chengxu; Song, Yuli; Finegold, Sydney M; Avila-Campos, Mario J

    2012-08-01

    The occurrence of Porphyromonas gulae, Porphyromonas macacae, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium canifelinum in subgingival plaque from dogs with and without periodontitis as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility were evaluated. From 50 dogs with periodontitis were identified 38 P. gulae, 8 P. macacae, 26 F. nucleatum and 15 F. canifelinum, and from 50 dogs without periodontitis were identified 15 P. gulae, 12 F. nucleatum and 11 F. canifelinum. All strains were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, however, different resistance rates to clarithromycin, erythromycin and metronidazole among strains were observed. The role of P. gulae, P. macacae, F. nucleatum and F. canifelinum in periodontal disease of household pets needs to be defined to a better prevention and treatment of the canine periodontitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14319-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ium discoideum cDNA clone:dda24i16, 3' ... 299 2e-77 1 ( DR934252 ) EST1125791 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquile...1.5 1 ( EB527188 ) 301633 Pigtailed macaque ovary library Macaca nem... 44 1.5 1 ( DY755095 ) 177840 Pigtailed macaque ovary library... Macaca nem... 44 1.5 1 ( DY753779 ) 179483 Pigtailed macaque ovary library Macaca n... anubis cDN... 44 1.5 1 ( EY285509 ) 1106514291549 03BABOON-C-01-1-3KB Papio anubis cD... 44 1.5 1 ( EU795295 ) Unculture...ve search space used: 26623730980 Neighboring words threshold: 12 Window for multiple hits: 40

  3. Radiographic measurement of the cardiothoracic ratio in pet macaques from Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Michael A. [Department of Social Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada)], E-mail: schillaci@utsc.utoronto.ca; Parish, Stephanie [Department of Social Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada); Jones-Engel, Lisa [National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, 1705 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The relative size of the heart, as measured by the cardiothoracic ratio, is often used as an index of ventricular hypertrophy-an important measure of myocardial pathophysiology in human primates. Despite its widespread use in human medicine, use of the cardiothoracic ratio in nonhuman primate veterinary medicine has been poorly documented. This report describes the results of our radiographic study of the cardiothoracic ratio in a sample of pet monkeys from Sulawesi, Indonesia. We assessed the effects of age and sex on cardiothoracic ratios, and compared our estimates with those presented in the literature for the Formosan macaque (Macaca cyclopis). Our results indicated a significant difference between the Sulawesi macaque species groupings in cardiothoracic ratios. Sex and age-related differences were not significant. Comparisons of cardiothoracic ratios with published ratios indicated similarity between M. cyclopis and Macaca nigra, but not between M. cyclopis and Macaca tonkeana.

  4. Radiographic measurement of the cardiothoracic ratio in pet macaques from Sulawesi, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Parish, Stephanie; Jones-Engel, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The relative size of the heart, as measured by the cardiothoracic ratio, is often used as an index of ventricular hypertrophy-an important measure of myocardial pathophysiology in human primates. Despite its widespread use in human medicine, use of the cardiothoracic ratio in nonhuman primate veterinary medicine has been poorly documented. This report describes the results of our radiographic study of the cardiothoracic ratio in a sample of pet monkeys from Sulawesi, Indonesia. We assessed the effects of age and sex on cardiothoracic ratios, and compared our estimates with those presented in the literature for the Formosan macaque (Macaca cyclopis). Our results indicated a significant difference between the Sulawesi macaque species groupings in cardiothoracic ratios. Sex and age-related differences were not significant. Comparisons of cardiothoracic ratios with published ratios indicated similarity between M. cyclopis and Macaca nigra, but not between M. cyclopis and Macaca tonkeana.

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0952 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0952 ref|NP_003851.1| barrier to autointegration factor 1 [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_892033.1| barrier to autointegration factor 1 [Bos taurus] ref|XP_854776.1| PREDICTED: similar to barrier to autointegratio...n factor 1 [Canis familiaris] ref|XP_001111817.1| PREDICTED: similar to barrier to autointegration...: similar to barrier to autointegration factor 1 isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001111884.1| PREDICTED: s...imilar to barrier to autointegration factor 1 isoform 3 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001111924.1| PREDICTED: similar to barrier to autoint

  6. Fc engineering of anti-Nectin-2 antibody improved thrombocytopenic adverse event in monkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Oshima

    Full Text Available Nectin-2 is a transmembrane glycoprotein which is involved in the process of Ca2+-independent cell-cell adhesion. In our previous study, we have demonstrated that Nectin-2 is over-expressed in breast and ovarian cancer tissues by using gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we discovered multiple anti-Nectin-2 fully human monoclonal antibodies which inhibited tumor growth in in vivo subcutaneous xenograft models with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC as the principal mechanism of action. In this report, we assessed the toxicity of Y-443, a fully human IgG1/kappa anti-Nectin-2 monoclonal antibody exhibiting strong in vitro ADCC and in vivo anti-tumor activity in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis (Cynos. Unexpectedly, upon administration, Y-443 induced strong thrombocytopenia through Nectin-2 expressed on Cyno platelets, presumably followed by phagocytosis in the mononuclear phagocytic system. To mitigate the adverse safety profile, we mutated the Fc region of Y-443 to reduce the Fc binding activity to Fcγ receptor I, which is the primary receptor for phagocytosis on macrophages. Moreover, we further engineered the Fc through defucosylation to maintain ADCC activity. The resultant Fc engineered antibody, termed Y-634, demonstrated diminished thrombocytopenia in Cyno toxicological studies and maintained anti-tumor activity in a mouse xenograft model. These findings suggest that Y-634 may have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of Nectin-2 positive cancers, and moreover, Fc engineering is a potential mitigation strategy to ameliorate safety liabilities in antibody induced thrombocytopenia while maintaining antibody potency.

  7. PET measurement of FK506 concentration in a monkey model of stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yoshihiro; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Noda, Akihiro; Osoda, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Shintaro

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The immunosuppressive agent FK506 (tacrolimus) has neuroprotective properties in an experimental model of cerebral ischemia. To improve the accuracy of clinical studies in acute stroke, a clinical dose setting should be based on the brain concentration, but not on the blood concentration of agents in humans. We have already established a measurement method using PET for FK506 concentration in the normal monkey brain, which could be applicable for human study; however, under ischemic conditions, in this study, we aimed to examine the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. Methods: Studies were performed on six male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model was used. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by an intravenous injection of [ 15 O]H 2 O 165 min after MCA occlusion. FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) containing [ 11 C]FK506 was intravenously injected into the monkeys 180 min after MCA occlusion, and dynamic PET images were acquired for 30 min after administration. FK506 concentrations in the brain were calculated in moles per liter (M) units using the specific activity of injected FK506. Results: MCA occlusion produced ischemia, confirmed by rCBF measurement before the administration of [ 11 C]FK506. Fifteen minutes after FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) administration, the concentrations in the contralateral and ipsilateral cortex were 22.4±6.4 and 19.7±4.0 ng/g, respectively. Conclusion: We successfully measured the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. The difference between the contralateral and ipsilateral concentrations of FK506 was not significant. This characteristic that FK506 readily penetrates ischemic tissue as well as normal tissue might explain the neuroprotective effect of FK506 in the ischemic brain and is suitable for the treatment of stroke patients

  8. Long-term blood glucose monitoring with implanted telemetry device in conscious and stress-free cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Sun, G; Qiao, W; Liu, Y; Qiao, J; Ye, W; Wang, H; Wang, X; Lindquist, R; Wang, Y; Xiao, Y-F

    2017-09-01

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring, especially long-term and remote, in diabetic patients or research is very challenging. Nonhuman primate (NHP) is an excellent model for metabolic research, because NHPs can naturally develop Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) similarly to humans. This study was to investigate blood glucose changes in conscious, moving-free cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during circadian, meal, stress and drug exposure. Blood glucose, body temperature and physical activities were continuously and simultaneously recorded by implanted HD-XG telemetry device for up to 10 weeks. Blood glucose circadian changes in normoglycemic monkeys significantly differed from that in diabetic animals. Postprandial glucose increase was more obvious after afternoon feeding. Moving a monkey from its housing cage to monkey chair increased blood glucose by 30% in both normoglycemic and diabetic monkeys. Such increase in blood glucose declined to the pre-procedure level in 30 min in normoglycemic animals and >2 h in diabetic monkeys. Oral gavage procedure alone caused hyperglycemia in both normoglycemic and diabetic monkeys. Intravenous injection with the stress hormones, angiotensin II (2 μg/kg) or norepinephrine (0.4 μg/kg), also increased blood glucose level by 30%. The glucose levels measured by the telemetry system correlated significantly well with glucometer readings during glucose tolerance tests (ivGTT or oGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), graded glucose infusion (GGI) and clamp. Our data demonstrate that the real-time telemetry method is reliable for monitoring blood glucose remotely and continuously in conscious, stress-free, and moving-free NHPs with the advantages highly valuable to diabetes research and drug discovery.

  9. Social inequalities in health in nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Shively

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall health has been linked to socioeconomic status, with the gap between social strata increasing each year. Studying the impact of social position on health and biological functioning in nonhuman primates has allowed researchers to model the human condition while avoiding ethical complexities or other difficulties characteristic of human studies. Using female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, our lab has examined the link between social status and stress for 30 years. Female nonhuman primates are especially sensitive to social stressors which can deleteriously affect reproductive health, leading to harmful consequences to their overall health. Subordinates have lower progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase of menstrual cycle, which is indicative of absence or impairment of ovulation. Subordinate animals receive more aggression, less affiliative attention, and are more likely to exhibit depressive behaviors. They also express higher stress-related biomarkers such as increased heart rates and lower mean cortisol. While no differences in body weight between dominant and subordinate animals are observed, subordinates have lower bone density and more visceral fat than their dominant counterparts. The latter increases risk for developing inflammatory diseases. Differences are also observed in neurological and autonomic function. A growing body of data suggests that diet composition may amplify or diminish physiological stress responses which have deleterious effects on health. More experimental investigation of the health effects of diet pattern is needed to further elucidate these differences in an ongoing search to find realistic and long-term solutions to the declining health of individuals living across the ever widening socioeconomic spectrum.

  10. Nectin-4 Interactions Govern Measles Virus Virulence in a New Model of Pathogenesis, the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeut, Sébastien; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Frenzke, Marie; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    In addition to humans, only certain nonhuman primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus ), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV. Compared to cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ) infected with the same virus, the squirrel monkeys developed more-severe immunosuppression, higher viral load, and a broader range of clinical signs typical for measles. In contrast, infection with an MeV unable to interact with the epithelial receptor nectin-4, while causing immunosuppression, resulted in only a mild and transient rash and a short-lived elevation of the body temperature. Similar titers of the wild-type and nectin-4-blind MeV were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node homogenates, but only the wild-type virus was found in tracheal lavage fluids and urine. Thus, our study demonstrates the importance of MeV interactions with nectin-4 for clinical disease in the new and better-performing S. sciureus model of measles pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE The characterization of mechanisms underlying measles virus clinical disease has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that reproduces the course of disease seen in human patients. Here, we report that infection of squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus ) fulfills these requirements. Comparative infection with wild-type and epithelial cell receptor-blind viruses demonstrated the importance of epithelial cell infection for clinical disease, highlighting the spread to epithelia as an attractive target for therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  11. Comparative biomechanical study between fresh frozen bone and fresh frozen pasteurized bone process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdiansyah Abdurrahman

    1999-01-01

    To observe the biomechanical properties difference between fresh frozen bone and fresh frozen pasteurized bone process Thirty eight femurs bones taken from 6 years old primate.(macaca fascicularis) from Primate Nursery Center LIPI Bogor, 20 bones were 6 cm cut for bending test and 18 remains were 3 cm cut for compression test. All bones were frozen and then divided into two groups for each biomechanical study. First group (I 0 bones for bending test and 9 bones for compression test) were undergone fresh frozen procession only. The second group with the same amount was undergone fresh frozen and pasteurized on 60 degree C for three hours. Bending test was done until the bones were broken on control group and pasteurized group and the result was compared, the same procedure was done for compression test. The study was done in room temperature. The biomechanical test result was analyzed by two independent T tests. The bending test control group has ( mean 0.097 N / mm sup 2 (SD = 0.007) and the pasteurized group ( mean 0. I 0 1 N / mm sup 2 (SD = 0.0 1 3), there was no significant difference (p 0.399). The compression test control group has ( = mean 0.71 N / mm sup 2 (SD=0.128)where as the pasteurized group has(mean 0.50N/mm sup 2 (SD=0.111),there was significant difference (p =0.004) From the result biomechanical study on bending test, there was no significant difference of bone strength, whereas on compression test the fresh frozen with pasteurized bone group is 125% stronger than control group. The result of this study will be very useful for reconstruction bone allograft

  12. Expressions of multiple neuronal dynamics during sensorimotor learning in the motor cortex of behaving monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Mandelblat-Cerf

    Full Text Available Previous studies support the notion that sensorimotor learning involves multiple processes. We investigated the neuronal basis of these processes by recording single-unit activity in motor cortex of non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis, during adaptation to force-field perturbations. Perturbed trials (reaching to one direction were practiced along with unperturbed trials (to other directions. The number of perturbed trials relative to the unperturbed ones was either low or high, in two separate practice schedules. Unsurprisingly, practice under high-rate resulted in faster learning with more pronounced generalization, as compared to the low-rate practice. However, generalization and retention of behavioral and neuronal effects following practice in high-rate were less stable; namely, the faster learning was forgotten faster. We examined two subgroups of cells and showed that, during learning, the changes in firing-rate in one subgroup depended on the number of practiced trials, but not on time. In contrast, changes in the second subgroup depended on time and practice; the changes in firing-rate, following the same number of perturbed trials, were larger under high-rate than low-rate learning. After learning, the neuronal changes gradually decayed. In the first subgroup, the decay pace did not depend on the practice rate, whereas in the second subgroup, the decay pace was greater following high-rate practice. This group shows neuronal representation that mirrors the behavioral performance, evolving faster but also decaying faster at learning under high-rate, as compared to low-rate. The results suggest that the stability of a new learned skill and its neuronal representation are affected by the acquisition schedule.

  13. A fully integrated wireless system for intracranial direct cortical stimulation, real-time electrocorticography data transmission, and smart cage for wireless battery recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piangerelli, Marco; Ciavarro, Marco; Paris, Antonino; Marchetti, Stefano; Cristiani, Paolo; Puttilli, Cosimo; Torres, Napoleon; Benabid, Alim Louis; Romanelli, Pantaleo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless transmission of cortical signals is an essential step to improve the safety of epilepsy procedures requiring seizure focus localization and to provide chronic recording of brain activity for Brain Computer Interface (BCI) applications. Our group developed a fully implantable and externally rechargeable device, able to provide wireless electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording and cortical stimulation (CS). The first prototype of a wireless multi-channel very low power ECoG system was custom-designed to be implanted on non-human primates. The device, named ECOGIW-16E, is housed in a compact hermetically sealed Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) enclosure, allowing seamless battery recharge. ECOGIW-16E is recharged in a wireless fashion using a special cage designed to facilitate the recharge process in monkeys and developed in accordance with guidelines for accommodation of animals by Council of Europe (ETS123). The inductively recharging cage is made up of nylon and provides a thoroughly novel experimental setting on freely moving animals. The combination of wireless cable-free ECoG and external seamless battery recharge solves the problems and shortcomings caused by the presence of cables leaving the skull, providing a safer and easier way to monitor patients and to perform ECoG recording on primates. Data transmission exploits the newly available Medical Implant Communication Service band (MICS): 402-405 MHz. ECOGIW-16E was implanted over the left sensorimotor cortex of a macaca fascicularis to assess the feasibility of wireless ECoG monitoring and brain mapping through CS. With this device, we were able to record the everyday life ECoG signal from a monkey and to deliver focal brain stimulation with movement elicitation.

  14. A suitable method for the detection of a potential fraud of bringing macaque monkey meat into the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Nur Raifana Abdul; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Rahman, Md Mahfujur; Razzak, Md Abdur; Asing; Amin, Md Al

    2015-01-01

    Being the third-largest primate population has not made macaque (Macaca fascicularis sp.) monkeys less exposed to threats and dangers. Despite wildlife protection, they have been widely hunted and consumed in several countries because of their purported nutritional values. In addition to trading as pure bush meats in several places, monkey meat has been sold in meatball and soup products in Indonesia. Thus the possibility of macaque meat trafficking under the label of common meats is quite high. This paper reports the development of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay with the shortest amplicon length for the confirmed detection of monkey meat under compromised states which are known to degrade DNA. We amplified a 120-bp region of d-loop gene using a pair of macaque-specific primers and confirmed their specificity for the target species through cross-challenging against 17 different species using a 141-bp site of an 18 S rRNA gene as an endogenous control for eukaryotes. This eliminated the possibilities of any false-negative detection with complex matrices or degraded specimens. The detection limit was 0.00001 ng DNA in a pure state and 0.1% of meat in mixed matrices and commercial meatball products. RFLP analysis further authenticated the originality of the PCR product and distinctive restriction patterns were found upon AluI and CViKI-1 digestion. A micro-fluidic lab-on-a-chip automated electrophoretic system separated the fragments with high resolution. The assay was validated for screening commercial meatball products with sufficient internal control.

  15. Teasing apart the contributions of hard dietary items on 3D dental microtextures in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Ivan; Schulz, Ellen; Pinnow, Mona; Krohn, Susanne; Kaiser, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    3D dental microtexture analysis is a powerful tool for reconstructing the diets of extinct primates. This method is based on the comparison of fossils with extant species of known diet. The diets of primates are highly diversified and include fruits, seeds, grass, tree leaves, bark, roots, tubers, and animal resources. Fruits remain the main component in the diets of most primates. We tested whether the proportion of fruit consumed is correlated with dental microtexture. Two methods of microtexture analysis, the scale-sensitive fractal analysis (SSFA) and the Dental Areal Surface Texture Analysis (DASTA; after ISO/FDIS 25178-2), were applied to specimens of eight primate species (Alouatta seniculus, Gorilla gorilla, Lophocebus albigena, Macaca fascicularis, Pan troglodytes, Papio cynocephalus, Pongo abelii, Theropithecus gelada). These species largely differ in the mean annual proportion of fruit (from 0 to 90%) in their diet, as well as in their consumption of other hard items (seeds, bark, and insect cuticles) and of abrasive plants. We find the complexity and heterogeneity of textures (SSFA) to correlate with the proportion of fruits consumed. Textural fill volume (SSFA) indicates the proportion of both fruits and other hard items processed. Furthermore, anisotropy (SSFA) relates to the consumption of abrasive plants like grass and other monocots. ISO parameters valley height, root mean square height, material volume, density of peaks, and closed hill and dale areas (DASTA) describe the functional interaction between food items and enamel facets during mastication. The shallow, plastic deformation of enamel surfaces induced by small hard particles, such as phytoliths or dust, results in flat microtexture relief, whereas the brittle, deep fracture caused by large hard items such as hard seeds creates larger relief. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of anti-VEGF drugs on the retinal pigment epithelium and inner segment after intravitreal injection in the monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Su

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effects on the retina inner segment and retinal pigment epithelium(RPEof intravitreally injecting bevacizumab, ranibizumab and aflibercept into monkey eyes.METHODS: Fourteen healthy cynomolgus monkeys(Macaca fascicularis, aged 3-8y,10 males,4 femaleswere raised at the Covance Laboratories under standard conditions. The 14 monkeys were grouped into 4 groups. Three of the groups with 4 monkeys each were injected intravitreally with one of the drugs, either bevacizumab, ranibizumab or aflibercept, while the 4th group with 2 monkeys served as a negative control. On 1d and 7d of injection, 2 monkeys from each drug treatment group were sacrificed under general anaesthesia and the 4 eyes were enucleated. All the enucleated eyes were fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin wax, cut into 4.0 μm sections and deparaffinized according to standard procedures. Image-Pro Plus was used for all the photos to measure the content of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFin the inner segment and RPE. The ANOVA test from JMP10.0 statistical program was used to evaluate the results.RESULTS: Retinal sections were checked for their anti-VEGF immune reactivity. The untreated control samples had the highest level of VEGF in the RPE and inner segment. All of these three drugs can reduce the level of VEGF in the RPE and inner segment, but Avastin seems to be more effective than Eylea in this regard. Lucentis treatment at 1d seems to be more effective than Eylea at VEGF 1d. But at 7d, both Lucentis and Eylea have the same effect on reducing VEGF expression level in the RPE and inner segment.CONCLUSION: All of these three drugs can reduce the level of VEGF in the RPE and inner segment.

  17. Early Paradoxical Increase of Dopamine: A Neurochemical Study of Olfactory Bulb in Asymptomatic and Symptomatic MPTP Treated Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pifl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disease with both motor and non-motor manifestations. Hyposmia is one of the early non-motor symptoms, which can precede motor symptoms by several years. The relationship between hyposmia and PD remains elusive. Olfactory bulb (OB pathology shows an increased number of olfactory dopaminergic cells, protein aggregates and dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems. In this study we examined tissue levels of dopamine (DA and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT and their metabolites, of noradrenaline (NA and of the amino acid neurotransmitters aspartate, glutamate, taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid in OBs of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP treated Macaca fascicularis in different stages, including monkeys who were always asymptomatic, monkeys who recovered from mild parkinsonian signs, and monkeys with stable moderate or severe parkinsonism. DA was increased compared to controls, while neither NA and 5-HT nor the amino acid neurotransmitters were significantly changed. Furthermore, DA increased before stable motor deficits appear with +51% in asymptomatic and +96% in recovered monkeys. Unchanged DA metabolites suggest a special metabolic profile of the newly formed DA neurons. Significant correlation of homovanillic acid (HVA with taurine single values within the four MPTP groups and of aspartate with taurine within the asymptomatic and recovered MPTP groups, but not within the controls suggest interactions in the OB between taurine and the DA system and taurine and the excitatory neurotransmitter triggered by MPTP. This first investigation of OB in various stages after MPTP administration suggests that the DA increase seems to be an early phenomenon, not requiring profound nigrostriatal neurodegeneration or PD symptoms.

  18. Changes in monkey crystalline lens spherical aberration during simulated accommodation in a lens stretcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Manns, Fabrice; de Castro, Alberto; Durkee, Heather; Arrieta, Esdras; Marcos, Susana; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2015-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to quantify accommodation-induced changes in the spherical aberration of cynomolgus monkey lenses. Twenty-four lenses from 20 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; 4.4-16.0 years of age; postmortem time 13.5 ± 13.0 hours) were mounted in a lens stretcher. Lens spherical aberration was measured in the unstretched (accommodated) and stretched (relaxed) states with a laser ray tracing system that delivered 51 equally spaced parallel rays along 1 meridian of the lens over the central 6-mm optical zone. A camera mounted below the lens was used to measure the ray height at multiple positions along the optical axis. For each entrance ray, the change in ray height with axial position was fitted with a third-order polynomial. The effective paraxial focal length and Zernike spherical aberration coefficients corresponding to a 6-mm pupil diameter were extracted from the fitted values. The unstretched lens power decreased with age from 59.3 ± 4.0 diopters (D) for young lenses to 45.7 ± 3.1 D for older lenses. The unstretched lens shifted toward less negative spherical aberration with age, from -6.3 ± 0.7 μm for young lenses to -5.0 ± 0.5 μm for older lenses. The power and spherical aberration of lenses in the stretched state were independent of age, with values of 33.5 ± 3.4 D and -2.6 ± 0.5 μm, respectively. Spherical aberration is negative in cynomolgus monkey lenses and becomes more negative with accommodation. These results are in good agreement with the predicted values using computational ray tracing in a lens model with a reconstructed gradient refractive index. The spherical aberration of the unstretched lens becomes less negative with age. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. Comparative assessment of the interfacial soft and hard tissues investing implants and natural teeth in the macaque mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siar, Chong Huat; Toh, Chooi Gait; Romanos, Georgios E; Ng, Kok Han

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative qualitative and quantitative assessment of the interfacial soft and hard tissues investing implants and natural teeth. The test sample consisted of six adult healthy male Macaca fascicularis with three-unit splinted crowns, each crown supported by an Ankylos screw-shaped titanium implant. These implants were placed in the mandibular premolar-second molar region, one side by an immediate-loading (IL) and the other by delayed-loading (DL) protocol. The animals were sacrificed after 3 months of functional loading. Another two monkeys with natural dentition served as controls. Nondecalcified sections were prepared for assessment of optical intensities (OI) under a confocal laser scanning microscope. In both the test (IL and DL) and control, the soft tissue complexes demonstrated a highly fluorescent keratinized layer and diminished cytoplasmic and enhanced membranous fluorescence in the remaining epithelium. Peri-implant mucosa was further characterized by an intense fluorescence at the junctional epithelium-implant interface and in the stromal mononuclear infiltrate. Connective tissue contact and periodontal ligament were weakly fluorescent. In hard tissues, a high fluorescence was observed in peri-implant woven bone and along the implant-bone interface. Mean OI was significantly higher in peri-implant woven bone than around teeth (P  0.05). Present findings suggest that peri-implant woven bone is highly mineralized, while the peri-implant and gingival mucosa share structural similarities. Optical intensities of interfacial tissues investing implants and teeth are related to their biological properties.

  20. The Cynomolgus Macaque Natural History Model of Pneumonic Tularemia for Predicting Clinical Efficacy Under the Animal Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Tina; Lanning, Lynda L.; Omland, Kristian S.; Williams, Mark S.; Wolfraim, Larry A.; Heyse, Stephen P.; Houchens, Christopher R.; Sanz, Patrick; Hewitt, Judith A.

    2018-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative bacterium that is the etiologic agent of tularemia in animals and humans and a Tier 1 select agent. The natural incidence of pneumonic tularemia worldwide is very low; therefore, it is not feasible to conduct clinical efficacy testing of tularemia medical countermeasures (MCM) in human populations. Development and licensure of tularemia therapeutics and vaccines need to occur under the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule under which efficacy studies are conducted in well-characterized animal models that reflect the pathophysiology of human disease. The Tularemia Animal Model Qualification (AMQ) Working Group is seeking qualification of the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of pneumonic tularemia under Drug Development Tools Qualification Programs with the FDA based upon the results of studies described in this manuscript. Analysis of data on survival, average time to death, average time to fever onset, average interval between fever and death, and bacteremia; together with summaries of clinical signs, necropsy findings, and histopathology from the animals exposed to aerosolized F. tularensis Schu S4 in five natural history studies and one antibiotic efficacy study form the basis for the proposed cynomolgus macaque model. Results support the conclusion that signs of pneumonic tularemia in cynomolgus macaques exposed to 300–3,000 colony forming units (cfu) aerosolized F. tularensis Schu S4, under the conditions described herein, and human pneumonic tularemia cases are highly similar. Animal age, weight, and sex of animals challenged with 300–3,000 cfu Schu S4 did not impact fever onset in studies described herein. This study summarizes critical parameters and endpoints of a well-characterized cynomolgus macaque model of pneumonic tularemia and demonstrates this model is appropriate for qualification, and for testing efficacy of tularemia therapeutics under Animal Rule. PMID

  1. Impact of menstruation on select hematology and clinical chemistry variables in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perigard, Christopher J; Parrula, M Cecilia M; Larkin, Matthew H; Gleason, Carol R

    2016-06-01

    In preclinical studies with cynomolgus macaques, it is common to have one or more females presenting with menses. Published literature indicates that the blood lost during menses causes decreases in red blood cell mass variables (RBC, HGB, and HCT), which would be a confounding factor in the interpretation of drug-related effects on clinical pathology data, but no scientific data have been published to support this claim. This investigation was conducted to determine if the amount of blood lost during menses in cynomolgus macaques has an effect on routine hematology and serum chemistry variables. Ten female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), 5 to 6.5 years old, were observed daily during approximately 3 months (97 days) for the presence of menses. Hematology and serum chemistry variables were evaluated twice weekly. The results indicated that menstruation affects the erythrogram including RBC, HGB, HCT, MCHC, MCV, reticulocyte count, RDW, the leukogram including neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts, and chemistry variables, including GGT activity, and the concentrations of total proteins, albumin, globulins, and calcium. The magnitude of the effect of menstruation on susceptible variables is dependent on the duration of the menstrual phase. Macaques with menstrual phases lasting ≥ 7 days are more likely to develop changes in variables related to chronic blood loss. In preclinical toxicology studies with cynomolgus macaques, interpretation of changes in several commonly evaluated hematology and serum chemistry variables requires adequate clinical observation and documentation concerning presence and duration of menses. There is a concern that macaques with long menstrual cycles can develop iron deficiency anemia due to chronic menstrual blood loss. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  2. Biocompatible anionic polymeric microspheres as priming delivery system for effetive HIV/AIDS Tat-based vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Titti

    Full Text Available Here we describe a prime-boost regimen of vaccination in Macaca fascicularis that combines priming with novel anionic microspheres designed to deliver the biologically active HIV-1 Tat protein and boosting with Tat in Alum. This regimen of immunization modulated the IgG subclass profile and elicited a balanced Th1-Th2 type of humoral and cellular responses. Remarkably, following intravenous challenge with SHIV89.6Pcy243, vaccinees significantly blunted acute viremia, as compared to control monkeys, and this control was associated with significantly lower CD4+ T cell depletion rate during the acute phase of infection and higher ability to resume the CD4+ T cell counts in the post-acute and chronic phases of infection. The long lasting control of viremia was associated with the persistence of high titers anti-Tat antibodies whose profile clearly distinguished vaccinees in controllers and viremics. Controllers, as opposed to vaccinated and viremic cynos, exhibited significantly higher pre-challenge antibody responses to peptides spanning the glutamine-rich and the RGD-integrin-binding regions of Tat. Finally, among vaccinees, titers of anti-Tat IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 subclasses had a significant association with control of viremia in the acute and post-acute phases of infection. Altogether these findings indicate that the Tat/H1D/Alum regimen of immunization holds promise for next generation vaccines with Tat protein or other proteins for which maintenance of the native conformation and activity are critical for optimal immunogenicity. Our results also provide novel information on the role of anti-Tat responses in the prevention of HIV pathogenesis and for the design of new vaccine candidates.

  3. Intergroup variation in robbing and bartering by long-tailed macaques at Uluwatu Temple (Bali, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotcorne, Fany; Giraud, Gwennan; Gunst, Noëlle; Fuentes, Agustín; Wandia, I Nengah; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C; Poncin, Pascal; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Leca, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-10-01

    Robbing and bartering (RB) is a behavioral practice anecdotally reported in free-ranging commensal macaques. It usually occurs in two steps: after taking inedible objects (e.g., glasses) from humans, the macaques appear to use them as tokens, returning them to humans in exchange for food. While extensively studied in captivity, our research is the first to investigate the object/food exchange between humans and primates in a natural setting. During a 4-month study in 2010, we used both focal and event sampling to record 201 RB events in a population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), including four neighboring groups ranging freely around Uluwatu Temple, Bali (Indonesia). In each group, we documented the RB frequency, prevalence and outcome, and tested the underpinning anthropogenic and demographic determinants. In line with the environmental opportunity hypothesis, we found a positive qualitative relation at the group level between time spent in tourist zones and RB frequency or prevalence. For two of the four groups, RB events were significantly more frequent when humans were more present in the environment. We also found qualitative partial support for the male-biased sex ratio hypothesis [i.e., RB was more frequent and prevalent in groups with higher ratios of (sub)adult males], whereas the group density hypothesis was not supported. This preliminary study showed that RB is a spontaneous, customary (in some groups), and enduring population-specific practice characterized by intergroup variation in Balinese macaques. As such, RB is a candidate for a new behavioral tradition in this species.

  4. Acute Fetal Demise with First Trimester Maternal Infection Resulting from Listeria monocytogenes in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Bryce; Wiepz, Gregory J.; Schotzko, Michele; Bondarenko, Gennadiy I.; Durning, Maureen; Simmons, Heather A.; Mejia, Andres; Faith, Nancy G.; Sampene, Emmanuel; Suresh, Marulasiddappa; Kathariou, Sophia; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and neonatal complications, including sepsis and meningitis. While the risk of these conditions is thought to be greatest during the third trimester of pregnancy, the determinants of fetoplacental susceptibility to infection, the contribution of gestational age, and the in vivo progression of disease at the maternal-fetal interface are poorly understood. We developed a nonhuman primate model of listeriosis to better understand antecedents of adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy. Four pregnant cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) received a single intragastric inoculation between days 36 and 46 of gestation with 107 CFU of an L. monocytogenes strain isolated from a previous cluster of human listeriosis cases that resulted in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Fecal shedding, maternal bacteremia, and fetal demise were consistently noted within 7 to 13 days. Biopsy specimens of maternal liver, spleen, and lymph node displayed variable inflammation and relatively low bacterial burden. In comparison, we observed greater bacterial burden in the decidua and placenta and the highest burden in fetal tissues. Histopathology indicated vasculitis, fibrinoid necrosis, and thrombosis of the decidual spiral arteries, acute chorioamnionitis and villitis in the placenta, and hematogenous infection of the fetus. Vascular pathology suggests early impact of L. monocytogenes infection on spiral arteries in the decidua, which we hypothesize precipitates subsequent placentitis and fetal demise. These results demonstrate that L. monocytogenes tropism for the maternal reproductive tract results in infection of the decidua, placenta, and the fetus itself during the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:28223455

  5. PET imaging using parkinsonian primate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    Many animal models have been for studying neutrodegenerative diseases in humans. Among them, Parkinson's disease (PD) model in primates treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is expected to be valid and useful in the field of regenerative medicine. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate parkinsonian syndrome, such as tremor, dyskinesia, rigidity, immobility, caused by the degeneration of dopamine neurons at the nigrostriatal pathway. In this model, investigation of cognitive impairment that is one of the important aspects of PD could be possible. We evaluated the degeneration process of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons with positron emission tomography (PET) using unanesthetized MPTP-treated two cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The tracers used were [11C]PE2I, [11C]DOPA, [11C]raclopride for monitoring dopamine transporter (DAT) densities, dopamine (DA) turnover, dopamine D2-receptor (D2R) densities, respectively. The gross behavioral observation was also performed referring to the criteria of the PD symptoms. The motor dysfunction was not clearly observed up to the cumulative doses of 3 mg/kg MPTP. This period was called 'asymptomatic period'. As a result of PET scans in the asymptomatic period, DAT densities and DA turnover had already decreased greatly, but D2R densities had not changed clearly. These findings suggest that PET imaging can delineate the dopaminergic dysfunction in vivo even in the asymptomatic period. In human study of PD, it is reported that parkinsonism is shown after great loss of dopaminergic neutrons as well as pre-synaptic dysfunction. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate the parkinsonian syndrome with the similar mechanism as human PD. It can be expected that PET study with MPTP-monkeys would provide important clues relevant to the underlying cause of PD and be useful for preclinical study of regenerative medicine in this disease. (author)

  6. Kinematics and ontogeny of locomotion in monkeys and human babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemitz, Carsten

    2002-03-01

    Early ontogenetic stages are often assumed to reflect or to be similar to past phylogenetic stages within the evolution of man. Therefore, as a first step, the quadrupedal crawling locomotion of human children was analysed and compared to the quadrupedal walk of Macaca fascicularis. The movements of the human child were not only more irregular, they differed from the walk of the monkey mainly through extraordinarily short swing phases, and also through strong scoliotic movements of the spine. There is a compulsory synchronisation in the hip and knee joint movements of the human crawling baby. We conclude that human crawling may be a behavioural recapitulation of a quadrupedal evolutionary stage. However, with reference to kinematics, man is not only characterised by his unique, habitually bipedal, upright gait but also by a second, equally unique locomotion, namely crawling, which he assumes for a short phase during his first year of life.--The walking movements of the limbs in toddling infants were mainly characterised by i) rather stiff, abducted arms, which were moved mostly by spine torsions (similar to those of bipedally walking Gorilla) and not as a suspensory pendulum. However, they rather work as levers for the elastic torsion pendulum of the spine. ii) They are also characterised by frequently lacking the minor knee flexion, which occurs at about the heel strike within each stride of the adult human. Besides many other details of the results, foot movements differed from adult ones mainly in that the whole plantar surface was placed flat on the ground within a few milliseconds.

  7. The effect of short moderate stress on the midbrain corticotropin-releasing factor system in a macaque model of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Phu, Kenny; Reddy, Arubala P; Cameron, Judy L

    2013-10-01

    To study the effect of moderate stress on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) components in the serotonergic midbrain region in a monkey model of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. After characterization of stress sensitivity, monkeys were moved to a novel room and given 20% less chow for 5 days before euthanasia. Primate research center. Female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) characterized as highly stress resilient (HSR, n = 5), medium stress resilient (n = 4), or stress sensitive (SS, n = 4). Five days of diet in a novel room with unfamiliar conspecifics. Density of CRF axons in the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus; the number of urocortin 1 (UCN1) cells; the density of UCN1 axons; the expression of CRF receptor 1 (CRF-R1) and CRF-R2 in the dorsal raphe nucleus. The CRF innervation was higher in HSR than in SS animals; UCN1 cell number was higher in HSR than in SS animals and UCN1 axon bouton density was not different; all opposite of nonstressed animals. The CRF-R1 was not different between the sensitivity groups, but CRF-R2 was higher in HSR than in SS animals. The relative expression of CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 was similar to nonstressed animals. The HSR animals respond to stress with an increase in CRF delivery to serotonin neurons. With stress, UCN1 transport decreases in HSR animals. The CRF receptor expression was similar with or without stress. These changes may contribute to resilience in HSR animals. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Fully-Integrated Wireless System for Intracranial Direct Cortical Stimulation, Real-Time Electrocorticography Data Trasmission and Smart Cage for Wireless Battery Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco ePiangerelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless transmission of cortical signals is an essential step to improve the safety of epilepsy procedures requiring seizure focus localization and to provide chronic recording of brain activity for Brain Computer Interface(BCI applications .Our group developed a fully implantable and externally rechargeable device, able to provide wireless electrocorticographic (ECoG recording and cortical stimulation (CS. The first prototype of a wireless multi-channel very low power ECoG system was custom-designed to be implanted on non-human primates. The device,named ECOGIW-16E, is housed in a compact hermetically sealed Polyether ether ketone (PEEK enclosure, allowing seamless battery recharge. ECOGIW-16E is recharged in a wireless fashion using a special cage designed to facilitate the recharge process in monkeys and , developed in accordance with guidelines for accommodation of animals by Council of Europe (ETS123. The inductively recharging cage is made of nylon and provides a thoroughly novel experimental setting on freely moving animals. The combination of wireless cable-free ECoG and external seamless battery recharge solve the problems and shortcomings caused by the presence of cables leaving the skull,providing a safer and easier way to monitor patients and to perform ECoG recording on primates. Data transmission exploits the newly available Medical Implant Communication Service band (MICS: 402-405 MHz. ECOGW-16E was implanted over the left sensorimotor cortex of a macaca fascicularis to assess the feasibility of wireless ECoG monitoring and brain mapping through CS. With this device we were able to record the everyday life ECoG signal from a monkey and to deliver focal brain stimulation with movement elicitation.

  9. On the Role of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus and Mesencephalic Reticular Formation in Locomotion in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Laurent; Piallat, Brigitte; Bhattacharjee, Manik; Mathieu, Hervé; David, Olivier; Chabardès, Stéphan

    2016-05-04

    The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) is formed by the pedunculopontine and cuneiform nuclei, two neuronal structures thought to be key elements in the supraspinal control of locomotion, muscle tone, waking, and REM sleep. The role of MRF has also been advocated in modulation of state of arousal leading to transition from wakefulness to sleep and it is further considered to be a main player in the pathophysiology of gait disorders seen in Parkinson's disease. However, the existence of a mesencephalic locomotor region and of an arousal center has not yet been demonstrated in primates. Here, we provide the first extensive electrophysiological mapping of the MRF using extracellular recordings at rest and during locomotion in a nonhuman primate (NHP) (Macaca fascicularis) model of bipedal locomotion. We found different neuronal populations that discharged according to a phasic or a tonic mode in response to locomotion, supporting the existence of a locomotor neuronal circuit within these MRF in behaving primates. Altogether, these data constitute the first electrophysiological characterization of a locomotor neuronal system present within the MRF in behaving NHPs under normal conditions, in accordance with several studies done in different experimental animal models. We provide the first extensive electrophysiological mapping of the two major components of the mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF), namely the pedunculopontine and cuneiform nuclei. We exploited a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of bipedal locomotion with extracellular recordings in behaving NHPs at rest and during locomotion. Different MRF neuronal groups were found to respond to locomotion, with phasic or tonic patterns of response. These data constitute the first electrophysiological evidences of a locomotor neuronal system within the MRF in behaving NHPs. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364917-13$15.00/0.

  10. Ebola virus acceptors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... genome sequencing centre; HSP, High scoring Segment pair;. NHGRI, National ... the genome of the rhesus monkey (rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta). The sequencing and comparative analysis was funded by the National ... Definition. Accession ..... Marburg virus genomics and association with a large.

  11. 77 FR 61627 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... applicant over a 5-year period. Families Lemuridae Hylobatidae Species Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Amur tiger... registration under 50 CFR 17.21(g) for the following families, genera and species, to enhance their propagation... Gruidae Genus Tragopan Species Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) Lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus...

  12. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  13. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied...

  14. AcEST: DK950059 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Large structural protein OS=Rabies virus (stra... 32 3.7 sp|Q153Z0|CASPC_MACMU Caspase-12 OS=Macaca mulatta...rge structural protein OS=Rabies virus (strain China/DRV) GN=L PE=3 SV=1 Length = 2127 Score = 32.0 bits (71

  15. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE VITREOUS BODY IN RHESUS-MONKEYS AND MAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WORST, JGF; LOS, LI

    1992-01-01

    In the isolated unfixed vitreous body a structural organization can be visualized by slitlamp microscopy or by an ink-injection technique. We discuss the observations on human and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vitreous bodies using the ink-injection technique. Advantages and disadvantages of this

  16. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  17. Comparison of protection from homologous cell-free vs cell-associated SIV challenge afforded by inactivated whole SIV vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Heeney (Jonathan); P. de Vries (Petra); R. Dubbes (Rob); W. Koornstra (Willem); H. Niphuis; P. ten Haaft (Peter); J. Boes (Jolande); M.E.M. Dings (Marlinda); B. Morein (Bror); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis study attempted to determine if SIV vaccines could protect against challenge with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from an SIV infected rhesus monkey. Mature Macaca mulatta were vaccinated four times with formalin inactivated SIVmac32H administered in MDP adjuvant (n = 8)

  18. Plasticity of Ability to Form Cross-Modal Representations in Infant Japanese Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Ikuma; Kuwahata, Hiroko; Fujita, Kazuo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, Adachi, Kuwahata, Fujita, Tomonaga & Matsuzawa demonstrated that infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) form cross-modal representations of conspecifics but not of humans. However, because the subjects in the experiment were raised in a large social group and had considerably less exposure to humans than to…

  19. Genome sequencing and comparison of two nonhuman primate animal models, the cynomolgus and Chinese rhesus macaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Guangmei; Zhang, Guojie; Fang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus...

  20. Is human imitation based on a mirror-neuron system? Some behavioural evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlschläger, A.; Bekkering, H.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a population of neurones was discovered in the monkey's (Macaca nemestrina) ventrolateral part of the pre-motor cortex (area F5). It is specialised for recognising object-oriented actions, regardless of whether these actions are performed or observed by the monkey. The latter observation

  1. Is human imitation based on a mirror-neurone system? Some behavioural evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlschlager, A; Bekkering, H; Wohlschläger, A

    Recently, a population of neurones was discovered in the monkey's (Macaca nemestrina) ventrolateral part of the pre-motor cortex (area F5). It is specialised for recognising object-oriented actions, regardless of whether these actions are performed or observed by the monkey. The latter observation

  2. 78 FR 11521 - Control of Communicable Disease; Foreign-Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates (NHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Part 71 Control of Communicable Disease; Foreign--Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates (NHP... Primates (NHP) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human... live nonhuman primates (NHPs) by extending existing requirements for the importation of Macaca...

  3. Hemopoietic stem cells in rhesus monkeys : surface antigens, radiosensitivity, and responses to GM-CSF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Wielenga (Jenne)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractRhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were bred at the Primate Center TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands!. Both male and female animals were used for the experiments. The monkeys weighed 2.5-4 kg and were 2-4 years old at the time of the experiment. They were all typed for RhLA-A, -B and -DR

  4. Report on primate supply for biomedical scientific work in the UK. EUPREN UK Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S; Thomas, C; West, P; Wolfensohn, S; Wood, M

    1997-10-01

    A Working Party of the UK group of European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN) considered primate supply for scientific work in the UK. Through a questionnaire, which achieved a very good response, it obtained details of primate use, sources and breeding in the UK and it put forward options to ensure that animal welfare is the best possible whilst ensuring continued supply. The questionnaire showed that contract research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies use about 80% of the 4233 primates used annually at the moment, with the rest accounted for by academic establishments and public sector laboratories. Fifty-four per cent are cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), of which nearly 90% are captive-bred outside the European Union (EU), the remainder being bred in the UK. Nearly 90% of cynomolgus macaques are used by only five institutions. Thirty-seven per cent of primates used are marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus), all of which are bred in the UK. Most of the rest are rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), about half of which are captive-bred outside the EU, the other half being bred in the UK. Overall primate use has increased from about 3000 per year in 1990 and users predict that requirements for all species except baboons (Papio sp.) will be maintained or increase. Marmoset breeding in the UK is already closely matched to use, and it could be increased reasonably easily if necessary. Some of the existing breeding centres of macaques in the UK would be prepared to consider expanding to supply others, although investment and imported breeding stock would be needed and it is likely that a large investment would be needed to breed a significant fraction of the macaque use in the UK. A further problem is that the users of only about 10% of the cynomolgus macaques said that they could replace this species by rhesus macaques, which are easier to breed in the UK. The questionnaire showed that much of the use of macaques would be transferred to other countries

  5. Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathleen A; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L; Szeliga, Kendall T; Rogers, Laura S M; Gonzales, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent "spree" drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into

  6. Life stage differences in mammary gland gene expression profile in non-human primates.

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    Stute, Petra; Sielker, Sonja; Wood, Charles E; Register, Thomas C; Lees, Cynthia J; Dewi, Fitriya N; Williams, J Koudy; Wagner, Janice D; Stefenelli, Ulrich; Cline, J Mark

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy of women in the developed world. To better understand its pathogenesis, knowledge of normal breast development is crucial, as BC is the result of disregulation of physiologic processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of reproductive life stages on the transcriptional profile of the mammary gland in a primate model. Comparative transcriptomic analyses were carried out using breast tissues from 28 female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the following life stages: prepubertal (n = 5), adolescent (n = 4), adult luteal (n = 5), pregnant (n = 6), lactating (n = 3), and postmenopausal (n = 5). Mammary gland RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Rhesus Macaque Genome Arrays. Differential gene expression was analyzed using ANOVA and cluster analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct separation of life stage groups. More than 2,225 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified. Gene families or pathways that changed across life stages included those related to estrogen and androgen (ESR1, PGR, TFF1, GREB1, AR, 17HSDB2, 17HSDB7, STS, HSD11B1, AKR1C4), prolactin (PRLR, ELF5, STAT5, CSN1S1), insulin-like growth factor signaling (IGF1, IGFBP1, IGFBP5), extracellular matrix (POSTN, TGFB1, COL5A2, COL12A1, FOXC1, LAMC1, PDGFRA, TGFB2), and differentiation (CD24, CD29, CD44, CD61, ALDH1, BRCA1, FOXA1, POSTN, DICER1, LIG4, KLF4, NOTCH2, RIF1, BMPR1A, TGFB2). Pregnancy and lactation displayed distinct patterns of gene expression. ESR1 and IGF1 were significantly higher in the adolescent compared to the adult animals, whereas differentiation pathways were overrepresented in adult animals and pregnancy-associated life stages. Few individual genes were distinctly different in postmenopausal animals. Our data demonstrate characteristic patterns of gene expression during breast development. Several of the pathways activated during pubertal development have been implicated in cancer

  7. Comparative plasma lipidome between human and cynomolgus monkey: are plasma polar lipids good biomarkers for diabetic monkeys?

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    Guanghou Shui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-human primates (NHP are now being considered as models for investigating human metabolic diseases including diabetes. Analyses of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma derived from NHPs can easily be achieved using methods employed in humans. Information pertaining to other lipid species in monkey plasma, however, is lacking and requires comprehensive experimental analysis. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the plasma lipidome from 16 cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS. We established novel analytical approaches, which are based on a simple gradient elution, to quantify polar lipids in plasma including (i glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidic acid, PA; (ii sphingolipids (sphingomyelin, SM; ceramide, Cer; Glucocyl-ceramide, GluCer; ganglioside mannoside 3, GM3. Lipidomic analysis had revealed that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, with PC, SM, PE, LPC and PI constituting the major polar lipid species present. Human plasma contained significantly higher levels of plasmalogen PE species (p<0.005 and plasmalogen PC species (p<0.0005, while cynomolgus monkey had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acyls (PUFA in PC, PE, PS and PI. Notably, cynomolgus monkey had significantly lower levels of glycosphingolipids, including GluCer (p<0.0005 and GM(3 (p<0.0005, but higher level of Cer (p<0.0005 in plasma than human. We next investigated the biochemical alterations in blood lipids of 8 naturally occurring diabetic cynomolgus monkeys when compared with 8 healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, but contained different mol distribution of individual molecular species. Diabetic monkeys

  8. Masticatory-stress hypotheses and the supraorbital region of primates.

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    Hylander, W L; Picq, P G; Johnson, K R

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to test various masticatory-stress hypotheses about the evolution and function of well-developed browridges of higher primates. This was done by measuring and analyzing patterns of in vivo bone strain recorded from three-element rosette strain gages bonded to the supraorbital region and to other portions of the bony face of Macaca fascicularis and Papio anubis during mastication and incision. The magnitude and direction of the principal strains recorded support Endo's hypothesis that the supraorbital region during mastication and incision is bent in the frontal plane (Endo, 1966). Our data do not, however, support his hypothesis that the supraorbital region is bent more during incision than during mastication. The data also demonstrate that overall levels of supraorbital strain are not larger in more prognathic subjects. Most importantly, the data indicate that the supraorbital region of nonhuman catarrhines is strained very little during mastication and incision. This indicates that there is much more supraorbital bone than is necessary both to counter masticatory loads and to provide an adequate safety factor to failure for these loads. This in turn suggests that the macaque and baboon browridges can be considerably reduced in size and still maintain these required structural characteristics. Thus, our experiments provide no support whatsoever for those hypotheses that directly link browridge morphology to masticatory stress (cf. Endo, 1966; Russell, 1983, 1985). A recent review of Endo's original work indicates that this latter statement is also true for humans (Picq and Hylander, 1989). We conclude, therefore, that there is no good reason to believe that enlarged browridges in living and/or fossil primates are structural adaptations to counter intense masticatory forces. The evolution of browridge morphology in primates is best explained on the basis of factors related to the position of the brain relative to the orbits (Moss and

  9. A guidance channel seeded with autologous Schwann cells for repair of cauda equina injury in a primate model.

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    Calancie, Blair; Madsen, Parley W; Wood, Patrick; Marcillo, Alexander E; Levi, Allan D; Bunge, Richard P

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate an implantable guidance channel (GC) seeded with autologous Schwann cells to promote regeneration of transected spinal nerve root axons in a primate model. Schwann cells were obtained from sural nerve segments of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; cynomolgus). Cells were cultured, purified, and seeded into a PAN/PVC GC. Approximately 3 weeks later, monkeys underwent laminectomy and dural opening. Nerve roots of the L4 through L7 segments were identified visually. The threshold voltage needed to elicit hindlimb muscle electromyography (EMG) after stimulation of intact nerve roots was determined. Segments of 2 or 3 nerve roots (each approximately 8-15 mm in length) were excised. The GC containing Schwann cells was implanted between the proximal and distal stumps of these nerve roots and attached to the stumps with suture. Follow-up evaluation was conducted on 3 animals, with survival times of 9 to 14 months. Upon reexposure of the implant site, subdural nerve root adhesions were noted in all 3 animals. Several of the implanted GC had collapsed and were characterized by thin strands of connective tissue attached to either end. In contrast, 3 of the 8 implanted GC were intact and had white, glossy cables entering and exiting the conduits. Electrical stimulation of the tissue cable in each of these 3 cases led to low-threshold evoked EMG responses, suggesting that muscles had been reinnervated by axons regenerating through the repair site and into the distal nerve stump. During harvesting of the GC implant, sharp transection led to spontaneous EMG in the same 3 roots showing a low threshold to electrical stimulation, whereas no EMG was seen when harvesting nerve roots with high thresholds to elicit EMG. Histology confirmed large numbers of myelinated axons at the midpoint of 2 GC judged to have reinnervated target muscles. We found a modest rate of successful regeneration and muscle reinnervation after treatment of nerve root transection with a Schwann cell

  10. Genetic Diversity, Natural Selection and Haplotype Grouping of Plasmodium knowlesi Gamma Protein Region II (PkγRII): Comparison with the Duffy Binding Protein (PkDBPαRII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Mun Yik; Rashdi, Sarah A A; Yusof, Ruhani; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite that has been reported to cause malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. This parasite invades the erythrocytes of humans and of its natural host, the macaque Macaca fascicularis, via interaction between the Duffy binding protein region II (PkDBPαRII) and the Duffy antigen receptor on the host erythrocytes. In contrast, the P. knowlesi gamma protein region II (PkγRII) is not involved in the invasion of P. knowlesi into humans. PkγRII, however, mediates the invasion of P. knowlesi into the erythrocytes of M. mulata, a non-natural host of P. knowlesi via a hitherto unknown receptor. The haplotypes of PkDBPαRII in P. knowlesi isolates from Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo have been shown to be genetically distinct and geographically clustered. Also, the PkDBPαRII was observed to be undergoing purifying (negative) selection. The present study aimed to determine whether similar phenomena occur in PkγRII. Blood samples from 78 knowlesi malaria patients were used. Forty-eight of the samples were from Peninsular Malaysia, and 30 were from Malaysia Borneo. The genomic DNA of the samples was extracted and used as template for the PCR amplification of the PkγRII. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. The sequences obtained were analysed for genetic diversity and natural selection using MEGA6 and DnaSP (version 5.10.00) programmes. Genetic differentiation between the PkγRII of Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo isolates was estimated using the Wright's FST fixation index in DnaSP (version 5.10.00). Haplotype analysis was carried out using the Median-Joining approach in NETWORK (version 4.6.1.3). A total of 78 PkγRII sequences was obtained. Comparative analysis showed that the PkγRII have similar range of haplotype (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (π) with that of PkDBPαRII. Other similarities between PkγRII and PkDBPαRII include undergoing purifying (negative) selection, geographical clustering of haplotypes

  11. Raman micro-spectroscopy analysis of different sperm regions: a species comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, S; Da Costa, R; Wübbeling, F; Redmann, K; Schlatt, S

    2018-04-01

    Is Raman micro-spectroscopy a valid approach to assess the biochemical hallmarks of sperm regions (head, midpiece and tail) in four different species? Non-invasive Raman micro-spectroscopy provides spectral patterns enabling the biochemical characterization of the three sperm regions in the four species, revealing however high similarities for each region among species. Raman micro-spectroscopy has been described as an innovative method to assess sperm features having the potential to be used as a non-invasive selection tool. However, except for nuclear DNA, the identification and assignment of spectral bands in Raman-profiles to the different sperm regions is scarce and controversial. Raman spectra from head, midpiece and tail of four different species were obtained. Sperm samples were collected and smeared on microscope slides. Air dried samples were subjected to Raman analysis using previously standardized procedures. Sperm samples from (i) two donors attending the infertility clinic at the Centre of Reproductive Medicine and Andrology; (ii) two C57BL/6 -TgN (ACTbEGFP) 1Osb adult mice; (iii) two adult Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and (iv) two sea urchins (Arbacia punctulata) were used to characterize and compare their spectral profiles. Differences and similarities were confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). Several novel region-specific peaks were identified. The three regions could be differentiated by distinctive Raman patterns irrespective of the species. However, regardless of the specie, their main spectral pattern remains mostly unchanged. These results were corroborated by the PCA analysis and suggest that the basic constituents of spermatozoa are biochemically similar among species. Further research should be performed in live sperm to validate the detected spectral bands and their use as markers of distinctive regions. Raman peaks that have never been described in the sperm cell were detected. Particularly important are those that

  12. Induction of protective immunity against H1N1 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with spray-dried and electron-beam sterilised vaccines in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherließ, Regina; Ajmera, Ankur; Dennis, Mike; Carroll, Miles W; Altrichter, Jens; Silman, Nigel J; Scholz, Martin; Kemter, Kristina; Marriott, Anthony C

    2014-04-17

    Currently, the need for cooled storage and the impossibility of terminal sterilisation are major drawbacks in vaccine manufacturing and distribution. To overcome current restrictions a preclinical safety and efficacy study was conducted to evaluate new influenza A vaccine formulations regarding thermal resistance, resistance against irradiation-mediated damage and storage stability. We evaluated the efficacy of novel antigen stabilizing and protecting solutions (SPS) to protect influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 split virus antigen under experimental conditions in vitro and in vivo. Original or SPS re-buffered vaccine (Pandemrix) was spray-dried and terminally sterilised by irradiation with 25 kGy (e-beam). Antigen integrity was monitored by SDS-PAGE, dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography and functional haemagglutination assays. In vitro screening experiments revealed a number of highly stable compositions containing glycyrrhizinic acid (GA) and/or chitosan. The most stable composition was selected for storage tests and in vivo assessment of seroconversion in non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis) using a prime-boost strategy. Redispersed formulations with original adjuvant were administered intramuscularly. Storage data revealed high stability of protected vaccines at 4°C and 25°C, 60% relative humidity, for at least three months. Animals receiving original Pandemrix exhibited expected levels of seroconversion after 21 days (prime) and 48 days (boost) as assessed by haemagglutination inhibition and microneutralisation assays. Animals vaccinated with spray-dried and irradiated Pandemrix failed to exhibit seroconversion after 21 days whereas spray-dried and irradiated, SPS-protected vaccines elicited similar seroconversion levels to those vaccinated with original Pandemrix. Boost immunisation with SPS-protected vaccine resulted in a strong increase in seroconversion but had only minor effects in animals treated with non SPS-protected vaccine. In conclusion

  13. Connections of the medial posterior parietal cortex (area 7m) in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichnetz, G R

    2001-06-01

    The afferent and efferent cortical and subcortical connections of the medial posterior parietal cortex (area 7m) were studied in cebus (Cebus apella) and macaque (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys using the retrograde and anterograde capabilities of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) technique. The principal intraparietal corticocortical connections of area 7m in both cebus and macaque cases were with the ipsilateral medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus (MIP) and adjacent superior parietal lobule (area 5), inferior parietal lobule (area 7a), lateral bank of the IPS (area 7ip), caudal parietal operculum (PGop), dorsal bank of the caudal superior temporal sulcus (visual area MST), and medial prestriate cortex (including visual area PO and caudal medial lobule). Its principal frontal corticocortical connections were with the prefrontal cortex in the shoulder above the principal sulcus and the cortex in the shoulder above the superior ramus of the arcuate sulcus (SAS), the area purported to contain the smooth eye movement-related frontal eye field (FEFsem) in the cebus monkey by other investigators. There were moderate connections with the cortex in the rostral bank of the arcuate sulcus (purported to contain the saccade-related frontal eye field; FEFsac), supplementary eye field (SEF), and rostral dorsal premotor area (PMDr). Area 7m also had major connections with the cingulate cortex (area 23), particularly the ventral bank of the cingulate sulcus. The principal subcortical connections of area 7m were with the dorsal portion of the ventrolateral thalamic (VLc) nucleus, lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, lateral pulvinar, caudal mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and medial pulvinar, central lateral, central superior lateral, and central inferior intralaminar thalamic nuclei, dorsolateral caudate nucleus and putamen, middle region of the claustrum, nucleus of the diagonal band, zona incerta, pregeniculate nucleus, anterior and posterior pretectal nuclei, intermediate layer of

  14. Particle-to-PFU ratio of Ebola virus influences disease course and survival in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfson, Kendra J; Avena, Laura E; Beadles, Michael W; Staples, Hilary; Nunneley, Jerritt W; Ticer, Anysha; Dick, Edward J; Owston, Michael A; Reed, Christopher; Patterson, Jean L; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony

    2015-07-01

    This study addresses the role of Ebola virus (EBOV) specific infectivity in virulence. Filoviruses are highly lethal, enveloped, single-stranded negative-sense RNA viruses that can cause hemorrhagic fever. No approved vaccines or therapies exist for filovirus infections, and infectious virus must be handled in maximum containment. Efficacy testing of countermeasures, in addition to investigations of pathogenicity and immune response, often requires a well-characterized animal model. For EBOV, an obstacle in performing accurate disease modeling is a poor understanding of what constitutes an infectious dose in animal models. One well-recognized consequence of viral passage in cell culture is a change in specific infectivity, often measured as a particle-to-PFU ratio. Here, we report that serial passages of EBOV in cell culture resulted in a decrease in particle-to-PFU ratio. Notably, this correlated with decreased potency in a lethal cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of infection; animals were infected with the same viral dose as determined by plaque assay, but animals that received more virus particles exhibited increased disease. This suggests that some particles are unable to form a plaque in a cell culture assay but are able to result in lethal disease in vivo. These results have a significant impact on how future studies are designed to model EBOV disease and test countermeasures. Ebola virus (EBOV) can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with a high case-fatality rate, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Specific infectivity can be considered the total number of viral particles per PFU, and its impact on disease is poorly understood. In stocks of most mammalian viruses, there are particles that are unable to complete an infectious cycle or unable to cause cell pathology in cultured cells. We asked if these particles cause disease in nonhuman primates by infecting monkeys with equal infectious doses of genetically identical stocks

  15. Somatic cell nuclear transfer using transported in vitro-matured oocytes in cynomolgus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N; Liow, S-L; Abdullah, R Bin; Embong, W Khadijah Wan; Yip, W-Y; Tan, L-G; Tong, G-Q; Ng, S-C

    2007-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is not successful so far in non-human primates. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stimulation cycles (first and repeat) on oocyte retrieval and in vitro maturation (IVM) and to evaluate the effects of stimulation cycles and donor cell type (cumulus and fetal skin fibroblasts) on efficiency of SCNT with transported IVM oocytes. In this study, 369 immature oocytes were collected laparoscopically at 24 h following human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) treatment from 12 cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in 24 stimulation cycles, and shipped in pre-equilibrated IVM medium for a 5 h journey, placed in a dry portable incubator (37 degrees C) without CO(2) supplement. A total of 70.6% (247/350) of immature oocytes reached metaphase II (MII) stage at 36 h after hCG administration, MII spindle could be seen clearly in 80.6% (104/129) of matured IVM oocytes under polarized microscopy. A total of 50.0% (37/74) of reconstructive SCNT embryos cleaved after activation; after cleavage, 37.8% (14/37) developed to the 8-cell stage and 8.1% (3/37) developed to morula, but unfortunately none developed to the blastocyst stage. Many more oocytes could be retrieved per cycle from monkeys in the first cycle than in repeated cycles (19.1 vs. 11.7, p vs. 71.4%, p > 0.05) and MII spindle rate under polarized microscopy (76.4 vs. 86.0%, p > 0.05) between the first and repeat cycles. There were also no significant differences in the cleavage rate, and the 4-cell, 8-cell and morula development rate of SCNT embryos between the first and repeat cycles. When fibroblast cells and cumulus cells were used as the donor cells for SCNT, first cleavage rate was not significantly different, but 4-cell (50.0 vs. 88.9%, p vs. 51.9%, p < 0.01) development rate were significantly lower for the former. In conclusion, the number of stimulation cycles has a significant effect on oocyte retrieval, but has no effect on maturation and SCNT embryo

  16. Genetic Diversity, Natural Selection and Haplotype Grouping of Plasmodium knowlesi Gamma Protein Region II (PkγRII: Comparison with the Duffy Binding Protein (PkDBPαRII.

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    Mun Yik Fong

    Full Text Available Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite that has been reported to cause malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. This parasite invades the erythrocytes of humans and of its natural host, the macaque Macaca fascicularis, via interaction between the Duffy binding protein region II (PkDBPαRII and the Duffy antigen receptor on the host erythrocytes. In contrast, the P. knowlesi gamma protein region II (PkγRII is not involved in the invasion of P. knowlesi into humans. PkγRII, however, mediates the invasion of P. knowlesi into the erythrocytes of M. mulata, a non-natural host of P. knowlesi via a hitherto unknown receptor. The haplotypes of PkDBPαRII in P. knowlesi isolates from Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo have been shown to be genetically distinct and geographically clustered. Also, the PkDBPαRII was observed to be undergoing purifying (negative selection. The present study aimed to determine whether similar phenomena occur in PkγRII.Blood samples from 78 knowlesi malaria patients were used. Forty-eight of the samples were from Peninsular Malaysia, and 30 were from Malaysia Borneo. The genomic DNA of the samples was extracted and used as template for the PCR amplification of the PkγRII. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. The sequences obtained were analysed for genetic diversity and natural selection using MEGA6 and DnaSP (version 5.10.00 programmes. Genetic differentiation between the PkγRII of Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo isolates was estimated using the Wright's FST fixation index in DnaSP (version 5.10.00. Haplotype analysis was carried out using the Median-Joining approach in NETWORK (version 4.6.1.3.A total of 78 PkγRII sequences was obtained. Comparative analysis showed that the PkγRII have similar range of haplotype (Hd and nucleotide diversity (π with that of PkDBPαRII. Other similarities between PkγRII and PkDBPαRII include undergoing purifying (negative selection, geographical clustering of

  17. Primate Cerebellar Granule Cells Exhibit a Tonic GABAAR Conductance that is not Affected by Alcohol: A Possible Cellular Substrate of the Low Level of Response Phenotype.

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    Claudia eMohr

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In many rodent brain regions, alcohol increases vesicular release of GABA, resulting in an increase in the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs and the magnitude of tonic GABAA receptor (GABAAR currents. A neglected issue in translating the rodent literature to humans is the possibility that phylogenetic differences alter the actions of alcohol. To address this issue we made voltage-clamp recordings from granule cells (GCs in cerebellar slices from the non-human primate, Macaca fascicularis. We found that similar to Sprague Dawley rats (SDRs, non-human primate (NHP GCs exhibit a tonic conductance generated by 6 subunit containing GABAARs, as evidenced by its blockade by the broad spectrum GABAAR antagonist, GABAzine (10M, inhibition by 6 selective antagonist, furosemide (100M, and enhancement by THDOC (10-20nM and THIP (500nM. In contrast to SDR GCs, in most NHP GCs (~60%, application of EtOH (25-105mM did not increase sIPSC frequency or the tonic GABAAR current. In a minority of cells (~40%, EtOH did increase sIPSC frequency and the tonic current. The relative lack of response to EtOH was associated with reduced expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, which we recently reported mediates EtOH-induced enhancement of vesicular GABA release in rats. The EtOH-induced increase in tonic GABAAR current was significantly smaller in NHPs than in SDRs, presumably due to less GABA release, because there were no obvious differences in the density of GABAARs or GABA transporters between SDR and NHP GCs. Thus, EtOH does not directly modulate 6 subunit GABAARs in NHPs. Instead, EtOH enhanced GABAergic transmission is mediated by enhanced GABA release. Further, SDR GC responses to alcohol are only representative of a subpopulation of NHP GCs. This suggests that the impact of EtOH on NHP cerebellar physiology will be reduced compared to SDRs, and will likely have different computational and behavioral

  18. An evolutionarily conserved sexual signature in the primate brain.

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    Björn Reinius

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of a potential biological sexual signature in the human brain is a heavily disputed subject. In order to provide further insight into this issue, we used an evolutionary approach to identify genes with sex differences in brain expression level among primates. We reasoned that expression patterns important to uphold key male and female characteristics may be conserved during evolution. We selected cortex for our studies because this specific brain region is responsible for many higher behavioral functions. We compared gene expression profiles in the occipital cortex of male and female humans (Homo sapiens, a great ape and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, an old world monkey, two catarrhine species that show abundant morphological sexual dimorphism, as well as in common marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus, a new world monkey which are relatively sexually monomorphic. We identified hundreds of genes with sex-biased expression patterns in humans and macaques, while fewer than ten were differentially expressed between the sexes in marmosets. In primates, a general rule is that many of the morphological and behavioral sexual dimorphisms seen in polygamous species, such as macaques, are typically less pronounced in monogamous species such as the marmosets. Our observations suggest that this correlation may also be reflected in the extent of sex-biased gene expression in the brain. We identified 85 genes with common sex-biased expression, in both human and macaque and 2 genes, X inactivation-specific transcript (XIST and Heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1, that were consistently sex-biased in the female direction in human, macaque, and marmoset. These observations imply a conserved signature of sexual gene expression dimorphism in cortex of primates. Further, we found that the coding region of female-biased genes is more evolutionarily constrained compared to the coding region of both male-biased and non sex-biased brain

  19. In vitro germ cell differentiation from cynomolgus monkey embryonic stem cells.

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    Kaori Yamauchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mouse embryonic stem (ES cells can differentiate into female and male germ cells in vitro. Primate ES cells can also differentiate into immature germ cells in vitro. However, little is known about the differentiation markers and culture conditions for in vitro germ cell differentiation from ES cells in primates. Monkey ES cells are thus considered to be a useful model to study primate gametogenesis in vitro. Therefore, in order to obtain further information on germ cell differentiation from primate ES cells, this study examined the ability of cynomolgus monkey ES cells to differentiate into germ cells in vitro. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To explore the differentiation markers for detecting germ cells differentiated from ES cells, the expression of various germ cell marker genes was examined in tissues and ES cells of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis. VASA is a valuable gene for the detection of germ cells differentiated from ES cells. An increase of VASA expression was observed when differentiation was induced in ES cells via embryoid body (EB formation. In addition, the expression of other germ cell markers, such as NANOS and PIWIL1 genes, was also up-regulated as the EB differentiation progressed. Immunocytochemistry identified the cells expressing stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA 1, OCT-4, and VASA proteins in the EBs. These cells were detected in the peripheral region of the EBs as specific cell populations, such as SSEA1-positive, OCT-4-positive cells, OCT-4-positive, VASA-positive cells, and OCT-4-negative, VASA-positive cells. Thereafter, the effect of mouse gonadal cell-conditioned medium and growth factors on germ cell differentiation from monkey ES cells was examined, and this revealed that the addition of BMP4 to differentiating ES cells increased the expression of SCP1, a meiotic marker gene. CONCLUSION: VASA is a valuable gene for the detection of germ cells differentiated from ES cells in monkeys, and the

  20. Chronic levodopa administration followed by a washout period increased number and induced phenotypic changes in striatal dopaminergic cells in MPTP-monkeys.

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    Carla DiCaudo

    Full Text Available In addition to the medium spiny neurons the mammalian striatum contains a small population of GABAergic interneurons that are immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, which dramatically increases after lesions to the nigrostriatal pathway and striatal delivery of neurotrophic factors. The regulatory effect of levodopa (L-Dopa on the number and phenotype of these cells is less well understood. Eleven macaques (Macaca fascicularis were included. Group I (n = 4 received 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP and L-Dopa; Group II (n = 4 was treated with MPTP plus vehicle and Group III (n = 3 consist of intact animals (control group. L-Dopa and vehicle were given for 1 year and animals sacrificed 6 months later. Immunohistochemistry against TH was used to identify striatal and nigral dopaminergic cells. Double and triple labeling immunofluorescence was performed to detect the neurochemical characteristics of the striatal TH-ir cells using antibodies against: TH, anti-glutamate decarboxylase (GAD(67 anti-calretinin (CR anti-dopa decarboxylase (DDC and anti-dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32. The greatest density of TH-ir striatal cells was detected in the striatum of the L-Dopa treated monkeys and particularly in its associative territory. None of the striatal TH-ir cell expressed DARPP-32 indicating they are interneurons. The percentages of TH-ir cells that expressed GAD67 and DDC was approximately 50%. Interestingly, we found that in the L-Dopa group the number of TH/CR expressing cells was significantly reduced. We conclude that chronic L-Dopa administration produced a long-lasting increase in the number of TH-ir cells, even after a washout period of 6 months. L-Dopa also modified the phenotype of these cells with a significant reduction of the TH/CR phenotype in favor of an increased number of TH/GAD cells that do not express CR. We suggest that the increased number of striatal TH-ir cells might be involved

  1. Investigation of spinal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons expressing PKD2L1: evidence for a conserved system from fish to primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenoune, Lydia; Khabou, Hanen; Joubert, Fanny; Quan, Feng B.; Nunes Figueiredo, Sophie; Bodineau, Laurence; Del Bene, Filippo; Burcklé, Céline; Tostivint, Hervé; Wyart, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Over 90 years ago, Kolmer and Agduhr identified spinal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs) based on their morphology and location within the spinal cord. In more than 200 vertebrate species, they observed ciliated neurons around the central canal that extended a brush of microvilli into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although their morphology is suggestive of a primitive sensory cell, their function within the vertebrate spinal cord remains unknown. The identification of specific molecular markers for these neurons in vertebrates would benefit the investigation of their physiological roles. PKD2L1, a transient receptor potential channel that could play a role as a sensory receptor, has been found in cells contacting the central canal in mouse. In this study, we demonstrate that PKD2L1 is a specific marker for CSF-cNs in the spinal cord of mouse (Mus musculus), macaque (Macaca fascicularis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). In these species, the somata of spinal PKD2L1+ CSF-cNs were located below or within the ependymal layer and extended an apical bulbous extension into the central canal. We found GABAergic PKD2L1-expressing CSF-cNs in all three species. We took advantage of the zebrafish embryo for its transparency and rapid development to identify the progenitor domains from which pkd2l1+ CSF-cNs originate. pkd2l1+ CSF-cNs were all GABAergic and organized in two rows—one ventral and one dorsal to the central canal. Their location and marker expression is consistent with previously described Kolmer–Agduhr cells. Accordingly, pkd2l1+ CSF-cNs were derived from the progenitor domains p3 and pMN defined by the expression of nkx2.2a and olig2 transcription factors, respectively. Altogether our results suggest that a system of CSF-cNs expressing the PKD2L1 channel is conserved in the spinal cord across bony vertebrate species. PMID:24834029

  2. Investigation of spinal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons expressing PKD2L1: evidence for a conserved system from fish to primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia eDjenoune

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over ninety years ago, Kolmer and Agduhr identified spinal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs based on their morphology and location within the spinal cord. In more than two hundred vertebrate species, they observed ciliated neurons around the central canal that extended a brush of microvilli into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Although their morphology is suggestive of a primitive sensory cell, their function within the vertebrate spinal cord remains unknown. The identification of specific molecular markers for these neurons in vertebrates would benefit the investigation of their physiological roles. PKD2L1, a transient receptor potential channel that could play a role as a sensory receptor, has been found in cells contacting the central canal in mouse. In this study, we demonstrate that PKD2L1 is a specific marker for CSF-cNs in the spinal cord of mouse (Mus musculus, macaque (Macaca fascicularis and zebrafish (Danio rerio. In these species, the somata of spinal PKD2L1+ CSF-cNs were located below or within the ependymal layer and extended an apical bulbous extension into the central canal. We found GABAergic PKD2L1-expressing CSF-cNs in all three species. We took advantage of the zebrafish embryo for its transparency and rapid development to identify the progenitor domains from which pkd2l1+ CSF-cNs originate. pkd2l1+ CSF-cNs were all GABAergic and organized in two rows—one ventral and one dorsal to the central canal. Their location and marker expression is consistent with previously described Kolmer-Agduhr cells. Accordingly, pkd2l1+ CSF-cNs were derived from the progenitor domains p3 and pMN defined by the expression of nkx2.2a and olig2 transcription factors, respectively. Altogether our results suggest that a system of CSF-cNs expressing the PKD2L1 channel is conserved in the spinal cord across bony vertebrate species.

  3. The November 2011 irruption of buoy barnacles Dosima fascicularis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buoy barnacles not uncommonly strand in the region attached to feathers, plastic litter and other small objects, but the 2011 irruption saw exceptional numbers of unusually large colonies (average 23.5 individuals; SD 18.5), most of ... Buoy barnacles were first observed at sea off the Cape Peninsula on 2 November 2011.

  4. Nervus terminalis, olfactory nerve, and optic nerve representation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, J W

    1987-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) system was examined immunocytochemically in olfactory bulbs of adult monkeys, including two New World species (squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus and owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus) and one Old World species (cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fasciculata), and in the brain and nasal region of a fetal rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta. LHRH neurons and fibers were found sparsely distributed in the olfactory bulbs in all adult monkeys. There was more LHRH in the accessory olfactory bulb (which is absent in Old World monkeys). In the fetal macaque there was a rich distribution of LHRH neurons and fibers along the pathway of the nervus terminalis, anterior and ventral to the olfactory bulb, and in the nasal septum, with fibers branching into the olfactory epithelium. In addition, there were LHRH neurons and fibers in the optic nerve.

  5. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G; Bumgarner, Roger; Weinstock, George M; Mardis, Elaine R; Remington, Karin A; Strausberg, Robert L; Venter, J Craig; Wilson, Richard K; Batzer, Mark A; Bustamante, Carlos D; Eichler, Evan E; Hahn, Matthew W; Hardison, Ross C; Makova, Kateryna D; Miller, Webb; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Palermo, Robert E; Siepel, Adam; Sikela, James M; Attaway, Tony; Bell, Stephanie; Bernard, Kelly E; Buhay, Christian J; Chandrabose, Mimi N; Dao, Marvin; Davis, Clay; Delehaunty, Kimberly D; Ding, Yan; Dinh, Huyen H; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Fulton, Lucinda A; Gabisi, Ramatu Ayiesha; Garner, Toni T; Godfrey, Jennifer; Hawes, Alicia C; Hernandez, Judith; Hines, Sandra; Holder, Michael; Hume, Jennifer; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Kirkness, Ewen F; Cree, Andrew; Fowler, R Gerald; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora R; Li, Zhangwan; Liu, Yih-Shin; Moore, Stephanie M; Muzny, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne V; Ngo, Dinh Ngoc; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Pai, Grace; Parker, David; Paul, Heidie A; Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Pohl, Craig S; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Ruiz, San Juana; Sabo, Aniko; Santibanez, Jireh; Schneider, Brian W; Smith, Scott M; Sodergren, Erica; Svatek, Amanda F; Utterback, Teresa R; Vattathil, Selina; Warren, Wesley; White, Courtney Sherell; Chinwalla, Asif T; Feng, Yucheng; Halpern, Aaron L; Hillier, Ladeana W; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Minx, Pat; Nelson, Joanne O; Pepin, Kymberlie H; Qin, Xiang; Sutton, Granger G; Venter, Eli; Walenz, Brian P; Wallis, John W; Worley, Kim C; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Jones, Steven M; Marra, Marco A; Rocchi, Mariano; Schein, Jacqueline E; Baertsch, Robert; Clarke, Laura; Csürös, Miklós; Glasscock, Jarret; Harris, R Alan; Havlak, Paul; Jackson, Andrew R; Jiang, Huaiyang; Liu, Yue; Messina, David N; Shen, Yufeng; Song, Henry Xing-Zhi; Wylie, Todd; Zhang, Lan; Birney, Ewan; Han, Kyudong; Konkel, Miriam K; Lee, Jungnam; Smit, Arian F A; Ullmer, Brygg; Wang, Hui; Xing, Jinchuan; Burhans, Richard; Cheng, Ze; Karro, John E; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; She, Xinwei; Cox, Michael J; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dumas, Laura J; Han, Sang-Gook; Hopkins, Janet; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Kim, Young H; Pollack, Jonathan R; Vinar, Tomas; Addo-Quaye, Charles; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Denby, Alexandra; Hubisz, Melissa J; Indap, Amit; Kosiol, Carolin; Lahn, Bruce T; Lawson, Heather A; Marklein, Alison; Nielsen, Rasmus; Vallender, Eric J; Clark, Andrew G; Ferguson, Betsy; Hernandez, Ryan D; Hirani, Kashif; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Kolb, Jessica; Patil, Shobha; Pu, Ling-Ling; Ren, Yanru; Smith, David Glenn; Wheeler, David A; Schenck, Ian; Ball, Edward V; Chen, Rui; Cooper, David N; Giardine, Belinda; Hsu, Fan; Kent, W James; Lesk, Arthur; Nelson, David L; O'brien, William E; Prüfer, Kay; Stenson, Peter D; Wallace, James C; Ke, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Peng; Xiang, Andy Peng; Yang, Fan; Barber, Galt P; Haussler, David; Karolchik, Donna; Kern, Andy D; Kuhn, Robert M; Smith, Kayla E; Zwieg, Ann S

    2007-04-13

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of the species.

  6. A Species Difference in Visuospatial Memory: A Failure of Memory for What, Where, or What is Where?

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.; Martin, Bridgette

    2003-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine why rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perform so poorly on a visuospatial memory test modeled after a popular children’s game (Concentration). In these studies, four different memory tasks were administered to ascertain whether monkeys show limitations in visual memory (memory for which images had been seen), limitations in spatial memory (limitations of what locations had been visited), or limitations in the coordination of these two modalities (mem...

  7. Candidate Medical Countermeasures Targeting Ebola Virus Cell Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    Functionally, GP1,2 alone mediates virion 38 adsorption to host-cell surfaces, receptor binding, fusion of the virion envelope with host-cell 39...survived [60]. However, whether convalescent plasma directly led to recovery could never 123 be determined [61] because the treated individuals also...GP1,2 epitopes: the GP1-GP2 interface, 170 the GP1 glycan cap, and the GP1 mucin-like domain [76]. Administered to crab- eating macaques 171 (Macaca

  8. Stálost objektu jako metoda pro výzkum vyšších kognitivních funkcí primátů

    OpenAIRE

    Englerová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Object permanence is a cognitive ability, which allows individual to realize the existence of an object even it is not directly accessible to its senses. This ability is essential for successful using of complex cognitive operations. Object permanence is qualitatively and gradually change throughout the development of a child. Congruently, it is not developed to the same level in various species of animals. The aim of this study is to study object permanence in naive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mu...

  9. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due...

  10. Serum Antibody Responses to Oral Microorganisms in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    initiating periodontal disetse. Although several hundred bacterial species have been found to inhabit the oral cavity , the list of putative...vibrios. Krygier et at. (1973) studied the sulcular microbiota of Macaca speciosa in health and during a 7-day period of no oral hygiene measures...colonization of the oral cavity with this microorganismr Several studies have demonstrated an association of P. gingivalis and P. intemiedia with

  11. A whole-body autoradiographic study on the distribution of tritium in cynomolgus monkeys dosed with a tritiated extract of Ruscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, P.; Rico, A.G.; Cousse, H.; Fauran, F.

    1985-01-01

    A metabolic study has been performed on macaca monkey treated with a tritiated Ruscus extract. There is a rather good absorption of radioactivity when the preparation is delivered orally. The percutaneous absorption is much lower. A large part of the delivered activity is excreted in feces and urine. Sapogenins are the main urinary metabolites. In the body, tritium is mainly localized in the liver, the kidney, the spleen (white pulp) and the bone marrow [fr

  12. Radiation-induced genetic effects in germ cells of mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buul, P.P.W.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the project is to gain information on the effects of ionizing radiation on germ cells of rodents and primates as measured by induced chromosomal translocations. Different aspects of the very significant interspecies differences between the mouse and the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) for translocation induction in spermatogonial stem cells were studied. In addition, possible mechanisms for the well established reduced transmission of induced mouse translocations were investigated. (R.P.) 6 refs

  13. Thoracic epidural anesthesia attenuates hemorrhagic-induced splanchnic hypo-perfusion in post-resuscitation experimental hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S Madjid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to assess the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on splanchnic perfusion, bacterial translocation and histopathologic changes in experimental hemorrhagic shock in short-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina. Sixteen Macaca nemestrinas were randomly assigned to one of two groups i.e. the lidocaine group (n = 8, receiving general anesthesia plus lidocaine thoracic epidural anesthesia; and the saline group (n = 8, receiving general anesthesia alone as control. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood gradually to a mean arterial pressure (MAP of 40 mm Hg, and maintained for 60 minutes. Animals were then resuscitated with their own blood and ringer lactate solution (RL. After resuscitation, epidural lidocaine 2% was given in the lidocaine group and saline in the control group. Resuscitation that was performed after one hour hemorrhagic shock, with hemodynamic variables and urine output returned to normal, revealed there was no improvement of splanchnic perfusion. PgCO2, P(g-aCO2, and pHi remained in critical value and tended to deteriorate in the saline group. Contrast to saline group, splanchnic perfusion in lidocaine group tended to improve. This condition was supported by the finding of less bacterial translocation and better histopathologic changes in lidocaine thoracic epidural anesthesia group than in saline group. This study concludes that lidocaine thoracic epidural anesthesia attenuates splachnic hypoperfusion in post-resuscitation hemorrhagic shock in Macaca nemestrina. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 73-81Keywords: thoracic epidural anesthesia, lidocaine, hemorrhagic shock, splanchnic hypoperfusion, bacterial translocation

  14. The phylogenetic roots of cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Samantha; Jett, Stephanie E; Beckman, Tamra; Vonk, Jennifer

    2010-11-01

    We presented 7 Old World monkeys (Japanese macaques [Macaca fuscata], gray-cheeked mangabey [Lophocebus albigena], rhesus macaques [Macaca mulatta], bonnet macaque [Macaca radiate], and olive baboon [Papio anubis]), 3 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 6 members of the parrot (Psittacinae) family, and 4 American black bears (Ursus americanus) with a cognitive dissonance paradigm modeled after Egan, Santos, and Bloom (2007). In experimental trials, subjects were given choices between 2 equally preferred food items and then presented with the unchosen option and a novel, equally preferred food item. In control trials, subjects were presented with 1 accessible and 1 inaccessible option from another triad of equally preferred food items. They were then presented with the previously inaccessible item and a novel member of that triad. Subjects, as a whole, did not prefer the novel item in experimental or control trials. However, there was a tendency toward a subject by condition interaction. When analyzed by primate versus nonprimate categories, only primates preferred the novel item in experimental but not control trials, indicating that they resolved cognitive dissonance by devaluing the unchosen option only when an option was derogated by their own free choice. This finding suggests that this phenomenon might exist within but not outside of the primate order. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Sistemas de previsão de requeima em cultivos de batata em Santa Maria, RS Forecast systems of late blight in potato crops in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leosane Cristina Bosco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de previsão constituem alternativa para o controle eficiente da requeima em batata e consequente redução da quantidade de fungicidas utilizados, dos custos de produção e da poluição ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os sistemas de previsão de ocorrência de requeima, Blitecast e Prophy, em cultivos de primavera e outono de batata, cultivar Macaca, suscetível a requeima, na região produtora de Santa Maria (RS. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na primavera de 2006 e outono de 2007 com a cultivar Macaca. Os dados meteorológicos foram coletados no centro da área experimental com uma estação automática e com psicrômetros instalados em diferentes níveis. Os tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo diferenciados por meio dos valores de severidade acumulados, calculados pelos sistemas de previsão Blitecast e Prophy. Os valores de severidade acumulados foram utilizados como indicadores do momento de aplicação de fungicida para o controle da requeima. Verificou-se que a utilização do sistema de previsão de requeima Prophy, com acúmulo de 15, 20 ou 25 valores de severidade e do sistema Blitecast com 24 valores de severidade acumulados, para o genótipo de batata suscetível, Macaca, permite reduzir o número de aplicações de fungicidas sem afetar significativamente a produtividade de tubérculos comerciais.The forecast systems are an alternative to the efficient control of late blight potatoes and consequent reduction in the amount of fungicide and thereby reduce production costs and environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate forecast systems, Blitecast and Prophy, for late blight occurrence in Macaca potato cultivar in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experiments were carried out during Spring 2006 and Autumn 2007 with the Macaca cultivar characterized as susceptible to late blight. Meteorological

  16. Background and stimulus-induced patterns of high metabolic activity in the visual cortex (area 17) of the squirrel and macaque monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, A.L.; Hendrickson, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    We have used 2-deoxy-D-[ 14 C]glucose (2-DG) autoradiography and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry to examine background and stimulus-induced patterns of metabolic activity in monkey striate cortex. In squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that binocularly or monocularly viewed diffuse white light or binocularly viewed bars of many orientations and spatial frequencies, 2-DG consumption was not uniform across the cortex but consisted of regularly spaced radial zones of high uptake. The zones extended through all laminae except IVc beta and, when viewed tangentially, formed separate patches 500 microns apart. The cytochrome oxidase stain in these animals also revealed patches of high metabolism which coincided with the 2-DG patches. Squirrel monkeys binocularly viewing vertical stripes showed parallel bands of increased 2-DG uptake in the cortex, while the cytochrome label in these animals remained patchy. When monkeys were kept in the dark during 2-DG exposure, 2-DG-labeled patches were not seen but cytochrome oxidase-positive patches remained. In macaque (Macaca nemestrina) monkeys, binocular stimulation with many orientations and spatial frequencies produced radial zones of high 2-DG uptake in layers I to IVa and VI. When viewed tangentially, these zones formed a dots-in-rows pattern with a spacing of 350 X 500 microns; cytochrome oxidase staining produced an identical pattern. Macaca differed from Saimiri in that monocular stimulation labeled alternate rows. These results indicate that there are radial zones of high background metabolism across squirrel and macaque monkey striate cortex. In Saimiri these zones do not appear to be related to an eye dominance system, while in Macaca they do. The presence of these zones of high metabolism may complicate the interpretation of 2-DG autoradiographs that result from specific visual stimuli

  17. A novel neural prosthesis providing long-term electrocorticography recording and cortical stimulation for epilepsy and brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Pantaleo; Piangerelli, Marco; Ratel, David; Gaude, Christophe; Costecalde, Thomas; Puttilli, Cosimo; Picciafuoco, Mauro; Benabid, Alim; Torres, Napoleon

    2018-05-11

    OBJECTIVE Wireless technology is a novel tool for the transmission of cortical signals. Wireless electrocorticography (ECoG) aims to improve the safety and diagnostic gain of procedures requiring invasive localization of seizure foci and also to provide long-term recording of brain activity for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, no wireless devices aimed at these clinical applications are currently available. The authors present the application of a fully implantable and externally rechargeable neural prosthesis providing wireless ECoG recording and direct cortical stimulation (DCS). Prolonged wireless ECoG monitoring was tested in nonhuman primates by using a custom-made device (the ECoG implantable wireless 16-electrode [ECOGIW-16E] device) containing a 16-contact subdural grid. This is a preliminary step toward large-scale, long-term wireless ECoG recording in humans. METHODS The authors implanted the ECOGIW-16E device over the left sensorimotor cortex of a nonhuman primate ( Macaca fascicularis), recording ECoG signals over a time span of 6 months. Daily electrode impedances were measured, aiming to maintain the impedance values below a threshold of 100 KΩ. Brain mapping was obtained through wireless cortical stimulation at fixed intervals (1, 3, and 6 months). After 6 months, the device was removed. The authors analyzed cortical tissues by using conventional histological and immunohistological investigation to assess whether there was evidence of damage after the long-term implantation of the grid. RESULTS The implant was well tolerated; no neurological or behavioral consequences were reported in the monkey, which resumed his normal activities within a few hours of the procedure. The signal quality of wireless ECoG remained excellent over the 6-month observation period. Impedance values remained well below the threshold value; the average impedance per contact remains approximately 40 KΩ. Wireless cortical stimulation induced movements of the upper

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-1316 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1316 ref|NP_057167.2| cannabinoid receptor 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001013035.1| cann...abinoid receptor 1 [Pan troglodytes] ref|NP_001027997.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Mac...aca mulatta] ref|NP_001153698.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001153730.1| cannabi...noid receptor 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001153731.1| cannabinoid receptor... 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001153732.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] sp|P21554|CN

  19. Mast cell density in isolated monkey lungs on exposure to cigarette smoke.

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, A; Walter, S

    1982-01-01

    The density and percentage of degranulated cells of the mast cell population were studied in the isolated lungs of 25 monkeys (Macaca radiata radiata) before and after acute exposure to cigarette smoke. In each animal one lung was used as the test lung while the other lung was used as its control. In the control lungs the total mean mast cell count was 9.5/mm2 and the proportion of degranulated cells was 9.7%. In the lungs exposed to smoke the total counts were lower (7.3/mm2) and the percent...

  20. NEURONAS ESPEJO Y EL APRENDIZAJE EN ANESTESIA Learning anaesthesia and mirror neurons

    OpenAIRE

    John Bautista; José R Navarro

    2011-01-01

    Las neuronas espejo fueron descritas inicialmente en primates de la especie Macaca nemestrina hacia el año 1990 por el neurofisiólogo Giacomo Rizzolatti y su grupo de la Universidad de Parma, en Italia. Son neuronas motoras que activan cuando el individuo observa la acción concreta para la que están predeterminadas sin generar ningún tipo de actividad motora. En la actualidad se considera que estas neuronas participan en procesos de adaptación al entorno social ya que permiten no solamente co...

  1. Neuronas espejo y el aprendizaje en anestesia

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Jhon; Navarro, José Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Las neuronas espejo fueron descritas inicialmente en primates de la especie Macaca nemestrina hacia el año 1990 por el neurofisiólogo Giacomo Rizzolatti y su grupo de la Universidad de Parma, en Italia. Son neuronas motoras que activan cuando el individuo observa la acción concreta para la que están predeterminadas sin generar ningún tipo de actividad motora. En la actualidad se considera que estas neuronas participan en procesos de adaptación al entorno social ya que permiten no solamente co...

  2. Functional correlates of the position of the axis of rotation of the mandible during chewing in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Terhune, Claire E; Taylor, Andrea B; Ross, Callum F

    2017-10-01

    The location of the axis of rotation (AoR) of the mandible was quantified using the helical axis (HA) in eight individuals from three species of non-human primates: Papio anubis, Cebus apella, and Macaca mulatta. These data were used to test three hypotheses regarding the functional significance of anteroposterior condylar translation - an AoR located inferior to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) - during chewing: minimizing impingement of the gonial region on cervical soft tissue structures during jaw opening; avoiding stretching of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle (IANB); and increasing jaw-elevator muscle torques. The results reveal that the HA is located near the occlusal plane in Papio and Cebus, but closer to the condyle in Macaca; is located anteroinferior to the TMJ during both opening and closing in Papio, as well as during opening in Macaca and Cebus; and varies in its location during closing in Macaca and Cebus. The impingement hypothesis is not supported by interspecific variation in HA location: species with larger gonial angles like Cebus do not have more inferiorly located HAs than species with more obtuse mandibular angles like Papio. However, intraspecific variation provides some support for the impingement hypothesis. The HA seldom passes near or through the lingula, falsifying the hypothesis that its location is determined by the sphenomandibular ligament, and the magnitudes of strain associated with a HA at the TMJ would not be large enough to cause problematic stretching of the IANB. HA location does affect muscle moment arms about the TMJ, with implications for the torque generation capability of the jaw-elevator muscles. In Cebus, a HA farther away from the TMJ is associated with larger jaw-elevator muscle moment arms about the joint than if it were at the TMJ. The effects of HA location on muscle strain and muscle moment arms are largest at large gapes and smallest at low gapes, suggesting that if HA location is of functional

  3. Database Description - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 Database Description General information of database Database name FANTOM5 Alternati...me: Rattus norvegicus Taxonomy ID: 10116 Taxonomy Name: Macaca mulatta Taxonomy ID: 9544 Database descriptio...l Links: Original website information Database maintenance site RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, ...ilable Web services Not available URL of Web services - Need for user registration Not available About This Database Database... Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  4. Processing of pro-opiomelanocortin-derived amidated joining peptide and glycine-extended precursor in monkey pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1991-01-01

    The molecular forms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derived amidated and C-terminal glycine-extended joining peptide from monkey (Macaca mulatta) pituitary were determined. The predominant forms of joining peptide found were the low molecular peptides POMC(76-105) and POMC(76-106), respectively...... sequence of monkey and human POMC extremely conserved, but also the processing patterns are similar. The monkey therefore serves as a suitable model for studying regulation of the processing of POMC and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in man....

  5. Emesis in monkeys following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, G.R.; Young, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    There were 129 male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exposed to prompt radiations (neutron/gamma = 0.4 and pulse width = 50 ms) ranging from 700 to 5600 rad (midhead dose). The animals were fasted 18 h preexposure and observed for incidence of vomiting for 2 h postexposure. For doses less than 1000 rads, the number of animals that vomited increased directly with dose. Above 1000 rads, the number of animals that vomited decreased with increasing dose. The total number of vomits per dose group followed a nearly identical pattern to the incidence of emesis. In all dose groups, most of the emetic episodes occurred between 20 and 50 min postirradiation

  6. Nocturnal sleep in isolation-reared monkeys: evidence for enviromental independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reite, M; Short, R

    1977-11-01

    Thirteen all-night recordings were obtained from 3 infant pigtailed (Macaca nemestrina) monkeys raised on a cloth surrogate mother and under conditions of social isolation. Totally implantable biotelemetry systems were used to record the sleep physiology from the unrestrained animals. Sleep stages and night-to-night variability were virtually identical to values previously found in 8 mother-reared group-living infants. Sustained alterations in the early rearing enviroment, even though considerably modifying the organism's development, did not appear to result in differences in sleep organization.

  7. Myeloid regeneration after whole body irradiation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrus, C.M.; Ambrus, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa) received lethal whole-body radiation. Autologous bone marrow injection resulted in survival of the majority of the animals. Treatment with Deca-Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, caused more rapid recovery of colony-forming cell numbers in the bone marrow than in control animals. Both the Deca-Durabolin-treated and control groups were given autologous bone marrow transplantation. Anabolic steroid effect on transplanted bone marrow colony-forming cells may explain the increased rate of leukopoietic regeneration in anabolic steroid-treated animals as compared to controls

  8. Functional analysis of frequently expressed Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules Mamu-A1*02601 and Mamu-B*08301 reveals HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 supertypic specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southwood, Scott; Solomon, Christopher; Hoof, Ilka

    2011-01-01

    The Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection and AIDS-related research, despite the potential that macaques of Chinese origin is a more relevant model. Ongoing efforts to further characterize the Chinese...... populations. In this study, we have characterized two additional alleles expressed with high frequency in Chinese rhesus macaques, Mamu-A1*02601 and Mamu-B*08301. Upon the development of MHC–peptide-binding assays and definition of their associated motifs, we reveal that these Mamu alleles share peptide...

  9. The most common Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecule shares peptide binding repertoire with the HLA-B7 supertype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, C.; Southwood, S.; Hoof, Ilka

    2010-01-01

    Of the two rhesus macaque subspecies used for AIDS studies, the Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection, providing both insight into pathogenesis and a system for testing novel vaccines. Despite the Chinese rhesus.......3%) of the sequences identified were novel. From all MHC alleles detected, we prioritized Mamu-A1*02201 for functional characterization based on its higher frequency of expression. Upon the development of MHC/peptide binding assays and definition of its associated motif, we revealed that this allele shares peptide...

  10. Short-term costs and benefits of grooming in Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Alessandrini, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the short-term consequences of giving grooming in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in order to obtain information on its immediate costs and benefits. Giving grooming was associated with increased aggression received from groomees and decreased aggression received from third parties (but only as long as the groomer maintained proximity to the groomee). Grooming was also associated with decreased scratching rates. These results emphasize the unpredictable outcome of individual grooming interactions and the difficulties of social decision-making for monkeys living in despotic societies.

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1589 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1589 ref|NP_057307.2| protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons... 3 [Homo sapiens] ref|XP_001110379.1| PREDICTED: similar to protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons...asein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001166571.1...| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 1 [Pan troglodytes] ref|XP_00...1166605.1| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Pan troglodytes

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0155 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0155 ref|NP_057307.2| protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons... 3 [Homo sapiens] ref|XP_001110379.1| PREDICTED: similar to protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons...asein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001166571.1...| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 1 [Pan troglodytes] ref|XP_00...1166605.1| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Pan troglodytes

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0587 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0587 ref|NP_057307.2| protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons... 3 [Homo sapiens] ref|XP_001110379.1| PREDICTED: similar to protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons...asein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001166571.1...| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 1 [Pan troglodytes] ref|XP_00...1166605.1| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Pan troglodytes

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1696 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1696 ref|NP_057307.2| protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons... 3 [Homo sapiens] ref|XP_001110379.1| PREDICTED: similar to protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons...asein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001166571.1...| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 1 [Pan troglodytes] ref|XP_00...1166605.1| PREDICTED: protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 isoform 2 [Pan troglodytes

  15. Modification of light utilization for skeletal growth by water flow in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, M.; Kranenbarg, S.; Wijffels, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Osinga, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the importance of water flow for skeletal growth (rate) becomes higher with increasing irradiance levels (i.e. a synergistic effect) and that such effect is mediated by a water flow modulated effect on net photosynthesis. Four series of nine nubbins of G.

  16. Equilibrium Performance Changes Produced by Atropine in M. mulatta and M. fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    the behavior of one animal within each group was more severely disrupted than the others. A Student -Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test (31) on the...Med 45(11):1291- 1297 (1974). 7. I)ix, M. R. Treatment of vertigo. Physiotherapy 60(12):380-384 (1974). 8. Fregly, A. R., M. J. Smith, C. D. Wood, and

  17. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA

    OpenAIRE

    David G. James; Lorraine Seymour; Gerry Lauby; Katie Buckley

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other bene...

  18. Oxygen and Heterotrophy Affect Calcification of the Scleractinian Coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgerde, T.H.M.; Jurriaans, S.; Hoofd, M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Osinga, R.

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrophy is known to stimulate calcification of scleractinian corals, possibly through enhanced organic matrix synthesis and photosynthesis, and increased supply of metabolic DIC. In contrast to the positive long-term effects of heterotrophy, inhibition of calcification has been observed during

  19. Lethal canine distemper virus outbreak in cynomolgus monkeys in Japan in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kouji; Nagata, Noriyo; Ami, Yasushi; Seki, Fumio; Suzaki, Yuriko; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Komase, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Hideki; Saijo, Masayuki; Takeda, Makoto; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently expanded its host range to nonhuman primates. A large CDV outbreak occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi Province, China, in 2006, followed by another outbreak in rhesus monkeys at an animal center in Beijing in 2008. In 2008 in Japan, a CDV outbreak also occurred in cynomolgus monkeys imported from China. In that outbreak, 46 monkeys died from severe pneumonia during a quarantine period. A CDV strain (CYN07-dV) was isolated in Vero cells expressing dog signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Phylogenic analysis showed that CYN07-dV was closely related to the recent CDV outbreaks in China, suggesting continuing chains of CDV infection in monkeys. In vitro, CYN07-dV uses macaca SLAM and macaca nectin4 as receptors as efficiently as dog SLAM and dog nectin4, respectively. CYN07-dV showed high virulence in experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys and excreted progeny viruses in oral fluid and feces. These data revealed that some of the CDV strains, like CYN07-dV, have the potential to cause acute systemic infection in monkeys.

  20. Characterization of interleukin-8 receptors in non-human primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, V.; Coto, E.; Gonzalez-Roces, S.; Lopez-Larrea, C. [Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Interleukin-8 is a chemokine with a potent neutrophil chemoatractant activity. In humans, two different cDNAs encoding human IL8 receptors designated IL8RA and IL8RB have been cloned. IL8RA binds IL8, while IL8RB binds IL8 as well as other {alpha}-chemokines. Both human IL8Rs are encoded by two genes physically linked on chromosome 2. The IL8RA and IL8RB genes have open reading frames (ORF) lacking introns. By direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction products, we sequenced the IL8R genes of cell lines from four non-human primates: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and macaca. The IL8RB encodes an ORF in the four non-human primates, showing 95%-99% similarity to the human IL8RB sequence. The IL8RA homologue in gorilla and chimpanzee consisted of two ORF 98%-99% identical to the human sequence. The macaca and orangutan IL8RA homologues are pseudogenes: a 2 base pair insertion generated a sequence with several stop codons. In addition, we describe the physical linkage of these genes in the four non-human primates and discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.