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Sample records for macaca fascicularis electronic

  1. Osseointegration of dental implants in Macaca fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, R. S.; Odang, R. W.; Odelia, L.

    2017-08-01

    Osseointegration is an important factor in determining the success of a dental implant. It can be assessed from the osseointegration that occurs between the implant and the bone. The implant stability is determined by the osseous support at the implant-bone interface, which is commonly evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether the osseointegration level measured by a Low Resonance Frequency Analyzer (LRFA) gave results as good as those obtained by histomorphometric examination. Six male Macaca fascicularis were used in this study. In each animal, two types of loading were performed: immediate and delayed loading. Clinical examination and LRFA measurement were performed to determine osseointegration at the first and second weeks and at the first, second, third, and fourth months. After four months, histomorphometric examination was performed. The relationship between the histomorphometric examination and LRFA measurement was compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient. There was no significant difference in the osseointegration between immediate loading and delayed loading (p > 0.05) The bone-implant contact percentage in the first group did not differ significantly from that in the second group. Statistical analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between LRFA measurement and histomorphometric examination. Osseointegration could be evaluated through LRFA measurement as well as through histomorphometric examination.

  2. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Macaca fascicularis by EST Analysis

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    Hao Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which repress gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. In this study, an expressed sequence tag (EST-based combined method was applied for the detection of miRNAs in Macaca fascicularis which is used as a model animal extensively in medical experiments, particularly those involved with neuroscience and disease. Initially, previously known miRNA sequences from metazoans were used to blast with the EST databases of Macaca fascicularis, and then a range of filtering criteria was conducted to remove some pseudo ones. At last a total of 8 novel conserved miRNAs were identified; their functions were further predicted and analyzed. Together, our study provides insight into miRNAs and their functions in Macaca fascicularis, indicating that the EST analysis is an efficient and affordable alternative approach for identifying novel miRNA candidates.

  3. Construction and Validation of a Systematic Ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a Free Enclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Xu; Liang Xie; Xin Li; Qi Li; Tao Wang; Yongjia Ji; Fei Kong; Qunlin Zhan; Ke Cheng; Liang Fang; Peng Xie

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of th...

  4. Evaluation of Infrared Thermometry in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffins, Michael M; Mellal, Nacera; Almlie, Cynthia L; Regalia, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Recording an accurate body temperature is important to assess an animal's health status. We compared temperature data from sedated cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to evaluate differences between rectal, infrared (inguinal and chest), and implanted telemetry techniques with the objective of demonstrating the diagnostic equivalence of the infrared device with other approaches. Infrared thermometer readings are instantaneous and require no contact with the animal. Body temperature data were obtained from 205 (137 male, 68 female) cynomolgus macaques under ketamine (10 mg/kg IM) sedation over a 3-mo period during scheduled physical examinations. Infrared measurements were taken 5 cm from the chest and inguinal areas. We evaluated 10 (9 functional devices) sedated cynomolgus macaques (5 male, 5 female) implanted with telemetry units in a muscular pouch between the internal and external abdominal oblique muscles. We determined that the mean body temperature acquired by using telemetry did not differ from either the mean of inguinal and chest infrared measurements but did differ from the mean of temperature obtained rectally. In addition, the mean rectal temperature differed from the mean of the inguinal reading but not the mean of the chest temperature. The results confirm our hypothesis that the infrared thermometer can be used to replace standard rectal thermometry. PMID:28905720

  5. Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) immunoglobulin heavy chain locus description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo-Yun; Mate, Suzanne; Garcia, Karla; Ward, Michael D; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hall, Matthew; Kenny, Tara; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have become an important animal model for biomedical research. In particular, it is the animal model of choice for the development of vaccine candidates associated with emerging dangerous pathogens. Despite their increasing importance as animal models, the cynomolgus macaque genome is not fully characterized, hindering molecular studies for this model. More importantly, the lack of knowledge about the immunoglobulin (IG) locus organization directly impacts the analysis of the humoral response in cynomolgus macaques. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to analyze IG repertoires open the opportunity to deeply characterize the humoral immune response. However, the IG locus organization for the animal is required to completely dissect IG repertoires. Here, we describe the localization and organization of the rearranging IG heavy (IGH) genes on chromosome 7 of the cynomolgus macaque draft genome. Our annotation comprises 108 functional genes which include 63 variable (IGHV), 38 diversity (IGHD), and 7 joining (IGHJ) genes. For validation, we provide RNA transcript data for most of the IGHV genes and all of the annotated IGHJ genes, as well as proteomic data to validate IGH constant genes. The description and annotation of the rearranging IGH genes for the cynomolgus macaques will significantly facilitate scientific research. This is particularly relevant to dissect the immune response during vaccination or infection with dangerous pathogens such as Ebola, Marburg and other emerging pathogens where non-human primate models play a significant role for countermeasure development.

  6. Construction and validation of a systematic ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Xie, Liang; Li, Xin; Li, Qi; Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations.

  7. Construction and validation of a systematic ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations.

  8. STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COCHLEAR NUCLEI OF MONKEY (MACACA FASCICULARIS AFTER DEAFFERENTATION

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    Ana M Insausti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cochlear nuclei (CN in the brainstem receive the input signals from the inner ear through the cochlear nerve, and transmit these signals to higher auditory centres. A variety of lesions of the cochlear nerve cause deafness. As reported in the literature, artificial removal of auditive input, or 'deafferentation', induces structural alterations in the CN. The purpose of this study was to estimate a number of relevant stereological parameters of the CN in control and deafferented Macaca fascicularis monkeys.

  9. Probing around implants and teeth with healthy or inflamed peri-implant mucosa/gingival. A histologic comparison in cynomolgus monkeys. (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Stoltze, K.

    2002-01-01

    Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis......Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis...

  10. High resolution karyotype of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

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    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method very well suited to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB-applying probes derived from Homo sapiens were used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result highlights that morphological differences within the Cercopithecoidea must be found rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  11. High resolution karyotype of thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

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    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH-banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method suited very well to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB applying probes derived from Homo sapiens was used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result pinpoints, that morphological differences within the Ceropithecoidae must be founded rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  12. Large-scale analysis of Macaca fascicularis transcripts and inference of genetic divergence between M. fascicularis and M. mulatta

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    Sugano Sumio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis are widely used as experimental animals in biomedical research and are closely related to other laboratory macaques, such as rhesus macaques (M. mulatta. We isolated 85,721 clones and determined 9407 full-insert sequences from cynomolgus monkey brain, testis, and liver. These sequences were annotated based on homology to human genes and stored in a database, QFbase http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. Results We found that 1024 transcripts did not represent any public human cDNA sequence and examined their expression using M. fascicularis oligonucleotide microarrays. Significant expression was detected for 544 (51% of the unidentified transcripts. Moreover, we identified 226 genes containing exon alterations in the untranslated regions of the macaque transcripts, despite the highly conserved structure of the coding regions. Considering the polymorphism in the common ancestor of cynomolgus and rhesus macaques and the rate of PCR errors, the divergence time between the two species was estimated to be around 0.9 million years ago. Conclusion Transcript data from Old World monkeys provide a means not only to determine the evolutionary difference between human and non-human primates but also to unveil hidden transcripts in the human genome. Increasing the genomic resources and information of macaque monkeys will greatly contribute to the development of evolutionary biology and biomedical sciences.

  13. AKTIVITAS HARIAN KERA EKOR PANJANG (Macaca fascicularis DI TAMAN WISATA ALAM SANGEH, KABUPATEN BADUNG, BALI

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    Komang Gede Wahyu Saputra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang aktivitas harian kera ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis telah dilakukan di Taman Wisata Alam Sangeh, Kabupaten Badung, Bali dari bulan Oktober – Desember 2012. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perilaku harian kera ekor panjang (M.  fascicularis di Taman Wisata Alam Sangeh. Penelitian perilaku harian kera dilakukan dengan metode Focal Animal Sampling. Data yang terkumpul dari berbagai jenis perilaku di analisa secara deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa frekuensi aktivitas harian kera ekor panjang didominasi oleh perilaku bergerak, kemudian berturut-turut diikuti oleh perilaku istirahat, makan, grooming, mendekap di dada, objek manipulasi, cuddling, agresif. sedangkan perilaku yang paling jarang dilakukan adalah kawin. Berdasarkan jenis kelamin individu dewasa, perilaku istirahat, makan, bergerak, agresif, objek manipulasi dan kawin didominasi oleh jantan sedangkan perilaku mendekap di dada, cuddling, dan grooming di dominasi oleh betina.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA and two Y-chromosome genes of common long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) throughout Thailand and vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunlungsup, Srichan; Imai, Hiroo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Matsudaira, Kazunari; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2017-02-01

    Macaca fascicularis fascicularis is distributed over a wide area of Southeast Asia. Thailand is located at the center of their distribution range and is the bridge connecting the two biogeographic regions of Indochina and Sunda. However, only a few genetic studies have explored the macaques in this region. To shed some light on the evolutionary history of M. f. fascicularis, including hybridization with M. mulatta, M. f. fascicularis and M. mulatta samples of known origins throughout Thailand and the vicinity were analyzed by molecular phylogenetics using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including the hypervariable region 1, and Y-chromosomal DNA, including SRY and TSPY genes. The mtDNA phylogenetic analysis divided M. f. fascicularis into five subclades (Insular Indonesia, Sundaic Thai Gulf, Vietnam, Sundaic Andaman sea coast, and Indochina) and revealed genetic differentiation between the two sides of the Thai peninsula, which had previously been reported as a single group of Malay peninsular macaques. From the estimated divergence time of the Sundaic Andaman sea coast subclade, it is proposed that after M. f. fascicularis dispersed throughout Southeast Asia, some populations on the south-easternmost Indochina (eastern Thailand, southern Cambodia and southern Vietnam at the present time) migrated south-westwards across the land bridge, which was exposed during the glacial period of the late Pleistocene epoch, to the southernmost Thailand/northern peninsular Malaysia. Then, some of them migrated north and south to colonize the Thai Andaman sea coast and northern Sumatra, respectively. The SRY-TSPY phylogenetic analysis suggested that male-mediated gene flow from M. mulatta southward to M. f. fascicularis was restricted south of, but close to, the Isthmus of Kra. There was a strong impact of the geographical factors in Thailand, such as the Isthmus of Kra, Nakhon Si Thammarat, and Phuket ranges and Sundaland, on M. f. fascicularis biogeography and their hybridization

  15. Biologic data of Macaca mulatta, Macaca fascicularis, and Saimiri sciureusused for research at the fiocruz primate center

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    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological parameters of laboratory animals used for biomedical research is crucial for following several experimental procedures. With the intent to establish baseline biologic parameters for non-human primates held in closed colonies, hematological and morphometric data of captive monkeys were determined. Data of clinically healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus were collected over a period of five years. Animals were separated according to sex and divided into five age groups. Hematological data were compared with those in the literature by Student's t test. Discrepancies with significance levels of 0.1, 1 or 5% were found in the hematological studies. Growth curves showed that the sexual dimorphism of rhesus monkeys appeared at an age of four years. In earlier ages, the differences between sexes could not be distinguished (p < 0.05. Sexual dimorphism in both squirrel monkeys and cynomolgus monkeys occurred at an age of about 32 months. Data presented in this paper could be useful for comparative studies using primates under similar conditions.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

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    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Buprenorphine in Macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the ...

  18. Infeksi Cacing Saluran Pencernaan Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis Yang Diperdagangkan Di Pasar Satria Denpasar

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    Kadek Ari Dwipayanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis dan intensitas serta prevalensi infeksi cacing saluran pencernaan pada monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis yang diperdagangkan di Pasar Satria Denpasar. Empat puluh lima sampel feses M. fascicularis (24 ekor monyet betina dan 21 ekor monyet jantan diambil secara aseptis, diberi label dan selanjutnya diperiksa di laboratorium Parasitologi FKH Universitas Udayana. Sampel diperiksa menggunakan metode konsentrasi sedimentasi untuk mengidentifikasi jenis cacing dan modifikasi McMaster untuk mengetahui intensitas infeksi. Jenis cacing saluran pencernaan yang berhasil diidentifikasi berturut-turut adalah Ancylostoma sp. (91,1%, Trichostrongylus sp./Oesophagostonum sp. (73,3%, Trichuris sp. (22,2%, Ascaris sp. dan Taenia sp. (4,4%. Rataan intensitas infeksi cacing      Ancylostoma sp. 4913 ± 4849 telur per gram tinja, Thrichostrongylus sp./ Oesophagostonum sp. 871 ± 816 telur per gram tinja, Trichuris sp. berkisar      171 ± 111 telur per gram tinja. Ascaris sp. dan Taenia sp. memiliki intensitas terendah yakni <100 telur per gram tinja. Secara umum prevalensi kecacingan adalah 93,3%. Prevalensi kecacingan pada monyet betina (52,2% sedangkan pada monyet jantan (48,8%. Berdasarkan umur, prevalensi kecacingan pada anakan, bayi, dan dewasa berturut-turut (72,1%, (25,6%, dan (2,3%. Pola infeksi umumnya tipe infeksi campuran (82,3% dibandingkan infeksi tunggal (17,7%.

  19. Dietary Variation of Long Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis in Telaga Warna, Bogor, West Java

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    Sarah Nila

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Macaca, member of sub-family Cercopithecinae, is the most widely distributed non-human primates in Asian countries. The habitats are strongly influence the dietary variation of the populations. The dietary variation of the macaques reflect ecological plasticity in coping with differences both in availability and abundance of food. The macaques are plastic in taking any kind of food that available in their home range and adjust their behaviour according to its abundance. Here, we present the dietary variation of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis in the high altitude rain forest of Telaga Warna, West Java, Indonesia. The proportion of their food from natural sources is greater than those from visitors. The natural food consisted of plants, small animals (insects and earthworm, fungi and water from lake. The plant food comprised of 29 species plus a few mosses. The frequency of eating artificial food was influenced by visitors who come for picnic. In this site, the macaques learned that the visiting of tourists is identical with food.

  20. Collection of Macaca fascicularis cDNAs derived from bone marrow, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus

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    Kameoka Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consolidating transcriptome data of non-human primates is essential to annotate primate genome sequences, and will facilitate research using non-human primates in the genomic era. Macaca fascicularis is a macaque monkey that is commonly used for biomedical and ecological research. Findings We constructed cDNA libraries of Macaca fascicularis, derived from tissues obtained from bone marrow, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus of a young male, and kidney of a young female. In total, 5'-end sequences of 56,856 clones were determined. Including the previously established cDNA libraries from brain and testis, we have isolated 112,587 cDNAs of Macaca fascicularis, which correspond to 56% of the curated human reference genes. Conclusion These sequences were deposited in the public sequence database as well as in-house macaque genome database http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. These data will become valuable resources for identifying functional parts of the genome of macaque monkeys in future studies.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of 2 formulations of buprenorphine in macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Halliday, Lisa C; Moody, David E; Fang, Wenfang B; Lindeblad, Matthew; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the tested doses. The low and high doses of buprenorphine had elimination half-lives of 2.6 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 2.0 h, respectively, but the low-dose data were constrained by the sensitivity of the analytical method. Sustained-release buprenorphine had an elimination half-life of 42.6 ± 26.2 h. The AUC0-Tlast of buprenorphine were 9.1 ± 4.3 and 39.0 ± 25.1 ng × h/mL for the low and high doses, respectively, and sustained-release buprenorphine had an AUC0-Tlast of 177 ± 74 ng × h/mL. Assuming a hypothesized therapeutic buprenorphine plasma concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL in macaques, these results suggest that buprenorphine doses of 0.01 mg/kg IM should be administered every 6 to 8 h, whereas doses of 0.03 mg/kg IM can be administered every 12 h. These results further demonstrate that a single 0.2-mg/kg SC injection of sustained-release buprenorphine maintains plasma concentrations above 0.1 ng/mL for 5 d in macaques. These findings support a new dosing strategy using sustained-release buprenorphine to improve pain management, decrease animal stress, improve animal welfare, and simplify the postoperative management of nonhuman primates in laboratory animal and zoological settings.

  2. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

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    Vickers Mark H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk.

  3. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia.

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    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia.

  4. Development of an integrative database with 499 novel microsatellite markers for Macaca fascicularis

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    Higashino Atsunori

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis are a valuable resource for linkage studies of genetic disorders, but their microsatellite markers are not sufficient. In genetic studies, a prerequisite for mapping genes is development of a genome-wide set of microsatellite markers in target organisms. A whole genome sequence and its annotation also facilitate identification of markers for causative mutations. The aim of this study is to establish hundreds of microsatellite markers and to develop an integrative cynomolgus macaque genome database with a variety of datasets including marker and gene information that will be useful for further genetic analyses in this species. Results We investigated the level of polymorphisms in cynomolgus monkeys for 671 microsatellite markers that are covered by our established Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones. Four hundred and ninety-nine (74.4% of the markers were found to be polymorphic using standard PCR analysis. The average number of alleles and average expected heterozygosity at these polymorphic loci in ten cynomolgus macaques were 8.20 and 0.75, respectively. Conclusion BAC clones and novel microsatellite markers were assigned to the rhesus genome sequence and linked with our cynomolgus macaque cDNA database (QFbase. Our novel microsatellite marker set and genomic database will be valuable integrative resources in analyzing genetic disorders in cynomolgus macaques.

  5. Allele frequency of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in wild-caught cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Higashino, Atsunori; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Ikoma, Tomoko; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ami, Yasushi; Shioda, Tatsuo; Nakayama, Emi E.; Akari, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    A recent study showed that the frequency of an antiretroviral factor TRIM5 gene-derived isoform, TRIMCyp, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) varies widely according to the particular habitat examined. However, whether the findings actually reflect the prevalence of TRIMCyp in wild cynomolgus macaques is still uncertain because the previous data were obtained with captive monkeys in breeding and rearing facilities. Here, we characterized the TRIM5 gene in cynomolgus macaques captured in the wild, and found that the frequency of the TRIMCyp allele was comparable to those in captive monkeys. This suggests that the previous results with captive monkeys do indeed reflect the natural allele frequency and that breeding and rearing facilities may not affect the frequency of TRIM5 alleles. Interestingly, the prevalence of a minor haplotype of TRIMCyp in wild macaques from the Philippines was significantly lower than in captive ones, suggesting that it is advantageous for wild monkeys to possess the major haplotype of TRIMCyp. Overall, our results add to our understanding of the geographic and genetic prevalence of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp. PMID:22969754

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Sonia; Tan, Soon Guan; Yong Seok Yien, Christina; Ng, Jillian; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Khan, Razib; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine J; Valdiani, Alireza; Khajeaian, Parastoo; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2014-12-01

    The genetic diversity and structure of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Peninsular Malaysia, a widely used non-human primate species in biomedical research, have not been thoroughly characterized. Thirteen sites of wild populations of long-tailed macaques representing six states were sampled and analyzed with 18 STR markers. The Sunggala and Penang Island populations showed the highest genetic diversity estimates, while the Jerejak Island population was the most genetically discrete due to isolation from the mainland shelf. Concordant with pairwise F(st) estimates, STRUCTURE analyses of the seven PCA-correlated clusters revealed low to moderate differentiation among the sampling sites. No association between geographic and genetic distances exists, suggesting that the study sites, including island study sites, are genetically if not geographically contiguous. The status of the genetic structure and composition of long-tailed macaque populations require further scrutiny to develop this species as an important animal model in biomedical research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Blood genomic profiles of exposures to Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammamieh Rasha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocytes provide invaluable whistle blowers of changes due to infections. We use the information registered by these cells using their mRNAs as they encounter the pathogen to develop patterns of expression that correspond to that specific pathogen. Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE is a mosquito-borne viral disease characterized by fever and one or more of the following: severe headache, back pain, myalgias, prostration, chills, nausea, vomiting, weakness and other flu-like symptoms. Screening for host mRNA obtained from blood samples after exposure to VEEV may provide the means for early detection of surrogate markers of the impending illness and provide appropriate strategies for treatment. Results We have been carrying out gene expression analysis of PBMC exposed to VEEV to extract signatures and diagnostic markers of early exposure to be used in non invasive blood analysis methods. In this study, we used high throughput gene expression analysis to identify markers of early and late exposures to VEEV in vivo in Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis. We carried out cDNA microarrays and real time PCR on blood samples obtained from the NHP model resulting in a panel of host genes that are altered in response to VEEV. Conclusion Screening for host mRNA obtained from blood samples after exposure to VEEV may provide the means for early detection of surrogate markers of the impending illness and provide appropriate strategies for treatment.

  8. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia. PMID:28228918

  9. Experimental and postexperimental effects of posteriorly directed extraoral traction in adult Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, H C; Shapiro, P A; Kokich, V G

    1979-03-01

    The experimental, postexperimental, and postretention effects of continuous high-pull headgear force application to the maxilla were evaluated in four adult, nongrowing Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Force was applied at 450 grams per side to face-bows attached to cast maxillary splints with an implanted occipital plug for anchorage. The active experimental phase lasted from 84 days to 205 days, and its effects were documented histologically, cephalometrically, and with dry skull preparations. Postexperimental, retention, and postretention responses were documented cephalometrically. The findings of the present investigation lead to the following conclusions: 1. The termination active sutural growth is of little significance to the remodeling potential of the sutural articulations and the morphologic adaptability of the facial skeletal complex. 2. The length of time necessary for resorptive remodeling of the sutural bony projections is partially responsible for the slower rate of detectable skeletal movement in adult animals. 3. The sutural ligament in adult animals is initially less responsive to the effects of extraoral force application, possibly because of a diminished level of cellular activity at older ages. 4. Increases in age do not appear to affect the osteogenic potential of the periosteal envelope. 5. Retention aids in establishing a maintainable equilibrium following experimentally induced sutural and skeletal remodeling, but it is of little importance in maintaining the altered position of the denition. 6. The amount of postexperimental skeletal reorientation following force application to the maxilla may be related to the force level and the duration of force.

  10. Influence of testosterone and a novel SARM on gene expression in whole blood of Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmaier, Irmgard; Tichopad, Ales; Reiter, Martina; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic hormones, including testosterone, have been suggested as a therapy for aging-related conditions, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia. These therapies are sometimes associated with severe androgenic side effects. A promising alternative to testosterone replacement therapy are selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SARMs have the potential to mimic the desirable central and peripheral androgenic anabolic effects of testosterone without having its side effects. In this study we evaluated the effects of LGD2941, in comparison to testosterone, on mRNA expression of selected target genes in whole blood in an non-human model. The regulated genes can act as potential blood biomarker candidates in future studies with AR ligands. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated either with testosterone or LGD2941 for 90 days in order to compare their effects on mRNA expression in blood. Blood samples were taken before SARM application, on day 16 and on day 90 of treatment. Gene expression of 37 candidate genes was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Our study shows that both testosterone and LGD2941 influence mRNA expression of 6 selected genes out of 37 in whole blood. The apoptosis regulators CD30L, Fas, TNFR1 and TNFR2 and the interleukins IL-12B and IL-15 showed significant changes in gene expression between control and the treatment groups and represent potential biomarkers for androgen receptor ligands in whole blood.

  11. The influence of exposure to UVβ of fluorescent light on the bone remodeling of hypoestrogenic Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Rachman

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of osteoporosis is a spesific problem that should be dealt with by increasing the women's lift expectation. The decrease of calcitriol and estrogen levels, which have a receptor in the osteoblast, will result in bone mineralization (due to calcitriol and the information of type 1 collagen (due to estrogen. The formation of calcitriol with the main basic materials from vitamin D3 is achieved with the aid of sunray UVβ, The changes in the lifestyle of women, which make them now accustomed to performing indoor activities and prevent them from being exposed to UVβ all day, have resulted in the decrease of vitamin D3 in calcitriol in women. In addition, when entering the menopausal age they will be threatened with early osteoporosis. The exposure to the UVβ of fluorescent light with the wave length identical to sun of 290-320 nm has long been known as a modality for treating skin diseases in the hope that the production of vitamin D3  will be increased. We exposed Macaca fascicularis, whose estrogen levels were set at normal, beginning low, beginning very low levels, to UVβ of fluorescent light. It showed that the Macaca fascicularis that were exposed to UVβ experienced an increase in osteocalcin with unchanged DPD which means that bone remodeling remains unchanged. By contrast, Macaca fascicularis with normal, beginning low, and beginning very low estrogen levels which were not exposed to UVβ were found to experience a decrease in osteocalcin and unchanged DPD levels. This means that a change has occurred in the bone remodeling toward bone resorption. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 63-8Keywords: UVβ, osteoporosis, estrogen, vitamin D3, calcitriol, osteocalcin, DPD

  12. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental oral toxicity of domoic acid in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and rats. Preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryphonas, L; Truelove, J; Todd, E; Nera, E; Iverson, F

    1990-10-01

    A recent outbreak of marine food poisoning in humans was attributed to the consumption of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) contaminated with domoic acid (DA) that was produced by the diatom Nitzschia pungens. The clinical and morphological effects of single oral doses of extracts of mussels contaminated with DA or of DA isolated from toxic mussels were investigated in small groups (one to six) of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; 0.5-10 mg DA/kg body weight) and of Sprague-Dawley rats (60 to 80 mg DA/kg body weight). Control animals were either given saline or were not treated. To test whether monosodium glutamate, present in the food consumed by some affected humans, and dimethylsulphoxide, suspected of being present in the plankton, enhanced the response, monosodium glutamate (at 0.25% of mussel extract bolus) or dimethylsulphoxide (at 1 g per bolus) were co-administered to two (one each) of the DA-treated monkeys. DA-treated monkeys developed transient excitation characterized by vomiting. DA-treated rats showed withdrawal followed by hyperexcitation and death (in one case). Mild to moderate central nervous system lesions consistent with neuroexcitation were present in both monkeys and rats. The addition of monosodium glutamate and dimethylsulphoxide had no significant effect on the appearance and severity of central nervous system clinical signs and lesions. The wide variations in the response of test animals to orally administered DA were attributed to the protective effect of vomiting, and to suspected incomplete or slow gastro-intestinal absorption of the toxic agent. The results reinforce the view that DA is an emetic and that under appropriate conditions may also inflict excitotoxic central nervous system damage.

  14. Maxillary nerve compression in cynomolgus monkey Macaca fascicularis: altered somatic sensation and peripheral nerve firing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trigeminal nerve is a major source of the sensory input of the face, and trigeminal neuropathology models have been reported in rodents with injury to branches of the maxillary or mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Non-human primates are neuroanatomically more closely related to human than rodents; however, nerve injury studies in non-human primates are limited. Results We describe here a nerve injury model of maxillary nerve compression (MNC in the cynomolgus macaque monkey, Macaca fascicularis, and the initial characterization of the consequences of damage to this trigeminal nerve branch. The nerve injury from the compression appeared to be mild, as we did not observe overt changes in home-cage behavior in the monkeys. When mechanical stimulation was applied to the facial area, monkeys with MNC displayed increased mechanical sensitivity, as the avoidance response scores were lower than those from the control animals. Such a change in mechanical sensitivity appeared to be somewhat bilateral, as the contralateral side also showed increased mechanical sensitivity, although the change on the ipsilateral side was more robust. Multiple-unit recording of the maxillary nerve showed a general pattern of increasing responsiveness to escalating force in mechanical stimulation on the contralateral side. Ipsilateral side of the maxillary nerve showed a lack of responsiveness to escalating force in mechanical stimulation, possibly reflecting a maximum stimulation threshold effect from sensitized nerve due to MNC injury. Conclusions These results suggest that MNC may produce increased sensitivity of the ipsilateral maxillary nerve, and that this model may serve as a non-human primate model to evaluate the effect of injury to trigeminal nerve branches.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects elicited by toxaphene in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, F; Iverson, F; Andrews, P; Barker, M; Cherry, W; Mueller, R; Pulido, O; Hayward, S; Fernie, S; Arnold, D L

    2001-12-01

    Toxaphene, which was added to glycerol/corn oil, was administered at a level of 1 mg/kg body weight/day in gelatin capsules to four healthy young adult cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys for 52 weeks. Four control monkeys ingested capsules containing only glycerol/corn oil. Each group had two males and two females. On a daily basis, each monkey's feed and water consumption was determined, its health was monitored and the females were swabbed to evaluate menstrual status. On a weekly basis, each monkey's body weight was determined and a detailed clinical evaluation was performed. At 4-week intervals, blood samples were taken for serum biochemistry, haematology and toxaphene analysis. Also, a local anaesthetic was administered to the nuchal fat pad area of each monkey, and adipose samples were obtained for toxaphene analysis. 1 day prior to the biopsies, a 24-h urine and faecal collection was obtained for toxaphene analysis. After 34 weeks of treatment, the immune system of the monkeys was evaluated. After 52 weeks of dosing, all treated and two control animals were necropsied. Liver samples were obtained and microsomal fractions were prepared immediately. A portion of liver and kidney was taken for toxaphene analysis. All of the major internal organs were weighed and bone marrow evaluations were conducted. Organ and tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and processed for light microscopy. There was no effect of treatment on body weight gain, feed consumption, water consumption or haematological parameters. Two major clinical findings were inflammation and/or enlargement of the tarsal gland and impacted diverticulae in the upper and lower eye lids. At necropsy, the relative spleen and thymus weights were greater for the treated monkeys than the controls. Toxaphene administration produced an increase in metabolism of aminopyrene, methoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin, three substrates that are altered specifically by cytochrome P450-based hepatic

  17. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  18. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  19. Jaw-muscle architecture and mandibular morphology influence relative maximum jaw gapes in the sexually dimorphic Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Claire E; Hylander, William L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-05-01

    Maximum jaw gape is a performance variable related to feeding and non-feeding oral behaviors, such as canine gape displays, and is influenced by several factors including jaw-muscle fiber architecture, muscle position on the skull, and jaw morphology. Maximum gape, jaw length, and canine height are strongly correlated across catarrhine primates, but relationships between gape and other aspects of masticatory apparatus morphology are less clear. We examine the effects of jaw-adductor fiber architecture, jaw-muscle leverage, and jaw form on gape in an intraspecific sample of sexually dimorphic crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis). As M. fascicularis males have relatively larger maximum gapes than females, we predict that males will have muscle and jaw morphologies that facilitate large gape, but these morphologies may come at some expense to bite force. Male crab-eating macaques have relatively longer jaw-muscle fibers, masseters with decreased leverage, and temporomandibular joint morphologies that facilitate the production of wide gapes. Because relative canine height is correlated with maximum gape in catarrhines, and males have relatively longer canines than females, these results support the hypothesis that male M. fascicularis have experienced selection to increase maximum gape. The sexes do not differ in relative masseter physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA), but males compensate for a potential trade-off between muscle excursion versus muscle force with increased temporalis weight and PCSA. This musculoskeletal configuration is likely functionally significant for behaviors involving aggressive canine biting and displays in male M. fascicularis and provides additional evidence supporting the multifactorial nature of the catarrhine masticatory apparatus. Our results have implications for the evolution of craniofacial morphology in catarrhine primates and reinforce the importance of evaluating additional factors other than feeding behavior and diet

  20. Physiological and behavioural stress responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to noise associated with construction work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, K; Fernström, A-L; Wergård, E-M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioural and physiological responses to environmental disturbances (live and recorded dynamite explosions) in laboratory non-human primates in preparation for a future tunnel construction underneath our animal facility. In a pilot study (A) on 20...... detonations on the behaviour and CICM in 16 M. fascicularis. In the latter study we introduced a predictive signal, serving as a conditional stimulus, to half of the animals. We found no significant effects of the noise in the Signal group; while the Control groups' CICM values were affected. The behaviour...... was largely unaffected in the two groups. It was decided not to introduce a research moratorium on biomedical research planned to be conducted during the future tunnel construction, and that a conditional stimulus ('warning signal') will be used....

  1. The trade balance of grooming and its coordination of reciprocation and tolerance in Indonesian long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumert, Michael D; Ho, Moon-Ho R

    2008-07-01

    We collected data on grooming, proximity, and aggression in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan, Indonesia. We used this data to study how grooming influenced a receiver's (B) behavior towards the bout's initiator (A). In our first analysis, post-grooming samples were collected after A groomed B. These were compared to matched-control samples of similar conditions but A had not previously groomed B. This comparison was performed on 26 individuals (16 female, 3 male, 7 immature) and tested whether A's initial act of grooming increased the pair's time in proximity and the amount of time B groomed A. We also tested if A's grooming decreased B's aggression towards A per time in proximity. Rates of B-->A aggression per time in proximity with A for 39 individuals (18 female, 5 male, 16 immature) were compared between post-grooming and focal sample data. Finally, we studied 248 grooming bouts to test if the first two grooming episodes were time matched. We assessed the influence of age, sex, rank and inferred kinship on time matching, and controlled for individual variation and tendency to groom using a general linear mixed model. Our results showed that A-->B grooming acted to increase B-->A grooming and the pair's proximity, while lowering B-->A aggression. Despite these effects, episodes in grooming bouts were generally not matched, except weakly among similar partners (i.e., female pairs and immature pairs). Grooming imbalance was greatest across age-sex class (i.e., male-female and adult-immature pairs). In similar pairs, grooming duration was skewed in favor of high-ranking individuals. We conclude grooming established tolerance and increased the likelihood that grooming reciprocation would occur, but grooming durations were not typically matched within bouts. Lack of time matching may be the result of grooming that is performed to coordinate interchanges of other social services.

  2. Experimental hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): evidence of active extrahepatic site of HAV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Luciane A; Marchevsky, Renato S; de Paula, Vanessa S; Hooper, Cleber; Freire, Marcos da S; Gaspar, Ana Maria C; Pinto, Marcelo A

    2010-02-01

    This work studied the replication sites of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after intravenous inoculation. The cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with the Brazilian hepatitis A virus strain (HAF-203). Monkeys were euthanized on days 15, 30, 45 and 60 postinoculation (pi). Liver samples, submandibular salivary gland, mesenteric lymph node and tonsils were removed for virological and pathological evaluation. Immunofluorescence analyses on liver and salivary gland sections using confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of HAV antigen (HAV Ag). The presence of HAV genome was monitored by real-time PCR. The HAV RNA was detected at 7 days postinoculation (dpi), concomitantly in serum, saliva and faeces. The highest HAV viral load was observed in faeces at 15 dpi (10(5) copies/ml), followed by serum viral load of 10(4) copies/ml at 20 dpi and saliva viral load of 10(3 )copies/ml at 7 dpi. The animals showed first histological and biochemical signs of hepatitis at 15 dpi. The HAV antigen (Ag) was present from day 7 until day 60 pi in the liver and salivary glands. The HAV replicative intermediate was also detected in the liver (4.5 x 10(4) copies/mg), salivary glands (1.9 x 10(3) copies/mg), tonsils (4.2 x 10(1) copies/mg) and lymph nodes (3.4 x 10(1) copies/mg). Our data demonstrated that the salivary gland as an extrahepatic site of early HAV replication could create a potential risk of saliva transmitted infection. In addition, the cynomolgus monkey was confirmed as a suitable model to study the pathogenesis of HAV human infection.

  3. The acquisition of Streptococcus mutans by infant monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and its relationship to the initiation of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighton, D; Hayday, H; Walker, J

    1982-08-01

    The acquisition and transmission of Streptococcus mutans by 16 consecutively born infant monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) was studied. The 16 infant monkeys were weaned in four groups and caged together to form a commune. Transmission from mother to infant occurred infrequently. Streptococcus mutans was isolated from nine of the mothers but only from the dental plaque of two infant monkeys at weaning at which time the predominant streptococci were S. sanguis and S. mitior. One further animal was colonized by S. mutants during the formation of the commune, but only after it was caged with an infant harbouring the same organism. For 46 d after the completion of the commune, the monkeys were fed a starch-based diet during which time S. mutans of serotypes c, e or h were isolated from the faeces of all 16 animals and from the dental plaque taken from the developmental groove of the first deciduous molar of 11 animals. Faecal transmission appeared to be an important factor in the spread of S. mutans between monkeys in the commune. The monkeys were then fed a caries-promoting high sucrose diet resulting in a rapid increase in the proportion of S. mutans in the plaque and in the faeces. Streptococcus mutans serotype e was more frequently isolated from both plaque and faeces and its predominance may in part be due to the production of a bacteriocin active in vitro against S. mutans serotype h and other species of oral streptococci isolated from monkey dental plaque. The proportion of S. mutans in the developmental groove 8 d after the introduction of the high sucrose diet was significantly related to both the caries status of the groove and the total caries score 6 months later. The results suggest that, in this model of human dental caries, S. mutans is the major bacterial factor in the initiation of tooth decay.

  4. DINAMIKA PROFIL HEMATOLOGI DAN RASIO NETROFIL:LIMFOSIT MONYET EKOR PANJANG (MACACA FASCICULARIS PADA PENGATURAN MIKROKLIMAT RUANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridzki M.F. Binol

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain the profile of physiological hematology (erythrocyte, PCV, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and leukocyte and the profile of ratio between neutrophil and lymphocyte of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis in different microclimate conditions due to the room’s temperature and humidity setting. The symptom of stress was also observed in this study. The research used 10 male macaques aged of 4 until 5 years old which placed in room temperature and humidity of 29,00±1,95°C and 79,52±1,57% respectively 7 days for adaptation period. Further more, the room temperature and humidity were set into 25,79±1,16°C and 80,19±9,05% during 14 days for treatment period. For the last treatment, macaques were reconditioned in room temperature and humidity of 29,00±1,95°C and 79,52±1,57% during 14 days for post-treatment period. Blood samplings were collected through femoralis vein on last day of adaptation period, continued with treatment and post-treatment periods as the day 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28. The results showed that there were not significant difference by room temperature and humidity setting to hematology and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. It could be proven by all parameters score obtained were still in normal ranges compared to literatures. There was also no stress symptom based on neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio measurement. Condition with room temperature and humidity of 25,79±1,16°C dan 80,19±9,05% regarded as the most suitable condition for long-tailed macaque’s life

  5. Urban primate ranging patterns: GPS-collar deployments for Macaca fascicularis and M. sylvanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegarth, Amy R; Hollocher, Hope; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Shaw, Eric; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Feeney, Tessa; Holmes, Damian; Laguea, Dale; Fuentes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    The global increase in urbanization is leading to heavier interface between humans and wildlife. Within these anthropogenic landscapes, little is known about ranging patterns, particularly with regard to urban primates. Here we present the results of the first long-term deployment of multiple GPS collars on two species of macaques to investigate the impacts of urbanization on urban primate ranging patterns in Singapore and Gibraltar. Collars data acquisition were excellent with respect to the amount, quality, and accuracy of data collected; however, remote connectivity and drop-off functionality was poor across all deployments. Analyses highlighted high variability in ranging patterns between individuals within each species that aligned with access to human food resources and patterns of tourism. Individuals from troops with less access to human food had much larger home, core, and day ranges relative to those with regular provisioning or raiding opportunities. Almost no temporal range overlap was observed between any focal individuals at either site and spatial overlap was low for all but two troops at each site. We found no relationship between anthropogenic schedules and changes in ranging patterns. Significant seasonal variation existed for daily path length and day range size for both the Singapore long-tailed and the Gibraltar Barbary macaques, with long-tailed macaques increasing their range during the equatorial monsoon season and Barbary macaques increasing their range during drier, summer months. This study highlights how the behavioral plasticity found within the genus Macaca is reflected in ranging pattern variability within urban environments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Functional MRI of brain in macaca fascicularis under alcohol scent stimulation%乙醇气味刺激食蟹猴的脑fMRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐惠; 朱建忠; 孙向东; 赵梦; 李传福

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the fMRl changes of brain in macaca fascicularis with alcohol scent stimulation. Methods Six healthy macaca fascicularis were selected and anesthetized. The block design was "rest-stimulation-rest". fMRI under alcohol scent stimulation and resting state were performed, respectively. The animals inhaled air mixed with 95% alcohol in the stimulation period, while inhaled pure air in rest period. BOLD-fMRI sequences and 128 phases scanning were performed, 16 slices axial images of the entire brain and total 2048 images were obtained. Data were analyzed using SPM2. The outcomes were superposed on the template of macaca fascicularis at last. Random effect mode group analysis was applied in estimating and calculating with f-test Results When alcohol scent stimulation was given, increased or decreased BOLD signals were observed in frontal lobe, temporal lobe, paracentral lobules, cingulate gyri, and lenticular nucleus, and anterior central gyrus, respectively. Conclusion Uncus gyri hippocampi and orbitofrontal are the most advanced center of olfaction. The central reaction induced by scent stimulation had an affinity with paracentral lobule, cingulate gyrus and lenticular nucleus.%目的 应用3.0T fMRI探讨食蟹猴经乙醇气味刺激引起的脑功能活动.方法 选取健康食蟹猴6只,麻醉后行乙醇气味刺激下的fMRI.采取“静息-刺激-静息”组块设计.刺激组块予乙醇气味刺激,静息组块无气味刺激.BOLDfMRI扫描128 phase,整个猴脑扫描16层.采用SPM2软件随机效应模式t检验进行组分析.将统计结果覆盖于食蟹猴模板图像上.结果 乙醇气味刺激下,在额叶、颞叶、中央旁小叶、扣带回、豆状核、中央前回分别可以检测到正激活和负激活.结论 海马回钩和眶额回为嗅觉最高级中枢.fMRI可以显示额叶、颞叶的激活.气味刺激引起的中枢反应与中央旁小叶、扣带回、豆状核有密切关系.

  7. Generation of Macaca fascicularis iPS cell line ATCi-MF1 from adult skin fibroblasts using non-integrative Sendai viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Coppiello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We generated ATCi-MF1 induced pluripotent stem (iPS cell line from Macaca fascicularis adult skin fibroblasts using non-integrative Sendai viruses carrying OCT3/4, KLF4, SOX2 and c-MYC. Once established, ATCi-MF1 cells present a normal karyotype, are Sendai virus-free and express pluripotency associated markers. Microsatellite markers analysis confirmed the origin of the iPS cells from the parental fibroblasts. Pluripotency was tested with the in vivo teratoma formation assay. ATCi-MF1 cell line may be a useful primate iPS cell model to test different experimental conditions where the use of human cells can imply ethical issues, as microinjection of pluripotent stem cells in pre-implantational embryos.

  8. 小鼠抗食蟹猴IgG单克隆抗体的制备%Preparation Monoclonal Antibodies Of Mice Against Macaca fascicularis IgG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张段玲; 张彦龙; 白素英

    2012-01-01

    目的 制备抗食蟹猴、恒河猴等非人灵长类实验动物免疫球蛋白二级抗体,开展对其传染病血清学快速诊断方法的建立.方法 采用饱和硫酸铵盐析、Agarose-Protein G亲和层析技术,从食蟹猴血清中提纯IgG.经SDS-PAGE电泳鉴定,采用常规法免疫C57BL/6小鼠,三次免疫后取脾细胞与Sp2/0-Agl4骨髓瘤细胞通过PEG4000融合制备杂交瘤细胞,利用间接ELISA、Western blot等方法进行筛选、鉴定.结果 得到5株阳性杂交瘤,分别命名为2B6、2B7、2D9、3B2、5E4,并且5株杂交瘤分泌的抗体均与恒河猴的IgG或血清发生交叉反应,而与其他物种如东北虎、犬等动物的IgG或血清无交叉反应.结论 5株杂交瘤产生的单克隆抗体(McAb)具有较好免疫活性,且能长期、稳定地分泌抗体.此项研究工作为后续研究食蟹猴、恒河猴传染病血清学诊断方法奠定基础.%Objective In order to prepare imraunoglobulin G (IgG) secondary antibody of non-human primates such as Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta and establish a quick serological method to diagnose their diseases. Methods Macaco fascicularis IgG was isolated and purified from Macaco fascicularis serum by precipitated use saturated ammonium sulfate and affinity chromatography technology with Agarose-Protein G. After identified by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis murine monoclonal antibody ( McAb) were produced by conventional immune method and hybridoma technology. Monoclonal antibody was produced when C57BL/6 mice was immunized three times and its spleen cells were fused with SP2/0-Agl4 myeloma cells. Indirect ELISA and Western blot methods were used for identification. Result 5 strains of myeloma cells acquired which were named 2B6, 2B7, 3B2, 5E4, 2D9. The antibodies they secret can all react well with both IgG and their serum of Macaco fascicularis and Macaca mulatto. There are no cross reaction with other species such as east-northern tigers and dogs. Conclusion The 5

  9. The Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell repertoire in Macaca fascicularis: functional responses to phosphoantigen stimulation by the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 subset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Propp, Nadia; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2005-06-01

    Circulating Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T cells in human and non-human primates respond to small molecular weight non-peptidic phosphoantigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted manner. These responses are encoded by the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 chain of the T-cell receptor and are positively selected during early development to create a biased repertoire in adults. We characterized the Vgamma2 chain in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to develop a non-human primate model for studying the effects of infection and therapy on the circulating Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell subset. The cynomolgus macaque Vgamma2 chain was highly homologous to the Vgamma2 chain from human beings and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), though we noted conserved substitutions in critical residues within the CDR3 for both macaque species. Despite these substitutions, Vgamma2/Vdelta2+ T cells from cynomolgus monkeys exhibited polyclonal responses to two different phosphoantigens. Proliferative responses were observed with both isopentenylpyrophosphate and alendronate, but stronger interferon-gamma secretory responses were observed with isopentenylpyrophosphate. In vitro stimulation and expansion led to selective outgrowth of the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 subset, with a marked shift in the Vgamma2 spectratype. As a result of the less biased starting repertoire for Vgamma2, the cynomolgus macaque constitutes a sensitive model for examining the effects of in vitro or in vivo treatments on the Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell population. Our studies establish the value of cynomolgus macaques as a model for Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell responses to non-peptidic antigens, and further evidence the remarkable evolutionary conservation of this unusual, phosphoantigen-responsive T-cell subset that is found only in primate species.

  10. The Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell repertoire in Macaca fascicularis: functional responses to phosphoantigen stimulation by the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 subset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Propp, Nadia; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2005-01-01

    Circulating Vγ2/Vδ2 T cells in human and non-human primates respond to small molecular weight non-peptidic phosphoantigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted manner. These responses are encoded by the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 chain of the T-cell receptor and are positively selected during early development to create a biased repertoire in adults. We characterized the Vγ2 chain in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to develop a non-human primate model for studying the effects of infection and therapy on the circulating Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell subset. The cynomolgus macaque Vγ2 chain was highly homologous to the Vγ2 chain from human beings and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), though we noted conserved substitutions in critical residues within the CDR3 for both macaque species. Despite these substitutions, Vγ2/Vδ2+ T cells from cynomolgus monkeys exhibited polyclonal responses to two different phosphoantigens. Proliferative responses were observed with both isopentenylpyrophosphate and alendronate, but stronger interferon-γ secretory responses were observed with isopentenylpyrophosphate. In vitro stimulation and expansion led to selective outgrowth of the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 subset, with a marked shift in the Vγ2 spectratype. As a result of the less biased starting repertoire for Vγ2, the cynomolgus macaque constitutes a sensitive model for examining the effects of in vitro or in vivo treatments on the Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell population. Our studies establish the value of cynomolgus macaques as a model for Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell responses to non-peptidic antigens, and further evidence the remarkable evolutionary conservation of this unusual, phosphoantigen-responsive T-cell subset that is found only in primate species. PMID:15885125

  11. Whole-genome sequencing of six Mauritian Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) reveals a genome-wide pattern of polymorphisms under extreme population bottleneck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Naoki; Hettiarachchi, Nilmini; Adeyemi Babarinde, Isaac; Saitou, Naruya; Blancher, Antoine

    2015-03-23

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were introduced to the island of Mauritius by humans around the 16th century. The unique demographic history of the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques provides the opportunity to not only examine the genetic background of well-established nonhuman primates for biomedical research but also understand the effect of an extreme population bottleneck on the pattern of polymorphisms in genomes. We sequenced the whole genomes of six Mauritian cynomolgus macaques and obtained an average of 20-fold coverage of the genome sequences for each individual. The overall level of nucleotide diversity was 23% smaller than that of the Malaysian cynomolgus macaques, and a reduction of low-frequency polymorphisms was observed. In addition, we also confirmed that the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques were genetically closer to a representative of the Malaysian population than to a representative of the Indochinese population. Excess of nonsynonymous polymorphisms in low frequency, which has been observed in many other species, was not very strong in the Mauritian samples, and the proportion of heterozygous nonsynonymous polymorphisms relative to synonymous polymorphisms is higher within individuals in Mauritian than Malaysian cynomolgus macaques. Those patterns indicate that the extreme population bottleneck made purifying selection overwhelmed by the power of genetic drift in the population. Finally, we estimated the number of founding individuals by using the genome-wide site frequency spectrum of the six samples. Assuming a simple demographic scenario with a single bottleneck followed by exponential growth, the estimated number of founders (∼20 individuals) is largely consistent with previous estimates.

  12. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R; Caramenti, Gian C; Benabid, Alim L; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1-8 V, 1-10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  13. Toward reduction in animal sacrifice for drugs: molecular modeling of Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 for virtual screening of Homo sapiens P450 2C8 substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 shares 92% identity with human cytochrome P450 2C8, which is involved in the metabolism of more than 8% of all prescribed drugs. To date, only paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two substrate markers of the human P450 2C8, have been experimentally confirmed as M. fascicularis P450 2C20 drugs. To bridge the lack of information on the ligands recognized by M. fascicularis P450 2C20, in this study, a three-dimensional homology model of this enzyme was generated on the basis of the available crystal structure of the human homologue P450 2C8 using YASARA. The results indicated that 90.0%, 9.0%, 0.5%, and 0.5% of the residues of the P450 2C20 model were located in the most favorable, allowed, generously allowed, and disallowed regions, respectively. The root-mean-square deviation of the C-alpha superposition of the M. fascicularis P450 2C20 model with the Homo sapiens P450 2C8 was 0.074 Å, indicating a very high similarity of the two structures. Subsequently, the 2C20 model was used for in silico screening of 58 known P450 2C8 substrates and 62 inhibitors. These were also docked in the active site of the crystal structure of the human P450 2C8. The affinity of each compound for the active site of both cytochromes proved to be very similar, meaning that the few key residues that are mutated in the active site of the M. fascicularis P450 do not prevent the P450 2C20 from recognizing the same substrates as the human P450 2C8.

  14. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Giuliano Zippo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and 3 the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1 to 8V, 1 to 10 Hz, 500ms, biphasic waves, we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being < 1ms and interblock intervals of 1.5 to 4 s have been analyzed. We found 150 to 250ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  15. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R.; Caramenti, Gian C.; Benabid, Alim L.; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1–8 V, 1–10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5–4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150–250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  16. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection alters endogenous retrovirus expression in distinct brain regions of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag Judith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases which are presumably caused by an infectious conformational isoform of the cellular prion protein. Previous work has provided evidence that in murine prion disease the endogenous retrovirus (ERV expression is altered in the brain. To determine if prion-induced changes in ERV expression are a general phenomenon we used a non-human primate model for prion disease. Results Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fasicularis were infected intracerebrally with BSE-positive brain stem material from cattle and allowed to develop prion disease. Brain tissue from the basis pontis and vermis cerebelli of the six animals and the same regions from four healthy controls were subjected to ERV expression profiling using a retrovirus-specific microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. We could show that Class I gammaretroviruses HERV-E4-1, ERV-9, and MacERV-4 increase expression in BSE-infected macaques. In a second approach, we analysed ERV-K-(HML-2 RNA and protein expression in extracts from the same cynomolgus macaques. Here we found a significant downregulation of both, the macaque ERV-K-(HML-2 Gag protein and RNA in the frontal/parietal cortex of BSE-infected macaques. Conclusions We provide evidence that dysregulation of ERVs in response to BSE-infection can be detected on both, the RNA and the protein level. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the differential expression of ERV-derived structural proteins in prion disorders. Our findings suggest that endogenous retroviruses may induce or exacerbate the pathological consequences of prion-associated neurodegeneration.

  17. Molecular composition of drusen and possible involvement of anti-retinal autoimmunity in two different forms of macular degeneration in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Michihiro T; Okamoto, Haru; Ono, Fumiko; Mizota, Atsushi; Terao, Keiji; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Iwata, Takeshi

    2005-10-01

    We have previously reported a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) pedigree with early onset macular degeneration that develops drusen at 2 yr after birth. In this study, the molecular composition of drusen in monkeys affected with late onset and early onset macular degeneration was both characterized. Involvement of anti-retinalautoimmunity in the deposition of drusen and the pathogenesis of the disease was also evaluated. Funduscopic and histological examinations were performed on 278 adult monkeys (mean age=16.94 yr) for late onset macular degeneration. The molecular composition of drusen was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and/or direct proteome analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Anti-retinal autoantibodies in sera were screened in 20 affected and 10 age-matched control monkeys by Western blot techniques. Immunogenic molecules were identified by 2D electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Relative antibody titer against each antigen was determined by ELISA in sera from 42 affected (late onset) and 41 normal monkeys. Yellowish-white spots in the macular region were observed in 90 (32%) of the late onset monkeys that were examined. Histological examination demonstrated that drusen or degenerative retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were associated with the pigmentary abnormalities. Drusen in both late and early onset monkeys showed immunoreactivities for apolipoprotein E, amyloid P component, complement component C5, the terminal C5b-9 complement complex, vitronectin, and membrane cofactor protein. LC-MS/MS analyses identified 60 proteins as constituents of drusen, including a number of common components in drusen of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD), such as annexins, crystallins, immunoglobulins, and complement components. Half of the affected monkeys had single or multiple autoantibodies against 38, 40, 50, and 60 kDa retinal proteins. The reacting antigens of 38 and 40 kDa were identified as annexin II and mu

  18. 食蟹猴动物实验在PET/CT扫描检查中的注意事项%Guidelines for PET/CT scanography in animal experiment of Macaca fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪文; 秦朝军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To search for the best scanning parameters of PET/CT scanning examination in animal experiment of Macaca fascicularis, and to obtain the best images. Methods One male and one female monkeys respectively received the CT multiparameter scanning and PET multi - time period dynamic tomoscan. Results When the scanning conditions were 420 mAs and 120 kV,the best resolution ratio and the lightest constructed defect could be obtained. In the images of PET multi - time period dynamic tomoscan, the best image effects could be obtained from the images within 40-60 min. Conclusion Before the animal experiment of Macaca fascicularis on the PET/CT machine, the monkeys should receive the pre - scanning. And the best scanning parameters should be selected in order to obtain satisfactory results in the experiment.%目的 寻找食蟹猴动物实验在PET/CT扫描检查中最佳的扫描参数,获得最佳图像.方法 两只食蟹猴为一雄一雌,对两只食蟹猴分别采用CT多参数扫描和PET的多时段动态断层扫描.结果 扫描条件采用420 mAs、120 kV时,可以获得最佳的图像分辨率和最轻的伪影.PET扫描多时段动态断层扫描的图像中,40~60 min的图像可以获得最佳图像效果.结论 食蟹猴在PET/CT机上行动物实验前,应进行预扫描,选择最佳的扫描参数,才能获得满意的实验结果.

  19. 靶向食蟹猴NTCP基因的CRISPR/Cas9系统gRNA筛选%gRNA Screening of CRISPR/Cas9 System Targeting Macaca fascicularis NTCP Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂利; 高新; 刘铮铸; 巩元芳; 宋海峰

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to screen gRNA of efficient knockout activity targeting Macaca fascicularis NTCP gene by the CRISPR/Cas9 enzyme digestion method and PCR amplification methods in vitro .Comparing NTCP gene sequences between Macaca fascicularis and human,the sequences of NTCP gene coding amino acid 84 to 87 and 157 to 1 65 were chosen as gene knockout targets.3 to 4 candidate gRNA sequences were designed in two target sequence regions through gRNA software.By screening cleavage activity targeting NTCP gene in vitro ,gRNA1.2 and gRNA2.1 were selected and inserted into pLV hUbC-Cas9-T2A-GFP plasmid,respectively.The genome DNA was extracted from primary hepatocytes after gRNA1.2 and gRNA2.1 being trans-ferred,respectively.Then NTCP sequences were amplified by PCR and sequenced by being cloned into T vector.The results indicated that compared to gRNA1.2,gRNA2.1 had much higher activ-ity to make a frame-shift mutation in NTCP gene.This study laid a theoretical foundation for fur-ther editing NTCP gene and its biological function in Macaca fascicularis .%本研究旨在通过 CRISPR/Cas9体外酶切法及细胞水平上的 PCR 扩增测序筛选出靶向食蟹猴 NTCP 基因具有高敲除活性的 gRNA。首先通过比对食蟹猴与人类 NTCP 氨基酸序列,选择差异位点,即第84—87位和第157—165位氨基酸作为基因靶点序列区;利用 gRNA 软件设计针对上述基因靶点序列的 gRNA,每个靶点设计3~4条候选 gRNA 序列;然后利用 gRNA 体外检测试剂盒,筛选出靶向 NTCP 基因的体外敲除活性较高的两条gRNA 序列:gRNA1.2和 gRNA2.1。将 gRNA1.2和 gRNA2.1分别插入 pLV hUbC-Cas9-T2A-GFP 载体中,转染食蟹猴原代肝细胞。提取转染后细胞基因组 DNA,通过 PCR 扩增 NTCP 基因并将其克隆到 T 载体中进行测序分析。结果表明,gRNA1.2和 gRNA2.1均可使 NTCP 基因产生移码突变,但 gRNA2.1比 gRNA1.2具有更高的敲除活性。本研究为下一步编辑食蟹猴 NTCP

  20. Temporal Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Biomarkers in a Macaca fascicularis Infection Model of Tuberculosis; Comparison with Human Datasets and Analysis with Parametric/Non-parametric Tools for Improved Diagnostic Biomarker Identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Javed

    Full Text Available A temporal study of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary, pulmonary challenge model Macaca fascicularis has been conducted. PBL samples were taken prior to challenge and at one, two, four and six weeks post-challenge and labelled, purified RNAs hybridised to Operon Human Genome AROS V4.0 slides. Data analyses revealed a large number of differentially regulated gene entities, which exhibited temporal profiles of expression across the time course study. Further data refinements identified groups of key markers showing group-specific expression patterns, with a substantial reprogramming event evident at the four to six week interval. Selected statistically-significant gene entities from this study and other immune and apoptotic markers were validated using qPCR, which confirmed many of the results obtained using microarray hybridisation. These showed evidence of a step-change in gene expression from an 'early' FOS-associated response, to a 'late' predominantly type I interferon-driven response, with coincident reduction of expression of other markers. Loss of T-cell-associate marker expression was observed in responsive animals, with concordant elevation of markers which may be associated with a myeloid suppressor cell phenotype e.g. CD163. The animals in the study were of different lineages and these Chinese and Mauritian cynomolgous macaque lines showed clear evidence of differing susceptibilities to Tuberculosis challenge. We determined a number of key differences in response profiles between the groups, particularly in expression of T-cell and apoptotic makers, amongst others. These have provided interesting insights into innate susceptibility related to different host `phenotypes. Using a combination of parametric and non-parametric artificial neural network analyses we have identified key genes and regulatory pathways which may be important in early and adaptive responses to TB. Using

  1. 利用微卫星标记分析4个食蟹猴群体的遗传多样性%Analysis of genetic diversity of four Macaca fascicularis populations with microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮道元; 谢莉萍; 卢晟盛; 卢克焕

    2011-01-01

    利用7个恒河猴源微卫星标记和4个人源微卫星标记共11个标记,分析了来源于束埔寨(Pop1)、老挝(Pop2)、越南1(Pop3)和越南2(Pop4)共4个群体食蟹猴的遗传多样性.研究结果显示,所选择的11个微卫星位点表现出很高的多态性,群体内的多态性较低,存在较严重的近亲交配.Hardy-Weinberg平衡检测说明4个群体在这11个位点上均处于不平衡状态,可能存在较严重的人工选择繁育.亚群体内的固定指数平均为0.526 2,说明群体内存在近亲交配;亚种群间的固定指数均值为0.016 6,说明各群体间的遗传分化很小;各位点上的基因流均值为14.814 2,说明其交流很活跃,可有效地防止因遗传漂移而产生的遗传分化.从基于Nei氏标准遗传距离的UPGMS聚类图看出,先是Pop3和Pop4聚为一类,再和Pop1聚在一起,最后和Pop2聚在一起,其结果和其地理分布所表现的遗传差异一致.%The genetic diversity of Macaca fascicularis from four populations was analyzed by using eleven microsatellite markers including seven rhesus-derived markers and four human-derived makers. The four populations came from Cambodia (Pop 1) ,Laos (Pop 2) ,Vietnam 1 (Pop 3) and Vietnam 2 (Pop 4) ,respectively. It is illuminated that the high polymorphism was showed in 11 microsatellite locus. There was low polymorphism and seriously inbreeding within the groups. The unbalance on 11 locus from four groups was proved according to Hardy-Weinberg test. There may be more serious artificial selection inbreeding. When Fis is 0. 526 2,it showed that inbreeding was existed within groups. The Fst is 0.016 6,meaning that the genetic differentiation between groups is very small. The gene flow on every locus is 14.814 2, showing that the exchange of them is active. It may be effective by preventing genetic from differentiation because of genetic drift. According to dendrogram of UPGMS based on Nei's Unbiased Measures of genetic distance,Pop3

  2. Morphologic, stereologic, and morphometric evaluation of the nervous system in young cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) following maternal administration of tanezumab, a monoclonal antibody to nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Mark; Evans, Mark; Bowman, Christopher J; Cummings, Thomas; Oneda, Satoru; Shelton, David; Zorbas, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Tanezumab, an antibody to nerve growth factor, was administered to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys at 0, 0.5, 4, and 30 mg/kg weekly, beginning gestation day (GD) 20 through parturition (∼GD165). Maternal tanezumab administration appeared to increase stillbirths and infant mortality, but no consistent pattern of gross and/or microscopic change was detected to explain the mortality. Offspring exposed in utero were evaluated at 12 months of age using light microscopy (all tissues), stereology (basal forebrain cholinergic and dorsal root ganglia neurons), and morphometry (sural nerve). Light microscopy revealed decreased number of neurons in sympathetic ganglia (superior mesenteric, cervicothoracic, and ganglia in the thoracic sympathetic trunk). Stereologic assessment indicated an overall decrease in dorsal root ganglion (thoracic) volume and number of neurons in animals exposed to tanezumab 4 mg/kg (n = 9) and 30 mg/kg (n = 1). At all tanezumab doses, the sural nerve was small due to decreases in myelinated and unmyelinated axons. Existing axons/myelin sheaths appeared normal when viewed with light and transmission electron microscopy. There was no indication of tanezumab-related, active neuron/nerve fiber degeneration/necrosis in any tissue, indicating decreased sensory/sympathetic neurons and axonal changes were due to hypoplasia or atrophy. These changes in the sensory and sympathetic portions of the peripheral nervous system suggest some degree of developmental neurotoxicity, although what effect, if any, the changes had on normal function and survival was not apparent. Overall, these changes were consistent with published data from rodent studies.

  3. Investigation on Gastrointestinal Parasites in Captive-bred Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis in Guangxi%广西地区人工驯繁猕猴、食蟹猴胃肠道寄生虫感染情况的初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 全琛宇; 施维; 周庆安; 张鸿满; 黄维义; 何国声

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the infection status of gastrointestinal parasites in captive-bred non-human primates (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) in Guangxi,and provide basis for prevention and control strategies.Methods The monkeys were divided into three groups,the growth group,the breeding group,and the quarantine group.Totally 784 fresh feces samples from M.mulatta and M.fascicularis were collected at six monkey shelters in Guangxi,during 2008~2012.The direct smear method (DS),saturation salt solution float method (SSF) and formaldehyde-ether precipitation method (FEP) were used for fecal parasite examination under the microscope.Results The total infection rate was 72.4% among 784 sample.Five protozoan species Ameoba,Trichomonas sp.,Giardia sp.,Balantidium coli and Coccidia),five species of nematodes(Trichuris sp.,Streptopharagus sp.,Physaloptera sp.,Oesophagostmum sp.and Strongyloides sp.),two species of cestodas (Hymenolepis sp.and Bertiella studeri),one speice of trematoda and one speice of arthropod were identified.The gastrointestinal parasites infection of the growth group was possessed of the fewest among three groups,while the quarantine group was the largest.Relatively higher prevalence of protozoan was observed in both the growth monkey group and the breeding group,and the highest infection rate was found in both Amoeba and B.coli.Conclusions The results suggest that the protozoans with simple lifecycle and the soil transmitted nematodes which are difficult to kill by antihelmintic products nowadays,have become the major parasitic species that does serious harm to the captive-bred monkeys for experiment used in Guangxi.Herein,the infestation status could provide reference for prevention and controling strategies on parasitic disease of monkeys.Some species identified from this study have been considered as the pathogens of zoonose,which will have important public sanitation significances of countermeasure on disease spread between humans and

  4. The Establishment of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors Induced Precocious Puberty Macaca Fascicularis Model and the Intervention of Yin Nourishing Fire Purging Chinese Materia Medica%由环境内分泌干扰物引致食蟹猴性早熟疾病模型建立及滋阴泻火中药治疗干预的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 蔡德培

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立灵长类--食蟹猴的由环境内分泌干扰物(environmental endocrine disruptors,EEDs)引致的性早熟疾病模型,验证滋阴泻火中药对EEDs拟雌激素活性的拮抗作用.方法 (1)不同月龄组青春前期雌性食蟹猴喂饲高、低剂量EEDs,通过观察EEDs拟雌激素作用,以确定最佳月龄、染毒剂量及染毒时间.(2)15只青春前期雌性食蟹猴随机分为染毒组、治疗组及对照组,每组5只.染毒组喂饲壬基酚(nonylphenol,4-NP)及双酚A(bisphenol,BPA),治疗组将染毒物质及滋阴泻火中药合剂同时喂饲,对照组喂饲溶剂玉米油.疗程4周.疗程完成时,检测血清雌激素水平、阴道脱落细胞成熟指数,取出子宫,测定其子宫湿重、子宫内膜及环形平滑肌厚度、子宫内膜上皮细胞及腺上皮细胞高度.结果 (1)20月龄为最佳染毒月龄,低剂量EEDs为最佳染毒剂量,4周为最佳染毒时间.(2)与对照组比较,染毒组血清雌激素水平明显升高,阴道脱落细胞成熟指数显著增加,子宫湿重、子宫内膜厚度及环形平滑肌厚度、子宫内膜上皮细胞及腺上皮细胞高度显著增加(P<0.05).与染毒组比较,治疗组上述指标均显著降低(P<0.05).结论 本研究成功地建立了灵长类--食蟹猴由EEDs引致性早熟的疾病模型,证实了EEDs具有显著的拟雌激素活性,并验证了滋阴泻火中药合剂对其拟雌激素活性具有显著的拮抗作用.%Objective To establish the environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) induced precocious puberty macaca fascicularis model, thus verifying the antagonism of yin nourishing fire purging Chinese materia medica (YNFPCMM) against the estrogenic effects. Methods (1) The female prepubescent monkeys at different months old were fed with high dose and low dose EEDs. By observing EEDs' estrogenic effects, the optimal age, the optimal exposure dose, and the optimal exposure time were determined. (2) Fifteen female prepubescent monkeys were

  5. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Roberto E; Radi, Zaher A

    2007-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis characterized by multifocal follicular lymphoid cell infiltrates with germinal centers, thyroid acinar atrophy and pituitary cell hyperplasia/hypertrophy of the adenohypophysis was detected in a vehicle control, 4-year-old female Cynomolgus macaque in a routine toxicology study. Lymphoid cells of germinal centers were positive for the B-cell marker CD20 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), while remaining lymphocytes were positive for the T-cell marker CD3. Hypertrophied/hyperplastic pituitary cells were positive for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) by IHC, consistent with an adaptive response due to removal of hormonal negative feedback from the diseased thyroid gland. Features of this case are similar to chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in humans, an autoimmune disorder also known as Hashimoto's disease. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis with compensatory pituitary changes may occur spontaneously in young, clinically normal cynomolgus macaques and its presence in drug treated animals should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Visuospatial properties of caudal area 7b in Macaca fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Hui JIANG; Ying-Zhou HU; Jian-Hong WANG; Yuan-Ye MA; Xin-Tian HU

    2013-01-01

    To proceed from sensation to movement,integration and transformation of information from different senses and reference frames are required.Several brain areas are involved in this transformation process,but previous neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have implicated the caudal area 7b as one particular component of this transformation system.In this study,we present the first quantitative report on the spatial coding properties of caudal area 7b.The results showed that neurons in this area had intermediate component characteristics in the transformation system; the area contained bimodal neurons,and neurons in this area encode spatial information using a hybrid reference frame.These results provide evidence that caudal area 7b may belong to the reference frame transformation system,thus contributing to our general understanding of the transformation system.

  7. Fructosamine reference ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Fritze, Misty J; Smith, Peter C; Zelterman, Daniel; Scholz, Jodi A Carlson

    2011-07-01

    Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in several species of Old and New World nonhuman primates. Fructosamine values provide important information about recent glycemic control and can be useful in the diagnosis and management of DM. However, despite an abundance of reports in the literature describing spontaneous and induced DM in monkeys, few reference ranges are available for fructosamine. Reference ranges have been published for woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) but currently are not available for rhesus macaques. At our institution, DM is a common diagnosis in aging rhesus macaques. Here we report a reference range for fructosamine in rhesus macaques. The overall range was 157 to 230 μmol/L, with male rhesus and macaques 10 y or older having significantly higher values than do female rhesus and macaques younger than 10 y, respectively. This range provides clinical veterinarians with an additional tool for evaluating glycemic control in rhesus macaques. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  8. Kadar Kolesterol Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca Fascicularis Obesitas di Pura Uluwatu Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Ratna Wulan Sari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian deskriptif-observasional dengan pendekatan cross-sectional telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui kadar kolesterol total monyet ekor panjang obesitas yang hidup liar di Pura Luhur Uluwatu, Bali. Sebanyak enam belas monyet ekor panjang berhasil ditangkap bius menggunakan ketamin dosis 10 mg/kg berat badan dicampur dengan premedikasi xylazin dosis 1-2 mg/kg berat badan, kemudian dilakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan, pengukuran morfometri dan pengambilan sampel darah. Penentuan kadar kolesterol menggunakan mesin automatic chemistry analyzer by Indiko- Thermo Scientific. Dari 16 ekor monyet, 12 ekor tergolong obesitas berdasarkan Indeks Masa Tubuh dan Berat Badan (IMT ?32,81±1,1 kg/m2 menurut Putra et al. (2006; BB ?8 kg. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rataan kadar kolesterol total monyet obesitas adalah 107,75 ml/dL. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kadar kolesterol monyet ekor panjang obesitas di Pura Uluwatu, Bali masih normal.

  9. Aging, dominance history, and social behavior in Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Veenema, H.C.; Spruijt, B.M.; Vanhooff, J.A.R.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the dominance history of socially housed Java-monkeys on the aging process. In monkeys, social subordinance is generally associated with elevated levels of cortisol, which, in turn, have been suggested to influence cognitive decline. As cogni

  10. Limited Susceptibility of Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to Leprosy after Experimental Administration of Mycobacterium leprae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gerald P.; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C.; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Tan, Esterlina V.; Fajardo, Tranquilino T.; Villahermosa, Laarni G.; Cellona, Roland V.; Balagon, Maria V.; White, Valerie A.; Saunderson, Paul R.; Walsh, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis—importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1–19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration. PMID:22855766

  11. Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar infections in captive macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Windell L; Yason, John Anthony D L; Adao, Davin Edric V

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that infects man and animals. This parasite has a global distribution and the disease it causes is usually characterized by diarrhea. In order to detect the parasite, it is necessary to differentiate it from Entamoeba dispar. E. dispar appears morphologically similar to E. histolytica but does not cause disease and tissue invasion. This study reports on the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar among captive macaques in a primate facility in the Philippines. PCR was used to correctly identify both Entamoeba species. Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was also performed to determine the seroprevalence of amebiasis in the captive macaques. Based on PCR targeting of the peroxiredoxin gene, of the 96 stool samples collected, 23 (24%) contained E. histolytica while 32 (33%) contained E. dispar. IFAT revealed 26 (27%) serum samples positive for antibodies against E. histolytica. Sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene showed that the 23 E. histolytica isolates were identical to human E. histolytica isolates deposited in the GenBank and not Entamoeba nuttalli as found in macaques in other recent reports. The Philippines is a major exporter of monkeys for biomedical research purposes, so screening animals before transporting them to other locations lessens the risk of spreading zoonoses to a wider area. This is the first report of the molecular detection of E. histolytica and E. dispar among macaques in the Philippines. This study complements the limited information available on the animal hosts of E. histolytica in the Philippines.

  12. Cryopreservation of cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatozoa in a chemically defined extender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Hui Li; Ke-Jun Cai; Lei Su; Mo Guan; Xie-Chao He; Hong Wang; Andras Kovacs; Wei-Zhi Ji

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To establish a method for cynomolgus monkey sperm cryopreservation in a chemically defined extender.Methods: Semen samples were collected by electro-ejaculation from four sexually mature male cynomolgus monkeys.The spermatozoa were frozen in straws by liquid nitrogen vapor using egg-yolk-free Tes-Tris (mTTE) synthetic extender and glycerol as cryoprotectant. The effects of glycerol concentration (1%, 3%, 5%, 10% and 15% [v/v])and its equilibration time (10 min, 30 min, 60 min and 90 min) on post-thaw spermatozoa were examined by sperm motility and sperm head membrane integrity. Results: The post-thaw motility and head membrane integrity of spermatozoa were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for 5% glycerol (42.95 ± 2.55 and 50.39 ± 2.42, respectively) than those of the other groups (1%: 19.19 ± 3.22 and 24.84 ± 3.64; 3%: 34.23 ± 3.43 and 41.37 ± 3.42; 10%:15.68 ± 2.36 and 21.39 ± 3.14; 15%: 7.47 ± 1.44 and 12.90 ± 2.18). The parameters for 30 min equilibration (42.95 ± 2.55 and 50.39 ± 2.42) were better (P < 0.05) than those of the other groups (10 min: 31.33 ± 3.06 and 38.98 ± 3.31; 60 min: 32.49 ± 3.86 and 40.01 ± 4.18; 90 min: 31.16 ± 3.66 and 38.30 ± 3.78). Five percent glycerol and 30 min equilibration yielded the highest post-thaw sperm motility and head membrane integrity. Conclusion:Cynomolgus monkey spermatozoa can be successfully cryopreserved in a chemically defined extender, which is related to the concentration and the equilibration time of glycerol.

  13. Experimental Infection of Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with Aerosolized Monkeypox Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    appearance of very few pox lesions and the appearance of observable clinical disease of short duration just prior to death. Finally, perhaps because of...the small size of the marmosets, blood was not drawn with great frequency and serum chemistries and CBCs were not performed, thus leaving many

  14. Structural and functional definition of the motor cortex in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessle, B J; Wiesendanger, M

    1982-02-01

    1. The details of the organization of the motor cortex and its anterior and posterior border were investigated in three monkeys by a combination of techniques including intracortical microstimulation (i.c.m.s.), electrophysiological recording of cutaneous and muscle afferent inputs to single cortical neurones, and electrophysiological and anatomical identification of corticospinal neurones; in addition, data from these methods were related to cortical cytoarchitecture.2. Almost 5000 individual cortical loci were tested with i.c.m.s. in the unanaesthetized monkeys. In this paper, we particularly consider the organization of the forelimb motor representation, and its relation to the representation of other parts of the body. I.c.m.s. thresholds of about 5 muA were common for evoking twitch movements and e.m.g. responses in distal forelimb and face, jaw and tongue muscles, but proximal forelimb, trunk and hind-limb movements also sometimes had such low thresholds.3. The fingers were found to be represented nearest the central sulcus, with horseshoe-shaped bands of cortical tissue representing progressively more proximal muscles situated around this central ;finger core'.4. Cytoarchitectonically, the cortex having these low-threshold motor effects was characteristic of area 4. There was also a close fit between the extent of this ;excitable cortex' and the extent of densely spaced corticospinal neurones identified electro-physiologically or with horseradish peroxidase labelling. In subsequent mapping of forelimb afferents to the cortex when the animal was deeply anaesthetized, low-threshold and short-latency responses to muscle nerve stimulation were rarely found in this ;excitable cortex'.5. The anterior border could be clearly established by i.c.m.s. and by the sharp boundary of corticospinal neurones. It was noted that the motor cortex extends rostrally beyond area 4 and its anterior border appears to reside in the posterior part of area 6aalpha (Vogt & Vogt, 1919) although it is difficult to establish the precise transition from area 4 to area 6.6. Posteriorly, the ;micro-excitable cortex' was found to be limited to regions cytoarchitectonically delineated as area 4 and did not include area 3a. On the other hand, low-threshold forelimb proprioceptive afferent inputs appeared restricted to area 3a neurones in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Corticospinal neurones were very dense in area 4, and there was a clear decrease in their occurrence in more caudal areas. However, scattered nests of corticospinal neurones were noted in areas 3a, 3b, 2, 1 and 5. It remains to be seen whether these scattered nests could be directly involved in motor control or whether they may modulate ascending somatosensory transmission, and whether they rely on sensory feed-back or inputs from other central areas for their spinal effects.

  15. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, van J.A.R.A.M.; Gispen, W.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal's own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These ind

  16. Spontaneous cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a juvenile cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Rogerson, Petrina; Blanco, Ana L; Naylor, Stuart W; Bradley, Alys

    2012-08-01

    A neoplastic mass compressing the left cerebellar hemisphere and hindbrain was observed at trimming in a 3½-year-old male cynomolgus monkey from a control dose group. Microscopically, the neoplastic mass was nonencapsulated, invasive, and showed two morphological patterns. The predominant area consisted of densely packed undifferentiated, polygonal to spindle cells arranged in vague sheets supported by a scant fibrovascular stroma. The other area was less cellular and composed of round neoplastic cells separated by eosinophilic fibrillar material. Immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, and S-100 confirmed the presence of primitive undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells and some cells with neuronal or glial differentiation. On the basis of histopathology and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor with neuronal and glial differentiation was made. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rare in animals including nonhuman primates; this is the first published report in this species.

  17. Characterization of PrPc-immunoreactive cells in monkey (Macaca fascicularis) gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Z; Bodegas, M E; Sesma, M P; Guembe, L

    2005-04-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the most likely entry sites for the pathological isoform of prions (PrP(sc)). To understand how PrP(sc) crosses the digestive mucosa, it is crucial to characterize the cells expressing normal prion protein (PrP(c)). By means of double immunofluorescence applied to sections of the monkey GIT, we demonstrated that, in the stomach, PrP(c) immunostaining occurs in subsets of histamine, somatostatin (Som), ghrelin (Ghr), gastrin (G), and serotonin (5HT) cells. In the small and large bowels, PrP(c) cells were found in subpopulations of cells immunolabeled for 5HT, Som, G, and peptide YY (PYY).

  18. Acute traumatic spinal cord injury induces glial activation in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A D; Westmoreland, S V; Evangelous, N R; Graham, A; Sledge, J; Nesathurai, S

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury leads to direct myelin and axonal damage and leads to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to site of injury. Although rodent models have provided the greatest insight into the genesis of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), recent studies have attempted to develop an appropriate non-human primate model. We explored TSCI in a cynomolgus macaque model using a balloon catheter to mimic external trauma to further evaluate the underlying mechanisms of acute TSCI. Following 1hour of spinal cord trauma, there were focal areas of hemorrhage and necrosis at the site of trauma. Additionally, there was a marked increased expression of macrophage-related protein 8, MMP9, IBA-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages and microglia at the site of injury. This data indicate that acute TSCI in the cynomolgus macaque is an appropriate model and that the earliest immunohistochemical changes noted are within macrophage and microglia populations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Neil; Witzel, Ulrich; Fitton, Laura; O'higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Computational finite element analyses (FEAs) of the skull predict structural deformations under user specified loads and constraints, with results normally presented as stress and strain distributions over the skull's surface. The applied loads are generally a representation of the major adductor musculature, with the skull constrained at bite positions and at the articulating joints. However, virtually all analyses ignore potentially important anatomical structures, such as the fasciae that cover the temporalis muscle and attach onto the zygomatic arch. In vivo experimental studies have shown that removal of the temporal fasciae attachment onto the zygomatic arch in Cebus monkeys results in significant bone adaptation and remodeling in this region, suggesting the fasciae play an important role in stabilising the arch during biting. Here we investigate this potential stabilising role by carrying out FEAs of a macaque skull with and without temporal fasciae included. We explore the extent to which the zygomatic arch might be stabilized during biting by a synchronized tensioning of the temporal fasciae, acting to oppose masseteric contraction forces. According to our models, during temporalis muscle bulging the forces generated within the tensioned temporal fasciae are large enough to oppose the pull of the masseter. Further, a near bending-free state of equilibrium within the arch can be reached, even under forceful biting. We show that it is possible to eliminate the high strain gradients in and around the zygomatic arch that are present in past computational studies, with strains being more uniform in magnitude than previously thought.

  20. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals.

  1. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys.

  2. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, van J.A.R.A.M.; Gispen, W.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal's own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These ind

  3. The relationship between masseter force and masseter electromyogram during mastication in the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, W L; Johnson, K R

    1989-01-01

    In five adult monkeys, electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from bipolar surface electrodes positioned over the superficial masseter and from bipolar fine-wire electrodes within both the superficial and deep masseter. Relative masseter force was estimated by measuring surface bone strain from the lateral aspect of the zygomatic arch using rosette strain gauges. Multiple step-wise regression procedures demonstrated that peak values of the averaged masseter EMG could often explain a considerable amount of the variation of peak relative masseter force during mastication, i.e. r2 values ranged from 0.23 to 0.96 for the various single-electrode models and R2 values ranged from 0.78 to 0.96 for the various multiple-electrode models. The r2 values for relative masseter force and EMG data from the surface electrodes ranged from 0.69 to 0.96, and, on average, EMG data from surface electrodes provided somewhat more information about overall relative muscle force than data from fine-wire electrodes. The R2 values for a two-electrode model, consisting of data from surface electrodes over the superficial masseter and fine-wire electrodes in the posterior portion of the deep masseter, ranged from 0.78 to 0.95. The latency between the averaged surface EMG and relative muscle force was determined and the data indicated that the surface EMG usually preceded muscle force. This latency tended to decrease gradually throughout the entire power stroke of mastication. At peak values, the surface EMG preceded muscle force by about 22 ms. Towards the end of the power stroke, i.e. the 25% of peak values during unloading, muscle force may actually precede the average EMG.

  4. Reach–to-grasp movements in macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the ‘isochrony principle’ seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  5. Lower respiratory tract infection in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) infected with group A Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Randall J; Ashraf, Madiha; Gonulal, Vedia E; Ayeras, Ara A; Cantu, Concepcion; Shea, Patrick R; Carroll, Ronan K; Humbird, Tammy; Greaver, Jamieson L; Swain, Jody L; Chang, Ellen; Ragasa, Willie; Jenkins, Leslie; Lally, Kevin P; Blasdel, Terry; Cagle, Philip; Musser, James M

    2010-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), a human-specific pathogen, is best known for causing pharyngitis ("strep-throat") and necrotizing fasciitis ("flesh-eating disease"). However, the organism is also an uncommon but important cause of community-acquired bronchopneumonia, an infection with an exceptionally high mortality rate. Inasmuch as little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of GAS lower respiratory tract infection, we sought to develop a relevant human infection model. Nine cynomolgus macaques were infected by intra-bronchial instillation of either sterile saline or GAS (10(5) or 10(7) CFU). Animals were continuously monitored and sacrificed at five days post-inoculation. Serial bronchial alveolar lavage specimens and tissues collected at necropsy were used for histologic and immunohistochemical examination, quantitative microbial culture, lung and blood biomarker analysis, and in vivo GAS gene expression studies. The lower respiratory tract disease observed in cynomolgus macaques mimicked the clinical and pathological features of severe GAS bronchopneumonia in humans. This new monkey model will be useful for testing hypotheses bearing on the molecular pathogenesis of GAS in the lower respiratory tract.

  6. Monitoring gene expression in muscle tissue of macaca fascicularis under the influence of testosterone and SARM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Martina; Tichopad, Ales; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to evaluate data on the gene expression profiles induced by testosterone and a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM, TAP Pharmaceutical Products Inc., Lake Forest, IL, USA) in androgen sensitive muscle tissue to obtain a better understanding on the molecular mechanisms of action and to identify biomarkers for SARM function in primate organs. A total of 24 male cyomolgus monkeys were divided into four groups: testosterone group, SARM1 group, SARM10 group, and control group, each consisting of six animals. The testosterone group was treated i.m. with 3.0 mg/kg Testostoviron®-depot-250 (Schering, Berlin, Germany) every 2 weeks, the SARM1 and SARM10 groups with 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg SARM LGD2941 daily, and the control group was not treated. Muscle biopsies from musculus quadriceps and musculus triceps were collected at three time points: baseline time point before SARM application (control), on day 16, and on day 90 of treatment. A total of 30 candidate genes were selected according to their functionality by screening the actual literature and were composed to the following functional groups: cell cycle, endocrine factors, energy metabolism, muscle fiber proteins, muscle specific transcription factors, protein metabolism, and satellite cell biology. Biomarkers were identified as genes regulated from baseline in any of the three treatment groups at day 16 or day 90 using analysis of variance with baseline defined as the contrast group. Out of 23 tested candidate genes, 3 were significantly regulated in m. quadriceps after 90 days treatment; in m. triceps no significant differences were identified. Cathepsin L, calpain 3, and insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 could be identified as first biomarkers, and first physiological differences between control and treatment samples were determined. Both testosterone and SARM LGD2941 appear to have similar effects after 90 days treatment, and thus a longer-term therapy with these substances can be recommended.

  7. Reticulospinal neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, S T; Davidson, A G; Buford, J A

    2009-11-10

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate a role for reticulospinal neurons of the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) in motor preparation and goal-directed reaching in the monkey. Although the macaque monkey is an important model for such investigations, little is known regarding the organization of the PMRF in the monkey. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of reticulospinal neurons in the macaque. Bilateral injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made into the cervical spinal cord. A wide band of retrogradely labeled cells was found in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and labeled cells continued rostrally into the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) and into the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO). Additional retrograde tracing studies following unilateral cervical spinal cord injections of cholera toxin subunit B revealed that there were more ipsilateral (60%) than contralateral (40%) projecting cells in Gi, while an approximately 50:50 ratio contralateral to ipsilateral split was found in PnC and more contralateral projections arose from PnO. Reticulospinal neurons in PMRF ranged widely in size from over 50 microm to under 25 microm across the major somatic axis. Labeled giant cells (soma diameters greater than 50 microm) comprised a small percentage of the neurons and were found in Gi, PnC and PnO. The present results define the origins of the reticulospinal system in the monkey and provide an important foundation for future investigations of the anatomy and physiology of this system in primates.

  8. Pedicled Instep Flap and Tibial Nerve Reconstruction in a Cynomolgus Monkey [Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Weiss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male cynomolgus monkey experienced extensive soft tissue trauma to the right caudal calf area. Some weeks after complete healing of the original wounds, the monkey developed a chronic pressure sore on plantar surface of the heel of its right foot. A loss of sensitivity in the sole of the foot was hypothesized. The skin defect was closed by a medial sensate pedicled instep flap followed by counter transplantation of a full thickness graft from the interdigital webspace. The integrity of the tibial nerve was revised and reconstructed by means of the turnover flap technique. Both procedures were successful. This is an uncommon case in an exotic veterinary patient as it demonstrates a reconstructive skin flap procedure for the treatment of a chronic, denervated wound in combination with the successful reconstruction of 2.5 cm gap in the tibial nerve.

  9. Antibody Responses in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis, to Protein Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    your husband’s "educational experiences". And to my greatest of all r’-ildren in the world, Sarah and Jonathan, who did their best to understand when...Monogr Allergy 19:122-133. 118 Hammarstrom, L., Lefranc, G., Lefranc, M.P., Persson, MAA . Smith, C.I.E. 1986. Aberrant pattern of anti-carbohydrate

  10. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  11. Population and landscape genetics of an introduced species (M. fascicularis) on the island of Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkoski Trask, Jessica; George, Debra; Houghton, Paul; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2013-01-01

    The cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, was introduced onto the island of Mauritius in the early 17(th) century. The species experienced explosive population growth, and currently exists at high population densities. Anecdotes collected from nonhuman primate trappers on the island of Mauritius allege that animals from the northern portion of the island are larger in body size than and superior in condition to their conspecifics in the south. Although previous genetic studies have reported Mauritian cynomolgus macaques to be panmictic, the individuals included in these studies were either from the southern/central or an unknown portion of the island. In this study, we sampled individuals broadly throughout the entire island of Mauritius and used spatial principle component analysis to measure the fine-scale correlation between geographic and genetic distance in this population. A stronger correlation between geographic and genetic distance was found among animals in the north than in those in the southern and central portions of the island. We found no difference in body weight between the two groups, despite anecdotal evidence to the contrary. We hypothesize that the increased genetic structure among populations in the north is related to a reduction in dispersal distance brought about by human habitation and tourist infrastructure, but too recent to have produced true genetic differentiation.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  13. A pair choice test to identify female mating patterns in relation to ovulation in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikitopoulos, E.; Heistermann, M.; Vries, Han de; Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. van; Sterck, E.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Female mammals may exert choice for mates directly by mating selectively. Alternatively, females can mate promiscuously, allowing sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice to operate. Primate sexual behaviour is probably a compromise between conflicting male and female interests, so it may be i

  14. Variation in hair δ13C and δ15N values in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Lee, Benjamin P.Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the primatology literature on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) has focused on African and New World species, with comparatively little research published on Asian primates. Here we present hair δ13C and δ15N isotope values for a sample of 33 long-tailed macaques from Singapore. We evaluate the suggestion by a previous researcher that forest degradation and biodiversity loss in Singapore have led to a decline in macaque trophic level. The results of our analysis indicated significant spatial variability in δ13C but not δ15N. The range of variation in δ13C was consistent with a diet based on C3 resources, with one group exhibiting low values consistent with a closed canopy environment. Relative to other macaque species from Europe and Asia, the macaques from Singapore exhibited a low mean δ13C value but mid-range mean δ15N value. Previous research suggesting a decline in macaque trophic level is not supported by the results of our study.

  15. Observations on healing following endodontic surgery in nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis): effects of rhBMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholtz, Gunnar; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Sorensen, Rachel G; Xiropaidis, Andreas V; Wozney, John M

    2006-01-01

    The potential of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to enhance bone healing following endodontic surgery was tested. The pattern and timing of de novo bone formation and cementum regeneration, and the potential for root resorption and ankylosis to accompany bone formation were evaluated. Pulpal infections were induced in maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth in young adult Cynomolgus monkeys. The teeth received conventional endodontic treatment immediately followed by surgical root resection. In a randomized split-mouth design, contralateral apical bone defects received rhBMP-2 in absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier or served as sham-surgery controls to provide histological and radiographic evaluations following 1 (mandibular incisors) and 4.5 (maxillary incisors) month(s) postsurgery. At 1 month postsurgery trabecular bone filled the apical bone defects. The newly formed bone appeared considerably more mature and had assumed characteristics of the contiguous resident bone at 4.5 months postsurgery. The resected root tips were almost completely covered by new cementum with a maturing functionally oriented periodontal ligament. Localized inflammatory infiltrates were associated with the filled root canals and extruded root-filling material. Root resorption and ankylosis were not observed. There were no apparent differences in healing patterns between sites implanted with rhBMP-2/ACS and those serving as sham-surgery controls. Under conditions where the influence of infectious elements and irritation caused by root filling material are minimized, bone formation and cementum regeneration appears rapid following endodontic surgery. rhBMP-2/ACS did not offer an obvious benefit above and beyond that of the native osteogenic potential in this animal model.

  16. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general...

  17. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ballesta

    Full Text Available 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play. In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors.

  18. Superovulatory responses in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) depend on the interaction between donor status and superovulation method used

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Ji-Su; YOON, Seung-Bin; JEONG, Kang-Jin; SIM, Bo-Woong; CHOI, Seon-A; LEE, Sang-Il; JIN, Yeung Bae; SONG, Bong-Seok; LEE, Sang-Rae; KIM, Sun-Uk; CHANG, Kyu-Tae

    2017-01-01

    The current study was performed to investigate the effect of oocyte donor status, including age and body weight, on metaphase II (MII) oocyte recovery using two superovulation methods in cynomolgus monkeys. The use of Method A [recombinant gonadotrophin (75 IU/kg, 3 ×, 3-day intervals) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)] led to great increases in ovary size and the mean number of MII oocytes retrieved in age- and body-weight-dependent manner; in contrast, both the parameters were similar in Method B [recombinant gonadotrophin (60 IU, twice daily, 6 days), recombinant gonadotropin and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (rhLH) (60 IU, twice daily, 3 days), and hCG]. Importantly, Method A showed maximal MII oocyte recovery rate in > 60-month-old or 4.5–5.0-kg female monkeys, whereas Method B was equally effective regardless of the donor age and body weight. These results indicate that superovulatory responses depend on the interaction between oocyte donor status and the superovulation method used in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:28070055

  19. Efficacy of selective PDE4D negative allosteric modulators in the object retrieval task in female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane S Sutcliffe

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP signalling plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the hippocampal and basal ganglia systems. The augmentation of cAMP signalling through the selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases represents a viable strategy to treat disorders associated with dysfunction of these circuits. The phosphodiesterase (PDE type 4 inhibitor rolipram has shown significant pro-cognitive effects in neurological disease models, both in rodents and primates. However, competitive non-isoform selective PDE4 inhibitors have a low therapeutic index which has stalled their clinical development. Here, we demonstrate the pro-cognitive effects of selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs of PDE4D, D159687 and D159797 in female Cynomolgous macaques, in the object retrieval detour task. The efficacy displayed by these NAMs in a primate cognitive task which engages the corticostriatal circuitry, together with their suitable pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles, suggests that clinical development of these allosteric modulators should be considered for the treatment of a variety of brain disorders associated with cognitive decline.

  20. Use of Operant Performance to Guide and Evaluate Medical Treatment in an Adult Male Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    treatment. The affected monkey received ketoprofen , buprenorphine, or their combination but continued to perform poorly during daily operant behavioral...evening administration of buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg IM) was added to the treatment regimen of ketoprofen (2.0 mg/kg IM) ad- ministration in the...well below the reinforced band. Treatment with ketoprofen or the ketoprofen -buprenorphine combination failed to increase mean response duration

  1. A critical analysis of the cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, as a model to test HIV-1/SIV vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Joseph M; MacDonald, Kelly S

    2015-06-17

    The use of a number of non-rhesus macaque species, but especially cynomolgus macaques as a model for HIV-1 vaccine development has increased in recent years. Cynomolgus macaques have been used in the United Kingdom, Europe, Canada and Australia as a model for HIV vaccine development for many years. Unlike rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques infected with SIV show a pattern of disease pathogenesis that more closely resembles that of human HIV-1 infection, exhibiting lower peak and set-point viral loads and slower progression to disease with more typical AIDS defining illnesses. Several advances have been made recently in the use of the cynomolgus macaque SIV challenge model that allow the demonstration of vaccine efficacy using attenuated viruses and vectors that are both viral and non-viral in origin. This review aims to probe the details of various vaccination trials carried out in cynomolgus macaques in the context of our modern understanding of the highly diverse immunogenetics of this species with a view to understanding the species-specific immune correlates of protection and the efficacy of vectors that have been used to design vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Mandibular reconstruction with a bioactive-coated cementless Ti6Al4V modular endoprosthesis in Macaca fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chanchareonsook, N.; Tideman, H.; Lee, S.; Hollister, S.J.; Flanagan, C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The titanium mandibular modular endoprosthesis fixed with polymethylmethacrylate cement in the medullary space of the mandible has been introduced in previous studies. However, the internal parts of these devices have been found to be prone to loosening and wound dehiscence. The current study introd

  3. Pathology of experimental Machupo virus infection, Chicava strain, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by intramuscular and aerosol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T M; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Robinson, C G; Wilkinson, E R; Hensley, L E; Cashman, K A

    2015-01-01

    Machupo virus, the causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever of which little is known and for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics are available. This study evaluated the cynomolgus macaque as an animal model using the Machupo virus, Chicava strain, via intramuscular and aerosol challenge. The incubation period was 6 to 10 days with initial signs of depression, anorexia, diarrhea, mild fever, and a petechial skin rash. These were often followed by neurologic signs and death within an average of 18 days. Complete blood counts revealed leukopenia as well as marked thrombocytopenia. Serum chemistry values identified a decrease in total protein, marked increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and moderate increases in alkaline phosphatase. Gross pathology findings included a macular rash extending across the axillary and inguinal regions beginning at approximately 10 days postexposure as well as enlarged lymph nodes and spleen, enlarged and friable liver, and sporadic hemorrhages along the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and necrosis/apoptosis in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system (nonsuppurative encephalitis) was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection in cynomolgus macaques and supports the usefulness of cynomolgus macaques as a viable model of human Machupo virus infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features of compressive cervical myelopathy with traumatic intervertebral disc herniation in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Park, Seong Hoe

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) with nucleus pulposus extrusion, traumatic or not, is a devastating clinical condition accompanied by neurological problems. Here we report a cynomolgus macaque suffering from acute and progressive neurological dysfunction by a blunt trauma due to neck collar, an animal handling device. Tetraplegia, urinary incontinence, decreased proprioception, and imperception of pain were shown on physical and neurological examinations. MRI sagittal T2 weighted sequences revealed an extensive protrusion of disc material between C2 and C3 cervical vertebra, and this protrusion resulted in central stenosis of the spinal cord. Histopathologic findings showed a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated at sites of spinal cord injury (SCI). This case is the first report of compressive cervical SCI caused by IVDH associated with blunt trauma. PMID:28053621

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: crab-eating macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NS ...

  6. Pediculosis in Macaca sylvanus of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Douglas L; Smith, Vincent; Pizarro, Mark; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory; Fuentes, Agustin; Shaw, Eric; Cortes, John

    2007-04-10

    Pedicinus spp. parasitize several species of nonhuman primates. This is the first published report confirming the presence of Pedicinus albidus (Rudow) infestation in the free-ranging macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar. The diagnosis of pediculosis was based upon finding adult lice on host animals.

  7. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  8. Cycloartane triterpenes from marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xinping; ZHU Xiaobin; DENG Liping; DENG Zhiwei; LIN Wenhan

    2006-01-01

    Six cycloartanes were isolated from ethanol extract of marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis by column chromatography. Procedure of isolation and description of these compounds are given in this paper. The structures were elucidated as (1). 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25- en-3β-ol; (2).cycloart-25-en-3β 24-diol; (3). 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol; (4). cycloart-23-en-3β, 25-diol; (5).cycloart-23, 25-dien-3β-ol; and (6). cycloart-24-en-3β-ol by spectroscopic (MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analysis. Cycloartane derivatives are widely distributed in terrestrial plants, but only few were obtained in the alga. All these compounds that have been isolated from terrestrial plants, were found in the marine alga for the first time.

  9. Cycloartane triterpenes from marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinping; Zhu, Xiaobin; Deng, Liping; Deng, Zhiwei; Lin, Wenhan

    2006-12-01

    Six cycloartanes were isolated from ethanol extract of marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis by column chromatography. Procedure of isolation and description of these compounds are given in this paper. The structures were elucidated as (1). 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25- en-3β-ol; (2). cycloart-25-en-3β 24-diol; (3). 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol; (4). cycloart-23-en-3β, 25-diol; (5). cycloart-23, 25-dien-3β-ol; and (6). cycloart-24-en-3β-ol by spectroscopic (MS, ID and 2D NMR) data analysis. Cycloartane derivatives are widely distributed in terrestrial plants, but only few were obtained in the alga. All these compounds that have been isolated from terrestrial plants, were found in the marine alga for the first time.

  10. Determination of prey capture rates in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis: a critical reconsideration of the clearance rate concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, R.; Delft, van S.; Lewaru, M.W.; Janse, M.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine optimal feeding regimes for captive corals, prey capture by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis was determined by measuring clearance of prey items from the surrounding water. Colonies of G. fascicularis (sized between 200 and 400 polyps) were incubated in 1300 ml incu

  11. Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa): redescription and discussion of its phylogenetic position within the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, Maria Pia

    2016-03-31

    Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 was first described off Alligator Reef, Florida, USA, at a depth of 216 m. Presumably a deep-sea species, its validity has often been questioned due to the scarcity of available records. In this paper, T. fascicularis is re-described from some mature colonies from the upper slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, new pictures of the colony, polyps, and medusa buds, are provided. A ~600bp sequence of the large ribosomal subunit of the mitochondrial RNA (lsu-rRNA, 16S), also known as the Hydrozoan barcoding molecule, is used for the first time to confirm the validity of T. fascicularis as a species, and analyze its phylogenetic position within the genus Turritopsis.

  12. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  13. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  14. Hepatitis G virus genomic RNA is pathogenic to Macaca mulatta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Ren; Fen-Lu Zhu; Ming-Mei Cao; Xin-Yu Wen; Ping Zhao; Zhong-Tian Qi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the pathogenicity and infectivity of hepatitis G virus (HGV) by observing replication and expression of the virus, as well as the serological and histological changes of Macaca mulatta infected with HGV genomic RNA or HGV RNA-positive serum.METHODS: Full-length HGV cDNA clone (HGVqz) was constructed and proved to be infectious, from which HGV genomic RNA was transcribed in vitro. Macaca mulatta BY1 was intra-hepatically inoculated with HGV genomic RNA, HGV RNA-positive serum from BY1 was intravenously inoculated into Macaca mulatta BM1, and then BB1 was infected with serum from BM1. Serum and liver tissue were taken regularly, and checked with RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and other immunological, serological,histological assays.RESULTS: Serum HGV RNA was detectable in all the 3Macaca mulattas, serological and histological examinations showed the experimental animals had slightly elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) and developed HGV viremia during the infectious period. The histology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization in liver tissues of the inoculated animals demonstrated a very mild hepatitis with HGV antigen expression in cytoplasm of hepatocytes.RT-PCR and quantitative PCR results showed that HGV could replicate in liver.CONCLUSION: The genomic RNA from full-length HGV cDNA is infectious to the Macaca mulatta and can cause mild hepatitis. HGV RNA-positive serum, from HGV RNA inoculated Macaca mulatta, is infectious to other Macaca mulattas. Macaca mulatta is susceptible to the inoculated HGV, and therefore can be used as an experimental animal model for the studies of HGV infection and pathogenesis.

  15. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  16. Biosorption and desorption of Cd2+ from wastewater by dehydrated shreds of Cladophora fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Liping; ZHU Xiaobin; SU Yingying; SU Hua; WANG Xinting

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of algae Cladophora fascicularis and their relation with initial Cd2+ concentration,initial pH,and co-existing ions were studied.Adsorption equilibrium and biosorption kinetics were established from batch experiments.The adsorption equilibrium was adequately described by the Langmuir isotherm,and biosorption kinetics was in pseudo-second order model.The experiment on co-existing ions showed that the biosorption capacity of biomass decreased with an increasing concentration of competing ions.Desorption experiments indicated that EDTA was efficient desorbent for recovery from Cd2+.With high capacities of metal biosorption and desorption,the biomass of Cladophora fascicularis is promising as a cost-effective biosorbent for the removal of Cd2+ from wastewater.

  17. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms impair zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    OpenAIRE

    Wijgerde, T.H.M.; Schots, P.; Onselen, van, E.; Karruppannan, E.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Osinga, R.

    2013-01-01

    Many scleractinian coral species host epizoic acoelomorph flatworms, both in aquaculture and in situ. These symbiotic flatworms may impair coral growth and health through light-shading, mucus removal and disruption of heterotrophic feeding. To quantify the effect of epizoic flatworms on zooplankton feeding, we conducted video analyses of single polyps of Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767) grazing on Artemia nauplii in the presence and absence of symbiotic flatworms. 18S DNA analysis reveale...

  18. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms impair zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Wijgerde; Pauke Schots; Eline Van Onselen; Max Janse; Eric Karruppannan; Verreth, Johan A. J.; Ronald Osinga

    2012-01-01

    Summary Many scleractinian coral species host epizoic acoelomorph flatworms, both in aquaculture and in situ. These symbiotic flatworms may impair coral growth and health through light-shading, mucus removal and disruption of heterotrophic feeding. To quantify the effect of epizoic flatworms on zooplankton feeding, we conducted video analyses of single polyps of Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767) grazing on Artemia nauplii in the presence and absence of symbiotic flatworms. 18S DNA analysis...

  19. Phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jothimani Rajeswari; Karthikeyan Kesavan; Balasundaram Jayakar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis (P. fascicularis) Lam (pandanaceae). And provide experimental evidence for its traditional use such as rheumatoid arthritis and spasmodic. Methods:The anti-inflammatory activity was observed by carrageenan-induced edema of the hind paw of rats. Analgesic activities of prop roots ofP. fascicularis were determined using acetic acid induced writhing model and tail clip method in mice and rat, respectively. The ethanol fraction was then subjected to chromatographic analysis and a compound has been isolated and characterized byIR,1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy.Results: Edema suppressant effect of ethanol extract was found to be37.03% inhibition whereas aqueous extract was found to be 63.22% inhibition after 3 h which was nearly equivalent to that of 10mg/kg of indomethacin (67.81%). Percentage inhibition of writhing compared to control were63.15%, 54.38%, 14.90%for aspirin, aqueous extract and ethanolic extract, respectively. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts show significant activity against appropriate controls after60 min of treatment on tail clip method. The structure of the isolated compound is may be characterized as Hepta deca-5-ene-1-ol by analysis it’sIR,1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy data.Conclusions: The extracts of prop roots ofP. fascicularis produce significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this herb in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  20. ANTIDIURETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PROP ROOTS OF PANDANUS FASCICULARIS LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothimani Rajeswari et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of the prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis Lam (Family: Pandanaceae is claimed as an antidiuretic by some traditional practitioners. However, the validity of this claim has not been scientifically proven or refuted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiuretic potential of ethanol and aqueous extracts of prop roots of P. fascicularis in rats following oral administration. Ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared from P. facicularis by percolation and cold maturation, respectively. Furosemide was used as a diuretic agent to induce diuresis. Vasopressin (ADH was used as a standard. The results demonstrated both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. facicularis and ADH significantly impaired the total urine output. However, antidiuretic potential of ethanolic extract was similar to that of ADH. The extracts caused a significant decrease in natriuresis and kaliuresis. From this study, we can conclude that ethanol extract of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis has beneficial effects on anti diuretic activity. It has the potential to impart therapeutic effect in diuretic.

  1. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Castro, Tatiana Xavier; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group. PMID:27074255

  2. Selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease model of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Youngjeon; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Heui-Soo; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Su; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been widely used to quantify relative gene expression because of the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this technique. In order to obtain reliable gene expression data from RT-qPCR experiments, it is important to utilize optimal reference genes for the normalization of target gene expression under varied experimental conditions. Previously, we developed and validated a novel icv-STZ cynomolgus monkey model for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. However, in order to enhance the reliability of this disease model, appropriate reference genes must be selected to allow meaningful analysis of the gene expression levels in the icv-STZ cynomolgus monkey brain. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of 9 candidate reference genes in 2 matched-pair brain samples (5 regions) of control cynomolgus monkeys and those who had received intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ). Three well-known analytical programs geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to choose the suitable reference genes from the total sample group, control group, and icv-STZ group. Combination analysis of the 3 different programs clearly indicated that the ideal reference genes are RPS19 and YWHAZ in the total sample group, GAPDH and RPS19 in the control group, and ACTB and GAPDH in the icv-STZ group. Additionally, we validated the normalization accuracy of the most appropriate reference genes (RPS19 and YWHAZ) by comparison with the least stable gene (TBP) using quantification of the APP and MAPT genes in the total sample group. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first study to identify and validate the appropriate reference genes in cynomolgus monkey brains. These findings provide useful information for future studies involving the expression of target genes in the cynomolgus monkey.

  3. The placenta in toxicology. Part I : Animal models in toxicology: placental morphology and tolerance molecules in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buse, Eberhard; Häeger, Jan-Dirk; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Markert, Udo R; Faas, Marijke M; Ernerudh, Jan; Dixon, Darlene; Cline, J Mark; Pfarrer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The immune system represents a key defense mechanism against potential pathogens and adverse non-self materials. During pregnancy, the placenta is the point of contact between the maternal organism and non-self proteins of the fetal allograft and hence undoubtedly fulfils immune functions. In the pl

  4. The placenta in toxicology. Part I : Animal models in toxicology: placental morphology and tolerance molecules in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buse, Eberhard; Häeger, Jan-Dirk; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Markert, Udo R; Faas, Marijke M; Ernerudh, Jan; Dixon, Darlene; Cline, J Mark; Pfarrer, Christiane

    The immune system represents a key defense mechanism against potential pathogens and adverse non-self materials. During pregnancy, the placenta is the point of contact between the maternal organism and non-self proteins of the fetal allograft and hence undoubtedly fulfils immune functions. In the

  5. Correlations between serum levels of beta amyloid, cerebrospinal levels of tau and phospho tau, and delayed response tasks in young and aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Sajuthi, D; Kalliokoski, O

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to explore cynomolgus monkeys as an animal model for Alzheimer's disease, the present study focused on the Alzheimer's biomarkers beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42 ) in serum, and total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid.......In an attempt to explore cynomolgus monkeys as an animal model for Alzheimer's disease, the present study focused on the Alzheimer's biomarkers beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42 ) in serum, and total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid....

  6. The Distribution of MAP-2 Phosphorylation in Cerebral Cortex of Long-Tailed Monkey Fetuses (Macaca fascicularis in the Last Trimester of Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wahyu Pangestiningsih

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Memories are storage in cholinoceptive cells, the cells which are enriched with microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2 that localized in the neuronal dendrite and the cell bodies. Phosphorylation of MAP-2 may increase memory with reduce stability of dendrite by altered dendrite length and lead new side-branches of neuronal as a neuronal plasticity processes in cerebral cortex. The aim of this research is to study the distribution of MAP-2 phosphorylation neurons in cerebral cortex of long-tailed macaques in the third semester of gestationalimmunohistochemically using avidin biotin conjugated complex method. Neurons MAP-2 phosphorylation immunoreactive were located in dendrites and cell bodies, mostly in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex. Intensity of MAP-2 phosphorylation immunoreactivity in layer V were stronger than another layer and the neurons that very intensely stained were the pyramidal cells in frontal and parietal lobes, that was suggested that neurons in this areas more responsive to neuroplasticity. From the results we concluded that MAP-2 phosphorylation already distributed in the cerebral cortex of long-tailed macaque fetuses at the last trimester of gestation, mostly in the pyramidal cells of layer V that is suggested plays a role for preparation of memoryformation.Keywords: fetus, long-tailed monkey, cerebral cortex, memory, MAP-2 phosphorylation

  7. The use of a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffold for bone regeneration of tooth socket facial wall defects and simultaneous immediate dental implant placement in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Bee Tin; Chanchareonsook, Nattharee; Tideman, Henk; Teoh, Swee Hin; Chow, James Kwok Fai; Jansen, John A

    2014-05-01

    Bone regeneration and aesthetic outcomes may be compromised when immediate implants are placed at extraction sites with dehiscence defects. The aim of this study was to compare, in a monkey model, peri-implant bone regeneration and implant stability after immediate implant placement into tooth sockets with facial wall defects in two treatment groups. In eight control monkeys, the bony defect was reconstructed with autogenous particulate bone, whereas in 10 test monkeys a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffold was used. The monkeys were sacrificed after 6 months and the specimens were analyzed by histology and histomorphometry. Better maintenance of facial bone contour was noted in the test group; however, bone regeneration was seen only at areas adjacent to a bony wall of the defect. The mean bone-to-implant contact was 27.6 ± 19.1% (control group) versus 6.8 ± 7.9% (test group). The mean bone area percentage was 11.8 ± 10.1% (control group) versus 6.8 ± 6.9% (test group). Implant survival was 100% at 6 months for both the groups. It was concluded that although the use of a PCL-TCP scaffold showed better maintenance of the alveolar contour as compared to autogenous particulate bone at 6 months, there was minimal bone regeneration within the defect.

  8. Amyloid beta1–42 and the phoshorylated tau threonine 231 in brains of aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Gjedde, Albert; Sajuthi, Dondin

    2014-01-01

    Pathological hallmarks indicative of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which are the plaques of amyloid beta1-42 and neurofibrillary tangles, were found in brain of aged cynomolgus monkey. The aim of this study was to investigate if aged monkeys exhibiting spatial memory impairment and levels of biomarke...

  9. Innate-like γδ T cell responses to mycobacterium Bacille Calmette-Guerin using the public Vγ2 repertoire in Macaca fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Propp, Nadia; Bryant, Joseph L; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C. David

    2010-01-01

    The Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset responds to Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization in macaques and may be a component of protective immunity against tuberculosis. We characterized the effects of BCG on the Vγ2Vδ2 T cell receptor repertoire by comparing the starting population of Vγ2 chains in cynomolgus macaques with the repertoire found after priming or booster immunization with BCG. The starting repertoire was dominated by public Vγ2 chain sequences that were found repeatedly among unrelated animals. Primary exposure to BCG triggered expansion of cells expressing public Vγ2 chains and booster immunization was often associated with contraction of these same subsets. Thus, BCG-reactive Vγ2 chains were present at high frequency in the repertoire of mycobacteria-naïve macaques and they comprised the major response to primary or booster immunization. Normal selection processes that created the naïve Vγ2 repertoire in macaques, also encoded the capacity for rapid responses to mycobacteria. The unusual composition of a normal Vγ2 repertoire helps to explain the powerful γδ T cell responses to BCG immunization. PMID:17292671

  10. Innate-like gammadelta T cell responses to mycobacterium Bacille Calmette-Guerin using the public V gamma 2 repertoire in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Propp, Nadia; Bryant, Joseph L; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2007-07-01

    The V gamma 2 V delta 2 T cell subset responds to Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization in macaques and may be a component of protective immunity against tuberculosis. We characterized the effects of BCG on the V gamma 2 V delta 2 T cell receptor repertoire by comparing the starting population of V gamma 2 chains in cynomolgus macaques with the repertoire found after priming or booster immunization with BCG. The starting repertoire was dominated by public V gamma 2 chain sequences that were found repeatedly among unrelated animals. Primary exposure to BCG triggered expansion of cells expressing public V gamma 2 chains and booster immunization was often associated with contraction of these same subsets. Thus, BCG-reactive V gamma 2 chains were present at high frequency in the repertoire of mycobacteria-naïve macaques and they comprised the major response to primary or booster immunization. Normal selection processes that created the naïve V gamma 2 repertoire in macaques, also encoded the capacity for rapid responses to mycobacteria. The unusual composition of a normal V gamma 2 repertoire helps to explain the powerful gammadelta T cell responses to BCG immunization.

  11. The use of a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffold for bone regeneration of tooth socket facial wall defects and simultaneous immediate dental implant placement in Macaca fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, B.T.; Chanchareonsook, N.; Tideman, H.; Teoh, S.H.; Chow, J.K.; Jansen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Bone regeneration and aesthetic outcomes may be compromised when immediate implants are placed at extraction sites with dehiscence defects. The aim of this study was to compare, in a monkey model, peri-implant bone regeneration and implant stability after immediate implant placement into tooth socke

  12. Effect of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Two Scleractinian Corals: Porites cylindrica (Dana, 1846 and Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus, 1767

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii-Siang Hii

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the effect of elevated pCO2 on Porites cylindrica and Galaxea fascicularis. The corals responded differently under elevated pCO2. Zooxanthellae cell density, cell mitotic index, and photosynthesis rate of P. cylindrica decreased drastically under the elevated pCO2. At the end of the experiment, P. cylindrica suffered from a declining calcium carbonate precipitation rate. G. fascicularis increased its respiration rate and expelled 71% of its symbiotic zooxanthellae algae under elevated pCO2. Photosynthetic pigments in the remaining zooxanthellae algae increased from 1.85 to 11.5 times to sustain its photosynthetic outputs. At the end of the experiment, G. fascicularis managed to increase the rate of its calcium carbonate precipitation. Increase pCO2 in the atmosphere may affect species diversity of coral reefs.

  13. Comparison of the Effects of Ketamine, Ketamine–Medetomidine, and Ketamine–Midazolam on Physiologic Parameters and Anesthesia-Induced Stress in Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Vanessa K; Flynt, Kendall S; Haag, Lauren M; Taylor, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the cardiovascular, respiratory, anesthetic, and glucocorticoid effects of ketamine alone with ketamine–medetomidine and ketamine–midazolam in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. Macaques were given either intramuscular ketamine (10 mg/kg), intramuscular ketamine–medetomidine (3 mg/kg; 0.15 mg/kg), or oral midazolam (1 mg/kg) followed by intramuscular ketamine (8 mg/kg). The addition of medetomidine, but not midazolam, provided muscle relaxation and abolishment of reflexes tha...

  14. Craniodental variation among Macaques (Macaca, nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ruliang

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In terms of structure and function, the skull is one of the most complicated organs in the body. It is also one of the most important parts in terms of developmental and evolutionary origins. This complexity makes it difficult to obtain evolutionary assessments if, as is usually the case with fossils, only part of the skull is available. For this reason this study involves a set of comparisons whereby the smallest functional units are studied first, and these built up, through a triple-nested hierarchical design, into more complex anatomical regions and eventually into the skull-as-a-whole. This design has been applied to macaques (Macaca in order to reveal patterns of variation at the different levels. The profiles of such variation have been obtained both within and between species. This has lead to a search for the skull parts that have undergone similar selection pressures during evolution and comparable development patterns in both ontogeny and phylogeny. Results Morphometric analysis (Principal Components was used to obtain these profiles of species and sex separations based on 77 cranial variables from 11 species of macaques. The results showed that 7 functional units could be aggregated into three functionally reasonable anatomical regions on the basis of similarities in profiles. These were: the masticatory apparatus containing mandible, lower teeth and upper teeth, the face as a whole combining maxilla (actually lower face and upper face, and the cranium as a whole involving cranium and calvaria. Twenty-six variables were finally selected for analyzing the morphology of the whole skull. This last showed an overall profile similar to that revealed in the masticatory apparatus but also contained additional information pertaining to individual species and species-groups separations. Conclusions The study provides a model for carrying out analysis of species separations and sex variation simultaneously. Through this

  15. Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Reveal Genetic Differentiation between Two Sympatric Types of Galaxea fascicularis.

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    Yuichi Nakajima

    Full Text Available The reef-building, scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis, is classified into soft and hard types, based on nematocyst morphology. This character is correlated with the length of the mitochondrial non-coding region (mt-Long: soft colony type, and nematocysts with wide capsules and long shafts; mt-Short: hard colony type, and nematocysts with thin capsules and short shafts. We isolated and characterized novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for G. fascicularis using next-generation sequencing. Based upon the mitochondrial non-coding region, 53 of the 97 colonies collected were mt-Long (mt-L and 44 were mt-Short (mt-S. Among the 53 mt-L colonies, 27 loci were identified as amplifiable, polymorphic microsatellite loci, devoid of somatic mutations and free of scoring errors. Eleven of those 27 loci were also amplifiable and polymorphic in the 44 mt-S colonies; these 11 are cross-type microsatellite loci. The other 16 loci were considered useful only for mt-L colonies. These 27 loci identified 10 multilocus lineages (MLLs among the 53 mt-L colonies (NMLL/N = 0.189, and the 11 cross-type loci identified 7 MLLs in 44 mt-S colonies (NMLL/N = 0.159. Significant genetic differentiation between the two types was detected based on the genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.080, P = 0.001. Bayesian clustering also indicated that these two types are genetically isolated. While nuclear microsatellite genotypes also showed genetic differentiation between mitochondrial types, the mechanism of divergence is not yet clear. These markers will be useful to estimate genetic diversity, differentiation, and connectivity among populations, and to understand evolutionary processes, including divergence of types in G. fascicularis.

  16. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  17. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space

    OpenAIRE

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance...

  18. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms impair zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijgerde, Tim; Schots, Pauke; Van Onselen, Eline; Janse, Max; Karruppannan, Eric; Verreth, Johan A J; Osinga, Ronald

    2013-01-15

    Many scleractinian coral species host epizoic acoelomorph flatworms, both in aquaculture and in situ. These symbiotic flatworms may impair coral growth and health through light-shading, mucus removal and disruption of heterotrophic feeding. To quantify the effect of epizoic flatworms on zooplankton feeding, we conducted video analyses of single polyps of Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767) grazing on Artemia nauplii in the presence and absence of symbiotic flatworms. 18S DNA analysis revealed that flatworms inhabiting G. fascicularis belonged to the genus Waminoa (Convolutidae), which were hosted at a density of 3.6±0.4 individuals polyp(-1). Polyps hosting flatworms exhibited prey capture rates of 2.2±2.5, 3.4±4.5 and 2.7±3.4 nauplii polyp(-1) 30 min(-1) at prey concentrations of 250, 500 and 1,000 nauplii L(-1), respectively. Polyps that had their flatworms removed displayed prey capture rates of 2.7±1.6, 4.8±4.1 and 16.9±10.3 nauplii polyp(-1) 30 min(-1). Significant main and interactive effects of flatworm presence and ambient prey concentration were found, reflected by the fact that flatworms significantly impaired host feeding rates at the highest prey density of 1,000 nauplii L(-1). In addition, flatworms displayed kleptoparasitism, removing between 0.1±0.3 and 0.6±1.1 nauplii 30 min(-1) from the oral disc of their host, or 5.3±3.3 to 50.0±2.1% of prey acquired by the coral. We suggest classifying the coral-associated Waminoa sp. as an epizoic parasite, as its presence may negatively affect growth and health of the host.

  19. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms impair zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Wijgerde

    2012-10-01

    Many scleractinian coral species host epizoic acoelomorph flatworms, both in aquaculture and in situ. These symbiotic flatworms may impair coral growth and health through light-shading, mucus removal and disruption of heterotrophic feeding. To quantify the effect of epizoic flatworms on zooplankton feeding, we conducted video analyses of single polyps of Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767 grazing on Artemia nauplii in the presence and absence of symbiotic flatworms. 18S DNA analysis revealed that flatworms inhabiting G. fascicularis belonged to the genus Waminoa (Convolutidae, which were hosted at a density of 3.6±0.4 individuals polyp−1. Polyps hosting flatworms exhibited prey capture rates of 2.2±2.5, 3.4±4.5 and 2.7±3.4 nauplii polyp−1 30 min−1 at prey concentrations of 250, 500 and 1,000 nauplii L−1, respectively. Polyps that had their flatworms removed displayed prey capture rates of 2.7±1.6, 4.8±4.1 and 16.9±10.3 nauplii polyp−1 30 min−1. Significant main and interactive effects of flatworm presence and ambient prey concentration were found, reflected by the fact that flatworms significantly impaired host feeding rates at the highest prey density of 1,000 nauplii L−1. In addition, flatworms displayed kleptoparasitism, removing between 0.1±0.3 and 0.6±1.1 nauplii 30 min−1 from the oral disc of their host, or 5.3±3.3 to 50.0±2.1% of prey acquired by the coral. We suggest classifying the coral-associated Waminoa sp. as an epizoic parasite, as its presence may negatively affect growth and health of the host.

  20. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans. PMID:27255977

  1. Transcriptome profiling of Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium reveals chronic eutrophication tolerance pathways and metabolic mutualism between partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenyue; Chen, Mingliang; Dong, Xu; Zheng, Xinqing; Huang, Haining; Xu, Xun; Chen, Jianming

    2017-02-01

    In the South China Sea, coastal eutrophication in the Beibu Gulf has seriously threatened reef habitats by subjecting corals to chronic physiological stress. To determine how coral holobionts may tolerate such conditions, we examined the transcriptomes of healthy colonies of the galaxy coral Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium from two reef sites experiencing pristine or eutrophied nutrient regimes. We identified 236 and 205 genes that were differentially expressed in eutrophied hosts and symbionts, respectively. Both gene sets included pathways related to stress responses and metabolic interactions. An analysis of genes originating from each partner revealed striking metabolic integration with respect to vitamins, cofactors, amino acids, fatty acids, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The expression levels of these genes supported the existence of a continuum of mutualism in this coral-algal symbiosis. Additionally, large sets of transcription factors, cell signal transduction molecules, biomineralization components, and galaxin-related proteins were expanded in G. fascicularis relative to other coral species.

  2. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-06-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans.

  3. Variation in Clitoral Length in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Beatriz; Cabello, Pedro H; Kugelmeier, Tatiana; Pereira, Barbara B; Lopes, Claudia A; Fasano, Daniele M; Andrade, Marcia C; Santos, Joice S; Marinho, Antonio M

    2009-01-01

    Clitoromegaly in the neonatal period is an important morphologic sign that can be useful for sexual determination in aberrant cases. In rhesus monkeys, differentiation of the external genitalia occurs early during gestation (at 55 to 60 d) and is complete by approximately 80 d. Most of the critical steps in genital differentiation in primates occur prenatally. We sought to determine clitoral size in normal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and possible effects of age and inheritance. Clitoral length was highly variable and had no relationship to fertility. Statistical evaluation revealed no association in the distribution of daughters with and without clitoris between mothers with and without clitoris. However, even when mated with several female monkeys, some male macaques produced primarily daughters without clitoris. PMID:19807967

  4. Telomere length of the colonial coral Galaxea fascicularis at different developmental stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuta, H.; Hidaka, M.

    2013-06-01

    The ability to estimate coral age using soft tissue would be useful for population biology or aging studies on corals. In this study, we investigated whether telomere length can be used to estimate coral age. We applied single telomere length analysis to a colonial coral, Galaxea fascicularis, and estimated telomere lengths of specific coral chromosomes at different developmental stages. If the telomere shortened at each cell division, the telomere length of the coral would be longest in sperm and shortest in adult colonies. However, the mean telomere length of sperm, planula larvae, and polyps was approximately 4 kb, with no significant differences among the developmental stages. The telomerase restriction fragment (TRF) analysis also showed no significant difference in the mean TRF length among the developmental stages. Our results suggested that telomere length is maintained during developmental stages and that estimating the age of colonial coral based on telomere length may not be possible. However, our findings can be used to examine avoidance of aging and rejuvenation during regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial corals.

  5. Detection of Early Atherosclerosis in M. Fascicularis with Transcutaneous Ultrasonic Measurement of the Elastic Properties of the Common Carotid Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Farrar, David J; Riley, Ward A.; Bond, M Gene; Barnes, Ralph N.; Love, L. Alan

    1982-01-01

    The elastic properties of 22 common carotid arteries from 13 male cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis) that were fed either a high cholesterol (test) diet or a standard monkey chow (control) diet for 18 months were measured noninvasively with 5MHz ultrasound. A B-mode image of the artery was obtained with a 32-element linear array transducer, and a single line of video ultrasonic information was selected for tracking the echoes from the adventitial side of the near wall to the lumen-intima in...

  6. Water Flow Affects Zooplankton Feeding by the Scleractinian Coral Galaxea fascicularis on a Polyp and Colony Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Wijgerde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several factors may affect heterotrophic feeding of benthic marine invertebrates, including water flow rate and polyp context (i.e., the presence of neighbouring polyps. We tested the interactive effects of water flow rate and polyp context on zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. Single polyps and colonies were incubated in a flow cell for 30 minutes with an ambient Artemia nauplii concentration of 10,000 L−1 and water flow rates ranging from 1.25 to 40 cm s−1. Water flow rate and polyp context showed significant main and interactive effects on feeding rates of G. fascicularis polyps. More specifically, feeding rates were optimal at flow rates of 1.25 cm s−1 for single polyps and 5 to 10 cm s−1 for polyps inhabiting colonies. The presence of epizoic acoelomorph flatworms may have negatively affected the observed feeding rates, especially at high flow. Our results demonstrate that water flow affects coral feeding and thus heterotrophic nutrient input at both a polyp and colony level. These findings are of relevance to our understanding of how biotic and abiotic factors interact on coral heterotrophy and may serve to optimise coral aquaculture.

  7. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques.

  8. Risk factors for dystocia in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Diane E; Torrence, Anne E; Hukkanen, Renee R; Vogel, Keith W; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Ha, James C

    2011-04-01

    Dystocia (difficult labor) is an important component of the management of nonhuman primates and results in significant fetal and maternal morbidity and increased use of veterinary resources. Dystocias can arise from abnormalities of the maternal pelvis or fetus or uncoordinated uterine activity. Although risk factors for stillbirths have been established in nonhuman primates, risk factors for dystocias have not. The objective of this study was to determine maternal and fetal risk factors for dystocia in macaques. Retrospective data were collected from 83 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) diagnosed with dystocia. The diagnosis of dystocia was made based on clinical or pathologic evidence. Maternal records of age, reproductive history, experimental history, clinical records, and fetal birth weight and any applicable fetal necropsy reports were reviewed. The gestational age of the fetus, the infant's birth weight, total previous births by the dam, and the proportions of both viable delivery (inverse effect) and surgical pregnancy interventions (direct effect) in the dam's history generated a model that maximized the experimental variance for predicting dystocia in the current pregnancy and explained 24% of the dystocia deliveries. The number of total previous births and proportion of previous cesarean sections accounted for the greatest effect. This model can identify individual dams within a colony that are at risk for dystocias and allow for changes in breeding colony management, more intense monitoring of dams at risk, or allocation of additional resources.

  9. A Macaca mulatta model of fulminant hepatic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zhou; Hong Bu; Jie Xia; Gang Guo; Li Li; Yu-Jun Shi; Zi-Xing Huang; Qiang Lu; Hong-Xia Li

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish an appropriate primate model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). METHODS: We have, for the first time, established a large animal model of FHF in Macaca mulatta by intraperitoneal infusion of amatoxin and endotoxin. Clinical features, biochemical indexes, histopathology and iconography were examined to dynamically investigate the progress and outcome of the animal model. RESULTS: Our results showed that the enzymes and serum bilirubin were markedly increased and the enzyme-bilirubin segregation emerged 36 h after toxin administration. Coagulation activity was significantly decreased. Gradually deteriorated parenchymal abnormality was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography at 48 h. The liver biopsy showed marked hepatocyte steatosis and massive parenchymal necrosis at 36 h and 49 h, respectively. The autopsy showed typical yellow atrophy of the liver. Hepatic encephalopathy of the models was also confirmed by hepatic coma, MRI and pathological changes of cerebral edema. The lethal effects of the extrahepatic organ dysfunction were ruled out by their biochemical indices, imaging and histopathology. CONCLUSION: We have established an appropriate large primate model of FHF, which is closely similar to clinic cases, and can be used for investigation of the mechanism of FHF and for evaluation of potential medical therapies.

  10. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Caroline B; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots.

  11. Molecular mapping of striatal subdivisions in juvenile Macaca Mulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Joann; Muly, Emil C.; Hemby, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    The striatum of the primate brain can be subdivided into three distinct anatomical subregions: caudate (CAU), putamen (PUT), and ventral striatum (VS). Although these subregions share several anatomical connections, cell morphological, and histochemical features, they differ considerably in their vulnerability to different neurological and psychiatric diseases, and these brain regions have significantly different functions in health and disease. In order to better understand the molecular underpinnings of the different disease and functional vulnerabilities, transcriptional profiles were generated from the CAU, PUT, and VS of five juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using human cDNA neuromicroarrays containing triplicate spots of 1227 cDNAs. Differences in microarray gene expression were assessed using z score analysis and 1.5-fold change between paired subregions. Clustering of genes based on dissimilarity of expression patterns between regions revealed subregion specific expression profiles encoding G-protein-coupled receptor signaling transcripts, transcription factors, kinases and phosphatases, and cell signaling and signal transduction transcripts. Twelve transcripts were examined using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and 81% demonstrated alterations similar to those seen with microarray analysis, some of which were statistically significant. Subregion specific transcription profiles support the anatomical differentiation and potential disease vulnerabilities of the respective subregions. PMID:16455077

  12. Microvasculature of the Olfactory Organ in the Japanese Monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2002-06-01

    Olfaction is an important and primitive sense. As its importance has changed with evolution, anatomic adjustments have occurred in its structure and vasculature. Primates are a family of vertebrates that have had to develop their visual system to adapt to the arboreal environment and have evolved from a macrosmatic to a microsmatic species as the optic system has enlarged. This has resulted in anatomic changes of a small but critical area at the base of the brain. This paper describes the three-dimensional vascular anatomy of the olfactory organ of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata). This is best understood by dividing the organ into three parts: the olfactory tract, olfactory bulb, and olfactory nerves in the nasal mucosa. The bulb can be partitioned into an outer or cortical part and inner or medullary part. The vasculature and tissue were examined grossly and with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. The olfactory tract and bulb were supplied by an arteriole from the anterior cerebral artery on each side. The tract was supplied by capillaries running spirally with a coarse network. At the olfactory bulb, the arteriole ramified into the intracortical and medullary branches that formed capillary networks. The bulbar intracortical capillaries were divided into two layers with different densities and vascular patterns. The capillaries of the superficial layer had a ladder-like pattern. The branches that ran into the medulla of the olfactory bulb were more widely spaced. Twigs from the posterior ethmoidal artery ran along the nerve fiber and formed intra- and extrafascicular networks. Each region of the olfactory organ had characteristic three-dimensional vascular patterns that were related to their cellular architecture.

  13. Emotional states after grooming interactions in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In animal societies, the effect of grooming interactions on anxiety reduction is unclear. This study examined the effects of giving and receiving grooming on anxiety reduction in free ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by measuring rates of self-scratching as an index of anxiety. In this study, the authors used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama prefecture, Japan. They evaluated affiliative relationships, which were defined by standard proximity rates, and found that females' self-scratching rates were lower after grooming affiliated partners than during matched-control periods (occurring on another day, beginning at approximately the same time of day as the corresponding postgrooming period) and not after grooming unaffiliated partners. Moreover, regardless of affiliative relationships, self-scratching rates were lower after receiving grooming than during matched-control periods. These findings did not change after excluding data in which groomer and groomee were in proximity after the grooming interaction. In addition, multivariable analysis showed that affiliative relationships, but not kinship or rank distances, were related to differences in the rates of self-scratching between giving grooming and matched-control periods. In contrast, neither affiliative relationships nor kinship nor rank distances affected differences in self-scratching rates between receiving grooming and matched-control periods. Therefore, individuals' anxiety levels decreased both after giving grooming to affiliated partners and after receiving grooming, regardless of affiliative relationships. This is the first empirical study to support the notion that giving grooming to affiliated partners is self-rewarding in Japanese macaques.

  14. Seed dispersal by rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2014-12-01

    Frugivorous primates are important seed dispersers and their absence from forest patches is predicted to be detrimental to tropical forest regeneration and recruitment. With the reduction of primate populations globally, ecologically resilient primate species, characterized by dietary flexibility and the ability to thrive in a variety of habitats, assume new importance as seed dispersers. The most widely distributed non-human primate, the rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta has been intensively studied but little is known about its role in maintaining ecosystem structure and functions. Due to their frugivorous diet, large group sizes, large home ranges and tolerance to disturbance, rhesus macaques may be effective seed dispersers. We studied seed dispersal by rhesus macaques at the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India, through a combination of behavioural observations and germination experiments. Rhesus macaques dispersed 84% of the 49 species they fed on either through spitting or defecation. Nearly 96% of the handled seeds were undamaged and 61% of the species for which germination tests were performed had enhanced germination. Almost 50% of the monitored seeds among those deposited in situ germinated and 22% established seedlings, suggesting that rhesus macaques are important seed dispersers in tropical forests. Due to their widespread distribution and large populations, rhesus macaques are perceived as common and are categorized as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, effectively excluding them from any conservation plans. Based on the results of our study, we argue that rhesus macaques fulfill critical ecological functions in their habitat and that this parameter must be taken into consideration when they are reviewed for conservation priorities.

  15. Temporomandibular joint forces measured at the condyle of Macaca arctoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R L; Gibbs, C H; Mahan, P E; Richmond, A F; Laskin, J L

    1990-06-01

    Forces were measured at the articular surface of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle in two stump-tail monkeys (Macaca arctoides) during chewing, incisal biting, and drinking and also during aggressive behaviors. Force was measured with a thin piezoelectric foil transducer, which was cemented over the anterior and superior surfaces of the condyle. Wires from the upper and lower surfaces of the foil were insulated between two layers of Teflon tape and run subcutaneously to a telemetry unit, which was implanted in the upper back. Force applied across the foil by the condyle was detected by the telemetry unit and transmitted to an FM radio receiver outside the animal. The FM signals were received and demodulated, and a signal proportional to the force applied between the condyle and the TMJ fossa was displayed on a chart recorder. Data were collected over an 8-day period. The animals were not constrained. The TMJ was found to be load bearing. The greatest force of 39.0 lb (17.7 kg) was measured during feisty vocal aggression. Forces ranged as high as 34.5 lb (15.7 kg) during chewing and 28.5 lb (13.0 kg) during incisal biting. Forces were greater on the working (food) side than on the nonworking (balancing) side by average ratios of 1.4 to 2.6. A large unilateral interference at the most distal molar greatly disturbed chewing. It reduced TMJ forces by 50% or more, and the monkey refused to chew on the side opposite the interference.

  16. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this specie...

  17. Essentialism in the Absence of Language? Evidence from Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Webb; Shankar, Maya; Santos, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    We explored whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) share one important feature of human essentialist reasoning: the capacity to track category membership across radical featural transformations. Specifically, we examined whether monkeys--like children (Keil, 1989)--expect a transformed object to have the internal properties of its original…

  18. Proteasome and NF-κB Inhibiting Phaeophytins from the Green Alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhan Lin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical examination of the green alga Cladophora fascicularis resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new porphyrin derivative, porphyrinolactone (1, along with five known phaeophytins 2-6 and fourteen sterols and cycloartanes. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and by comparison of its NMR data with those of known phaeophytins. Compounds 1-6 displayed moderate inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation, while 2 and 4 displayed potential inhibitory activity toward proteasome chymotripsin-like activation. The primary structure-activity relationship was also discussed.

  19. The Effects of TCDD on Pregnant Cynomolgus Macaque (MacacaFascicularis) and its Pregnancy Outcome%TCDD对猕猴妊娠期及其妊娠结局的毒性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉梅; Lasley,B

    2000-01-01

    在雌猴妊娠第12天采用灌胃法一次性给予TCDD,剂量为1.0、2.0、4.0μg/kg.bw,每个剂量组4个动物。对照组(7个动物)给予相同体积的溶媒(丙酮-色拉油)。结果发现母猴在染毒10天后相继出现食欲下降、体重降低、脱毛、皮炎和贫血等中毒症状,染毒组12只猴子有10只在怀孕的第22到32天发生早期胚胎丢失。结果表明,低剂量TCDD可导致妊娠期猕猴出现中毒症状,并影响妊娠结局。%Females macaques were administrated single doses of 1, 2,4pg/kg TCDD(n = 4 per dose group)on gestational day (GD)12.The controls(n = 7)received the same dosing volume of acetone-coin oil. The results showed that poor appetite, weight loss, alope-cia, dermatitis, anemia and other toxic reactions were recordedsince rtrteatment day 10, and early fetal loss occurred between GDs22 and 32 in 10 of the 12 animals treated, with TCDD. The resultsdemonstrated that toxicity was induced by low level TCDD inpregnant macaques and pregnancy outcomes were affected too.

  20. Bases estructurales de la memoria declarativa. Estudio de la interacción entre la formación del hipocampo y la corteza cerebral en el primate Macaca fascicularis.

    OpenAIRE

    Legidos García, María Ester

    2014-01-01

    La memoria otorga al ser humano una biografía y un conjunto de hechos que le proporciona una identidad, le orienta en el mundo y en su entorno cultural (memoria declarativa). Evidencias clínicas y experimentales muestran que los centros nerviosos cuyo epicentro es el lóbulo temporal medial, son imprescindibles para la consolidación y evocación de los recuerdos. Entre estos centros nerviosos destaca la Formación del Hipocampo (FH) compuesta de giro dentado, campos amónicos CA3, CA2, CA1, subíc...

  1. Extended cleavage specificity of the mast cell chymase from the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis): an interesting animal model for the analysis of the function of the human mast cell chymase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Michael; Yu, Jing; Boinapally, Vamsi; Ahooghalandari, Parvin; Kervinen, Jukka; Garavilla, Lawrence de; Hellman, Lars

    2012-12-01

    Serine proteases are the major protein constituents within mast cell secretory granules. These proteases are subdivided into chymases and tryptases depending on their primary cleavage specificity. Here, we present the extended cleavage specificity of the macaque mast cell chymase and compare the specificity with human chymase (HC) and dog chymase (DC) that were produced in the same insect cell expression host. The macaque chymase (MC) shows almost identical characteristics as the HC, including both primary and extended cleavage specificities as well as sensitivity to protease inhibitors, whereas the DC differs in several of these characteristics. Although previous studies have shown that mouse mast cell protease-4 (mMCP-4) is similar in its hydrolytic specificity to the HC, mouse mast cells contain several related enzymes. Thus mice may not be the most appropriate model organism for studying HC activity and inhibition. Importantly, macaques express only one chymase and, as primates, are closely related to human general physiology. In addition, the human and macaque enzymes both cleave angiotensin I (Ang I) in the same way, generating primarily angiotensin II (Ang II) and they do not further degrade the peptide like most rodent enzymes do. Both enzymes also cleave two additional potential in vivo substrates, fibronectin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in a similar way. Given the fact that both HC and MC are encoded by a single gene with high sequence homology and that many physiological processes are similar between these species, the macaque may be a very interesting model to study the physiological role of the chymase and to determine the potency and potential side-effects of various chymase inhibitors designed for therapeutic human use.

  2. Image collection: 44 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 Macaca_fascicularis_NL.png カニクイザル Cynomolgus Macaca fascicularis 9541 生物アイコン,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,哺乳綱,獣亜綱,真獣下綱,霊長目

  3. Surrogate Mobility and Orientation Affect the Early Neurobehavioral Development of Infant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda M Dettmer; Ruggerio, Angela M.; Novak, Melinda A.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    A biological mother’s movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard...

  4. Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, KC; Bloomsmith, MA; Neu, K; Griffis, C; Maloney, M.

    2010-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was evaluated at two large primate facil...

  5. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-01

    We describe a newly discovered Macaca species from the Medog, in southeastern Tibet, China, Macaca leucogenys sp. nov or the "white-cheeked macaque". Based on 738 photos taken during direct observations and captured by camera traps this new species appears to be distinct from the Macaca sinica species group. Moreover, the species is distinguished from all potential sympatric macaque species (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis, and M. munzala) in exhibiting a suite of pelage characteristics including relatively uniform dorsal hair pattern, hairy ventral pelage, relative hairless short tail, prominent pale to white side- and chin-whiskers creating a white cheek and round facial appearance, dark facial skin on the muzzle, long and thick hairs on its neck, and a round rather than arrow-shaped male genitalia. This new macaque species was found to exploit a diverse set of habitat types from tropical forest at 1395 m, to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest at 2000 m, as well as mixed broadleaf-conifer forest at 2700 m. Its range may extend to neighboring counties in Tibet and the part of southeastern Tibet controlled by India. The white-cheeked macaque is threatened by illegal hunting and the construction of hydropower stations. Discovery of this new primate species further highlights the high value for biodiversity conservation of southeastern Tibet and calls for more intensive surveys, studies, and environmental protection in this area.

  6. Gene expression analysis of volatile-rich male flowers of dioecious Pandanus fascicularis using expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, M S; Sankararamasubramanian, H M; Priyanka, R; Ganesan, G; Parida, Ajay

    2010-07-15

    Pandanus fascicularis is dioecious with the female plant producing a non-scented fruit while the male produces a flower rich in volatiles. The essential oil extracted from the flowers is economically exploited as a natural flavouring agent as well as for its therapeutic properties. Molecular dissection of this distinct flower for identifying the genes responsible for its aroma by way of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has not been initiated in spite of its economic viability. A male flower-specific cDNA library was constructed and 977 ESTs were generated. CAP3 analysis performed on the dataset revealed 83 contigs (549 ESTs) and 428 singlets, thereby yielding a total of 511 unigenes. Functional annotation using the BLAST2GO software resulted in 1952 Gene ontology (GO) functional classification terms for 621 sequences. Unknown proteins were further analysed with InterProScan to determine their functional motifs. RNA gel blot analysis of 26 functionally distinct transcripts potentially involved in flowering and volatile generation, using vegetative and reproductive tissues of both the sexes, revealed differential expression profiles. In addition to an overview of genes expressed, candidate genes with expression that are modulated predominantly in the male inflorescence were also identified. This is the first report on generation of ESTs to determine the subset of genes that can be used as potential candidates for future attempts aimed towards its genetic and genome analysis including metabolic engineering of floral volatiles in this economically important plant.

  7. Temporal stability of Symbiodinium phylotype in scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis from a tropicalfringing reef in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guowei; HUANG Hui; DONG Zhijun; YU Ziniu

    2011-01-01

    Symbiodinium sp.occurs in a symbiotic association with various marine invertebrates,including the scleractinian corals.Understanding the flexibility and specificity in coral-algal symbiosis can have important implications for predicting the future of coral reefs in the era of global climate change.In the present study.we conducted Symbiodinium phylotype analysis,based on polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism ( PCR-RFLP).in the scleractinian coral,Galaxeafascicularis,from a tropical fringing reef in Hainan Island,over a l-yr period.Our results showed that Galaxea fascicularis could associate with Symbiodinium clade C and D either individually or simultaneously.However,during the sampling period,the Symbiodinium phylotype did not change significantly in the scleractinian coral Galaxeafascicularis,although the seawater temperature decreased sharply in the winter season.This study further suggests that the shift in Symbiodinium communities in response to seasonally fluctuating environments might not be a universal feature of coral-algal associations.

  8. Polymorphic analysis of Mhc-DPB1 gene exon 2 in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)%藏酋猴 Mhc-DPB1基因 exon2的多态性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳薏; 姚永芳; 周亮; 徐怀亮

    2012-01-01

    主要组织相容性复合体(Major histocompatibility complex,MHC)对许多疾病的易感性和抵抗力起着 重要的作用.为了解藏酋猴(Macaca thibetana)的 MHC 基因遗传背景,以促进藏酋猴遗传资源的保护及其在生 物医学研究中的应用,文章采用 PCR 扩增和克隆测序等方法对来自四川地区的 70 个藏酋猴样品的 Mhc-DPB1 基因 exon 2 进行了检测和分析.首次在藏酋猴中获得了 18 个 DPB1 等位基因(Math-DPB1),其中 1 个为假基因(Math- DPB1*01:06N).18 个等位基因中,Math-DPB1*06:01:01 (67.14%) 的阳性检出率最高,其次为 Math-DPB1*01:03:01 (37.14%)、Math-DPB1*09:02(25.71%)和 Math-DPB1*22:01(15.71%).氨基酸序列比对发现,藏酋猴 Math-DPB1 等位基因编码的氨基酸序列中,有 5 个氨基酸残基变异位点表现出物种特异性.不同物种来源的 DPB1 等位基 因系统发生树表明,藏酋猴、猕猴(Macaca mulatta)和食蟹猴(Macaca fascicularis)的 DPB1 等位基因不是以物种 特异性方式聚类,而是种间混聚在一起,并显示出明显的跨物种多态性(Trans-species polymorphism).选择性检 验表明,平衡选择(Balancing selection)在维持 Math-DPB1 基因的多态性中起着重要的作用.%Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play an important role in the susceptibility and/or resistance to many diseases. To gain an insight into the MHC background of the Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), and thereby facilitate their protection and application in biomedical research, the second exon of the Mhc-DPBl genes from 70 Tibetan macaques in Sichuan Province were characterized by PCR, cloning, sequencing, and statistical analysis. A total of 18 Mhc-DPB1 alleles were identified from Tibetan macaques, of which one (Math-DPB1* 01:06N) was a pseudogene. Math-DPB1*06:01:01 (67.14%) was the most frequent allele in all the 18 alleles detected, followed by Math-DPBl* 01:03:01 (37.14%), Math-DPB 1*09:02 (25.71%), and Math-DPB 1

  9. Phylogeography of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) and the origin of the Gibraltar colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, Lara; Salzburger, Walter; Martin, Robert D

    2005-05-17

    The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is the earliest offshoot of the genus Macaca and the only extant African representative, all other species being Asiatic. Once distributed throughout North Africa, M. sylvanus is now restricted to isolated forest fragments in Algeria and Morocco. The species is threatened; the maximum total wild population size is estimated at 10,000 individuals. Relationships among surviving wild subpopulations in Algeria (96 samples) and Morocco (116 samples) were examined by using 468-bp sequences from hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Twenty-four different haplotypes were identified, differing by 1-26 mutational steps (0.2-5.6%) and 1 insertion. With one exception (attributable to secondary introduction in coastal Morocco), Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes are clearly distinct. However, whereas Moroccan subpopulations show little divergence in hypervariable region I sequences and little correspondence with geographical distribution, there is a deep division between two main subpopulations in Algeria and one marked secondary division, with haplotypes generally matching geographical distribution. Accepting an origin of the genus Macaca of 5.5 million years ago, the Moroccan population and the two main Algerian subpopulations diverged approximately 1.6 million years ago. Distinction between Moroccan and Algerian haplotypes permitted analysis of the origin of the Gibraltar colony of Barbary macaques (68 samples; 30% of the population). It is generally held that the present Gibraltar population descended from a dozen individuals imported during World War II. However, the Gibraltar sample was found to include Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes separated by at least 16 mutational steps, revealing a dual origin of the founding females.

  10. Differences in the morphology of the maxillary sinus and roots of teeth between Macaca fuscata and Macaca fuscata yakui determined using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaizen, Tomonori; Sato, Iwao; Miwa, Yoko; Sunohara, Masataka; Yosue, Takashi; Mine, Kazuharu; Koseki, Hirohisa; Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese macaque is an endemic species consisting of two subspecies: Macaca fuscata fuscata (MFF) and Macaca fuscata yakui (MFY). The MFY is indigenous to Yakushima Island and represents a subspecies of MFF that lives from Honshu to Shikoku and Kyushu, Japan. However, the differences in the skulls of the MFY and MFF are unknown, despite these subspecies having different skull sizes. The maxillary sinus (MS) indicates that the features of the frontal view reflect the transversal growth of the maxilla of the skull. In this study, we show the MS structures of the MFF (n = 9, 18 sides) and MFY (n = 10, 20 sides) using a cone-beam computed tomography instrument. Base on three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed images the MS and nasal cavity were found to present almost to no significant differences between MFF and MFY. However, we designated three classifications of the sinus floor based on the 3D MS images of these Japanese macaques: a round-like shape (type a, MFF = 66.7% (12/18), MFY = 45% (9/20)), a flat-like shape (type b, MFF = 22.2% (4/18), MFY = 35% (7/20)), and an irregular shape (type c, MFF = 11.1% (2/18), MFY = 20.0% (4/20)). The sinus floor shapes of the MFF were mostly type a, while those of the MFY were mostly type b. The prevalence of a root contacting the cortical bone is higher in the canine (26.7%, (8/30)) and second premolar (20%, (6/30) of the MFY at the nasal cavity, moreover, this value is higher in the third molar (42.9%, (9/21)) of the MS in the MFY. These results suggest that the features of the floor of the MS are related to the differences in maxillary root apices teeth between MMF and MMF.

  11. Construction of an integrated welfare assessment system (MacWel) for Macaques (Macaca spp.) in human husbandry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Bakker, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the construction procedure of an assessment protocol for Macaques (Macaca spp.). The authors have chosen an integrative approach, currently frequently used for the construction of such protocols with a clear preference for animal-based parameters to assess the welfare states o...

  12. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g. dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially-housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration (180 words). PMID:25488714

  13. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K R; Pypendop, B H; Christe, K L

    2015-08-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g., dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post-tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration.

  14. Effects of age and sex on the hematology and blood chemistry of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Yi, Yong; Sun, Fei; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Yu Alex; Yue, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), also known as Chinese stump-tailed macaques, are a threatened primate species. Although Tibetan macaques are Old World monkeys in the genus of Macaca, limited age- and sex-related physiologic data are available for this particular species. We used 69 apparently healthy Tibetan male and female macaques to explore the effect of age and sex on physiologic parameters. Somatometric measurements, biochemistry, and hematologic parameters were analyzed. Significant age-related differences were found for weight, BMI, RBC count, Hgb, Hct, neutrophils, eosinophil count, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, creatine kinase (muscle and brain subtypes), LDH, α-amylase, creatinine, apolipoprotein A1, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, HDL, and potassium. Significant differences by sex were noted for weight, BMI, ALT, total bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin. An interaction between age and sex accounted for statistically significant differences in the values for weight, BMI, and lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. These physiologic data will provide veterinarians and researchers with important age- and sex-specific reference ranges for evaluating experimental results from Tibetan macaques.

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0060 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG55054.1| toll...-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 62% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1015 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1015 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG55054.1| toll...-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 85% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0286 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0286 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG55054.1| toll...-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 72% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0960 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0960 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG55054.1| toll...-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 82% ...

  19. Recruitment and monitoring behaviors by leaders predict following in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seltmann

    2016-07-01

    collective movements in a group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus in the Middle Atlas, Morocco. The number of individuals displaying pre-departure behavior predicted the success of an initiation of a collective movement. Pauses of the first departing individual after departure enhanced following behavior and might have served as recruitment signal. However, the opposite was the case for back-glancing, which functions as a monitoring signal in other species. Because in our study frequently back-glancing individuals were also less socially integrated, back glances may better be interpreted as indicators of hesitation and insecurity. To successfully initiate a collective movement, it seemed to be sufficient for a socially integrated group member to take action when other group members signal their willingness prior to departure and to occasionally wait for the group while moving.

  20. Rosalie: the brazilian female monkey of Charcot Rosalie: a pequenina macaca brasileira de Charcot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Martin Charcot, the father of Neurology, a very austere and reserved man that did not express affection freely for human being, had a profound affection to animals, particularly to a small female monkey, called "Rosalie", which came from Brazil and was a gift of Dom Pedro II to Charcot.Jean-Martin Charcot, considerado o pai da Neurologia, foi um homem de aspecto austero e reservado, que tinha dificuldades de expressar os seus sentimentos para outros seres humanos. Contudo ele tinha profunda afeição por animais, particularmente por uma pequena macaca, chamada de "Rosalie", oriunda do Brasil e que foi um presente dado a ele por Dom Pedro II.

  1. Effects of feeding selenium deficient diets to rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.A.; Whanger, P.D.; Patton, N.M.

    1988-02-01

    Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were fed either selenium (Se) deficient or Se supplemented diets with adequate vitamin E. Except for some cardiac irregularities in the first babies born to these females, no physiological disorders due to Se deficiency were seen in a subsequent offspring. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activities and blood Se levels increased in the Se supplemented monkeys but decreased in the deficient ones. The data indicated that hair Se levels reflect long term exposure to this element. In a very preliminary experiment, evidence was obtained to indicate that dietary protein deficiency along with Se deficiency will generate cardiomyopathic lesions characteristic of Se deficiency. It is hypothesized that, in addition to Se deficiency, another dietary deficiency (or abnormality) is necessary to produce Se deficiency lesions in higher primates. Higher glutathione transferase (or non-Se glutathione peroxidase) activity in tissues of rhesus monkeys may account for this resistance.

  2. Campylobacter pylori isolated from the stomach of the monkey, Macaca nemestrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsdon, M A; Schoenknecht, F D

    1988-09-01

    Campylobacter pylori was isolated from the gastric mucosa in 6 of 24 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) examined by gastric biopsy and culture; 3 isolates were recovered during gastroendoscopy, and 3 were recovered at necropsy. The isolates were morphologically and biochemically similar to the human type strain NCTC 11638, differing only in colony diameter, pigmentation, and rate of growth. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by whole-genomic DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain. Colonization of the monkey stomachs was associated with hypochlorhydria and histologic features resembling type B chronic gastritis in humans. Host animals exhibited no morbid clinical effects of colonization, although endoscopy revealed inflammation, erythema, and friable tissue in some animals. The discovery of C. pylori occurring spontaneously in M. nemestrina extends the known range of the hosts of the organism and offers the possibility of a natural or experimental model of the infection in monkeys.

  3. Impact of human pressure and forest fragmentation on the Endangered Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in the Middle Atlas of Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ménard, Nelly; Rantier, Yann; Foulquier, Adrien; Qarro, Mohamed; Chillasse, Lahcen; Vallet, Dominique; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Butet, Alain

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Overexploitation of forests by humans can lead to highly fragmented populations of forest-dependent species that have poor dispersal abilities. We tested the influence of habitat quality, landscape structure and human pressure on densities of the Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in the largest wild population, in the Middle Atlas of Morocco. We surveyed 14 forest fragments of 5-142 km2 that are separated from each other by an inhospitable matrix. We estimated the habita...

  4. A macaque model for hantavirus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); M.N. Gerding; J.P. Koeman; P.J.M. Roholl (Paul); G. van Amerongen (Geert); H.G.M. Jordans; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with Puumala virus (strain Hallnas), which causes nephropathia epidemica in humans in western Europe. During the first week after intratracheal inoculation, the monkeys exhibited signs of lethargy followed by mild pro

  5. Co-localization of histamine and norepinephrine in sympathetic ganglia and exocytosis of endogenous histamine from cardiac sympathetic nerve endings of macaca mulatto monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-kaiLI; Xiao-xingLUO; Liang-weiCHEN; ZhongCHEN; JiaMENG; JingHU; Yu-meiWU; Jing-ruMENG; ZhengHOU; XueMA

    2005-01-01

    AIM To provide the evidence about localization, biosynthesis, metabolism and release of histamine from the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals, and endogenous sympathetic histamine could inhibit itsel frelease from the nerve terminal through the presynaptic histamine H3 receptor. METHODS Using double-labeled immunohistochemistry to observe the co-localization of histamine and NE in the superior cer-vical ganglia (SCG) of macaca mulatto monkey; Different-speed centrifugation to obtain the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminal model (the cardiac synaptosomes), spectrofluorometer and ELISA techniques to detect the release of histamine from the cardiacsynaptosomes. RESULTS ( 1 ) The coexistence of histamine and norepinephrine immunoreactivities was identified in the same neuron within SCG of macaca mulatto monkey. (2) Depolarization of macaca mulatto monkey cardiac synaptosomes with 50 mmol/L potassium caused the release of endogenous histamine,

  6. Efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R; Kapatkin, Amy R; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Christe, Kari L

    2012-08-01

    Here we describe the successful surgical implementation of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with marked osteomyelitis. The macaque presented to the veterinary clinic with grossly contaminated bite wounds in the left ankle secondary to conspecific trauma. Radiographic findings were highly suggestive of osteomyelitis. Additional differential diagnoses included bony infarct, fracture, and cellulitis. In light of the location of the lesion and extensive tissue trauma, the animal had a poor prognosis. Systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotics were instituted. After 2 wk of care, lesions did not respond to empirical therapies. On consultation, a veterinary orthopedic surgeon at another facility recommended placement of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads at the sites of osteomyelitis. The animal underwent minor surgery in which beads were introduced into the wound. The monkey had a positive response to therapy. The animal regained full function and was returned to outdoor social housing. Veterinarians are encouraged to consider using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads when treating osteomyelitis in other nonhuman primates and in other traditional laboratory animal species.

  7. Troop Takeover and Reproductive Success of Wild Male Japanese Macaques on Yakushima Island (Macaca fuscata yakui

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    Sachiko Hayakawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Troop takeover is common in one-male primate groups, but there are few reports in multimale groups. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata form multimale groups and males commonly join troops at the bottom rank. On Yakushima island, however, where group size is relatively small, entrance into groups at the alpha position is also observed. This paper reports on the general features of troop takeover, on the predictors of takeover events, and on the reproductive success of takeover males. Troop takeovers occurred only in the mating season; nontroop males (NTMs did not cooperate with each other; former alpha males were rarely expelled from the troop; new alpha males did not commit infanticide; new alpha male tenure in the group was usually less than two years. Logistic regression analysis showed that the number of NTMs associating with a troop predicted the occurrence of troop takeover. Paternity discrimination revealed that 33.3% (3/9 of takeover males succeeded in siring offspring. Contrary to this low success rate, binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the takeover males can expect higher reproductive success compared to troop males. Entering a troop and out-competing the alpha male is one of many available strategies to attain reproductive success in male Japanese macaques.

  8. Male mate choice in Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China

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    Min ZHANG, Jinhua LI, Yong ZHU, Xi WANG, Su WANG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Though females are generally more selective in mate choice, males may also benefit from mate choice if male reproductive success is limited by factors other than simply the number of female mates, and if females differ in short-term reproductive potential. We studied male mate choice in a free-ranging troop of Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China, from August 2007 to April 2008. We employed focal animal sampling and all occurrence sampling to record sexual related behaviors. Eight adult females were divided into three female quality categories according to the females’ age, rank and parity. Using male mating effort as a proxy for male mate choice, we found that males do distinguish female quality and show time-variant mating strategies. Specifically, females with dominant rank, high fecundity, and middle age attracted significantly more males. Our results suggest that female short-term reproductive potential appears to be an important variable in determining male mating effort. Male Tibetan macaques do exercise mate choice for higher quality females as well as reduce useless reproductive cost, which is consistent with the direct benefits theory of mate choice [Current Zoology 56 (2: 213–221, 2010].

  9. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta held in captivity: a longitudinal study

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    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  10. New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Transplantation in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fasicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kristin A; Tonsho, Makoto; Madsen, Joren C

    2015-08-01

    A 5.5-y-old intact male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fasicularis) presented with inappetence and weight loss 57 d after heterotopic heart and thymus transplantation while receiving an immunosuppressant regimen consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone to prevent graft rejection. A serum chemistry panel, a glycated hemoglobin test, and urinalysis performed at presentation revealed elevated blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (727 mg/dL and 10.1%, respectively), glucosuria, and ketonuria. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and insulin therapy was initiated immediately. The macaque was weaned off the immunosuppressive therapy as his clinical condition improved and stabilized. Approximately 74 d after discontinuation of the immunosuppressants, the blood glucose normalized, and the insulin therapy was stopped. The animal's blood glucose and HbA1c values have remained within normal limits since this time. We suspect that our macaque experienced new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation, a condition that is commonly observed in human transplant patients but not well described in NHP. To our knowledge, this report represents the first documented case of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation in a cynomolgus macaque.

  11. Training pair-housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a combination of negative and positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergård, Eva-Marie; Temrin, Hans; Forkman, Björn; Spångberg, Mats; Fredlund, Hélène; Westlund, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    When training animals, time is sometimes a limiting factor hampering the use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) exclusively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of negative and positive reinforcement training (NPRT). Twenty naïve female Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were trained in 30 sessions with either PRT (n=8) or NPRT (n=12) to respond to a signal, move into a selected cage section and accept confinement. In the NPRT-group a signal preceded the presentation of one or several novel, and thus aversive, stimuli. When the correct behaviour was performed, the novel stimulus was removed and treats were given. As the animal learned to perform the correct behaviour, the use of novel stimuli was decreased and finally phased out completely. None of the PRT-trained animals finished the task. Ten out of 12 monkeys in the NPRT-group succeeded to perform the task within the 30 training sessions, a significant difference from the PRT-group (p=0.0007). A modified approach test showed no significant difference between the groups (p=0.67) in how they reacted to the trainer. The results from this study suggest that carefully conducted NPRT can be an alternative training method to consider, especially when under a time constraint.

  12. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca

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    Marta Borgi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species.

  13. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  14. Toxic shock due to Streptococcus pyogenes in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Anapatricia; Paul, Katherine; Beall, Bernard; McClure, Harold

    2006-09-01

    Recent years have seen a worldwide resurgence in serious infections caused by group A streptococci. This group includes Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the most common pathogens among children which causes diverse suppurative infections, such as pharyngitis, as well as nonsuppurative infections with sequelae, such as rheumatoid fever and rheumatic heart disease. S. pyogenes produces several superantigen-like erythrogenic toxins, which are believed to be associated with pyrogenicity, erythromatous skin reactions, and various immunologic and cytotoxic effects. These toxins also can cause myocardial necrosis. In addition, recently reported streptococcal infections in obstetric human patients appear to be clinically different from classic puerperal sepsis. Here, we report a case of spontaneous streptococcal infection in a pregnant female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). In addition to lesions consistent with bacteremia and toxic shock, this animal had severe cardiac lesions resembling those described in humans with rheumatic heart disease. S. pyogenes was isolated from intracardiac blood, liver, placenta, and fetal tissues. This isolate also had a unique M protein gene.

  15. Exploring the components, asymmetry and distribution of relationship quality in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available Social relationships between group members are a key feature of many animal societies. The quality of social relationships has been described by three main components: value, compatibility and security, based on the benefits, tenure and stability of social exchanges. We aimed to analyse whether this three component structure could be used to describe the quality of social relationships in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus. Moreover, we examined whether relationship quality was affected by the sex, age and rank differences between social partners, and investigated the asymmetric nature of social relationships. We collected over 1,900 hours of focal data on seven behavioural variables measuring relationship quality, and used principal component analysis to investigate how these variables clustered together. We found that relationship quality in wild Barbary macaques can be described by a three component structure that represents the value, compatibility and security of a relationship. Female-female dyads had more valuable relationships and same-age dyads more compatible relationships than any other dyad. Rank difference had no effect on the quality of a social relationship. Finally, we found a high degree of asymmetry in how members of a dyad exchange social behaviour. We argue that the asymmetry of social relationships should be taken into account when exploring the pattern and function of social behaviour in animal societies.

  16. Diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in lime-stone habitats of Nonggang, China

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    Qihai ZHOU, Hua WEI, Zhonghao HUANG, Chengming HUANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance our understanding of dietary adaptations in macaques we studied the diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in limestone seasonal rain forests at Nonggang Nature Reserve, China from September 2005 to August 2006. Our results show that although macaques fed on many plant species, 85.2% of the diet came from only 12 species, of which a bamboo species, Indocalamus calcicolus contributed to 62% of the diet. Young leaves were staple food items (74.1% of the diet for Assamese macaques at Nonggang, and constituted the bulk of monthly diets almost year-round, ranging from 44.9% (July to 92.9% (May. Young parts of Indocalamus calcicolus unexpanded leaves contributed to a large proportion of the young leaf diet in most months. Fruit accounted for only 17.4% of the diet, with a peak of consumption in July. We suggest that this highly folivorous diet may be related to the long lean season of fruit availability in limestone habitats as well as the utilization of cliffs of low fruit availability [Current Zoology 57 (1: 18–25, 2011].

  17. Body signals during social play in free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): A systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Akie; Berman, Carol M

    2014-02-01

    Social play involves one of the most sophisticated types of communication, that is, the use of play signals. Most primate research on play signals has focused on the use of the play face. However, some species appear to exhibit a variety of play signals. For example, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have been reported to use body movements or postures that might have signal value during social play, in addition to the play face. However, it is not clear whether these body signals actually meet several criteria necessary to label them as "play signals." Here we examine the forms and possible functions of seven candidate signals that we observed exclusively during social play contexts among free-ranging rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago. We aim to (1) distinguish them from actual play behavior (play involving contact or chasing) using loglinear analysis and (2) determine whether they predict playful behavior using modified PC-MC methods. Two candidate signals did not resemble any behaviors used in actual play. The other five signals contained elements that lasted longer or increased their conspicuousness over similar play behaviors, suggesting ritualized characteristics. Youngsters were likely to initiate contact or chasing play significantly sooner after candidate signals than in their absence. Thus, these candidate signals appear to meet critical criteria of signals that promote, moderate or facilitate play. As such, these findings open the door to questions about why multiple play signals have evolved. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A non-invasive study of alopecia in Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    This article provides information on the phenomenon of alopecia in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, in various environments and proposes a 3-step scoring system for a quantitative assessment of hair loss. Results suggest that alopecia is commonly observed in Japanese macaques, with 20.5% of individuals showing head alopecia and 4.7% showing back alopecia across eight study groups. Alopecia was more commonly observed in adult females (30.8% individuals showing head alopecia and 15.3% showing back alopecia) than in other age-sex classes. Seasonal variation of back alopecia was noted, in particular, individuals with patchy back hair were more frequently observed in winter than in summer. Seasonal variation was not observed in head hair. The distribution of alopecia was also different among study groups. The wild population generally had better hair condition than provisioned populations and captive populations. The present study used a non-invasive alopecia scoring system which can be a useful, rapid and non-invasive tool to monitor animal health and well-being at a population level.

  19. Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K C; Bloomsmith, M A; Neu, K; Griffis, C; Maloney, M

    2010-08-01

    Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was evaluated at two large primate facilities. Training involved body part presentation and basic control behaviours. Baseline data were compared to two treatment phases presented in varying order across individuals, six minutes per week of positive reinforcement training and six minutes per week of unstructured human interaction. While a MANOVA involving behavioural categories and study conditions across study subjects was significant, univariate ANOVAs found no effect of phase within any behavioural category. Categorising subjects according to rearing, housing facility, or baseline levels of abnormal behaviour did not reveal changes in behaviour with positive reinforcement training or human interaction. This study failed to detect, to any degree, the types of behavioural changes documented in the scientific literature to result from pairing singly housed monkeys. Implementing short durations of positive reinforcement training across large numbers of singly housed animals may not be the most effective manner for incorporating positive reinforcement training in the behavioural management of laboratory macaques. Rather, directing efforts toward individuals with specific behavioural, management, clinical, research or therapeutic needs may represent a more fruitful approach to improving psychological well-being with this technique.

  20. Buton macaques (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): crops, conflict, and behavior on farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priston, Nancy E C; Wyper, Rebecca M; Lee, Phyllis C

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of anthropogenic habitat alteration is that many nonhuman primates are forced into conflict interactions with humans and their livelihood activities, especially through crop raiding. These problems are particularly acute for the endemic and threatened Buton Island macaque (Macaca ochreata brunnescens), in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Our study investigated the crop raiding behavior of this species over time. Foods eaten and the behavioral repertoire exhibited by macaques during crop raiding at and inside farm perimeters were observed over a period of 8 years (2002-2009). Storage organ crops (e.g. sweet potato) were abundant and most frequently raided by macaques. Individual macaques were most commonly observed to raid close (0-10 m) to farm perimeters. Activities such as feeding, resting, moving, and social interaction varied significantly as a function of penetration distance into the farm, but only marginally between age-sex classes. The annual average raid frequency per farm decreased over the latter years of the study period, raising questions about changes in macaque foraging and ranging behavior over time and their response to farm management and mitigation strategies.

  1. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation.

  2. Alterations in the upper facial growth of Macaca mulatta resulting from high-pull headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, R J

    1975-04-01

    Four prepubertal Macaca mulatta monkeys, ranging in age from 13 to 24 months, were used in an investigation of the effects of high-pull headgear (to a face-bow) therapy on the growth of the upper facial skeleton. Amalgam bone implants were placed across the frontomaxillary, frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures in each animal. Three of the monkeys wore appliances consisting of a maxillary dental spling, a face-bow, two coil springs, and an acrylic helmet. The fourth monkey (control) wore only a dental splint and a face-bow. A continuous high-pull headgear force of 300 grams per side was applied to the three monkeys for 81, 87 and 89 days, respectively, before death. Procion brilliant red 8-HBS vital stain was administered to all four animals at the start of and 3 days before the end of the treatment period. The facial growth patterns were determined from lateral cephalograms taken before and after treatment, from direct measurement of implant separation at the sutures, and from histologic sections of the four mentioned facial sutures.

  3. Role of vocal tract characteristics in individual discrimination by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I.; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) exhibits a species-specific communication sound called the “coo call” to locate group members and maintain within-group contact. Monkeys have been demonstrated to be capable of discriminating between individuals based only on their voices, but there is still debate regarding how the fundamental frequencies (F0) and filter properties of the vocal tract characteristics (VTC) contribute to individual discrimination in nonhuman primates. This study was performed to investigate the acoustic keys used by Japanese macaques in individual discrimination. Two animals were trained with standard Go/NoGo operant conditioning to distinguish the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. The subjects were required to continue depressing a lever until the stimulus changed from one monkey to the other. The test stimuli were synthesized by combining the F0s and VTC from each individual. Both subjects released the lever when the VTC changed, whereas they did not when the F0 changed. The reaction times to the test stimuli were not significantly different from that to the training stimuli that shared the same VTC. Our data suggest that vocal tract characteristics are important for the identification of individuals by Japanese macaques. PMID:27550840

  4. Thromboelastography values from pigtail macaques ( Macaca nemestrina): effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Derek L; Ha, James C; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2012-01-01

    Thromboelastography is a clinical laboratory test used to assess global hemostasis. With technologic advances and the test's reemergence in human medicine, its utility in veterinary medicine is being explored. Because assays for PT, aPTT, and d-dimers require platelet-poor plasma, whereas thromboelastography is performed on whole blood, thromboelastography provides a more accurate representation of coagulation and allows the identification of hypocoagulable, hypercoagulable, and hyperfibrinolytic states. Conflicting information has been reported about the effects of age and sex on thromboelastog- raphy in humans and animals. Human studies have reported significant effects of age and sex on thromboelastography more often than have animal studies, but few publications are available about thromboelastography in the nonhuman primate and laboratory animal literature. We used a sample of 50 pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) to determine whether age or sex influence thromboelastography values. Of 5 measured and 2 calculated variables produced by thromboelastography, sex had a significant effect only on the lysis-30 parameter, which also showed significant interaction between age and sex; values increased with age in male macaques but decreased with age in female macaques. In addition, we used the data to define reference intervals for thromboelastography parameters in pigtail macaques.

  5. Anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to evaluate an experimental model of myelomeningocele in non human primates (Macaca mulatta Anestesia em cirurgia intra-uterina para avaliar um modelo experimental de mielomeningocele em primatas não humanos (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Galván-Montaño

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to induce myelomeningocele in non human primates Macaca mulatta. METHODS: A total of nine fetuses had intrauterine surgery; laminectomy was performed on them in L5 and L6. The studied variables were: maternal death, fetus death, cardiac frequency, respiratory frequency, arterial pressure, temperature, and oxygen saturation. RESULTS: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature. CONCLUSION: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o manejo anestésico em cirurgia intra-uterina para induzir mielomeningocelo em primatas não humanos, Macaca mulatta. MÉTODOS: Operaram-se um total de nove fetos in útero que foram submetidos à laminectomia em L5 e L6. As variáveis a estudar foram mortes maternas ou fetais, freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial, temperatura e saturação de oxigênio. RESULTADOS: Não se apresentaram mortes maternas ou fetais, a temperatura se manteve abaixo dos 36°C, não tendo repercussões no bem-estar dos macacos. CONCLUSÃO: Não ocorreu nenhum óbito materno ou fetal, sendo que a única variável abaixo do normal foi a temperatura.

  6. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  7. Concealed fertility and extended female sexuality in a non-human primate (Macaca assamensis.

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    Ines Fürtbauer

    Full Text Available In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring. A few species, however, lack these cues and potentially conceal fertility from males; yet, to date, little is known about mating patterns and their underlying proximate mechanisms in such species. Here, we investigated mating activity and sexual consortships relative to female reproductive state in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis, a species where females lack prominent anogenital swellings and copulation calls. During two mating seasons (2837 contact hours we recorded sexual and social behaviors, sexual consortships, and collected 1178 fecal samples (n = 15 females which were analyzed for progestogen concentrations to assess female reproductive state and to determine the timing of ovulation and conception. Although mostly conceiving in their first ovarian cycle, females were sexually receptive throughout the entire 4-month mating season, and within-cycle mating frequencies were not increased during fertile phases. Dominant males did not monopolize fertile matings, and consortships by high-ranking males lasted for long periods, which were not exclusively linked to female fertile phases. Furthermore, females copulated promiscuously but not randomly, i.e. for almost every female, matings were concentrated to a certain male, irrespective of male rank. Collectively, we demonstrate that fertility is undisclosed to males. The extreme extended female sexuality facilitated by concealed fertility may allow females to create differentiated mating relationships within a promiscuous mating system. Our study provides important new insight into the plasticity of female sexuality in non-human primates.

  8. Whom to groom and for what? Patterns of grooming in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

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    Roubová, Veronika; Konečná, Martina; Šmilauer, Petr; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates.

  9. Feeding behavior and aggression in wild Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu) living under low predation risk.

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    Richter, Christin; Gras, Pierre; Hodges, Keith; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    Investigating which factors influence feeding competition is crucial for our understanding of the diversity of social relationships. Socio-ecological models differ in their predictions whether predation risk directly influences feeding competition and which factors exactly predict contest competition. We investigated feeding competition in Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu), a species endemic to Siberut Island (West Sumatra, Indonesia). Siberut macaques experience low predation risk, as major predators (felids, raptors) are absent. They are therefore appropriate subjects to test the prediction that low predation risk reduces feeding competition. To estimate contest potential, we quantified size, spatial distribution and density of food plants, and the availability of alternative resources. We recorded behavior in food patches using a modified focal tree method. Food patches, sorted by decreasing average feeding group size, included large trees (40% of focal plant observations), lianas/strangler (16%), medium trees (9%), small (palm) trees (20%), and rattan (15%). Most food patches were clumped but occurred at low densities relative to the area of average group spread. Thus, availability of alternative food patches was low. Although food patch characteristics indicate high contest potential, the observed aggression rate (0.13 bouts between adults/h) was low relative to other primates. Average feeding group size was small relative to total group size, and feeding group size matched crown volume. Perceived predation risk was low, based on spatial and feeding behavior of juveniles. Together, these results suggest that predation risk may influence feeding competition. Social and temporal factors (patch feeding time), but not ecological factors (fruit abundance in patch and forest, alternative resources) predicted aggression frequency in food patches. Overall, comparative data are still relatively scarce, and researchers should collect more data on group spread, sub

  10. Pyrosequencing as a method for SNP identification in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta

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    Kanthaswamy S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are the primate most used for biomedical research, but phenotypic differences between Indian-origin and Chinese rhesus macaques have encouraged genetic methods for identifying genetic differences between these two populations. The completion of the rhesus genome has led to the identification of many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in this species. These single nucleotide polymorphisms have many advantages over the short tandem repeat (STR loci currently used to assay genetic variation. However, the number of currently identified polymorphisms is too small for whole genome analysis or studies of quantitative trait loci. To that end, we tested a combination of methods to identify large numbers of high-confidence SNPs, and screen those with high minor allele frequencies (MAF. Results By testing our previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms, we identified a subset of high-confidence, high-MAF polymorphisms. Resequencing revealed a large number of regionally specific SNPs not identified through a single pyrosequencing run. By resequencing a pooled sample of four individuals, we reliably identified loci with a MAF of at least 12.5%. Finally, we found that when applied to a larger, geographically variable sample of rhesus, a large proportion of our loci were variable in both populations, and very few loci were ancestry informative. Despite this fact, the SNP loci were more effective at discriminating Indian and Chinese rhesus than STR loci. Conclusion Pyrosequencing and pooled resequencing are viable methods for the identification of high-MAF SNP loci in rhesus macaques. These SNP loci are appropriate for screening both the inter- and intra-population genetic variation.

  11. When dispersal fails: unexpected genetic separation in Gibraltar macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

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    Modolo, Lara; Martin, Robert D; van Schaik, Carel P; van Noordwijk, Maria A; Krũtzen, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), now restricted in the wild to a few isolated forested areas of Morocco and Algeria, are present in a free-ranging colony on Gibraltar. For many decades, the Gibraltar colony was exposed to multiple bottlenecks due to highly nonrandom removal of animals, followed by repeated introductions of animals from North Africa. Moreover, because of complete isolation, Gibraltar's several social groups of macaques provide an ideal system to study the genetic consequences of dispersal in cercopithecines in situ. Predictions of genetic consequences due to male-biased dispersal in cercopithecines will be different for autosomal and maternally inherited genetic markers, such as the control region of the mitochondrial DNA. We used a panel of 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and part of the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial control region to estimate genetic structure between five social groups in Gibraltar. Surprisingly, for autosomal markers, both classical summary statistics and an individual-based method using a Bayesian framework detected significant genetic structure between social groups in Gibraltar, despite much closer proximity than wild Algerian and Moroccan populations. Mitochondrial data support this finding, as a very substantial portion of the total genetic variation (70.2%) was found between social groups. Using two Bayesian approaches, we likewise identified not only a small number of male first-generation immigrants (albeit less than expected for cercopithecines) but also unexpectedly a few females. We hypothesize that the culling of males that are more likely to disperse might slow down genetic homogenization among neighbouring groups, but may also and more perversely produce selection on certain behavioural traits. This may have important repercussions for conservation, as it could lead to evolutionary changes that are not due to inbreeding or genetic drift.

  12. Patterns of infant handling and relatedness in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) on Gibraltar.

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    Kümmerli, Rolf; Martin, Robert D

    2008-10-01

    Among papionin primates, the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) shows the most extensive interactions between infants and group members other than the mother. Two different types of interactions occur: (1) long-lasting dyadic interactions between a handler and an infant, and (2) brief triadic interactions between two handlers involving an infant. Previous investigations showed that infant handling by males is best explained as use of infants to manage relationships with other males. In contrast, no adaptive explanation for infant handling by females emerged. Here, we compared the infant-handling pattern between subadult/adult males and subadult/adult females in a free-ranging group of 46 Barbary macaques on Gibraltar to test whether the relationship management hypothesis also applies to female handlers. We further investigated the infant-handling pattern of juveniles and used microsatellite markers to estimate relatedness between infant handlers and the infant's mother. We found that males, females and juveniles all participated extensively in triadic interactions using infants of above-average related females. In contrast, only males and juveniles were highly involved in dyadic interactions with infants of related females, while females rarely handled infants other than their own. The pattern of infant handling was entirely compatible with the predictions of the relationship management hypothesis for males and mostly so for females. Moreover, our genetic analysis revealed that males and females differ in their partner choice: while females preferred to interact with related females, males had no significant preference to interact with related males. We further discuss the observed above-average relatedness values between infant handlers and the infant's mother in the light of kin-selection theory.

  13. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

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    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids.

  14. Auditory Rehabilitation in Rhesus Macaque Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Auditory Brainstem Implants

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    Zhen-Min Wang; Zhi-Jun Yang; Fu Zhao; Bo Wang; Xing-Chao Wang; Pei-Ran Qu; Pi-Nan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) have been used to treat deafness for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 and nontumor patients.The lack of an appropriate animal model has limited the study of improving hearing rehabilitation by the device.This study aimed to establish an animal model of ABI in adult rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta).Methods:Six adult rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) were included.Under general anesthesia,a multichannel ABI was implanted into the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle through the modified suboccipital-retrosigmoid (RS) approach.The electrical auditory brainstem response (EABR) waves were tested to ensure the optimal implant site.After the operation,the EABR and computed tomography (CT) were used to test and verify the effectiveness via electrophysiology and anatomy,respectively.The subjects underwent behavioral observation for 6 months,and the postoperative EABR was tested every two weeks from the 1st month after implant surgery.Result:The implant surgery lasted an average of 5.2 h,and no monkey died or sacrificed.The averaged latencies of peaks Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅳ were 1.27,2.34 and 3.98 ms,respectively in the ABR.One-peak EABR wave was elicited in the operation,and one-or two-peak waves were elicited during the postoperative period.The EABR wave latencies appeared to be constant under different stimulus intensities;however,the amplitudes increased as the stimulus increased within a certain scope.Conclusions:It is feasible and safe to implant ABIs in rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) through a modified suboccipital RS approach,and EABR and CT are valid tools for animal model establishment.In addition,this model should be an appropriate animal model for the electrophysiological and behavioral study of rhesus macaque monkey with ABI.

  15. No-scalpel vasectomy by electrocauterization in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    A. Raj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to standardize a new method of vasectomy in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. A total of 208 free range male rhesus macaques captured from different locations in Shivalik Hills in a population control programme of the rhesus macaques in India. General anaesthesia was achieved by using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride at 8 mg/kg body weight and xylazine hydrochloride at 2mg/kg body weight intramuscularly in squeeze cage. Surgical procedure of vasectomy was carried out by single-hole no-scalpel technique using a single pre-scrotal skin incision above the median raphae. Spermatic cord was grasped with ringed forceps and was pulled out through the single-hole incision. Vas deferens was separated from the artery-vein complexus and about 3-4 cm portion of vas deferens was resected. Cauterization of both ends of the vas deferens was achieved with electrocautery. The induction time for anaesthesia was 1.40±0.18 min while surgical time for vasectomy was found to be 5.09±0.22 min. Recovery from general anaesthesia was without side-effects after a mean duration of 36.07±1.22 min, whereas the duration of anaesthesia was observed to be 82.27±4.96 min. There were no major complications following the surgery and recovery of animals was smooth. Animals were kept in postoperative care for five days and released at the same capturing site.

  16. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

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    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India.

  17. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

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    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants.

  18. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

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    Henkjan Honing

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1. Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2 and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3. In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm, the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group, but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm.

  19. A behavioral taxonomy of loneliness in humans and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

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    John P Capitanio

    Full Text Available Social relationships endow health and fitness benefits, but considerable variation exists in the extent to which individuals form and maintain salutary social relationships. The mental and physical health effects of social bonds are more strongly related to perceived isolation (loneliness than to objective social network characteristics. We sought to develop an animal model to facilitate the experimental analysis of the development of, and the behavioral and biological consequences of, loneliness. In Study 1, using a population-based sample of older adults, we examined how loneliness was influenced both by social network size and by the extent to which individuals believed that their daily social interactions reflected their own choice. Results revealed three distinct clusters of individuals: (i individuals with large networks who believed they had high choice were lowest in loneliness, (ii individuals with small social networks who believed they had low choice were highest in loneliness, and (iii the remaining two groups were intermediate and equivalent in loneliness. In Study 2, a similar three-group structure was identified in two separate samples of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta living in large social groups: (i those high in sociability who had complex social interaction with a broad range of social partners (putatively low in loneliness, (ii those low in sociability who showed tentative interactions with certain classes of social partners (putatively high in loneliness, and (iii those low in sociability who interacted overall at low levels with a broad range of social partners (putatively low or intermediate in loneliness. This taxonomy in monkeys was validated in subsequent experimental social probe studies. These results suggest that, in highly social nonhuman primate species, some animals may show a mismatch between social interest and social attainment that could serve as a useful animal model for experimental and

  20. Concealed Fertility and Extended Female Sexuality in a Non-Human Primate (Macaca assamensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2011-01-01

    In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring. A few species, however, lack these cues and potentially conceal fertility from males; yet, to date, little is known about mating patterns and their underlying proximate mechanisms in such species. Here, we investigated mating activity and sexual consortships relative to female reproductive state in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis), a species where females lack prominent anogenital swellings and copulation calls. During two mating seasons (2837 contact hours) we recorded sexual and social behaviors, sexual consortships, and collected 1178 fecal samples (n = 15 females) which were analyzed for progestogen concentrations to assess female reproductive state and to determine the timing of ovulation and conception. Although mostly conceiving in their first ovarian cycle, females were sexually receptive throughout the entire 4-month mating season, and within-cycle mating frequencies were not increased during fertile phases. Dominant males did not monopolize fertile matings, and consortships by high-ranking males lasted for long periods, which were not exclusively linked to female fertile phases. Furthermore, females copulated promiscuously but not randomly, i.e. for almost every female, matings were concentrated to a certain male, irrespective of male rank. Collectively, we demonstrate that fertility is undisclosed to males. The extreme extended female sexuality facilitated by concealed fertility may allow females to create differentiated mating relationships within a promiscuous mating system. Our study provides important new insight into the plasticity of female sexuality in non-human primates. PMID:21853074

  1. Choriodecidual infection downregulates angiogenesis and morphogenesis pathways in fetal lungs from Macaca nemestrina.

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    Ryan M McAdams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine exposure to amniotic fluid (AF cytokines is thought to predispose to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. We evaluated the effects of GBS exposure on RNA expression in fetal lung tissue to determine early molecular pathways associated with fetal lung injury that may progress to BPD. METHODS: Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term = 172 days received choriodecidual inoculation of either: 1 Group B Streptococcus (n = 5 or 2 saline (n = 5. Cesarean section and fetal necropsy was performed in the first week after GBS or saline inoculation regardless of labor. RNA was extracted from fetal lungs and profiled by microarray. Results were analyzed using single gene, Gene Set, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Validation was by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, fetal lung injury occurred in four GBS cases (intra-alveolar neutrophils, interstitial thickening and one control (peri-mortem hemorrhage. Significant elevations of AF cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 were detected in GBS versus controls (p<0.05. Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable by culture and PCR in the AF and fetal lungs. A total of 335 genes were differentially expressed greater than 1.5 fold (p<0.05 with GBS exposure associated with a striking upregulation of genes in innate and adaptive immunity and downregulation of pathways for angiogenesis, morphogenesis, and cellular growth and development. CONCLUSIONS: A transient choriodecidual infection may induce fetal lung injury with profound alterations in the genetic program of the fetal lung before signs of preterm labor. Our results provide a window for the first time into early molecular pathways disrupting fetal lung angiogenesis and morphogenesis before preterm labor occurs, which may set the stage for BPD. A strategy to prevent BPD should target the fetus in

  2. Facial paralysis and lymphocytic facial neuritis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) positive for simian retrovirus type D2.

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    Hampton, Anna L; Colby, Lesley A; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2011-12-01

    Simian retrovirus type D (SRVD) is a naturally occurring betaretrovirus in nonhuman primates of the genus Macaca. Infection can lead to a variety of clinical, hematologic, and histopathologic abnormalities. We report an unusual clinical presentation of facial paralysis and histologic lymphocytic neuritis in an SRVD type 2 (SRVD2)-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a catheter-associated vena caval thrombus, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and multisystemic lymphoid hyperplasia. At initial presentation, a right atrial mass was detected by echocardiography. The macaque was clinically asymptomatic but had persistent anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and later neutropenia. It was seropositive for SRV and PCR-positive for SRVD 2. Approximately 1 mo after initial presentation, the macaque developed right facial paralysis and was euthanized. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic aggregates affecting multiple organs, consistent with SRV-related lymphoid hyperplasia. The right facial nerve showed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. The nerve itself was negative immunohistochemically for SRV antigen, but antigen was present infrequently in pericapillary lymphoid cells within the facial nerve and abundantly within lymphoid aggregates in the adjacent parotid salivary gland, bone marrow, and soft tissue. Known neurotropic viruses could not be identified. Given the widespread inflammation in this macaque, particularly in the area surrounding the facial nerve, lymphocytic neuritis and facial paralysis likely were an indirect effect of SRV infection due to local extension of SRV-related inflammation in the surrounding tissue.

  3. Modes of transmission and genetic diversity of foamy viruses in a Macaca tonkeana colony

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    Saib Ali

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foamy viruses are exogenous complex retroviruses that are highly endemic in several animal species, including monkeys and apes, where they cause persistent infection. Simian foamy viral (SFV infection has been reported in few persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP in zoos, primate centers and laboratories, and recently in few hunters from central Africa. Most of the epidemiological works performed among NHP populations concern cross-sectional studies without long-term follow-up. Therefore, the exact timing and the modes of transmission of SFVs remain not well known, although sexual and oral transmissions have been suspected. We have conducted a longitudinal study in a free-breeding colony of Macaca tonkeana in order (1 to determine the prevalence of the infection by foamy viruses, (2 to characterize molecularly the viruses infecting such animals, (3 to study their genetic variability overtime by long-term follow-up of several DNA samples in a series of specific animals, and (4 to get new insights concerning the timing and the modes of SFVs primary infection in these monkeys by combining serology and molecular means, as well as studies of familial structures and long-term behavioral observations. Results/conclusion We first demonstrated that this colony was highly endemic for SFVs, with a clear increase of seroprevalence with age. Only 4.7% of immatures, and 43,7% of sub-adults were found seropositive, while 89.5% of adults exhibited antibodies directed against SFV. We further showed that 6 different strains of foamy viruses (exhibiting a very low intra-strain and overtime genetic variability in the integrase gene are circulating within this group. This suggests a possible infection by different strains within an animal. Lastly, we provide strong evidence that foamy viruses are mostly acquired through severe bites, mainly in sub-adults or young adults. Most cases of seroconversion occur after 7 years of age

  4. Experience-based human perception of facial expressions in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus

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    Laëtitia Maréchal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. The universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. However, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. This ambiguity in signalling emotion can lead to an increased risk of aggression and injuries for both humans and animals. This raises serious concerns for activities such as wildlife tourism where humans closely interact with wild animals. Understanding what factors (i.e., experience and type of emotion affect ability to recognise emotional state of nonhuman primates, based on their facial expressions, can enable us to test the validity of the universality hypothesis, as well as reduce the risk of aggression and potential injuries in wildlife tourism. Methods The present study investigated whether different levels of experience of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, affect the ability to correctly assess different facial expressions related to aggressive, distressed, friendly or neutral states, using an online questionnaire. Participants’ level of experience was defined as either: (1 naïve: never worked with nonhuman primates and never or rarely encountered live Barbary macaques; (2 exposed: shown pictures of the different Barbary macaques’ facial expressions along with the description and the corresponding emotion prior to undertaking the questionnaire; (3 expert: worked with Barbary macaques for at least two months. Results Experience with Barbary macaques was associated with better performance in judging their emotional state. Simple exposure to pictures of macaques’ facial expressions improved the ability of inexperienced participants to better discriminate neutral

  5. Experience-based human perception of facial expressions in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Laëtitia; Levy, Xandria; Meints, Kerstin; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. The universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. However, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. This ambiguity in signalling emotion can lead to an increased risk of aggression and injuries for both humans and animals. This raises serious concerns for activities such as wildlife tourism where humans closely interact with wild animals. Understanding what factors (i.e., experience and type of emotion) affect ability to recognise emotional state of nonhuman primates, based on their facial expressions, can enable us to test the validity of the universality hypothesis, as well as reduce the risk of aggression and potential injuries in wildlife tourism. The present study investigated whether different levels of experience of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, affect the ability to correctly assess different facial expressions related to aggressive, distressed, friendly or neutral states, using an online questionnaire. Participants' level of experience was defined as either: (1) naïve: never worked with nonhuman primates and never or rarely encountered live Barbary macaques; (2) exposed: shown pictures of the different Barbary macaques' facial expressions along with the description and the corresponding emotion prior to undertaking the questionnaire; (3) expert: worked with Barbary macaques for at least two months. Experience with Barbary macaques was associated with better performance in judging their emotional state. Simple exposure to pictures of macaques' facial expressions improved the ability of inexperienced participants to better discriminate neutral and distressed faces, and a trend was found for

  6. Mitochondrial DNA variation in Chinese and Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Glenn; McDonough, John

    2005-01-01

    DNA was extracted from the buffy coats or serum of 212 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) sampled throughout the species' geographic range. An 835 base pair (bp) fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was amplified from each sample, sequenced, aligned, and used to estimate genetic distances from which phylogenetic trees were constructed. A tree that included sequences from rhesus macaques whose exact origins in China are known was used to determine the regional origin of clusters of haplotypes, or haplogroups, defined by the trees. Indian rhesus sequences formed one large homogeneous haplogroup with very low levels of nucleotide diversity and no geographic structure, and a second much smaller haplogroup apparently derived from Burma. The sequences from Burma and eastern and western China were quite divergent from those in the major haplogroup of India. Each of these sequences formed separate clusters of haplotypes that exhibited far greater nucleotide diversity and/or population structure. Correspondingly, sequences from Indian rhesus macaques that are considered to represent different subspecies (based on morphological differences) were intermingled in the tree, while those from China reflected some, but not all, aspects of subspecific taxonomy. Regional variation contributed 72% toward the paired differences between sequences in an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), and the average differences between the populations of eastern and western China were also statistically significant. These results suggest that Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques were reproductively isolated during most, if not all, of the Pleistocene, during which time Indian rhesus macaques experienced a severe genetic bottleneck, and that some gene flow westward into India was subsequently reestablished. Samples from breeding centers in three different provinces of China included sequences from rhesus macaques that originated in both eastern (or southern) and western China, confirming anecdotal

  7. AcEST: BP921657 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cul... 33 1.4 sp|Q6UY87|BEST1_MACFA Bestrophin-1 OS=Macaca fascicularis GN=BES... 30 6.7 >sp|P57999|ZAN_RABI... 812 QLVDSRGVFKTCLLHLKASSFFDNCVFDTCNFQGLQLMLCAHMS 855 >sp|Q6UY87|BEST1_MACFA Bestrophin-1 OS=Macaca fascicul

  8. Efeito do CO2 e etileno no período de dormência de minitubérculos de batata cv. Macaca Effect of CO2 and ethylene on the dormancy period of potato cv. Macaca minitubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do CO2 e etileno no período de dormência de minitubérculos de batata da cultivar Macaca produzidos em telado durante duas safras. Imediatamente após a colheita, os minitubérculos foram submetidos aos tratamentos de abafamento com etileno (1000 mL L-1 por 72 h; CO2 (20% por 72 h; carbureto de cálcio (200 g m-3 por 72 h; e 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP (1mL L-1 por 24 h (apenas na safrinha; e imersão em solução de ethephon (840 mg L-1 por 5 s. A testemunha não recebeu nenhum tratamento. O delineamento experimental foi um fatorial (safras x tratamentos no inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 15 minitubérculos. Em intervalos semanais foram avaliadas a respiração e a produção de etileno. A cada 15 dias avaliou-se o número de brotos e a percentagem de tubérculos brotados, calculando-se a área abaixo da curva de progressão. Os minitubérculos produzidos durante a safra, comparados com os da safrinha, apresentaram menor período de dormência e aumentaram a taxa respiratória durante o período de armazenamento, claramente relacionados com a brotação dos minitubérculos. O CO2 e etileno não promoveram o encurtamento, enquanto que o 1-MCP prolongou o período de dormência de minitubérculos de batata cv. Macaca.The effect of CO2 and ethylene treatments were evaluated on the dormancy period of 'Macaca' minitubers produced in greenhouse during two growing seasons. Minitubers were treated soon after harvesting. The treatments were suffocation with ethylene (1000 mL L-1 during 72 h; CO2 (20 % during 72 h; calcium carburet (200 g m-3 during 72 h; and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP (1 mL L-1 during 24 h (only for second season; and immersion with 2-cloroetil fosfonic acid (840 mg L-1 during 5 s. Control minitubers did not receive any treatment. The experiment was a factorial (seasons x treatments in a randomized design, with four replications of 15 minitubers. Respiration and ethylene production were

  9. Contrasting the edge- and surface-based theories of object recognition: behavioral evidence from macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parron, Carole; Washburn, David

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the contribution of edge and surface cues on object representation in macaques (Macaca mulatta). In Experiments 1 and 2, 5 macaques were trained to discriminate 4 simple volumetric objects (geons) and were subsequently tested for their ability to recognize line drawings, silhouettes, and light changes of these geons. Performance was above chance in all test conditions and was similarly high for the line drawings and silhouettes of geons, suggesting the use of the outline shape to recognize the original objects. In addition, transfer for the geons seen under new lighting was greater than for the other stimuli, stressing the importance of the shading information. Experiment 3, using geons filled with new textures, showed that a radical change in the surface cues does not prevent object recognition. It is concluded that these findings support a surface-based theory of object recognition in macaques, although it does not exclude the contribution of edge cues, especially when surface details are not available.

  10. Land use in semi-free ranging Tonkean macaques Macaca tonkeana depends on environmental conditions: A geographical information system approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cédric SUEUR; Paul SALZE; Christiane WEBER; Odile PETIT

    2011-01-01

    Wild animals use their habitat according to ecological pressures such as predaton, resource availability or temperature, yet little is known about how individuals use their environment in semi free-ranging conditions. We assessed whether a semi-free ranging group of Tonkean macaques Macaca tonkeana used its wooded parkland in a heterogeneous way. GIS and GPS were used to determine whether individuals adjusted their behaviors according to variation in environmental constraints over time of day and the course of a year. We demonstrated that social and resting activities occurred in high altitude areas and areas with a high density of bushes, whereas the group foraged in areas where the density of bushes and grass was low. In general, the animals used areas exposed to the sun that were not on a slope. Semi-free ranging Tonkean macaques seemed to behave like their wild counterparts in terms of activity budget, land use per activity and thermoregulation.

  11. Evidence of Placentophagia and Mother-Infant Cannibalism in Free-Ranging Macaca mulatta tcheliensis in Mount Taihangshan, Jiyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jundong; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Yongman; Garber, Paul A; Guo, Weijie; Kuang, San''ao; Lu, Jiqi

    2016-01-01

    Placentophagia or the consumption of the afterbirth is reported in many primate species, whereas cannibalism is a relatively rare event. Based on our field observations over the course of 3 years, we present evidence of placentophagia and mother-infant cannibalism in a free-ranging population of the Taihangshan macaque, Macaca mulatta tcheliensis, in the Mt. Taihangshan area, Jiyuan, Henan, China. We documented 1 case in which a mother consumed the afterbirth of her infant. In a second instance, we observed a fresh placenta discarded on the ground by an unknown individual. We also present a description of the first documented instance of mother-infant cannibalism in the same group of free-ranging rhesus macaques. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Locally infiltrative ameloblastic fibroma in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with characterizations of its proliferating activity and biological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David X; Doyle, Lara A; Bouljihad, Mostafa T; Didier, Peter J; Gilbert, Margaret H; Wang, Xiaolei; Pahar, Bapi; Bohm, Rudolf P; Veazey, Ronald S; Lackner, Andrew A

    2012-05-01

    An 8-year-old male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with unilateral enlargement of the left mandible. Radiographs revealed a marked expansion of the left mandible with a multilocular radiolucent mass with abundant osteolysis. The mass was grossly firm, fleshy, and gelatinous on the cut surface. Histologically, the mass was locally infiltrative and composed of neoplastic epithelial and mesenchymal components that stained positive for cytokeratin and vimentin, respectively. Occasional densely spherical condensations of fibroblasts resembling the cap stage of odontogenesis were present in the mesenchyma. Immunohistochemical staining with Ki-67, S-100, and CD34 indicated that both epithelial and mesenchymal components of the neoplasm had low proliferation. Alcian blue, periodic acid-Schiff, and trichrome stains showed an immature stromal component with no collagen formation. Based on the clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic features, the tumor was identified as a locally infiltrative ameloblastic fibroma.

  13. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates.

  14. Pathogenic infection of Macaca nemestrina with a CCR5-tropic subtype-C simian-human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ruijiang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina have been used in AIDS research for years, less is known about the early immunopathogenic events in this species, as compared to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. Similarly, the events in early infection are well-characterized for simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, but less so for chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV, although the latter have been widely used in HIV vaccine studies. Here, we report the consequences of intrarectal infection with a CCR5-tropic clade C SHIV-1157ipd3N4 in pig-tailed macaques. Results Plasma and cell-associated virus was detectable in peripheral blood and intestinal tissues of all four pig-tailed macaques following intrarectal inoculation with SHIV-1157ipd3N4. We also observed a rapid and irreversible loss of CD4+ T cells at multiple mucosal sites, resulting in a marked decrease of CD4:CD8 T cell ratios 0.5–4 weeks after inoculation. This depletion targeted subsets of CD4+ T cells expressing the CCR5 coreceptor and having a CD28-CD95+ effector memory phenotype, consistent with the R5-tropism of SHIV-1157ipd3N4. All three animals that were studied beyond the acute phase seroconverted as early as week 4, with two developing cross-clade neutralizing antibody responses by week 24. These two animals also demonstrated persistent plasma viremia for >48 weeks. One of these animals developed AIDS, as shown by peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion starting at 20 weeks post inoculation. Conclusion These findings indicate that SHIV-1157ipd3N4-induced pathogenesis in pig-tailed macaques followed a similar course as SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Thus, R5 SHIV-C-infection of pig-tailed macaques could provide a useful and relevant model for AIDS vaccine and pathogenesis research.

  15. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Piracetam-induced changes on the brainstem auditory response in anesthetized juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Report of two clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Rivera, A; Gonzalez-Pina, R; Hernandez-Godinez, B; Ibanez-Contreras, A; Bueno-Nava, A; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A

    2012-10-01

    We describe two clinical cases and examine the effects of piracetam on the brainstem auditory response in infantile female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We found that the interwave intervals show a greater reduction in a 3-year-old rhesus monkey compared to a 1-year-old rhesus monkey. In this report, we discuss the significance of these observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. 我国广西食蟹猴养殖场2种血液寄生原虫感染调查%Investigation of two blood parasitic protozoa infection in farmed Macaca fascicularis in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路媛媛; 彭恒; 朱淮民; 李健; 薛绍礼

    2016-01-01

    目的 调查我国广西壮族自治区某食蟹猴养殖场血液寄生原虫感染状况,为人体血液寄生原虫的防控提供科学依据.方法 采集广西壮族自治区南宁市某食蟹猴养殖场猴血液样本993份,全部制作FTA卡样本,涂制薄血膜550份.将样本混合,以巢式PCR及普通PCR方法分别检测FTA卡保存的猴血样本中巴贝虫以及疟原虫.检测阳性组再分别进行单个样本检测,阳性样本对应的薄血膜进行姬姆萨染色后再镜检.结果 经巢式PCR检测,田鼠巴贝虫检出阳性率为6.95%(69/993);仅1例经PCR检出猪尾猴疟原虫阳性.22份PCR检测巴贝虫阳性的血液样本经染色镜检,共16份检出巴贝虫,其显微镜下观察到红细胞内有环状体,无疟色素.结论 我国广西地区食蟹猴的田鼠巴贝虫感染率较高,其可能在传播中起保虫宿主的作用;在筛查田鼠巴贝虫低密度感染时,巢式PCR方法敏感性较高.

  18. Comparative research of Symbiodinium diversity associated with two color morphs of reef-building coral Galaxea fascicularis%丛生盔形珊瑚的2种颜色群体共生藻组成比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国伟; 黄晖; 喻子牛; 尤丰; 李秀保

    2011-01-01

    造礁石珊瑚与共生藻 Symbiodinium spp.的互利共生对维护多样性极为丰富的珊瑚礁生态系统至关重要.在受到诸如水温异常等环境胁迫时,宿主珊瑚会排出体内共生藻而导致珊瑚白化直至死亡.造礁石珊瑚群体丰富的颜色对于珊瑚适应环境有着重要的作用,即使是同种造礁石珊瑚的不同群体,它们在颜色上也会有差异.丛生盔形珊瑚 Galaxea.fascicularis 作为印度-太平洋区系常见种广泛分布于海南三亚珊瑚礁海域,不同群体的颜色相异.对绿色和褐色2种颜色的丛生盔形珊瑚群体共生藻的28S rDNA进行限制性片段长度多态性(polymerase chainreaction-restrictionfragmentlength polymorphism,PCR-RFLP)分析,结果显示,该珊瑚可以与C和D系群共生藻分别或同时共生.此外,丛生盔形珊瑚2种颜色群体的共生藻组成并无显著差异,表明珊瑚群体的颜色差异与共生藻的组成并无直接联系.影响珊瑚表型颜色的因素复杂,包括珊瑚的绿色荧光蛋白(green fluorescent protein,GFP)、珊瑚和共生藻的各种色素等,具体机理需要进一步研究.%The symbiotic association between corals and Symbiodinium is a major contributing factor in the success of coral reef ecosystem with high biodiversity.Under stressful environmental conditions, such as abnormally high water temperatures, this symbiosis can break down and the zooxanthellae are lost in a process known as "bleaching", which can cause the death of corals if stresses are severe or persistent.Reef-building corals have diverse colors even in different colonies within the same species, and the color plays a key role in acclimation of coral to environment.Galaxea fascicularis is a common reef-building coral in the Indo-Pacific area, including the coral reef areas in Sanya, Hainan Island, and displays a variety colors even with different colonies.The authors used PCR-RFLP to investigate whether or not variation in color is associated

  19. Eosinophilic bronchitis-like lesion as the cause of death in a Macaca mulatta: a first case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christal, J.L.; Hubbard, G.B.; Dick, E.J.; Brasky, K.M.; Jagirdar, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic bronchitis is a recently described, relatively benign condition in humans that is characterized by a corticosteroid-responsive chronic cough and sputum eosinophilia without the abnormalities of airway function seen in asthma. The exact cause of this condition is currently unknown, however has been associated with various occupational exposures in humans. It has also been reported to progress to irreversible airway obstruction. This disease has been reported in dogs and horses, but not in non-human primates. Methods Gross examination of an otherwise healthy 13-year-old, colony-born Macaca mulatta, which died of severe non-responsive respiratory distress revealed that the lungs were markedly inflated and moist. Results Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from the lungs contained widespread accumulation of eosinophils, sloughed epithelial cells, and mucus centered around bronchioles and adjacent airways. There was no evidence of mast cell infiltration of peribronchiolar smooth muscle, goblet cell hyperplasia, or basement membrane thickening. Conclusions This ruled out recurrent episodes as would be expected in asthma, favoring the diagnosis of an eosinophilic bronchitis-like lesion. We report a first case of eosinophilic bronchitis-like features in a M. mulatta. PMID:18333916

  20. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (pfasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (pfasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons.

  1. Neonatal imitation predicts infant rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social and anxiety-related behaviours at one year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Paukner, Annika; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of early markers that predict the development of specific social trajectories is critical to understand the developmental and neurobiological underpinnings of healthy social development. We investigated, in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), whether newborns’ capacity to imitate facial gestures is a valid predictive marker for the emergence of social competencies later in development, at one year of age. Here we first assessed whether infant macaques (N = 126) imitate lipsmacking gestures (a macaque affiliative expression) performed by a human experimenter in their first week of life. We then collected data on infants’ social interactions (aggression, grooming, and play) and self-scratching (a proxy indicator of anxiety) at 11–14 months when infants were transferred into a new enclosure with a large social group. Our results show that neonatal imitators exhibit more dominant behaviours, are less anxious, and, for males only, spend more time in play at one year old. These findings suggest that neonatal imitation may be an early predictor of infant sociality and may help identify infants at risk of neurodevelopmental social deficits. PMID:27725768

  2. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming.

  3. Genetic variation between two Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) populations in the eastern China based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongfang; Zhong, Lijing; Liu, Bofeng; Li, Jiayi; Ni, Qingyong; Xu, Huailiang

    2013-06-01

    Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is a threatened primate species endemic to China. Population genetic and phylogenetic analyses were conducted in 66 Tibetan individuals from Sichuan (SC), Huangshan (HS), and Fujian (FJ) based on a 477-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA control region. Four new haplotypes were defined, and a relatively high level of genetic diversity was first observed in FJ populations (Hd = 0.7661). Notably, a continuous approximately 10 bp-fragment deletion was observed near the 5' end of the mtDNA control region of both HS and FJ populations when compared with that of SC population, and a sharing haplotype was found between the two populations, revealing a closer genetic relationship. However, significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.8700) and more poor gene exchange (Nm < 1) had occurred among three populations. This study mainly provide a further insight into the genetic relationship between HS and FJ Tibetan macaque populations, but it may be necessary to carry out further study with extra samples from other locations in the geographic coverage of the two subspecies (M. thibetana pullus and M. thibetana huangshanensis).

  4. Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on self-directed behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Xin; Li, Jin-Hua; Xia, Dong-Po; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Dao

    2014-05-01

    Self-directed behavior (SDB) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. In this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China (September 2012-May 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. Our results showed that females engaged in significantly higher rates of self-directed behavior when they were in proximity to dominant individuals compared to subordinate ones. Conflict losers significantly increased their SDB rates after agonistic episodes, indicating that SDB might also serve as an index of anxiety in M. thibetana. We further found that females significantly increased their SDB rates when focal individual was proximity to weakly affiliation relationship higher rank members than to strongly affiliation relationship higher rank members. If conflicts were not reconciled, the postconflict SDB rates of losers were higher when they stayed with strongly affiliation opponents; if conflicts were reconciled, victims of strongly affiliation relationships opponents engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation, while victims of moderately affiliation relationships opponents did not engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation. We conclude that both of dominance rank and affiliation relationships might both influence the SDB rates of female Tibetan macaques significantly, suggesting that SDB is not only an index of anxiety in Tibetan macaques, but also can provide a new insight into evaluation of social relationships between individuals.

  5. Analysis of immunoglobulin, complements and CRP levels in serum of captive northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Pang, Wei; Deng, De-Yao; Lv, Long-Bao; Feng, Yue; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2014-05-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (NPM,Macaca leonina) has become a widely used animal model in biomedical research. In this study, we measured serum immunoglobulin IgG, IgM, IgA, complement C3, C4 and CRP levels in 3-11 year old captive northern pig-tailed macaques using HITACHI 7600-20 automated chemistry analyzer in order to determine the influences of age and gender on these items. The results showed that serum IgA, IgM, C3 and C4 levels were not correlated with age (P>0.05), while serum IgG levels increased progressively with age (r=0.202;P=0.045). Serum IgG, IgA, IgM and C3 levels were higher in females than in males (P<0.05). Moreover, serum C3 concentration was both positively and strongly correlated with that of C4 (r=0.700; P<0.0001). This study provides basic serum immunoglobulin and complement data of captive northern pig-tailed macaques, which may prove useful for future breeding efforts and biomedical research.

  6. Intergroup variation in stable isotope ratios reflects anthropogenic impact on the Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Mark R; Fuentes, Agustín; Luecke, Ellen; Cortes, John; Shaw, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with humans impact many aspects of behavior and ecology in nonhuman primates. Because of the complexities of the human-nonhuman primate interface, methods are needed to quantify the effects of anthropogenic interactions, including their intensity and differential impacts between nonhuman primate groups. Stable isotopes can be used to quickly and economically assess intergroup dietary variation, and provide a framework for the development of specific hypotheses about anthropogenic impact. This study uses stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to examine intraspecific variation in diet between five groups of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, in the Upper Rock Nature Reserve, Gibraltar. Analysis of hair from 135 macaques showed significant differences in δ(13)C and δ(15)N values between a group with minimal tourist contact and groups that were main tourist attractions. Because we observed no overt physiological or substantial behavioral differences between the groups, feeding ecology is the most likely cause of any differences in stable isotope ratios. Haphazard provisioning by tourists and Gibraltarians is a likely source of dietary variation between groups. Stable isotope analysis and observational data facilitate a deeper understanding of the feeding ecology of the Barbary macaques relevant to the role of an anthropogenic ecology for the species.

  7. Expression analysis of taste signal transduction molecules in the fungiform and circumvallate papillae of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta.

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    Yoshiro Ishimaru

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of the mammalian gustatory system have been examined in many studies using rodents as model organisms. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression of molecules involved in taste signal transduction in the fungiform papillae (FuP and circumvallate papillae (CvP of the rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, using in situ hybridization. TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS2Rs, and PKD1L3 were exclusively expressed in different subsets of taste receptor cells (TRCs in the FuP and CvP. This finding suggests that TRCs sensing different basic taste modalities are mutually segregated in macaque taste buds. Individual TAS2Rs exhibited a variety of expression patterns in terms of the apparent level of expression and the number of TRCs expressing these genes, as in the case of human TAS2Rs. GNAT3, but not GNA14, was expressed in TRCs of FuP, whereas GNA14 was expressed in a small population of TRCs of CvP, which were distinct from GNAT3- or TAS1R2-positive TRCs. These results demonstrate similarities and differences between primates and rodents in the expression profiles of genes involved in taste signal transduction.

  8. Individual differences in scanpaths correspond with serotonin transporter genotype and behavioral phenotype in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta

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    Robert R Gibboni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanpaths (the succession of fixations and saccades during spontaneous viewing contain information about the image but also about the viewer. To determine the viewer-dependent factors in the scanpaths of monkeys, we trained three adult males (Macaca mulatta to look for 3 s at images of conspecific facial expressions with either direct or averted gaze. The subjects showed significant differences on four basic scanpath parameters (number of fixations, fixation duration, saccade length, and total scanpath length when viewing the same facial expression/gaze direction combinations. Furthermore, we found differences between monkeys in feature preference and in the temporal order in which features were visited on different facial expressions. Overall, the between-subject variability was larger than the within- subject variability, suggesting that scanpaths reflect individual preferences in allocating visual attention to various features in aggressive, neutral, and appeasing facial expressions. Individual scanpath characteristics were brought into register with the genotype for the serotonin transporter regulatory gene (5-HTTLPR and with behavioral characteristics such as expression of anticipatory anxiety and impulsiveness/hesitation in approaching food in the presence of a potentially dangerous object.

  9. MaqFACS (Macaque Facial Action Coding System) can be used to document facial movements in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julle-Danière, Églantine; Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Joly, Marine; Gass, Carolin; Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M

    2015-01-01

    Human and non-human primates exhibit facial movements or displays to communicate with one another. The evolution of form and function of those displays could be better understood through multispecies comparisons. Anatomically based coding systems (Facial Action Coding Systems: FACS) are developed to enable such comparisons because they are standardized and systematic and aid identification of homologous expressions underpinned by similar muscle contractions. To date, FACS has been developed for humans, and subsequently modified for chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, orangutans, hylobatids, dogs, and cats. Here, we wanted to test whether the MaqFACS system developed in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could be used to code facial movements in Barbary macaques (M. sylvanus), a species phylogenetically close to the rhesus macaques. The findings show that the facial movement capacity of Barbary macaques can be reliably coded using the MaqFACS. We found differences in use and form of some movements, most likely due to specializations in the communicative repertoire of each species, rather than morphological differences.

  10. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Suomi, Stephen J; Meyer, Jerrold S; Novak, Melinda A

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous), to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC) and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC) during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1), in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1), and in peak lactation (LACT2). We also assessed infants' neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02), but only in primiparous monkeys (ppregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (phormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in mothers with varied caretaking experience. In addition, infant exposure to relatively higher levels of maternal cortisol during the late fetal and early postnatal periods is predictive of poorer developmental outcomes.

  11. Complete Taiwanese Macaque (Macaca cyclopis) Mitochondrial Genome: Reference-Assisted de novo Assembly with Multiple k-mer Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Feng; Midha, Mohit; Chen, Tzu-Han; Wang, Yu-Tai; Smith, David Glenn; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Chiu, Kuo Ping

    2015-01-01

    The Taiwanese (Formosan) macaque (Macaca cyclopis) is the only nonhuman primate endemic to Taiwan. This primate species is valuable for evolutionary studies and as subjects in medical research. However, only partial fragments of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of this primate species have been sequenced, not mentioning its nuclear genome. We employed next-generation sequencing to generate 2 x 90 bp paired-end reads, followed by reference-assisted de novo assembly with multiple k-mer strategy to characterize the M. cyclopis mitogenome. We compared the assembled mitogenome with that of other macaque species for phylogenetic analysis. Our results show that, the M. cyclopis mitogenome consists of 16,563 nucleotides encoding for 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that M. cyclopis is most closely related to M. mulatta lasiota (Chinese rhesus macaque), supporting the notion of Asia-continental origin of M. cyclopis proposed in previous studies based on partial mitochondrial sequences. Our work presents a novel approach for assembling a mitogenome that utilizes the capabilities of de novo genome assembly with assistance of a reference genome. The availability of the complete Taiwanese macaque mitogenome will facilitate the study of primate evolution and the characterization of genetic variations for the potential usage of this species as a non-human primate model for medical research.

  12. Cashing out: The decisional flexibility of uncertainty responses in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2014-10-01

    Researchers are exploring whether animals share with humans something like a metacognitive capacity. Though some results point to human-animal continuities in this domain, they face the dominant criticism that animals' performances might be associative. A persistent problem is that animal-metacognition paradigms present static environments of risk and reward that may foster inflexible and conditioned responding. Those environments do not challenge animals to show the flexibility in their decision strategies that could indicate an antecedent capacity to metacognition. Accordingly, we tested macaques and humans on an uncertainty-monitoring paradigm in which risk changed dynamically. Participants classified stimuli of different difficulties while also choosing when to use a cashout response to collect the accumulated rewards that would be forfeit on a discrimination error. Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans flexibly adjusted their decision criteria to achieve appropriate protection against the cost of error that could differ depending on trial difficulty and the number of rewards at risk. In particular, monkeys widened their cashout-response region as their accumulated rewards increased, providing more protection against a more costly error. These findings demonstrate a new continuity between humans' and animals' uncertainty systems. They reveal a calibration by macaques of present risk to trial difficulty tolerated. They show that animals' uncertainty-monitoring and risk-management systems have substantial trial-by-trial flexibility.

  13. Behavioural and pharmacokinetic studies in the monkey (Macaca mulatta) with diazepam, nordiazepam and related 1,4-benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, S H; Whelpton, R; Nicholson, A N; Wright, C M

    1977-11-01

    1. Behavioural activity (delayed differentiation and spatial delayed alternation) and pharmacokinetics of diazepam and its metabolites, N-desmethyldiazepam (nordiazepam), 3-hydroxydiazepam (temazepam) and 3-hydroxy-N-desmethyldiazepam (oxazepam), and of dipotassium clorazepate (clorazepate), were studied in the monkey (Macaca mulatta). Diazepam and its metabolites (1.8 and 3.0 mg/kg) and clorazepate (2.6 and 4.3 mg/kg) were given by intraperitoneal injection. 2. Hydroxylation of diazepam (temazepam and oxazepam) led to a loss of, or a considerable reduction in, behavioural activity, whereas activity was preserved, though modified, by demethylation (nordiazepam). It was not possible to establish change in behaviour at specific time intervals after clorazepate, but combined performance data revealed an effect. 3. The maximum mean plasma concentrations of diazepam, temazepam, oxazepam and clorazepate were observed at 0.5 h, and the maximum mean plasma concentration of nordiazepam was observed at 1 hour. Plasma concentrations of nordiazepam were the highest and decreased monoexponentially. Plasma concenqrations of the other drugs declined rapidly at first but more slowly later, and these data were analysed as biexponential models. In the analysis for metabolites, nordiazepam reached measurable levels after the injection of diazepam and clorazepate. 4. It is suggested that differences in the effects of closely related benzodiazepines may not be due solely to their plasma pharmacokinetic properties, but may arise from differences in their intrinsic activity.

  14. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) discriminate between knowing and not knowing and collect information as needed before acting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Robert R; Zivin, Aaron; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2004-10-01

    Humans use memory awareness to determine whether relevant knowledge is available before acting, as when we determine whether we know a phone number before dialing. Such metacognition, or thinking about thinking, can improve selection of appropriate behavior. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta) are capable of a simple form of metacognitive access to the contents of short-term memory. Monkeys chose among four opaque tubes, one of which concealed food. The tube containing the reward varied randomly from trial to trial. On half the trials the monkeys observed the experimenter baiting the tube, whereas on the remaining trials their view of the baiting was blocked. On each trial, monkeys were allowed a single chance to select the tube containing the reward. During the choice period the monkeys had the opportunity to look down the length of each tube, to determine if it contained food. When they knew the location of the reward, most monkeys chose without looking. In contrast, when ignorant, monkeys often made the effort required to look, thereby learning the location of the reward before choosing. Looking improved accuracy on trials on which monkeys had not observed the baiting. The difference in looking behavior between trials on which the monkeys knew, and trials on which they were ignorant, suggests that rhesus monkeys discriminate between knowing and not knowing. This result extends similar observations made of children and apes to a species of Old World monkey, suggesting that the underlying cognitive capacities may be widely distributed among primates.

  15. Generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning: learning strategies and related issues in Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, and Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2007-11-01

    The generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning was tested with a meta-analysis of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia) learning a same/different (S/D) task with expanding training sets. The generalization hypothesis states that as the number of training items increases, generalization from the training pairs will increase and could explain the subjects' accurate novel-stimulus transfer. By contrast, concept learning is learning the relationship between each pair of items; with more training items subjects learn more exemplars of the rule and transfer better. Having to learn the stimulus pairs (the generalization hypothesis) would require more training as the set size increases, whereas learning the concept might require less training because subjects would be learning an abstract rule. The results strongly support concept or rule learning despite severely relaxing the generalization-hypothesis parameters. Thus, generalization was not a factor in the transfer from these experiments, adding to the evidence that these subjects were learning the S/D abstract concept.

  16. 太行山猕猴掌面肤纹三角分布%Distribution of the triradius on the palms in Taihang Macaca mulatta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓进; 范红军; 靳想

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To report the characteristic of the triradius on the palms in the Taihang Macaca mulatto.. Methods: The sample comprised 31 individuals (8 males and 23 females) whose dermatoglyphics were completed and clear. The triradii on palms were taken with a digital camera or direct observation. Results : There constantly existed ten triradii on the palms in Macaca mulatto , and the average number of the triradius was 9. 1, and they ranged from 8 to 11. Conclusion: There is a significant difference in the position of palmar triradii between Macaca mulatto and other primates. Sex difference and bi-manual difference were not significant. The difference is mainly due to the evolution degree of primates, the development of palmar pad, the dermatoglyphic patterns and the printing procedure.%目的:了解太行山猕猴掌面三角的分布特征.方法:直接观察太行山猕猴掌面肤纹标本31例.结果:太行山猕猴掌面三角常出现的三角有10个,三角数目在8~11个之间,平均9.1个.结论:太行山猕猴掌面三角分布模式与其他灵长类掌面三角相比有差异.掌面三角性差和侧差无差异.造成这些差异的主要原因与灵长类动物进化程度、掌垫发育、花纹类型以及观察方法有关.

  17. 猕猴脱毛的营养学因素分析%Analysis on the Nutriology Parameters of Shed in Macaca mulatta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁帅尧; 和占龙; 陈丽雄; 赵远; 禹文海; 王俊斌; 杨凤梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To improve and prevent shed of Macaca mulatta by comparison and analysis the nutriology parameters. Methods Macaca mulatta was divided into A, B and C group according to condition of their hair. Hair and serum were collected to determine trace elements, amino acid and mineral in serum. Results The content of Mn, Zn, Pb and As in hair show extremely significant difference (P <0. 01 ), but no significant change in the content of Cu and Fe (P >0. 05). The content of Pro, Val, NH3, Arg, Tyr, Gystine, Phe, Lys, His and total amino acids in hair show extremely significant difference (P <0. 01 ). The content of trace element in serum was no big change, except Mg, P, Cu and Ca in A and B groups were higher than C group. Conclusion The quantity of Mn and Zn in addition maybe the reason caused Macaca mulatta shed. Gystine may improve and enhance the hair quantity; Ca, Mg, P and Cu possibly can affect the hair quantity in artificial raising Macaca mulatta when fed in high nutritional level.%目的 通过对猕猴脱毛的相关营养学指标的比较分析,为改善人工饲养猕猴脱毛状况及其防治提供参考数据.方法 根据被毛状况分组A、B、C,采集试验猴被毛和血清,测定其微量元素和氨基酸以及血清矿物元素,对各组相应指标进行比较分析.结果 各组试验猴被毛Cu、Fe含量无显著性差异(P>0.05),但Mn、Zn、Pb、As则均有极显著性差异(P0.05).A、B组的血清Mg、P、Cu和Ca的含量高于C组,其余矿物元素的含量基本一致.结论 Mn过量、Zn的供给不足可能是影响人工饲养猕猴被毛质量的因素;胱氨酸对改善猕猴被毛品质、提高被毛质量应该有一定作用;高营养水平的Ca、Mg、P和Cu可能会影响人工饲养的猕猴的被毛质量.

  18. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  19. High-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin injections induces metabolic syndrome in Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linzhao; Liao, Guangneng; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yanrong; Du, Xiaojiong; Liu, Jingping; Li, Lan; Wang, Chengshi; Li, Li; Ren, Yan; Zhong, Zhihui; Cheng, Jingqiu; Chen, Younan

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with abdominal obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of MetS, qualified animal models are currently seriously limited for researchers. The aim of our study was to develop a MetS model in juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Rhesus monkeys (1-year-old) fed a high-fat diet (15 % fat, 2 % cholesterol) were used as the HF group (n = 6), and those on a normal diet (5 % fat) were used as the control group (n = 4). After being fed a high-fat diet for approximately 12 months, 2 monkeys (HF + STZ group) were injected with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 25 mg/kg) twice, with a 7 days interval, and were then fed the same diet continuously for another 24 months. After 36 months of treatment, the high-fat diet monkeys, including the HF and HF + STZ groups, had acquired increased body weights, abnormal serum lipids, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to the control group. In addition, much more marked metabolic changes were observed in the two monkeys of the HF + STZ group, particularly in terms of high-blood glucose level and insulin resistance. Morphological observation of biopsies of liver and pancreatic tissues showed decreased islet number and mass and decreased insulin staining in the monkeys of the HF + STZ group. In addition, Oil red O staining suggested remarkable accumulation of lipid droplets in the hepatocytes. Our study suggested that a long-term high-fat diet followed with a low-dose STZ was able to induce MetS in juvenile rhesus monkeys with faster pathophysiological progress compared with high-fat diet induction alone. Our primary data showed that this method may have potentials to develop MetS animal model in non-human primates.

  20. Response of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Body of a Group Member That Died from a Fatal Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Jacqueline S.; Aure, Bonn; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L.; Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Among animals that form social bonds, the death of a conspecific may be a significant social event, representing the loss of an ally and resulting in disruptions to the dominance hierarchy. Despite this potential biological importance, we have only limited knowledge of animals' reactions to the death of a group member. This is particularly true of responses to dead adults, as most reports describe the responses of mothers to dead infants. Here, we describe in detail and provide video evidence of the behavioral responses of a group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immediately after the death of a mid-ranking adult male as a result of a fatal attack. High-ranking male members of the group, suspected to have carried out the attack, dragged and bit the dead body, exhibiting a rate of aggression 20 times greater than baseline levels. Lower-ranking individuals approached and inspected the body by looking closely, smelling, and grooming the fur. There was inconclusive evidence that these rhesus macaques found the death of a conspecific stressful: Levels of grooming between group members after the fatal attack were significantly higher than baseline levels, and higher than levels of grooming after nonfatal attacks. However, when grooming levels were adjusted based on the assumption that individuals positioned close to the body, i.e., those visible to researchers, were more likely to be engaged in grooming than those positioned farther away, this difference from baseline was no longer significant. The rate of self-directed behaviors after the fatal attack was also not different from baseline. Many of the behaviors we observed directed toward the body (aggression, inspection) have been previously reported in chimpanzees and geladas, and are similar to reactions sometimes displayed by humans. As such, this report represents a potentially valuable contribution the nascent field of nonhuman primate thanatology. PMID:23459587

  1. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance.

  2. Cloning and high level expression of the biologically active extracellular domain of Macaca mulatta CD40 in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengyun; Wan, Lin; Yang, Hao; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-03-01

    The CD40-mediated immune response contributes to a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. CD40 antagonists have potential as novel therapies for immune disorders. However, the CD40 pathway has not been well characterized in the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta, which is a valuable animal model for human immune disease. An 834 bp transcript was cloned from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rhesus monkey using specific primers designed according to the predicted sequence of M. mulatta CD40 (mmCD40) in GenBank. Sequence analysis demonstrated that mmCD40 is highly homologous to human CD40 (hCD40), with an amino acid sequence identity of 94%. Genes encoding the extracellular domain of mmCD40 and the Fc fragment of the hIgG1 were inserted into a pPIC9K plasmid to produce mmCD40Ig by Pichia pastoris. Approximately 15-20 mg of the mmCD40Ig protein with ∼90% purity could be recovered from 1 L of culture. The purified mmCD40Ig protein can form dimers and can specifically bind CD40L-positive cells. Additionally, the mmCD40Ig protein can bind hCD40L protein in phosphate buffered saline and form a stable combination in a size-exclusion chromatography assay using a Superdex 200 column. Moreover, mmCD40Ig is as efficient as M. mulatta CTLA4Ig (mmCTLA4Ig) to suppress Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, mmCD40Ig only showed mild immunosuppressive activity in a one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) system. These results suggest that mmCD40Ig secreted by P. pastoris was productive and functional, and it could be used as a tool for pathogenesis and therapies for chronic inflammatory diseases in a M. mulatta model.

  3. Comparison of Indoor Air Quality between 2 Ventilation Strategies in a Facility Housing Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monts de Oca, Nicole A; Laughlin, Mitzi; Jenkins, John; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Bolton, Iris D; Brammer, David W

    2015-09-01

    Adequate indoor-air quality (IAQ)--defined by the temperature, relative humidity, and the levels of carbon dioxide, small particles, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)--is crucial in laboratory animal facilities. The ventilation standards for controlling these parameters are not well defined. This study assessed the effect of 2 ventilation strategies on IAQ in 2 rooms housing rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We hypothesized that using a demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) system with a baseline ventilation rate of less than 3 fresh-air changes per hour (ACH) would maintain IAQ comparable to or better than the traditional constant flow rate (CFR) system at 12 fresh ACH. During a 60-d study period, each of the 2 rooms operated 30 d on DCV and 30 d on CFR ventilation. In both rooms, temperatures remained more consistently within the established setpoint during the DCV phase than during the CFR phase. Relative humidity did not differ significantly between rooms or strategies. CO₂ was lower during the CFR phase than DCV phase. Small-particle and TVOC levels were lower during CFR in the larger (3060 ft(3)) room but not the smaller (2340 ft(3)) room. During the DCV phase, the larger room was at the baseline airflow rate over 99% of the time and the smaller room over 96% of the time. The DCV strategy resulted in a baseline airflow rate of less than 3 ACH, which in turn provided acceptable IAQ over 96% of the time; higher ventilation rates were warranted only during sanitation periods.

  4. A comparative of G-banded chromosome of Assam Macaque (Macaca assamensis and relationship to human (Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunjongrat, R.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was the first to report a comparative analysis of G-banded chromosome of Assam macaque, Macaca assamensis (Primate, Cercopithecidae and relationship to human, Homo sapiens (Primate, Hominidae. Blood samples were taken from two males and two females held captive in Nakhonratchasima Zoo and Songkla Zoo. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37ºC for 72 hr in presence of colchicine, metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. G-banding technique was applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosomes of Assam macaque was 2n = 42. The type of autosomes are 18 metacentric and 22 submetacentric chromosomes. In addition, a pair of short arm chromosome 13 showed clearly observable satellite chromosome. X-chromosome was the submetacentric and Y chromosome was the smallest telocentric chromosome. We found that chromosome 5, 12, 13, 19 and X had the same G-banding patterns as those of human chromosomes. The short arm of chromosome 13 is similar to the chromosome 22 of human as indicated by G-banding techniques. In addition, the long arm of chromosome 13 is similar to the chromosome 15 of human. These results indicate that the chromosome 13 of the Assam macaque was split into 2 chromosomes. Chromosome 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 17 and 20 are similar to those of human chromosomes. This study suggest that the chromosome 1 is a pericentric inversion of human chromosome 1. Chromosomes 2, 4, 15, 16, 18 and Y are different from those of human chromosomes. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the Assam macaque and human.

  5. Ordered recall in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta: Can monkeys recall the correct order of sequentially presented images?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E O'Neil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta are capable of identifying sequentially shown images in any order among distractors (i.e. images not part of the list sequence. We investigated ordered recall in rhesus monkeys in which subjects were expected to recognize the correct order of images during a “test” phase (simultaneous presentation of images after they had seen the images presented sequentially in a “presentation” phase (sequential presentation of images. If subjects were successfully able to execute the ordered recall task, the first trial accuracy data would appear close to 100% accuracy and it would only take one day to learn the list since the lists used were short, 3-item lists. While this study did not conclusively demonstrate monkeys are capable of ordered recall of sequentially presented, trial unique images (i.e. a list sequence presented only once per session, the data suggests that when the stimuli are not trial unique the monkeys treat each sequence as a simultaneous chaining task. A simultaneous chaining paradigm entails simultaneous presentation of all items without any previous sequential presentation of the images. It is unclear whether results resembling simultaneous chaining are seen because these animals have previous experience with simultaneous chaining, if the training procedure needs to be modified for the monkeys to understand the task, or if the task is beyond their cognitive abilities. Further research with serial learning will clarify this finding and also seek to prove whether rhesus monkeys are in fact capable of such ordered recall tasks.

  6. Nucleotide sequence of the BamHI repetitive sequence, including the HindIII fundamental unit, as a possible mobile element from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassolov, V S; Kuchino, Y; Nemoto, K; Nishimura, S

    1986-01-01

    Clustered repeat units produced by BamHI digestion of genomic DNA from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata [JMr(BamHI)] were sequenced by dideoxy DNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences of several individual repeats showed that the BamHI repeat contains the 170-bp HindIII element as an integral part, and that it has more than 90% homology with the HindIII repeat element [AGMr(HindIII)] found in the genomic DNA of the African green monkey. In the JMr(BamHI) repeat unit, the 170-bp HindIII element is flanked by a 6-bp inverted repeat, which is part of a 22-bp direct repeat. This latter repeat of 22-bp asymmetrically overlaps the border between the internal AGMr(HindIII)-like region and adjacent regions of the JMr(BamHI) repeat. A similar structural feature of the BamHI repeat unit has been found in the genomic DNA of the baboon, but not in that of the African green monkey. These results show clearly that the BamHI repeat of the modern Japanese monkey originated as a result of insertion of an AGMr(HindIII) element into a certain site(s) of the genomic DNA of an ancestor of the modern Japanese monkey before Macaca-Cercocebus divergence.

  7. Antennulary sensory organs in cyprids of Octolasmis and Lepas (Crustacea: Thecostraca: Cirripedia: Thoracica): a scanning electron microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomsterberg, Mikkel; Høeg, Jens T; Jeffries, William B

    2004-01-01

    Cypris larvae of the pedunculate barnacles Octolasmis angulata (Poecilasmatidae), Lepas australis, L. pectinata, and Dosima fascicularis (Lepadidae) were studied with scanning electron microscopy, focusing on the sensory setae and the attachment disc on the antennules. The antennules of O. angulata...... did not exhibit any remarkable trait, but carry the same number of setae as seen in most other thoracicans. The third segment is bell-shaped and quite distinct from the second and its attachment disc is surrounded by a skirt. We found several potential synapomorphies in antennulary morphology between...... there is only a single PS3; the third segment consists almost entirely of the attachment disc, which is distended and surrounded by two parallel rows of radial setae; on the fourth segment the terminal seta E is diminutive. We found no traits in cyprids of Octolasmis that seem to be adaptations...

  8. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  9. A Unilateral Cervical Spinal Cord Contusion Injury Model in Non-Human Primates (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salegio, Ernesto A; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Sparrey, Carolyn J; Camisa, William; Fischer, Jason; Leasure, Jeremi; Buckley, Jennifer; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S; Rosenzweig, Ephron S; Moseanko, Rod; Strand, Sarah; Hawbecker, Stephanie; Lemoy, Marie-Josee; Haefeli, Jenny; Ma, Xiaokui; Nielson, Jessica L; Edgerton, V R; Ferguson, Adam R; Tuszynski, Mark H; Beattie, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    The development of a non-human primate (NHP) model of spinal cord injury (SCI) based on mechanical and computational modeling is described. We scaled up from a rodent model to a larger primate model using a highly controllable, friction-free, electronically-driven actuator to generate unilateral C6-C7 spinal cord injuries. Graded contusion lesions with varying degrees of functional recovery, depending upon pre-set impact parameters, were produced in nine NHPs. Protocols and pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to optimize the predictability of outcomes by matching impact protocols to the size of each animal's spinal canal, cord, and cerebrospinal fluid space. Post-operative MRI confirmed lesion placement and provided information on lesion volume and spread for comparison with histological measures. We evaluated the relationships between impact parameters, lesion measures, and behavioral outcomes, and confirmed that these relationships were consistent with our previous studies in the rat. In addition to providing multiple univariate outcome measures, we also developed an integrated outcome metric describing the multivariate cervical SCI syndrome. Impacts at the higher ranges of peak force produced highly lateralized and enduring deficits in multiple measures of forelimb and hand function, while lower energy impacts produced early weakness followed by substantial recovery but enduring deficits in fine digital control (e.g., pincer grasp). This model provides a clinically relevant system in which to evaluate the safety and, potentially, the efficacy of candidate translational therapies.

  10. The sweetness-inducing effect of miraculin; behavioural and neurophysiological experiments in the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, J N; Glaser, D; Hard Af Segerstad, C; Hellekant, G; Ninomiya, Y; Van der Wel, H

    1983-04-01

    1. The gustatory effects of miraculin, the sweetness-inducing protein from the miracle fruit Synsepalum dulcificum, was studied in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta.2. The intake of five acids was recorded in two-bottle preference tests, one bottle containing acid and the other tap water, before and after miraculin treatment. All the acids tasted more pleasant after miraculin.3. The electrical activity of the chorda tympani nerve to stimulation of the tongue with a variety of sweeteners, acids, sodium chloride and quinine hydrochloride was recorded in anaesthetized animals.4. Pre-treatment of the tongue with 0.3-5 mg miraculin doubled the summated nerve response to the acids and diminished the response to sucrose by about 10%. The enhancement lasted for at least an hour and the diminution up to 20 min.5. After miraculin treatment the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the order of increased intake of acids and the order of enhancement of the summated nerve response was 0.99.6. A solution of 0.1 mg miraculin per ml. elicited a weak nerve response. No preference over water for this concentration of miraculin was recorded in the two-bottle tests.7. The activity of twenty-nine single taste fibres, selected for their responsiveness to sweetness or acids or both, was recorded after miraculin treatment. Effects were obtained in nine fibres which were similar but more pronounced than those observed in the summated recordings. Before miraculin, these fibres responded better and to a larger variety of sweeteners (81%) than the other fibres (40%). After miraculin, acids elicited on the average 2.3 times more activity than before, while the response to sweeteners was depressed. In twenty fibres no effect of miraculin was observed. These fibres responded to fewer of the sweeteners and were more stimulated by the non-sweet stimuli than the first group.8. The results suggest that miraculin acts on those structures in the taste cell membrane that are involved in

  11. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Dettmer

    Full Text Available Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous, to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1, in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1, and in peak lactation (LACT2. We also assessed infants' neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02, but only in primiparous monkeys (p<0.001. HPCs declined across pregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (p<0.01, and primiparous monkeys had higher HPCs overall than multiparous monkeys (p=0.02. Infants of primiparous mothers had lower sensorimotor reflex scores (p=0.02 and tended to be more irritable (p=0.05 and less consolable (p=0.08 in the first month of life. Moreover, across all subjects, HCCs in PREG2/LACT1 were positively correlated with irritability (r(s=0.43, p=0.03 and negatively correlated with sensorimotor scores (r(s=-0.41, p=0.04. Together, the present results indicate that primiparity influences both chronic maternal hormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in

  12. Testing for localized stimulus enhancement and object movement reenactment in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and young children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Marco M; Custance, Deborah M; Previde, Emanuela Prato; Spiezio, Caterina

    2005-08-01

    Four puzzle boxes were used to investigate localized stimulus enhancement and object movement reenactment (OMR) in 13 pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and 30 human infants (Homo sapiens). Participants received contrasting demonstrations on each box. A circular lid was gripped by its rim or handle and swiveled to the left or right. A flap door was pushed or flipped. A sliding lid was pushed to the left or right. A pin bolt was demonstrated being pushed down, or the participants were left to solve the puzzle for themselves. Despite the fact that the monkeys watched the demonstrations about 60% of the time, only a weak OMR effect was found on the sliding lid. In contrast, the children watched significantly more, and there was clear evidence of socially mediated learning on all of the boxes.

  13. Automated recording of individual performance and hand preference during joystick-task acquisition in group-living bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M W; Rosenblum, L A

    1994-12-01

    A microchip that provided a unique identification number was injected into each forearm of all 8 members of a bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) social group. The group was then given computer-controlled joystick tasks of increasing difficulty. The identification number of the arm used on each trial was input into the computer and used to determine individual performance and hand preference in more than 23,000 trials. Three subjects reversed hand preference as task difficulty was increased over time. All subjects exhibited nearly exclusive use of a single hand on the most difficult task; 6 used the right hand, and 2 used the left. Daily patterns of joystick activity for the group members differed somewhat from that of our individually housed monkeys.

  14. Genotyping of TRIM5 locus in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina, a primate species susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xue-Long

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig-tailed macaques are the only Old World monkeys known to be susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. We have previously reported that the TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp fusion in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina is dysfunctional in restricting HIV-1, which may explain why pig-tailed macaques are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Similar results have also been reported by other groups. However, according to the current primate taxonomy, the previously reported M. nemestrina are further classified into three species, which all belong to the Macaca spp. This calls for the need to look into the previous studies in more details. Results The local species Northern pig-tailed macaque (M. leonina was analyzed for the correlation of TRIM5 structure and HIV-1 infection. Eleven M. leonina animals were analyzed, and all of them were found to possess TRIM5-CypA fusion at the TRIM5 locus. The transcripts encoding the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA should result from the G-to-T mutation in the 3'-splicing site of intron 6. Polymorphism in the putative TRIMCyp recognition domain was observed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of M. leonina were susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Consistent with the previous results, expression of the M. leonina TRIMCyp in HeLa-T4 cells rendered the cells resistant to HIV-2ROD but not to SIVmac239 infection. Conclusion The susceptibility of M. leonina to HIV-1 infection is due to the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA fusion in the TRIM5 locus. This finding should broaden our perspective in developing better HIV/AIDS non-human primate animal models.

  15. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  17. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  18. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. 太行山猕猴研究进展与展望%Research Advances and Prospects for Macaca mualatta tcheliensis in the Taihangshan Mountains Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路纪琪; 王好峰; 谢东明

    2009-01-01

    Rhesus macaques are found ubiquitously throughout Asia, from Afghanistan to India and Thailand to southern China. They are used for an extraordinary range of biomedical and basic research. Due to their close genetic, physiologic, and metabolic similarity to humans, this species serves as an essential research tool in neuroscience, behavioral biology, reproductive physiology, neuroendocrinology, endocrinology, cardiovascular studies, pharmacology, and many other areas. Macaca mulatta tcheliensis, an endemic subspecies of rhesus macaque to China, are distributed mainly in the southern parts of the Taihangshan and Zhongtiaoshan Mountains area which was the northernmost range of rhesus macaque. These macaques, referred to as the Taihangshan macaque, live in secondary deciduous forests at elevations between 300 m and 1200 m (984 ft and 3937 ft) with a temperate climate and cold, snowy winters similar to the climate of the central, midwestern United States. Rhesus macaque are categorized into Grade II in the list Chinese Key protected animal species. Since early the 1980s, researchers had conducted some works on its population and distribution, morphology (including general morphology and skeleton morphology), ecology, microbiology, diseases, and other fields. In this article, we summarized those published works, and outlined further research needs to be done in the future. We aim to promote effective and long-term conservation on Taihangshan macaques.%猕猴广泛分布于从阿富汗到泰国和中国南部的亚洲地区.分布于中国的猕猴有6个亚种.太行山猕猴为猕猴华北亚种Macaca mulatta tcheliensis,系中国所特有,目前仅分布于河南、山西两省交界的太行山和中条山南端地区,为世界野生猕猴分布最北的种群.自20世纪80年代初期开始,学者们在数量与分布、形态学(包括普通形态学、骨骼系统形态学)、生态学、微观生物学、疾病、实验技术等方面,对太行山猕猴展开了

  20. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Simian Foamy Virus Isolate from a Cynomolgus Macaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Koji; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete proviral genome sequence (DDBJ/ENA/GenBank accession no. LC094267) of a simian foamy virus, SFVmfa/Cy5061, isolated from a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). This proviral genome consists of 12,965 nucleotides and has five open reading frames, gag, pol, env, tas, and bet, as with other foamy viruses. PMID:27908992

  1. AcEST: DK952472 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CFA Protein FAM50B OS=Macaca fascicularis GN=F... 30 6.7 sp|P97399|DSPP_MOUSE Dentin sialophosphoprotein OS=... 106 EQEHRRERKRKISCLSFALDDLDDQADA 133 >sp|P97399|DSPP_MOUSE Dentin sialophosphoprotein OS=Mus musculus GN=Ds

  2. Dicty_cDB: SSM115 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 BC059257_1( BC059257 |pid:none) Mus musculus MYC binding protein 2... 167 3e-40 AY325887_1( AY325887 |pid:...none) Mus musculus highwire (Phr1) mRNA,... 167 4e-40 AB172733_1( AB172733 |pid:none) Macaca fascicularis br

  3. Aerosol measles vaccination in macaques: Preclinical studies of immune responses and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); T. Kuiken (Thijs); J. Fernandez-de Castro (Jorge); M.J. Papania (Mark); J.V. Bennett (John); J.L. Valdespino (José); P.D. Minor; C.L. Witham (Clyde); S. Yüksel (Selma); H.W. Vos (Helma); G. van Amerongen (Geert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe comparative efficacy and safety of measles vaccination via the aerosol route versus subcutaneous injection has not been fully resolved. We vaccinated cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with the live-attenuated Edmonston-Zagreb measles virus (MV) vaccine and compared different r

  4. The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pain, A; Böhme, U; Berry, A E

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is an intracellular malaria parasite whose natural vertebrate host is Macaca fascicularis (the 'kra' monkey); however, it is now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in southeast Asia. Plasmodium knowlesi was the first malaria parasite ...

  5. Use of Anthrax Vaccine in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009 (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 59, Number RR-6, July 23, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    et al. Pathology of inhalation anthrax in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Lab Invest 2003;83:1201–9. 113. Stearns- Kurosawa DJ, Lupu F...Taylor Jr FB, Kinasewitz G, Kurosawa S. Sepsis and pathophysiology of anthrax in a nonhuman primate model. Am J Pathol 2006;169:433–44. 114

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0676 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0676 sp|Q9BDS7|GPR15_MACFA G-protein coupled receptor 15 gb|AAK25741.1...|AF291670_1 orphan seven transmembrane receptor GPR15 [Macaca fascicularis] Q9BDS7 1e-103 56% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1054 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1054 sp|Q9BDS7|GPR15_MACFA G-protein coupled receptor 15 gb|AAK25741.1...|AF291670_1 orphan seven transmembrane receptor GPR15 [Macaca fascicularis] Q9BDS7 0.0 87% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-1442 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-1442 sp|Q9BDS7|GPR15_MACFA G-protein coupled receptor 15 gb|AAK25741.1...|AF291670_1 orphan seven transmembrane receptor GPR15 [Macaca fascicularis] Q9BDS7 1e-167 80% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1077 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1077 sp|Q9BDS7|GPR15_MACFA RecName: Full=G-protein coupled receptor 15... gb|AAK25741.1|AF291670_1 orphan seven transmembrane receptor GPR15 [Macaca fascicularis] Q9BDS7 1e-176 77% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-05-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-05-0030 sp|Q9BDS7|GPR15_MACFA G-protein coupled receptor 15 gb|AAK25741.1...|AF291670_1 orphan seven transmembrane receptor GPR15 [Macaca fascicularis] Q9BDS7 5e-52 40% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1392 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1392 sp|Q9BDS7|GPR15_MACFA G-protein coupled receptor 15 gb|AAK25741.1...|AF291670_1 orphan seven transmembrane receptor GPR15 [Macaca fascicularis] Q9BDS7 1e-169 81% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-02-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-02-0010 sp|Q9BDS7|GPR15_MACFA G-protein coupled receptor 15 gb|AAK25741.1...|AF291670_1 orphan seven transmembrane receptor GPR15 [Macaca fascicularis] Q9BDS7 0.0 98% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-02-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-02-0030 sp|Q9BDS8|CCR3_MACFA C-C chemokine receptor type 3 (C-C CKR-3) (C...C-CKR-3) (CCR-3) (CCR3) (CKR3) (CD193 antigen) gb|AAK25739.1| chemokine receptor CCR3 [Macaca fascicularis] Q9BDS8 0.0 98% ...

  14. GenBank blastx search result: AK110106 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110106 002-161-A03 AB179164.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA clone: QtsA-14001, similar to human huntingt...in interacting protein 1 (HIP1), mRNA, RefSeq: NM_005338.4.|PRI PRI 2e-51 +1 ...

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10835-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC004512_16( AC004512 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1... 35 9.3 AY650356_1( AY650356 |pid:none) Macaca fascicularis reel...in mRNA, p... 35 9.3 AY161283_1( AY161283 |pid:none) Heterodera glycines heat shock

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSE787 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 298 |pid:none) Macaca fascicularis ribosomal prot... 74 2e-12 AB374952_1( AB37495...2 |pid:none) Solea senegalensis RPL17 mRNA for ... 74 2e-12 protein update 2009. 7.31 PSORT psg: 0.75 gvh: 0

  17. GenBank blastx search result: AK106998 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106998 002-120-B12 AB179082.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA clone: QtsA-12630, similar to human oculocer...ebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL), transcriptvariant a, mRNA, RefSeq: NM_000276.3.|PRI PRI 1e-29 +3 ...

  18. GenBank blastx search result: AK059494 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059494 001-028-H05 AB179082.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA clone: QtsA-12630, similar to human oculocer...ebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL), transcriptvariant a, mRNA, RefSeq: NM_000276.3.|PRI PRI 7e-40 +2 ...

  19. UniProt search blastx result: AK288787 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288787 J090069N24 Q4R538|TBA1B_MACFA Tubulin alpha-1B chain (Tubulin alpha-ubiquitous... chain) (Alpha-tubulin ubiquitous) (Tubulin K-alpha-1) - Macaca fascicularis (Crab eating macaque) (Cynomolgus monkey) 0 ...

  20. GenBank blastx search result: AK058594 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058594 001-017-H01 AB169480.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA, clone: QtsA-21542, similar to human diaphor...ase (NADH) (cytochrome b-5 reductase) (DIA1),transcript variant M, mRNA, RefSeq: NM_000398.3.|PRI PRI 7e-53 +3 ...

  1. GenBank blastx search result: AK103964 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103964 001-015-F12 AB169480.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA, clone: QtsA-21542, similar to human diaphor...ase (NADH) (cytochrome b-5 reductase) (DIA1),transcript variant M, mRNA, RefSeq: NM_000398.3.|PRI PRI 7e-53 +3 ...

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK105069 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105069 001-045-C01 AB169286.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA, clone: QtsA-18648, similar to human mortali...ty factor 4 like 2 (MORF4L2), mRNA, RefSeq: NM_012286.1.|PRI PRI 3e-20 +3 ...

  3. A macaque model for hantavirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, J; Gerding, M; Koeman, J P; Roholl, P J; van Amerongen, G; Jordans, H G; Niesters, H G; Osterhaus, A D

    1995-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with Puumala virus (strain Hällnäs), which causes nephropathia epidemica in humans in western Europe. During the first week after intratracheal inoculation, the monkeys exhibited signs of lethargy followed by mild proteinuria and

  4. Dicty_cDB: AFM791 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ts) Value AB170103_1( AB170103 |pid:none) Macaca fascicularis brain cDNA clo... 246 e-130 EU684308_1( EU6843...08 |pid:none) Exorista civilis heat shock protei... 275 e-125 ( P36415 ) RecName: Full=Heat shock cognate 70

  5. The aetiology of SARS: Koch's postulates fulfilled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractProof that a newly identified coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the primary cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) came from a series of studies on experimentally infected cynomolgus macaques (Macaca, fascicularis). SARS-CoV-infected

  6. Viral replication and development of specific immunity in macaques after infection with different measles virus strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. van Binnendijk (Rob); R.W.J. van der Heijden (Roger); G. van Amerongen (Geert); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractCynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with a wild type measles virus (MV) strain (MV-BIL). Following intratracheal inoculation with different infectious doses, the virus could be isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lung lavage cells, a

  7. GenBank blastx search result: AK110394 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available similar to human ceroid-lipofuscinosis, neuronal 2, late infantile(Jansky-Bielschowsky disease) (CLN2), mRNA, RefSeq: NM_000391.2.|PRI PRI 5e-22 +2 ... ...AK110394 002-165-E11 AB169876.1 Macaca fascicularis brain cDNA, clone: QflA-12618,

  8. Effect of cold and warm ischaemia on drug metabolism in isolated hepatocytes and slices from human and monkey liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olinga, Peter; Hof, I.H; de Jager, M.H; de Jong, Kurt; Slooff, M.JH; Meijer, D.K F; Groothuis, Geny; Merema, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    1. The influence of short-term cold storage in University of Wisconsin organ preservation solution (UW) on the ability to metabolize lidocaine, testosterone and 7-ethoxycoumarin in isolated human and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) hepatocytes and liver slices has been investigated. 2. The h

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1489 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1489 ref|NP_001123897.1| toll-like receptor 2 precursor [Macaca mulatt...a] sp|B3Y618|TLR2_MACMU RecName: Full=Toll-like receptor 2; AltName: CD_antigen=CD282; Flags: Precursor dbj|BAG55026.1| toll...-like receptor 2 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55027.1| toll-loke receptor 2 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123897.1 0.0 81% ...

  10. Refining the pole-and-collar method of restraint: emphasizing the use of positive training techniques with rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2014-01-01

    The pole-and-collar method is one of several techniques that enable the safe transfer of a nonhuman primate from its home environment into a restraint chair without the need for sedation. It has been used within the scientific community for decades. Traditional methods to train animals for pole-and-collar use rely primarily on aspects of negative reinforcement, with very little incorporation of positive-reinforcement techniques. With increasing emphasis on animal training and welfare, research facilities are incorporating positive-reinforcement training into husbandry and experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of training rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) to cooperate for pole-and-collar transfer to a primate restraint chair. By using predominantly positive-reinforcement techniques, with supplemental elements of negative reinforcement, macaques were trained in a mean of 85 training sessions (a mean of 1085 min of training time). We also provide tools for investigators using the pole-and-collar method to help them successfully incorporate positive-reinforcement training into their procedures. This refinement has the potential to improve animal welfare and enhance the value of nonhuman primate models in research.

  11. Social networks dynamics revealed by temporal analysis: An example in a non-human primate (Macaca sylvanus) in "La Forêt des Singes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Sebastian; Zhang, Peng; Cabanes, Guénaël

    2017-06-01

    This study applied a temporal social network analysis model to describe three affiliative social networks (allogrooming, sleep in contact, and triadic interaction) in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus. Three main social mechanisms were examined to determine interactional patterns among group members, namely preferential attachment (i.e., highly connected individuals are more likely to form new connections), triadic closure (new connections occur via previous close connections), and homophily (individuals interact preferably with others with similar attributes). Preferential attachment was only observed for triadic interaction network. Triadic closure was significant in allogrooming and triadic interaction networks. Finally, gender homophily was seasonal for allogrooming and sleep in contact networks, and observed in each period for triadic interaction network. These individual-based behaviors are based on individual reactions, and their analysis can shed light on the formation of the affiliative networks determining ultimate coalition networks, and how these networks may evolve over time. A focus on individual behaviors is necessary for a global interactional approach to understanding social behavior rules and strategies. When combined, these social processes could make animal social networks more resilient, thus enabling them to face drastic environmental changes. This is the first study to pinpoint some of the processes underlying the formation of a social structure in a non-human primate species, and identify common mechanisms with humans. The approach used in this study provides an ideal tool for further research seeking to answer long-standing questions about social network dynamics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals.

  13. Concentration of radiocesium in the wild Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata over the first 15 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichi Hayama

    Full Text Available Following the massive earthquake that struck eastern Japan on March 11, 2011, a nuclear reactor core meltdown occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company, and was followed by the release of large amounts of radioactive materials. The objective of this study was to measure the concentration of radiocesium (134Cs and (137Cs in the muscle of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City and to determine the change in concentration over time as well as the relationship with the level of soil contamination. Cesium concentrations in the muscle of monkeys captured at locations with 100,000-300,000 Bq/m(2 were 6,000-25,000 Bq/kg in April 2011 and decreased over 3 months to around 1,000 Bq/kg. However, the concentration increased again to 2,000-3,000 Bq/kg in some animals during and after December 2011 before returning to 1,000 Bq/kg in April 2012, after which it remained relatively constant. This pattern of change in muscle radiocesium concentration was similar to that of the change in radiocesium concentration in atmospheric fallout. Moreover, the monkeys feed on winter buds and the cambium layer of tree bark potentially containing higher concentrations of radiocesium than that in the diet during the rest of the year. The muscle radiocesium concentration in the monkeys related significantly with the level of soil contamination at the capture locations.

  14. Effects of Simian Betaretrovirus Serotype 1 (SRV1) Infection on the Differentiation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells (CD34+) Derived from Bone Marrow of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Nestor A; Todd, Patricia A; Yee, JoAnn; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral blood cytopenias, particularly persistent anemia and neutropenia, are commonly associated with simian betaretrovirus infection of Asian monkeys of the genus Macaca. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these hematologic abnormalities are not well understood. The current study investigated the in vitro tropism of simian betaretrovirus (SRV) for both hematopoietic progenitor (CD34+) and stromal cells obtained from rhesus macaque bone marrow and assessed the effects of infection on hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation in vitro. After in vitro exposure, SRV proviral DNA could be demonstrated by real-time PCR in cells and the reverse transcriptase assay in supernatants from SRV-exposed progenitor-associated stroma, but not in differentiated colonies derived from SRV-exposed progenitors. Furthermore, in vitro exposure involving cell–cell contact of uninfected CD34+ progenitor cells with SRV-infected stromal cells resulted in a statistically significant reduction in granulocyte–macrophage colony formation in absence of detectable SRV-infection of progenitor cells. Reduction in colony formation occurred in a ‘dose-dependent’ fashion with increasing contact time. No effects on erythroid lineages and RBC differentiation were noted. Our results suggest that hematologic abnormalities observed during SRV disease (natural or experimental) of rhesus macaques may not result from direct effects of viral infection of progenitor cell populations, but rather be (at least in part) a consequence of SRV infection of supportive bone marrow stroma with secondary effects on differentiation of associated progenitor cells. PMID:22330653

  15. Constitutive Release of IFNγ and IL2 from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Infected with Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, JoAnn L; Montiel, Nestor A; Ardeshr, Amir; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2013-01-01

    Simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV), the nonhuman primate counterparts of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), are endemic in many populations of African and Asian monkeys and apes. Although an etiologic link between STLV1 infection and lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphomas has been suggested in some nonhuman primate species, most STLV infections are inapparent, and infected animals remain clinically healthy. The retroviral transactivator, tax, is well known to increase transcription of viral and cellular genes, resulting in altered cytokine profiles. This study compared the cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from 25 STLV1-seropositive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with those of age- and sex-matched seronegative controls. IFNγ, TNFα, IL10, and IL2 levels in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants were measured at 24, 48, and 72 h by using enzyme immunoassays. IFNγ concentrations were found significantly higher in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of seropositive monkeys as compared with seronegative controls. In addition, although IL2 concentrations were not significantly elevated in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of all seropositive monkeys as compared with all seronegative controls, IL2 levels were increased in a subset of 5 pairs. Increased constitutive cytokine release occurred in the absence of spontaneous proliferation. The increased constitutive release of IFNγ and IL2 suggests that STLV1 alters immune functions in infected but clinically healthy rhesus macaques and further characterizes STLV1 infection of rhesus macaques as a potential model for human HTLV1 infection. PMID:24326227

  16. Study of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of attenuated and killed Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta model of the human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VF Amaral

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We have compared the efficacy of two Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines, one genetically attenuated (DHFR-TS deficient organisms, the other inactivated [autoclaved promastigotes (ALM with bacillus Calmete-Guérin (BCG], in protecting rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta against infection with virulent L. (L. major. Positive antigen-specific recall proliferative response was observed in vaccinees (79% in attenuated parasite-vaccinated monkeys, versus 75% in ALM-plus-BCG-vaccinated animals, although none of these animals exhibited either augmented in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-g production or positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to the leishmanin skin test prior to the challenge. Following challenge, there were significant differences in blastogenic responses (p < 0.05 between attenuated-vaccinated monkeys and naïve controls. In both vaccinated groups very low levels of antibody were found before challenge, which increased after infective challenge. Protective immunity did not follow vaccination, in that monkeys exhibited skin lesion at the site of challenge in all the groups. The most striking result was the lack of pathogenicity of the attenuated parasite, which persisted in infected animals for up to three months, but were incapable of causing disease under the conditions employed. We concluded that both vaccine protocols used in this study are safe in primates, but require further improvement for vaccine application.

  17. The utility of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta and other non-human primate models for preclinical testing of Leishmania candidate vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Grimaldi Jr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis causes significant morbidity and mortality, constituting an important global health problem for which there are few effective drugs. Given the urgent need to identify a safe and effective Leishmania vaccine to help prevent the two million new cases of human leishmaniasis worldwide each year, all reasonable efforts to achieve this goal should be made. This includes the use of animal models that are as close to leishmanial infection in humans as is practical and feasible. Old world monkey species (macaques, baboons, mandrills etc. have the closest evolutionary relatedness to humans among the approachable animal models. The Asian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are quite susceptible to leishmanial infection, develop a human-like disease, exhibit antibodies to Leishmania and parasite-specific T-cell mediated immune responses both in vivo and in vitro, and can be protected effectively by vaccination. Results from macaque vaccine studies could also prove useful in guiding the design of human vaccine trials. This review summarizes our current knowledge on this topic and proposes potential approaches that may result in the more effective use of the macaque model to maximize its potential to help the development of an effective vaccine for human leishmaniasis.

  18. Use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography to aid in diagnosing intestinal adenocarcinoma in 2 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporizzo, Debra J; Kwiatkowski, Anna E; Chen, Ming-Kai; Beck, Amanda P; Booth, Carmen J; Zeiss, Caroline; Smith, Peter C; Carlson Scholz, Jodi A; Wilson, Steven R

    2014-06-01

    Two aged female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) presented with weight loss and intermittent inappetence. The signalment and constellation of clinical signs led clinicians to suspect the presence of intestinal adenocarcinoma. Because of each animal's advanced age and inconclusive radiographic findings, a noninvasive diagnostic tool was preferred over exploratory laparotomy to assist in determining a diagnosis. Consequently, 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-CT (FDG-PET-CT) was chosen to aid in confirming a suspicion of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in both animals. FDG is a glucose analogue labeled with fluorine-18 and is taken up by highly metabolically active cells, as observed in many cancers. Tomography revealed an annular constriction of the small intestine with focal FDG uptake in one animal, and an FDG avid transmural mass in the ascending colon of the second animal. Necropsy later confirmed both sites to be adenocarcinomas. This report supports the use of FDG-PET-CT as an adjunct to conventional radiography in the diagnosis of intestinal adenocarcinoma in nonhuman primates.

  19. The Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopithecidae: conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus is a threatened species inhabiting the rainforests of the Western Ghats mountain range in southern India. Once assessed to be less than a thousand individuals remaining in the wild habitats, the population is now estimated to be between 3000 and 3500 individuals. However, the rainforest habitats of the species are highly fragmented. During the past three decades or less, the population of this species has severely declined due to habitat degradation and illegal hunting in several areas of its occurrence. In situ conservation programs included notification of certain areas as Lion-tailed Macaque conservation regions. Several captive breeding programs have been initiated in order to have a viable captive population of the species. However, the analysis reveals that both in situ and ex situ conservation programs have not achieved the desired success and the species is even more endangered than it was a few decades ago. In this article, we discuss these conservation programs and suggest further measures for effective conservation of Lion-tailed Macaques.

  20. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  1. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  2. Symptomatic dermographism (factitious urticaria)--passive transfer experiments from human to monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, G M; Zollman, P E; Greaves, M W; Winkelmann, R K

    1987-06-01

    Passive transfer experiments were carried out on three species of monkey, Macaca mulatta, Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis, using human serum from patients affected with severe symptomatic dermographism (factitious urticaria), cholinergic urticaria, chronic idiopathic urticaria and normal subjects. The monkeys were tested for dermographism by means of a calibrated dermographometer 24 h after intradermal injection of the serum, using Evans blue as a marker. Positive responses were seen initially in the M. nemestrina. Four sites injected with serum from patients with severe symptomatic dermographism gave positive responses, one site injected with serum from a normal subject produced a faint response. One of the four responses was reproduced one month later in M. fascicularis. These results indicate that passive transfer of dermographism is possible from human to monkey.

  3. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease.

  4. Behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta is related to the airways response, but not immune measures, commonly associated with asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Chun

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition reflects a disposition to react warily to novel situations, and has been associated with atopic diseases such as asthma. Retrospective work established the relationship between behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and airway hyperresponsiveness, but not atopy, and the suggestion was made that behavioral inhibition might index components of asthma that are not immune-related. In the present study, we prospectively examined the relationship between behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and whether hormonal and immune measures often associated with asthma were associated with behavioral inhibition and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. In a sample of 49 yearling rhesus monkeys (mean=1.25 years, n=24 behaviorally inhibited animals, we measured in vitro cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ in response to stimulation, as well as peripheral blood cell percentages, cortisol levels, and percentage of regulatory T-cells (CD3+CD4+CD25+FOXP3+. Airway reactivity was assessed using an inhaled methacholine challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the proportion of immune cells was determined. Behaviorally inhibited monkeys had airway hyperresponsiveness as indicated by the methacholine challenge (p=0.031, confirming our earlier retrospective result. Airway hyperresponsiveness was also associated with lower lymphocyte percentages in lavage fluid and marginally lower plasma cortisol concentrations. However, none of the tested measures was significantly related to both behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and so could not mediate their relationship. Airway hyperresponsiveness is common to atopic and non-atopic asthma and behavioral inhibition has been related to altered autonomic activity in other studies. Our results suggest that behavioral inhibition might index an autonomically mediated reactive airway phenotype, and that a variety of stimuli (including inflammation within

  5. The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus): Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Anne; Majolo, Bonaventura; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Social animals have to coordinate activities and collective movements to benefit from the advantages of group living. Animals in large groups maintain cohesion by self-organization processes whereas in smaller groups consensus decisions can be reached. Where consensus decisions are relevant leadership may emerge. Variation in the organization of collective movements has been linked to variation in female social tolerance among macaque species ranging from despotic to egalitarian. Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism). Thus, in our study group partially shared consensus decisions mediated by selective mimetism seemed to be prevalent, overall supporting the suggestion that a species' social style affects the organization of group movements. As only the most tolerant species show equally shared consensus decisions whereas in others the decision is partially shared with a bias to dominant individuals the type of consensus decisions seems to follow a stepwise relation. Joining order may also follow a stepwise, however opposite, relationship, because dominance only determined joining in highly despotic, but not in intermediate and

  6. The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus: Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Seltmann

    Full Text Available Social animals have to coordinate activities and collective movements to benefit from the advantages of group living. Animals in large groups maintain cohesion by self-organization processes whereas in smaller groups consensus decisions can be reached. Where consensus decisions are relevant leadership may emerge. Variation in the organization of collective movements has been linked to variation in female social tolerance among macaque species ranging from despotic to egalitarian. Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism. Thus, in our study group partially shared consensus decisions mediated by selective mimetism seemed to be prevalent, overall supporting the suggestion that a species' social style affects the organization of group movements. As only the most tolerant species show equally shared consensus decisions whereas in others the decision is partially shared with a bias to dominant individuals the type of consensus decisions seems to follow a stepwise relation. Joining order may also follow a stepwise, however opposite, relationship, because dominance only determined joining in highly despotic, but not in

  7. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-09-18

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states.

  8. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, Lin; LEI, Ai-Hua; ZHENG, Hong-Yi; LYU, Long-Bao; ZHANG, Zhi-Gang; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states. PMID:26452693

  10. Study on the Dermatoglyphics of Taihang Macaca Mulatta*Ⅲ Palmar Patterns%太行猕猴掌面花纹研究*Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢芹; 赵晓进; 宛霞; 张红绪

    2001-01-01

    Epidermal patterns of palms of 32 Taihang Macaca Mulatta (16males and 16 females)were examined. We found that there were six kinds of pattern types in different areas. Refer to the dermatoglyph i- cs' opening direction and rotating direction, loops were mainly radialward while whorls ulnarward;On interdigital I,palmar patterns indicated their pecularity and complexity in percentile frequencies,print pattern and sexual difference;clustering the true pattern percentile frequencies of the five species of primates, the result conveyed that the print patterns and percentile frequencies were different in primates' different classification, it's one of the criterions to judge the morphological characteristics among different species.%本文对32只太行猕猴的掌面花纹进行观察。结果表明:有6种花纹分布在掌面的不同区域;纹路的开口方向和旋转方向,箕形纹以桡侧、斗形纹以尺侧居多;指间Ⅰ区花纹在花纹类型、分布频率和性别差异等方面表现出一定的特异性和复杂性;通过对5种非人灵长类定型花纹分布频率聚类,结果提示,肤纹类型和分布频率在灵长类不同分类阶元中有一定差异,是判别种间形态特征的依据之一。

  11. Maintaining social cohesion is a more important determinant of patch residence time than maximizing food intake rate in a group-living primate, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazahari, Nobuko

    2014-04-01

    Animals have been assumed to employ an optimal foraging strategy (e.g., rate-maximizing strategy). In patchy food environments, intake rate within patches is positively correlated with patch quality, and declines as patches are depleted through consumption. This causes patch-leaving and determines patch residence time. In group-foraging situations, patch residence times are also affected by patch sharing. Optimal patch models for groups predict that patch residence times decrease as the number of co-feeding animals increases because of accelerated patch depletion. However, group members often depart patches without patch depletion, and their patch residence time deviates from patch models. It has been pointed out that patch residence time is also influenced by maintaining social proximity with others among group-living animals. In this study, the effects of maintaining social cohesion and that of rate-maximizing strategy on patch residence time were examined in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). I hypothesized that foragers give up patches to remain in the proximity of their troop members. On the other hand, foragers may stay for a relatively long period when they do not have to abandon patches to follow the troop. In this study, intake rate and foraging effort (i.e., movement) did not change during patch residency. Macaques maintained their intake rate with only a little foraging effort. Therefore, the patches were assumed to be undepleted during patch residency. Further, patch residence time was affected by patch-leaving to maintain social proximity, but not by the intake rate. Macaques tended to stay in patches for short periods when they needed to give up patches for social proximity, and remained for long periods when they did not need to leave to keep social proximity. Patch-leaving and patch residence time that prioritize the maintenance of social cohesion may be a behavioral pattern in group-living primates.

  12. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS: A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Feczko

    Full Text Available Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD, has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS. Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological

  13. Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta living in urban and semi-rural North-West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Debenham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. are intestinal protozoa capable of infecting a range of host species, and are important causes of human morbidity and mortality. Understanding their epidemiology is important, both for public health and for the health of the animals they infect. This study investigated the occurrence of these protozoans in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta in India, with the aim of providing preliminary information on the potential for transmission of these pathogens between macaques and humans. Faecal samples (n = 170 were collected from rhesus macaques from four districts of North-West India. Samples were analysed for Giardia/Cryptosporidium using a commercially available direct immunofluorescent antibody test after purification via immunomagnetic separation. Positive samples were characterised by sequencing of PCR products. Occurrence of Entamoeba was investigated first by using a genus-specific PCR, and positive samples further investigated via species-specific PCRs for Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Giardia cysts were found in 31% of macaque samples, with all isolates belonging to Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 1 sample, however this sample did not result in amplification by PCR. Entamoeba spp. were found in 79% of samples, 49% of which were positive for E. coli. Multiplex PCR for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, did not result in amplification in any of the samples. Thus in 51% of the samples positive at the genus specific PCR, the Entamoeba species was not identified. This study provides baseline information on the potential for transmission of these zoonotic parasites at the wildlife-human interface.

  14. Histopathological changes of Macaca mulatta infected with Plasmodium knowlesi%恒河猴感染诺氏疟原虫的病理组织学变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林; 李国桥; 户耀增; 罗灼玲

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨诺氏疟原虫(Plasmodium knowlesi)感染恒河猴(Macaca mu1atta)引起有关脏器的病理组织学变 化。 方法病解3例感染疟原虫未经治疗病死的猴;2例感染疟原虫经青蒿琥酯(artesunate)栓剂治疗后又复发 的猴;1例感染疟原虫经磷酸哌喹(piperaquine phosphate)治愈后死于上肢坏死感染的猴。对有关脏器均进 行切片检查。 结果 3例(1号、7号和12号)未经治疗而病死的猴和1例(72号)虽经青蒿琥酯栓剂治疗但很快被排出 体外的猴的心、肝、脾、肺、肾、大小脑、胰腺、甲状旁腺、脑垂体和淋巴结等均有严重病变,含原虫的红细胞 和疟色素聚集于这些脏器的毛细血管内。1例(131号)经用哌喹治愈而死于上肢坏死的猴,除见多个脏器 内有色素沉积或被巨噬细胞吞噬外,可见胰岛细胞、甲状旁腺和垂体细胞萎缩和消失等病变。1例(33号) 用青蒿琥酯栓剂治疗后短期原虫转阴,但又复燃的猴被灌药致死,多个脏器所见与感染后未经治疗者明显 不同,仅见肝脏Kupffer细胞和大脑基质细胞内含原虫和疟色素,多个脏器均呈修复。 结论本文报导了诺氏疟原虫感染恒河猴后各有关脏器的病理组织学变化,特别是观察到胰岛细胞、甲状 旁腺和垂体细胞的萎缩和消失与心肌细胞的溶解是国内外文献所未记载过的。%Objective To study the histopathological changes of relevant intemal organs of Macaca mulatta infected with Plasmodium knowlesi ( P. knowlesi). Methods Histopathological examination of 3 monkeys who died of P. knowlesi infection, 2 P. knowlesi infected monkeys who died of treatment failure with artesunate suppository and 1 P. knowlesi infected monkey that was cured by piperaquine phosphate (PQP) but died of trauma and necrosis of the fore limb. Results The heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, pancreas, parathyriod, pituitary and lymph nodes showed severe

  15. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  16. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  17. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  18. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  19. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  20. The use of the external layer of the calvaria's frontal bone to repair craniofacial skeleton injuries in Macaca mulatta (Rhesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelo-Nunes José Mário

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the integration of the external layer of the calvaria's frontal bone to repair craniofacial skeleton injuries in primates. METHODS: Ten Rhesus monkeys underwent surgery in two stages. In the first stage, four bone fragments were harvested from the external layer of the calvaria's frontal bone and were transplanted two on the calvaria's frontal bone and the other two onto the maxillary bone, by onlay and inlay. Seven weeks thereafter, four fragments were extracted from the transplantated area. The animals were not sacrificed. RESULTS: Macroscopic examination reveals bone regeneration, the areas onto which the bone fragments were transplantated having consequently increased in volume. The results of optical and electron microscopy is being carried out.

  1. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  2. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  3. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  4. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  5. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical characterization of ameloblast-enamel adhesion at maturation stage in amelogenesis in Macaca fuscata tooth germ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Maturation-stage ameloblasts are firmly bound to the tooth enamel by a basal lamina-like structure. The mechanism underlying this adhesion, however, remains to be fully clarified. The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying adhesion between the basal lamina-like structure and the enamel in monkey tooth germ. High-resolution immunogold labeling was performed to localize amelotin and laminin 332 at the interface between ameloblasts and tooth enamel. Minute, electron-dense strands were observed on the enamel side of the lamina densa, extending into the degrading enamel matrix to produce a well-developed fibrous layer (lamina fibroreticularis). In un-demineralized tissue sections, mineral crystals smaller than those in the bulk of the enamel were observed adhering to these strands where they protruded into the surface enamel. Immunogold particles reactive for amelotin were preferentially localized on these strands in the fibrous layer. On the other hand, those for laminin 332 were localized solely in the lamina densa; none were observed in the fibrous layer. These results suggest that the fibrous layer of the basal lamina-like structure is partly composed of amelotin molecules, and that these molecules facilitate ameloblast-enamel adhesion by promoting mineralization of the fibrous layer during the maturation stage of amelogenesis.

  6. Alterations in the endometrium of rats, rabbits, and Macaca mulatta that received an implantation of copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu LX

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Li-Xia Hu,1,* Hong Wang,1,* Meng Rao,1,* Xiao-Ling Zhao,1 Jing Yang,1 Shi-Fu Hu,1 Jing He,1,2 Wei Xia,1 Hefang Liu,1 Bo Zhen,1 Haihong Di,1 Changsheng Xie,3 Xianping Xia,3 Changhong Zhu,11Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 2Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite (nano-Cu/LDPE, a potential intrauterine device component material, has been developed from our research. A logical extension of our previous work, this study was conducted to investigate the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, substance P (SP, and substance P receptor (SP-R in the endometrium of Sprague Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, and Macaca mulatta implanted with nano-Cu/LDPE composite. The influence of the nano-Cu/LDPE composite on the morphology of the endometrium was also investigated. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: the sham-operated control group (SO group, bulk copper group (Cu group, LDPE group, and nano-Cu/LDPE groups I and II. An expression of PAI-1, SP, and SP-R in the endometrial tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry at day 30, 60, 90, and 180 postimplantation. The significant difference for PAI-1, SP, and SP-R between the nano-Cu/LDPE groups and the SO group (P<0.05 was identified when the observation period was terminated, and the changes of nano-Cu/LDPE on these parameters were less remarkable than those of the Cu group (P<0.05. The damage to the endometrial morphology caused by the nano-Cu/LDPE composite was much less than that caused by bulk copper. The nano-Cu/LDPE composite might be a potential substitute for conventional materials for intrauterine

  7. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  8. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  9. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  10. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  11. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  12. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  13. Electronic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  14. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  15. Risk Factor Analysis May Provide Clues to Diarrhea Prevention in Outdoor-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRONGAY, KAMM; PARK, BYUNG; MURPHY, STEPHANIE J.

    2014-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of rhesus macaques at national primate research centers are housed outside. Annually, 15–39% of these animals experience diarrhea and require veterinary treatment for dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or weight loss. An estimated 21–33% of these patients will die or be euthanized. Many studies have explored the various infectious etiologies of non-human primate diarrhea. However, there is little published information on diarrhea incidence rates and risk factors in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques. Without this information, it is challenging to determine endemic and epidemic diarrhea levels, or to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies. Using electronic medical records, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to calculate diarrhea incidence rates for rhesus macaques (N = 3,181) housed in three different outdoor housing types (corrals, shelters, and temporary housing) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center between November 1, 2009 and October 31, 2010. With multiple logistic regression analysis, we determined the relative risk of housing type, sex, and age on development of diarrhea. Diarrhea incidence and mortality in our population was lower than many published ranges. Type of outdoor housing, age, and previous diarrhea episode were positively correlated with diarrhea risk. Younger animals in smaller shelters and temporary housing had a greater risk of acquiring diarrhea, with juvenile animals (0.7–3.9 years) having the highest mortality rate. Sex was not a risk factor, but adult females with diarrhea were more likely to develop life-threatening complications than adult males. We also constructed a predictive model for diarrhea-associated mortality using Classification and Regression Tree. Findings from this study will be used to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies in our outdoor-housed population and to provide a foundation for genetic susceptibility and immune function testing. PMID:23568382

  16. Risk factor analysis may provide clues to diarrhea prevention in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prongay, Kamm; Park, Byung; Murphy, Stephanie J

    2013-08-01

    Seventy-five percent of rhesus macaques at national primate research centers are housed outside. Annually, 15-39% of these animals experience diarrhea and require veterinary treatment for dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or weight loss. An estimated 21-33% of these patients will die or be euthanized. Many studies have explored the various infectious etiologies of non-human primate diarrhea. However, there is little published information on diarrhea incidence rates and risk factors in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques. Without this information, it is challenging to determine endemic and epidemic diarrhea levels, or to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies. Using electronic medical records, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to calculate diarrhea incidence rates for rhesus macaques (N = 3,181) housed in three different outdoor housing types (corrals, shelters, and temporary housing) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center between November 1, 2009 and October 31, 2010. With multiple logistic regression analysis, we determined the relative risk of housing type, sex, and age on development of diarrhea. Diarrhea incidence and mortality in our population was lower than many published ranges. Type of outdoor housing, age, and previous diarrhea episode were positively correlated with diarrhea risk. Younger animals in smaller shelters and temporary housing had a greater risk of acquiring diarrhea, with juvenile animals (0.7-3.9 years) having the highest mortality rate. Sex was not a risk factor, but adult females with diarrhea were more likely to develop life-threatening complications than adult males. We also constructed a predictive model for diarrhea-associated mortality using Classification and Regression Tree. Findings from this study will be used to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies in our outdoor-housed population and to provide a foundation for genetic susceptibility and immune function testing.

  17. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  18. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  19. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  20. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  1. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  2. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  3. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  4. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  5. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  6. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  7. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  8. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically ... See Cwele v S 2012 4 All SA 497 (SCA); Mohlabeng v Minister of Safety and Security ... ZAKZPHC 51 (2 September 2010); Delta Finance, a Division of Wesbank, ...

  9. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  10. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  11. 圈养猕猴肠道寄生虫感染情况调查%Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Captive Macaques ( Macaca mulatt )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金凤; 齐萌; 王鹤磊; 冯超; 张龙现

    2011-01-01

    为了解圈养猕猴肠道寄生虫感染情况,采用卢戈氏碘液染色法、饱和蔗糖溶液漂浮法和改良抗酸染色法对广西、河南和四川的3个猕猴养殖场共346份新鲜猕猴粪便进行检查.结果显示,寄生虫总感染率为51.4%(178/346),共栓出6种肠道寄生虫:阿米巴原虫、球虫、贾第虫、鞭虫、类圆线虫和钩虫,感染率分别为39.6%、0.9%、0.3%、22.8%、3.2%、2.3%;河南、广西和四川圈养猕猴肠道寄生虫感染率分别为89.2%、42.2%和35.0%,地区之间差异达极显著水平,均以阿米巴原虫和鞭虫为主要感染虫种;0~1岁、1~3岁和3~5岁猕猴感染率分别为96.4%、47.4%和51.3%.%To understand the prevalence of intestinal parasites in macaques (Macaca mulatt), a total of 346 fresh fecal samples from three farms in Guangxi, Henan and Sichuan provinces were examined for the presence of (oo)cysts using Lugol's iodine solution stain method, Shether's sugar floatation technique,and modified acid-fast stain method.The results showed that the overall infection rate of parasites was 51.4% (178/346).Six species of parasites were detected, including amebic protozoa, coccidian,Giardia sp.,whipworm, threadworm, and hook worm, with the prevalence rate being 39.6%, 0.9%, 0.3%, 22.8%, 3.2%, and 2.3%, respectively.The infection rate of parasites was 89.2%, 42.2%, and 35.0% in Henan, Guangxi and Sichuan, respectively (P<0.01), with the amebic protozoa and whipworm being the major species of parasite.The prevalence rate of parasites was 96.4%, 47.4%, and 51.3%, respectively (P<0.01).The present study provided useful reference data for clinically preventing and treating the intestinal parasites in macaques.

  12. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  13. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  14. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  15. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  16. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  17. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    ) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  18. Hallazgos de anticuerpos contra Leptospira sp., serovariedades Panama, Lai, Australis, Shermani y Patoc, en un grupo de monos rhesus (Macaca mulatta en condiciones de cautiverio Antibodies findings against Leptospira sp., of the serovars Panama, Lai, Australis, Shermani, and Patoc, in a group of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in conditions of captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ibáñez-Contreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis ha emergido como una importante enfermedad infecciosa, lo que ha ocurrido en diferentes entornos desde urbanos hasta medios naturales; los portadores son animales salvajes o domésticos. El objetivo fue evaluar la presencia de anticuerpos contra Leptospira en monos rhesus en condiciones de bioterio. Se utilizaron 59 monos de diferentes etapas fisiológicas. Se determinaron anticuerpos contra Leptospira a partir de la prueba de aglutinación microscópica (TAM, utilizando como antígenos 25 serovariedades de Leptospira. Se observó que de los 59 animales, únicamente el 30,50% reaccionaron contra una o más serovariedades de Leptospira. En este trabajo se determinaron anticuerpos contra cuatro serovariedades de Leptospira: Panama, Lai, Australis y Shermani, consideradas como patógenas, y once de las muestras reaccionaron contra la serovariedad Patoc, considerada no patógena y saprófita. Ninguno de los animales que resultaron positivos contra Leptospira presentó signos clínicos compatibles con leptospirosis.During the last decade leptospirosis has emerged as a worldwide and very important infectious disease, affecting different environments from urban to rural, with carriers usually being wild or domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of antibodies against Leptospira in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in a Research Center. Fifty nine non-human primates of different physiological stages were studied. The animals were held in groups and in individual cages. Blood samples were obtained from the saphenous vein to determine the presence of antibodies through the microscopic agglutination test (MA, using twenty five serovars of Leptospira as antigens. It was observed that 18 out of the 59 monkeys (30.50% reacted against one or more serovars of Leptospira. In this study, antibodies of 4 serovars of Leptospira, (Panama, Lai, Australis, and Shermani were detected. All 4 serovars were considered

  19. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  20. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  1. Electronic Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines three forms of electronic portfolio based on a student's work, a class project about a specific topic, and a class seminar on a broad topic. Discusses logistical problems of management, access, and cross-referencing; technical problems of input, access, and copying; and theoretical issues of the lack of realia, of ownership and copyright,…

  2. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  3. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  4. Electronic Homework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fong-lok; Heyworth, Rex M.

    The Electronic Homework assistant system is composed of two components: the Computer Tutor and the Homework Administrator. The Computer Tutor is an intelligent tutoring system that can provide personal assistance like supplying hints, checking errors, providing remediation and prioritizing problems. The Homework Administrator is a teacher's…

  5. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  6. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  7. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10114-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Macaca fascicularis brain cDNA clo... 39 4e-06 (Q9BS26) RecName: Full=Endoplasmic reticulum resident...Q3T0L2) RecName: Full=Endoplasmic reticulum resident protein ER... 39 8e-06 AB171...581_1( AB171581 |pid:none) Macaca fascicularis brain cDNA clo... 39 1e-05 (Q9D1Q6) RecName: Full=Endoplasmic reticulum resident...:none) Homo sapiens ER-resident protein E... 39 0.011 AK027450_1( AK027450 |pid:none) Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ1...0.011 (Q96K38) RecName: Full=DnaJ homolog subfamily C member 10; AltNa... 39 0.011 AF038503_1( AF038503 |pid

  9. AcEST: DK958109 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sp|Q8H6Q0|DEF2_PETHY Floral defensin-like protein 2 OS=Petunia h... 32 2.1 sp|Q4R9E0|TECT3_MACFA Tectonic-3... OS=Macaca fascicularis GN=TCTN3... 32 2.1 sp|Q6NUS6|TECT3_HUMAN Tectonic-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TCTN3 PE=2 SV... 66 RRCLCTKPCATEEATATL 83 >sp|Q4R9E0|TECT3_MACFA Tectonic-3 OS=Macaca fascicularis GN=TCTN3 PE=2 SV=1 Length...PGNR++ + P P+C Sbjct: 46 TLQSSSEATATRPAMPGISTVVPTLVTPSAPGNRTVDLFPVLPIC 90 >sp|Q6NUS6|TECT3_HUMAN Tectonic-3

  10. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  11. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  12. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  13. AcEST: DK944802 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id Q7Z353 Definition sp|Q7Z353|HDX_HUMAN Highly...................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q7Z353|HDX_HUMAN Highly...A Apolipoprotein E OS=Macaca fascicularis GN=... 29 8.5 >sp|Q7Z353|HDX_HUMAN Highly

  14. Dicty_cDB: VFJ458 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC116960_61( AC116960 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum chromoso... 43 0.029 AF090951_1( AF090951 |pid:none) Lacerta viridis reelin...) Trypanosoma brucei chromosome 3 c... 42 0.049 S58870( S58870 ;S71844;I49297)reelin precursor - mouse 42 0....elin; EC=3.4.21.-; Flags: Prec... 42 0.064 AY650356_1( AY650356 |pid:none) Macaca fascicularis reelin mRNA,

  15. Dicty_cDB: VHQ122 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available id:none) Macaca fascicularis reelin mRNA, p... 49 5e-04 ( P78509 ) RecName: Full=....001 AL049547_2( AL049547 |pid:none) Human DNA sequence from clone RP1-... 48 0.001 S58870( S58870 ;S71844;I49297)reelin...io tenascin-R mRNA, compl... 47 0.001 AY704216_1( AY704216 |pid:none) Mus musculus reelin (Reln) mRNA, p...

  16. Dicty_cDB: VFL256 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9 AC096673_18( AC096673 |pid:none) Trypanosoma brucei chromosome 3 c... 42 0.049 S58870( S58870 ;S71844;I49297)reelin...0.064 ( P78509 ) RecName: Full=Reelin; EC=3.4.21.-; Flags: Prec... 42 0.064 AY650356_1( AY650356 |pid:none) Macaca fascicularis reeli

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1276 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1276 sp|Q9BDS8|CCR3_MACFA RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 3; Short=C-C CKR-3; Short...=CC-CKR-3; Short=CCR-3; Short=CCR3; Short=CKR3; AltName: CD_antigen=CD193 gb|AAK25739.1| chemokine receptor CCR3 [Macaca fascicularis] Q9BDS8 0.0 97% ...

  18. AcEST: DK956544 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ing] subunit beta, mitochondrial OS=Macaca fascicularis GN=SUCLA2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 463 Score = 75.9 bits (...CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=SUCLA2 PE=1 SV=3 Length = 463 Score ...KIV 122 >sp|O97580|SUCB1_PIG Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrial (Fragment) OS=Sus scrofa GN=SUCLA

  19. AcEST: DK957673 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SUCB1_HUMAN Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=SUCLA2 PE=1 SV=...4R517|SUCB1_MACFA Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrial OS=Macaca fascicularis GN=SUCLA...ing] subunit beta, mitochondrial (Fragment) OS=Sus scrofa GN=SUCLA2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 425 Score = 150 bits

  20. AcEST: DK959315 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available UCB1_HUMAN Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=SUCLA2 PE=1 SV=3...-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrial OS=Macaca fascicularis GN=SUCLA..., mitochondrial (Fragment) OS=Sus scrofa GN=SUCLA2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 425 Score = 152 bits (383), Expect = 2

  1. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  2. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  3. Electronic Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  4. 圈养川金丝猴、猕猴肠道寄生虫感染及其形态观察%The Intestinal Parasitic Infection and Its Morphology of Rhinopithecus roxellanaes and Macaca mulatta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕向辉; 陈旭旭; 袁美群; 蔡伟霞; 乔继英; 吴晓民

    2010-01-01

    2007年11~12月对陕西省珍稀野生动物抢救饲养中心的川金丝猴(R.roxellanae)、猕猴(Macaca mulatta)进行了肠道寄生虫感染情况及其种类形态的研究.采用生理盐水涂片、碘液染色、铁苏木素染色法对川金丝猴、猕猴进行粪便检查,并对检出的寄生虫进行数码显微摄像.结果川金丝猴、猕猴肠道寄生虫的感染率分别为91.67%、100%,共检出7种肠道寄生虫,其中以鞭虫(Capillaria sp.)、芽囊原虫(Blastocystis sp.)、溶组织内阿米巴(Entamoeba histolytica)感染较为严重.

  5. First detection of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in two species of nonhuman primates raised in a zoo: a fatal case in Cercopithecus diana and a strongly suspected case of spontaneous recovery in Macaca nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Kimiaki; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Uraguchi, Kohji; Mukai, Takeshi; Shibata, Chikako; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Takaesu, Noboru; Ito, Masaki; Makino, Yoshinori; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi; Yagi, Kinpei

    2014-08-01

    The causative parasite of alveolar echinococcosis, Echinococcus multilocularis, maintains its life cycle between red foxes (Vulpes vulples, the definitive hosts) and voles (the intermediate hosts) in Hokkaido, Japan. Primates, including humans, and some other mammal species can be infected by the accidental ingestion of eggs in the feces of red foxes. In August 2011, a 6-year-old zoo-raised female Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana) died from alveolar echinococcosis. E. multilocularis infection was confirmed by histopathological examination and detection of the E. multilocularis DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A field survey in the zoo showed that fox intrusion was common, and serodiagnosis of various nonhuman primates using western blotting detected a case of a 14-year-old female Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra) that was weakly positive for E. multilocularis. Computed tomography revealed only one small calcified lesion (approximately 8mm) in the macaque's liver, and both western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed a gradual decline of antibody titer. These findings strongly suggest that the animal had recovered spontaneously. Until this study, spontaneous recovery from E. multilocularis infection in a nonhuman primate had never been reported.

  6. Preliminary Study on Population Ecology of Macaca arctoides in Tiantang Mountain Nature Reserve Yulin Guangxi%广西天堂山自然保护区红面猴种群生态学初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮桂文; 黄肇宇

    2014-01-01

    Population ecology and habitat characteristics of Macaca arctoides in Tiantang mountain nature reserve of Guangxi were studied by interview survey and sampling methods. There are two stump-tailed macaque populations. The number of two stump-tailed macaque populations reduced sharply because of the loss and fragmentation of their habitats, human disturbance and severe poaching. This study provides basic suggestion n on how to effectively protect the monkey.%通过访问调查和样方法对广西天堂山自然保护区的红面猴的种群生态学和栖息地特征进行了初步研究,保护区内分布有2群红面猴,由于栖息地的丧失和破碎化,人为干扰严重及其长期盗猎等因素,导致红面猴种群数量急剧下降。

  7. 桂林七星公园猕猴的食物组成及季节性变化%Diet and seasonal changes in Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulata) at Seven-star Park, Guilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周岐海; 唐华兴; 韦春强; 黄乘明

    2009-01-01

    @@ 觅食是动物最重、最常见的行为,动物通过觅食获取其生长发育、繁殖和运动所需要的营养与能量.%Data on diet were collected from one group of Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto,) between November 2005 and October 2006 at Seven-star Park, Cuilin, Guangxi Province, using the instantaneous scan sampling method. Our results indicated that 60 plant species were used as food by the macaques. The types of foods including 40 species of trees, 12 species of shrubs, 4 species of vines, and 4 species of herbs. They showed food preference, and 69. 4% of the diet came only from 10 species. Leaves constituted 41. 0% of the diet, comprising 16. 7% young leaves and 24. 3% mature leaves. Petiole and bark accounted for 27. 3% and 21. 8% respectively. Fruits, flowers and seeds contributed a small proportion of the diet, 6. 2% , 2. 2% , and 1.4%, respectively. The macaques' diet varied according to season. In spring, the macaques fed predominantly on young leaves, petiole and bark. In summer, they increased the consumption of mature leaves and bark. The consumption of young leaves and mature leaves peaked in autumn, and the consumption of petiole and bark decreased significantly. In winter, the macaques increased significantly the consumption of petiole and bark, and also consumed mature leaves in large quantity.

  8. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  9. Electronic Preprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, R.

    1999-12-01

    Despite the tremendous advances in electronic publications and the increasing rapidity with which papers are now moving from acceptance into ``print,'' preprints continue to be an important mode of communication within the astronomy community. The Los Alamos e-preprint service, astro-ph, provides for rapid and cost-free (to authors and readers) dissemination of manuscripts. As the use of astro-ph has increased the number of paper preprints in circulation to libraries has decreased, and institutional preprint series appear to be waning. It is unfortunate, however, that astro-ph does not function in collaboration with the refereed publications. For example, there is no systematic tracking of manuscripts from preprint to their final, published form, and as a centralized archive it is difficult to distribute the tracking and maintenance functions. It retains documents that have been superseded or have become obsolete. We are currently developing a distributed preprint and document management system which can support both distributed collections of preprints (e.g., traditional institutional preprint series), can link to the LANL collections, can index other documents in the ``grey'' literature (observatory reports, telescope and instrument user's manuals, calls for proposals, etc.), and can function as a manuscript submission tool for the refereed journals. This system is being developed to work cooperatively with the refereed literature so that, for example, links to preprints are updated to links to the final published papers.

  10. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  11. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  12. Electronic Mimosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Datta, Meera S.; Rana, Vivek; Grover, Shailesh

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, 2D, electromagnetic tracking device for personal computers. This interface makes use of the well-known principle of electromagnetic induction to locate the position of a transmitter in an x-y plane. This device has a ring which is worn by the user on the index finger. The computer monitor is overlaid with a transparent screen equipped with tuned electromagnetic sensors. These sensors pick up the signals transmitted by the transmitter coil on the finger. The receiver circuit extracts the envelope of the received signal and digitizes it. These digitized values of x and y axis signals are read by the computer through the standard parallel port. The system software running on the computer calculates the x and y co-ordinates of the transmitter coil and displays a cursor at that location. The transmitter also has a button which can be used like a mouse button. This keypress information is also transmitted by the electromagnetic means. The device driver for this tracker replaces the standard mouse driver. Hence most applications which use a mouse can also use this tracker. Its name `Mimosa' indicates that the user need not touch the screen (Mimosa Pudica is the Latin name of a plant whose leaves wilt when touched). Presently work is on to achieve uniform sensitivity over the entire screen and reducing transmitter power consumption. In order to demonstrate its working, a small, 3D game was written. The player has to reach a pre-defined location after traversing through a maze. The paper describes the interface electronics, system software, mechanical design and the sample application.

  13. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  14. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  15. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance.

  16. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  17. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  18. Electronics and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Previously founded as CCPITMachinery and Electronics Sub-council and CCOIC Machinery and Electronics Chamber of Corn-merce in June, 1988, CCPIT Electronics Sub-Council and CCOIC Electronics Chamber of Commerce were established in May, 1993, and then renamed as CCPIT Electronics and Information Industry Sub-council and CCOIC Electronics and Infor-mation Industry Chamber of Commerce (CCPITECC) in September 1999.

  19. Electronic Correlations in Electron Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Ralf; Tornow, Sabine; Anders, Frithjof

    Electron transfer processes play a central role in many chemical and biological systems. Already the transfer of a single electron from the donor to the acceptor can be viewed as a complicated many-body problem, due to the coupling of the electron to the infinitely many environmental degrees of freedom, realized by density fluctuations of the solvent or molecular vibrations of the protein matrix. We focus on the quantum mechanical modelling of two-electron transfer processes whose dynamics is governed by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons as well as the environmental degrees of freedoms represented by a bosonic bath. We identify the regime of parameters in which concerted transfer of the two electrons occurs and discuss the influence of the Coulomb repulsion and the coupling strength to the environment on the electron transfer rate. Calculations are performed using the non-perturbative numerical renormalization group approach for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties.

  20. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  1. The adult macaque spinal cord central canal zone contains proliferative cells and closely resembles the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Cebrian-Silla, Arantxa; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; Garcia-Tarraga, Patricia; Matías-Guiu, Jorge; Gomez-Pinedo, Ulises; Molina Aguilar, Pilar; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Luquin, Maria-Rosario; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The persistence of proliferative cells, which could correspond to progenitor populations or potential cells of origin for tumors, has been extensively studied in the adult mammalian forebrain, including human and nonhuman primates. Proliferating cells have been found along the entire ventricular system, including around the central canal, of rodents, but little is known about the primate spinal cord. Here we describe the central canal cellular composition of the Old World primate Macaca fascicularis via scanning and transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry and identify central canal proliferating cells with Ki67 and newly generated cells with bromodeoxyuridine incorporation 3 months after the injection. The central canal is composed of uniciliated, biciliated, and multiciliated ependymal cells, astrocytes, and neurons. Multiciliated ependymal cells show morphological characteristics similar to multiciliated ependymal cells from the lateral ventricles, and uniciliated and biciliated ependymal cells display cilia with large, star-shaped basal bodies, similar to the Ecc cells described for the rodent central canal. Here we show that ependymal cells with one or two cilia, but not multiciliated ependymal cells, proliferate and give rise to new ependymal cells that presumably remain in the macaque central canal. We found that the infant and adult human spinal cord contains ependymal cell types that resemble those present in the macaque. Interestingly, a wide hypocellular layer formed by bundles of intermediate filaments surrounded the central canal both in the monkey and in the human, being more prominent in the stenosed adult human central canal.

  2. Investigations on Electronic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    E. Pugnor; T. Kormány

    1982-01-01

    Electronics has been described as a materials oriented technology. In this sense a short review is given concerning: the connection of materials characterization to the design and processing of electronic components; the most important materials characterization methods used for electronic materials; the strategy of organizing a complete material characterization system for selected electronic components.

  3. Electron-attachment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.

    Topics covered include: modes of production of negative ions, techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, dissociative electron attachment to ground state molecules, dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), molecular parent negative ions, and negative ions formed by ion pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms.

  4. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records Print A A A What's in ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  5. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  6. Introduction to Electronics course

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  7. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records A A A What's in this ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  8. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  9. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  10. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  11. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  12. 利用 TALEN 技术建立恒河猴 TRIM5α基因 突变细胞株%Establishment of Mutagenesis Cell Line of Macaca mulatta Gene TRIM5α by TALEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小莉; 余庆; 袁雅红; 腾智平; 李东升; 曾毅

    2016-01-01

    利用 TALEN 技术建立恒河猴 TRIM5α基因突变细胞株,为进一步研究 TRIM5α基因的功能奠定基础。构建针对TRIM5α打靶基因的 TALEN,通过点突变的方法获得包含 TRIM5α第7个外显子中打靶位点1211-1224的基因序列并构建点突变donor 载体。将打靶 TRIM5α基因的 TALEN 质粒和 donor 质粒电转入恒河猴肾细胞(LLC-MK2)中,无限稀释法获得单克隆细胞系,通过抽提基因组 DNA,再利用 PCR 技术扩增目标序列并测序筛选出 TRIM5α碱基缺失(1215-1216)和点突变(1213-1215,1217)的细胞系。通过共转 TALEN 质粒和点突变的 donor 质粒筛选获得了 TRIM5α基因敲除和 TRIM5α基因点突变的 LLC-MK2细胞系。%Using transcription activator-like effector nuclease(TALEN)to establish the mutagenesis cell line of Macaca mulatta gene TRIM5α is to lay the foundation for further studying the function of TRIM5α gene. The TALEN plasmids targeting TRIM5α was constructed. The site-directed gene mutagenesis donor vector was obtained by site-directed gene mutagenesis technology and the sequence contained the seventh exon of TRIM5α at the position from 1 211 to 1 224. The TALEN plasmids and donor vector were co-transfected into the M. mulatta’s kidney cell line(LLC-MK2)by electroporation. The single cell line was obtained by the infinite dilution method. By extracting the genomic DNA and amplifying the target sequence by PCR,the cell line with base deletion(1 215-1 216)and site mutations(1 213-1 215,1 217)of TRIM5α was screened. Conclusively,the LLC-MK2 single cell line with knockout and site-directed gene mutagenesis of gene TRIM5α was obtained.

  13. 基于PAE编码系统的太行山猕猴行为谱%PAE coding system-based ethogram of Taihangshan macaque (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis ), Jiyuan, Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田军东; 王振龙; 路纪琪; 郭相保; 刘金栋

    2011-01-01

    2009年2月至2010年3月,在河南太行山猕猴国家级自然保护区济源管理局愚公管理分局所辖的天坛山管护区,利用焦点动物取样法,观察并记录了野生太行山猕猴行为的发生过程、内容和环境.基于以"姿势-动作-环境"(Posture-act-environment,PAE)为轴心、以行为生态功能为依据的PAE编码系统,对野生太行山猕猴的行为进行分类和系统编码并构建PAE行为谱.结果:1)研究中分辨并记录到猕猴的14种姿势,93种动作,121种行为;2)将所记录到的行为分别划归于摄食、排遗、调温、配对、交配、育幼、竞争、亲密、聚群、通讯、休息、运动和其他等13个类别中;3)得到了基于PAE编码系统的野生太行山猕猴行为谱.%From February 2009 to March 2010, by using focal animal sampling method, we recorded the processes, contents, and surrounding habitat of behaviors of free - ranging Taihangshan macaques ( Macaca mulatta tcheliensis ) in Henan Taihangshan Macaque National Nature Reserve ( HTMNNR ).We collected behavioral data and coded them following the " posture-act-environment" ( PAE ) coding system which concerns posture, act, environment, and ecological function of behaviors.The results showed that: 1 ) a total of 14 postures, 93 acts and 121 behaviors of Taihangshan macaques were recorded and identified; 2) based on ecological function of behaviors, all of the recorded behaviors were categoried into 13 groups including foraging, eliminate, thermo-regulatory, paring, mating, parental, agonistic, affiliative, aggregation, communication, resting, locomotive, and miscellaneous behaviors; and 3 ) PAE ethogram of free-ranging Taihangshan macaques was successfully established following the PAE coding system.

  14. 白马雪山自然保护区猕猴冬季栖息地的选择%Winter Habitat Selection by Macaca mulatta in Baimaxueshan National Nature Reserve,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎大勇; 胡杰; 任宝平; 沈永生; 周岐海

    2012-01-01

    x Winter habitat selection of one group of Macaca mulatto was investigated from November,2009 to February,2010 in Gehuaqing region in Baimaxueshan National Nature Reserve,Yunnan province,China. Fourteen ecological factors were measured in 60 plots (20 m× 20 m) where the study group ever stayed. These factors included canopy cover,topographic feature,elevation,slope aspect,slope degree, vegetation type,the distance to water,human disturbance,numbers of trees,dead wood,cutting trees, DBH (diameter of breast height of tree),fruit abundance on the ground. The analysis indicated that in winter,M. mulatto tended to stay at elevations ranging from 2 500 m to 3 200 m,and selected the 20° ~ 40° mountain slope with 60%-100% canopy cover. M. mulatto preferred evergreen broadleaf forests, where there were more trees with DBH>20 cm. They tended to stay in the forests far from human disturbance (>500 m) ,and close to water resource.%2009年12月至2010年2月,在白马雪山自然保护区格华箐对一群数量约为50只的野生猕猴冬季栖息地的选择进行初步调查.根据记录的猕猴活动位点,设置60个20m×20m的样方,测定了14个生态因子(郁闭度、地形特征、海拔、坡向、坡度、坡位、植被类型、水源距离、人为干扰、乔木数、死树情况、砍伐情况、乔木胸径、地面果实数).主成分分析表明,格华箐猕猴冬季偏好在坡度20°~40°、郁闭度在60%~100%的山坡坡面活动;活动区间一般在海拔2 500~3 200m;比较喜欢常绿阔叶林,喜欢的乔木平均胸径>20cm;喜欢远离人群(>500m)的生境;较为偏好离水源较近的栖息环境.

  15. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  16. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  17. Microcanalization in the epididymis to overcome ductal obstruction caused by chronic exposure to chromium - a study in the mature bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata Geoffroy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruldhas, M Michael; Subramanian, S; Sekhar, P; Hasan, G Chandra; Govindarajulu, P; Akbarsha, M A

    2004-07-01

    In order to apprehend the toxic effects of chromium, an occupational/environmental pollutant, on the epididymis, adult bonnet monkeys were exposed to chromium (VI) in their drinking water at concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 p.p.m. for a chronic period of 180 days. At the end of the experimental period, testicles and segments of epididymis from control and treated monkeys were subjected to light microscopic (resin-embedded semi-thin sections) and transmission electron microscopic analyses. Among the various changes undergone by the epididymal epithelium, the present paper describes the origin of two different kinds of microcanals, probably caused by ductal obstruction. The first type of microcanal, which appears to provide passage for spermatozoa to bypass the obstructed main duct, is comparable with the one already reported in carbendazim-treated efferent ductules of the rat. The second type of microcanal, which is novel, consisted of a lumen in the epithelium enclosed by four to five cells, which are either modified basal cells, principal cells or a hitherto unknown cell type. This novel type of microcanal is suggested to be a device to entrap the spermatozoa which reach the core of the epithelium and may be a mechanism to prevent extravasation of sperm so as to avoid an autoimmune response of spermatic granuloma formation. Thus, the present study has shown that chronic exposure to chromium (VI) through drinking water can produce pathological manifestations in the epididymal epithelium but the epididymis, being a versatile organ, is capable of overcoming such adverse situations through novel devices.

  18. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  19. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  20. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  1. Electron transporting semiconducting polymers in organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2011-07-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the preparation of semiconducting polymers over the past two decades, and successful commercial devices based on them are slowly beginning to enter the market. However, most of the conjugated polymers are hole transporting, or p-type, semiconductors that have seen a dramatic rise in performance over the last decade. Much less attention has been devoted to electron transporting, or n-type, materials that have lagged behind their p-type counterparts. Organic electron transporting materials are essential for the fabrication of organic p-n junctions, organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and complementary logic circuits. In this critical review we focus upon recent developments in several classes of electron transporting semiconducting polymers used in OLEDs, OFETs and OPVs, and survey and analyze what is currently known concerning electron transporting semiconductor architecture, electronic structure, and device performance relationships (87 references).

  2. Electronics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamieh

    2015-01-01

    Explore the basic concepts of electronics, build your electronics workbench, and begin creating fun electronics projects right away! Electronics For Dummies, 3rd Edition is your guide to the world of electronics. Spanning circuitry, wiring, robotics, transmitters, amplifiers, and more, this book demystifies electricity basics and beyond. The third edition offers new content revised to reflect the latest advancements in the electronics field, and it offers full color project examples to spark your creativity and inspire you to put your new skills to use! Packed with projects that can be comple

  3. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  4. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  5. Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Explains the application of electronic commerce techniques (electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic mail (E-mail), electronic bulletin boards...purchase procedures of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Changes to the FAR to recognize electronic commerce are recommended. Also discussed...are opportunities to use electronic commerce and small business and legal considerations of electronic commerce . This report describes how electronic

  6. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  7. Chapter 9: Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Spieler, Helmuth G

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  8. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  9. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  10. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  11. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  12. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  13. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  14. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  15. Electronics materials research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  16. Thermography of electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Panfilova S. P.; Vlasov A. I.; Gridnev V. N.; Chervinsky A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of application of thermography to diagnose the electronic devices is analyzed in the article. Typical faults of electronic devices which can be found by means of thermography are given. Advantages of noncontact thermal inspection in comparison with the contact one are described. Some features of thermography of electronic devices are considered. Thermography apparatus is viewed and some pieces of advice about choosing it for electronic devices diagnosis are given. An example o...

  17. Electronics and computer acronyms

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Phil

    1988-01-01

    Electronics and Computer Acronyms presents a list of almost 2,500 acronyms related to electronics and computers. The material for this book is drawn from a number of subject areas, including electrical, electronics, computers, telecommunications, fiber optics, microcomputers/microprocessors, audio, video, and information technology. The acronyms also encompass avionics, military, data processing, instrumentation, units, measurement, standards, services, organizations, associations, and companies. This dictionary offers a comprehensive and broad view of electronics and all that is associated wi

  18. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  19. Mechanical Engineering for Electronics.

    OpenAIRE

    Was, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Schlumberger drilling tools are exposed to very hard loading conditions (shocks, vibrations, thermal cycling) while performing a job. As these tools are full of electronics, issues can quickly come from electronics failure. Mechanisms of failure occurring in electronics are very complex but can be predicted in some cases. The first part of the thesis describes in which context mechanical engineering applied to electronics is used in Schlumberger. The different kinds of failure which will be i...

  20. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  1. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    tremendous demand for the ability to electronically buy and sell goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work... commerce . It then briefly surveys some major types of electronic commerce pointing out flaws in atomicity. We pay special attention to the atomicity...problems of proposals for digital cash. The paper presents two examples of highly atomic electronic commerce systems: NetBill and Cryptographic Postage Indicia.

  2. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  3. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  4. ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLROYD,R.A.

    2002-10-22

    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

  5. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  6. Arduino electronics blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcher, Don

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn about electronics and coding by building amazing devices and gadgets with Arduino. If you are an experienced developer who understands the basics of electronics, then you can quickly learn how to build smart devices using Arduino. The only experience needed is a desire to learn about electronics, circuit breadboarding, and coding.

  7. Electron measurement in PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo, Tanashi (Japan)

    1995-07-15

    Electron Measurement in PHENIX detector at RHIC is discussed. The yield and S/N ratio at vector meson peaks ({phi}, {omega}, {rho}{sup o}, and J/{psi}) are evaluated. The electrons from open charm decay, and its consequence to the di-electron measurements is discussed.

  8. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  9. Polarized Electron Source Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles K. Sinclair

    1990-02-23

    Presently, only two methods of producing beams of polarized electrons for injection into linear accelerators are in use. Each of these methods uses optical pumping by circularly polarized light to produce electron polarization. In one case, electron polarization is established in metastable helium atoms, while in the other case, the polarized electrons are produced in the conduction band of appropriate semiconductors. The polarized electrons are liberated from the helium metastable by chemi-ionization, and from the semiconductors by lowering the work function at the surface of the material. Developments with each of these sources since the 1988 Spin Physics Conference are reviewed, and the prospects for further improvements discussed.

  10. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  11. Ultracold Ordered Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  12. Ultracold ordered electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  13. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  14. Advanced adhesives in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, C

    2011-01-01

    Adhesives are widely used in the manufacture of electronic devices to act as passive and active components. Recently there has been considerable interest in the use of conductive adhesives. This book reviews key types of conductive adhesives, processing methods, properties and the way they can be modelled as well as potential applications.$bAdhesives for electronic applications serve important functional and structural purposes in electronic components and packaging, and have developed significantly over the last few decades. Advanced adhesives in electronics reviews recent developments in adhesive joining technology, processing and properties. The book opens with an introduction to adhesive joining technology for electronics. Part one goes on to cover different types of adhesive used in electronic systems, including thermally conductive adhesives, isotropic and anisotropic conductive adhesives and underfill adhesives for flip-chip applications. Part two focuses on the properties and processing of electronic ...

  15. Electron crystallography and aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Andreas D; Hite, Richard K; Engel, Andreas; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Walz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals can provide information on the structure of membrane proteins at near-atomic resolution. Originally developed and used to determine the structure of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), electron crystallography has recently been applied to elucidate the structure of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of membrane proteins that form pores mostly for water but also other solutes. While electron crystallography has made major contributions to our understanding of the structure and function of AQPs, structural studies on AQPs, in turn, have fostered a number of technical developments in electron crystallography. In this contribution, we summarize the insights electron crystallography has provided into the biology of AQPs, and describe technical advancements in electron crystallography that were driven by structural studies on AQP 2D crystals. In addition, we discuss some of the lessons that were learned from electron crystallographic work on AQPs.

  16. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  17. 基于分块主成分分析的太行山猕猴面部相似性%Facial similarity in Taihangshan macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis)based on modular principal components analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王白石; 王振龙; 鹿鹤; 李利; 路纪琪

    2013-01-01

    From April to August in 2012,a target troop (named as WW-1) of Taihangshan macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis) was investigated for facial similarity in the Tiantanshan area (35°05′-35°15′ N,112°12′-112°22′ E) of the Taihangshan Macaque National Nature Reserve (TMNNR) in Jiyuan,China.Facial close-up photos of 26 individuals over 3-years-old belonging to 3 matrilineal units within troop Wangwu-1 (WW-1) were photographed and facial similarity values between every two different individuals were analyzed using modular principal component analysis (MPCA) method.We aimed to find the correlation between facial similarity and individual kinship.The results showed that:(1) facial similarity was significantly associated with kinship between individuals; the facial similarity between mothers and offspring (0.93 ±0.00) was significantly higher than those of the intra-unit group (0.89 ±0.00) and the inter-unit group (0.84 ± 0.01) ; the similarity value of the intra-unit group is significantly higher than the inter-unit group; and (2) individual face features varied with increasing age in Taihangshan macaques; higher facial similarity was found between≥4 year old individuals and their mothers (0.88-0.95),and mother-offspring relationship could be assuredly recognized via this value.The results from this study may provide reasonable and effective methods for individual identification in nonhuman primates.%2012年4~8月,在太行山猕猴国家级自然保护区济源管理局天坛山管护区(北纬35°05′~ 35°15′,东经112°12′~112°22′),对太行山猕猴王屋1群(WW-1)内的3个母系单元(matrilineal unit)中大于(等于)3岁龄的26只个体进行面部拍照,获取其面部特写照片,进而利用分块主成分分析(modular principal component analysis,MPCA)法,对个体进行面部识别分析,旨在探讨个体间面部相似度与亲缘关系的相关性.结果表明:(1)太行山猕猴个体间的面部相似度与亲

  18. Medan Electronic Mall Arsitektur Ikonik

    OpenAIRE

    David,, A.

    2014-01-01

    With present the Medan Electronic Mall is intended to meet the needs of electronic goods from electronic of communication, Office Electronics, Household Electronics, Hobbies or electronic game, Medan Electronic Mall also hosts for the people of North Sumatra Province especially for people of Medan City to get particular information will be the development of electronic goods and also enjoy all kinds of things related to electronics such as Game Center, Cyber/Virtual Game, Internet...

  19. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications.

  20. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  1. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  2. Metamaterials for Ballistic Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dragoman, D; Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, which consists of a quantum barrier formed in a semiconductor with negative effective electron mass. This barrier is the analogue of a metamaterial for electromagnetic waves in media with negative electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability. Besides applications similar to those of optical metamaterials, a nanosized slab of a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, sandwiched between quantum wells of positive effective mass materials, reveals unexpected conduction properties, e.g. single or multiple room temperature negative differential conductance regions at very low voltages and with considerable peak-to-valley ratios, while the traversal time of ballistic electrons can be tuned to larger or smaller values than in the absence of the metamaterial slab. Thus, slow and fast electrons, analogous to slow and fast light, occur in metamaterials for ballistic electrons.

  3. Electrons in Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian

    2007-01-01

    or a few electrons. Such few-electron devices are expected to form the building blocks of future electrical circuits and it is thus necessary to develop a thorough theoretical understanding of the physics of electrons in nanostructures. Re- garding applications there is a particular interest......-based communication. The statistical description of electron transport through nanostructures is based on rate equations, and the primary contribution of the thesis in that respect is the development of a method that allows for the calculation of the distribution of electrons passing through a device. The method......This thesis concerns theoretical aspects of electrons in man-made nanostruc- tures. Advances in nanofabrication technology during recent decades have made it possible to produce electrical devices on the nano-scale, whose func- tionality is determined by the quantum mechanical nature of a single...

  4. Single electron spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Kari J; Ciudad, David; Marrows, Christopher H

    2011-08-13

    Single electron electronics is now well developed, and allows the manipulation of electrons one-by-one as they tunnel on and off a nanoscale conducting island. In the past decade or so, there have been concerted efforts in several laboratories to construct single electron devices incorporating ferromagnetic components in order to introduce spin functionality. The use of ferromagnetic electrodes with a non-magnetic island can lead to spin accumulation on the island. On the other hand, making the dot also ferromagnetic introduces new physics such as tunnelling magnetoresistance enhancement in the cotunnelling regime and manifestations of the Kondo effect. Such nanoscale islands are also found to have long spin lifetimes. Conventional spintronics makes use of the average spin-polarization of a large ensemble of electrons: this new approach offers the prospect of accessing the quantum properties of the electron, and is a candidate approach to the construction of solid-state spin-based qubits.

  5. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  6. Nanocrystals for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthani, Matthew G; Korgel, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are promising materials for low-cost large-area electronic device fabrication. They can be synthesized with a wide variety of chemical compositions and size-tunable optical and electronic properties as well as dispersed in solvents for room-temperature deposition using various types of printing processes. This review addresses research progress in large-area electronic device applications using nanocrystal-based electrically active thin films, including thin-film transistors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics.

  7. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sadovsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  8. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  9. Field emission electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  10. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Korneff, Theodore

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Electronics focuses on the study of electronics and electronic devices. Composed of 14 chapters, the book starts with discussions on dc circuits, including resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, galvanometer, internal resistance, and positive and negative currents. This topic is followed by discussions on ac circuits, particularly addressing voltage and current, average power, resistive load, complex plane, and parallel circuits. Discussions also focus on filters and tuned circuits, diodes, and power supplies. Particularly given attention are the processes, diagrams, and analyses

  11. ETHICS AND ELECTRONIC VOTING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    13 pages; International audience; In the first part, we will define the main properties of a democratic election, providing a typology of electronic devices and give a view on some legal documents pertaining to the matter. In the second part, the ethics of voting will be evaluated: our methodology is detailed, followed by an examination of pure paper-based elections, paperless electronic voting and verifiable electronic voting. The new concept of legally operative transparency is defined and ...

  12. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  13. Introduction to printed electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail modern technologies for printed electronics, explaining how nanotechnology and modern printing technology are merging to revolutionize electronics fabrication of thin, lightweight, large, and inexpensive products. Readers will benefit from the explanations of materials, devices and circuits used to design and implement the latest applications of printed electronics, such as thin flexible OLED displays, organic solar cells, OLED lighting, smart wallpaper, sensors, logic, memory and more.

  14. Electronic signal conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    NEWBY, BRUCE

    1994-01-01

    At technician level, brief references to signal conditioning crop up in a fragmented way in various textbooks, but there has been no single textbook, until now!More advanced texts do exist but they are more mathematical and presuppose a higher level of understanding of electronics and statistics. Electronic Signal Conditioning is designed for HNC/D students and City & Guilds Electronics Servicing 2240 Parts 2 & 3. It will also be useful for BTEC National, Advanced GNVQ, A-level electronics and introductory courses at degree level.

  15. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  16. Smart Electronic Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-17

    This Review describes the state-of-the-art of wearable electronics (smart textiles). The unique and promising advantages of smart electronic textiles are highlighted by comparing them with the conventional planar counterparts. The main kinds of smart electronic textiles based on different functionalities, namely the generation, storage, and utilization of electricity, are then discussed with an emphasis on the use of functional materials. The remaining challenges are summarized together with important new directions to provide some useful clues for the future development of smart electronic textiles.

  17. Electronic Wallets in Danger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Sahut

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The erratic development of electronic wallets (EW illustrates thedifficulties of their adoption by the general public and shopkeepersalike. With exceptions, such as Proton in Europe and Octopus in Asia,a lot of electronic wallets are likely to disappear in the next fewyears. Yet the key factors of success are known by banks which oftenchoose to ignore them. However, the strategic change taken by some inorder to bring a fresh start to electronic wallets like Moneo couldreverse the tendency. Nevertheless, it will still be necessary to waitseveral years before seeing electronic wallets really imposethemselves as a credible alternative to payments in cash.

  18. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  19. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  20. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich

    1966-01-01

    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other