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Sample records for mac lane categories

  1. Mac Lane method in the investigation of magnetic translation groups

    OpenAIRE

    Florek, Wojciech

    1998-01-01

    Central extensions of the three-dimensional translation group T=Z^3 by the unitary group U(1) (a group of factors) are considered within the frame of the Mac~Lane method. All nonzero vectors t in T are considered to be generators of T. This choice leads to very illustrative relations between the Mac~Lane method and Zak's approach to magnetic translation groups. It is shown that factor systems introduced by Zak and Brown can be realized only for the unitary group U(1) and for some of its finit...

  2. Polynomial-time homology for simplicial Eilenberg-MacLane spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krcal, Marek; Sergeraert, Francis

    2012-01-01

    In an earlier paper of Cadek, Vokrinek, Wagner, and the present authors, we investigated an algorithmic problem in computational algebraic topology, namely, the computation of all possible homotopy classes of maps between two topological spaces, under suitable restriction on the spaces. We aim at showing that, if the dimensions of the considered spaces are bounded by a constant, then the computations can be done in polynomial time. In this paper we make a significant technical step towards this goal: we show that the Eilenberg-MacLane space K(Z,1), represented as a simplicial group, can be equipped with polynomial-time homology (this is a polynomial-time version of effective homology considered in previous works of the third author and co-workers). To this end, we construct a suitable discrete vector field, in the sense of Forman's discrete Morse theory, on K(Z,1). The construction is purely combinatorial and it can be understood as a certain procedure for reducing finite sequences of integers, without any re...

  3. On the size of the third homotopy group of the suspension of an Eilenberg--MacLane space

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The nonabelian tensor square G \\otimes G of a group G of |G| = pn and |G'| = pm (p prime and n,m \\ge 1) satisfies a classic bound of the form |G \\otimes G|\\le pn(n-m). This allows us to give an upper bound for the order of the third homotopy group p3(SK(G,1)) of the suspension of an Eilenberg--MacLane space K(G,1), because p3(K(G,1)) is isomorphic to the kernel of k : x \\otimes y \\in G \\otimes G \\mapsto [x,y] \\in G'. We prove that |G \\otimes G| \\le p(n-1)(n-m)+2, sharpening not only...

  4. Mac Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Dwight

    2009-01-01

    This essential guide answers all your questions on using a Macintosh computer, whether you?re unpacking your very first Mac after switching from a PC or upgrading from an older Mac. You?ll walk through all pre-installed Mac applications, including using Mac OS X, browsing the Web using Safari, downloading music from the iTunes store, troubleshooting Mac-specific problems, organizing photos in iPhoto, organizing calendars in iCal, editing digital video in iMovie, and more.

  5. LANES - LOCAL AREA NETWORK EXTENSIBLE SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Local Area Network Extensible Simulator (LANES) provides a method for simulating the performance of high speed local area network (LAN) technology. LANES was developed as a design and analysis tool for networking on board the Space Station. The load, network, link and physical layers of a layered network architecture are all modeled. LANES models to different lower-layer protocols, the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the Star*Bus. The load and network layers are included in the model as a means of introducing upper-layer processing delays associated with message transmission; they do not model any particular protocols. FDDI is an American National Standard and an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draft standard for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic token ring. Specifications for the LANES model of FDDI are taken from the Draft Proposed American National Standard FDDI Token Ring Media Access Control (MAC), document number X3T9.5/83-16 Rev. 10, February 28, 1986. This is a mature document describing the FDDI media-access-control protocol. Star*Bus, also known as the Fiber Optic Demonstration System, is a protocol for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic star-topology LAN. This protocol, along with a hardware prototype, was developed by Sperry Corporation under contract to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a candidate LAN protocol for the Space Station. LANES can be used to analyze performance of a networking system based on either FDDI or Star*Bus under a variety of loading conditions. Delays due to upper-layer processing can easily be nullified, allowing analysis of FDDI or Star*Bus as stand-alone protocols. LANES is a parameter-driven simulation; it provides considerable flexibility in specifying both protocol an run-time parameters. Code has been optimized for fast execution and detailed tracing facilities have been included. LANES was written in FORTRAN 77 for implementation on a DEC VAX under VMS 4.6. It consists of two

  6. Macs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Baig, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Get the most out of your Mac with this comprehensive guide Macs For Dummies, 13th Edition is the ultimate guide to your Mac, fully updated to include information about the latest updates. The book walks you through troubleshooting, syncing mobile devices, integrating Windows, and more, so you can take advantage of everything Macs have to offer. Whether you're a new user, a recent convert, or you just want to get the most out of your Mac, this book puts all the information you need in one place. Discover what makes Macs superior computing machines. Learn the basics, from mastering the Dock and

  7. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  8. Lane changing analysis for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tieqiao Tang; Haijun Huang; S.C.Wong; Rui Jiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the two-lane traffic are studiedby using the lane-changing rules in the car-followingmodels.The simulation show that the frequent lanechanging occurs when the lateral distance in car fol-lowing activities is considered and it gives rise to oscil-lating waves.In contrast,if the lateral distance is notconsidered (or considered occasionally),the lane chang-ing appears infrequently and soliton waves occurs.Thisimplies that the stabilization mechanism no longer func-tions when the lane changing is permitted.Since theoscillating and soliton waves correspond to the unsta-ble and metastable flow regimes,respectively,our studyverifies that a phase transition may occur as a result ofthe lane changing.

  9. Enterprise Mac administrators guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William

    2015-01-01

    IT departments everywhere will be integrating Macs and Mac OS X into their IT infrastructure and this book will tell them how to do it. It will serve as an authoritative, useful and frequently referenced book on Mac OS X administration.

  10. SA-MAC:Self-Stabilizing Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    波澄; 韩君泽; 李向阳; 王昱; 肖波

    2014-01-01

    A common method of prolonging the lifetime of wireless sensor networks is to use low power duty cycling protocol. Existing protocols consist of two categories: sender-initiated and receiver-initiated. In this paper, we present SA-MAC, a self-stabilizing adaptive MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. SA-MAC dynamically adjusts the transmission time-slot, waking up time-slot, and packet detection pattern according to current network working condition, such as packet length and wake-up patterns of neighboring nodes. In the long run, every sensor node will find its own transmission phase so that the network will enter a stable stage when the network load and qualities are static. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the energy consumption, packet reception rate of SA-MAC in real sensor networking systems. Our results indicate that SA-MAC outperforms other existing protocols.

  11. Lane marking aided vehicle localization

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A localization system that exploits L1-GPS estimates, vehicle data, and features from a video camera as well as lane markings embedded in digital navigation maps is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the detected lane markings is proposed in order to quantify both the lateral and longitudinal errors caused by 2D-world hypothesis violation. From this, a camera observation model for vehicle localization is proposed. The paper presents also a method to build a map of th...

  12. Mac at Work

    CERN Document Server

    Sparks, David

    2011-01-01

    Bridge the gap between using a Mac at home and at the office. Now that you love your Mac at home, you want to use one at the office without missing a beat of productivity or professionalism. This unique guide shows you how.  You'll find best Mac business practices for handling word processing, spreadsheet and presentation creation, task and project management, and graphics. The book also explores topics such as hardware maintenance, how to synchronize with multiple computers, data backup, and communication with Windows networks.: Covers the nuts and bolts of using a Mac at work, including sync

  13. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant...

  14. Energy-efficient MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li De-liang; Peng Fei

    2009-01-01

    Designing energy-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols has a significant influence on the energy performance of wireless sensor network (WSN). In this paper we present a survey of the recent typical MAC protocols regarding energy efficiency for WSN. According to channel access policies, we classify these protocols into four categories: contention-based, TDMA-based, hybrid, and cross layer protocols, in which the advantages and disadvantages in each class of MAC protocols are discussed. Finally, we point out open research issues that need to carry on to achieve high energy efficiency for the design of MAC protocols in WSN.

  15. Categories of categories

    CERN Document Server

    Pisani, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    A certain amount of category theory is developed in an arbitrary finitely complete category with a factorization system on it, playing the role of the comprehensive factorization system on Cat. Those aspects related to the concepts of finality (in particular terminal objects), discreteness and components, representability, colimits and universal arrows, seem to be best expressed in this very general setting. Furthermore, at this level we are in fact doing not only (E,M)-category theory but, in a sense, also (E,M)-topology. Other axioms, regarding power objects, duality, exponentials and the arrow object, are considered.

  16. Enterprise Mac Security Mac OS X Snow Leopard Security

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Stephen Charles; Hunter, Beau; Sullivan, Gene; LeBlanc, Dee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    A common misconception in the Mac community is that Mac's operating system is more secure than others. While this might be true in certain cases, security on the Mac is still a crucial issue. When sharing is enabled or remote control applications are installed, Mac OS X faces a variety of security threats. Enterprise Mac Security: Mac OS X Snow Leopard is a definitive, expert-driven update of the popular, slash-dotted first edition and was written in part as a companion to the SANS Institute course for Mac OS X. It contains detailed Mac OS X security information, and walkthroughs on securing s

  17. Category Variability Effect in Category Learning with Auditory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Xieng eYang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The category variability effect refers to that people tend to classify the midpoint item between two categories as the category more variable. This effect is regarded as evidence against the exemplar model, such as GCM (Generalized Context Model and favoring the rule model, such as GRT (i.e., the decision bound model. Although this effect has been found in conceptual category learning, it is not often observed in perceptual category learning. To figure out why the category variability effect is seldom reported in the past studies, we propose two hypotheses. First, due to sequence effect, the midpoint item would be classified as different categories, when following different items. When we combine these inconsistent responses for the midpoint item, no category variability effect occurs. Second, instead of the combination of sequence effect in different categorization conditions, the combination of different categorization strategies conceals the category variability effect. One experiment is conducted with single tones of different frequencies as stimuli. The collected data reveal sequence effect. However, the modeling results with the MAC model and the decision bound model support that the existence of individual differences is the reason for why no category variability effect occurs. Three groups are identified by their categorization strategy. Group 1 is rule user, placing the category boundary close to the low-variability category, hence inducing category variability effect. Group 2 takes the MAC strategy and classifies the midpoint item as different categories, depending on its preceding item. Group 3 classifies the midpoint item as the low-variability category, which is consistent with the prediction of the decision bound model as well as GCM. Nonetheless, our conclusion is that category variability effect can be found in perceptual category learning, but might be concealed by the averaged data.

  18. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods. PMID:27548176

  19. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-08-18

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  20. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Minh Hoang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  1. PERFORMANCE OF BUS LANES IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin KIM

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the performance impacts of reserved bus lanes in Seoul were evaluated and several suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the bus preferential treatment are proposed. The impacts of reserved bus lanes on both bus and auto performance were primarily measured by the relative speed changes of buses and autos and the average circulation rate of bus trips. Empirical results showed that the bus lanes were successful in improving average bus performance compared with other adjacent traffic. It was confirmed that right turning movement of the buses would cause the deterioration of bus speed in the curbside bus lanes. The average circulation rate of daily bus trips during the bus operation periods was somewhat increased by the bus lane introduction. A current warrant for reserved bus lanes in Korea was reviewed, and average bus speed during peak periods was proposed as a new warrant. In order to improve the effectiveness of the reserved bus lane, the type of lane markings in reserved bus lane, enforcement strategies for illegal parking in the bus lane and FIFO service at bus stops are discussed.

  2. Lane Changing and Lane Utilization Behavior for Three Lane Normal Section in Iraq Traffic Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Athab Eedan Al-Jameel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, different programs or methods have been produced to solve the traffic problem everywhere in the world. Iraq is one of the countries which suffer from high problems in traffic operation, design and planning. Therefore, to use the sophisticated traffic programs or models such as simulation models there is an urgent need to investigate specified field parameters which correspond to calibrated parameters used in the model under study. This study has focused on studying driver behavior which represents the core stone in a traffic simulation. This behavior represents lane changing (LC and lane utilization (LU in normal sections. Three normal sections with three lanes have been selected in different sites in Iraq: two sites in Al-Najaf city and one site in Al-Muthna city. The results of data analysis show that the driver behavior in both LC and LU is similar to the behavior in the UK. The current observed data could be used for the calibration process for any traffic simulation model in order to mimic the reality of Iraqi drivers.

  3. The MAC framework: redefining MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, T.; Halkes, G.; Bezemer, M.; Langendoen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Most current WSN MAC protocol implementations have multiple tasks to perform—deciding on correct timing, sending of packets, sending of acknowledgements, etc. However, as much of this is common to all MAC protocols, there is duplication of functionality, which leads to larger MAC protocol code size

  4. The MAC framework: redefining MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, T.; Halkes, G.; Bezemer, M.; Langendoen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Most current WSN MAC protocol implementations have multiple tasks to perform—deciding on correct timing, sending of packets, sending of acknowledgements, etc. However, as much of this is common to all MAC protocols, there is duplication of functionality, which leads to larger MAC protocol code size

  5. River Flow Lane Detection and Kalman Filtering-Based B-Spline Lane Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Hann Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel lane detection technique using adaptive line segment and river flow method is proposed in this paper to estimate driving lane edges. A Kalman filtering-based B-spline tracking model is also presented to quickly predict lane boundaries in consecutive frames. Firstly, sky region and road shadows are removed by applying a regional dividing method and road region analysis, respectively. Next, the change of lane orientation is monitored in order to define an adaptive line segment separating the region into near and far fields. In the near field, a 1D Hough transform is used to approximate a pair of lane boundaries. Subsequently, river flow method is applied to obtain lane curvature in the far field. Once the lane boundaries are detected, a B-spline mathematical model is updated using a Kalman filter to continuously track the road edges. Simulation results show that the proposed lane detection and tracking method has good performance with low complexity.

  6. Recent results from MAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-05-01

    Some preliminary results from the MAC detector at PEP are presented. These include measurements of the angular distribution of ..gamma gamma.., ..mu mu.. and tau tau final states, a determination of the tau lifetime, a measurement of R, and a presentation of the inclusive muon p/sub perpendicular/ distribution for hadronic events.

  7. Macs For Seniors For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    You're never too old to fall in love—with your Mac! You took a while, but you are now the proud owner of your first Mac computer. Macs For Seniors For Dummies is just for you. This friendly, accessible guide walks you through choosing a Mac and learning how to use it. You'll find yourself falling head over heels for your Mac in no time. Macs For Seniors For Dummies introduces you to all the basics that you need to know: turning the Mac on and getting connected; using the keyboard and mouse; working with files and folders; navigate around the Mac desktop and OS X Lion; setting up an Inter

  8. Towards a definition of safety for individual drivers lane behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van R.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assess lateral control performance in drivers, lane behaviour indicators such as the mean lane position, standard deviation of lane position and time-to-line-crossing are the most frequently used measures. For lane position, the commonly accepted (qualitative) proposition is that increased lane s

  9. Towards a definition of safety for individual drivers lane behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assess lateral control performance in drivers, lane behaviour indicators such as the mean lane position, standard deviation of lane position and time-to-line-crossing are the most frequently used measures. For lane position, the commonly accepted (qualitative) proposition is that increased lane

  10. Towards a definition of safety for individual drivers lane behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assess lateral control performance in drivers, lane behaviour indicators such as the mean lane position, standard deviation of lane position and time-to-line-crossing are the most frequently used measures. For lane position, the commonly accepted (qualitative) proposition is that increased lane s

  11. Considerations for choosing HOT lane delineation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek, I.; Vitek, M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Carrizales, J.; Machemehl, R. [Texas Dept. of Transportation, Austin, TX (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Transportation agencies are looking for ways to move more vehicles with fewer tax dollars. One innovative technique is managed lanes. These are special purpose lanes on highways with controlled access to allow manipulation of service parameters. An example of a managed facility, high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are gaining support as a tool for encouraging higher vehicle occupancy while dealing with many of the shortcomings of high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes. Because managed lanes, including HOT lanes, are controlled access facilities and must be separated from general purpose lanes, one of the principle issues is the type of delineation technique that should be used. Though the specifics of delineating a managed lane are numerous, and allow for a wide variety of possibilities, most delineation techniques used can be categorized into three broad types: concrete barriers, buffer separation, and plastic posts. This paper presented the advantages, disadvantages, required and desirable conditions for implementation of each type. The project involved assembling an expert panel to gather collective knowledge of factors and to share experiences and make recommendations regarding delineation device implementation. Panel recommendations and secondary source information were presented as conceptual guidance regarding managed lane delineation measures. Buffer type delineators were found to be least costly in terms of both initial and maintenance costs, and concrete barriers provide the best means of controlling access so they are the best means of guaranteeing toll collection from all users. 11 refs.

  12. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  13. Side channel analysis of some hash based MACs:A response to SHA-3 requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    function which is more resistant to known side channel attacks (SCA) when plugged into HMAC, or that has an alternative MAC mode which is more resistant to known SCA than the other submitted alternatives. In response to this, we perform differential power analysis (DPA) on the possible smart card...... implementations of some of the recently proposed MAC alternatives to NMAC (a fully analyzed variant of HMAC) and HMAC algorithms and NMAC/HMAC versions of some recently proposed hash and compression function modes. We show that the recently proposed BNMAC and KMDP MAC schemes are even weaker than NMAC....../HMAC against the DPA attacks, whereas multi-lane NMAC, EMD MAC and the keyed wide-pipe hash have similar security to NMAC against the DPA attacks. Our DPA attacks do not work on the NMAC setting of MDC-2, Grindahl and MAME compression functions. This talk outlines our results....

  14. iMac pocket genius

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2010-01-01

    If you want to get the very most out of your iMac, put this savvy Portable Genius guide to work. Want to make the most of the new Magic Mouse and the latest iLife apps? Set up a wireless network using your iMac's AirPort card? Watch television on your iMac, or show iMac videos and movies on your television? You'll find cool and useful Genius tips, full-color screenshots, and pages of easy-to-access shortcuts and tools that will save you time and let you enjoy your iMac to the max.

  15. Monolithic MACS micro resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann-Horn, J. A.; Jacquinot, J.-F.; Ginefri, J. C.; Bonhomme, C.; Sakellariou, D.

    2016-10-01

    Magic Angle Coil Spinning (MACS) aids improving the intrinsically low NMR sensitivity of heterogeneous microscopic samples. We report on the design and testing of a new type of monolithic 2D MACS resonators to overcome known limitations of conventional micro coils. The resonators' conductors were printed on dielectric substrate and tuned without utilizing lumped element capacitors. Self-resonance conditions have been computed by a hybrid FEM-MoM technique. Preliminary results reported here indicate robust mechanical stability, reduced eddy currents heating and negligible susceptibility effects. The gain in B1 /√{ P } is in agreement with the NMR sensitivity enhancement according to the principle of reciprocity. A sensitivity enhancement larger than 3 has been achieved in a monolithic micro resonator inside a standard 4 mm rotor at 500 MHz. These 2D resonators could offer higher performance micro-detection and ease of use of heterogeneous microscopic substances such as biomedical samples, microscopic specimens and thin film materials.

  16. Blind Cognitive MAC Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Mehanna, Omar; Gamal, Hesham El

    2008-01-01

    We consider the design of cognitive Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols enabling an unlicensed (secondary) transmitter-receiver pair to communicate over the idle periods of a set of licensed channels, i.e., the primary network. The objective is to maximize data throughput while maintaining the synchronization between secondary users and avoiding interference with licensed (primary) users. No statistical information about the primary traffic is assumed to be available a-priori to the secondary user. We investigate two distinct sensing scenarios. In the first, the secondary transmitter is capable of sensing all the primary channels, whereas it senses one channel only in the second scenario. In both cases, we propose MAC protocols that efficiently learn the statistics of the primary traffic online. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed blind protocols asymptotically achieve the throughput obtained when prior knowledge of primary traffic statistics is available.

  17. MacBook for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers , Mark L

    2014-01-01

    Make friends with your MacBook the fun and easy way! Ultra-light, ultra-fast, and ultra-powerful, the MacBook is the coolest laptop in town, and longtime Mac guru Mark L. Chambers is just the guy to help you get to know your MacBook in no time. Take a closer look at the latest features, get the lowdown on OS X, unleash your creative forces with iLife, take care of business with the iWork applications, and sync it all with iCloud with the expert advice in this bestselling MacBook guide. Whether this is your first MacBook or your first laptop, period, you''ll learn to navigate the Mac desktop, c

  18. Macs For Dummies, Pocket Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Baig, Edward C

    2011-01-01

    The fun and easy way to make the most of your wonderful Mac. Simply Mac-nificent — all the cool things your Mac can do! This handy guide helps you figure out the nuts and bolts of your Mac. Navigate the Mac desktop, use the Safari Web browser to surf the Internet, e-mail photos to friends and family, create and print documents, rip audio CDs, and more. The fun begins right here!. Open the book and find: How to set up and configure your Mac; Tips for getting around on the Mac desktop; Steps for setting up an e-mail account and browsing the Internet; Details about the free programs that come wit

  19. iMac portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The most up-to-date coverage on the latest iMac advice, tools, and shortcuts Cool and useful tips, full-color screenshots, and savvy advice show you how to get the most out of your iMac. Fully updated to cover the iMac's latest features and capabilities, this guide is packed with indispensible information on iLife '09 and Mac OS X Snow Leopard, and shows you how to customize your iMac in a way that it will work best for you.Explores all the bells and whistles of the iMac, including the new Magic Mouse, iLife apps such as iPhoto and iMovie, and Mac OS X Snow LeopardShows yo

  20. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well to rewrit...

  1. iMac for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    Do it all with your iMac and this bestselling For Dummies guide! You're still a little giddy from finally scoring your new iMac, and you can't wait to get started. Even if you're already in love with your iMac, it helps to have a little guidance to really get the most out of this ultimate all-in-one computer. This updated edition of iMac For Dummies is the ideal way to learn the iMac fundamentals from setting up and personalizing your machine to importing files, making FaceTime video calls, surfing the web, using your favorite programs and apps, and everything in between. Trusted Mac guru Mark

  2. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...... to life science categories. With contributions from an international team of scholars, this book will be essential reading for anyone interested in the social, legal, policy and ethical implications of science and technology and the life sciences....

  3. Learn Excel 2011 for Mac

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft Excel 2011 for Mac OS X is a powerful application, but many of its most impressive features can be difficult to find. Learn Excel 2011 for Mac by Guy Hart-Davis is a practical, hands-on approach to learning all of the details of Excel 2011 in order to get work done efficiently on Mac OS X. From using formulas and functions to creating databases, from analyzing data to automating tasks, you'll learn everything you need to know to put this powerful application to use for a variety of tasks. What you'll learn * The secrets of the Excel for Mac interface! * How to create effective workbo

  4. Influence of lane change on stability analysis for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liang; Ma Shou-Feng; Zhong Shi-Quan

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with the influence of lane changing behaviours on the stability of two-lane traffic flow under a periodic boundary condition.Following the description of an optimal velocity model for two vehicle groups and the derivation of their stability conditions,the feedback signals,which involve information about vehicles from both lanes acting on the two-lane traffic system,are introduced into the optimal velocity model.The control signals play a role in alleviating the traffic jam only if the traffic state is in congestion,and their role will vanish if the traffic state is in the steady state.The numerical simulations show that lane changing behaviours can break the steady state of two-lane traffic flow and aggravate the traffic disturbance,but the control method would successfully suppress the traffic jam eventually,which implies that the conclusions obtained here have certain theoretical and practical significance.

  5. Analysis of Traffic Capacity on Mountainous Two Lane Highway Adding Climbing Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yunwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the construction of mountainous double lane highway, climbing lane plays a certain role for enhancing the traffic capacity. In order to explore traffic capacity improvement effect for different conditions of climbing lane, 20 representative models are chosen, which contain various combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The changes of traffic capacity, average speed, delays, and saturation in models are obtained before and after the use of a climbing lane by means of numerical simulation. The results show that the use of a climbing lane could improve traffic capacity, average speed, while reducing delays and saturation. The improvement effect is different according to different combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The research could provide a reference for mountainous climbing lane construction intend.

  6. Lane Detection Based on Machine Learning Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao Fan; Jingbo Xu; Shuai Di

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy and robustness of the lane detection in complex conditions, such as the shadows and illumination changing, a novel detection algorithm was proposed based on machine learning...

  7. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Jianzhong Chen; Zhiyuan Peng; Yuan Fang

    2014-01-01

    A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD) model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are...

  8. Evaluation Of Lane Use Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The limited funding available for roadway capacity expansion and the growing funding gap, in conjunction with the increasing congestion, creates a critical need for innovative lane use management options. Various cost-effective lane use management strategies have been implemented in the United States and worldwide to address these challenges. However, these strategies have their own costs, operational characteristics, and additional requirements for field deployment. Hence, there is a need fo...

  9. Impacts of Left Lane Truck Restriction on Urban Freeways

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Choon-Heon; Regan, A C

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of truck lane restriction on urban freeways using traffic simulation models. The study includes three main parts: Part (1) provides insights into conditions under which truck lane restrictions would work well; Part (2) identifies the best number of lanes to restrict and shows that this is an important factor in the success of lane restriction; Part (3) investigates potential impacts of truck lane restriction through a case study using a region with some of the ...

  10. Ellen MacArthur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teodora; Lazarova

    2006-01-01

    Just over a year since breaking the round theworld solo record on board her 75 foot trimaranB&O,Ellen MacArthur embarked on a newventure:the Asian Record Circuit 2006,incorpo-rating the ‘Tour Of China’,and bringing a differ-ent set of challenges into new territories.Wespoke to Ellen and her team during their recent(April)stopover in Oingdao.When did you start sailing and what inspiredyou(you grew up in Derbyshire,in the UK,quite far away from the water)?I was introduced to sailing by my Aunt Thea ona small sailing boat called Cabaret.We wentsailing along the east coast of EngLand andbefore I knew it,I was hooked on sailing.I wasso inspired that when I was at school,I saved

  11. Macs for seniors for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Over 50 and thinking about getting your first computer? A user-friendly Mac is a great choice, and Macs For Seniors For Dummies walks you through choosing one and learning to use it. You won't even need your grandchildren to help! Macs For Seniors For Dummies introduces you to all the basic things you may not have encountered before-how to use the keyboard and mouse, work with files and folders, navigate around the Mac OS X desktop, set up an Internet connection, and much more. You'll learn to:Choose the Mac that's right for you, set it up, run programs and manage files, and hook up a printerU

  12. iMac for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    The bestselling guide to the ultimate all-in-one computer—now updated and revised throughout! If you're looking for speed, performance, and power, the iMac is the ultimate all-in-one computer. From its superior performance, powerful operating system, and amazing applications, the iMac is one awesome machine, and the fun, friendly, and approachable style of iMac For Dummies is an ideal way to get started with the basics. You'll learn the fundamentals of the iMac including setting up and customizing your iMac and the software that comes with it, importing files from your old computer, send

  13. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  14. Gotcha! Macs lose their innocence

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Still believe your Mac is secure because Microsoft PCs fall prey to viruses and worms but Macs don’t? Time to wake up! This year has seen the first major compromise of Macs worldwide*. How is yours doing?   The “Flashback” Trojan is affecting Apple’s own variant of Java and compromises Macs via so-called drive-by infections, i.e. when you visit an appropriately prepared (infected!) website - and this might not necessarily be a site with questionable contents, but could well be a popular, reputable one. Security Companies worldwide have been monitoring this particular Trojan for a while and have estimated that more than half a million Macs were compromised. Connected to a few central command and control servers, the compromised Macs were then supporting the malicious activity of the bad guys! Fortunately, the security companies have now been able to take over those command and control servers and stop their destructive drive. So, Mac users, face the f...

  15. Java and Mac OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, T Gene

    2010-01-01

    Learn the guidelines of integrating Java with native Mac OS X applications with this Devloper Reference book. Java is used to create nearly every type of application that exists and is one of the most required skills of employers seeking computer programmers. Java code and its libraries can be integrated with Mac OS X features, and this book shows you how to do just that. You'll learn to write Java programs on OS X and you'll even discover how to integrate them with the Cocoa APIs.: Shows how Java programs can be integrated with any Mac OS X feature, such as NSView widgets or screen savers; Re

  16. Rebound Attack on the Full LANE Compression Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matusiewicz, Krystian; Naya-Plasencia, Maria; Nikolic, Ivica;

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we apply the rebound attack to the AES based SHA-3 candidate Lane. The hash function Lane uses a permutation based compression function, consisting of a linear message expansion and 6 parallel lanes. In the rebound attack on Lane, we apply several new techniques to construct...... of freedom in the parallel AES states. This allows us to construct semi-free-start collisions for full Lane-256 with 2^96 compression function evaluations and 2^88 memory, and for full Lane-512 with 2^224 compression function evaluations and 2^128 memory....

  17. Tensor categories

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel; Nikshych, Dmitri; Ostrik, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Is there a vector space whose dimension is the golden ratio? Of course not-the golden ratio is not an integer! But this can happen for generalizations of vector spaces-objects of a tensor category. The theory of tensor categories is a relatively new field of mathematics that generalizes the theory of group representations. It has deep connections with many other fields, including representation theory, Hopf algebras, operator algebras, low-dimensional topology (in particular, knot theory), homotopy theory, quantum mechanics and field theory, quantum computation, theory of motives, etc. This bo

  18. Symplectic Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Quantization problems suggest that the category of symplectic manifolds and symplectomorphisms be augmented by the inclusion of canonical relations as morphisms. These relations compose well when a transversality condition is satisfied, but the failure of the most general compositions to be smooth manifolds means that the canonical relations do not comprise the morphisms of a category. We discuss several existing and potential remedies to the nontransversality problem. Some of these involve restriction to classes of lagrangian submanifolds for which the transversality property automatically holds. Others involve allowing lagrangian "objects" more general than submanifolds.

  19. Dolphin natures, human virtues: MacIntyre and ethical naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, Shane Nicholas

    2008-09-01

    Can biological facts explain human morality? Aristotelian 'virtue' ethics has traditionally assumed so. In recent years Alasdair MacIntyre has reintroduced a form of Aristotle's 'metaphysical biology' into his ethics. He argues that the ethological study of dependence and rationality in other species--dolphins in particular--sheds light on how those same traits in the typical lives of humans give rise to the moral virtues. However, some goal-oriented dolphin behaviour appears both dependent and rational in the precise manner which impresses MacIntyre, yet anything but ethically 'virtuous'. More damningly, dolphin ethologists consistently refuse to evaluate such behaviour in the manner MacIntyre claims is appropriate to moral judgement. In light of this, I argue that virtues--insofar as they name a biological or ethological category--do not name a morally significant one.

  20. Lane Detection Based on Machine Learning Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Fan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve accuracy and robustness of the lane detection in complex conditions, such as the shadows and illumination changing, a novel detection algorithm was proposed based on machine learning. After pretreatment, a set of haar-like filters were used to calculate the eigenvalue in the gray image f(x,y and edge e(x,y. Then these features were trained by using improved boosting algorithm and the final class function g(x was obtained, which was used to judge whether the point x belonging to the lane or not. To avoid the over fitting in traditional boosting, Fisher discriminant analysis was used to initialize the weights of samples. After testing by many road in all conditions, it showed that this algorithm had good robustness and real-time to recognize the lane in all challenging conditions.

  1. Mac Programming for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Want to learn how to program on your Mac? Not sure where to begin? Best-selling author Wallace Wang will explain how to get started with Cocoa, Objective-C, and Xcode. Whether you are an experienced Windows coder moving to the Mac, or you are completely new to programming, you'll see how the basic design of a Mac OS X program works, how Objective-C differs from other languages you may have used, and how to use the Xcode development environment. Most importantly, you'll learn how to use elements of the Cocoa framework to create windows, store data, and respond to users in your own Mac programs.

  2. MacBook portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Miser, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The Genius is in. You don't have to be a genius to use a MacBook. But if you want to get the very most out of yours, put this savvy Portable Genius guide to work. Want to connect your MacBook to other Macs? Use Expose to its fullest potential? Troubleshoot? You'll find cool and useful Genius tips, insider secrets, full-color screenshots, and pages of easy-to-access shortcuts and tools that will save you loads of time and make your MacBook IQ soar. Portable GENIUS Fun, hip, and straightforward, the new Portable Genius series gives forward-thinking Apple users useful informat

  3. Mac mini真体验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2005年,Mac mini首次登场,众所周知,苹果的模具更换的并不频繁,在外貌没有大幅改变的情况下,迄今为止,Mac mini实际上已经更新了7代。最新的Mac mini的工业设计实际上延续了2008年开始的Unibody一体成型铝合金机身设计与其他Mac在外观上保持了一致的元素。更小的Mac mini看起来更加性感诱人,那么,你需要它么?

  4. Overtaking Safety Evaluation and Setting of Auxiliary Lane on Two-Lane Highway in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Overtaking experiments on four two-lane highways were conducted. The data of overtaking conflict time (the time difference between the time of driving back to the original lane and the time of meeting with the first opposing vehicle and experimental drivers’ risk feeling were observed. Membership was adopted to denote the experimental drivers’ risk feelings which also denote the severity of traffic conflict. Membership ranges from 0 to 1 and corresponding risk becomes higher; that is, traffic conflict becomes more serious. According to the observed relationship between overtaking conflict time, and drivers’ risk feeling membership, Cauchy distribution function was adopted as membership function. The thresholds of the severity of traffic conflict were determined through Delphi method. The relationship model among traffic volume, overtaking conflict time and design speed was established according to experimental data. Then the idea of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway in China was presented. And the traffic volume values that need setting auxiliary lane corresponding to different design speed and traffic conflict degree were given according to the established model. It is expected to improve the traffic safety level of two-lane highway in China through setting auxiliary lane.

  5. Fiverr MacGyver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Larson, Martha

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing has become popular over the past years, also for scientific endeavors. There are many Citizen Science projects and crowdfunding platforms, such as Kickstarter, that are make helpful contributions to moving environmental science forward. An interesting underused source of useful crowd-derived contributions to research is the website Fiverr.com. On this platform, thousands of people, acting as small-scale freelance contractors, offer their skills in the form of services. The platform offers a chance for people to take a hobby, skill, or pastime and make it something more by reaching out to a wider audience and by receiving a payment in return for services. As is typical of other crowdsourcing platforms, the tasks are small and usually self contained. As the name Fiverr suggests, offers start at US5 to provide a particular service. Services offered range from graphic design, to messages sung or spoken with various styles or accents, to complete apps for Android or iPhone. Skill providers on the platform can accept a range of variation of definition in the tasks, some can be described in general terms, for others it is more appropriate to provide examples. Fiverr provides a central location for those offering skills and those needing services to find each other, it makes it possible to communicate and exchange files, to make payments, and it provides support for resolving disputes. In all cases, it is important to keep expectations aligned with the nature of the platform: quality can and will vary. Ultimately, the critical contribution of Fiverr is not to replace professional services or otherwise save money, but rather to provide access to a large group of people with specialized skills who are able to make a contribution on short notice. In the context of this session, it can be considered a pool of people with MacGyver skills lying in wait of a MacGyyer task to attack. There are many ways in which Fiverr tasks, which are called 'gigs', can be useful in

  6. MacBook Teach Yourself VISUALLY

    CERN Document Server

    Miser, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Like the MacBook itself, Teach Yourself VISUALLY MacBook, Second Edition is designed to be visually appealing, while providing excellent functionality at the same time. By using this book, MacBook users will be empowered to do everyday tasks quickly and easily. From such basic steps as powering on or shutting down the MacBook, working on the Mac desktop with the Dashboard and its widgets to running Windows applications, Teach Yourself VISUALLY MacBook, Second Edition covers all the vital information and provides the help and support a reader needs—in many ways it's like having a Mac Genius at

  7. Switching to a Mac portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Switching from a PC to a Mac is a breeze with this book Anyone considering making the move to Mac from the Windows world will find this book smoothes the way. While Macs are famous for ease of use, there are fundamental differences in Mac and PC ways of thinking, plus there?s the hassle of moving files, calendars, and other essential data from one platform to another. This guide lays out all the information, explains basic Mac procedures for the newcomer, offers great tips on data-sharing (including running Windows applications on a Mac), and provides everything the new Mac user needs to move

  8. Switching to a Mac For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhold, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Learn how to make the switch from PC to Mac a completely smooth transition The number of Mac users continues to increase significantly each year. If you are one of those people and are eager but also anxious about making the switch, then fear not! This friendly guide skips the jargon to deliver you an easy-to-read, understandable introduction to the Macintosh computer. Computer guru Arnold Reinhold walks you through the Mac OS, user interface, and icons. You'll learn how to set up your Mac, move your files from your PC to your Mac, switch applications, get your Mac online, network your Mac, se

  9. An unusual ophthalmic finding in Lane-Hamilton syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Victor M; Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Lam, Byron L; McKeown, Craig A; Berrocal, Audina M

    2014-12-01

    Lane-Hamilton syndrome is a rare condition that is characterized by idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and celiac disease. We report the case of an 18-month-old girl with Lane-Hamilton syndrome who had unilateral pigmentary retinopathy.

  10. Express Lane Eligibility for Medicaid and CHIP Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — States may rely on eligibility information from "Express Lane" agency programs to streamline and simplify enrollment and renewal in Medicaid and CHIP. Express Lane...

  11. Virtual queuing at airport security lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de R.; Samoilovich, I.; Rhee, van der B.

    2013-01-01

    Airports continuously seek opportunities to reduce the security costs without negatively affecting passenger satisfaction. In this paper, we investigate the possibilities of implementing virtual queuing at airport security lanes, by offering some passengers a time window during which they can arrive

  12. Capacity of two-lane roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kennedy, DA

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships of speed vs density, volume and percentage loop occupation are investigated. The effect of differing directional splits in traffic volumes is also examined. A method of determining the Level-of Service of two-lane roads in terms...

  13. Dynamics of lane formation in driven binary complex plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutterlin, K. R.; Wysocki, A.; Ivlev, A. V.; Rath, C.; Thomas, H. M.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; W. J. Goedheer,; Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Morfill, G. E.; Lowen, H.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical onset of lane formation is studied in experiments with binary complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. Small microparticles are driven and penetrate into a cloud of big particles, revealing a strong tendency towards lane formation. The observed time-resolved lane-formation proces

  14. Mac OS X Lion在Mac App Store上线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011年7月20日,Apple宣布具有超过250种新功能的世界最先进操作系统的第八个重要版本Mac OS X Lion今天在Mac App StoreTM推出并可进行下载,价格为29.99美元。Lion的诸多超强功能包括:全新Multi-Touch手势;全系统支持全屏应用程序;

  15. LHC@home online tutorial for Mac users - recording

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A step-by-step online tutorial about LHC@home for Mac users by Alexandre Racine. It contains detailed instructions on how-to-join this volunteer computing project.  There are 3 screen capture videos with the real installation process accelerated attached to the event page. This 5' video is linked from http://lhcathome.web.cern.ch/join-us Also from the CDS e-learning category.

  16. Macroscopic modeling for traffic flow on three-lane highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Fang, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a macroscopic traffic flow model for three-lane highways is proposed. The model is an extension of the speed gradient model by taking into account the lane changing. The new source and sink terms of lane change rate are added into the continuity equations and the speed dynamic equations to describe the lane-changing behavior. The result of the steady state analysis shows that our model can describe the lane usage inversion phenomenon. The numerical results demonstrate that the present model effectively reproduces several traffic phenomena observed in real traffic such as shock and rarefaction waves, stop-and-go waves and local clusters.

  17. Office 2011 for Mac For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    LeVitus, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Get started with Office 2011 for Mac and discover the creative possibilitiesThe leading suite of productivity software for the Mac, Microsoft Office helps users complete common business tasks, including word processing, e-mail, presentations, financial analysis, and much more. Office 2011 for Mac For Dummies is the perfect companion for Microsoft Office for Mac users upgrading to the newest version, new computer users, and those who may have switched from the Windows version of Office. Written by one of the most popular gurus in the Mac community, Bob "Dr. Mac" LeVitus, the book explains every

  18. Agent-based modeling of lane discipline in heterogeneous traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailisan, Damian N.; Lim, May T.

    2016-09-01

    Designating lanes for different vehicle types is ideal road safety-wise. Practical considerations, however, require road sharing. Using a modified Nagel-Schreckenberg cellular automata model for two vehicle types (cars and motorcycles), we analyzed the interplay of lane discipline, lane changing, and vehicle density. In the absence of lane changing, the transition between free flow and congested states occurs at a higher vehicle (road occupation) density when the ratio of cars to motorcycles is increased. When lane changing is allowed, the smaller motorcycles tend to fill in unused spaces, until the point when the wider cars effectively block their way at high vehicle densities. When the condition of lane discipline is not imposed, i.e. staying wholly within lane boundaries is not required, further improvement in throughput becomes possible at the cost of required driver attentiveness.

  19. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients' personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which...... I elucidate how the two rehabilitation organizations local history, legislation, structural features of the present labour market and of social work result in a number of contradictions which make it difficult to deliver client-centred care. This exact goal is according to the staff one of the most...

  20. Feynman Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a new foundational categorical formulation for operations and relations and objects parameterizing them. This generalizes operads and all their cousins including but not limited to PROPs, modular operads, twisted (modular) operads as well as algebras over operads and an abundance of other related structures, such as FI--algebras. The usefulness of this approach is that it allows us to handle all the classical as well as more esoteric structures under a common framework and we can treat all the situations simultaneously. Many of the known constructions simply become Kan extensions. In this common framework, we also derive universal operations, such as those underlying Deligne's conjecture, construct Hopf algebras as well as perform resolutions, (co)bar transforms and Feynman transforms which are related to master equations. For these applications, we construct the relevant model category structures.

  1. The hydrological role of 'sunken lanes'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, John

    2013-04-01

    The hydrological role of 'sunken lanes' Sunken lanes are found in many parts of southern England and have also been described in Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Spain and the USA. They are associated with soft rock and long histories of vehicular and animal movements. They form important features of the cultural and physical landscape. Although most are probably Medieval in origin, some maydate back to the Iron Age. Little attention has been paid to their function as conduits for runoff, sediment and pollutants from areas of forestry and agriculture to the watercourses in valley bottoms. In the Midhurst area of West Sussex, southern England, they are important routes for eroded sediments particularly during extreme rainfall events as occurred in the autumns of 2000 and 2006. This led to the flooding of property, disruption of minor roads and the pollution of the Western Rother river, an important fish habitat.

  2. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wang, Junhua; Fu, Ting

    2016-10-14

    This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m) and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m) were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes). These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes.

  3. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wang, Junhua; Fu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m) and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m) were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes). These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes. PMID:27754447

  4. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes. These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes.

  5. Mac OS X Lion Server For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, John

    2011-01-01

    The perfect guide to help administrators set up Apple's Mac OS X Lion Server With the overwhelming popularity of the iPhone and iPad, more Macs are appearing in corporate settings. The newest version of Mac Server is the ideal way to administer a Mac network. This friendly guide explains to both Windows and Mac administrators how to set up and configure the server, including services such as iCal Server, Podcast Producer, Wiki Server, Spotlight Server, iChat Server, File Sharing, Mail Services, and support for iPhone and iPad. It explains how to secure, administer, and troubleshoot the networ

  6. Take Control of Maintaining Your Mac

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Keep your Mac running smoothly with our easy maintenance program! Regular maintenance is necessary to avoid problems and to ensure your Mac runs at peak performance, but it's hard to know what to do and when to do it. Best-selling author Joe Kissell has now applied his commonsense approach to the task of maintaining your Mac, whether you use Tiger or Leopard! Learn how to start on the right foot; what you should do daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly; and how to prepare for Mac OS X updates. Joe even explains how to monitor your Mac's health and debunks common panaceas. Read this book to lea

  7. Switching to a Mac For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhold, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Thinking of making the switch from your PC to a Mac? Congratulations! You're in for a great, virus-free ride. And Switching to Mac For Dummies makes it smoother than you ever imagined. From buying the Mac that's right for you to transferring your files to breaking your old Windows habits and learning to do things the (much easier) Mac way, it makes the whole process practically effortless. Whether you've been using Windows XP, Vista, or even Linux, you'll find simple, straightforward ways to make your transition go smoothly. That will leave you plenty of time to get familiar with Mac'

  8. Switching to the Mac The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    Is Windows giving you pause? Ready to make the leap to the Mac instead? There has never been a better time to switch from Windows to Mac, and this incomparable guide will help you make a smooth transition. New York Times columnist and Missing Manuals creator David Pogue gets you past three challenges: transferring your stuff, assembling Mac programs so you can do what you did with Windows, and learning your way around Mac OS X. Learning to use a Mac is not a piece of cake, but once you do, the rewards are oh-so-much better. No viruses, worms, or spyware. No questionable firewalls, inefficien

  9. Cognitive MAC designs for OSA networks

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshani, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents recent advances in the cognitive MAC designs for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) networks. It covers the basic MAC functionalities and MAC enhancements of IEEE 802.11. Later chapters discuss the existing MAC protocols for OSA and classify them based on characteristic features. The authors provide new research in adaptive carrier sensing-based MAC designs tailored for OSA, which optimize spectrum utilization and ensure a peaceful coexistence of licensed and unlicensed systems. Analytically devised via optimization and game-theoretic approaches, these adaptive M

  10. The embeddability of lane detection algorithms on heterogeneous architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Saussard, Romain; Bouzid, Boubker; Vasiliu, Marius; Reynaud, Roger

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Lane detection plays a crucial role for Advanced Driver As-sitance System (ADAS) or autonomous driving applications. Literature shows a lot of lane detection algorithms can work in real time with good results. However, they require much computer processing and cannot be embedded in a vehicle ECU without deep software optimizations. In this paper, we discuss the embeddability of lane detection algorithms by comparing state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of functional pe...

  11. Design and development of multi-lane smart electromechanical actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Annaz, Fawaz Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Design and Development of Multi-Lane Smart Electromechanical Actuators presents the design of electromechanical actuators in two types of architectures, namely, Torque Summed Architecture (TSA) and Velocity Summed Architecture, (VSA). It examines them in: * Hardware redundancy, where the architecture is made up of 3 or 4 lanes. * Digital Math Model redundancy, where a more compact two lanes architectures will be presented. The book starts with the very basic concepts and introduces the design process logically so that an understanding of the smart multi-lane systems that drive an aileron

  12. Measurable versions of the LS category on laminations

    CERN Document Server

    Meniño, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We give two new versions of the LS category for the set-up of measurable laminations defined by Berm\\'udez. Both of these versions must be considered as "tangential categories". The first one, simply called (LS) category, is the direct analogue for measurable laminations of the tangential category of (topological) laminations introduced by Colman Vale and Mac\\'ias Virg\\'os. For the measurable lamination that underlies any lamination, our measurable tangential category is a lower bound of the tangential category. The second version, called the measured category, depends on the choice of a transverse invariant measure. We show that both of these "tangential categories" satisfy appropriate versions of some well known properties of the classical category: the homotopy invariance, a dimensional upper bound, a cohomological lower bound (cup length), and an upper bound given by the critical points of a smooth function.

  13. LANE MARKING DETECTION IN CLUTTERED ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 郑南宁; 程洪

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the positions of marking in the presence of distracting shadows, highlight, pavement cracks, etc. Methods RGB color space is transformed into I1I2I3 color space and I2 component was used to form a new image with less effect of the clutter. Using an improved edge detection operator, an edge strength map was produced, and binarilized by adaptive thresholds. The binary image was labeled and circularity of all connected components is calculated. The Self-Organizing Mapping is adopted to extract regions which imply potential marking. Finally the position of marking was obtained by curve fitting. Results Color information was utilized fully, all thresholds were set adaptively and lane marking could be detected in challenging images with shadows, highlight or other cars. Conclusion The method based on circularity of connected components shows its outstanding robustness to lane marking detection and has a wide variety of applications in the areas of vehicle autonomous navigation and driver assistance system.

  14. Quotients of cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Higher cluster categories were recently introduced as a generalization of cluster categories. This paper shows that in Dynkin types A and D, half of all higher cluster categories are actually just quotients of cluster categories. The other half can be obtained as quotients of 2-cluster categories, the "lowest" type of higher cluster categories. Hence, in Dynkin types A and D, all higher cluster phenomena are implicit in cluster categories and 2-cluster categories. In contrast, the same is not...

  15. Lane-changing model with dynamic consideration of driver's propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jinglei; Ban, Xuegang Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Lane-changing is the driver's selection result of the satisfaction degree in different lane driving conditions. There are many different factors influencing lane-changing behavior, such as diversity, randomicity and difficulty of measurement. So it is hard to accurately reflect the uncertainty of drivers' lane-changing behavior. As a result, the research of lane-changing models is behind that of car-following models. Driver's propensity is her/his emotion state or the corresponding preference of a decision or action toward the real objective traffic situations under the influence of various dynamic factors. It represents the psychological characteristics of the driver in the process of vehicle operation and movement. It is an important factor to influence lane-changing. In this paper, dynamic recognition of driver's propensity is considered during simulation based on its time-varying discipline and the analysis of the driver's psycho-physic characteristics. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to quantify the hierarchy of driver's dynamic lane-changing decision-making process, especially the influence of the propensity. The model is validated using real data. Test results show that the developed lane-changing model with the dynamic consideration of a driver's time-varying propensity and the AHP method are feasible and with improved accuracy.

  16. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  17. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  18. Mac OS X Tiger for Unix Geeks

    CERN Document Server

    Jepson, Brian

    2005-01-01

    If you're one of the many Unix developers drawn to Mac OS X for its Unix core, you'll find yourself in surprisingly unfamiliar territory. Unix and Mac OS X are kissing cousins, but there are enough pitfalls and minefields in going from one to another that even a Unix guru can stumble, and most guides to Mac OS X are written for Mac aficionados. For a Unix developer, approaching Tiger from the Mac side is a bit like learning Russian by reading the Russian side of a Russian-English dictionary. Fortunately, O'Reilly has been the Unix authority for over 25 years, and in Mac OS X Tiger for Unix Gee

  19. Teach yourself visually Mac Mini

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The perfect how-to guide for visual learners Apple?s Mac Mini packs a powerful punch is in a small package, including both HDMI and Thunderbolt ports plus the acclaimed OS X. But if you want to get the very most from all this power and versatility, be sure to get this practical visual guide. With full-color, step-by-step instructions as well as screenshots and illustrations on every page, it clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks rather than burying you in pages of text. Discover helpful visuals and how-tos on the OS, hardware specs, Launchpad, the App Store, multimedia capabilities (such

  20. Web Development with the Mac

    CERN Document Server

    Vegh, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Learn Web development the Apple way and build a business. With a focus on both coding and creative development, this in-depth guide thoroughly covers what you need to know to build winning websites for clients — from what it takes to bring a business online to how to make your site interactive to how to run a freelance web business. In between, you'll master the technical tools of the trade — such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP, and Ruby on Rails — and learn how to create beautiful interfaces using Photoshop . This book covers everything a fledgling web developer working on a Mac needs to launc

  1. Analysis of 3gpp-MAC and two-key 3gpp-MAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Mitchell, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Forgery and key-recovery attacks are described on the 3gpp-MAC scheme, proposed for inclusion in the 3gpp specification. Three main classes of attack are given, all of which operate whether or not truncation is applied to the MAC value. Attacks in the first class use a large number of 'chosen MACs......', those in the second class use a large number of 'known MACs', and those in the third class require a large number of MAC verifications, but very few known MACS and no chosen MACS. The first class yields both forgery and key-recovery attacks, whereas the second and third classes are key-recovery attacks...... only. Both single-key and two-key variants of 3gpp-MAC are considered; the forgery attacks are relevant to both variants, whereas the key-recovery attacks are only relevant to the two-key variant....

  2. Analysis of 3gpp-MAC and two-key 3gpp-MAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Mitchell, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Forgery and key-recovery attacks are described on the 3gpp-MAC scheme, proposed for inclusion in the 3gpp specification. Three main classes of attack are given, all of which operate whether or not truncation is applied to the MAC value. Attacks in the first class use a large number of 'chosen MACs......', those in the second class use a large number of 'known MACs', and those in the third class require a large number of MAC verifications, but very few known MACS and no chosen MACS. The first class yields both forgery and key-recovery attacks, whereas the second and third classes are key-recovery attacks...... only. Both single-key and two-key variants of 3gpp-MAC are considered; the forgery attacks are relevant to both variants, whereas the key-recovery attacks are only relevant to the two-key variant....

  3. Mac protocols for cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a literature review of various wireless MAC protocols and techniques for achieving real-time and reliable communications in the context of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The evaluation analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 for CPS therein will give insights into configuration and optimization of critical design parameters of MAC protocols. In addition, this book also presents the design and evaluation of an adaptive MAC protocol for medical CPS, which exemplifies how to facilitate real-time and reliable communications in CPS by exploiting IEEE 802.15.4 based MAC protocols. This book wil

  4. Take control of troubleshooting your Mac

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Learn how to solve any Mac problem with Joe Kissell's expert advice! We may love our Macs, but they can still suffer significant problems. In this essential guide from best-selling author Joe Kissell, you'll learn 17 basic troubleshooting procedures and how to solve 9 common problems, along with an easy-to-follow way to troubleshoot novel problems. Whether your Mac won't turn on, experiences kernel panics repeatedly, or is glacially slow, this book has the calm, friendly advice you need to find a solution. Following in the footsteps of his critically acclaimed books Take Control of Mac OS X

  5. Teach yourself visually MacBook Pro

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Clear instructions to help visual learners get started with their MacBook Pro Covering all the essential information you need to get up to speed with your MacBook Pro, this new edition provides you with the most up-to-date information on performing everyday tasks quickly and easily. From basics such as powering on or shutting down the MacBook Pro to more advanced tasks such as running Windows applications, this visual guide provides the help and support you need to confidently use your MacBook Pro to its full potential.Empowers you to perform everyday tasks quickly and easilyCovers new hardwa

  6. Take control the Mac OS X lexicon

    CERN Document Server

    Zardetto, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This ebook explains a little bit of everything; in fact, it's The Mac OS X (and then some) Lexicon because it's never just you and your Mac. It's you and your Mac and the Web, and your email, and that article you just read that threw 17 new acronyms at you or assumed that you knew all sorts of networking terms. Or it's you and your Mac and Finder features you've never touched, such as burn folders, smart folders, or proxy icons, and that mysterious Services submenu. This book is a great guide for Macintosh users everywhere who have trouble keeping up with the latest jargon, fo

  7. Macs all-in-one for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hutsko, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Your all-in-one guide to unleashing your Mac's full potential It's a Mac world out there. But if you haven't read the instruction manual, you may be neglecting some of your computer's coolest features. Turn to Macs All-in-One For Dummies' jam-packed guide to access the incredible tools within your computer. With this fully updated reference, you will learn how to use Launchpad and Mission Control; protect your Mac; back up and restore data with Time Machine; sync across devices in iCloud; import, organize, and share photos; direct in iMovie; compose in GarageBand; and so much more. The possi

  8. Mapping motorway lanes and real-time lane identification with single-frequency precise point positioning test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, P.F.; Knoop, V.L.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.; Van Arem, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modern advanced motorway traffic control requires lane-specific observations, and provide vehicles with lane-specific control measures. Single-Frequency Precise Point Positioning (SF-PPP) was previously demonstrated to provide sub-meter accurate positions in real-time using a low-cost mass-market re

  9. Quicksilver Power Mac G4

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A new generation with a reworked motherboard is launched on 2001 with however the same Graphite box. It also included a processor speed-bump, and brought the DVD-R "SuperDrive" to the mid-level model. The Quicksilver PowerMac was available in three configurations: The 733 MHz model, with 128 MB of RAM, a 40 GB hard drive, and a CD-RW drive, was 1,699 dollars, the 867 MHz configuration, with 128 MB of RAM, a 60 GB hard drive and a DVD-R drive, was 2,499 dollars, and the high-end dual-800 MHz model, with 256 MB of RAM, an 80 GB hard drive and a DVD-R drive, was 3,499 dollars. The 733 MHz model is the first personal computer to have a DVD burner, named SuperDrive at Apple. The design was updated on 2002 with 800 MHz, 933 MHz and dual 1 GHz configurations, becoming the first Mac to reach 1 GHz.

  10. Enriched model categories and diagram categories

    CERN Document Server

    Guillou, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    We collect in one place a variety of known and folklore results in enriched model category theory and add a few new twists. One twist is a new perspective on equivariant model categories. A central theme is a general procedure for constructing a Quillen adjunction, often a Quillen equivalence, between a given V-model category and a category of diagrams in V, where V is any good enriching category. From this perspective, we rederive the result of Schwede and Shipley that reasonable stable model categories are Quillen equivalent to diagram categories of spectra (alias categories of module spectra). The general theory will be applied to G-spectra in a sequel, and for that we need quite a few technical improvements and modifications of general model categorical results. We collect those here. They are bound to have applications in a variety of other contexts.

  11. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  12. Wound healing in Mac-1 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Nagaraja, Sridevi; Zhou, Jian; Zhao, Yan; Fine, David; Mitrophanov, Alexander Y; Reifman, Jaques; DiPietro, Luisa A

    2017-05-01

    Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) is a macrophage receptor that plays several critical roles in macrophage recruitment and activation. Because macrophages are essential for proper wound healing, the impact of Mac-1 deficiency on wound healing is of significant interest. Prior studies have shown that Mac-1(-/-) mice exhibit deficits in healing, including delayed wound closure in scalp and ear wounds. This study examined whether Mac-1 deficiency influences wound healing in small excisional and incisional skin wounds. Three millimeter diameter full thickness excisional wounds and incisional wounds were prepared on the dorsal skin of Mac-1 deficient (Mac-1(-/-) ) and wild type (WT) mice, and wound healing outcomes were examined. Mac-1 deficient mice exhibited a normal rate of wound closure, generally normal levels of total collagen, and nearly normal synthesis and distribution of collagens I and III. In incisional wounds, wound breaking strength was similar for Mac-1(-/-) and WT mice. Wounds of Mac-1 deficient mice displayed normal total macrophage content, although macrophage phenotype markers were skewed as compared to WT. Interestingly, amounts of TGF-β1 and its downstream signaling molecules, SMAD2 and SMAD3, were significantly decreased in the wounds of Mac-1 deficient mice compared to WT. The results suggest that Mac-1 deficiency has little impact on the healing of small excisional and incisional wounds. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that the effect of single genetic deficiencies on wound healing may markedly differ among wound models. These conclusions have implications for the interpretation of the many prior studies that utilize a single model system to examine wound healing outcomes in genetically deficient mice. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  13. Lane-changing behavior and its effect on energy dissipation using full velocity difference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qin; Kühne, Reinhart D.

    2016-07-01

    In real urban traffic, roadways are usually multilane with lane-specific velocity limits. Most previous researches are derived from single-lane car-following theory which in the past years has been extensively investigated and applied. In this paper, we extend the continuous single-lane car-following model (full velocity difference model) to simulate the three-lane-changing behavior on an urban roadway which consists of three lanes. To meet incentive and security requirements, a comprehensive lane-changing rule set is constructed, taking safety distance and velocity difference into consideration and setting lane-specific speed restriction for each lane. We also investigate the effect of lane-changing behavior on distribution of cars, velocity, headway, fundamental diagram of traffic and energy dissipation. Simulation results have demonstrated asymmetric lane-changing “attraction” on changeable lane-specific speed-limited roadway, which leads to dramatically increasing energy dissipation.

  14. Analysis of Discretionary Lane Changing Parameters on Freeways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Balal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A lane changing event, at the instant when a vehicle crosses the lane marker, involves up to five vehicles: the subject vehicle, preceding and following vehicles in the original lane, and the preceding and following vehicles in the target lane. Understanding the interactions of the subject vehicle with the surrounding vehicles is fundamental to the study of the safety and modeling of lane changing behavior. This research studies the statistical properties of 10 lane changing parameters. These parameters describe the gaps, times to collision between vehicles and the subject vehicle's speed. The parameter values were extracted from the vehicle trajectory data in the Next Generation Simulation data sets. The results show that (i all the parameters are positively correlated with each other; (ii the gaps and distance are best described by the log-normal distribution; (ii the times to collision are best described by the Laplace distribution; (iii the speed may be described by the log-logistic distribution and the normal distribution. The results suggest that using one or few selected parameters may be sufficient to quantify the risk of a lane changing event.

  15. Lane bias in elite-level swimming competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Christopher; Cornett, Andrew; Stager, Joel

    2017-02-01

    Performance outcomes at the 2013 World Swimming Championship were previously shown to be biased depending on the swimmer's lane assignment. The purpose of this study was to determine if this kind of bias was unique, and if not, if the bias was related to the temporary or permanent nature of the pool. The effect of lane on the average odd-length split minus the preceding even-length split in the 800- and 1500-m freestyle events, and on the relative change from qualifying to preliminary performance in the 50-m events, was determined for 16 other elite-level competitions. Depending on the swimmers' direction, split times were on average 0.16 s slower or faster in at least one lane at each of the 16 competitions, and in 49% of all lanes analysed. In 5 competitions, swimmers were shown to be faster in a majority of lanes in one direction as compared to the other. Analysis of the 50-m events at these 5 competitions indicate that preliminary performances were between 0.5 and 0.9% slower or faster than qualifying times, which is consistent with the direction effect observed in the distance freestyle events. Further, lane biases occur more often in temporary pools (70% of lanes) than in permanent pools (35% of lanes), with water currents as the most plausible cause. The prevalence of lane bias at elite-level swimming competition highlights the need for the implementation of policies and procedures to prevent such bias from occurring again in the future.

  16. A MAC Mode for Lightweight Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luykx, Atul; Preneel, Bart; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang;

    2016-01-01

    , but also allows high-performance parallel implementations. We highlight this in a comprehensive implementation study, instantiating LightMAC with PRESENT and the AES. Moreover, LightMAC allows flexible trade-offs between rate and maximum message length. Unlike PMAC and its many derivatives, Light...

  17. MAC-awake of sevoflurane in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Andrew J; Wong, Aaron; Knottenbelt, Graham; Sheppard, Suzette; Donath, Susan; Frawley, Geoff

    2008-08-01

    Age influences the potency of anesthetic agents, but there is little information on how age influences MAC-awake. MAC-awake may be an important aspect of anesthesia potency for the prevention of awareness during anesthesia. The aim of this study was to measure MAC-awake in a range of ages in children. After institutional ethics approval and informed parental consent 60 children were enrolled; 20 in each of three age groups (2 to awake. The Dixon up-down method was used to determine progression of subsequent concentrations and MAC-awake (ED50) for the three age groups were obtained using the probit model. This study found evidence for a difference in ED50 between age groups (P = 0.008). The MAC-awake was highest in the youngest group (0.66%) and similar in the older groups (0.45% and 0.43%). Although MAC-awake changes with age, in the ages where awareness has been reported, MAC-awake was found to be relatively low, and therefore it seems unlikely that age-specific changes to MAC-awake are a cause for awareness in children aged 5-12 years.

  18. Nomogram to estimate age-related MAC.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerou, J.G.C.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In clinical practice it is difficult to estimate rapidly two important values: (i) the total age-corrected MAC multiple from measured end-expired concentrations of volatile agent and nitrous oxide; (ii) the end-expired concentration of volatile agent needed to obtain a given total MAC

  19. VLA-MAC: A Variable Load Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guoliang; Liu, Hao; Chen, Hao; Shi, Longxin

    This letter presents VLA-MAC, a novel adaptive MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks that can achieve high energy efficiency and low latency in variable load conditions. In VLA-MAC, traffic load is measured online and utilized for adaptive adjustment. VLA-MAC transmits packets via a burst style to alleviate packets accumulation problem and achieve low latency in high load condition. Furthermore, it also saves obvious energy by removing unnecessary listen period in low load condition. Unlike current approach, VLA-MAC does not need to adjust duty-cycle according to load online. Simulation results based on ns-2 show the performance improvements of our protocol.

  20. Mac OS X Snow Leopard for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    LeVitus, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Get to know Snow Leopard and make the most of your Mac Snow Leopard has a few new tricks up its sleeve, so whether you're new to Mac or a longtime Mac-thusiast, Mac expert Bob LeVitus has tips you'll appreciate. Learn how to start up your Mac, get to know the Dock and Finder, work your way through windows and dialogs, and organize and manage files and folders. Open the book and find: How to navigate around the Finder, Dock, and desktop Tips for opening, closing, resizing, and moving windows Steps for keeping Snow Leopard organized How to back up your system with Time Machine® Troubleshooting a

  1. Atomical Grothendieck categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Năstăsescu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of Gabriel dimension of a Grothendieck category, we introduce the concept of atomical Grothendieck category, which has only two localizing subcategories, and we give a classification of this type of Grothendieck categories.

  2. TraPy-MAC: Traffic Priority Aware Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Fasee; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Kaiwartya, Omprakash; Cao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    Recently, Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has witnessed significant attentions in research and product development due to the growing number of sensor-based applications in healthcare domain. Design of efficient and effective Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is one of the fundamental research themes in WBAN. Static on-demand slot allocation to patient data is the main approach adopted in the design of MAC protocol in literature, without considering the type of patient data specifically the level of severity on patient data. This leads to the degradation of the performance of MAC protocols considering effectiveness and traffic adjustability in realistic medical environments. In this context, this paper proposes a Traffic Priority-Aware MAC (TraPy-MAC) protocol for WBAN. It classifies patient data into emergency and non-emergency categories based on the severity of patient data. The threshold value aided classification considers a number of parameters including type of sensor, body placement location, and data transmission time for allocating dedicated slots patient data. Emergency data are not required to carry out contention and slots are allocated by giving the due importance to threshold value of vital sign data. The contention for slots is made efficient in case of non-emergency data considering threshold value in slot allocation. Moreover, the slot allocation to emergency and non-emergency data are performed parallel resulting in performance gain in channel assignment. Two algorithms namely, Detection of Severity on Vital Sign data (DSVS), and ETS Slots allocation based on the Severity on Vital Sign (ETS-SVS) are developed for calculating threshold value and resolving the conflicts of channel assignment, respectively. Simulations are performed in ns2 and results are compared with the state-of-the-art MAC techniques. Analysis of results attests the benefit of TraPy-MAC in comparison with the state-of-the-art MAC in channel assignment in realistic medical

  3. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  4. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane and His Contributions to Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakey, Richard William F; Mulliken, John B

    2015-07-01

    Surgical subspecialties were just emerging at the turn of the 20th Century, before this time, general surgeons had to adjust their operative skills to address disorders throughout the body. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane was a British surgeon, whose restless mind led him to wander throughout the field of general surgery and beyond. Although controversial, he advanced in the repair of cleft lip and palate, introduced the "no touch" operative technique, internal fixation of fractures, and is credited as the first surgeon to perform open massage of the heart. During The Great War, he established the British Plastic Surgery unit at Sidcup and delegated the care of facial and jaw injuries to young Major Harold Gillies. Lane later founded The New Health Society, an organization that stimulated the natural food movement. Sadly, in his latter years Lane's thinking drifted further away from with the times and his professional credibility waned. Nevertheless, Lane's variegated life is of sufficient interest to deserve reassessment.

  5. Psicologia social e processo grupal: a coerência entre fazer, pensar sentir em Sívia Lane Social psychology and group process: coherence between doing, thinking and feeling in Sílvia Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Terezinha Ferreira Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da concepção histórica e dialética de processo grupal proposta por Sílvia Lane, que utiliza como base para suas reflexões os pressupostos de materialismo dialético quando considera os aspectos pessoais, as características grupais, a vivência subjetiva e a realidade objetiva e o caráter histórico do grupo. O que pretendemos enfatizar neste artigo é a produção sobre grupo presente em sua obra que foi se construindo no decorrer das décadas de 1980 e 1990, sintetizada no texto O processo grupal. Neste sentido, busca-se trazer as contribuições presentes no conjunto de sua obra, sistematizadas em artigos, coletâneas e livros, em que Sílvia Lane discute a articulação de algumas categorias fundamentais para a análise do processo grupal e suas implicações teóricas, metodológicas e prático-políticas.The present article discusses historic and dialectical conceptions of group process by Sílvia Lane, that uses like base for her reflections the presuppositions of dialectical materialism, when the author considers the personal aspects, the group characteristics, the subjective existence and objective reality and the historical character of the group. This article intends to emphasize the production written by Sílvia Lane about group between 1980 and 1990 summaried in the text The group process. In this direction, it searchs to bring the contributions in her work through articles, collections and books that Sílvia Lane discusses some fundamental categories to the analysis of group process and their theoretical and methodological evolvement and practical-politics.

  6. Microscopic modeling of multi-lane highway traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Hodas, N O

    2003-01-01

    In heavy traffic with congested roadway the maximum traffic flow also depends on length of cars. This is deduced in a simple derivation suited for classroom demonstration as well as homework. The resulting equation demonstrates a new relation to an apparently unrelated area of physics, the maximum ship velocity (hull speed) and explains why traffic is sometimes faster on the slow lane on a congested multi-lane road.

  7. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  8. MILLS B. LANE, JR. AND ENTERPRISE IN A NEW SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall L. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For a century, Citizens & Southern Bank was a fixture in Georgia. In 1991, the C&S brand name disappeared in a merger with North Carolina National Bank. This was one of the bittersweet consequences of the slow, confusing swirl of bank deregulation after 1970, when institutions such as C&S simply disappeared, swallowed by the “winners” in the new competitive environment of interstate banking in the 1980s and 1990s. Even earlier, however, the Lane family had ceased to control the bank started by Mills Lane, Sr. in 1891. Mills B. Lane, Jr. was the last member of the Lane family to run C&S. After his retirement in 1973, Mills handpicked his successor and tried to retain some influence, but the bank began slipping away from the Lanes. By the early 80s, a decade before Hugh McColl’s NCNB acquired C&S, Mills Lane, Jr. was deeply alienated from the institution that had been, according to many, “Georgia’s cornerstone bank.”

  9. Comparison of CSMA based MAC protocols of wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    singh, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation has been an important area of interest in Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs). Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols play an important role in energy conservation. In this paper, we describe CSMA based MAC protocols for WSN and analyze the simulation results of these protocols. We implemented S-MAC, T-MAC, B-MAC, B-MAC+, X-MAC, DMAC and Wise-MAC in TOSSIM, a simulator which unlike other simulators simulates the same code running on real hardware. Previous surveys mainly focused on the classification of MAC protocols according to the techniques being used or problem dealt with and presented a theoretical evaluation of protocols. This paper presents the comparative study of CSMA based protocols for WSNs, showing which MAC protocol is suitable in a particular environment and supports the arguments with the simulation results. The comparative study can be used to find the best suited MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks in different environments.

  10. Mac OS X for Unix Geeks (Leopard)

    CERN Document Server

    Rothman, Ernest E; Rosen, Rich

    2009-01-01

    If you've been lured to Mac OS X because of its Unix roots, this invaluable book serves as a bridge between Apple's Darwin OS and the more traditional Unix systems. The new edition offers a complete tour of Mac OS X's Unix shell for Leopard and Tiger, and helps you find the facilities that replace or correspond to standard Unix utilities. Learn how to compile code, link to libraries, and port Unix software to Mac OS X and much more with this concise guide.

  11. Mac OS X Lion portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    Two e-books, Mac OS X Lion Portable Genius and MacBook Pro Portable Genius, Third Edition, bundled in one package Books in the Portable Genius series provide readers with the most accessible, useful information possible, including plenty of tips and techniques for the most-used features in a product or software. These e-books will show you what you may not find out by just working with your MacBook Pro and OS X Lion. Genius icons present smart or innovative ways to do something, saving time and hassle. Easy-to-find information gives you the essentials plus insightful tips on how to navigate

  12. Office 2008 for Mac for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    LeVitus, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Office 2008 for Mac is here, with great new enhancements to all your favorite office productivity tools. Who better than "Dr. Mac, "Bob LeVitus, to show you how to load and use them all? From choosing the best version for your needs to managing your life with your online calendar, Office 2008 For Mac For Dummies covers what you need to know. It compares the Student/Teacher Edition, Standard Edition, and Professional Edition, then walks you through installing your preferred version and keeping it up to date. You'll find out all the things you can do with Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Entourage,

  13. Wireless sensors networks MAC protocols analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chaari, Lamia

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensors networks performance are strictly related to the medium access mechanism. An effective one, require non-conventional paradigms for protocol design due to several constraints. An adequate equilibrium between communication improvement and data processing capabilities must be accomplished. To achieve low power operation, several MAC protocols already proposed for WSN. The aim of this paper is to survey and to analyze the most energy efficient MAC protocol in order to categorize them and to compare their performances. Furthermore we have implemented some of WSN MAC protocol under OMNET++ with the purpose to evaluate their performances.

  14. Beginning Mac OS X Snow Leopard programming

    CERN Document Server

    Trent, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Michael Trent is a technical reviewer for numerous books and magazine articles and the coauthor of Beginning Mac OS X Programming with Drew McCormack. Drew McCormack is an experienced computational scientist, founder of the ""The Mental Faculty""-an independent company developing software for the Mac and iPhone-and the coauthor of Beginning Mac OS X Programming with Michael Trent. Wrox Beginning guides are crafted to make learning programming languages and technologies easier than you think, providing a structured, tutorial format that will guide you through all the techniques involved.

  15. Learn Office 2011 for Mac OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Office for Mac remains the leading productivity suite for Mac, with Apple's iWork and the free OpenOffice.org trailing far behind. And now it's being updated with a cleaner interface and more compatibility with Exchange and SharePoint. Learn Office 2011 for Mac OS X offers a practical, hands-on approach to using Office 2011 applications to create and edit documents and get work done efficiently. You'll learn how to customize Office, design, create, and share documents, manipulate data in a spreadsheet, and create lively presentations. You'll also discover how to organize your email, contacts,

  16. MAC Layer Hurdles in BSNs

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Choi, Young-Woo; Lee, Hyung-Soo; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    The last few decades have seen considerable research progress in microelectronics and integrated circuits, system-on-chip design, wireless communication, and sensor technology. This progress has enabled the seamless integration of autonomous wireless sensor nodes around a human body to create a Body Sensor Network (BSN). The development of a proactive and ambulatory BSN induces a number of enormous issues and challenges. This paper presents the technical hurdles during the design and implementation of a low-power Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for in-body and on-body sensor networks. We analyze the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 protocol for the on-body sensor network. We also provide a comprehensive insight into the heterogeneous characteristics of the in-body sensor network. A low-power technique called Pattern-Based Wake-up Table is proposed to handle the normal traffic in a BSN. The proposed technique provides a reliable solution towards low-power communication in the in-body sensor network.

  17. CR-MAC: A multichannel MAC protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a cross-layer based cognitive radio multichannel medium access control (MAC) protocol with TDMA, which integrate the spectrum sensing at physical (PHY) layer and the packet scheduling at MAC layer, for the ad hoc wireless networks. The IEEE 802.11 standard allows for the use of multiple channels available at the PHY layer, but its MAC protocol is designed only for a single channel. A single channel MAC protocol does not work well in a multichannel environment, because of the multichannel hidden terminal problem. Our proposed protocol enables secondary users (SUs) to utilize multiple channels by switching channels dynamically, thus increasing network throughput. In our proposed protocol, each SU is equipped with only one spectrum agile transceiver, but solves the multichannel hidden terminal problem using temporal synchronization. The proposed cognitive radio MAC (CR-MAC) protocol allows SUs to identify and use the unused frequency spectrum in a way that constrains the level of interference...

  18. H-MAC: A Hybrid MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, S; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2208

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid medium access control protocol (H-MAC) for wireless sensor networks. It is based on the IEEE 802.11's power saving mechanism (PSM) and slotted aloha, and utilizes multiple slots dynamically to improve performance. Existing MAC protocols for sensor networks reduce energy consumptions by introducing variation in an active/sleep mechanism. But they may not provide energy efficiency in varying traffic conditions as well as they did not address Quality of Service (QoS) issues. H-MAC, the propose MAC protocol maintains energy efficiency as well as QoS issues like latency, throughput, and channel utilization. Our numerical results show that H-MAC has significant improvements in QoS parameters than the existing MAC protocols for sensor networks while consuming comparable amount of energy.

  19. Performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11 MAC layer in supporting delay sensitive services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Sengupta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Providing QoS requirements like good throughput and minimum access delay are challenging tasks with regard to 802.11 WLAN protocols and Medium Access Control (MAC functions. IEEE 802.11 MAC layer supports two main protocols: DCF (Distributed Coordination Function and EDCF (Enhanced Distributed Coordination Function. During the evaluation of EDCF, the performance of various access categories was thedetermining factor. Two scenarios, with same Physical and MAC parameters, one implementing the DCF and other EDCF, were created in the network simulation tool (OPNET MODELER [5] to obtain the results. The results showed that the performance of EDCF was better in providing QoS for real-time interactive services (like video conferencing as compared to DCF, because of its ability to differentiate and prioritize various services. Whereas the DCF’s overall performance was marginally better for all kinds of services taken together.

  20. Learn Mac OS X Snow Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Scott

    2009-01-01

    You're smart and savvy, but also busy. This comprehensive guide to Apple's Mac OS X 10.6, Snow Leopard, gives you everything you need to know to live a happy, productive Mac life. Learn Mac OS X Snow Leopard will have you up and connected lickity split. With a minimum of overhead and a maximum of useful information, you'll cover a lot of ground in the time it takes other books to get you plugged in. If this isn't your first experience with Mac OS X, skip right to the "What's New in Snow Leopard" sections. You may also find yourself using this book as a quick refresher course or a way

  1. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  2. Macintosh Troubleshooting Pocket Guide for Mac OS

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, David; Corporation, Tekserve

    2009-01-01

    The Macintosh Troubleshooting Pocket Guide covers the most common user hardware and software trouble. It's not just a book for Mac OS X (although it includes tips for OS X and Jaguar), it's for anyone who owns a Mac of any type-- there are software tips going back as far as OS 6. This slim guide distills the answers to the urgent questions that Tekserve's employee's answer every week into a handy guide that fits in your back pocket or alongside your keyboard.

  3. Enhanced Sleep Mode MAC Control for EPON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces sleep mode operations for EPON. New MAC control functions are proposed to schedule sleep periods. Traffic profiles are considered to optimize energy efficiency and network performances. Simulation results are analyzed in OPNET modeler.......This paper introduces sleep mode operations for EPON. New MAC control functions are proposed to schedule sleep periods. Traffic profiles are considered to optimize energy efficiency and network performances. Simulation results are analyzed in OPNET modeler....

  4. Robust Lane Sensing and Departure Warning under Shadows and Occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Torres-Torriti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A prerequisite for any system that enhances drivers’ awareness of road conditions and threatening situations is the correct sensing of the road geometry and the vehicle’s relative pose with respect to the lane despite shadows and occlusions. In this paper we propose an approach for lane segmentation and tracking that is robust to varying shadows and occlusions. The approach involves color-based clustering, the use of MSAC for outlier removal and curvature estimation, and also the tracking of lane boundaries. Lane boundaries are modeled as planar curves residing in 3D-space using an inverse perspective mapping, instead of the traditional tracking of lanes in the image space, i.e., the segmented lane boundary points are 3D points in a coordinate frame fixed to the vehicle that have a depth component and belong to a plane tangent to the vehicle’s wheels, rather than 2D points in the image space without depth information. The measurement noise and disturbances due to vehicle vibrations are reduced using an extended Kalman filter that involves a 6-DOF motion model for the vehicle, as well as measurements about the road’s banking and slope angles. Additional contributions of the paper include: (i the comparison of textural features obtained from a bank of Gabor filters and from a GMRF model; and (ii the experimental validation of the quadratic and cubic approximations to the clothoid model for the lane boundaries. The results show that the proposed approach performs better than the traditional gradient-based approach under different levels of difficulty caused by shadows and occlusions.

  5. 42 CFR 405.1120 - Filing briefs with the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing briefs with the MAC. 405.1120 Section 405....1120 Filing briefs with the MAC. Upon request, the MAC will give the party requesting review, as well... ending with the date the brief is received by the MAC will not be counted toward the adjudication...

  6. 42 CFR 423.1974 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 423.1974..., MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.1974 Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. An enrollee who is dissatisfied with an ALJ hearing decision may request that the MAC review the ALJ's decision or dismissal as...

  7. 42 CFR 423.2130 - Effect of the MAC's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of the MAC's decision. 423.2130 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2130 Effect of the MAC's decision. The MAC's decision is final and binding...

  8. 42 CFR 405.1130 - Effect of the MAC's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of the MAC's decision. 405.1130 Section 405....1130 Effect of the MAC's decision. The MAC's decision is final and binding on all parties unless a Federal district court issues a decision modifying the MAC's decision or the decision is revised as the...

  9. 42 CFR 423.2118 - Obtaining evidence from the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining evidence from the MAC. 423.2118 Section..., MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2118 Obtaining evidence from the MAC. An enrollee may request... the costs of providing these items. If an enrollee requests evidence from the MAC and an opportunity...

  10. 42 CFR 423.2126 - Case remanded by the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Case remanded by the MAC. 423.2126 Section 423.2126... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2126 Case remanded by the MAC. (a) When the MAC may remand a case to the ALJ...

  11. 42 CFR 423.2120 - Filing briefs with the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing briefs with the MAC. 423.2120 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2120 Filing briefs with the MAC. Upon request, the MAC will give the...

  12. Fundamental diagram in traffic flow of mixed vehicles on multi-lane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Nagatani, Takashi; Masukura, Shuichi

    2008-09-01

    We study the fundamental diagram for traffic flow of vehicular mixture on a multi-lane highway. We present the car-following model of multi-lane traffic in which slow and fast vehicles flow with changing lanes. We investigate the traffic states of the vehicular mixture under the periodic boundary. Two values of the current appear at a density and two current curves are obtained. Vehicles move with changing lanes in the traffic state of high current, while vehicles move without changing lanes in the traffic state of low current. They depend on the density, the fraction of slow vehicles, and the initial condition. In the high-current curve, the jamming transition between the free flow and the jammed state occurs at a low density. The fundamental diagrams (current-density diagrams) are shown for the single-lane, two-lane, three-lane, and four-lane traffics.

  13. A Two-Lane Cellular Automata Model with Influence of Next-Nearest Neighbor Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new two-lane cellular automata model in which the influence of the next-nearest neighbor vehicle is considered. The attributes of the traffic system composed of fast-lane and slow-lane are investigated by the new traffic model. The simulation results show that the proposed two-lane traffic model can reproduce some traffic phenomena observed in real traffic, and that maximum flux and critical density are close to the field measurements.Moreover, the initial density distribution of the fast-lane and slow-lane has much influence on the traffic flow states.With the ratio between the densities of slow lane and fast lane increasing the lane changing frequency increases, but maximum flux decreases. Finally, the influence of the sensitivity coefficients is discussed.

  14. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dobre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH is such a software control system. It is designed to assist and automate the use of a highway lane as a reserved lane. The idea is to allow and support drivers to travel at a speed higher, if in return they are willing to pay a small fee to reserve an empty virtual slot on the reserved lane. This slot is valid for a portion and of the highway and a time window, so each driver pays the fee depending thier its travelling needs. In return, drivers are guaranteed a congestion-free travel on that portion. In this paper, we present the proposed architecture of the ILRSH and its subsystems. The system is based on several proposed algorithms designed to assist the drivers, enter or exit the reserved lane, based on real-world driving observations. We present extensive simulation results showing the feasibility of the proposed approach, that can easily be implemented with little costs on already-existing highways, and the increase in traffic efficiency.

  15. A Study of Lane Detection Algorithm for Personal Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro; Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke

    By the word “Personal vehicle”, we mean a simple and lightweight vehicle expected to emerge as personal ground transportation devices. The motorcycle, electric wheelchair, motor-powered bicycle, etc. are examples of the personal vehicle and have been developed as the useful for transportation for a personal use. Recently, a new types of intelligent personal vehicle called the Segway has been developed which is controlled and stabilized by using on-board intelligent multiple sensors. The demand for needs for such personal vehicles are increasing, 1) to enhance human mobility, 2) to support mobility for elderly person, 3) reduction of environmental burdens. Since rapidly growing personal vehicles' market, a number of accidents caused by human error is also increasing. The accidents are caused by it's drive ability. To enhance or support drive ability as well as to prevent accidents, intelligent assistance is necessary. One of most important elemental functions for personal vehicle is robust lane detection. In this paper, we develop a robust lane detection method for personal vehicle at outdoor environments. The proposed lane detection method employing a 360 degree omni directional camera and unique robust image processing algorithm. In order to detect lanes, combination of template matching technique and Hough transform are employed. The validity of proposed lane detection algorithm is confirmed by actual developed vehicle at various type of sunshined outdoor conditions.

  16. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories especiall

  17. Non-lane-based full velocity difference car following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sheng; Wang, Dianhai; Tao, Pengfei; Li, Pingfan

    2010-11-01

    In order to describe car following behavior in real world, this paper presents a non-lane-based car following model by incorporating the effects of the lane width in traffic. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. And numerical simulation is carried out to validate the analytic results. The property of the model is investigated, and it is found that the proposed model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion. The results implied that incorporating the lane width effects in car following model not only stabilize traffic flow and suppress the traffic jam, but also lower critical headway and increase capacity. Thus, the lateral separation effects greatly enhance the realism of car following models.

  18. Achievement of alternative configurations of vehicles on multiple lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Ryosuke; Miki, Hiroshi; Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2009-06-01

    Heavy traffic congestion occurs daily at merging sections on a highway. For relieving this congestion, possibility of alternative configuration of vehicles on multiple-lane road at a merging area is discussed in this paper. This is the configuration where no vehicles move aside on the other lane. It has merit in making a smooth merging at an intersection or a junction due to the so-called "zipper effect." We show, by developing a cellular automaton model for multiple lanes, that this configuration is achieved by simple local interactions between vehicles neighboring each other. The degree of the alternative configuration in terms of the spatial increase in parallel driving length is studied by using both numerical simulations and mean-field theory. We successfully construct a theoretical method for calculating this degree of the alternative configuration by using cluster approximation. It is shown that the theoretical results coincide with those of the simulations very well.

  19. Skew-closed categories

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by the new examples found by Kornel Szlach\\'anyi of a form of lax monoidal category, the author felt the time ripe to publish a reworking of Eilenberg-Kelly's original paper on closed categories appropriate to the laxer context. The new examples are connected with bialgebroids. With Stephen Lack, we have also used the concept to give an alternative definition of quantum category and quantum groupoid. Szlach\\'anyi has called the lax notion {\\em skew monoidal}. This paper defines {\\em skew closed category}, proves Yoneda lemmas for categories enriched over such, and looks at closed cocompletion.

  20. Lane Tracking with Omnidirectional Cameras: Algorithms and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ShinkoYuanhsien

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With a panoramic view of the scene, a single omnidirectional camera can monitor the 360-degree surround of the vehicle or monitor the interior and exterior of the vehicle at the same time. We investigate problems associated with integrating driver assistance functionalities that have been designed for rectilinear cameras with a single omnidirectional camera instead. Specifically, omnidirectional cameras have been shown effective in determining head gaze orientation from within a vehicle. We examine the issues involved in integrating lane tracking functions using the same omnidirectional camera, which provide a view of both the driver and the road ahead of the vehicle. We present analysis on the impact of the omnidirectional camera's reduced image resolution on lane tracking accuracy, as a consequence of gaining the expansive view. And to do so, we present Omni-VioLET, a modified implementation of the vision-based lane estimation and tracking system (VioLET, and conduct a systematic performance evaluation of both lane-trackers operating on monocular rectilinear images and omnidirectional images. We are able to show a performance comparison of the lane tracking from Omni-VioLET and Recti-VioLET with ground truth using images captured along the same freeway road in a specified course. The results are surprising: with 1/10th the number of pixels representing the same space and about 1/3rd the horizontal image resolution as a rectilinear image of the same road, the omnidirectional camera implementation results in only three times the amount the mean absolute error in tracking the left lane boundary position.

  1. Lane Tracking with Omnidirectional Cameras: Algorithms and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinko Yuanhsien Cheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available With a panoramic view of the scene, a single omnidirectional camera can monitor the 360-degree surround of the vehicle or monitor the interior and exterior of the vehicle at the same time. We investigate problems associated with integrating driver assistance functionalities that have been designed for rectilinear cameras with a single omnidirectional camera instead. Specifically, omnidirectional cameras have been shown effective in determining head gaze orientation from within a vehicle. We examine the issues involved in integrating lane tracking functions using the same omnidirectional camera, which provide a view of both the driver and the road ahead of the vehicle. We present analysis on the impact of the omnidirectional camera's reduced image resolution on lane tracking accuracy, as a consequence of gaining the expansive view. And to do so, we present Omni-VioLET, a modified implementation of the vision-based lane estimation and tracking system (VioLET, and conduct a systematic performance evaluation of both lane-trackers operating on monocular rectilinear images and omnidirectional images. We are able to show a performance comparison of the lane tracking from Omni-VioLET and Recti-VioLET with ground truth using images captured along the same freeway road in a specified course. The results are surprising: with 1/10th the number of pixels representing the same space and about 1/3rd the horizontal image resolution as a rectilinear image of the same road, the omnidirectional camera implementation results in only three times the amount the mean absolute error in tracking the left lane boundary position.

  2. Continuum modeling for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijun Huang; Tieqiao Tang; Ziyou Gao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,we study the continuum modeling of traffic dynamics for two-lane freeways.A new dynamics model is proposed, which contains the speed gradient-based momentum equations derived from a car-following theory suited to two-lane traffic flow.The conditions for securing the linear stability of the new model are presented.Numerical tests are carried out and some nonequilibrium phenomena are observed, such as small disturbance instability,stop-andgo waves,local clusters and phase transition.

  3. Mac OS X Snow Leopard试用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大大

    2009-01-01

    苹果新一代操作系统Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard(雪豹)于8月底上市。根据NPD集团的统计数据,该系统在美国市场前两周的销售非常喜人,是2007年Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard上市销量的2倍以上,是2005年的Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger操作系统的售量的4倍。假如你也对升级价格仅需88元雪豹系统感兴趣,就让我们从一起升级安装开始,体验它独特的魅力。

  4. MacBook Pro Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Miser, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Tips and techniques for forward-thinking MacBook Pro users Now that you have a MacBook Pro, you need just one more accessory, your very own copy of MacBook Pro Portable Genius, Third Edition. This handy, compact book lets you in on a wealth of tips and tricks, so you get the very most out of Apple's very popular notebook. Discover the latest on the most recent release of iLife, get the skinny on the new Intel Core i7 and i5 processors in the Pro, see how to go wireless in a smart way, and much more. The book is easy to navigate, doesn't skimp on the essentials, and helps you save time and avoi

  5. MacSelfService online tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Mac Self-Service is a functionality within the Mac Desktop Service built and maintained to empower CERN users by giving them easy access to applications and configurations through the Self-Service application. This tutorial (text attached to the event page) explains how to install Mac Self-Service and how to use it to install applications and printers. Content owner: Vincent Nicolas Bippus Presenter: Pedro Augusto de Freitas Batista Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) https://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  6. Study on the effects of driver's lane-changing aggressiveness on traffic stability from an extended two-lane lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Run; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of driver's lane-changing aggressiveness on the stability of traffic flow of two-lane are studied by using a generalized lattice hydrodynamic model with consideration of lane-changing aggressiveness of each individual. The effect of lane-changing aggressiveness parameter on traffic stability is derived through employing linear stability analysis with finding that the driver's lane-changing aggressiveness has an important impact on the stability of the traffic flow in a two-lane system. To describe the phase transition, the mKdV equation near the critical point is derived by using the reductive perturbation method, with obtaining the dependence of the propagation kink solution for traffic jams on the lane-changing aggressiveness. It can be concluded from the phase diagram of stability criterion that the higher lane-changing aggressiveness leads to a more stable traffic flow. In addition, the stabilizing effect of the optimal current difference weakens gradually with the increasing of the lane-changing aggressiveness adjusting coefficient, even vanishes when the value of lane-changing aggressiveness adjusting coefficient is greater than a critical value. Theoretical conclusions are also confirmed by the numerical simulations.

  7. Mac OS X Snow Leopard pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Seiblod, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Whether you're new to the Mac or a longtime user, this handy book is the quickest way to get up to speed on Snow Leopard. Packed with concise information in an easy-to-read format, Mac OS X Snow Leopard Pocket Guide covers what you need to know and is an ideal resource for problem-solving on the fly. This book goes right to the heart of Snow Leopard, with details on system preferences, built-in applications, and utilities. You'll also find configuration tips, keyboard shortcuts, guides for troubleshooting, lots of step-by-step instructions, and more. Learn about new features and changes s

  8. MacBook Pro Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Miser, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Discover loads of tips and techniques for the newest MacBook Pro You're already ahead of the game with a MacBook Pro. Now you can get even more out the popular Apple notebook with the new edition of this handy, compact book. Crammed with savvy insights and tips on key tools and shortcuts, this book will help you increase your productivity and keep your Apple digital lifestyle on track. From desktop sharing and wireless networking to running Windows applications, this book avoids fluff, doesn't skimp on the essentials, saves you time and hassle, and shows you what you most want to know. Include

  9. MAC2: A Multi-Hop Adaptive MAC Protocol with Packet Concatenation for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kien; Meis, Ulrich; Ji, Yusheng

    Wireless sensor network MAC protocols switch radios off periodically, employing the so-called duty cycle mechanism, in order to conserve battery power that would otherwise be wasted by energy-costly idle listening. In order to minimize the various negative side-effects of the original scheme, especially on latency and throughput, various improvements have been proposed. In this paper, we introduce a new MAC protocol called MAC2(Multi-hop Adaptive with packet Concatenation-MAC) which combines three promising techniques into one protocol. Firstly, the idea to forward packets over multiple hops within one operational cycle as initially introduced in RMAC. Secondly, an adaptive method that adjusts the listening period according to traffic load minimizing idle listening. Thirdly, a packet concatenation scheme that not only increases throughput but also reduces power consumption that would otherwise be incurred by additional control packets. Furthermore, MAC2 incorporates the idea of scheduling data transmissions with minimum latency, thereby performing packet concatenation together with the multi-hop transmission mechanism in a most efficient way. We evaluated MAC2 using the prominent network simulator ns-2 and the results show that our protocol can outperform DW-MAC — a state of the art protocol both in terms of energy efficiency and throughput.

  10. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris(Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EG Sanches

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%, five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C –min, nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20 on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  11. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, E G; Oliveira, I R; Serralheiro, P C S; Cerqueira, V R

    2015-08-01

    This study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%), five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C -min), nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes) e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20) on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  12. 8 CFR 287.11 - Pre-enrolled Access Lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 287.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS... checkpoint. (b) General requirements for Pre-enrolled Access Lane Program. (1) Participation in the Pre... States citizens and members of the classes of aliens which the Commissioner of the Service or...

  13. Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Muatjetjeja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform the group classification of the generalized Lane-Emden system xu′′+nu′+xHv=0,  xv′′+nv′+xgu=0, which occurs in many applications of physical phenomena such as pattern formation, population evolution, and chemical reactions. We obtain four cases depending on the values of n.

  14. Categories of Fractions Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    The theory of categories of fractions as originally developed by Gabriel and Zisman is reviewed in a pedagogical manner giving detailed proofs of all statements. A weakening of the category of fractions axioms used by Higson is discussed and shown to be equivalent to the original axioms.

  15. Results from the MAC Vertex chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1987-05-01

    The design, construction, and performance characteristics of a high precision gaseous drift chamber made of thin walled proportional tubes are described. The device achieved an average spatial resolution of 45 ..mu..m in use for physics analysis with the MAC detector. The B-lifetime result obtained with this chamber is discussed.

  16. MacIntyre, Managerialism and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    MacIntyre's earlier work and concern with social science enquiry not only exposes its limits, but also provides an insight into how its knowledge claims have been put to ideological use. He maintains that the institutional embodiment of these ideological ideas is the bureaucratic manager who has had a negative role to play in social structures…

  17. Towards 400GBASE 4-lane Solution Using Direct Detection of MultiCAP Signal in 14 GHz Bandwidth per Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Tianjian, Zuo; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee;

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of 102 Gbit/s transmission over a 15km single wavelength and polarization fiber link with 14GHz 3dB bandwidth. Novel multiband CAP signaling allows for a 4-lane 400GBASE long reach solution....

  18. AH-MAC: Adaptive Hierarchical MAC Protocol for Low-Rate Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ismail Al-Sulaifanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive hierarchical MAC protocol (AH-MAC with cross-layer optimization for low-rate and large-scale wireless sensor networks. The main goal of the proposed protocol is to combine the strengths of LEACH and IEEE 802.15.4 while offsetting their weaknesses. The predetermined cluster heads are supported with an energy harvesting circuit, while the normal nodes are battery-operated. To prolong the network’s operational lifetime, the proposed protocol transfers most of the network’s activities to the cluster heads while minimizing the node’s activity. Some of the main features of this protocol include energy efficiency, self-configurability, scalability, and self-healing. The simulation results showed great improvement of the AH-MAC over LEACH protocol in terms of energy consumption and throughput. AH-MAC consumes eight times less energy while improving throughput via acknowledgment support.

  19. CA-MAC: A Novel MAC Protocol to Alleviate Congestion in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU, J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Even if the traffic pattern is known and the network topology is simple, a strong congestion can take place in wireless sensor networks (WSNs due to the data gathering effect and the duty-cycle operation. In this paper, we propose a novel medium access control (MAC protocol to alleviate the congestion, which is referred to as the congestion alleviation-MAC (CA-MAC. It adopts an adaptive contention window (ACW, which allows the nodes with more buffered packets to transmit with a higher probability, as well as an intelligent burst packet transmission when the congested nodes seize the channel. Simulations are performed in NS-2, and results show that the proposed CA-MAC protocol achieves a good performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio (PDR, power consumption, throughput, and average latency.

  20. Exposure histories of lunar meteorites: ALHA81005, MAC88104, MAC88105, and Y791197

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J.R. (Univ. of California, San Diego, (United States)); Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)); Kubik, P.W.; Sharma, P.; Elmore, D. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)); Reedy, R.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-11-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides {sup 41}Ca, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 10}Be in the Allan Hills 81005, MacAlpine Hills 88104, MacAlpine Hills 88105,and Yamato 791197 meteorites were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). {sup 53}Mn in Allan Hills 81005 and Yamato 791197 was measured by activation. These four lunar meteorites experienced similar histories. They were ejected from near the surface of the Moon ranging in depth down to 400 g/cm{sup 2} and had very short transition times (less than 0.1 Ma) from the Moon to the Earth. A comparison of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in MacAlpine Hills 88104 and MacAlpine Hills 88105 clearly indicates that they are a pair from the same fall.

  1. 42 CFR 405.1126 - Case remanded by the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Case remanded by the MAC. 405.1126 Section 405.1126....1126 Case remanded by the MAC. (a) When the MAC may remand a case. Except as specified in § 405.1122(c), the MAC may remand a case in which additional evidence is needed or additional action by the ALJ is...

  2. Reduction in standard MAC and MAC for intubation after clonidine premedication in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, S; Kihara, S; Yaguchi, Y; Baba, Y; Kohda, Y; Toyooka, H

    2000-11-01

    We examined the relative effects of different doses of oral clonidine on the MAC for endotracheal intubation (MACEI) and the MAC for skin incision (MAC) in children. We studied 90 children (15 in each group) (age range 2-8 yr, weight 10-27 kg, height 89-124 cm) who received one of three preanaesthetic medications: placebo (control), oral clonidine 2 micrograms kg-1, or oral clonidine 4 micrograms kg-1 100 min before anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen and air without i.v. anesthetics and neuromuscular relaxants. The end-tidal sevoflurane concentration was kept constant for > or = 15 min before tracheal intubation or skin incision. MACs were determined using Dixon's 'up-and-down method'. Mean (SD) MACEIs of sevoflurane were 2.9 (0.1)%, 2.5 (0.1)% and 1.9 (0.1)% (P clonidine 2 micrograms kg-1 and clonidine 4 micrograms kg-1 groups. The MACEIs and MACs decreased dose-dependently. The MACEI/MAC ratio (1.4) was not affected by clonidine.

  3. CR-MAC: A Multichannel MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio AD HOC Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kamruzzaman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cross-layer based cognitive radio multichannel medium access control (MACprotocol with TDMA, which integrate the spectrum sensing at physical (PHY layer and the packetscheduling at MAC layer, for the ad hoc wireless networks. The IEEE 802.11 standard allows for the useof multiple channels available at the PHY layer, but its MAC protocol is designed only for a singlechannel. A single channel MAC protocol does not work well in a multichannel environment, because ofthe multichannel hidden terminal problem. Our proposed protocol enables secondary users (SUs toutilize multiple channels by switching channels dynamically, thus increasing network throughput. In ourproposed protocol, each SU is equipped with only one spectrum agile transceiver, but solves themultichannel hidden terminal problem using temporal synchronization. The proposed cognitive radioMAC (CR-MAC protocol allows SUs to identify and use the unused frequency spectrum in a way thatconstrains the level of interference to the primary users (PUs. Our scheme improves network throughputsignificantly, especially when the network is highly congested. The simulation results show that ourproposed CR-MAC protocol successfully exploits multiple channels and significantly improves networkperformance by using the licensed spectrum band opportunistically and protects PUs from interference,even in hidden terminal situations.

  4. 42 CFR 423.2128 - Action of the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Action of the MAC. 423.2128 Section 423.2128 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2128 Action of the MAC. (a) After it has reviewed all the evidence in the...

  5. 42 CFR 405.1118 - Obtaining evidence from the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining evidence from the MAC. 405.1118 Section... Council Review § 405.1118 Obtaining evidence from the MAC. A party may request and receive a copy of all... these items. If a party requests evidence from the MAC and an opportunity to comment on that evidence...

  6. 42 CFR 405.1128 - Action of the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Action of the MAC. 405.1128 Section 405.1128 Public... the MAC. (a) After it has reviewed all the evidence in the administrative record and any additional evidence received, subject to the limitations on MAC consideration of additional evidence in § 405.1122...

  7. 42 CFR 422.608 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 422.608... and Appeals § 422.608 Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. Any party to the hearing, including the MA organization, who is dissatisfied with the ALJ hearing decision, may request that the MAC review...

  8. MAC 700 Wash高亮度灯具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    马田最新推出的MAC 700 Wash高亮度灯具继承了MAC系列的传统优点.具有与MAC 700 Profile相同的强大功能、模组桔构和出色设计,是MAC 700 Profile的“最佳搭档”。

  9. Two-lane traffic-flow model with an exact steady-state solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Masahiro

    2010-12-01

    We propose a stochastic cellular-automaton model for two-lane traffic flow based on the misanthrope process in one dimension. The misanthrope process is a stochastic process allowing for an exact steady-state solution; hence, we have an exact flow-density diagram for two-lane traffic. In addition, we introduce two parameters that indicate, respectively, driver's driving-lane preference and passing-lane priority. Due to the additional parameters, the model shows a deviation of the density ratio for driving-lane use and a biased lane efficiency in flow. Then, a mean-field approach explicitly describes the asymmetric flow by the hop rates, the driving-lane preference, and the passing-lane priority. Meanwhile, the simulation results are in good agreement with an observational data, and we thus estimate these parameters. We conclude that the proposed model successfully produces two-lane traffic flow particularly with the driving-lane preference and the passing-lane priority.

  10. Two-lane traffic simulations with a blockage induced by an accident car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Lei, L.; Dai, S. Q.

    2009-07-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a highway traffic model with a blockage induced by an accident car is proposed, in which both symmetric lane changing rules and asymmetric lane changing rules are adopted. The fundamental diagrams and spatial-temporal profiles are presented after the numerical simulation and the jam transition is studied. It is shown that the accident car not only causes a local jam behind the accident car, but also causes vehicles to cluster in the bypass lane. The asymmetric lane changing rules are more advantageous in reducing the local jam than the symmetric lane changing rules when the accident car is in the right lane, and the symmetric lane changing rules are superior when the accident car is in the left lane. Furthermore the curves of lane-changing frequency against the total density are given. It is found that the vehicles will change lane more frequently when traffic is inhomogeneous with different types of vehicle or with an accident car.

  11. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    In many real-world problems, rare categories (minority classes) play essential roles despite their extreme scarcity. The discovery, characterization and prediction of rare categories of rare examples may protect us from fraudulent or malicious behavior, aid scientific discovery, and even save lives. This book focuses on rare category analysis, where the majority classes have smooth distributions, and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. Furthermore, it focuses on the challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap. The author has devel

  12. Representation of categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Inge; Pecher, Diane

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were presented inside or outside a frame that should activate the container schema. We found that performance to pictures was influenced by the frame in congruence with the metaphorical mapping (same category—inside bounded region; different category—not in same bounded region). These results show that the concept categories is metaphorically represented by containers.

  13. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  14. Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechsteleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ; Wolf, D.E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechstleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ]|[Gerhard-Mercator-Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Theoretische Physik; Wagner, P. [Univ. zu Koeln (Germany). Zentrum Fuer Paralleles Rechnen]|[Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany); Simon, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-05

    Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.

  15. A Precise Lane Detection Algorithm Based on Top View Image Transformation and Least-Square Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byambaa Dorj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The next promising key issue of the automobile development is a self-driving technique. One of the challenges for intelligent self-driving includes a lane-detecting and lane-keeping capability for advanced driver assistance systems. This paper introduces an efficient and lane detection method designed based on top view image transformation that converts an image from a front view to a top view space. After the top view image transformation, a Hough transformation technique is integrated by using a parabolic model of a curved lane in order to estimate a parametric model of the lane in the top view space. The parameters of the parabolic model are estimated by utilizing a least-square approach. The experimental results show that the newly proposed lane detection method with the top view transformation is very effective in estimating a sharp and curved lane leading to a precise self-driving capability.

  16. Fast lane recognition based on morphological multi-struc-ture element model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Tao; FAN Yang-yu; HUANG Lian-bing

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a lane detection algorithm based on multi-structure element model of morphological. The innovative point of the algorithm lies in the facts that the flexible structure has the multi-structure elements that lane model features have, and that the algorithm adopts the morphological filtering principle to extract the pixels in the image, which is similar to the lane model. In the algorithm, the interested area is extracted by a model of trapezium from original image, which is detected by the operator of Canny, and the lanes are extracted by the structure elements, which have similar characteristics to that of lane model. Several lines are detected by Hough transformation, then the traffic lanes are reconstructed. Experi-ments show that this algorithm is simple and robust, and can efficiently detect the lane mask accurately and quickly.

  17. An electric vehicle driving behavior model in the traffic system with a wireless charging lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Huang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Hai; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is proposed to study each EV's (electric vehicle) motion behavior near the WCL (wireless charging lane) and a lane-changing rule is designed to describe the EV's lane-changing behavior. Then, the car-following model and lane-changing rule are used to explore each EV's micro driving behavior in a two-lane system with a WCL. Finally, the impacts of the WCL on each EV's motion behavior are investigated. The numerical results show that each EV should run slowly on the WCL if it needs charge of electricity, that the EV's lane-changing behavior has great effects on the whole system, that the delay time caused by the WCL turns more prominent when the traffic turns heavy, and that lane-changing frequently occurs near the WCL (especially at the downstream of the WCL).

  18. Microscopic simulation of multi-lane traffic under dynamic tolling and information feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-liang; HUANG Hai-jun; TIAN Li-jun

    2009-01-01

    To investigate drivers' lane-changing behavior under different information feedback strategies, a microscopic traffic simulation based on the cellular automaton model was made on the typical freeway with a regular lane and a high-occupancy one. A new dynamic tolling scheme in terms of the real-time traffic condition on the high-occupancy lane was further designed to enhance the whole freeway's flow throughput. The results show that the mean velocity feedback strategy is generally more efficient than the travel time feedback strategy in correctly guiding drivers' lane choice behavior. Specifically, the toll level, lane-changing rate and freeway's throughput and congestion coefficient induced by the travel time feedback strategy oscillate with larger amplitude and longer period. In addition, the dynamic tolling scheme can make the high-occupancy lane less congested and maximize the freeway's throughput when the regular-lane inflow rate is larger than 0.45.

  19. Variation within categories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Swart, de J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Two aspects of variation within categories, relating to different models of categorization, were investigated - frequency of dimensional values and typicality differences within values. The influence of range of typicality experienced during learning and of informational value of feedback was also

  20. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  1. Categorial Minimalist Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Amblard, Maxime; Retoré, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We first recall some basic notions on minimalist grammars and on categorial grammars. Next we shortly introduce partially commutative linear logic, and our representation of minimalist grammars within this categorial system, the so-called categorial minimalist grammars. Thereafter we briefly present \\lambda\\mu-DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) an extension of \\lambda-DRT (compositional DRT) in the framework of \\lambda\\mu calculus: it avoids type raising and derives different readings from a single semantic representation, in a setting which follows discourse structure. We run a complete example which illustrates the various structures and rules that are needed to derive a semantic representation from the categorial view of a transformational syntactic analysis.

  2. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  3. Abstract sectional category

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, F; Garcia, P; Murillo, A; Remedios, J

    2011-01-01

    We study, in an abstract axiomatic setting, the notion of sectional category of a morphism. From this, we unify and generalize known results about this invariant in different settings as well as we deduce new applications.

  4. Tvorba konceptu category managementu

    OpenAIRE

    Lepař, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to define proces of creating the concept of category management and to apply the proces via existing assortment concept of certain retail company. The theoretical part covers basics of category management, merchandising and other related disciplines and its influence to creating concepts. Practical part includes detailed description of creating the concept, realized by retail company, selling Do it yourself products. Creation proces will start by anylysing current s...

  5. Isolation and characterisation of human gingival margin-derived STRO-1/MACS1 and MACS2 cell populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karim M Fawzy El-Sayed; Sebastian Paris; Christian Graetz; Neemat Kassem; Mohamed Mekhemar; Hendrick Ungefroren; Fred Fandrich; Christof Dorfer

    2015-01-01

    Recently, gingival margin-derived stem/progenitor cells isolated via STRO-1/magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) showed remarkable periodontal regenerative potential in vivo. As a second-stage investigation, the present study’s aim was to perform in vitro characterisation and comparison of the stem/progenitor cell characteristics of sorted STRO-1-positive (MACS1) and STRO-1-negative (MACS2) cell populations from the human free gingival margin. Cells were isolated from the free gingiva using a minimally invasive technique and were magnetically sorted using anti-STRO-1 antibodies. Subsequently, the MACS1 and MACS2 cell fractions were characterized by flow cytometry for expression of CD14, CD34, CD45, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146/MUC18 and STRO-1. Colony-forming unit (CFU) and multilineage differentiation potential were assayed for both cell fractions. Mineralisation marker expression was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MACS1 and MACS2 cell fractions showed plastic adherence. MACS1 cells, in contrast to MACS2 cells, showed all of the predefined mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell characteristics and a significantly higher number of CFUs (P,0.01). More than 95%of MACS1 cells expressed CD105, CD90 and CD73;lacked the haematopoietic markers CD45, CD34 and CD14, and expressed STRO-1 and CD146/MUC18. MACS2 cells showed a different surface marker expression profile, with almost no expression of CD14 or STRO-1, and more than 95%of these cells expressed CD73, CD90 and CD146/MUC18, as well as the haematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 and CD105. MACS1 cells could be differentiated along osteoblastic, adipocytic and chondroblastic lineages. In contrast, MACS2 cells demonstrated slight osteogenic potential. Unstimulated MACS1 cells showed significantly higher expression of collagen I (P,0.05) and collagen III (P,0.01), whereas MACS2 cells demonstrated higher expression of osteonectin (P,0.05;Mann–Whitney). The present study is the first to compare gingival

  6. MacBook All-in-One For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Get comfortable and confident with your MacBook! Combining the fun-but-straightforward content of nine minibooks, this new edition of MacBook All-in-One For Dummies delivers helpful coverage of the rich features and essential tools you need to know to use the MacBook to its fullest potential. You'll learn an array of MacBook basics while veteran author Mark Chambers walks you through setting up your MacBook, running programs, finding files with Finder, searching with Spotlight, keeping track with Address Book, enjoying music with iTunes, creating cool multimedia projects with iLife, and more.

  7. TWO-WAY ROAD NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEM WITH VARIABLE LANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haozhi ZHANG; Ziyou GAO

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a new form of transportation network design problem.In urban transportation network,unreasonable phenomenon can occur in certain traffic period (e.g.on/off duty period),which demonstrates that the flows of opposite directions on a two-way road are seriously asymmetric; one traffic link of a two-way road congest heavily but the other is hardly used.In order to reduce transportation congestion and make full use of the existing road resources,we propose a lane reallocating approach in peak period,and establish a discrete bi-level programming model for the decision-making.Then,based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique,a heuristic solution algorithm for the bi-level model is designed.Finally,the lane reallocating approach is demonstrated through a simple transportation network.

  8. Tightly Coupling GPS with Lane Markings for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Tightly coupling GPS pseudorange and Doppler measurements with other sensors is a way to increase accuracy and integrity of the positioning information particularly when it is computed autonomously. Highly accurate digital maps are also more and more key components for autonomous vehicle navigation and can enhance the localization system. In this paper, a video camera is used to get relative information with respect to lane markings and dead-reckoning sensors are also ...

  9. Mapping and localization using GPS, lane markings and proprioceptive sensors

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Estimating the pose in real-time is a primary function for intelligent vehicle navigation. Whilst different solutions exist, most of them rely on the use of high-end sensors. This paper proposes a solution that exploits an automotive type L1-GPS receiver, features extracted by low-cost perception sensors and vehicle proprioceptive information. A key idea is to use the lane detection function of a video camera to retrieve accurate lateral and orientation information wit...

  10. Modeling MAC layer for powerline communications networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrasnica, Halid; Haidine, Abdelfatteh

    2001-02-01

    The usage of electrical power distribution networks for voice and data transmission, called Powerline Communications, becomes nowadays more and more attractive, particularly in the telecommunication access area. The most important reasons for that are the deregulation of the telecommunication market and a fact that the access networks are still property of former monopolistic companies. In this work, first we analyze a PLC network and system structure as well as a disturbance scenario in powerline networks. After that, we define a logical structure of the powerline MAC layer and propose the reservation MAC protocols for the usage in the PLC network which provides collision free data transmission. This makes possible better network utilization and realization of QoS guarantees which can make PLC networks competitive to other access technologies.

  11. Seán MacDiarmada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madden

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seán MacDiarmada: Signatory to Proclamation – Executed after the Rising of 1916 - Leitrim to Kilmainham was written by Tom Madden to coincide with the 1916/2016 centenary commemorations. The play was first performed at the Mullagh Arts Festival in Cavan during September 2016 and provides a lively account of the background and activism of one the seven leaders of the Easter Rising of 1916. The action plays out over twelve scenes taking in MacDiarmada's journey from teacher to revolutionary activist culminating in a deeply flawed court-martial and his subsequent execution by a British Army firing squad on May 12th, 1916.

  12. Earth tides in MacDonald's model

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraz-Mello, S

    2013-01-01

    We expand the equations used in MacDonald's 1964 theory and Fourier analyze the tidal variations of the height at one point on the Earth surface, and also the tidal potential at such point. It is shown that no intrinsic law is relating the lag of the tide components to their frequencies. In other words, no simple rheology is being intrinsically fixed by MacDonald's equations. The same is true of the modification proposed by Singer(1968). At variance with these two cases, the modification proposed by Williams and Efroimsky (2012) fix the standard Darwin rheology in which the lags are proportional to the frequencies and their model is, in this sense, equivalent to Mignard's 1979 formulation of Darwin's theory.

  13. MacBook Pro portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Gruman, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Learn the skills, tools and shortcuts you need in order to make the most of your MacBook Pro This easy-to-use, compact guide skips the fluff and gets right to the essentials so that you can maximize all the latest features of the MacBook Pro. Packed with savvy insights and tips on key tools and shortcuts, this handy book aims to help you increase your productivity and save you time and hassle. From desktop sharing and wireless networking to running Windows applications and more, this book shows you what you want to know. Includes the latest version of OS X, iCloud, FaceTime, and moreCovers al

  14. Performance Analysis of MAC Layer Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameeza Ahmed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Media Access Control (MAC layer protocols have a critical role in making a typical Wireless Sensor Network (WSN more reliable and efficient. Choice of MAC layer protocol and other factors including number of nodes, mobility, traffic rate and playground size dictates the performance of a particular WSN. In this paper, the performance of an experimental WSN is evaluated using different MAC layer protocols. In this experiment, a WSN is created using OMNeT++ MiXiM network simulator and its performance in terms of packet delivery ratio and mean latency is evaluated. The simulation results show that IEEE 802.11 MAC layer protocol performs better than CSMA, B-MAC and IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer protocols. In the considered scenario, IEEE 802.15.4 is ranked second in performance, followed by CSMA and B-MAC.

  15. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pei-Yung; Cheng, Hsien-Chein; Huang, Shih-Shinh; Fu, Li-Chen

    2009-01-01

    This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC) based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 × 2,389.8 μm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP). The pixel cell size is 18.45 × 21.8 μm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 × 9.6 μm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  16. A modified two-lane traffic model considering drivers' personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Zhang, N. X.; Wu, W. J.

    2015-06-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a modified traffic model (R-STCA model, for short) is presented, in which the new symmetric lane changing rules are introduced by considering driving behavioral difference and dynamic headway. After the numerical simulation, a broad scattering of simulated points is exhibited in the moderate density region on the flow-density plane. The synchronized flow phase accompanied with the wide moving jam phase is reproduced. The spatial-temporal profiles indicate that the vehicles move according to the R-STCA model can change lane more easily and more realistically. Then vehicles are convenient to get rid of the slow vehicles that turn into plugs ahead, and hence the capacity increases. Furthermore the phenomenon of the high speed car-following is discovered by using the R-STCA model, which has been already observed in the traffic measured data. All these results indicate that the presented model is reasonable and more realistic.

  17. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Fu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC or Digital Signal Processor (DSP, the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 x 2,389.8 mm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP. The pixel cell size is 18.45 x 21.8 mm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 x 9.6 mm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  18. 关于Mac OS X Lion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饭桶

    2011-01-01

    Lion是Mac OS X操作系统的第七个版本,第一个版本是2001年发布的Cheetah(猎豹).或许很多Windows用户会认为,Lion不过是一次升级,主版本仍然是Mac OSX.那么我不介意稍微解释一下:Mac OS X对应的层次是Windows,Cheetah或者Lion相当于XP,或者7.因此即使从软件工程的角度看,Lion也是一个全新的操作系统.由于重新编译了核心,Lion的安装文件只有3.6GB大小,比上一代(Snow Leopard)减少了近一半的体积,这种比旧版本体积更小的新操作系统在历史上可不多见.

  19. Power Saving MAC Protocols for WSNs and Optimization of S-MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simarpreet Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Low power MAC protocols have received a lot of consideration in the last few years because of their influence on the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. Since, sensors typically operate on batteries, replacement of which is often difficult. A lot of work has been done to minimize the energy expenditure and prolong the sensor lifetime through energy efficient designs, across layers. Meanwhile, the sensor network should be able to maintain a certain throughput in order to fulfill the QoS requirements of the end user, and to ensure the constancy of the network. This paper introduces different types of MAC protocols used for WSNs and proposes S‐MAC, a Medium‐Access Control protocol designed for Wireless Sensor Networks. S‐MAC uses a few innovative techniques to reduce energy consumption and support selfconfiguration. A new protocol is suggested to improve the energy efficiency, latency and throughput of existing MAC protocol for WSNs. A modification of the protocol is then proposed to eliminate the need for some nodes to stay awake longer than the other nodes which improves the energy efficiency, latency and throughput and hence increases the life span of a wireless sensor network.

  20. The Evaluation of Lane-Changing Behavior in Urban Traffic Stream with Fuzzy Clustering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for The Evaluation of Lane-Changing Behavior in Urban Traffic Stream with Fuzzy Clustering Method. The trends for drivers Lane-Changing with regard to remarkable effects in traffic are regarded as a major variable in traffic engineering. As a result, various algorithms have presented most models of Lane-Changing developed by means of lane information and the manner of vehicle movement mainly obtained from images process not much attention is given to the characteristics of driver. Lane change divided into two parts the first one are compulsory lane including lane change to turn left or turn right. The second type of change is optional and lane change to improve driving condition. A low speed car is a good example, in this study, through focused group discussion method, drivers information can be obtained so that driver’s personality traits are taken into consideration. Then drivers are divided into four groups by means of Algorithm clusters. The four Algorithms suggest that phase typed cluster is a more suitable method for drivers classification based on Lane-Changing. Through notarization of different type of scenarios of lane change in Iran following results released. The percentage of drivers for each group is 17/5, 35, 20 and 27/ %, respectively.

  1. A new traffic model with the consideration of coupling effect with two lanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Guang-Han; Sun Di-Hua; He Heng-Pan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new two-lane high-order continuum model by embedding the two delay time scales con-tinuum traffic model presented by Xue (2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 066123) into the multi-lane model proposed by Daganzo (1997 Transpn. Res. B 31 83) with the consideration of the coupling effect between the vehicles of two lanes in instan-taneous traffic situation and lane-change effect. In the novel model, the coupling effect of two lanes and phenomena of lane change, which were not discussed in Daganzo's model and Xue's model, are taken into account. Numerical simulation shows that it is in accordance with real traffic flow. This obviously indicates that the new phenomenon and behaviour are analogous results as single lane presented by Xue, and the proposed model is more reasonable on two lanes. Furthermore, the generation rate between two lanes is also investigated. The results show that the formation and diffusion of traffic shock wave can be better simulated on two lanes.

  2. Improved river flow and random sample consensus for curve lane detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huachun Tan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and robust lane detection, especially the curve lane detection, is the premise of lane departure warning system and forward collision warning system. In this article, an algorithm based on improved river flow and random sample consensus is proposed to detect curve lane under challenging conditions including the dashed lane markings and vehicle occlusion. The curve lanes are modeled as hyperbola pair. To determine the coefficient of curvature, an improved river flow method is presented to search feature points in the far vision field guided by the results of detected straight lines in near vision field or the curved lines from the last frame, which can connect dashed lane markings or obscured lane markings. As a result, it is robust on dashed lane markings and vehicle occlusion conditions. Then, random sample consensus is utilized to calculate the curvature, which can eliminate noisy feature points obtained from improved river flow. The experimental results show that the proposed method can accurately detect lane under challenging conditions.

  3. SR-MAC: A Low Latency MAC Protocol for Multi-Packet Transmissions in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Wei Tang; Jian-Nong Cao; Xue-Feng Liu; Cai-Xia Sun

    2013-01-01

    Event detection is one of the major applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs).Most of existing medium access control (MAC) protocols are mainly optimized for the situation under which an event only generates one packet on a single sensor node.When an event generates multiple packets on a single node,the performance of these MAC protocols degrades rapidly.In this paper,we present a new synchronous duty-cycle MAC protocol called SR-MAC for the event detection applications in which multiple packets are generated on a single node.SR-MAC introduces a new scheduling mechanism that reserves few time slots during the SLEEP period for the nodes to transmit multiple packets.By this approach,SR-MAC can schedule multiple packets generated by an event on a single node to be forwarded over multiple hops in one operational cycle without collision.We use event delivery latency (EDL) and event delivery ratio (EDR) to measure the event detection capability of the SR-MAC protocol.Through detailed ns-2 simulation,the results show that SR-MAC can achieve lower EDL,higher EDR and higher network throughput with guaranteed energy efficiency compared with R-MAC,DW-MAC and PR-MAC.

  4. A convenient differential category

    CERN Document Server

    Blute, Richard; Tasson, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the category of Mackey-complete, separated, topological convex bornological vector spaces and bornological linear maps is a differential category. Such spaces were introduced by Fr\\"olicher and Kriegl, where they were called convenient vector spaces. While much of the structure necessary to demonstrate this observation is already contained in Fr\\"olicher and Kriegl's book, we here give a new interpretation of the category of convenient vector spaces as a model of the differential linear logic of Ehrhard and Regnier. Rather than base our proof on the abstract categorical structure presented by Fr\\"olicher and Kriegl, we prefer to focus on the bornological structure of convenient vector spaces. We believe bornological structures will ultimately yield a wide variety of models of differential logics.

  5. W-MAC: a workload-aware MAC protocol for heterogeneous convergecast in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ming; Dong, Yabo; Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    The power consumption and latency of existing MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are high in heterogeneous convergecast, where each sensor node generates different amounts of data in one convergecast operation. To solve this problem, we present W-MAC, a workload-aware MAC protocol for heterogeneous convergecast in WSNs. A subtree-based iterative cascading scheduling mechanism and a workload-aware time slice allocation mechanism are proposed to minimize the power consumption of nodes, while offering a low data latency. In addition, an efficient schedule adjustment mechanism is provided for adapting to data traffic variation and network topology change. Analytical and simulation results show that the proposed protocol provides a significant energy saving and latency reduction in heterogeneous convergecast, and can effectively support data aggregation to further improve the performance.

  6. Notas sobre dois livros de MacIntyre Notes on two books by MacIntyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os conceitos centrais da teoria da justiça desenvolvida por Alasdair MacIntyre - prática, narrativa e tradição - ocupam o núcleo da análise feita acerca de dois de seus livros: Depois da Virtude e Justiça de Quem? Qual racionalidade?. O artigo considera a relação, em MacIntyre, entre ética e história, virtude e relativismo, bem como apresenta seu conceito do Eu, como corretivos à anomia contemporânea.The central concepts of MacIntyre's approach to justice - practice, narrative and tradition - constitute the main trust of the analysis of two of his books: After Virtue and Whose justice? Which rationality? The article elaborates on the relationship of ethics to history, of virtues to relativism as well as his conception of the self as correctives to the pervasive anomie in contemporary societies.

  7. A Real-Time Lane Detection Algorithm Based on Intelligent CCD Parameters Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-shu Ge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane departure warning system (LDWS has been regarded as an efficient method to lessen the damages of road traffic accident resulting from driver fatigue or inattention. Lane detection is one of the key techniques for LDWS. To overcome the contradiction between complexity of algorithm and the real-time requirement for vehicle onboard system, this paper introduces a new lane detection method based on intelligent CCD parameters regulation. In order to improve the real-time capability of the system, a CCD parameters regulating method is proposed which enhances the contrast between lane line and road surfaces and reduces image noise, so it lays a good foundation for the following lane detection. Hough transform algorithm is improved by selection and classification of seed points. Finally the lane line is extracted through some restrictions. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, which improves not only real-time capability but also the accuracy of the system.

  8. A Real-Time System for Lane Detection Based on FPGA and DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Li, Shutao; Sun, Bin

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a real-time lane detection system including edge detection and improved Hough Transform based lane detection algorithm and its hardware implementation with field programmable gate array (FPGA) and digital signal processor (DSP). Firstly, gradient amplitude and direction information are combined to extract lane edge information. Then, the information is used to determine the region of interest. Finally, the lanes are extracted by using improved Hough Transform. The image processing module of the system consists of FPGA and DSP. Particularly, the algorithms implemented in FPGA are working in pipeline and processing in parallel so that the system can run in real-time. In addition, DSP realizes lane line extraction and display function with an improved Hough Transform. The experimental results show that the proposed system is able to detect lanes under different road situations efficiently and effectively.

  9. Feedback control for car following model based on two-lane traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-xia; Meng, Xiang-pei; Zhu, Hui-bing; Li, Zhi-Peng

    2014-08-01

    In the paper, two-lane traffic flow considering lane changing behaviors has been discussed based on the control theory, and the friction interference which is from the neighbor lane has been taken into account. By using the control method, the stability condition is derived. The feedback signals, which include vehicular information from both lanes, acting on the two-lane traffic system have been introduced into the Full Velocity Difference car-following model. In the end, simulations are conducted to examine the validity and reasonability of the control method. It is proven that lane changing behaviors can aggravate the traffic perturbation. The traffic flow congestion could be suppressed by using the control method and the simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  10. Dilemma game structure observed in traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Atsuo; Tanimoto, Jun; Hagishima, Aya; Sagara, Hiroki

    2009-03-01

    Using a cellular automaton traffic model based on the stochastic optimal velocity model with appropriate assumptions for both incoming and outgoing vehicle boundaries, the so-called bottleneck issue on a lane-closing section was investigated in terms of game theory. In the system, two classified driver agents coexist: C agents (cooperative strategy) always driving in the first lane and D agents (defective strategy) trying to drive in a lower-density lane whether the first or the second lane. In high-density flow, D agents' interruption into the first lane from the second just before the lane-closing section creates a heavier traffic jam, which reduces social efficiency. This particular event can be described with a prisoner's dilemma game structure.

  11. lane-Curvature Method:A New method for Local Obstacle Avoidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Nak Yong; Lee, Sang Kee [Chosun University (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    The lane-curvature method (LCM) presented in this paper is anew local obstacle avoidance method for indoor mobile robots. The method combines curvature-velocity method (CVM) with a new directional method called the lane method. The lane method divides the environment into lanes taking the information on obstacles and desired heading of the robot into account; then it chooses the best lane to follow to optimize travel along a desired heading. A local heading is then calculated for entering and following the best lane, and CVM uses this heading to determine the optimal translational and rotational velocities, considering the heading direction, physical limitations, and environmental constraints. By combining both the directional and velocity space methods, LCM yields safe collision-free motion as well as smooth motion taking the dynamics of the robot into account. Experiments using the mobile robot Xavier, show the efficiency of the proposed method. (author). 13 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Simplicial Descent Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Gonzalez, Beatriz

    2008-04-01

    Much of the homotopical and homological structure of the categories of chain complexes and topological spaces can be deduced from the existence and properties of the 'simple' functors Tot : {double chain complexes} -> {chain complexes} and geometric realization : {sSets} -> {Top}, or similarly, Tot : {simplicial chain complexes} -> {chain complexes} and | | : {sTop} -> {Top}. The purpose of this thesis is to abstract this situation, and to this end we introduce the notion of '(co)simplicial descent category'. It is inspired by Guillen-Navarros's '(cubical) descent categories'. The key ingredients in a (co)simplicial descent category D are a class E of morphisms in D, called equivalences, and a 'simple' functor s : {(co)simplicial objects in D} -> D. They must satisfy axioms like 'Eilenberg-Zilber', 'exactness' and 'acyclicity'. This notion covers a wide class of examples, as chain complexes, sSets, topological spaces, filtered cochain complexes (where E = filtered quasi-isomorphisms or E = E_2-isomorphisms), commutative differential graded algebras (with s = Navarro's Thom-Whitney simple), DG-modules over a DG-category and mixed Hodge complexes, where s = Deligne's simple. From the simplicial descent structure we obtain homotopical structure on D, as cone and cylinder objects. We use them to i) explicitly describe the morphisms of HoD=D[E^{-1}] similarly to the case of calculus of fractions; ii) endow HoD with a non-additive pre-triangulated structure, that becomes triangulated in the stable additive case. These results use the properties of a 'total functor', which associates to any biaugmented bisimplicial object a simplicial object. It is the simplicial analogue of the total chain complex of a double complex, and it is left adjoint to Illusie's 'decalage' functor.

  13. Noether, Partial Noether Operators and First Integrals for the Coupled Lane-Emden System

    OpenAIRE

    Muatjetjeja, Ben; Khalique, Chaudry

    2010-01-01

    Systems of Lane-Emden equations arise in the modelling of several physical phenomena, such as pattern formation, population evolution and chemical reactions. In this paper we construct Noether and partial Noether operators corresponding to a Lagrangian and a partial Lagrangian for a coupled Lane-Emden system. Then the first integrals with respect to Noether and partial Noether operators are obtained for the Lane-Emden system under consideration. We show that the first integrals for both the N...

  14. Safety Effectiveness of Offsetting Opposing Left‐Turn Lanes: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Bhaven; Appiah, Justice; Khattak, Aemal J.; Rilett, Laurence R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits to intersection safety of offsetting left-turn lanes by widening the width of the lane-line marking between the left-turn lanes and their adjacent through lanes. The analysis was performed using an empirical Baye’s procedure in order to account for potential bias due to regression-to-the-mean. Results from the analysis of 12 treated intersection approaches and 36 non-treated approaches in Lincoln, Nebraska, suggest statistically significant improvements in sa...

  15. Monitored Anaesthesia Care (MAC in antalgic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Maria Pisanu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of surgical techniques for pain relief in the treatment of chronic-persistent pain unresponsive to drug therapy is experiencing a growing spread application in algology. These techniques have set themselves the goal of removing the pain after treatment. Therefore, not always, percutaneous or open procedures are carried out with due precaution necessary to alleviate the patient discomfort and suffering during the surgical intervention. We present our personal experience in the use of this technique Monitored Anaesthesia Care (MAC for patients undergoing surgical treatment of pain management at our Regional Center of Pain Management.

  16. One of the First Portable Macs

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    It was one of the first portable macs released. The Portable had many new advances in mobile computing : The display was crispy clear, and looked beautiful when used in daylight ; The Portable came with a Lead-acid gel/cell battery that could run a anywhere from 6 -12 hours ; It supported to internal hard drives, and an external one. The reaction to the laptop was weak because it was slow, it had no capacity for expansion, it weighed heavily, its price was expensive. It has been stayed 1 year and half on the market.

  17. Energy Efficient MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka KOSKELA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an overlay solution for asynchronous Medium Access Control (MAC protocols in a duty-cycled wireless sensor network (WSN. The solution extends sleeping times and corrects time drift when the sampling rate is low. The sleeping time is adjusted according to the requisite data sampling rate and the delay requirements of the prevailing application. This and the time drift correction considerably reduced idle listening and thus also decreased power consumption. When the power consumption is reduced, the life of wireless sensor nodes extends.

  18. Highest weight categories and recollements

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Henning

    2015-01-01

    We provide several equivalent descriptions of a highest weight category using recollements of abelian categories. Also, we explain the connection between sequences of standard and exceptional objects.

  19. Development of 8-lane PCI-Express protocol using VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Harish

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flosolver Mk 8 is the latest family member of the Flosolver series of parallel computers in CSIR-NAL that is currently being developed, to have a performance of 10 TFLOPS with 1024 processors in it. It is based on distributed memory concept, using quad core xeon processors[11]. Each cluster consists of 8 processors, a FPGA based Floswitch, and 4 PCI cards. The inter Cluster communication is carried out through optical transceivers to provide high speed communication. PCI is used for interface between the server and the FloSwitch. Unlike any other switch, the Floswitch has the capability of performing information processing operation which is a unique feature, along with message passing[12]. To this existing system the project intends to replace the PCI card with 8- lane PCI-Express add-on card. The PCI-Express defines a line rate of 2.5Gbps per lane. The basic goal of this project entitled “Development of PCI Express protocol using VHDL” is to Design and Develop a PCI-Express protocol for a 8x PCI-e card, with an optical transceiver and DPM (Dual Port Memory as an external interfaces. The development includes the generation of 8 x PCI-e cores and interfacing the core for optical transaction and also for the DPM transaction. The PCI-Express add-on card contains a FPGA (Virtex V– XC5VLX110T and the card supports 8X lane. FPGA provides an interface between the PCI-Express signals, the DPM and the optical transceiver module. The protocol has to be developed using VHDL and simulated using model sim 6.1f

  20. Implementation of MAC by using Modified Vedic Multiplier

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Multiplier Accumulator Unit (MAC) is a part of Digital Signal Processors. The speed of MAC depends on the speed of multiplier. So by using an efficient Vedic multiplier which excels in terms of speed, power and area, the performance of MAC can be increased. For this fast method of multiplication based on ancient Indian Vedic mathematics is proposed in this paper. Among various method of multiplication in Vedic mathematics, Urdhva Tiryagbhyam is used and the multiplication is for 32 X 32 bits....

  1. Essential Mac OS X panther server administration integrating Mac OS X server into heterogeneous networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosh, Michael

    2004-01-01

    If you've ever wondered how to safely manipulate Mac OS X Panther Server's many underlying configuration files or needed to explain AFP permission mapping--this book's for you. From the command line to Apple's graphical tools, the book provides insight into this powerful server software. Topics covered include installation, deployment, server management, web application services, data gathering, and more

  2. APC-MAC/TA: Adaptive Power Controlled MAC Protocol with Traffic Awareness for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seok; Kim, Kiseon

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive power controlled MAC protocol with a traffic-aware scheme specifically designed to reduce both energy and latency in wireless sensor networks. Typically, existing MAC protocols for sensor networks sacrifice latency performance for node energy efficiency. However, some sensor applications for emergencies require rather fast transmissions of sensed data, where we need to consider both energy and latency together. The proposed MAC protocol includes two novel ideas: one is a transmission power control scheme for improving latency in high traffic loads, and the other is a traffic-aware scheme to save more energy in low traffic loads. The transmission power control scheme increases channel utilization by mitigating interference between nodes, and the traffic-aware scheme allows nodes to sleep to reduce idle energy consumption when there are no traffic loads in a network. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol significantly reduces the latency as well as the energy consumption compared to the S-MAC protocol specifically for a large transmission power of nodes and low network traffic.

  3. Bayesian Reasoning Using 3D Relations for Lane Marker Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesman, Bart; Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre;

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a lane marker detection algorithm that integrates 3D attributes as well as 3D relations between local edges and semi-global contours in a Bayesian framework. The algorithm is parameter free and does not make use of any heuristic assumptions. The reasoning is based on the complete...... conditional probabilities of the different cues which are estimated from a training set. The importance of the individual visual cues can be computed using a standard measure and the cues can then be combined in an optimal way. In addition we show that when doing 3D reasoning, the uncertainties connected...

  4. EFFICIENT LANE DETECTION BASED ON ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Arce

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lane detection is a problem that has attracted in the last years the attention of the computer vision community. Most of approaches used until now to face this problem combine conventional image processing, image analysis and pattern classification techniques. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on so-called Ellipsoidal Neural Networks with Dendritic Processing (ENNDPs as a new approach to provide a solution to this important problem. The functioning and performance of the proposed methodology is validated with a real video taken by a camera mounted on a car circulating on urban highway of Mexico City.

  5. Efficient Lane Detection Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, F.; Zamora, E.; Hernández, G.; Sossa, H.

    2017-09-01

    Lane detection is a problem that has attracted in the last years the attention of the computer vision community. Most of approaches used until now to face this problem combine conventional image processing, image analysis and pattern classification techniques. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on so-called Ellipsoidal Neural Networks with Dendritic Processing (ENNDPs) as a new approach to provide a solution to this important problem. The functioning and performance of the proposed methodology is validated with a real video taken by a camera mounted on a car circulating on urban highway of Mexico City.

  6. Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, John

    2009-01-01

    Making Everything Easier!. Mac OS® X Snow Leopard Server for Dummies. Learn to::;. Set up and configure a Mac network with Snow Leopard Server;. Administer, secure, and troubleshoot the network;. Incorporate a Mac subnet into a Windows Active Directory® domain;. Take advantage of Unix® power and security. John Rizzo. Want to set up and administer a network even if you don't have an IT department? Read on!. Like everything Mac, Snow Leopard Server was designed to be easy to set up and use. Still, there are so many options and features that this book will save you heaps of time and effort. It wa

  7. Study on intracellular trafficking of Mac-1 by direct visualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ming; MAO Jifang; WEI Yi; ZHONG Jigen; YANG Shengsheng; XU Renbao

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we constructed DNA vectors containing cDNA of Mac-1 subunits (CD11b or CD18b) fused with fluorescence protein (FP). cDNA fragments and the DNA constructs were then transfected into CHO cells (as CHO-Mac-1-FP). The structure and function of Mac-1-FP obtained from the CHO-Mac-1-FP cells are nearly identical to that expressed in wild type leukocytes. In the present study, the intracellular trafficking of Mac-1 was visualized directly by monitoring the fluorescent intensities of YFP-CD18 and PE-conjugated monoclonal antibody against CD11b under a confocal microscope in CHO-Mac-1-FP cells. The results indicate that: (ⅰ) although Mac-1 was not detected in the cell membrane at resting state, it had been translocated and clustered into the cell membrane by 1 h and internalized 2 h after PMA stimulation, at which point the fluorescence intensity began to diminish gradually, probably due to partial degradation of Mac-1. The fluorescence of CD18 and CD11b reappeared on the cell membrane 1 h after re-treatment with PMA, suggesting the recycling of non-degraded Mac-1. (ⅱ) The adhesion rate of CHO-Mac-1-FP to magnetic beads coupled ICAM-1 increased within 4 h after their initial interaction, accompanied by the clustering of Mac-1-FP. After 8 h,the adhesion rate declined and fluorescence also decreased simultaneously. The pattern of change in fluorescence in CHO-Mac-1-FP cells elicited by ICAM-1 beads was similar to that elicited by PMA, suggesting that endocytosis and degradation of Mac-1 occurred after the interaction with ICAM-1. Thus, we conclude that the intracellular trafficking of Mac-1 after activation is associated with membrane translocation, endocytosis, degradation and recycling. These changes are in parallel with the adhesion of CHO-Mac-1-FP cells with ICAM-1, and may be involved in the adhesion and detachment of leukocytes. The detachment of leukocytes may be caused by endocytosis of Mac-1.

  8. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  9. An Energy Efficient Analysis of S-MAC And H-MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T.Kalaivaani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is an interesting topic to the researchers because of its variousapplications. The applications are health monitoring and environmental monitoring, Industrial ProcessMonitoring, Target detection, Target tracking, Energy Efficiency, Disaster Management and MilitarySecurity Systems. The wireless medium requires highly optimized medium Access Protocols to avoidinterferences. Limited resources have driven the research towards energy consumption of MACfunctionalities. Two Medium Access Control (MAC protocol performances are analyzed by using the MAClayer frame work for wireless sensor networks. In this paper an energy efficient analysis of S-MAC and HMACprotocols for wireless sensor networks is proposed with spatial correlation concept. Two MACprotocols such as Sensor MAC (S-MAC and Hybrid MAC (H-MAC protocols are proposed to analyze theperformance of Wireless Sensor Network using four different Parameters such as End to End delay, PacketDelivery Ratio, Packet Drop Rate and Energy Consumption. Performance analysis is carried out by usingthe simulation tool NS2.

  10. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and each frame into slots. A parent node determines the children's frame assignment based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. First, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (including itself). Second, the packet scheduling with TreeMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Third, the data throughput to the gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24-node testbed show that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput, fairness, and energy efficiency compared to TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC. Partial results of this paper were published in Song, Huang, Shirazi and Lahusen [W.-Z. Song, R. Huang, B. Shirazi, and R. Lahusen, TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for high-throughput and fairness in sensor networks, in: The 7th Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom, March 2009]. Our new contributions include analyses of the performance of TreeMAC from various aspects. We also present more implementation detail and evaluate TreeMAC from other aspects. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Real-Time Lane Detection on Suburban Streets Using Visual Cue Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehan Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of lane boundaries on suburban streets using images obtained from video constitutes a challenging task. This is mainly due to the difficulties associated with estimating the complex geometric structure of lane boundaries, the quality of lane markings as a result of wear, occlusions by traffic, and shadows caused by road-side trees and structures. Most of the existing techniques for lane boundary detection employ a single visual cue and will only work under certain conditions and where there are clear lane markings. Also, better results are achieved when there are no other on-road objects present. This paper extends our previous work and discusses a novel lane boundary detection algorithm specifically addressing the abovementioned issues through the integration of two visual cues. The first visual cue is based on stripe-like features found on lane lines extracted using a two-dimensional symmetric Gabor filter. The second visual cue is based on a texture characteristic determined using the entropy measure of the predefined neighbourhood around a lane boundary line. The visual cues are then integrated using a rule-based classifier which incorporates a modified sequential covering algorithm to improve robustness. To separate lane boundary lines from other similar features, a road mask is generated using road chromaticity values estimated from CIE L*a*b* colour transformation. Extraneous points around lane boundary lines are then removed by an outlier removal procedure based on studentized residuals. The lane boundary lines are then modelled with Bezier spline curves. To validate the algorithm, extensive experimental evaluation was carried out on suburban streets and the results are presented.

  12. 42 CFR 405.1122 - What evidence may be submitted to the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What evidence may be submitted to the MAC. 405.1122... Council Review § 405.1122 What evidence may be submitted to the MAC. (a) Appeal before the MAC on request for review of ALJ's decision. (1) If the MAC is reviewing an ALJ's decision, the MAC limits its review...

  13. 42 CFR 423.2122 - What evidence may be submitted to the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What evidence may be submitted to the MAC. 423.2122..., MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2122 What evidence may be submitted to the MAC. (a) Appeal before the MAC on request for review of ALJ's decision. (1) If the MAC is reviewing an ALJ's decision...

  14. Scheduling Combination Optimization Research for Bus Lane Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazao Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Different scheduling forms can be adopted in bus lane system to meet passengers’ travel demand well and improve operational efficiency. Therefore, this paper researched the optimal headway and bus scheduling combination of a bus lane line. Bus scheduling combination is composed of a sequence of full-length, express bus and short-turn. We established a model to minimize passengers’ waiting cost and vehicles’ operation cost and to optimize headway and bus scheduling combination, under the constraint of the headway restriction for each stop, the minimum number of vehicle trips in one hour and the proportion of short-turn and express bus trips in total trips. The model was solved by improved genetic algorithm, and the optimal solution was obtained by repeating the operation of genetic algorithm L times. The results of numerical example show that the whole cost can be saved by 21.77% at most after optimization, which indicate the model and algorithm we presented are reasonable and practicable.

  15. Extended-Search, Bézier Curve-Based Lane Detection and Reconstruction System for an Intelligent Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the real-time performance and detection rate of a Lane Detection and Reconstruction (LDR system, an extended-search-based lane detection method and a Bézier curve-based lane reconstruction algorithm are proposed in this paper. The extended-search-based lane detection method is designed to search boundary blocks from the initial position, in an upwards direction and along the lane, with small search areas including continuous search, discontinuous search and bending search in order to detect different lane boundaries. The Bézier curve-based lane reconstruction algorithm is employed to describe a wide range of lane boundary forms with comparatively simple expressions. In addition, two Bézier curves are adopted to reconstruct the lanes' outer boundaries with large curvature variation. The lane detection and reconstruction algorithm — including initial-blocks' determining, extended search, binarization processing and lane boundaries' fitting in different scenarios — is verified in road tests. The results show that this algorithm is robust against different shadows and illumination variations; the average processing time per frame is 13 ms. Significantly, it presents an 88.6% high-detection rate on curved lanes with large or variable curvatures, where the accident rate is higher than that of straight lanes.

  16. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  17. A bioinformatics approach for determining sample identity from different lanes of high-throughput sequencing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Goldfeder

    Full Text Available The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or "barcode" modifications. We rely on the inherent small differences between any two individuals to show that genotype concordance rates can be effectively used to test if any two lanes of HiSeq 2000 data are from the same sample. As proof of principle, we use recent data from three different human samples generated on this platform. We show that the distributions of concordance rates are non-overlapping when comparing lanes from the same sample versus lanes from different samples. Our method proves to be robust even when different numbers of reads are analyzed. Finally, we provide a straightforward method for determining the gender of any given sample. Our results suggest that examining the concordance of detected genotypes from lanes purported to be from the same sample is a relatively simple approach for confirming that combined lanes of data are of the same identity and quality.

  18. A bioinformatics approach for determining sample identity from different lanes of high-throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeder, Rachel L; Parker, Stephen C J; Ajay, Subramanian S; Ozel Abaan, Hatice; Margulies, Elliott H

    2011-01-01

    The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb) can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or "barcode" modifications. We rely on the inherent small differences between any two individuals to show that genotype concordance rates can be effectively used to test if any two lanes of HiSeq 2000 data are from the same sample. As proof of principle, we use recent data from three different human samples generated on this platform. We show that the distributions of concordance rates are non-overlapping when comparing lanes from the same sample versus lanes from different samples. Our method proves to be robust even when different numbers of reads are analyzed. Finally, we provide a straightforward method for determining the gender of any given sample. Our results suggest that examining the concordance of detected genotypes from lanes purported to be from the same sample is a relatively simple approach for confirming that combined lanes of data are of the same identity and quality.

  19. Assisted overtaking: an assessment of overtaking on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century overtaking on two-lane rural roads is a major traffic safety problem. However, this dissertation research demonstrates that most drivers are perfectly able to safely perform these manoeuvres. Their time spent in the left lane is about eight seconds. Preparing subtask

  20. Lost and Found: The Incredible Life and Times of (Miss) Layle Lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Jack

    2001-01-01

    Presents the story of Layle Lane, the granddaughter of free blacks, who was a high school teacher, civil rights pioneer, teacher unionist, socialist activist, political candidate, lifelong pacifist, adventurer, and humanitarian. Lane was also a fierce believer that education was the first step toward political, social, and economic power and…

  1. Assisted overtaking: an assessment of overtaking on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century overtaking on two-lane rural roads is a major traffic safety problem. However, this dissertation research demonstrates that most drivers are perfectly able to safely perform these manoeuvres. Their time spent in the left lane is about eight seconds. Preparing

  2. Research on TDM approach of sharing BRT-lane supported by vehicle-infrastructure integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hongzhao; Ling Yue; Liu Dongxu; Guo Mingfei

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the availability of the part-time idle bus rapid transit lane (BRT-lane),a time divi-sion multiplexing (TDM) method to share BRT-lane with the vehicles besides BRT buses is proposed based on ve-hicle-road collaboration. The TDM control strategy is established under the circumstance of vehicle-infrastructure integration (VII). The algorithm is given to forecast the segmented BRT travel time. According to the real time traffic information,a comprehensive model is given to estimate the vehicles’lane-changing time from/to the BRT-lane to/from its neighbor lane and determine the timing sequence for vehicles collaboration. Finally,the experi-ment demonstrates that the predicted value of the travel time and lane-changing time is much close to the true val-ue. The control strategy of the vehicles collaboration could promise the non-BRT vehicles to share BRT-lane with-out disturbing BRT’s priority.

  3. Reference Model of Desired Yaw Angle for Automated Lane Changing Behavior of Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianbo Ren; Guanzhe Zhang; Hangzhe Wu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, it studies the problem of trajectory planning and tracking for lane changing behavior of vehicle in automatic highway systems. Based on the model of yaw angle acceleration with positive and negative trapezoid constraint, by analyzing the variation laws of yaw motion of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, the reference model of desired yaw angle and yaw rate for lane changing is generated. According to the yaw angle model, the vertical and horizontal coordinates of trajectory for vehicle lane change are calculated. Assuming that the road curvature is a constant, the difference and associations between two scenarios are analyzed, the lane changing maneuvers occurred on curve road and straight road, respectively. On this basis, it deduces the calculation method of desired yaw angle for lane changing on circular road. Simulation result shows that, it is different from traditional lateral acceleration planning method with the trapezoid constraint, by applying the trapezoidal yaw acceleration reference model proposed in this paper, the resulting expected yaw angular acceleration is continuous, and the step tracking for steering angle is not needed to implement. Due to the desired yaw model is direct designed based on the variation laws of raw movement of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, rather than indirectly calculated from the trajectory model for lane changing, the calculation steps are simplified.

  4. Influence of prior determination of baseline minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane on the effect of ketamine on MAC in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Giacomo; Valverde, Alexander; Johnson, Ron; Sinclair, Melissa; Gibson, Thomas; Dyson, Doris H

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if prior measurement of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane influences the effect of ketamine on the MAC of isoflurane in dogs. Eight mixed-breed dogs were studied on 2 occasions. Anesthesia was induced and maintained using isoflurane. In group 1 the effect of ketamine on isoflurane MAC was determined after initially finding the baseline isoflurane MAC. In group 2, the effect of ketamine on isoflurane MAC was determined without previous measure of the baseline isoflurane MAC. In both groups, MAC was determined again 30 min after stopping the CRI of ketamine. Plasma ketamine concentrations were measured during MAC determinations. In group 1, baseline MAC (mean ± SD: 1.18 ± 0.14%) was decreased by ketamine (0.88 ± 0.14%; P MAC after stopping ketamine was similar (1.09 ± 0.16%) to baseline MAC and higher than with ketamine (P MAC with ketamine (0.79 ± 0.11%) was also increased after stopping ketamine (1.10 ± 0.17%; P MAC values with ketamine were different between groups (P MAC determination. The MAC of isoflurane during the CRI of ketamine yielded different results when methods of same day (group-1) versus separate days (group-2) are used, despite similar plasma ketamine concentrations with both methods. However, because the magnitude of this difference was less than 10%, either method of determining MAC is deemed acceptable for research purposes.

  5. On the orthogonality of the MacDonald s functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passian, Ali [ORNL; Simpson, Henry [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Koucheckian, Sherwin [University of South Florida, Tampa; Yakubovich, Semyon [University of Porto, Portugal

    2009-01-01

    A proof of an orthogonality relation for the MacDonald's functions with identical arguments but unequal complex lower indices is presented. The orthogonality is derived first via a heuristic approach based on the Mehler-Fock integral transform of the MacDonald's functions, and then proved rigorously using a polynomial approximation procedure.

  6. SuperMacLang: Development of an Authoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Judith; Foelsche, Otmar K. E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of "SuperMacLang, the 1990s version of the MacLang authoring system. An analysis of various features of the program explains the ways in which certain aspects of collaboration and funding affected developer and programming decisions. (Author/VWL)

  7. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  8. MAC of xenon and halothane in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, S L; Nemoto, E M; Yao, L; Yonas, H

    1994-10-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) maps produced by 33% xenon-enhanced computed tomographic scanning (Xe/CT LCBF) are useful in the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular disorders. However, observations in humans that 25-35% xenon (Xe) inhalation increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) have raised concerns that Xe/CT LCBF measurements may be inaccurate and that Xe inhalation may be hazardous in patients with decreased intracranial compliance. In contrast, 33% Xe does not increase CBF in rhesus monkeys. To determine whether this interspecies difference in the effect of Xe on CBF correlates with an interspecies difference in the anesthetic potency of Xe, we measured the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of Xe preventing movement to a tail-clamp stimulus in rhesus monkeys. Using a standard protocol for the determination of MAC in animals, we first measured the MAC of halothane (n = 5), and then used a combination of halothane and Xe to measure the MAC of Xe (n = 7). The halothane MAC was 0.99 +/- 0.12% (M +/- SD), and the Xe MAC was 98 +/- 15%. These results suggest that the MAC of Xe in rhesus monkeys is higher than the reported human Xe MAC value of 71%. Thus the absence of an effect of 33% Xe on CBF in the rhesus monkey may be related to its lower anesthetic potency.

  9. Intel-Based Mac Computers Improve Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Today, Mac computers offer schools an easy and powerful way to engage students in learning, foster 21st century skills and leverage existing software assets. Innovative software and hardware built into the Mac allows students to demonstrate their individual strengths--empowering them to be creators of content, rather than just consumers. Judging…

  10. Intel-Based Mac Computers Improve Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Today, Mac computers offer schools an easy and powerful way to engage students in learning, foster 21st century skills and leverage existing software assets. Innovative software and hardware built into the Mac allows students to demonstrate their individual strengths--empowering them to be creators of content, rather than just consumers. Judging…

  11. Multi-channel MAC Protocol in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Sun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since cognitive wireless network (CRN has the characteristic of secondary use, it can enable the device to dynamically access available spectrum without interference to primary users (PUs, which can effectively alleviate contradiction between the lack of spectrum resources and the growing demand for wireless access. However, Medium Access Control (MAC protocol as CRN core components, can achieve competition access of the licensed spectrum and coordination control, which will maximize spectrum utilization efficiency and network throughput. The contribution of this survey is threefold. First, we analyze the characteristics of the existed multi- channel MAC protocol in CRN; Second, according to the different ways of spectrum access in CRNs, the multi-channel MAC protocols are classified into time-slotted based MAC protocol, control channel based MAC protocol and hybrid MAC protocol, and the paper emphatically analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of these multi-channel MAC protocols; Finally, the paper explores the difficulties and the challenges of multi-channel MAC protocols design in cognitive wireless network.

  12. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  13. Lane Formation Dynamics of Oppositely Self-Driven Binary Particles: Effects of Density and Finite System Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kosuke; Kim, Kang

    2017-04-01

    We examined the lane formation dynamics of oppositely self-driven binary particles by molecular dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional system. Our study comprehensively revealed the effects of the density and system size on the lane formation. The phase diagram distinguishing the no-lane and lane states was systematically determined for various combinations of the anisotropic friction coefficient and the desired velocity. A peculiar clustered structure was observed when the lane was destroyed by considerably increasing the desired velocity. A strong system size effect was demonstrated by the relationship between the temporal and spatial scales of the lane structure. This system size effect can be attributed to an analogy with the driven lattice gas. The transport efficiency was characterized from the scaling relation in terms of the degree of lane formation and the interface thickness between different lanes.

  14. Design of a Multi-layer Lane-Level Map for Vehicle Route Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chaoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of intelligent transportation system, there occurs further demand for high precision localization and route planning, and simultaneously the traditional road-level map fails to meet with this requirement, by which this paper is motivated. In this paper, t he three-layer lane-level map architecture for vehicle path guidance is established, and the mathematical models of road-level layer, intermediate layer and lane-level layer are designed considering efficiency and precision. The geometric model of the lane-level layer of the map is characterized by Cubic Hermite Spline for continuity. A method of generating the lane geometry with fixed and variable control points is proposed, which can effectively ensure the accuracy with limited num ber of control points. In experimental part, a multi-layer map of an intersection is built to validate the map model, and an example of a local map was generated with the lane-level geometry.

  15. Traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus in two-lane traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoichi; Nagatani, Takashi; Taniguchi, Naoki

    2005-05-01

    We study the traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus (slow car) in a two-lane traffic of cars. We use the dynamic model which is an extended one of the optimal velocity model to take into account the lane changing. The fundamental (flow-density) diagram is presented. The fundamental diagram changes highly by introducing a bus on a two-lane roadway. It is found that there are the six distinct states for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus. The spatio-temporal patterns are presented for the distinct traffic states. The dynamical state of traffic changes with density of cars. It is shown that the dynamical transitions among the distinct traffic states occur at some values of density. The phase diagram (region map) is shown for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus.

  16. A Sensing Error Aware MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Donglin

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive radios (CR) are intelligent radio devices that can sense the radio environment and adapt to changes in the radio environment. Spectrum sensing and spectrum access are the two key CR functions. In this paper, we present a spectrum sensing error aware MAC protocol for a CR network collocated with multiple primary networks. We explicitly consider both types of sensing errors in the CR MAC design, since such errors are inevitable for practical spectrum sensors and more important, such errors could have significant impact on the performance of the CR MAC protocol. Two spectrum sensing polices are presented, with which secondary users collaboratively sense the licensed channels. The sensing policies are then incorporated into p-Persistent CSMA to coordinate opportunistic spectrum access for CR network users. We present an analysis of the interference and throughput performance of the proposed CR MAC, and find the analysis highly accurate in our simulation studies. The proposed sensing error aware CR MAC p...

  17. McCay ("Mac") Vernon (1928-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, William A

    2014-09-01

    McCay ("Mac") Vernon, the founding and preeminent psychologist in the field of deafness. Mac was born at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, DC, into a military family on October 14, 1928 and died on August 28, 2013, at the age of 84. Prior to Mac, research and clinical direction in the field were sparse. Mac became the icon for psychological services for deaf people, and his work extended into the education of deaf children, forensic and ethical practices with the deaf, and public understanding of deafness as a disability and of deaf persons as a psychosocial minority group. Mac will also be remembered for his sharp intellect, good humor, compassion, and advocacy for those who are misunderstood.

  18. Alasdair MacIntyre, joven lector de Freud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis Barceló, Rafael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show the reading of Freud that MacIntyre made from 1955 to 1970. For this purpose, it summarizes the ideas of MacIntyre in the intellectual context, mainly the use of philosophical ideas of Freud against the Enlightenment project. MacIntyre criticises Marxist interpreters and the mixing between Marx and Freud. MacIntyre uses the philosophical ideas of Freud for answering two problems on determinism: the links between determinism and reasons for action and determinism and Marxism. The main conclusion is that MacIntyre used Freud in his own advantage: as an ally in the criticism of the Enlightenment.

    Este artículo trata de mostrar la lectura que MacIntyre hizo de Freud desde 1955 hasta 1970. Con este fin, se resumen las ideas de MacIntyre en el contexto intelectual, principalmente el uso de las ideas filosóficas de Freud contra el proyecto de la Ilustración. MacIntyre critica a los intérpretes de Marx y a la mezcla entre Marx y Freud. MacIntyre usa las ideas filosóficas de Freud para contestar dos problemas sobre el determinismo: los vínculos entre el determinismo y las razones para la acción y el determinismo y el marxismo. La conclusión principal es que MacIntyre usó a Freud en su propio beneficio: como un aliado en la crítica de la Ilustración.

  19. SOCIO-SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF LANDSCAPE BACK LANE OF HOUSING AT BANDAR BARU NILAI: PRIVACY AND COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    SITI F. M. LIAS; NORNGAINY M. TAWIL; ISMAR .M. S. USMAN; AZRUL A. MUTALIB

    2016-01-01

    Urban informal spaces in the form of back lane tend to promote socio-spatial integration between neighbourhood communities. The Back Lane Planning Design Guidelines issued in 2014 by Town and Country Planning Department of Malaysia identified back lane as such a place to encourage communal lifestyle whereas an area of owns residents privacy. In reality, back lane portrays as the wasted unfavourable paths thus several social concerns of safety, security, health issues as well as invading pr...

  20. Supporting service differentiation with enhancements of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol: Models and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As one of the fastest growing wireless access technologies, wireless LANs must evolve to support adequate degrees of service differentiation. Unfortunately, current WLAN standards like IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) lack this ability. Work is in progress to define an enhanced version capable of supporting QoS for multimedia traffic at the MAC layer. In this paper, we aim at gaining insight into three mechanisms to differentiate among traffic categories, i.e., differentiating the minimum contention window size, the Inter-Frame Spacing (IFS), and the length of the packet payload according to the priority of different traffic categories. We propose an analysis model to compute the throughput and packet transmission delays. In addition, we derive approximations to obtain simpler but more meaningful relationships among different parameters. Comparisons with discrete-event simulation results show that good accuracy of performance evaluation can be achieved by using the proposed analysis model.

  1. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  2. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  3. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; Husent, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and frame into slots. Parent determines children's frame assigmnent based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. Firstly, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (includ ing itself). Secondly, the packet scheduling with TreelMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Thirdly, the data throughput to gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24 node test bed demonstrate that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput and energy efficiency, by comparing to the TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC[8]. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  4. TR-MAC: an energy-efficient MAC protocol exploiting transmitted reference modulation for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Heijenk, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The medium access control (MAC) protocol determines the energy consumption of a wireless sensor node by specifying the listening, transmitting or sleeping time. Therefore MAC protocols play an important role in minimizing the overall energy consumption in a typical wireless sensor network (WSN).

  5. TR-MAC: an energy-efficient MAC protocol exploiting transmitted reference modulation for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, Sarwar; Heijenk, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The medium access control (MAC) protocol determines the energy consumption of a wireless sensor node by specifying the listening, transmitting or sleeping time. Therefore MAC protocols play an important role in minimizing the overall energy consumption in a typical wireless sensor network (WSN). Usi

  6. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-05-27

    While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) - a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly) from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut). Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant.Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions) as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 - 1.25) after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio-economic predictors. Although we found an independent

  7. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Anne M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut. Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25 after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio

  8. From recollement of triangulated categories to recollement of abelian categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we prove that if a triangulated category D admits a recollement relative to triangulated categories D’ and D″,then the abelian category D/T admits a recollement relative to abelian categories D’/i(T) and D″/j(T) where T is a cluster tilting subcategory of D and satisfies i i (T)  T,j j (T) T.

  9. Lane of parallel through carry in ternary optical adder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi; HE Huacan; AI Lirong

    2005-01-01

    At the present 50 to 100 microseconds are necessary for a liquid crystal to change its state from opacity to clarity; 1.14× 10-5 microseconds are however proved to be enough for light to pass through a clarity liquid crystal device. Rooted from this great difference in time, an optical adder was constructed with parallel through carry lanes (PTCL) composed of liquid crystals. Because all carries in PTCL process in parallel, the carry delay in the ternary optical computer's adder is avoided. Eliminating the carry delay in adder of ternary optical computer by physical means, the PTCL is also applicable for other types of optical adders. Moreover a light diagram of the adder and one PTCL structure are provided.

  10. A Study of Lane Differentiation Using An Array of Detectors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKigney E. A. (Edward A.); Gholkar, R. V. (Rohun V.); Vega, D. A. (Daniel A.)

    2004-01-01

    The authors discuss a method for locating a radioactive source in the context of determining which lane a source is in on a roadway. This method is appropriate for use over a large range of source velocities, and could provide an advance alarm prior to a vehicle passing a portal monitor. This is a novel method which uses data from the entire array simultaneously to locate the source, rather than relying on only one or two sensors. A description of the underlying method will be given, along with results from five and six detector arrays. The five detector array was used mainly for static tests. The six detector array was used for dynamic tests, including slow movement of a source in a vehicle.

  11. Localization on Certain Grothendieck Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.CASTANO-IGLESIAS; N.CHIFAN; C.NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    Using categorical techniques we obtain some results on localization and colocalization theory in Grothendieck categories with a set of small projective generators. In particular,we give a sufficient condition for such category to be semiartinian. For semiartinian Grothendieck categories where every simple object has a projective cover,we obtain that every localizing subcategory is a TTF-class. In addition,some applications to semiperfect categories are obtained.

  12. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDez, K M; Lerman, J

    1987-09-01

    Studies in fetal lambs suggested that the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in preterm neonates may be less than that in full-term neonates and older infants. To determine the MAC of isoflurane in preterm neonates, 20 patients less than 32 weeks gestation at birth and 16 patients 32-37 weeks gestation at birth, all less than 1 month post-natal age, were studied. Following tracheal intubation, the neonates were anesthetized with a predetermined end-tidal concentration of isoflurane in oxygen and air. The move-no move responses to skin incision were recorded, and MAC was determined using the "up-and-down" technique. Heart rate and systolic arterial pressure were recorded awake, before skin incision, and after skin incision. MAC (mean +/- SD) of isoflurane in preterm neonates less than 32 weeks gestation was 1.28 +/- 0.17%, and MAC in neonates 32-37 weeks gestation was 1.41 +/- 0.18% (P less than 0.05). Although heart rate did not decrease significantly in either group during the study, systolic arterial pressure decreased between 20 and 30% below awake values both before and after skin incision in both age groups (P less than 0.01). We conclude that the MAC of isoflurane in preterm neonates less than 32 weeks gestation is significantly less than that in preterm neonates 32-37 weeks gestation, and that systolic arterial pressure decreases to a similar extent at approximately 1 MAC isoflurane in both age groups.

  13. Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosnan Robert J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Methods Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF containing either 0 or 4 mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4 mg/mL plus 0.4 mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801 was administered intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Results Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P  Conclusions Glycine receptor antagonism increases NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

  14. Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Robert J; Thiesen, Roberto

    2012-06-06

    Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF) containing either 0 or 4 mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4 mg/mL) plus 0.4 mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801) was administered intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

  15. Structured trajectory planning of collision-free lane change using the vehicle-driver integration data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JiangFeng; ZHANG Qian; ZHANG ZhiQ; YAN XueDong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,the structured trajectory planning of lane change in collision-free road environment is studied and validated using the vehicle-driver integration data,and a new trajectory planning model for lane change is proposed based on linear offset and sine function to balance driver comfort and vehicle dynamics.The trajectory curvature of the proposed model is continuous without mutation,and the zero-based curvature at the starting and end points during lane change assures the motion direction of end points in parallel with the lane line.The field experiment are designed to collect the vehicle-driver integration data,such as steering angle,brake pedal angel and accelerator pedal angel.The correction Correlation analysis of lane-changing maneuver and influencing variables is conducted to obtain the significant variables that can be used to calibrate and test the proposed model.The results demonstrate that vehicle velocity and Y-axis acceleration have significant effects on the lane-changing maneuver,so that the model recalibrated by the samples of different velocity ranges and Y-axis accelerations has better fitted performance compared with the model calibrated by the sample trajectory.In addition,the proposed model presents a decreasing tendency of the lane change trajectory fitted MAE with the increase of time span of calibrating samples at the starting stage.

  16. Motion of Skyrmions in Well-Separated Two-Lane Racetracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, P.; Zhao, G. P.; Morvan, F. J.; Wu, S. Q.; Ran, N.

    Magnetic skyrmions are topological structures which can be used to store information as data bits in metallic racetrack memories. Their good properties, such as their stability, small size and low currents needed to drive them make them better candidates than traditional magnetic domain walls for the building of the next generation data storage. A skyrmion racetrack memory has been suggested, with the binary data encoded in the distance between skyrmions when the racetrack is a single lane. Here, we propose a new skyrmion-based two-lane racetrack structure separated by a high-K (high magnetocrystalline anisotropy) middle lane, which confines the skyrmions in their respective lanes. This design gives a new data presentation for the skyrmions on the racetrack. Phase diagrams for the skyrmion motion on the proposed racetrack as functions of the current density, middle lane anisotropy, middle lane width and DMI constant have been calculated and given, demonstrating that skyrmions can be driven in different lanes of the racetrack. This design offers the possibility of building an ultrafast and energy-efficient skyrmion transport device.

  17. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of managed lanes on freeway facilities in South Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sajjadi

    2017-02-01

    The results of the study indicate that the percent drop in capacity for the one-lane FP site is 7.6% while the flow did not substantially change after the breakdown in the two-lane FP site. The research findings also include guidelines for simulating the breakdown events and calibrating one-lane and two-lane managed lane facilities in VISSIM microsimulation software. The Wiedemann car-following parameters (CC0 = 3.9 ft, CC1 = 1.9 s, CC2 = 26.25 ft, CC4 = −0.35, and CC5 = 0.35 provided the best fit for the one-lane FP site, while the combination (CC0 = 4.92 ft, CC1 = 1.9 s, CC2 = 39.37 ft, CC4 = −0.7, and CC5 = 0.7 parameters is recommended for the two-lane FP site.

  18. Comprehensive and Practical Vision System for Self-Driving Vehicle Lane-Level Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinxin; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2016-05-01

    Vehicle lane-level localization is a fundamental technology in autonomous driving. To achieve accurate and consistent performance, a common approach is to use the LIDAR technology. However, it is expensive and computational demanding, and thus not a practical solution in many situations. This paper proposes a stereovision system, which is of low cost, yet also able to achieve high accuracy and consistency. It integrates a new lane line detection algorithm with other lane marking detectors to effectively identify the correct lane line markings. It also fits multiple road models to improve accuracy. An effective stereo 3D reconstruction method is proposed to estimate vehicle localization. The estimation consistency is further guaranteed by a new particle filter framework, which takes vehicle dynamics into account. Experiment results based on image sequences taken under different visual conditions showed that the proposed system can identify the lane line markings with 98.6% accuracy. The maximum estimation error of the vehicle distance to lane lines is 16 cm in daytime and 26 cm at night, and the maximum estimation error of its moving direction with respect to the road tangent is 0.06 rad in daytime and 0.12 rad at night. Due to its high accuracy and consistency, the proposed system can be implemented in autonomous driving vehicles as a practical solution to vehicle lane-level localization.

  19. Multichannel MAC Layer In Mobile Ad—Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logesh, K.; Rao, Samba Siva

    2010-11-01

    This paper we presented the design objectives and technical challenges in Multichannel MAC protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. In IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standards allow use of multiple channels, only a single channel is popularly used, due to the lack of efficient protocols that enable use of Multiple Channels. Even though complex environments in ad hoc networks require a combined control of physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers resources in order to optimize performance. And also we discuss the characteristics of cross-layer frame and give a multichannel MAC approach.

  20. MacRuby Ruby and Cocoa on OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Aimonetti, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Want to build native Mac OS X applications with a sleek, developer-friendly alternative to Objective-C? MacRuby is an ideal choice. This in-depth guide shows you how Apple's implementation of Ruby gives you access to all the features available to Objective-C programmers. You'll get clear, detailed explanations of MacRuby, including quick programming techniques such as prototyping. Perfect for programmers at any level, this book is packed with code samples and complete project examples. If you use Ruby, you can tap your skills to take advantage of Interface Builder, Cocoa libraries, the Objec

  1. Handling Deafness Problem of Scheduled Multi-Channel Polling MACs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fulong; Liu, Hao; Shi, Longxing

    Combining scheduled channel polling with channel diversity is a promising way for a MAC protocol to achieve high energy efficiency and performance under both light and heavy traffic conditions. However, the deafness problem may cancel out the benefit of channel diversity. In this paper, we first investigate the deafness problem of scheduled multi-channel polling MACs with experiments. Then we propose and evaluate two schemes to handle the deafness problem. Our experiment shows that deafness is a significant reason for performance degradation in scheduled multi-channel polling MACs. A proper scheme should be chosen depending on the traffic pattern and the design objective.

  2. Cooperative energy harvesting-adaptive MAC protocol for WBANs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Volker; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Kartsakli, Elli; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Miribel-Català, Pere; Verikoukis, Christos

    2015-05-28

    In this paper, we introduce a cooperative medium access control (MAC) protocol, named cooperative energy harvesting (CEH)-MAC, that adapts its operation to the energy harvesting (EH) conditions in wireless body area networks (WBANs). In particular, the proposed protocol exploits the EH information in order to set an idle time that allows the relay nodes to charge their batteries and complete the cooperation phase successfully. Extensive simulations have shown that CEH-MAC significantly improves the network performance in terms of throughput, delay and energy efficiency compared to the cooperative operation of the baseline IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

  3. A Hybrid MacCormack-type Scheme for Computational Aeroacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Soroush

    A new type of MacCormack scheme, using a modified Low Dissipation and Dispersion Runge-Kutta time marching method, is presented. This scheme is using two stages in every step which implements biased spatial differencing stencils and for the remaining stages uses non-dissipative central differencing stencils. Because of using the MacCormack-type scheme in this method, the new scheme carries an inherent artificial dissipation which uses the ease of implementing boundary condition specifications of a two-stage MacCormack scheme.

  4. iMac G3 Blueberry 350MHz

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The iMac G3 is an all-in-one personal computer, encompassing both the monitor and the computer in one package. It allowed to revitalize the Apple brand that was in decline and close to financial ruin. Originally released in striking bondi blue and later a range of other translucent plastic envelopes in bright colors. The iMac comes with a keyboard and mouse matching the color of the case. The iMac G3 was sold from 1998 to 2003 and has been updated many times.

  5. Powered two-wheeler drivers' crash risk associated with the use of bus lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaux, Nicolas; Fournier, Jean-Yves; Michel, Jean-Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Authorizing powered two-wheeler drivers to drive in lanes reserved to buses is a measure that is sometimes mentioned to improve mobility conditions for these users. But what effect would this measure have on the safety of these users and on the safety of the other users with whom they share the traffic space? The objective of this study is to contribute elements to help answer this question. More precisely, the objective is to estimate the risk of having an accident per kilometer driven by powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in bus lanes and to compare this risk with that of powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in general traffic lanes. Using the bodily injury accidents recorded by the police over two years on 13 roads in the city of Marseille and a campaign of periodical observations of powered two-wheeler traffic, we estimated the risk per kilometer driven by powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in bus lanes and compared it with that of drivers who do not drive in them. The results show that the risk for powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in bus lanes of being involved in a bodily injury accident is significantly higher than the risk run by drivers who drive in general traffic lanes. For the 13 roads studied, it is on average 3.25 times higher (95% CI: 2.03; 5.21). In the current situation, powered two-wheeler drivers who drive in bus lanes are less safe than those who drive in general traffic lanes. The analysis of police reports suggests that part of this increased risk comes from collisions between automobile drivers turning right and powered two-wheelers driving in the bus lane who continue straight ahead. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chaos in Binary Category Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Category computation theory deals with a web-based systemic processing that underlies the morphic webs, which constitute the basis of categorial logical calculus. It is proven that, for these structures, algorithmically incompressible binary patterns can be morphically compressed, with respect to the local connectivities, in a binary morphic program. From the local connectivites, there emerges a global morphic connection that can be characterized by a low length binary string, leading to the identification of chaotic categorial dynamics, underlying the algorithmically random pattern. The work focuses on infinite binary chains of C2, which is a category that implements an X-OR-based categorial logical calculus.

  7. Citation analysis of scientific categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Gregory S; Patience, Christian A; Blais, Bruno; Bertrand, Francois

    2017-05-01

    Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category. The number of citations per paper vary by several orders of magnitude and are highest in multidisciplinary sciences, general internal medicine, and biochemistry and lowest in literature, poetry, and dance. A regression model demonstrates that citation rates to the top articles in each category increase with the square root of the number of articles in a category and decrease proportionately with the age of the references: articles in categories that cite recent research are also cited more frequently. The citation rate correlates positively with the number of funding agencies that finance the research. The category h-index correlates with the average number of cites to the top 500 ranked articles of each category ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, only a few journals publish the top 500 cited articles in each category: four journals publish 60% ([Formula: see text]) of these and ten publish 81% ([Formula: see text]).

  8. The effect of interruption probability in lattice model of two-lane traffic flow with passing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan

    2016-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking into account the interruption probability with passing for two-lane freeway. The effect of interruption probability with passing is investigated about the linear stability condition and the mKdV equation through linear stability analysis and nonlinear analysis, respectively. Furthermore, numerical simulation is carried out to study traffic phenomena resulted from the interruption probability with passing in two-lane system. The results show that the interruption probability with passing can improve the stability of traffic flow for low reaction coefficient while the interruption probability with passing can destroy the stability of traffic flow for high reaction coefficient on two-lane highway.

  9. PAD-MAC: primary user activity-aware distributed MAC for multi-channel cognitive radio networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amjad; Piran, Md Jalil; Kim, Hansoo; Yun, Jihyeok; Suh, Doug Young

    2015-03-30

    Cognitive radio (CR) has emerged as a promising technology to solve problems related to spectrum scarcity and provides a ubiquitous wireless access environment. CR-enabled secondary users (SUs) exploit spectrum white spaces opportunistically and immediately vacate the acquired licensed channels as primary users (PUs) arrive. Accessing the licensed channels without the prior knowledge of PU traffic patterns causes severe throughput degradation due to excessive channel switching and PU-to-SU collisions. Therefore, it is significantly important to design a PU activity-aware medium access control (MAC) protocol for cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, we first propose a licensed channel usage pattern identification scheme, based on a two-state Markov model, and then estimate the future idle slots using previous observations of the channels. Furthermore, based on these past observations, we compute the rank of each available licensed channel that gives SU transmission success assessment during the estimated idle slot. Secondly, we propose a PU activity-aware distributed MAC (PAD-MAC) protocol for heterogeneous multi-channel CRNs that selects the best channel for each SU to enhance its throughput. PAD-MAC controls SU activities by allowing them to exploit the licensed channels only for the duration of estimated idle slots and enables predictive and fast channel switching. To evaluate the performance of the proposed PAD-MAC, we compare it with the distributed QoS-aware MAC (QC-MAC) and listen-before-talk MAC schemes. Extensive numerical results show the significant improvements of the PAD-MAC in terms of the SU throughput, SU channel switching rate and PU-to-SU collision rate.

  10. Infecting Windows, Linux & Mac in one go

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Still love bashing on Windows as you believe it is an insecure operating system? Hold on a second! Just recently, a vulnerability has been published for Java 7.   It affects Windows/Linux PCs and Macs, Internet Explorer, Safari and Firefox. In fact, it affects all computers that have enabled the Java 7 plug-in in their browser (Java 6 and earlier is not affected). Once you visit a malicious website (and there are plenty already out in the wild), your computer is infected… That's "Game Over" for you.      And this is not the first time. For a while now, attackers have not been targeting the operating system itself, but rather aiming at vulnerabilities inherent in e.g. your Acrobat Reader, Adobe Flash or Java programmes. All these are standard plug-ins added into your favourite web browser which make your web-surfing comfortable (or impossible when you un-install them). A single compromised web-site, however, is sufficient to prob...

  11. Prior determination of baseline minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane does not influence the effect of ketamine on MAC in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Giacomo; Valverde, Alexander; Sinclair, Melissa; Dyson, Doris H; Gibson, Thomas; Johnson, Ron

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane when ketamine was administered either after or without prior determination of the baseline MAC of isoflurane in rabbits. Using a prospective randomized crossover study, 8 adult, female New Zealand rabbits were allocated to 2 treatment groups. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane. Group 1 (same-day determination) had the MAC-sparing effect of ketamine [1 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) of 40 μg/kg BW per min, given by intravenous (IV)], which was determined after the baseline MAC of isoflurane was determined beforehand. A third MAC determination was started 30 min after stopping the CRI. Group 2 (separate-day determination) had the MAC-sparing effect of ketamine determined without previous determination of the baseline MAC of isoflurane. A second MAC determination was started 30 min after stopping the CRI. In group 1, the MAC of isoflurane (2.15 ± 0.09%) was significantly decreased by ketamine (1.63 ± 0.07%). After stopping the CRI, the MAC was significantly less (2.04 ± 0.11%) than the baseline MAC of isoflurane and significantly greater than the MAC during the CRI. In group 2, ketamine decreased isoflurane MAC (1.53 ± 0.22%) and the MAC increased significantly (1.94 ± 0.25%) after stopping the CRI. Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values did not differ significantly between the groups either during ketamine administration or after stopping ketamine. Under the study conditions, prior determination of the baseline isoflurane MAC did not alter the effect of ketamine on MAC. Both methods of determining MAC seemed to be valid for research purposes.

  12. Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

  13. After MacIntyre : Kaasaegsest vooruseetikast / Meego Remmel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remmel, Meego

    2006-01-01

    Alasdair MacIntyre panus 20. sajandi eetikasse. Tema käsitlus vooruseetikast ja vooruseetilisest perspektiivist, mida on võimalik näha komplekselt, vaadeldes voorust, praktikat, narratiivi ja traditsiooni mõisteid

  14. After MacIntyre : Kaasaegsest vooruseetikast / Meego Remmel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remmel, Meego

    2006-01-01

    Alasdair MacIntyre panus 20. sajandi eetikasse. Tema käsitlus vooruseetikast ja vooruseetilisest perspektiivist, mida on võimalik näha komplekselt, vaadeldes voorust, praktikat, narratiivi ja traditsiooni mõisteid

  15. Design and Implementation of an Efficient 64 bit MAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shabber Hasan Khan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of optimized 64 bit multiplier and accumulator (MAC unit is implemented in this paper. MAC unit plays major role in many of the digital signal processing (DSP applications. The MAC unit is designed with the combinations of multipliers and adders. In the proposed method MAC unit is implemented using Vedic multiplier and the adder is done with ripple carry adder .The components are reduced by implementing Vedic multiplier using the techniques of Vedic mathematics that have been modified to improve performance. a high speed processor depends significantly on the multiplier as it is one of the key hardware blocks in most digital signal processing systems as well as in general processors. The area is optimized effectively using Vedic multiplier .The total design implemented using Xilinx.

  16. Beamforming in Ad Hoc Networks: MAC Design and Performance Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fakih, Khalil; Diouris, Jean-Francois; Andrieux, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    .... Our proposition performs jointly channel estimation and radio resource sharing. We validate the fruitfulness of the proposed MAC and we evaluate the effects of the channel estimation on the network performance...

  17. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  18. Rating of new outlet structures for MacFarlane Reservoir

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum explaining the new work on the outlet structure at MacFarlane Reservoir. Flow measurements were taken at different staff gage elevations and this data is...

  19. Big Mac arvestab raha ostujõudu / Harli Uljas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uljas, Harli

    2005-01-01

    The Economist võrdleb maailma valuutade suhestamiseks Big Mac'i burgeri hindu 120 riigis, kuna see meetod võimaldab saada ülevaate riikide elanikkonna tegelikust ostujõust. Tabel: Hamburgeri standard

  20. Big Mac arvestab raha ostujõudu / Harli Uljas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uljas, Harli

    2005-01-01

    The Economist võrdleb maailma valuutade suhestamiseks Big Mac'i burgeri hindu 120 riigis, kuna see meetod võimaldab saada ülevaate riikide elanikkonna tegelikust ostujõust. Tabel: Hamburgeri standard

  1. MAC layer security issues in wireless mesh networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K. Ganesh; Thilagam, P. Santhi

    2016-03-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have emerged as a promising technology for a broad range of applications due to their self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing capability, in addition to their low cost and easy maintenance. Securing WMNs is more challenging and complex issue due to their inherent characteristics such as shared wireless medium, multi-hop and inter-network communication, highly dynamic network topology and decentralized architecture. These vulnerable features expose the WMNs to several types of attacks in MAC layer. The existing MAC layer standards and implementations are inadequate to secure these features and fail to provide comprehensive security solutions to protect both backbone and client mesh. Hence, there is a need for developing efficient, scalable and integrated security solutions for WMNs. In this paper, we classify the MAC layer attacks and analyze the existing countermeasures. Based on attacks classification and countermeasures analysis, we derive the research directions to enhance the MAC layer security for WMNs.

  2. Mac OS X : Tiger edition the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2005-01-01

    You can set your watch to it: As soon as Apple comes out with another version of Mac OS X, David Pogue hits the streets with another meticulous Missing Manual to cover it with a wealth of detail. The new Mac OS X 10.4, better known as Tiger, is faster than its predecessors, but nothing's too fast for Pogue and Mac OS X: The Missing Manual. There are many reasons why this is the most popular computer book of all time. With its hallmark objectivity, the Tiger Edition thoroughly explores the latest features to grace the Mac OS. Which ones work well and which do not? What should you look for? Th

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane and assessing risk to bicyclists in Charlotte, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Thakur, Vidya

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this manuscript are (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane in reducing crashes involving bicyclists on urban roads, (2) to quantify and compare risk to bicyclists on road segments with and without on-street bicycle lane, (3) to evaluate the effect of on-street bicycle lane on other road network users (all crashes), and, (4) to assess the role of on-network characteristics (speed limit, the number of lanes, the width of on-street bicycle lane, the width of the right-most travel lane, and, the numbers of driveways, unsignalized approaches and signalized intersections per unit distance) on risk to bicyclists. Data for thirty-six segments with on-street bicycle lane and twenty-six segments without on-street bicycle lane in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina were extracted to compute and compare measures such as the number of bicycle crashes per center-lane mile, the number of bicycle crashes per annual million vehicle miles traveled (MVMT), the number of all crashes per center-lane mile, and the number of all crashes per MVMT. The results obtained from analysis indicate that bicyclists are three to four times at higher risk (based on traffic conditions) on segments without on-street bicycle lane than when compared to segments with on-street bicycle lane. An analysis conducted considering all crashes showed that on-street bicycle lanes do not have a statistically significant negative effect on overall safety. An increase in annual MVMT (exposure) and the number of signalized intersections per mile increases the number of bicycle crashes, while an increase in on-street bicycle lane width or right-most travel lane width (if on-street bicycle lane cannot be provided) decreases the number of bicycle crashes. Installing wider on-street bicycle lanes, limiting driveways to less than 50 per mile and unsignalized approaches to less than 10 per mile, increasing spacing between signalized intersections, and, facilitating wider right

  4. A tribute to Lloyd D. MacLean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Roger G

    2015-08-01

    Dr. Lloyd D. MacLean, long-time co-editor of the Canadian Journal of Surgery passed away earlier this year at the age of 90. In order to appreciate the contributions of Dr. MacLean to the journal, this commentary recognizes him as a humble surgeon–scientist who was one of — if not the — most outstanding Canadian ambassadors to academic surgery in North America.

  5. Conformal holonomy in MacDowell-Mansouri gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, James A., E-mail: j.a.reid@abdn.ac.uk [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Wang, Charles H.-T., E-mail: c.wang@abdn.ac.uk [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The MacDowell-Mansouri formulation of general relativity is based on a gauge theory whose gauge algebra depends on the sign of the cosmological constant. In this article, we show that the gauge algebra is uniquely determined by the conformal structure of spacetime itself. Specifically, we show that in vacuum: the spacetime conformal holonomy algebra coincides with the MacDowell-Mansouri gauge algebra for both signs of the cosmological constant, in both Lorentzian and Euclidean metric signatures.

  6. Some Problems of Alasdair MacIntyre’s "Emotivism Thesis"

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this article Alasdair MacIntyre’s thesis concerning emotivist use of moral utterances in contemporary liberal societies is analysed. One tries to show that it needs further clarification since at least three elements of MacIntyre’s argument seem to pose certain problems; these are: ‘discussion halt’ as the source of emotivism, comprehensive doctrines as premises of respective arguments in liberal debates and the problem of incommensurability. These three problematic eleme...

  7. 42 CFR 423.2102 - Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or... Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2102 Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal. (a)(1) An enrollee to the ALJ hearing may request a MAC review if the enrollee files...

  8. 42 CFR 423.2062 - Applicability of policies not binding on the ALJ and MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and MAC. 423.2062 Section 423.2062 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2062 Applicability of policies not binding on the ALJ and MAC. (a) ALJs and the MAC are not bound by CMS program guidance, such as program...

  9. 42 CFR 423.2110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 423.2110 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on...

  10. 42 CFR 423.2050 - Removal of a hearing request from an ALJ to the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Removal of a hearing request from an ALJ to the MAC..., ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2050 Removal of a hearing request from an ALJ to the MAC. If a request for hearing is pending before an ALJ, the MAC may assume responsibility for...

  11. 42 CFR 423.2108 - MAC Actions when request for review is filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAC Actions when request for review is filed. 423... Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2108 MAC Actions when request for review is filed. (a) General. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, when an enrollee requests that the MAC...

  12. A Mac Protocol Implementation for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Bhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.15.4 is an important standard for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LRWPAN. The IEEE 802.15.4 presents a flexible MAC protocol that provides good efficiency for data transmission by adapting its parameters according to characteristics of different applications. In this research work, some restrictions of this standard are explained and an improvement of traffic efficiency by optimizing MAC layer is proposed. Implementation details for several blocks of communication system are carefully modeled. The protocol implementation is done using VHDL language. The analysis gives a full understanding of the behavior of the MAC protocol with regard to backoff delay, data loss probability, congestion probability, slot effectiveness, and traffic distribution for terminals. Two ideas are proposed and tested to improve efficiency of CSMA/CA mechanism for IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Layer. Primarily, we dynamically adjust the backoff exponent (BE according to queue level of each node. Secondly, we vary the number of consecutive clear channel assessment (CCA for packet transmission. We demonstrate also that slot compensation provided by the enhanced MAC protocol can greatly avoid unused slots. The results show the significant improvements expected by our approach among the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC standards. Synthesis results show also hardware performances of our proposed architecture.

  13. Lane Changing Trajectory Planning and Tracking Controller Design for Intelligent Vehicle Running on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the active safety and realize the autonomy of intelligent vehicle on highway curved road, a lane changing trajectory is planned and tracked for lane changing maneuver on curved road. The kinematics model of the intelligent vehicle with nonholonomic constraint feature and the tracking error model are established firstly. The longitudinal and lateral coupling and the difference of curvature radius between the outside and inside lane are taken into account, which is helpful to enhance the authenticity of desired lane changing trajectory on curved road. Then the trajectory tracking controller of closed-loop control structure is derived using integral backstepping method to construct a new virtual variable. The Lyapunov theory is applied to analyze the stability of the proposed tracking controller. Simulation results demonstrate that this controller can guarantee the convergences of both the relative position tracking errors and the position tracking synchronization.

  14. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters as of June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  15. Adjacent Lane Detection and Lateral Vehicle Distance Measurement Using Vision-Based Neuro-Fuzzy Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Wu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article attempts to propose an advanced design of driver assistance system which can provide the driver advisable information about the adjacent lanes and approaching lateral vehicles. The experimental vehicle has a camera mounted at the left side rear view mirror which captures the images of adjacent lane. The detection of lane lines is implemented with methods based on image processing techniques. The candidates for lateral vehicle are explored with lane-based transformation, and each one is verified with the characteristics of its length, width, time duration, and height. Finally, the distances of lateral vehicles are estimated with the well-trained recurrent functional neuro-fuzzy network. The system is tested with nine video sequences captured when the vehicle is driving on Taiwan’s highway, and the experimental results show it works well for different road conditions and for multiple vehicles.

  16. Adjacent Lane Detection and Lateral Vehicle Distance Measurement Using Vision-Based Neuro-Fuzzy Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article attempts to propose an advanced design of driver assistance system which can provide thedriver advisable information about the adjacent lanes and approaching lateral vehicles. The experimental vehiclehas a camera mounted at the left side rear view mirror which captures the images of adjacent lane. The detectionof lane lines is implemented with methods based on image processing techniques. The candidates for lateralvehicle are explored with lane-based transformation, and each one is verified with the characteristics of its length,width, time duration, and height. Finally, the distances of lateral vehicles are estimated with the well-trainedrecurrent functional neuro-fuzzy network. The system is tested with nine video sequences captured when thevehicle is driving on Taiwan’s highway, and the experimental results show it works well for different road conditionsand for multiple vehicles.

  17. Research in Video Detection of Lane Curve and Its Application in Speed Alert System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maliang Song; Xiaoyan Liu

    2014-01-01

    That vehicles travel on a curve with excessive speed tends to skid or roll over. This study presents research in video recognition technology of lane and its application in traffic early safety alert system, which improves traffic safety...

  18. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

  19. Connectivity-Based Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol based on the connectivity information among the recipients. Enhancing the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC protocol, the reliable multicast MAC protocol significantly reduces the RAK (Request for ACK frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time and enhances the MAC performance. By the analytical performance analysis, the throughputs of the BMMM protocol and our proposed MAC protocol are derived. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol increases the reliable multicast MAC performance for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  20. Acquisition of the field measurement data relating to lane change actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Fujiki, Takuya; Kukida, Shinji; Ikegaya, Naoki; Hagishima, Aya

    2015-11-01

    As a data set for validation of microscopic simulation models, we obtained the fundamental diagram (flux versus density relation), and the relations of velocity versus density, lane usage ratio versus density and lane-changing frequency versus density derived from a single field measurement campaign held at a Japanese urban expressway. The results were drawn from image analysis of video camera data obtained at the site.

  1. Comparison of color image segmentations for lane following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandt, Frederic; Aubert, Didier

    1993-05-01

    For ten years, unstructured road following has been the subject of many studies. Road following must support the automatic navigation, at reasonable speed, of mobile robots on irregular paths and roads, with unhomogeneous surfaces and under variable lighting conditions. Civil and military applications of this technology include transportation, logistics, security and engineering. The definition of our lane following system requires an evaluation of the existing technologies. Although the various operational systems converge on a color perception and a region segmentation optimizing discrimination and stability respectively, the treatments and performances vary. In this paper, the robustness of four operational systems and two connected techniques are compared according to common evaluation criteria. We identify typical situations which constitute a basis for the realization of an image database. We describe the process of experimentation conceived for the comparative analysis of performances. The analytical results are useful in order to infer a few optimal combinations of techniques driven by the situations, and to define the present limits of the color perception's validity.

  2. Improving the Lane Reference Detection for Autonomous Road Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous road vehicles are increasingly becoming more important and there are several techniques and sensors that are being applied for vehicle control. This paper presents an alternative system for maintaining the position of autonomous vehicles without adding additional elements to the standard sensor architecture, by using a 3D laser scanner for continuously detecting a reference element in situations in which the GNSS receiver fails or provides accuracy below the required level. Considering that the guidance variables are more accurately estimated when dealing with reference points in front of and behind the vehicle, an algorithm based on vehicle dynamics mathematical model is proposed to extend the detected points in cases where the sensor is placed at the front of the vehicle. The algorithm has been tested when driving along a lane delimited by New Jersey barriers at both sides and the results show a correct behaviour. The system is capable of estimating the reference element behind the vehicle with sufficient accuracy when the laser scanner is placed at the front of it, so the robustness of the control input variables (lateral and angular errors estimation is improved making it unnecessary to place the sensor on the vehicle roof or to introduce additional sensors.

  3. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... of the role of the category manager in purchasing....... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...

  4. DG categories and exceptional collections

    CERN Document Server

    Bodzenta-Skibińska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Bondal and Kapranov describe how to assign to a full exceptional collection on a variety X a DG category C such that the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves on X is equivalent to the bounded derived category of C. In this paper we show that the category C has finite dimensional spaces of morphisms. We describe how it behaves under mutations and present an algorithm allowing to calculate it for full exceptional collections with vanishing Ext^k groups for k > 1. Finally, we use it to describe an example of a non-commutative deformation of certain rational surfaces.

  5. Associativity as Commutativity

    OpenAIRE

    Dosen, K.; Petric, Z.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that coherence conditions for monoidal categories concerning associativity are analogous to coherence conditions for symmetric or braided strictly monoidal categories, where associativity arrows are identities. Mac Lane's pentagonal coherence condition for associativity is decomposed into conditions concerning commutativity, among which we have a condition analogous to naturality and a degenerate case of Mac Lane's hexagonal condition for commutativity. This decomposition is analo...

  6. Controlling traffic jams on a two-lane road using delayed-feedback signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHENG; Shi-quan ZHONG; Shou-feng MA

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the stability analysis of two-lane traffic flow with lateral friction,which may be caused by irregular driving behavior or poorly visible road markings,and also attempts to reveal the formation mechanism of traffic jams.Firstly,a two-lane optimal velocity (OV) model without control signals is proposed and its stability condition is obtained from the viewpoint of control theory.Then delayed-feedback control signals composed of distance headway information from both lanes are added to each vehicle and a vehicular control system is designed to suppress the traffic jams.Lane change behaviors are also incorporated into the two-lane OV model and the corresponding information about distance headway and feedback signals is revised.Finally,the results of numerical experiments are shown to verify that when the stability condition is not met,the position disturbances and resulting lane change behaviors do indeed deteriorate traffic performance and cause serious traffic jams.However,once the proper delayed-feedback control signals are implemented,the traffic jams can be suppressed efficiently.

  7. Real-Time Lane Region Detection Using a Combination of Geometrical and Image Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres Hernández, Danilo; Kurnianggoro, Laksono; Filonenko, Alexander; Jo, Kang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, pavement markings have played a key role in intelligent vehicle applications such as guidance, navigation, and control. However, there are still serious issues facing the problem of lane marking detection. For example, problems include excessive processing time and false detection due to similarities in color and edges between traffic signs (channeling lines, stop lines, crosswalk, arrows, etc.). This paper proposes a strategy to extract the lane marking information taking into consideration its features such as color, edge, and width, as well as the vehicle speed. Firstly, defining the region of interest is a critical task to achieve real-time performance. In this sense, the region of interest is dependent on vehicle speed. Secondly, the lane markings are detected by using a hybrid color-edge feature method along with a probabilistic method, based on distance-color dependence and a hierarchical fitting model. Thirdly, the following lane marking information is extracted: the number of lane markings to both sides of the vehicle, the respective fitting model, and the centroid information of the lane. Using these parameters, the region is computed by using a road geometric model. To evaluate the proposed method, a set of consecutive frames was used in order to validate the performance. PMID:27869657

  8. Anaesthesia with sevoflurane in pigeons: minimal anaesthetic concentration (MAC) determination and investigation of cardiorespiratory variables at 1 MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botman, J; Gabriel, F; Dugdale, A H A; Vandeweerd, J-M

    2016-05-28

    The objective of the study was to determine the minimal anaesthetic concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane (SEVO) in pigeons and investigate the effects of 1 MAC SEVO anaesthesia on cardiovascular and respiratory variables compared with the awake state. This is a prospective, experimental study. Animals were seven healthy adult pigeons. After acclimatisation to handling, heart rate (HR), heart rhythm, respiratory rate (fR), end-expired carbon dioxide tension (PE'CO2), inspired CO2 tension, indirect systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) and cloacal temperature were measured to determine baseline, 'awake' values. Pigeons were then anaesthetised with SEVO and MAC was determined by the 'bracketing' method. The same variables were monitored during a 40 minute period at 1.0 MAC SEVO for each bird. Mean MAC was 3.0±0.6 per cent for SEVO. During maintenance of anaesthesia at 1.0 MAC, SAP decreased significantly (Pawake PE'CO2 values were unexpectedly low. Sinus arrhythmias were detected in two birds under SEVO anaesthesia. The times to tracheal intubation and to recovery were 2.5±0.7 and 6.4±1.7 minutes, respectively. Recovery was rapid and uneventful in all birds. In conclusion, SEVO is suitable for anaesthesia in pigeons. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Learning Unix for Mac OS X Tiger Unlock the Power of Unix

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Dave

    2005-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and updated for Mac OS X Tiger, this new edition introduces Mac users to the Terminal application and shows you how to navigate the command interface, explore hundreds of Unix applications that come with the Mac, and, most importantly, how to take advantage of both the Mac and Unix interfaces. If you want to master the command-line, this gentle guide to using Unix on Mac OS X Tiger is well worth its cover price

  10. SOCIO-SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF LANDSCAPE BACK LANE OF HOUSING AT BANDAR BARU NILAI: PRIVACY AND COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI F. M. LIAS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban informal spaces in the form of back lane tend to promote socio-spatial integration between neighbourhood communities. The Back Lane Planning Design Guidelines issued in 2014 by Town and Country Planning Department of Malaysia identified back lane as such a place to encourage communal lifestyle whereas an area of owns residents privacy. In reality, back lane portrays as the wasted unfavourable paths thus several social concerns of safety, security, health issues as well as invading privacy and sense of deficiency community bonding issues arise. This study quantitatively analyses dwellers perception focusing to level of visual privacy and level of spiritual neighbourhood interaction towards effectiveness of newly landscape back lane (LBL in contemporary urban dwellings. Comparison of socio-spatial integration between two types of back lane design in grid-linear housing scheme ; the pleasing greenery landscape back lane (LBL and the plain empty bare paved back lane (PBL in residential area of Kota Seriemas, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan . Structured questionnaire distributed to 115 respondents to assess on privacy and comfort level, neighbourhood activities and communal lifestyle, back -lane usage, resident’s perception and expectation.The study proved the landscape design back lane (LBL is ensuring own right privacy lacking in promoting community interaction among the residents due to contemporary urban lifestyles.

  11. PSO Algorithm Particle Filters for Improving the Performance of Lane Detection and Tracking Systems in Difficult Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chang Cheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a robust lane detection and tracking method by combining particle filters with the particle swarm optimization method. This method mainly uses the particle filters to detect and track the local optimum of the lane model in the input image and then seeks the global optimal solution of the lane model by a particle swarm optimization method. The particle filter can effectively complete lane detection and tracking in complicated or variable lane environments. However, the result obtained is usually a local optimal system status rather than the global optimal system status. Thus, the particle swarm optimization method is used to further refine the global optimal system status in all system statuses. Since the particle swarm optimization method is a global optimization algorithm based on iterative computing, it can find the global optimal lane model by simulating the food finding way of fish school or insects under the mutual cooperation of all particles. In verification testing, the test environments included highways and ordinary roads as well as straight and curved lanes, uphill and downhill lanes, lane changes, etc. Our proposed method can complete the lane detection and tracking more accurately and effectively then existing options.

  12. Categories with envelopes and imprints

    CERN Document Server

    Akbarov, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    An envelope in a category is a construction generalizing operations of "exterior completion", like completion of a locally convex space. Dually, an imprint generalizes operations of "interior enrichment", like saturation of a locally convex space. We give abstract definition for envelopes and imprints, prove existence of these objects in the categories of stereotype spaces and of stereotype algebras, and give some examples.

  13. Audiovisual recalibration of vowel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, M.K.M.; Eisner, F.; Schoffelen, J.M.; Acheson, D.J.; Hagoort, P.; McQueen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most daunting tasks of a listener is to map a continuous auditory stream onto known speech sound categories and lexical items. A major issue with this mapping problem is the variability in the acoustic realizations of sound categories, both within and across speakers. Past research has

  14. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...

  15. A Service Differentiated MAC Protocol for OFDM/TDMA Wireless Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; ZHANG Ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a Service Differentiated-Dynamic Slotted Multiple Access (SD-DSMA) protocol with QoS guarantee. The Media Access Control (MAC) frame format is variable according to the traffic of uplink and downlink and the traffic of control and data. In addition, the services are divided into two categories, Guaranteed Bandwidth (GB) and Best Effort (BE). Uplink control message slots are designed for the GB users to reduce contention. Taking into consideration the techniques in physical layer, a two-Dimensional Radio Resource Allocation (2-D RRA) method is proposed. The 2-D RRA is an efficient way to allocate radio resources for multi-cell, multi-user OFDM/TDMA system as it takes into consideration both the channel condition and the co-channel interference. The piggyback mechanism and fair scheduling algorithm are adopted for GB services, and the max C/I scheduling algorithm is used for BE services. The simulation results show that the proposed MAC protocol has better performance in terms of delay, probability of successful access request.

  16. Dagger Categories of Tame Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of an involutive monoidal category the notion of a comparison relation is identified. Instances are equality on sets, inequality on posets, orthogonality on orthomodular lattices, non-empty intersection on powersets, and inner product on vector or Hilbert spaces. Associated with a collection of such (symmetric) comparison relations a dagger category is defined with "tame" relations as morphisms. Examples include familiar categories in the foundations of quantum mechanics, such as sets with partial injections, or with locally bifinite relations, or with formal distributions between them, or Hilbert spaces with bounded (continuous) linear maps. Of one particular example of such a dagger category of tame relations, involving sets and bifinite multirelations between them, the categorical structure is investigated in some detail. It turns out to involve symmetric monoidal dagger structure, with biproducts, and dagger kernels. This category may form an appropriate universe for discrete quantum co...

  17. Abelian categories in dimension 2

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to define a 2-dimensional version of abelian categories, where symmetric 2-groups play the role that abelian groups played in 1-dimensional algebra. Abelian and 2-abelian groupoid enriched categories are defined and it is proved that homology can be developed in them, including the existence of a long exact sequence of homology corresponding to an extension of chain complexes. This generalises known results for symmetric 2-groups. The examples include, in addition to symmetric 2-groups, the 2-modules on a 2-ring, which form a 2-abelian groupoid enriched category. Moreover, internal groupoids, functors and natural transformations in an abelian category C (in particular, Baez-Crans 2-vector spaces) form a 2-abelian groupoid enriched category if and only if the axiom of choice holds in C.

  18. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    ’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all...... the structural variants attested across languages, semantic categories can be too wide, including too many structural variants to be useful for e.g. morphosyntactic typology. Furthermore, major typological word order studies after Greenberg (1966) have failed to keep formal and semantic categories apart......: language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32-5, 429–92. Greenberg, Joseph H. 1963. Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of meaningful elements. In Joseph H. Greenberg (ed.), Universals of Language, 73-113. Cambridge: MIT. Keesing...

  19. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    in the process of verbal communication (in the tradition of the Prague School). I will argue that (a) functional categorization is methodologically prior to formal and semantic categorization (functional categories include semantic and formal categories) and (b) functional categories give better cross...... in their attempt to account for cross-linguistic ordering tendencies (Rijkhoff 2009a).       Recent proposals to employ ‘concepts’ as the basis for cross-linguistic comparison (apparently conflating linguistic/semantic and non-linguistic/cognitive categories) have also met with considerable skepticism (Levinson......, Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13...

  20. Trifoliata hybrids rootstocks for 'Lane Late' navel orange in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. are the most important rootstocks used in Spain, but they are problematic and it is necessary to search for new rootstocks with better all-round performance. The performance of 'Lane Late' navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb] on ten rootstocks was determined in the South of the province of Alicante (Spain. They are Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin and eight new hybrids obtained at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia (Spain: 020324 [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata × Cleopatra mandarin], Forner-Alcaide 418 (F&A 418 [Troyer citrange × common mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.], Forner-Alcaide 13 (F&A 13, 030118, 030127 and 030131 (Cleopatra mandarin × P. trifoliata and 030212 and 030230 (Cleopatra mandarin × Troyer citrange. Soil is clay loam, with pH 8.5 and electric conductivity in the saturation extract at 25ºC of 5.79 mS cm-1. Yield was weighed during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined in the last three. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was controlled for the 4th until 9th harvests. The trees of 'Lane Late' navel budded on Cleopatra mandarin were the tallest (2.5 m and F&A 418 (1.6 m the shortest of all rootstocks tested. Trees on 030131 hybrid and Carrizo citrange rootstocks had the highest mean yield (81.2 and 80.3 kg per tree per year respectively, while trees on F&A 418 produced the lowest mean yield (22.3 kg per tree per year. Trees on 030131, 020324 and 030212 had the highest yield efficiency as total cumulative yield per cubic meter of canopy volume (62.1, 58.7 and 55.9 kg m-3 respectively whereas trees on 030127, F&A 418 and Cleopatra mandarin had lower yield efficiencies (45.0, 44.4 and 38.6 kg m-3, respectively. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was lower in trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (24.62 % and on 030212 (26.61 %, and was also low on F&A 418 (27

  1. C-MAC compared with direct laryngoscopy for intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilization: A manikin trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smereka, Jacek; Ladny, Jerzy R; Naylor, Amanda; Ruetzler, Kurt; Szarpak, Lukasz

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare C-MAC videolaryngoscopy with direct laryngoscopy for intubation in simulated cervical spine immobilization conditions. The study was designed as a prospective randomized crossover manikin trial. 70 paramedics with MAC and C-MAC on the first attempt (95.7% MAC vs. 100% C-MAC), with similar intubation times (16.5s MAC vs. 18s C-MAC). Scenario B: The results with C-MAC were significantly better than those with MAC (pMAC vs. 19 s C-MAC), success of the first intubation attempt (88.6% MAC vs. 100% C-MAC), Cormack-Lehane grade, POGO score, severity of dental compression, device difficulty score, and preferred airway device. Scenario C: The results with C-MAC were significantly better than those with MAC (pMAC vs. 100% C-MAC), overall success rate, intubation time (27 s MAC vs. 20.5 s C-MAC), Cormack-Lehane grade, POGO score, dental compression, device difficulty score and the preferred airway device. The C-MAC videolaryngoscope is an excellent alternative to the MAC laryngoscope for intubating manikins with cervical spine immobilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Victor Bérard et la Macédoine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Savev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un helléniste convaincu, Victor Bérard, en vient, au début du XXe siècle à soutenir l’existence de « Macédoniens » et le slogan « la Macédoine aux Macédoniens”.Le Congrès de Berlin en 1878 avait laissé la Macédoine aux mains des Ottomans. La Grèce, la Serbie et la Bulgarie, parvenues à ses limites et prévoyant le retrait futur des Ottomans peaufinent les arguments linguistiques et historiques qui justifieront leurs revendications territoriales. Victor Bérard, un helléniste respecté et bon connaisseur de la région sud balkanique, effectue des enquêtes en Macédoine en 1896 et 1903 qu’il publie à Paris.Cette étude montre comment, dans le contexte de la propagande nationaliste des prétendants à la possession de la Macédoine, Victor Bérard en vient progressivement à affirmer qu’il existe une population autochtone, les Macédoniens. Il soutient leur programme pour la constitution d’une fédération ou confédération avec le slogan « la Macédoine aux Macédoniens » ce qui fait toute l’actualité de ses ouvrages.In 1878, the Congress of Berlin had left Macedonia in the hands of the Ottomans. Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria had reached its limits. Anticipating the Ottoman retreat, they polish language and historical arguments that will justify their territorial claims. Victor Bérard, a respected Hellenist and a good expert of the southern Balkans, is doing researches in Macedonia in 1896 and 1903. These will be later published in Paris.This study shows how, in the context of the nationalist propaganda build-up made by the candidates for the possession of Macedonia, Victor Bérard comes progressively to assert the existence of a native population: the Macedonians. He supports their program for the forming of a federation or confederation which slogan would be “Macedonia to Macedonians”. This makes his works very topical.

  3. The many faces of Mac-1 in autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosetti, Florencia; Mayadas, Tanya N

    2016-01-01

    Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) is a β2 integrin classically regarded as a pro-inflammatory molecule because of its ability to promote phagocyte cytotoxic functions and enhance the function of several effector molecules such as FcγR, uPAR, and CD14. Nevertheless, recent reports have revealed that Mac-1 also plays significant immunoregulatory roles, and genetic variants in ITGAM, the gene that encodes CD11b, confer risk for the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This has renewed interest in the physiological roles of this integrin and raised new questions on how its seemingly opposing biological functions may be regulated. Here, we provide an overview of the CD18 integrins and how their activation may be regulated as this may shed light on how the opposing roles of Mac-1 may be elicited. We then discuss studies that exemplify Mac-1's pro-inflammatory versus regulatory roles particularly in the context of IgG immune complex-mediated inflammation. This includes a detailed examination of molecular mechanisms that could explain the risk-conferring effect of rs1143679, a single nucleotide non-synonymous Mac-1 polymorphism associated with SLE.

  4. Real-time lane departure warning system based on principal component analysis of grayscale distribution and risk evaluation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟伟; 宋晓琳; 张桂香

    2014-01-01

    A technology for unintended lane departure warning was proposed. As crucial information, lane boundaries were detected based on principal component analysis of grayscale distribution in search bars of given number and then each search bar was tracked using Kalman filter between frames. The lane detection performance was evaluated and demonstrated in ways of receiver operating characteristic, dice similarity coefficient and real-time performance. For lane departure detection, a lane departure risk evaluation model based on lasting time and frequency was effectively executed on the ARM-based platform. Experimental results indicate that the algorithm generates satisfactory lane detection results under different traffic and lighting conditions, and the proposed warning mechanism sends effective warning signals, avoiding most false warning.

  5. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design....

  6. An Energy Efficient MAC Proto col for Linear WSNs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Guoyong; MIAO Chunyu; YING Kezhen; WANG Kai; CHEN Qingzhang

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been employed as an ideal solution in many applications for data gathering in harsh environment. Energy consumption is a key issue in wireless sensor networks since nodes are often battery operated. Medium access control (MAC) pro-tocol plays an important role in energy efficiency in wire-less sensor networks because nodes’ access to the shared medium is coordinated by the MAC layer. An energy ef-ficient MAC protocol is designed for data gathering in linear wireless sensor networks. In order to enhance the performance, when a source node transmits data to the sink, proper relay nodes are selected for forwarding data according to the energy consumption factor and residual energy balance factor. Some simulation experiments are conducted and the results show that, the proposed proto-col provides better energy efficiency and long lifetime than the existing DMAC protocol.

  7. A Fair-Priority MAC design in Networked Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Li

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Media Access Control (MAC protocols in Wireless Networked Control System (WNCS must minimize the radio energy costs in sensor nodes. Latency and throughput are also important design features for MAC protocols in the applications. But most of them cannot guarantee quality for real-time traffic. This paper studies the state of the art of current real-time MAC protocols, and then introduces a medium access control protocol and a improved protocol that provide multiple priority levels and hard real-time transmission. The channel is accessed by sensors according to their priorities. Sensors send frames in a round manner with same priority. The fairness between different priorities is provided. The channel access procedure is divided into two stages: broadcast period and transmission period. Simulation and experiment results indicate that our protocol provides high channel utilization and bounded delays for real-time communication and can be well applied in the many fields especially the dynamic wireless sensor networks.

  8. Implementation of MAC by using Modified Vedic Multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelekshmi M. S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiplier Accumulator Unit (MAC is a part of Digital Signal Processors. The speed of MAC depends on the speed of multiplier. So by using an efficient Vedic multiplier which excels in terms of speed, power and area, the performance of MAC can be increased. For this fast method of multiplication based on ancient Indian Vedic mathematics is proposed in this paper. Among various method of multiplication in Vedic mathematics, Urdhva Tiryagbhyam is used and the multiplication is for 32 X 32 bits. Urdhva Tiryagbhyam is a general multiplication formula applicable to all cases of multiplication. Adder used is Carry Look Ahead adder. The proposed design shows improvement over carry save adder.

  9. Cognitive MAC Protocols for General Primary Network Models

    CERN Document Server

    Mehanna, Omar; Gamal, Hesham El

    2009-01-01

    We consider the design of cognitive Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols enabling a secondary (unlicensed) transmitter-receiver pair to communicate over the idle periods of a set of primary (licensed) channels. More specifically, we propose cognitive MAC protocols optimized for both slotted and un-slotted primary networks. For the slotted structure, the objective is to maximize the secondary throughput while maintaining synchronization between the secondary pair and not causing interference to the primary network. Our investigations differentiate between two sensing scenarios. In the first, the secondary transmitter is capable of sensing all the primary channels, whereas it senses only a subset of the primary channels in the second scenario. In both cases, we propose blind MAC protocols that efficiently learn the statistics of the primary traffic on-line and asymptotically achieve the throughput obtained when prior knowledge of primary traffic statistics is available. For the un-slotted structure, the object...

  10. Synthesizing Existing CSMA and TDMA Based MAC Protocols for VANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiawei; Li, Qi; Zhong, Shaohua; Liu, Lianhai; Zhong, Ping; Wang, Jianxin; Ye, Jin

    2017-02-10

    Many Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based medium access control (MAC) protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have been proposed recently. Contrary to the common perception that they are competitors, we argue that the underlying strategies used in these MAC protocols are complementary. Based on this insight, we design CTMAC, a MAC protocol that synthesizes existing strategies; namely, random accessing channel (used in CSMA-style protocols) and arbitral reserving channel (used in TDMA-based protocols). CTMAC swiftly changes its strategy according to the vehicle density, and its performance is better than the state-of-the-art protocols. We evaluate CTMAC using at-scale simulations. Our results show that CTMAC reduces the channel completion time and increases the network goodput by 45% for a wide range of application workloads and network settings.

  11. ETEEM- Extended Traffic Aware Energy Efficient MAC Scheme for WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younas Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Idle listening issue arises when a sensor node listens to medium despite the absence of data which results in consumption of energy. ETEEM is a variant of Traffic Aware Energy Efficient MAC protocol (TEEM which focuses on energy optimization due to reduced idle listening time and much lesser overhead on energy sources. It uses a novel scheme for using idle listening time of sensor nodes. The nodes are only active for small amount of time and most of the time, will be in sleep mode when no data is available. ETEEM reduces energy at byte level and uses a smaller byte packet called FLAG replacing longer byte SYNC packets of S-MAC and SYNCrts of TEEM respectively. It also uses a single acknowledgement packet per data set hence reducing energy while reducing frequency of the acknowledgment frames sent. The performance of ETEEM is 70% better comparative to other under-consideration MAC protocols.

  12. Office for iPad and Mac for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Weverka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The easy way to work with Office on your iPad or Mac Are you a Mac user who isn't accustomed to working with Microsoft Office? Consider this friendly guide your go-to reference! Written in plain English and packed with easy-to-follow, step-by-step instructions, Office for iPad and Mac For Dummies walks you through every facet of Office, from installing the software and opening files to working with Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Outlook-and beyond. Plus, you'll discover how to manage files, share content and collaborate online through social media, and find help when you need it. Two things a

  13. An empirical study of phase transitions from synchronized flow to jams on a single-lane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Hao

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we study empirical data for traffic flow at low velocities in single-lane traffic and compare them with those for multi-lane traffic. It is found that the traffic dynamics are quite different. When the velocities are low in multi-lane traffic, the traffic flow always becomes unstable and develops into jams. In single-lane traffic, some drivers drive in a more relaxed way and stay further back from the preceding car, as they know they cannot overtake the slow vehicle in front of them or at the front of the line. It may also be because they prefer not to follow the preceding vehicle too closely in single-lane traffic, to avoid the incessant deceleration and acceleration. This strategy is feasible because even if the space in front is large, no vehicle could ‘cut in’ in the single lane traffic. This phenomenon is called the ‘moderating effect’, and it harmonizes the traffic flow at low velocities. It is shown that the data points of synchronized flow in single-lane traffic are usually to the left and below those for multi-lane traffic in the flow-density plane. Thus, it is more difficult for the phase transition from synchronized flow to jams to occur in single-lane traffic, as pointed out in Kerner's three-phase traffic theory.

  14. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-03-31

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid.

  15. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhutian Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC, which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid.

  16. Causal categories: relativistically interacting processes

    CERN Document Server

    Coecke, Bob

    2011-01-01

    A symmetric monoidal category naturally arises as the mathematical structure that organizes physical systems, processes, and composition thereof, both sequentially and in parallel. This structure admits a purely graphical calculus. This paper is concerned with the encoding of a fixed causal structure within a symmetric monoidal category: causal dependencies will correspond to topological connectedness in the graphical language. We show that correlations, either classical or quantum, force terminality of the tensor unit. We also show that well-definedness of the concept of a global state forces the monoidal product to be only partially defined, which in turn results in a relativistic covariance theorem. Except for these assumptions, at no stage do we assume anything more than purely compositional symmetric-monoidal categorical structure. We cast these two structural results in terms of a mathematical entity, which we call a `causal category'. We provide methods of constructing causal categories, and we study t...

  17. AMPA receptor competitive antagonism reduces halothane MAC in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, C; Warner, D S; Todd, M M; Nordholm, L

    1992-12-01

    Various subtypes of receptors have been identified for glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter. Previous studies have shown that antagonism of glutamate at the NMDA receptors reduces minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for volatile anesthetics. NBQX (2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline) is a selective antagonist at the glutamatergic AMPA receptor. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether AMPA receptor antagonism influences halothane MAC in the rat. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with halothane in 50% O2/balance N2, tracheally intubated and the lungs were mechanically ventilated. Increasing doses of NBQX were intravenously infused in three groups while the control group was infused with vehicle (D5W). Halothane MAC was then determined by the tail-clamp method. Halothane MAC was log-linearly related to plasma NBQX concentrations (MAC = 0.125 (In plasma concentration NBQX) + 1.035, r2 = 0.77). A maximal 58% reduction of halothane MAC was achieved with an NBQX loading dose of 42 mg/kg followed by a continuous infusion rate of 36 mg x kg-1 x h-1 (control = 1.02 +/- 0.07%; NBQX = 0.43 +/- 0.12%; P awake rats were randomly assigned to groups based on the dose of NBQX infused. Pa(CO2) and mean arterial pressure were measured at time 0 and at 5 and 30 min after start of NBQX infusion. The infusion was then stopped. Time until recovery of the righting reflex was recorded.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2012-01-01

    As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

  19. Constraint-Based Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, G; Bouma, Gosse; Noord, Gertjan van

    1994-01-01

    We propose a generalization of Categorial Grammar in which lexical categories are defined by means of recursive constraints. In particular, the introduction of relational constraints allows one to capture the effects of (recursive) lexical rules in a computationally attractive manner. We illustrate the linguistic merits of the new approach by showing how it accounts for the syntax of Dutch cross-serial dependencies and the position and scope of adjuncts in such constructions. Delayed evaluation is used to process grammars containing recursive constraints.

  20. Rigidification of quasi-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Dugger, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We give a new construction for rigidifying a quasi-category into a simplicial category, and prove that it is weakly equivalent to the rigidification given by Lurie. Our construction comes from the use of necklaces, which are simplicial sets obtained by stringing simplices together. As an application of these methods, we use our model to reprove some basic facts from Lurie's "Higher Topos Theory" regarding the rigidification process.

  1. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  2. A new shared control for lane keeping and road departure prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merah, Abdelkader; Hartani, Kada; Draou, Azeddine

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the driver's active assistances have become important features in commercialised vehicles. In this paper, we present one of these features which consists of an advanced driver assistance system for lane keeping. A thorough analysis of its performance and stability with respect to variations in driver behaviour will be given. Firstly, the lateral control model based on visual preview is established and the kinematics model based on visual preview, including speed and other factors, is used to calculate the lateral error and direction error. Secondly, and according to the characteristics of the lateral control, an efficient strategy of intelligent electric vehicle lateral mode is proposed. The integration of the vehicle current lateral error and direction error is chosen as the parameter of the sliding mode switching function to design the sliding surface. The control variables are adjusted according to the fuzzy control rules to ensure that they meet the existence and reaching condition. A new fuzzy logic-based switching strategy with an efficient control law is also proposed to ensure a level of continuous and variable sharing according to the state of the driver and the vehicle positioning on the roadway. The proposed control law acts either at the centre of the lane, as a lane keeping assistance system to reduce the driver's workload for long trips, or as a lane departure avoidance system that intervenes for unintended lane departures. Simulation results are included in this paper to explain this concept.

  3. Effect of Driver Scope Awareness in the Lane Changing Maneuvers Using Cellular Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of drivers’ visibility and their perception (e.g., to estimate the speed and arrival time of another vehicle on the lane changing maneuver. The term of scope awareness was used to describe the visibility required by the driver to make a perception about road condition and the speed of vehicle that exist in that road. A computer simulation model was conducted to show this driver awareness behavior. This studying attempt to precisely catching the lane changing behavior and illustrate the scope awareness parameter that reflects driver behavior. This paper proposes a simple cellular automata model for studying driver visibility effects of lane changing maneuver and driver perception of estimated speed. Different values of scope awareness were examined to capture its effect on the traffic flow. Simulation results show the ability of this model to capture the important features of lane changing maneuver and revealed the appearance of the short-thin solid line jam and the wide solid line jam in the traffic flow as the consequences of lane changing maneuver.

  4. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  5. Lane marking detection by extracting white regions with predefined width from bird's-eye road images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sadayuki; Shoji, Kenji; Toyama, Fubito; Miyamichi, Juichi

    2011-01-01

    Detecting lane markings on roads from in-vehicle camera images is very important because it is one of the fundamental tasks for autonomous running technology and safety driving support system. There are several lane markings detection methods using the width information, but most of these are considered to be insufficient for oblique markings. So, the primary intent of this paper is to propose a detecting lane markings method robust to orientation of markings. In this work, we focus on the width of lane markings standardized by road act in Japan, and propose a method for detecting white lane markings by extracting white regions with constant predefined width from bird's-eye road images after segmentation such as categorical color area one. The proposed method is based on the constrained Delaunay triangulation. The proposed method has a merit that can be measure an exact width for oblique markings on the bird's-eye images because it can be obtained perpendicular width for edge. The effectiveness of the proposed method was shown by experimental results for 187 actual road images taken from an in-vehicle camera.

  6. Link-layer jamming attacks on S-MAC

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Yee Wei; Hartel, Pieter; Hartog, den, D.N.; Havinga, Paul

    2005-01-01

    We argue that among denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, link-layer jamming is a more attractive option to attackers than radio jamming is. By exploiting the semantics of the link-layer protocol (aka MAC protocol), an attacker can achieve better efficiency than blindly jamming the radio signals alone. In this paper, we investigate some jamming attacks on S-MAC, the level of effectiveness and efficiency the attacks can potentially achieve, and a countermeasure that can be implemented against one o...

  7. Rand and MacIntyre on moral agency

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This paper contrasts the work of Ayn Rand and Alasdair MacIntyre on moral agency. Both argue that moral agency requires the application of a consistent moral code across relationships with others and that such consistency is rarely evident in the modern social order. However, while MacIntyre holds this failure to be a defining feature of the modern social order, Rand holds this to be a failure of individuals and a marker of a wider cultural confusion. While Rand sees selfishness and capitalis...

  8. Alasdair MacIntyre: relatividad conceptual, tomismo y liberalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Isler S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenciado por Thomas Kuhn, Alasdair MacIntyre presenta una teoría conceptualmente relativista sobre las tradiciones de investigación, la cual pretende no sólo describir la estructura de las distintas tradiciones, sino también encontrar un principioque permita resolver las disputas entre ellas. Se expone esta teoría y se analiza su compatibilidad con el tomismo, tradición a la que MacIntyre dice pertenecer, y con el liberalismo, tradición a la que critica con vigor.

  9. Directional Medium Access Control (MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tung Chong Wong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs. The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs.

  10. Matching based on biological categories in Orangutans (Pongo abelii) and a Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Following a series of experiments in which six orangutans and one gorilla discriminated photographs of different animal species in a two-choice touch screen procedure, Vonk & MacDonald (2002) and Vonk & MacDonald (2004) concluded that orangutans, but not the gorilla, seemed to learn intermediate level category discriminations, such as primates versus non-primates, more rapidly than they learned concrete level discriminations, such as orangutans versus humans. In the current experiments, four of the same orangutans and the gorilla were presented with delayed matching-to-sample tasks in which they were rewarded for matching photos of different members of the same primate species; golden lion tamarins, Japanese macaques, and proboscis monkeys, or family; gibbons, lemurs (Experiment 1), and subsequently for matching photos of different species within the following classes: birds, reptiles, insects, mammals, and fish (Experiment 2). Members of both Great Ape species were rapidly able to match the photos at levels above chance. Orangutans matched images from both category levels spontaneously whereas the gorilla showed effects of learning to match intermediate level categories. The results show that biological knowledge is not necessary to form natural categories at both concrete and intermediate levels.

  11. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, George; Peterson, M Nils

    2015-01-01

    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  12. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hess

    Full Text Available Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  13. Stability classification model of mine-lane surrounding rock based on distance discriminant analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LI Xi-bing; GONG Feng-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis (DDA) theory, a stability classification model for mine-lane surrounding rock was established, including six indexes of discriminant factors that reflect the engineering quality of surrounding rock: lane depth below surface, span of lane, ratio of directly top layer thickness to coal thickness, uniaxial comprehensive strength of surrounding rock, development degree coefficient of surrounding rock joint and range of broken surrounding rock zone. A DDA model was obtained through training 15 practical measuring samples. The re-substitution method was introduced to verify the stability of DDA model and the ratio of mis-discrimination is zero. The DDA model was used to discriminate3 new samples and the results are identical with actual rock kind. Compared with the artificial neural network method and support vector mechanic method, the results show that this model has high prediction accuracy and can be used in practical engineering.

  14. A model for the evolution of traffic jams in multi-lane

    CERN Document Server

    Berthelin, Florent

    2011-01-01

    In [7], Berthelin, Degond, Delitala and Rascle introduced a traffic flow model describing the formation and the dynamics of traffic jams. This model consists of a Pressureless Gas Dynamics system under a maximal constraint on the density and is derived through a singular limit of the Aw-Rascle model. In the present paper we propose an improvement of this model by allowing the road to be multi-lane piecewise. The idea is to use the maximal constraint to modelize the number of lanes. We also add in the model a parameter {\\alpha} which modelize the various speed limitations according to the number of lanes. We present the dynamical behaviour of clusters (traffic jams) and by approximation with such solutions, we obtain an existence result of weak solutions for any initial data.

  15. An Abstract Model for Proving Safety of Multi-lane Traffic Manoeuvres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilscher, Martin; Linker, Sven; Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to prove safety (collision freedom) of multi-lane motorway traffic with lane-change manoeuvres. This is ultimately a hybrid verification problem due to the continuous dynamics of the cars. We abstract from the dynamics by introducing a new spatial interval logic based...... on the view of each car. To guarantee safety, we present two variants of a lane-change controller, one with perfect knowledge of the safety envelopes of neighbouring cars and one which takes only the size of the neighbouring cars into account. Based on these controllers we provide a local safety proof...... for unboundedly many cars by showing that at any moment the reserved space of each car is disjoint from the reserved space of any other car....

  16. Evacuation Network Optimization Model with Lane-Based Reversal and Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes, the evacuation measure may seem to be the best choice as an emergency response. To enable an efficiency evacuation, a network optimization model which integrates lane-based reversal design and routing with intersection crossing conflict elimination for evacuation is constructed. The proposed bilevel model minimizes the total evacuation time to leave the evacuation zone. A tabu search algorithm is applied to find an optimal lane reversal plan in the upper-level. The lower-level utilizes a simulated annealing algorithm to get two types of “a single arc for an intersection approach” and “multiple arcs for an intersection approach” lane-based route plans with intersection crossing conflict elimination. An experiment of a nine-intersection evacuation zone illustrates the validity of the model and the algorithm. A field case with network topology of Jianye District around the Nanjing Olympics Sports Center is studied to show the applicability of this algorithm.

  17. Traffic of single-headed motor proteins KIF1A: effects of lane changing

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    Kinesins are biomolecular motors which move on cylindrical nano-tubes called microtubules. A normal microtubule consists of more than one protofilament on which the equispaced motor binding sites form a periodic array. The collective movement of the kinesins on a microtubule is, therefore, analogous to vehicular traffic on multi-lane highways where each protofilament is the analogue of a single lane. We extend a recent model of the traffic of single-headed kinesin KIF1A [{\\it Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 75}, 041905 (2007)}] by incorporating processes which correspond to shifting of the motor proteins from one protofilament to another. On the basis of analytical treatment of our model, we predict the effects of lane changing on the flux of the KIF1A motors. Our quantitative predictions can be tested, in principle, by carrying out {\\it in-vitro} experiments with fluorescently labelled KIF1A molecules.

  18. Cellular Automaton Models of Highway Traffic Flow Considering Lane-Control and Speed-Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱勇生; 李文俊; 曾俊伟; 王敏; 杜加伟; 广晓平

    2011-01-01

    As two kinds of management modes of highway tramc control, lane-control, and speed-control produce different effect under different conditions. In this paper, traffic flow cellular automaton models for four-lane highway system with two opposing directions under the above two modes are established considering car and truck mixed running. Through computer numerical simulating, the fundamental diagrams with different parameters are obtained, and after the analysis of density-flux diagrams, the variation discipline of flux with traffic density under different control models is gained. The results indicate that, compared with lane-control, utilization ratio of road can be further improved with speed-control when the truck number increases. The research result is of great significance for reasonable providing theoretical guidance for highway traffic control.

  19. Link-layer jamming attacks on S-MAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Yee Wei; Hartel, Pieter; Hartog, den Jerry; Havinga, Paul

    2005-01-01

    We argue that among denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, link-layer jamming is a more attractive option to attackers than radio jamming is. By exploiting the semantics of the link-layer protocol (aka MAC protocol), an attacker can achieve better efficiency than blindly jamming the radio signals alone. W

  20. Listening, Looking, and Learning with MacLang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Judith

    1989-01-01

    Describes how the capabilities of the MacLang authoring system allow foreign language teachers to develop computer-assisted instruction that meets the listening skill objectives of foreign language courses. Examples are given of the use of audio and video interfaces that facilitate listening comprehension. (Author/CB)

  1. Beamforming in Ad Hoc Networks: MAC Design and Performance Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Fakih

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine in this paper the benefits of beamforming techniques in ad hoc networks. We first devise a novel MAC paradigm for ad hoc networks when using these techniques in multipath fading environment. In such networks, the use of conventional directional antennas does not necessarily improve the system performance. On the other hand, the exploitation of the potential benefits of smart antenna systems and especially beamforming techniques needs a prior knowledge of the physical channel. Our proposition performs jointly channel estimation and radio resource sharing. We validate the fruitfulness of the proposed MAC and we evaluate the effects of the channel estimation on the network performance. We then present an accurate analytical model for the performance of IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. We extend the latter model, by introducing the fading probability, to derive the saturation throughput for our proposed MAC when the simplest beamforming strategy is used in real multipath fading ad hoc networks. Finally, numerical results validate our proposition.

  2. God, Sport Philosophy, Kinesiology: A MacIntyrean Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Sport philosophy is in crisis. This subdiscipline of kinesiology garners little to no respect and few tenure track lines in kinesiology departments. Why is this the case? Why isn't philosophy held in greater esteem? Is it possible that philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's (2009) diagnosis found in "God, Philosophy, Universities" could…

  3. MAC Support for High Density Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taddia, C.; Meratnia, Nirvana; van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Mazzini, G.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Large scale and high density networks of tiny sensor nodes offer promising solutions for event detection and actuating applications. In this paper we address the effect of high density of wireless sensor network performance with a specific MAC protocol, the Lightweight Medium Access Control (LMAC).

  4. God, Sport Philosophy, Kinesiology: A MacIntyrean Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Sport philosophy is in crisis. This subdiscipline of kinesiology garners little to no respect and few tenure track lines in kinesiology departments. Why is this the case? Why isn't philosophy held in greater esteem? Is it possible that philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's (2009) diagnosis found in "God, Philosophy, Universities" could…

  5. Roles of Mac-1 and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrins in leukocyte-platelet aggregate formation: stabilization by Mac-1 and inhibition by GpIIb/IIIa blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patko, Zsofia; Csaszar, Albert; Acsady, Gyorgy; Peter, Karlheinz; Schwarz, Meike

    2012-01-01

    Circulating platelet-leukocyte hetero-aggregates play an important role in acute cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions. The association involves the receptor families of selectins and integrin. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of CD11b/CD18 integrin (Mac-1) in hetero-aggregate formation and search for a counter-receptor on platelets ready to interact with Mac-1. As a model of leukocytes, Mac-1 presenting Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were used to evaluate the role of Mac-1 in hetero-aggregate formation. The amount of CHO cell-bound active and inactive platelets was measured by flow cytometry, while the counter-receptors on platelets were identified via using blocking antibodies. We observed significant platelet adhesion on Mac-1-bearing cells when platelet-rich plasma or activated platelets were present. Inactive platelets did not adhere to Mac-1-bearing cells. Addition of fibrinogen, a ligand of Mac-1 significantly increased platelet binding. CD40L was demonstrated to act similarly on Mac-1. Inhibition of platelet GpIIb/IIIa completely abolished CHO cell-platelet aggregation. In our study, we have shown for the first time that Mac-1 mediates the formation of hetero-aggregates without selectin tethering when Mac-1 ligands such as fibrinogen or CD40L are present and blockers of platelet GpIIb/IIIa are able to diminish this interaction.

  6. Pyrogen testing of lipid-based TPN using Mono Mac 6 monocyte cell line and DELFIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in Mono Mac 6 cells.......Measurement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in Mono Mac 6 cells....

  7. Spontaneous-braking and lane-changing effect on traffic congestion using cellular automata model applied to the two-lane traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the real traffic situations, vehicle would make a braking as the response to avoid collision with another vehicle or avoid some obstacle like potholes, snow, or pedestrian that crosses the road unexpectedly. However, in some cases the spontaneous-braking may occur even though there are no obstacles in front of the vehicle. In some country, the reckless driving behaviors such as sudden-stop by public-buses, motorcycle which changing lane too quickly, or tailgating make the probability of braking getting increase. The new aspect of this paper is the simulation of braking behavior of the driver and presents the new Cellular Automata model for describing this characteristic. Moreover, this paper also examines the impact of lane-changing maneuvers to reduce the number of traffic congestion that caused by spontaneous-braking behavior of the vehicles.

  8. Analytic, piecewise solution to the Lane-Emden equation for stars with complex density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Bogdanovic, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    The polytropic models of stars are used for a variety of applications in computational astrophysics. These are typically obtained by numerically solving the Lane-Emden equation for a star in hydrostatic equilibrium under assumption that the pressure and density within the star obey the polytropic equation of state. We present an efficient analytic, piecewise differentiable solution to the Lane-Emden equation which allows “stitching” of different polytropes to represent complex pressure and density profiles. This approach can be used to model stars with distinct properties in their cores and envelopes, such as the evolved red giant and horizontal branch stars.

  9. Lane Keeping Aid : ett förarstödjande system för bilar

    OpenAIRE

    Ryding, Erik; Öhlund, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Many traffic incidents are due to the driver’s lack of attention, resulting in dangerous lane departures, either sliding off theroad or into the oppose lane. These kinds of incidents often have serious outcomes, which has led to much effort being concentrated on preventing or lessening the damages when the incident is already a fact, for example by installing safety belts and air bags. These measures may be considered to be acts of so-called passive safety. Active safety on the other hand, m...

  10. MAC: identifying and correcting annotation for multi-nucleotide variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Liu, Lu T; Conroy, Jacob R; Hu, Qiang; Conroy, Jeffrey M; Morrison, Carl D; Johnson, Candace S; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Song

    2015-08-01

    Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies have rapidly advanced our understanding of human variation in cancer. To accurately translate the raw sequencing data into practical knowledge, annotation tools, algorithms and pipelines must be developed that keep pace with the rapidly evolving technology. Currently, a challenge exists in accurately annotating multi-nucleotide variants (MNVs). These tandem substitutions, when affecting multiple nucleotides within a single protein codon of a gene, result in a translated amino acid involving all nucleotides in that codon. Most existing variant callers report a MNV as individual single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), often resulting in multiple triplet codon sequences and incorrect amino acid predictions. To correct potentially misannotated MNVs among reported SNVs, a primary challenge resides in haplotype phasing which is to determine whether the neighboring SNVs are co-located on the same chromosome. Here we describe MAC (Multi-Nucleotide Variant Annotation Corrector), an integrative pipeline developed to correct potentially mis-annotated MNVs. MAC was designed as an application that only requires a SNV file and the matching BAM file as data inputs. Using an example data set containing 3024 SNVs and the corresponding whole-genome sequencing BAM files, we show that MAC identified eight potentially mis-annotated SNVs, and accurately updated the amino acid predictions for seven of the variant calls. MAC can identify and correct amino acid predictions that result from MNVs affecting multiple nucleotides within a single protein codon, which cannot be handled by most existing SNV-based variant pipelines. The MAC software is freely available and represents a useful tool for the accurate translation of genomic sequence to protein function.

  11. Generation of MAC waves by convection in Earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaupart, Etienne; Buffett, Bruce

    2017-05-01

    Convection in Earth's core is a viable mechanism for generating MAC waves when the top of the core is stably stratified. We quantify the generation mechanism by extending the physical description of MAC waves to include a source term due to buoyancy forces in the convecting part of the core. Solutions for the forced motion are obtained using a Green's function, which is constructed from the eigenfunctions for the unforced motion. When the source term is evaluated using the output of a numerical geodynamo model, the largest excitation occurs at even spherical harmonic degrees, corresponding to waves with symmetric azimuthal flow about the equator. We also find that the magnitude of the source term decreases at periods shorter than about 60 yr. As a result most of the wave generation is confined to waves with periods of 60 yr or longer. Quantitative predictions for the wave amplitudes depend on the projection of the source term into the eigenfunction of the waves. Strong stratification limits the penetration of density anomalies into the stratified layer, which means that the source term is confined to the lowermost part of the layer. Overtones of MAC waves with large amplitudes in the lower part of the stratified layer are more effectively generated by convection, even though these waves are heavily damped by magnetic diffusion. Generation of MAC waves by convection establishes a physical link between observable wave motion and deeper convective processes. Detection of changes in the amplitude and phase of MAC waves would constrain the generation processes and offer insights into the nature of the convection.

  12. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  13. 42 CFR 405.1110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 405.1110 Section 405....1110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on its own motion to review a decision or dismissal issued by an ALJ. CMS or any of its contractors may refer a case to the MAC for it to...

  14. Minimum Alveolar Concentration for Blunting Adrenergic Responses (MAC-BAR) of Sevoflurane in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    YAMASHITA, Kazuto; FURUKAWA, Erika; ITAMI, Takaharu; ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; TAMURA, Jun; MIYOSHI, Kenjirou

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that heart rate or arterial blood pressure may increase in response to surgical stimulation despite the absence of a purposeful movement. However, there is limited information regarding anesthetic requirement for blunting adrenergic response in dogs. This study was designed to compare the minimum alveolar concentrations of sevoflurane required to prevent autonomic response (MAC-BAR) and purposeful movement (MAC) in dogs. Sevoflurane MAC-BAR and MAC were determined in 5 beagle...

  15. Certified organic farming research and demonstration project by Oklahoma State University and USDA's Agricultural Research Service at Lane, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003, Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service, South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory received organic certification for 8 acres at the Lane Agricultural Center, Lane, OK. The certified organic land was used to develop a cooperative project with a diversity of a...

  16. A viscous continuum traffic flow model with consideration of the coupling effect for two-lane freeways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Di-Hua; Peng Guang-Han

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the viscous continuum traffic flow model for a single lane is extended to the traffic flow for two-lane freeways. The proposed model is a higher-order continuum model considering the coupling and lane changing effects of the vehicles on two adjacent lanes. It results from integrating the Taylor series expansion of the viscous continuum traffic flow model proposed by Ge (2006 Physics A 371 667) into the multi-lane model presented by Daganzo (1997Transpn. Res. B 31 83). Our proposed model may be used to describe non-anisotropic behaviour because of lane changing in multi-lane traffic. A linear stability analysis is given and the neutral stability condition is obtained. Also,issues related to lane changing,shock waves and rarefaction waves,local clustering and phase transition are investigated through a simulation experiment. The simulation results show that the proposed model is capable of explaining some particular traffic phenomena commonly observable in real world traffic flow.

  17. Studies of vehicle lane-changing dynamics and its effect on traffic efficiency, safety and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2017-02-01

    Drivers often change lanes on the road to maintain desired speed and to avoid slow vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles and lane closure. Understanding the effect of lane-changing on the traffic is an important topic in designing optimal traffic control systems. This paper presents a comprehensive study of this topic. We review the theory of microscopic dynamic car-following models and the lane-changing models, propose additional lane-changing rules to deal with moving bottleneck and lane reduction, and investigate the effects of lane-changing on the traffic efficiency, traffic safety and fuel consumption as a function of different variables including the distance of the emergency sign ahead of the lane closure, speed limit, traffic density, etc. Extensive simulations of the traffic system have been carried out in different scenarios. A number of important findings of the effect of various factors on the traffic are reported. These findings provide guidance on the traffic management and are important to the designers and engineers of modern highway or inner city roads to achieve high traffic efficiency and safety with minimum environmental impact.

  18. A Morphism Double Category and Monoidal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a recipe for “fattening” a category that leads to the construction of a double category. Motivated by an example where the underlying category has vector spaces as objects, we show how a monoidal category leads to a law of composition, satisfying certain coherence properties, on the object set of the fattened category.

  19. On the Category of Partial Bijections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Schwab

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Categories of partial functions have become increasingly important principally because of their applications in theoretical computer science. In this note we prove that the category of partial bijections between sets as an inverse-Baer*-category with closed projections and in which the idempotents split is an exact category. Finally the Noether isomorphism theorems are given for this exact category.

  20. MDS-Mac: a scheduled MAC for localization, time-synchronisation and communication in underwater acoustic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleunen, van Wouter; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a design for an underwater MAC protocol which combines localization, time-synchronisation and communication. This protocol is designed for small-scale clustered networks in which all nodes are able to ommunicate with each other. We consider an integrated design of localizat

  1. TR-MAC: an energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks exploiting noise-based transmitted reference modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Dimitrova, D.C.; Brogle, M.; Braun, T.; Heijenk, Gerhard J.

    Energy-constrained behavior of sensor nodes is one of the most important criteria for successful deployment of wireless sensor net- works. The medium access control (MAC) protocol determines the time a sensor node transceiver spends listening or transmitting, and hence the energy consumption of the

  2. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-05-09

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes.

  3. Library Signage: Applications for the Apple Macintosh and MacPaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, Jill A.; FitzGerald, Patricia

    1984-01-01

    Describes specific applications of the Macintosh computer at Carnegie-Mellon University Libraries, where MacPaint was used as a flexible, easy to use, and powerful tool to produce informational, instructional, and promotional signage. Profiles of system hardware and software, an evaluation of the computer program MacPaint, and MacPaint signage…

  4. 42 CFR 405.1050 - Removal of a hearing request from an ALJ to the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Removal of a hearing request from an ALJ to the MAC... Removal of a hearing request from an ALJ to the MAC. If a request for hearing is pending before an ALJ, the MAC may assume responsibility for holding a hearing by requesting that the ALJ send the hearing...

  5. 42 CFR 405.1108 - MAC actions when request for review or escalation is filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAC actions when request for review or escalation...) Medicare Appeals Council Review § 405.1108 MAC actions when request for review or escalation is filed. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, when a party requests that the MAC review...

  6. Traffic-adaptive duty cycle adaptation in TR-MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, Sarwar; Baratchi, Mitra; Heijenk, Geert

    2016-01-01

    The Medium Access Control (MAC) layer can influence the energy consumption of a wireless sensor network (WSN) to a significant level. TR-MAC is an energy-efficient preamble sampling based MAC protocol for low power WSNs suitable for low data rate and low duty cycle scenario. However, low data rate i

  7. 42 CFR 405.1102 - Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or...) Medicare Appeals Council Review § 405.1102 Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal. (a)(1) A party to the ALJ hearing may request a MAC review if the party files a written request for...

  8. Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The prelinguistic infant’s babbling repertoire of syllables—the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning—is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver’s role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning. In the present work, the authors begin to address this gap. Method The authors explored vocalizations produced by 8 infants at 3 ages (8, 10, and 12 months) in studies illustrating identification of phonological categories through caregiver report, laboratory procedures simulating the caregiver’s natural mode of listening, and the more traditional laboratory approach (phonetic transcription). Results Caregivers reported small repertoires of syllables for their infants. Repertoires of similar size and phonetic content were discerned in the laboratory by judges who simulated the caregiver’s natural mode of listening. However, phonetic transcription with repeated listening to infant recordings yielded repertoire sizes that vastly exceeded those reported by caregivers and naturalistic listeners. Conclusions The results suggest that caregiver report and naturalistic listening by laboratory staff can provide a new way to explore key characteristics of early infant vocal categories, a way that may provide insight into later speech and language development. PMID:22490623

  9. Causal Categories: Relativistically Interacting Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coecke, Bob; Lal, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    A symmetric monoidal category naturally arises as the mathematical structure that organizes physical systems, processes, and composition thereof, both sequentially and in parallel. This structure admits a purely graphical calculus. This paper is concerned with the encoding of a fixed causal structure within a symmetric monoidal category: causal dependencies will correspond to topological connectedness in the graphical language. We show that correlations, either classical or quantum, force terminality of the tensor unit. We also show that well-definedness of the concept of a global state forces the monoidal product to be only partially defined, which in turn results in a relativistic covariance theorem. Except for these assumptions, at no stage do we assume anything more than purely compositional symmetric-monoidal categorical structure. We cast these two structural results in terms of a mathematical entity, which we call a causal category. We provide methods of constructing causal categories, and we study the consequences of these methods for the general framework of categorical quantum mechanics.

  10. Category Accessibility and Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, E. Tory; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The present study examined the immediate and delayed effects of unobtrusive exposure to personality trait terms (e.g., "reckless,""persistent") on subjects' subsequent judgments and recollection of information about another person. The implications of individual and situational variation in the accessibility of different categories for judgments…

  11. Relative Mal'tsev categories

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We define relative regular Mal’tsev categories and give an overview of conditions which are equivalent to the relative Mal’tsev axiom. These include conditions on relations as well as conditions on simplicial objects. We also give various examples and counterexamples.

  12. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effect...

  13. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  14. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  15. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  16. 双车道公路设置附加车道交通量条件研究%Traffic Volume Conditions of Setting Auxiliary Lane on Two-lane Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国柱; 翟露露; 秦丽辉; 王玉霞

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce traffic accidents and improve operating efficiency on two-lane highway, the concept of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway is proposed, and the traffic volume conditions of setting up auxiliary lane on two-lane highway are studied. Data is obtained through vehicle experiment on two-lane highway, and the relational model among the traffic conflict time, the traffic volume and the design speed on two-lane highway is established. Based on the established model, the different conditions of traffic volume of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway are obtained. It shows that auxiliary lane should be set when traffic volume is more than 495 veh/h/ln and 454 veh/h/ln respectively on two-lane highway with the design speed of 80 km/h and 60km/h. It isn't recommend to set auxiliary lane on two-lane highway with the design speed of 40 km/h because the benefit is not obvious.%为了减少双车道公路交通事故数量、提高运行效率,提出了双车道公路设置附加车道的理念,基于试验数据开展了双车道公路设置附加车道的交通量条件研究.通过双车道公路实车实验获得的基础数据,建立了双车道公路交通冲突时间与交通量、设计速度的关系模型.依据构建的模型,给出了对应不同设计速度的双车道公路设置附加车道的交通量条件.基于样本数据的研究结果表明:设计速度为80 km/h的双车道公路,单向交通量大于495 veh/h/ln时,应设置附加车道;设计速度为60 km/h的双车道公路,单向交通量大于454 veh/h/ln,应设置附加车道;设计速度为40 km/h及以下的双车道公路,设置附加车道效益不明显,不建议设置.

  17. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and hemodynamic effects of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane in newborn swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, J; Oyston, J P; Gallagher, T M; Miyasaka, K; Volgyesi, G A; Burrows, F A

    1990-10-01

    To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and hemodynamic responses to halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane in newborn swine, 36 fasting swine 4-10 days of age were anesthetized with one of the three volatile anesthetics in 100% oxygen. MAC was determined for each swine. Carotid artery and internal jugular catheters were inserted and each swine was allowed to recover for 48 h. After recovery, heart rate (HR), systemic systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and cardiac index (CI) were measured awake and then at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 MAC of the designated anesthetic in random sequence. The (mean +/- SD) MAC for halothane was 0.90 +/- 0.12%; the MAC for isoflurane was 1.48 +/- 0.21%; and the MAC for sevoflurane was 2.12 +/- 0.39%. Awake (mean +/- SD) measurements of HR, SAP, and CI did not differ significantly among the three groups. Compared to the awake HR, the mean HR decreased 35% at 1.5 MAC halothane (P less than 0.001), 19% at 1.5 MAC isoflurane (P less than 0.005), and 31% at 1.5 MAC sevoflurane (P less than 0.005). Compared to awake SAP, mean SAP measurements decreased 46% at 1.5 MAC halothane (P less than 0.001), 43% at 1.5 MAC isoflurane (P less than 0.001), and 36% at 1.5 MAC sevoflurane (P less than 0.005). Mean SAP at 1.0 and 1.5 MAC halothane and isoflurane were significantly less than those measured at equipotent concentrations of sevoflurane (P less than 0.005). Compared to awake CI, mean CI measurements decreased 53% at 1.5 MAC halothane (P less than 0.001) and 43% at 1.5 MAC isoflurane (P less than 0.005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. MAC-awake of isoflurane, enflurane and halothane evaluated by slow and fast alveolar washout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumann, D M; Mustaki, J P; Tassonyi, E

    1992-01-01

    End-tidal anaesthetic concentrations at first eye opening in response to a verbal command during recovery from anaesthesia (MAC-awake), were measured for isoflurane (n = 16), enflurane (n = 16) and halothane (n = 14). MAC-awake was measured during either slow or fast alveolar washout. Slow washout was obtained by decreasing anaesthetic concentrations in predetermined steps of 15 min, assuming equilibration between brain and alveolar partial pressures. Fast alveolar washout was obtained by discontinuation of the inhalation anaesthetic, which had been maintained at 1 MAC for at least 15 min. Mean MAC-awake obtained with slow alveolar washout was similar for isoflurane (0.25 (SD 0.03) MAC), and enflurane (0.27 (0.04) MAC) and significantly greater than values obtained by fast alveolar washout (isoflurane: 0.19 (0.03) MAC; enflurane: 0.20 (0.03) MAC). The MAC-awake of isoflurane and enflurane was significantly less than that of halothane, which was 0.59 (0.10) MAC as evaluated by the slow and 0.50 (0.05) MAC as evaluated by the fast alveolar washout method. Recovery time from anaesthesia with fast alveolar washout was 8.8 (4.0) min for halothane, which was not different from isoflurane (15 (2.5) min), but significantly shorter than for enflurane (22 (10) min), reflecting differences in the anaesthetic concentration gradient between MAC and MAC-awake values. These data do not support the hypothesis of a uniform ratio between MAC and MAC-awake values.

  19. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    Full Text Available The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  20. Analysis of vehicle headway distribution on multi-lane freeway considering car–truck interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewen Kong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of vehicle headway on multi-lane freeway under lane management in China considering car–truck interaction. More specifically, the study focused on answering the following two questions: (1 whether the car–truck interaction has impact on headway, that is, headway varies by different leading and following vehicle types and (2 what is the best-fitted distribution model for particular headway type under lane management. The team collected traffic data, including traffic flow rates, percentage of trucks, speeds, headways, and so on from four segments of Shanghai-Nanjing freeway, Jiangsu Province in China. Then, some statistical methods were used to analyze the vehicle headway. It was found that car–car, car/truck, and truck–truck headways are significantly different from each other. Also, the traffic flow rate, percentage of trucks, and lane position were found to have an influence on the vehicle headway through the tests. Using the maximum-likelihood estimation, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, and chi-square test techniques, the distribution models and parameter functions for each headway type were built and validated. The results showed that lognormal model is suitable for car–car and truck–truck headway types, and inverse Gaussian model fits the car/truck headway type well.

  1. Private health insurance in Sweden: Fast-track lanes and the alleged attempts to stop them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, John

    2017-04-01

    According to the Health and Medical Services Act (1982:763), those who have the greatest need for healthcare shall be given priority. This is being challenged by the rapid emergence of private health insurance which increases the share of private funding and creates fast-track lanes where some people get faster access to healthcare than others. The Stop Law, implemented by a Social Democratic government in 2006, was generally regarded as a way to put an end to the fast-track lanes in Swedish healthcare. Based on a thorough examination of the law and its legislative history - official reports, propositions, comments on official reports - this article argues that the Stop Law was so full of exceptions and loopholes that it did not threaten the existence of fast-track lanes. The same goes for a similar Social Democratic proposal from 2016, which is also examined in the article. Further, the article analyses centre-right wing positions on fast-track lanes in Swedish healthcare. In summary, it is argued that politicians of all stripes have allowed the development to proceed in spite of unanimous support for the idea that Swedish healthcare shall be provided to all on equal terms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Empirical analysis of an in-car speed, headway and lane use Advisory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, W.J.; Van Arem, B.; Van Lint, J.W.C.

    2014-01-01

    For a recently developed in-car speed, headway and lane use advisory system, this paper investigates empirically advice validity (advice given in correct traffic circumstances), credibility (advice logical to drivers) and frequency. The system has been developed to optimize traffic flow by giving

  3. CityMobil : Human factor issues regarding highly automated vehicles on eLane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffetti, A.; Wilschut, E.S.; Martens, M.H.; Schieben, A.; Rambaldini, A.; Merat, N.; Flemisch, F.

    2009-01-01

    There are several human factor concerns with highly autonomous or semiautonomous driving, such as transition of control, loss of skill, and dealing with automated system errors. Four CityMobil experiments studied the eLane concept for dual-mode cars, and the results of one are described. The open

  4. Traffic conflict assessment for non-lane-based movements of motorcycles under congested conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xuan Nguyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conflict under congested conditions is one of the main safety issues of motorcycle traffic in developing countries. Unlike cars, motorcycles often display non-lane-based movements such as swerving or oblique following of a lead vehicle when traffic becomes congested. Very few studies have quantitatively evaluated the effects of such non-lane-based movements on traffic conflict. Therefore, in this study we aim to develop an integrated model to assess the traffic conflict of motorcycles under congested conditions. The proposed model includes a concept of safety space to describe the non-lane-based movements unique to motorcycles, new features developed for traffic conflict assessment such as parameters of acceleration and deceleration, and the conditions for choosing a lead vehicle. Calibration data were extracted from video clips taken at two road segments in Ho Chi Minh City. A simulation based on the model was developed to verify the dynamic non-lane-based movements of motorcycles. Subsequently, the assessment of traffic conflict was validated by calculating the probability of sudden braking at each time interval according to the change in the density of motorcycle flow. Our findings underscore the fact that higher flow density may lead to conflicts associated with a greater probability of sudden breaking. Three types of motorcycle traffic conflicts were confirmed, and the proportions of each type were calculated and discussed.

  5. "Go West, Young Man!" - Praktikum an der Lane Medical Library der Universität Stanford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dollfuß, Helmut

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an account of a five weeks internship at Lane Medical Library which is part of Stanford University, California. The story depicts personal impressions and reports on the university, on the library's history, organisation and its future development.

  6. Physiological correlates of mental effort as manipulated through lane width during simulated driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Dijksterhuis, C.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that physiological effects of mental effort as manipulated trough cognitive task difficulty differ from effects of mental effort as manipulated trough a visuomotor task such as lane keeping in simulated driving. Most notably, heart rate increases with mental effort in the

  7. Physiological correlates of mental effort as manipulated through lane width during simulated driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Dijksterhuis, Chris; van Erp, Jan B.F.

    2015-01-01

    —Previous studies suggest that physiological effects of mental effort as manipulated trough cognitive task difficulty differ from effects of mental effort as manipulated trough a visuomotor task such as lane keeping in simulated driving. Most notably, heart rate increases with mental effort in the

  8. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  9. Empirical analysis of the lane formation process in bidirectional pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciani, Claudio; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on pedestrian bidirectional streams and the mechanisms leading to spontaneous lane formation by examining the flow formed by two groups of people walking toward each other in a mock corridor. Flow ratio is changed by changing each group size while maintaining comparable total flow and density. By tracking the trajectories of each pedestrian and analyzing the data obtained, five different phases were recognized as contributing to the transition from unidirectional to bidirectional flow including the spontaneous creation and dissolution of lanes. It has been shown that a statistical treatment is required to understand the fundamental characteristics of pedestrian dynamics and some two-dimensional quantities such as order parameter and rotation range were introduced to allow a more complete analysis. All the quantities observed showed a clear relationship with flow ratio and helped distinguishing between the different characteristic phases of the experiment. Results show that balanced bidirectional flow becomes the most stable configuration after lanes are formed, but the lane creation process requires pedestrians to laterally move to a largest extent compared to low flow-ratio configurations. This finding allows us to understand the reasons why balanced bidirectional flow is efficient at low densities, but quickly leads to deadlock formation at high densities.

  10. When do drivers abort an overtaking maneuver 5 on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farah, H.

    2016-01-01

    Overtaking on two-lane roads is a complex driving maneuver. Drivers who desire to overtake a lead vehicle need to evaluate the available gaps in the opposite direction and accept a sufficient gap to successfully complete the overtaking maneuver. However, often drivers realize that the gap they acce

  11. Shape-dependence of the barrier for skyrmions on a two-lane racetrack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Single magnetic skyrmions are localized whirls in the magnetization with an integer winding number. They have been observed on nano-meter scales up to room temperature in multilayer structures. Due to their small size, topological winding number, and their ability to be manipulated by extremely tiny forces, they are often called interesting candidates for future memory devices. The two-lane racetrack has to exhibit two lanes that are separated by an energy barrier. The information is then encoded in the position of a skyrmion which is located in one of these close-by lanes. The artificial barrier between the lanes can be created by an additional nanostrip on top of the track. Here we study the dependence of the potential barrier on the shape of the additional nanostrip, calculating the potentials for a rectangular, triangular, and parabolic cross section, as well as interpolations between the first two. We find that a narrow barrier is always repulsive and that the height of the potential strongly depends on the shape of the nanostrip, whereas the shape of the potential is more universal. We finally show that the shape-dependence is redundant for possible applications.

  12. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly.

  13. Approximate analytical solution for the isothermal Lane Emden equation in a spherical geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Moustafa Aly; Al-Zeghayer, Yousef

    2015-10-01

    This paper obtains an approximate analytical solution for the isothermal Lane-Emden equation that models a self-gravitating isothermal sphere. The approximate solution is obtained by perturbation methods in terms of small and large distance parameters. The approximate solution is compared with the numerical solution. The approximate solution obtained is valid for all values of the distance parameter.

  14. Getting into the right lane for low-carbon transport in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; Nijland, Hans; van Ruijven, Bas; Rothengatter, Werner; Hayashi, Yoshitsugu; Schade, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the vision of and the pathways towards low-carbon transport systems in the EU. Three interrelated themes are examined. It refers to a report of The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and Stockholm Resilience Centre titled Getting into the Right Lane for 2050, which

  15. Lane Departure System Design using with IR Camera for Night-time Road Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Onur Akırmak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the largest areas of research and development in the automobile industry is road safety. Many deaths and injuries occur every year on public roads from accidents caused by sleepy drivers, that technology could have been used to prevent. Lane detection at night-time is an important issue in driving assistance systems. This paper deals with vision-based lane detection and tracking at night-time. This project consists of a research and development of an algorithm for automotive systems to detect the departure of vehicle from out of lane. Once the situation is detected, a warning is issued to the driver with sound and visual message through “Head Up Display” (HUD system. The lane departure is detected through the images obtained from a single IR camera, which identifies the departure at a satisfactory accuracy via improved quality of video stream. Our experimental results and accuracy evaluation show that our algorithm has good precision and our detecting method is suitable for night-time road conditions.

  16. Operational performance of a congested corridor with lanes dedicated to autonomous vehicle traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Vander Laan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the operational performance impact of autonomous vehicles (AV on a multi-lane freeway corridor with separate lanes dedicated to AV and non-AV traffic. Autonomous vehicle behavior is modeled at the macroscopic level by modifying the fundamental diagram relating hourly traffic flow and vehicle density, a step that is justified by adjusting a parameter from Newell’s car-following model at the microscopic level and transforming back to a macroscopic representation. The model is applied to the I-95 corridor between Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD during the PM peak period, where the impact of introducing a managed AV-only lane is assessed at varying penetration rates of autonomous vehicles. The results show that the overall corridor performance metrics improve with increasing penetration rates up to 30%, 40% or 50% (depending on the underlying assumptions that govern AV behavior, after which the performance deteriorates drastically. Implications of the results are discussed in light of the per-lane and aggregated metrics, and future directions for research are proposed.

  17. CityMobil : Human factor issues regarding highly automated vehicles on eLane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffetti, A.; Wilschut, E.S.; Martens, M.H.; Schieben, A.; Rambaldini, A.; Merat, N.; Flemisch, F.

    2009-01-01

    There are several human factor concerns with highly autonomous or semiautonomous driving, such as transition of control, loss of skill, and dealing with automated system errors. Four CityMobil experiments studied the eLane concept for dual-mode cars, and the results of one are described. The open eL

  18. A parallel code for multiprecision computations of the Lane-Emden differential equation

    CERN Document Server

    Geroyannis, Vassilis S

    2016-01-01

    We compute multiprecision solutions of the Lane-Emden equation. This differential equation arises when introducing the well-known polytropic model into the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium for a nondistorted star. Since such multiprecision computations are time-consuming, we apply to this problem parallel programming techniques and thus the execution time of the computations is drastically reduced.

  19. Simulation study of traffic accidents on a three-lane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jau-Yang; Lai, Wun-Cing

    2015-07-01

    Unsuitable driving behaviors often lead to the occurrence of traffic accidents. To reduce accidents and to prolong human life, simulated investigations are highly desirable to evaluate the effect of traffic safety in terms of number of traffic accidents. In this paper, a three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to analyze the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents on highway. We define appropriate driving rules for the forward moving and lane changing of the vehicles. Three types of vehicle accidents are designed to investigate the relationships between different driving behaviors and traffic accidents. We simulate four road driving strategies, and compute the traffic flow, velocity, lane-changing frequency and the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents for different road driving strategies. According to the simulation and analysis, it is shown that the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents can be reduced by using the specified road driving strategies. Additionally, we found that the occurrence of traffic accidents can be avoided when the slow vehicles are suitably constrained to move on a three-lane highway.

  20. Evaluation of Single Vehicle Data in Dependence of the Vehicle-Type, Lane, and Site

    OpenAIRE

    Tilch, Benno; Helbing, Dirk

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we study dependencies of fundamental diagrams, time gap distributions, and velocity-distance relations on vehicle types, lanes and/or measurement sites. We also propose measurement and aggregation methods that have more favourable statistical properties than conventional methods.

  1. 75 FR 22578 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202... application from CLT for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  2. CityMobil : Human factor issues regarding highly automated vehicles on eLane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffetti, A.; Wilschut, E.S.; Martens, M.H.; Schieben, A.; Rambaldini, A.; Merat, N.; Flemisch, F.

    2009-01-01

    There are several human factor concerns with highly autonomous or semiautonomous driving, such as transition of control, loss of skill, and dealing with automated system errors. Four CityMobil experiments studied the eLane concept for dual-mode cars, and the results of one are described. The open eL

  3. 112-Gbit/s × 4-lane duobinary-4-PAM for 400GBase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mao, B.;

    2014-01-01

    Novel duobinary-4-PAM signaling is experimentally demonstrated to support a 4-lane low-latency 400GbE client side solution. Direct detection of 112 Gbps transmission over a 5 km single wavelength and polarization fiber link is achieved....

  4. Una lectura interpretativa de Tras la virtud, de Alasdair MacIntyre - An Interpretive Reading of After Virtue, by Alasdair MacIntyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Llebrez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article centers on the thought of Alasdair MacIntyre, whose most prominente work, After Virtue, is considered a classic of political science. In contrast with other reviews, this article will examine After Virtue within the broader context of MacIntyre’s thinking and publications. An overview of MacIntyre’s literary corpus and the evolution of his thinking will shed light on the volume examined and trace certain ideas that are characteristic of this Scottish political philosopher. Matters that remained unsettled in After Virtue have become over time more defined in MacIntyre’s thinking, such as the influence exerted upon him by Thomas Aquinas.

  5. Quantitative analysis of pedestrian safety at uncontrolled multi-lane mid-block crosswalks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cunbao; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Guojun; Chen, Feng

    2017-11-01

    A lot of pedestrian-vehicle crashes at mid-block crosswalks severely threaten pedestrian's safety around the world. The situations are even worse in China due to low yielding rate of vehicles at crosswalks. In order to quantitatively analyze pedestrian's safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, the number of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts was utilized to evaluate pedestrian's accident risk. Five mid-block crosswalks (Wuhan, China) were videoed to collect data of traffic situation and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts, and the quantity and spatial distribution of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts at multi-lane mid-block crosswalk were analyzed according to lane-based post-encroachment time(LPET). Statistical results indicate that conflicts are mainly concentrated in lane3 and lane6. Percentage of conflict of each lane numbered from 1 to 6 respectively are 4.1%, 13.1%, 19.8%, 8.4%, 19.0%, 28.1%. Conflict rate under different crossing strategies are also counted. Moreover, an order probit (OP) model of pedestrian-vehicle conflict analysis (PVCA) was built to find out the contributions corresponding to those factors (such as traffic volume, vehicle speed, pedestrian crossing behavior, pedestrian refuge, etc.) to pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. The results show that: pedestrian refuge have positive effects on pedestrian safety; on the other hand, high vehicle speed, high traffic volume, rolling gap crossing pattern, and larger pedestrian platoon have negative effects on pedestrian safety. Based on our field observation and PVCA model, the number of conflicts will rise by 2% while the traffic volume increases 200 pcu/h; similarly, if the vehicle speed increases 5km/h, the number of conflicts will rise by 12% accordingly. The research results could be used to evaluate pedestrian safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, and useful to improve pedestrian safety by means of pedestrian safety education, pedestrian refuge setting, vehicle speed limiting, and so on. Copyright © 2017

  6. Distinguishing and Second-Preimage Attacks on CBC-Like MACs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Keting; Wang, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Zheng; Xu, Guangwu

    This paper first presents a new distinguishing attack on the CBC-MAC structure based on block ciphers in cipher block chaining (CBC) mode. This attack detects a CBC-like MAC from random functions. The second result of this paper is a second-preimage attack on the CBC-MAC, which is an extension of the attack of Brincat and Mitchell. The attack also covers MT-MAC, PMAC and MACs with three-key enciphered CBC mode. Instead of exhaustive search, both types of attacks are of birthday attack complexity.

  7. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  8. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  9. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  10. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Veronica ALEXA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some elements of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order creating the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to demonstrate that every type of risk has to receive equal treatment and consideration.

  11. Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS): utility in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh K

    2008-07-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have now been extensively incorporated in the management of infertile couples. But even after rapid methodological and technological advances the success rates of these procedures have been below expectations. This has led to development of many sperm preparation protocols to obtain an ideal semen sample for artificial reproduction. Sperm apoptosis has been heavily linked to failures in reproductive techniques. One of the earliest changes shown by apoptotic spermatozoa is externalization of phosphatidyl serine. Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) is a novel sperm preparation technique that separates apoptotic and non-apoptotic spermatozoa based on the expression of phosphatidylserine. This has led to the incorporation of MACS as a sperm preparation technique. The review highlights the principle and mechanism of this novel technique and enumerates its advantages as a sperm preparation technique. Its utility in ART as an efficient tool for sperm recovery and its application in cryopreservation of semen samples is also explained.

  12. Secure MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks through RBFNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Sankara Rao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an application of a neural network in wireless sensor network security. It presents a Radial Basic Function Neural Network based media access control protocol (MAC to secure a CSMA-based wireless sensor network against the denial-of-service attacks launched by adversaries. The Radial Basic Function Neural Network enhances the security of a WSN by constantly monitoring the parameters that exhibit unusual variations in case of an attack. The RBFN shuts down the MAC layer and the physical layer of the sensor node when the suspicion factor, the output of the MLP, exceeds a preset threshold level. The MLP-guarded secure WSN is implemented using the Prowler simulator. Simulation results show that the MLP helps in extending the lifetime of the WSN.

  13. On the Development of Low Power MAC Protocol for WBANs

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    Current advances in wireless communication, microelectronics, semiconductor technologies, and intelligent sensors have contributed to the development of unobtrusive WBANs. These networks provide long term health monitoring of patients without any constraint in their normal activities. Traditional MAC protocols do not accommodate the assorted WBAN traffic requirements in a power efficient manner. In this paper, we present a brief discussion on the development process of a low power MAC protocol for WBANs. We observe the behavior of a beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 for on-body sensor networks. We further propose a low power technique called traffic based wakeup mechanism for a WBAN that exploits the traffic patterns of the BAN Nodes to ensure power efficient and reliable communication.

  14. Activity Modelling and Comparative Evaluation of WSN MAC Security Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawar, Pranav M.; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    and initiate security attacks that disturb the normal functioning of the network in a severe manner. Such attacks affect the performance of the network by increasing the energy consumption, by reducing throughput and by inducing long delays. Of all existing WSN attacks, MAC layer attacks are considered....... The second aim of the paper is to simulate these attacks on hybrid MAC mechanisms, which shows the performance degradation of aWSN under the considered attacks. The modelling and implementation of the security attacks give an actual view of the network which can be useful in further investigating secure......Applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are growing tremendously in the domains of habitat, tele-health, industry monitoring, vehicular networks, home automation and agriculture. This trend is a strong motivation for malicious users to increase their focus on WSNs and to develop...

  15. Fusion categories and homotopy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel; Ostrik, Victor

    2009-01-01

    We apply the yoga of classical homotopy theory to classification problems of G-extensions of fusion and braided fusion categories, where G is a finite group. Namely, we reduce such problems to classification (up to homotopy) of maps from BG to classifiying spaces of certain higher groupoids. In particular, to every fusion category C we attach the 3-groupoid BrPic(C) of invertible C-bimodule categories, called the Brauer-Picard groupoid of C, such that equivalence classes of G-extensions of C are in bijection with homotopy classes of maps from BG to the classifying space of BrPic(C). This gives rise to an explicit description of both the obstructions to existence of extensions and the data parametrizing them; we work these out both topologically and algebraically. One of the central results of the paper is that the 2-truncation of BrPic(C) is canonically the 2-groupoid of braided autoequivalences of the Drinfeld center Z(C) of C. In particular, this implies that the Brauer-Picard group BrPic(C) (i.e., the grou...

  16. Gravitational Duality in MacDowell-Mansouri Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    García-Compéan, H; Ramírez, C

    1998-01-01

    Strong-weak duality invariance can only be defined for particular sectors of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. Nevertheless, for full non-Abelian non-supersymmetric theories, dual theories with inverted couplings, have been found. We show that an analogous procedure allows to find the dual action to the gauge theory of gravity constructed by the MacDowell-Mansouri model plus the superposition of a $\\Theta$ term.

  17. Mac OS X Server Snow Leopard 雪豹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炳晨

    2010-01-01

    日前,苹果公司宣布推出Mac OSX Server Snow Leopard服务器系统。这是一个真正意义的全64位操作系统,为充分发挥多核心处理器和内存的性能而设计,且完全兼容32位应用程序。

  18. On the Selection of MAC Optimised Routing Protocol for VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanu Priya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In today‘s era of modernization, the concept of smart vehicles, smart cities and automated vehicles is trending day by day. VANET (Vehicular Adhoc Network has also been emerging as a potential applicant to enable these smart applications. Though VANET is very much similar to MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network but VANET has more severe challenges as compared to MANET due to hostile channel conditions and high degree of mobility. So lot of work related to MAC and Network Layer need attention from the network designers. In this paper MAC Layer has been optimised in terms of Queue Size by using QoS Parameters namely Packet Collision Rate, Packet Drop Rate, Throughput Rate and Broadcast Rate. In doing so, simulative investigations have been done to find out optimum queue size. For this purpose various routing protocols namely DSDV, AODV, ADV and GOD have been considered and optimum queue length for each of these have been obtained. Further the most efficient routing protocol has also been identified. Moreover this paper also compares the performance of most efficient Routing Protocols selected in terms of QoS parameters for different MAC Interfaces.

  19. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  20. An investigation of merging and diverging cars on a multi-lane road using a cellular automation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetto, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we have investigated two observed situations in a multi-lane road. The first one concerns a fast merging vehicle. The second situation is related to the case of a fast vehicle leaving the fastest lane back into the slowest lane and targeting a specific way out. We are interested in the relaxation time τ, i.e., which is the time that the merging (diverging) vehicle spends before reaching the desired lane. Using analytical treatment and numerical simulations for the NaSch model, we have found two states, namely, the free state in which the merging (diverging) vehicle reaches the desired lane, and the trapped state in which τ diverges. We have established phase diagrams for several values of the braking probability. In the second situation, we have shown that diverging from the fast lane targeting a specific way out is not a simple task. Even if the diverging vehicle is in the free phase, two different states can be distinguished. One is the critical state, in which the diverging car can probably reach the desired way out. The other is the safe state, in which the diverging car can surely reach the desired way out. In order to be in the safe state, we have found that the driver of the diverging car must know the critical distance (below which the way out will be out of his reach) in each lane. Furthermore, this critical distance depends on the density of cars, and it follows an exponential law.

  1. Equivalences between Categories of Modules and Categories of Comodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joost VERCRUYSSE

    2008-01-01

    We show the close connection between apparently different Galois theories for comodules introduced recently in [J.Gómez-Torrecillas and J.Vercruysse,Comatrix corings and Galois Comodules over firm rings,Algebr.Represent.Theory,10 (2007),271-306]and [Wisbauer,On Galois comodules, Comm.Algebra 34 (2006),2683-2711].Furthermore we study equivalences between categories of comodules over a coring and modules over a firm ring.We show that these equivalences are related to Galois theory for comodules.

  2. Highest Weight Categories For Number Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Pilkington, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of a stratified exact category in the context of number rings and corresponding Galois groups. BGG reciprocity and duality are proven for these categories making them highest weight categories. The strong connections between the structure of the category and ramification in the ring are explored.

  3. 42 CFR 423.2140 - MAC Review of ALJ decision in a case remanded by a Federal District Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAC Review of ALJ decision in a case remanded by a... BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2140 MAC Review of ALJ decision in..., when a case is remanded by a Federal District Court for further consideration and the MAC remands the...

  4. Mapping spaces in Quasi-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Dugger, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Dwyer-Kan theory of homotopy function complexes in model categories to the study of mapping spaces in quasi-categories. Using this, together with our work on rigidification from [DS1], we give a streamlined proof of the Quillen equivalence between quasi-categories and simplicial categories. Some useful material about relative mapping spaces in quasi-categories is developed along the way.

  5. Leukocyte integrin Mac-1 regulates thrombosis via interaction with platelet GPIbα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunmei; Gao, Huiyun; Shi, Can; Erhardt, Paul W; Pavlovsky, Alexander; A Soloviev, Dmitry; Bledzka, Kamila; Ustinov, Valentin; Zhu, Liang; Qin, Jun; Munday, Adam D; Lopez, Jose; Plow, Edward; Simon, Daniel I

    2017-05-30

    Inflammation and thrombosis occur together in many diseases. The leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (also known as integrin αMβ2, or CD11b/CD18) is crucial for leukocyte recruitment to the endothelium, and Mac-1 engagement of platelet GPIbα is required for injury responses in diverse disease models. However, the role of Mac-1 in thrombosis is undefined. Here we report that mice with Mac-1 deficiency (Mac-1(-/-)) or mutation of the Mac-1-binding site for GPIbα have delayed thrombosis after carotid artery and cremaster microvascular injury without affecting parameters of haemostasis. Adoptive wild-type leukocyte transfer rescues the thrombosis defect in Mac-1(-/-) mice, and Mac-1-dependent regulation of the transcription factor Foxp1 contributes to thrombosis as evidenced by delayed thrombosis in mice with monocyte-/macrophage-specific overexpression of Foxp1. Antibody and small-molecule targeting of Mac-1:GPIbα inhibits thrombosis. Our data identify a new pathway of thrombosis involving leukocyte Mac-1 and platelet GPIbα, and suggest that targeting this interaction has anti-thrombotic therapeutic potential with reduced bleeding risk.

  6. Characteristics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease in previously treated lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Erin; Pennington, Kelly; Gallo de Moraes, Alice; Escalante, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is responsible for a large portion of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections worldwide. Host factors such as active malignancy, immunosuppression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis increase the risk of MAC infection. However, the relationship between previously treated lung cancer with subsequent development of MAC pulmonary disease and treatment outcomes have not been previously studied. We retrospectively identified all patients with lung cancer and MAC pulmonary disease documented in medical records at Mayo Clinic between January 2005 and October 2016. Patients who were diagnosed with MAC pulmonary disease before or at the time of lung cancer diagnosis were excluded. Patients meeting all inclusion criteria underwent chart review for prior oncologic treatments, clinical characteristics, and MAC treatment response. We identified 13 patients with MAC pulmonary disease and prior lung cancer, including 4 men and 9 women. Eight patients had structural lung disease that can predispose to MAC pulmonary disease, including bronchiectasis (23.0%) and COPD (46.2%). Four (30.8%) had no apparent immunosuppression or other risk factor(s) for MAC pulmonary disease. Primary pulmonary malignancies included pulmonary carcinoid, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Ten (76.9%) patients were started on antimicrobial treatment for MAC, and 8 (61.5%) patients completed MAC treatment with 6 (46.1%) patients achieving symptomatic improvement. MAC pulmonary disease in previously treated lung cancer can occur without apparent risk factors for this NTM infection. Symptomatic improvement with MAC antimicrobial therapy appears to be lower than expected but comorbidities might influence outcomes in this patient population.

  7. Evaluating lane-by-lane gap-out based signal control for isolated intersection under stop-line, single and multiple advance detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Keerthi Kancharla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In isolated intersection’s actuated signal control, inductive loop detector layout plays a crucial role in providingthe vehicle information to the signal controller. Based on vehicle actuations at the detector, the green time is extended till a pre-defined threshold gap-out occurs. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA proposed various guidelines for detec-tor layouts on low-speed and high-speed approaches. This paper proposes single and multiple advance detection schemes for low-speed traffic movements, that utilizes vehicle actuations from advance detectors located upstream of the stop-line, which are able to detect spill-back queues. The proposed detection schemes operate with actuated signal control based on lane-by-lane gap-out criteria. The performance of the proposed schemes is compared with FHWA’s stop-line and single advance detection schemes in the VISSIM simulation tool. Results have shown that the proposed single advance detection schemes showed improved performance in reducing travel time delay and average number of stops per vehicle under low volumes while the multiple advance detection scheme performed well under high volumes.

  8. Simulation of three lanes one-way freeway in low visibility weather by possible traffic accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ming-bao; Zheng, Sha-sha; Cai, Zhang-hui

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the traffic impact of low visibility weather on a freeway including the fraction of real vehicle rear-end accidents and road traffic capacity. Based on symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a cellular automaton model of three-lane freeway mainline with the real occurrence of rear-end accidents in low visibility weather, which considers delayed reaction time and deceleration restriction, was established with access to real-time traffic information of intelligent transportation system (ITS). The characteristics of traffic flow in different visibility weather were discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that incoming flow control (decreasing upstream traffic volume) and inputting variable speed limits (VSL) signal are effective in accident reducing and road actual traffic volume's enhancing. According to different visibility and traffic demand the appropriate control strategies should be adopted in order to not only decrease the probability of vehicle accidents but also avoid congestion.

  9. Performance analysis and comparison of PTOP and LANE for IP transmission over ATM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Junaid A.; Al-Irhayim, Sufyan; Al-Khateeb, Wajdi; Wajdi, Yahya

    1998-12-01

    Due to its traffic control and performance assurance characteristics, ATM is being employed as the core network in most campuses. However, bulk of the workstations remain on Ethernet, generating IP traffic that passes through ATM using special schemes such as PTOP or LANE. In such a network, the performance is affected due to the extra overheads in multiple conversions between cells and packets and managing virtual circuits. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of PTOP and LANE in passing the IP traffic under various conditions. This study helps in understanding the various performance issues in these environments in order to define the end-to-end quality of service for Ethernet-ATM networks.

  10. An Optimal Deployment of Wireless Charging Lane for Electric Vehicles on Highway Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongxi [Clemson University

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated modeling framework to optimally locate wireless charging facilities along a highway corridor to provide sufficient in-motion charging. The integrated model consists of a master, Infrastructure Planning Model that determines best locations with integrated two sub-models that explicitly capture energy consumption and charging and the interactions between electric vehicle and wireless charging technologies, geometrics of highway corridors, speed, and auxiliary system. The model is implemented in an illustrative case study of a highway corridor of Interstate 5 in Oregon. We found that the cost of establishing the charging lane is sensitive and increases with the speed to achieve. Through sensitivity analyses, we gain better understanding on the extent of impacts of geometric characteristics of highways and battery capacity on the charging lane design.

  11. Approximate Analytical Solution to the Fractional Lane-Emden Equation of the Polytropic Gas Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Nouh, Mohamed I

    2016-01-01

    Lane-Emden equation could be used to model stellar interiors, star clusters and many configurations in astrophysics. Unfortunately, there is an exact solution only for the polytropic index n=0,1 and 5. In the present paper, a series solution for the fractional lane-Emden equation is presented. The solution is performed in the frame of modified Rienmann liouville derivatives. The results indicate that the series converges for the polytropic index range 0<=n <= 4.99 with fractional parameter \\alpha spreads over all range 0<\\alpha <= 1. Comparison with the numerical solution revealed a good agreement with a maximum relative error 0.001. The obtained results recover the well-known series solutions when \\alpha=1.

  12. NEW GALERKIN OPERATIONAL MATRICES FOR SOLVING LANE-EMDEN TYPE EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Abd-Elhameed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane-Emden type equations model many phenomena in mathematical physics and astrophysics, such as thermal explosions. This paper is concerned with intro - ducing third and fourth kind Chebyshev-Galerkin operational matrices in order to solve such problems. The principal idea behind the suggested algorithms is based on converting the linear or nonlinear Lane-Emden problem, through the application of suitable spectral methods, into a system of linear or nonlinear equations in the expansion coefficients, which can be efficiently solved. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm in the linear case is that the resulting linear systems are specially structured, and this of course reduces the computational effort required to solve such systems. As an application, we consider the solar model polytrope with n = 3 to show that the suggested solutions in this paper are in good agreement with the numerical results.

  13. New Galerkin operational matrices for solving Lane-Emden type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhameed, W. M.; Doha, E. H.; Saad, A. S.; Bassuony, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Lane-Emden type equations model many phenomena in mathematical physics and astrophysics, such as thermal explosions. This paper is concerned with introducing third and fourth kind Chebyshev-Galerkin operational matrices in order to solve such problems. The principal idea behind the suggested algorithms is based on converting the linear or nonlinear Lane-Emden problem, through the application of suitable spectral methods, into a system of linear or nonlinear equations in the expansion coefficients, which can be efficiently solved. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm in the linear case is that the resulting linear systems are specially structured, and this of course reduces the computational effort required to solve such systems. As an application, we consider the solar model polytrope with n=3 to show that the suggested solutions in this paper are in good agreement with the numerical results.

  14. A Cellular Automata Traffic Flow Model considering Bus Lane Changing Behavior with Scheduling Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zun-dong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to different driving behavioral characteristics of bus drivers, a cellular automata traffic model considering the bus lane changing behavior with scheduling parameters is proposed in this paper. Traffic bottleneck problems caused by bus stops are simulated in multiple lanes roads with no-bay bus stations. With the mixed traffic flow composed of different bus arrival rate, flow-density graph, density distribution graph, and temporal-spatial graph are presented. Furthermore, the mixed traffic flow characteristics are analyzed. Numerical experiment results show that the proposed model can generate a variety of complicated realistic phenomena in the traffic system with bus stops and provide theoretical basis for better using of traffic flow model.

  15. Lane-Level Vehicle Trajectory Reckoning for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinsong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lane-level positioning method by trajectory reckoning without Global Positioning System (GPS equipment in the environment of Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System (CVIS. Firstly, the accuracy requirements of vehicle position in CVIS applications and the applicability of GPS positioning methods were analyzed. Then, a trajectory reckoning method based on speed and steering data from vehicle’s Control Area Network (CAN and roadside calibration facilities was proposed, which consists of three critical models, including real-time estimation of steering angle and vehicle direction, vehicle movement reckoning, and wireless calibration. Finally, the proposed method was validated through simulation and field tests under a variety of traffic conditions. Results show that the accuracy of the reckoned vehicle position can reach the lane level and match the requirements of common CVIS applications.

  16. Analysis of average density difference effect in a new two-lane lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Zhao, Min; Liu, Wei-Ning; Cheng, Sen-Lin

    2015-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking the average density difference effect into account for two-lane traffic system according to Transportation Cyber-physical Systems. The influence of average density difference effect on the stability of traffic flow is investigated through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. The linear analysis results reveal that the unstable region would be reduced by considering the average density difference effect. The nonlinear kink-antikink soliton solution derived from the mKdV equation is analyzed to describe the properties of traffic jamming transition near the critical point. Numerical simulations confirm the analytical results showing that traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the average density difference effect for two-lane traffic system.

  17. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, L C

    2015-01-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested stat...

  18. Life in the Slow, Dark, Salty, Cold and Oxygen-Depleted Lane - Insights on Habitability from Lake Vida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A.

    2014-04-01

    Ice-entrained Lake Vida brine has provided an accessible natural habitat to study life in the slow lane - where cellular growth is limited, but not extinguished. We measured in situ stable isotopic signatures of N2O, SO42-, H2, conducted experiments utilizing stable isotope geochemical tracers to detect microbial transformations and employed radioisotopically-labeled amino acid precursors to detect cellular macromolecule biosynthesis. The results indicated a dominance of abiotic processes in the brine - yet support metabolically active life through detection of nominal rates of protein biosynthesis. At the same time, the brine has posed a challenge to our understanding of ecosystem energetics. Data collected thus far suggests that the brine is isolated from surfical processes and receives no new mass or energy from above. Calculations have estimated carbon remineralization rates, which indicate that resources should be depleted to the level of small molecules perhaps supporting a methanogenic ecosystem given the amount of time since encapsulation at the temperatures recorded - yet the brine is resource-rich harboring abundant bacteria and large molecules, in addition to a complex mixture of both reduced and oxidized compounds. This has motivated explorations into alternative sources of energy such as hydrogen - which was detected at levels ~ 10 micromolar - that could be generated by brine-rock interactions and supply endogenous energy to this closed ecosystem. This cold, salty, anoxic and organically rich brine, provides insight into a new category of habitable earth ecosystems that may also give us food for thought when considering habitability of giant planet icy worlds or of icy exoplanets. However, the methods we use, and the framework of scientific inquiry applied, are limited by perception and familiarity of rates of change that are important in human time scales. The Vida-icy brine ecosystem provides a model for expansion of our understanding of

  19. Flow difference effect in the two-lane lattice hydrodynamic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao; Gao Zi-You; Zhao Xiao-Mei; Tian Jun-Fang; Zhang Wen-Yi

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a flow difference effect,a modified lattice two-lane traffic flow model is proposed,which is proved to be capable of improving the stability of traffic flow.Both the linear stability condition and the kink-antikink solution derived from the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are analyzed.Numerical simulations verify the theoretical analysis.Furthermore,the evolution laws under different disturbances in the metastable region are studied.

  20. Lie Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden Type System in Two Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlatsi Molati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to perform a complete Lie symmetry classification of a generalized Lane-Emden type system in two dimensions which models many physical phenomena in biological and physical sciences. The classical approach of group classification is employed for classification. We show that several cases arise in classifying the arbitrary parameters, the forms of which include amongst others the power law nonlinearity, and exponential and quadratic forms.