WorldWideScience

Sample records for mac address filtering

  1. Mapping of MAC Address with Moving WiFi Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Hidayat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Wifi is one of the most useful technologies that can be used for detecting and counting MAC Address. This paper described using of WiFi scanner which carried out seven times circulated the bus. The method used WiFi and GPS are to counting MAC address as raw data from the pedestrian smartphone, bus passenger or WiFi devices near from the bus as long as the bus going around the route. There are seven processes to make map WiFi data.

  2. Fast Filter Central Drift Chamber Program. MAC Note 404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.T.

    1979-01-01

    A fast filter of the central detector tracking program was developed and tested. The search for tracks is conducted as in the full linking program - from the outermost layer hit to the next layer in. Any hit is accepted within a road centered which is large enough to allow for stero displacement and any curvature. With the fast filter, this is continued to the innermost layer, with five or more hits accepted as a track

  3. Detection of Spoofed MAC Addresses in 802.11 Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Li, Jing; Sampalli, Srinivas

    Medium Access Control (MAC) address spoofing is considered as an important first step in a hacker's attempt to launch a variety of attacks on 802.11 wireless networks. Unfortunately, MAC address spoofing is hard to detect. Most current spoofing detection systems mainly use the sequence number (SN) tracking technique, which has drawbacks. Firstly, it may lead to an increase in the number of false positives. Secondly, such techniques cannot be used in systems with wireless cards that do not follow standard 802.11 sequence number patterns. Thirdly, attackers can forge sequence numbers, thereby causing the attacks to go undetected. We present a new architecture called WISE GUARD (Wireless Security Guard) for detection of MAC address spoofing on 802.11 wireless LANs. It integrates three detection techniques - SN tracking, Operating System (OS) fingerprinting & tracking and Received Signal Strength (RSS) fingerprinting & tracking. It also includes the fingerprinting of Access Point (AP) parameters as an extension to the OS fingerprinting for detection of AP address spoofing. We have implemented WISE GUARD on a test bed using off-the-shelf wireless devices and open source drivers. Experimental results show that the new design enhances the detection effectiveness and reduces the number of false positives in comparison with current approaches.

  4. Lightweight MAC-Spoof Detection Exploiting Received Signal Power and Median Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papini, Davide

    2011-01-01

    this kind of attack based on signal power monitoring. The main contribution of our work is the introduction of a median l- ter that enables the detection of the attack by looking at the variance of the signal power. We take into account two types of references for the samples, time and number of frames......IEEE 802.11 networks are subject to MAC-spoof attacks. An attacker can easily steal the identity of a legitimate station, even Access Points, thus enabling him to take full control over network basic mech- anisms or even access restricted resources. In this paper we propose a method to detect...

  5. Enterprise Mac Administrator's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Charles; Hunter, Beau

    2009-01-01

    Charles Edge, Zack Smith, and Beau Hunter provide detailed explanations of the technology required for large-scale Mac OS X deployments and show you how to integrate it with other operating systems and applications. Enterprise Mac Administrator's Guide addresses the growing size and spread of Mac OS X deployments in corporations and institutions worldwide. In some cases, this is due to the growth of traditional Mac environments, but for the most part it has to do with "switcher" campaigns, where Windows and/or Linux environments are migrating to Mac OS X. However, there is a steep cu

  6. Mac Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Dwight

    2009-01-01

    This essential guide answers all your questions on using a Macintosh computer, whether you?re unpacking your very first Mac after switching from a PC or upgrading from an older Mac. You?ll walk through all pre-installed Mac applications, including using Mac OS X, browsing the Web using Safari, downloading music from the iTunes store, troubleshooting Mac-specific problems, organizing photos in iPhoto, organizing calendars in iCal, editing digital video in iMovie, and more.

  7. Addresses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...

  8. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  9. Macs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Baig, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Get the most out of your Mac with this comprehensive guide Macs For Dummies, 13th Edition is the ultimate guide to your Mac, fully updated to include information about the latest updates. The book walks you through troubleshooting, syncing mobile devices, integrating Windows, and more, so you can take advantage of everything Macs have to offer. Whether you're a new user, a recent convert, or you just want to get the most out of your Mac, this book puts all the information you need in one place. Discover what makes Macs superior computing machines. Learn the basics, from mastering the Dock and

  10. Mac protocols for wireless sensor network (wsn): a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, J.; Akram, Q.; Saleem, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Data communication between nodes is carried out under Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol which is defined at data link layer. The MAC protocols are responsible to communicate and coordinate between nodes according to the defined standards in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). The design of a MAC protocol should also address the issues of energy efficiency and transmission efficiency. There are number of MAC protocols that exist in the literature proposed for WSN. In this paper, nine MAC protocols which includes S-MAC, T-MAC, Wise-MAC, Mu-MAC, Z-MAC, A-MAC, D-MAC, B-MAC and B-MAC+ for WSN have been explored, studied and analyzed. These nine protocols are classified in contention based and hybrid (combination of contention and schedule based) MAC protocols. The goal of this comparative study is to provide a basis for MAC protocols and to highlight different mechanisms used with respect to parameters for the evaluation of energy and transmission efficiency in WSN. This study also aims to give reader a better understanding of the concepts, processes and flow of information used in these MAC protocols for WSN. A comparison with respect to energy reservation scheme, idle listening avoidance, latency, fairness, data synchronization, and throughput maximization has been presented. It was analyzed that contention based MAC protocols are less energy efficient as compared to hybrid MAC protocols. From the analysis of contention based MAC protocols in term of energy consumption, it was being observed that protocols based on preamble sampling consume lesser energy than protocols based on static or dynamic sleep schedule. (author)

  11. Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sweat, and saliva red-orange (may stain contact lenses); can interfere with birth control pills. Many drug interactions. CAN MAC BE PREVENTED? The bacteria that cause MAC are very common. It is ...

  12. Mac OS X Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiger, Philip; Burke, Paul

    This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering trace evidence from Mac OS X default email, web browser and instant messaging applications, as well as evidence pertaining to commands executed from a terminal.

  13. Enterprise Mac administrators guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William

    2015-01-01

    IT departments everywhere will be integrating Macs and Mac OS X into their IT infrastructure and this book will tell them how to do it. It will serve as an authoritative, useful and frequently referenced book on Mac OS X administration.

  14. Mac Security Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Your essential, no-holds-barred guide to Mac security threats and solutions. Myth number one: Macs are safer than PCs. Not really, says author Joe Kissell, named one of MacTech's "25 Most Influential People" in the Mac community for 2008. In this timely guide, he not only takes you beyond the myths, he also delves into the nitty-gritty of each potential threat, helping you weigh the pros and cons of the solutions you might choose. Learn to measure risk versus inconvenience, make informed decisions, and protect your Mac computers, your privacy, and your data with this essential guide.

  15. Addressing preservation of elastic contrast in energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.G.; D' Alfonso, A.J.; Forbes, B.D.; Allen, L.J., E-mail: lja@unimelb.edu.au

    2016-01-15

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) images with resolutions of the order of an Ångström can be obtained using modern microscopes corrected for chromatic aberration. However, the delocalized nature of the transition potentials for atomic ionization often confounds direct interpretation of EFTEM images, leading to what is known as “preservation of elastic contrast”. In this paper we demonstrate how more interpretable images might be obtained by scanning with a focused coherent probe and incoherently averaging the energy-filtered images over probe position. We dub this new imaging technique energy-filtered imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy (EFISTEM). We develop a theoretical framework for EFISTEM and show that it is in fact equivalent to precession EFTEM, where the plane wave illumination is precessed through a range of tilts spanning the same range of angles as the probe forming aperture in EFISTEM. It is demonstrated that EFISTEM delivers similar results to scanning transmission electron microscopy with an electron energy-loss spectrometer but has the advantage that it is immune to coherent aberrations and spatial incoherence of the probe and is also more resilient to scan distortions. - Highlights: • Interpretation of EFTEM images is complicated by preservation of elastic contrast. • More direct images obtained by scanning with a focused coherent probe and averaging. • This is equivalent to precession EFTEM through the solid angle defined by the probe. • Also yields similar results to energy-loss scanning transmission electron microscopy. • Scanning approach immune to probe aberrations and resilient to scan distortions.

  16. Mac at Work

    CERN Document Server

    Sparks, David

    2011-01-01

    Bridge the gap between using a Mac at home and at the office. Now that you love your Mac at home, you want to use one at the office without missing a beat of productivity or professionalism. This unique guide shows you how.  You'll find best Mac business practices for handling word processing, spreadsheet and presentation creation, task and project management, and graphics. The book also explores topics such as hardware maintenance, how to synchronize with multiple computers, data backup, and communication with Windows networks.: Covers the nuts and bolts of using a Mac at work, including sync

  17. MacBook All-in-One For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Get comfortable and confident with your MacBook! Combining the fun-but-straightforward content of nine minibooks, this new edition of MacBook All-in-One For Dummies delivers helpful coverage of the rich features and essential tools you need to know to use the MacBook to its fullest potential. You'll learn an array of MacBook basics while veteran author Mark Chambers walks you through setting up your MacBook, running programs, finding files with Finder, searching with Spotlight, keeping track with Address Book, enjoying music with iTunes, creating cool multimedia projects with iLife, and more.

  18. Enterprise Mac Security Mac OS X Snow Leopard Security

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Stephen Charles; Hunter, Beau; Sullivan, Gene; LeBlanc, Dee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    A common misconception in the Mac community is that Mac's operating system is more secure than others. While this might be true in certain cases, security on the Mac is still a crucial issue. When sharing is enabled or remote control applications are installed, Mac OS X faces a variety of security threats. Enterprise Mac Security: Mac OS X Snow Leopard is a definitive, expert-driven update of the popular, slash-dotted first edition and was written in part as a companion to the SANS Institute course for Mac OS X. It contains detailed Mac OS X security information, and walkthroughs on securing s

  19. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Marczak, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Many systems administrators on the Mac need a way to manage machine configuration after initial setup and deployment. Apple's Managed Preferences system (also known as MCX) is under-documented, often misunderstood, and sometimes outright unknown by sys admins. MCX is usually deployed in conjunction with an OS X server, but it can also be used in Windows environments or where no dedicated server exists at all. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences is the definitive guide to Apple's Managed Client technology. With this book, you'll get the following: * An example-driven guide to Mac OS X Managed Pr

  20. MAC calorimeters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAC Collaboration.

    1982-03-01

    The MAC detector at PEP features a large solid-angle electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter system, augmented by magnetic charged-particle tracking, muon analysis and scintillator triggering. Its implementation in the context of electron-positron annihilation physics is described, with emphasis on the utilization of calorimetry

  1. Florence Jessie Mac Williams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CPMGIKAlBGE-340/2003-05. Resonance - January 2005. Licenced to post WPP No.6 RT Nagar Postoffice. Florence Jessie Mac Williams. (1917 - 1990). Registered with Registrar of Newspapers in India vide Regn. No. 66273/96. ISSN 0971-8044. Price per copy: Rs 40.

  2. iMac pocket genius

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2010-01-01

    If you want to get the very most out of your iMac, put this savvy Portable Genius guide to work. Want to make the most of the new Magic Mouse and the latest iLife apps? Set up a wireless network using your iMac's AirPort card? Watch television on your iMac, or show iMac videos and movies on your television? You'll find cool and useful Genius tips, full-color screenshots, and pages of easy-to-access shortcuts and tools that will save you time and let you enjoy your iMac to the max.

  3. Directional Medium Access Control (MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tung Chong Wong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs. The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs.

  4. MacBook for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers , Mark L

    2014-01-01

    Make friends with your MacBook the fun and easy way! Ultra-light, ultra-fast, and ultra-powerful, the MacBook is the coolest laptop in town, and longtime Mac guru Mark L. Chambers is just the guy to help you get to know your MacBook in no time. Take a closer look at the latest features, get the lowdown on OS X, unleash your creative forces with iLife, take care of business with the iWork applications, and sync it all with iCloud with the expert advice in this bestselling MacBook guide. Whether this is your first MacBook or your first laptop, period, you''ll learn to navigate the Mac desktop, c

  5. Macs For Dummies, Pocket Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Baig, Edward C

    2011-01-01

    The fun and easy way to make the most of your wonderful Mac. Simply Mac-nificent — all the cool things your Mac can do! This handy guide helps you figure out the nuts and bolts of your Mac. Navigate the Mac desktop, use the Safari Web browser to surf the Internet, e-mail photos to friends and family, create and print documents, rip audio CDs, and more. The fun begins right here!. Open the book and find: How to set up and configure your Mac; Tips for getting around on the Mac desktop; Steps for setting up an e-mail account and browsing the Internet; Details about the free programs that come wit

  6. iMac portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The most up-to-date coverage on the latest iMac advice, tools, and shortcuts Cool and useful tips, full-color screenshots, and savvy advice show you how to get the most out of your iMac. Fully updated to cover the iMac's latest features and capabilities, this guide is packed with indispensible information on iLife '09 and Mac OS X Snow Leopard, and shows you how to customize your iMac in a way that it will work best for you.Explores all the bells and whistles of the iMac, including the new Magic Mouse, iLife apps such as iPhoto and iMovie, and Mac OS X Snow LeopardShows yo

  7. iMac for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    Do it all with your iMac and this bestselling For Dummies guide! You're still a little giddy from finally scoring your new iMac, and you can't wait to get started. Even if you're already in love with your iMac, it helps to have a little guidance to really get the most out of this ultimate all-in-one computer. This updated edition of iMac For Dummies is the ideal way to learn the iMac fundamentals from setting up and personalizing your machine to importing files, making FaceTime video calls, surfing the web, using your favorite programs and apps, and everything in between. Trusted Mac guru Mark

  8. Learn Excel 2011 for Mac

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft Excel 2011 for Mac OS X is a powerful application, but many of its most impressive features can be difficult to find. Learn Excel 2011 for Mac by Guy Hart-Davis is a practical, hands-on approach to learning all of the details of Excel 2011 in order to get work done efficiently on Mac OS X. From using formulas and functions to creating databases, from analyzing data to automating tasks, you'll learn everything you need to know to put this powerful application to use for a variety of tasks. What you'll learn * The secrets of the Excel for Mac interface! * How to create effective workbo

  9. Mac Leod's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, M.; Danesi, C.; Ricci, R.; Galluzzi, S.; Coviello, G.

    1988-01-01

    Mac Leod's syndrome is a rarely diagnosed disease; that is why an accurate differential diagnosis is needed by means of radiological imaging. This paper is aimed at discussing the differential diagnosis, with a special emphasis on the pathogenesis of the syndrome. The phenomenon of air trapping in absence of central bronchial lesions is a typical radiographic finding. Chest X-ray is performed in both inspiration and expiration. Posterior oblique tomography at 55 grade centigrade of the effected side is also performed. Diffuse bronchiolitis obliterans in infancy or early childhood ia widely accepted pathogenetic pattern. Pulmonary hypoventilation causes vasoconstriction and underdevelopment of pulmonary vessels, that are reduced in caliber. Differential diagnosis includes all the diseases resulting in pulmonary hyperlucency, i.e. pulmonary and pleural alterations, and skeletal anomalies

  10. Windowsista Mac-maailmaan

    OpenAIRE

    Sirkiä, Noora-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Nykyään yhä useampi harkitsee erilaisista syistä käyttöjärjestelmän vaihtamista tutusta Windowsista johonkin muuhun käyttöjärjestelmään. Applen Macintosh-tietokoneiden mukana tuleva Mac OS X -käyttöjärjestelmä on hyvä vaihtoehto Windowsille. Ihmiset siirtyvät siihen mm. tietoturvaseikkojen, luotettavuuden, ohjelmiston sekä Applen koneiden ja käyttöjärjestelmän ulkomuodon takia. Microsoftin tuotteista ei myöskään tarvitse luopua kokonaan, sillä monista tutuista Microsoftin ohjelmista (esim. Mi...

  11. iMac for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    The bestselling guide to the ultimate all-in-one computer—now updated and revised throughout! If you're looking for speed, performance, and power, the iMac is the ultimate all-in-one computer. From its superior performance, powerful operating system, and amazing applications, the iMac is one awesome machine, and the fun, friendly, and approachable style of iMac For Dummies is an ideal way to get started with the basics. You'll learn the fundamentals of the iMac including setting up and customizing your iMac and the software that comes with it, importing files from your old computer, send

  12. McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Monowar, Muhammad; Hassan, Mohammad; Bajaber, Fuad; Al-Hussein, Musaed; Alamri, Atif

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements for resource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challenges for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC, a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS de...

  13. Gotcha! Macs lose their innocence

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Still believe your Mac is secure because Microsoft PCs fall prey to viruses and worms but Macs don’t? Time to wake up! This year has seen the first major compromise of Macs worldwide*. How is yours doing?   The “Flashback” Trojan is affecting Apple’s own variant of Java and compromises Macs via so-called drive-by infections, i.e. when you visit an appropriately prepared (infected!) website - and this might not necessarily be a site with questionable contents, but could well be a popular, reputable one. Security Companies worldwide have been monitoring this particular Trojan for a while and have estimated that more than half a million Macs were compromised. Connected to a few central command and control servers, the compromised Macs were then supporting the malicious activity of the bad guys! Fortunately, the security companies have now been able to take over those command and control servers and stop their destructive drive. So, Mac users, face the f...

  14. Java and Mac OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, T Gene

    2010-01-01

    Learn the guidelines of integrating Java with native Mac OS X applications with this Devloper Reference book. Java is used to create nearly every type of application that exists and is one of the most required skills of employers seeking computer programmers. Java code and its libraries can be integrated with Mac OS X features, and this book shows you how to do just that. You'll learn to write Java programs on OS X and you'll even discover how to integrate them with the Cocoa APIs.: Shows how Java programs can be integrated with any Mac OS X feature, such as NSView widgets or screen savers; Re

  15. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  16. Mac Programming for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Want to learn how to program on your Mac? Not sure where to begin? Best-selling author Wallace Wang will explain how to get started with Cocoa, Objective-C, and Xcode. Whether you are an experienced Windows coder moving to the Mac, or you are completely new to programming, you'll see how the basic design of a Mac OS X program works, how Objective-C differs from other languages you may have used, and how to use the Xcode development environment. Most importantly, you'll learn how to use elements of the Cocoa framework to create windows, store data, and respond to users in your own Mac programs.

  17. Alistair William MacDonald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Angus

    2018-01-06

    A devoted family man and churchgoer, Alistair MacDonald was a meticulous vet with a great sense of humour. Having served in the RAF during the Second World War, he had plenty of stories to tell. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Fiverr MacGyver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Larson, Martha

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing has become popular over the past years, also for scientific endeavors. There are many Citizen Science projects and crowdfunding platforms, such as Kickstarter, that are make helpful contributions to moving environmental science forward. An interesting underused source of useful crowd-derived contributions to research is the website Fiverr.com. On this platform, thousands of people, acting as small-scale freelance contractors, offer their skills in the form of services. The platform offers a chance for people to take a hobby, skill, or pastime and make it something more by reaching out to a wider audience and by receiving a payment in return for services. As is typical of other crowdsourcing platforms, the tasks are small and usually self contained. As the name Fiverr suggests, offers start at US5 to provide a particular service. Services offered range from graphic design, to messages sung or spoken with various styles or accents, to complete apps for Android or iPhone. Skill providers on the platform can accept a range of variation of definition in the tasks, some can be described in general terms, for others it is more appropriate to provide examples. Fiverr provides a central location for those offering skills and those needing services to find each other, it makes it possible to communicate and exchange files, to make payments, and it provides support for resolving disputes. In all cases, it is important to keep expectations aligned with the nature of the platform: quality can and will vary. Ultimately, the critical contribution of Fiverr is not to replace professional services or otherwise save money, but rather to provide access to a large group of people with specialized skills who are able to make a contribution on short notice. In the context of this session, it can be considered a pool of people with MacGyver skills lying in wait of a MacGyyer task to attack. There are many ways in which Fiverr tasks, which are called 'gigs', can be useful in

  19. MacBook Teach Yourself VISUALLY

    CERN Document Server

    Miser, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Like the MacBook itself, Teach Yourself VISUALLY MacBook, Second Edition is designed to be visually appealing, while providing excellent functionality at the same time. By using this book, MacBook users will be empowered to do everyday tasks quickly and easily. From such basic steps as powering on or shutting down the MacBook, working on the Mac desktop with the Dashboard and its widgets to running Windows applications, Teach Yourself VISUALLY MacBook, Second Edition covers all the vital information and provides the help and support a reader needs—in many ways it's like having a Mac Genius at

  20. Mac OS X ja tietoturva

    OpenAIRE

    Herranen, Joni

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on luoda kattava kokonaiskuva Mac OS X -käyttöjärjestelmän sisäänrakennetuista tietoturvaratkaisuista ja selvittää miten tietoturvaratkaisut toteuttavat tietoturvan kolmea perustavoitetta eli luottamuksellisuutta, eheyttä ja saatavuutta. Työn kohderyhmäksi on valittu edistyneemmät tietokoneenkäyttäjät, joilla ei ole aikaisempaa Mac-kokemusta. Teoriaosuudessa syvennytään aluksi Apple-yhtiöön sekä Mac OS X -järjestelmän teknisiin ominaisuuksiin. Osuuden pääta...

  1. I-MAC: an incorporation MAC for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jumin; Li, Yikun; Li, Dengao; Lin, Xiaojie

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes an innovative MAC protocol called I-MAC. Protocol for wireless sensor networks, which combines the advantages of collision tolerance and collision cancellation. The protocol increases the number of antenna in wireless sensor nodes. The purpose is to monitor the occurrence of packet collisions by increasing the number of antenna in real time. The built-in identity structure is used in the frame structure in order to help the sending node to identify the location of the receiving node after a data packet collision is detected. Packets can be recovered from where the conflict occurred. In this way, we can monitor the conflict for a fixed period of time. It can improve the channel utilisation through changing the transmission probability of collision nodes and solve the problem of hidden terminal through collision feedback mechanism. We have evaluated our protocol. Our results show that the throughput of I-MAC is 5 percentage points higher than that of carrier sense multiple access/collision notification. The network utilisation of I-MAC is more than 92%.

  2. Recent advancements of wide-angle polarization analysis with 3He neutron spin filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.C.; Gentile, T.R.; Ye, Q.; Kirchhoff, A.; Watson, S.M.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J.A.; Qiu, Y.; Broholm, C.

    2016-01-01

    Wide-angle polarization analysis with polarized 3 He based neutron spin filters (NSFs) has recently been employed on the Multi-Axis Crystal Spectrometer (MACS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). Over the past several years, the apparatus has undergone many upgrades to address the fundamental requirements for wide angle polarization analysis using spin exchange optical pumping based 3 He NSFs. In this paper, we report substantial improvements in the on-beam-line performance of the apparatus and progress toward routine user capability. We discuss new standard samples used for 3 He NSF characterization and the flipping ratio measurement on MACS. We further discuss the management of stray magnetic fields produced by operation of superconducting magnets on the MACS instrument, which can significantly reduce the 3 He polarization relaxation time. Finally, we present the results of recent development of horseshoe-shaped wide angle cells. (paper)

  3. Mr MacDonald's suitcase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Undervisningsforløbet Mr. MacDonald’s suitcase beskriver læringsmålstyret undervisning i faget engelsk i 1. klasse, hvor der arbejdes med kompetenceområdet mundtlig kommunikation. Undervisningsforløbet er bygget op omkring en engelsk tøjdukke, der besøger klassen og fortæller små historier...

  4. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-03-31

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid.

  5. Mac OS X Lion Server For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, John

    2011-01-01

    The perfect guide to help administrators set up Apple's Mac OS X Lion Server With the overwhelming popularity of the iPhone and iPad, more Macs are appearing in corporate settings. The newest version of Mac Server is the ideal way to administer a Mac network. This friendly guide explains to both Windows and Mac administrators how to set up and configure the server, including services such as iCal Server, Podcast Producer, Wiki Server, Spotlight Server, iChat Server, File Sharing, Mail Services, and support for iPhone and iPad. It explains how to secure, administer, and troubleshoot the networ

  6. Switching to the Mac The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    Is Windows giving you pause? Ready to make the leap to the Mac instead? There has never been a better time to switch from Windows to Mac, and this incomparable guide will help you make a smooth transition. New York Times columnist and Missing Manuals creator David Pogue gets you past three challenges: transferring your stuff, assembling Mac programs so you can do what you did with Windows, and learning your way around Mac OS X. Learning to use a Mac is not a piece of cake, but once you do, the rewards are oh-so-much better. No viruses, worms, or spyware. No questionable firewalls, inefficien

  7. Switching to a Mac For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhold, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Thinking of making the switch from your PC to a Mac? Congratulations! You're in for a great, virus-free ride. And Switching to Mac For Dummies makes it smoother than you ever imagined. From buying the Mac that's right for you to transferring your files to breaking your old Windows habits and learning to do things the (much easier) Mac way, it makes the whole process practically effortless. Whether you've been using Windows XP, Vista, or even Linux, you'll find simple, straightforward ways to make your transition go smoothly. That will leave you plenty of time to get familiar with Mac'

  8. Cognitive MAC designs for OSA networks

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshani, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents recent advances in the cognitive MAC designs for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) networks. It covers the basic MAC functionalities and MAC enhancements of IEEE 802.11. Later chapters discuss the existing MAC protocols for OSA and classify them based on characteristic features. The authors provide new research in adaptive carrier sensing-based MAC designs tailored for OSA, which optimize spectrum utilization and ensure a peaceful coexistence of licensed and unlicensed systems. Analytically devised via optimization and game-theoretic approaches, these adaptive M

  9. Mac OS X for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

    Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

  10. Technical Report : ContikiMAC vs X-MAC performance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Mathieu; Quoitin, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This paper try to better understand the performance of ContikiMAC compared to X-MAC. ContikiMAC achieves a transmission by repeatedly transmitting a data packet until the reception of an ACK from the destination. While X-MAC uses a stream of small size strobes to advertise the destination of the incoming transmission. A priori, X-MAC is then less bandwidth consumptive. To better understand the efficiency of ContikiMAC, despite an intuitively more consumptive transmitting procedure, we have co...

  11. Teach yourself visually Mac Mini

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The perfect how-to guide for visual learners Apple?s Mac Mini packs a powerful punch is in a small package, including both HDMI and Thunderbolt ports plus the acclaimed OS X. But if you want to get the very most from all this power and versatility, be sure to get this practical visual guide. With full-color, step-by-step instructions as well as screenshots and illustrations on every page, it clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks rather than burying you in pages of text. Discover helpful visuals and how-tos on the OS, hardware specs, Launchpad, the App Store, multimedia capabilities (such

  12. Web Development with the Mac

    CERN Document Server

    Vegh, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Learn Web development the Apple way and build a business. With a focus on both coding and creative development, this in-depth guide thoroughly covers what you need to know to build winning websites for clients — from what it takes to bring a business online to how to make your site interactive to how to run a freelance web business. In between, you'll master the technical tools of the trade — such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP, and Ruby on Rails — and learn how to create beautiful interfaces using Photoshop . This book covers everything a fledgling web developer working on a Mac needs to launc

  13. Mac OS X Tiger for Unix Geeks

    CERN Document Server

    Jepson, Brian

    2005-01-01

    If you're one of the many Unix developers drawn to Mac OS X for its Unix core, you'll find yourself in surprisingly unfamiliar territory. Unix and Mac OS X are kissing cousins, but there are enough pitfalls and minefields in going from one to another that even a Unix guru can stumble, and most guides to Mac OS X are written for Mac aficionados. For a Unix developer, approaching Tiger from the Mac side is a bit like learning Russian by reading the Russian side of a Russian-English dictionary. Fortunately, O'Reilly has been the Unix authority for over 25 years, and in Mac OS X Tiger for Unix Gee

  14. Take control the Mac OS X lexicon

    CERN Document Server

    Zardetto, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This ebook explains a little bit of everything; in fact, it's The Mac OS X (and then some) Lexicon because it's never just you and your Mac. It's you and your Mac and the Web, and your email, and that article you just read that threw 17 new acronyms at you or assumed that you knew all sorts of networking terms. Or it's you and your Mac and Finder features you've never touched, such as burn folders, smart folders, or proxy icons, and that mysterious Services submenu. This book is a great guide for Macintosh users everywhere who have trouble keeping up with the latest jargon, fo

  15. Mac protocols for cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a literature review of various wireless MAC protocols and techniques for achieving real-time and reliable communications in the context of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The evaluation analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 for CPS therein will give insights into configuration and optimization of critical design parameters of MAC protocols. In addition, this book also presents the design and evaluation of an adaptive MAC protocol for medical CPS, which exemplifies how to facilitate real-time and reliable communications in CPS by exploiting IEEE 802.15.4 based MAC protocols. This book wil

  16. Macs all-in-one for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hutsko, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Your all-in-one guide to unleashing your Mac's full potential It's a Mac world out there. But if you haven't read the instruction manual, you may be neglecting some of your computer's coolest features. Turn to Macs All-in-One For Dummies' jam-packed guide to access the incredible tools within your computer. With this fully updated reference, you will learn how to use Launchpad and Mission Control; protect your Mac; back up and restore data with Time Machine; sync across devices in iCloud; import, organize, and share photos; direct in iMovie; compose in GarageBand; and so much more. The possi

  17. Douglas MacArthur Upon Reflection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snitchler, Lowell

    1998-01-01

    .... This research recounts MacArthur's personality development from childhood, investigates his last military campaign, and, finally, applies the diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder to the assembled data...

  18. Quicksilver Power Mac G4

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A new generation with a reworked motherboard is launched on 2001 with however the same Graphite box. It also included a processor speed-bump, and brought the DVD-R "SuperDrive" to the mid-level model. The Quicksilver PowerMac was available in three configurations: The 733 MHz model, with 128 MB of RAM, a 40 GB hard drive, and a CD-RW drive, was 1,699 dollars, the 867 MHz configuration, with 128 MB of RAM, a 60 GB hard drive and a DVD-R drive, was 2,499 dollars, and the high-end dual-800 MHz model, with 256 MB of RAM, an 80 GB hard drive and a DVD-R drive, was 3,499 dollars. The 733 MHz model is the first personal computer to have a DVD burner, named SuperDrive at Apple. The design was updated on 2002 with 800 MHz, 933 MHz and dual 1 GHz configurations, becoming the first Mac to reach 1 GHz.

  19. Analysis of 3gpp-MAC and two-key 3gpp-MAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Mitchell, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Forgery and key-recovery attacks are described on the 3gpp-MAC scheme, proposed for inclusion in the 3gpp specification. Three main classes of attack are given, all of which operate whether or not truncation is applied to the MAC value. Attacks in the first class use a large number of 'chosen MAC...

  20. Behavioral Modeling of WSN MAC Layer Security Attacks: A Sequential UML Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawar, Pranav M.; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    is the vulnerability to security attacks/threats. The performance and behavior of a WSN are vastly affected by such attacks. In order to be able to better address the vulnerabilities of WSNs in terms of security, it is important to understand the behavior of the attacks. This paper addresses the behavioral modeling...... of medium access control (MAC) security attacks in WSNs. The MAC layer is responsible for energy consumption, delay and channel utilization of the network and attacks on this layer can introduce significant degradation of the individual sensor nodes due to energy drain and in performance due to delays....... The behavioral modeling of attacks will be beneficial for designing efficient and secure MAC layer protocols. The security attacks are modeled using a sequential diagram approach of Unified Modeling Language (UML). Further, a new attack definition, specific to hybrid MAC mechanisms, is proposed....

  1. George MacDonald's Estimate of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, John

    2007-01-01

    The nineteenth-century fantasy writer George MacDonald believed that "it is better to be a child in a green field than a knight of many orders." In this paper, I shall explore the bearing of this high estimate of childhood on spiritual education. MacDonald explores the spirituality of the child in his essay "A Sketch of Individual Development" and…

  2. High-contrast MacNeille-PBS-based LCOS projection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianmin; Robinson, Michael G.; Sharp, Gary D.

    2005-04-01

    Contrast limits are investigated for MacNeille PBS based LCOS projection systems that use retarder stack filters (RSF). The two contributing factors are considered separately; namely the color management system and the panel port. To enhance performance of the former, skew ray compensated RSFs are introduced. For the latter, a general methodology is presented to optimize contrast by compensating the LCOS panel. It is shown that the orientation of the LCOS panel and compensator, relative to the MacNeille PBS, is critical. The significant impact of AR coating performance on system contrast is also revealed. A high contrast architecture will be presented by way of example.

  3. Mac OS X for Unix Geeks (Leopard)

    CERN Document Server

    Rothman, Ernest E; Rosen, Rich

    2009-01-01

    If you've been lured to Mac OS X because of its Unix roots, this invaluable book serves as a bridge between Apple's Darwin OS and the more traditional Unix systems. The new edition offers a complete tour of Mac OS X's Unix shell for Leopard and Tiger, and helps you find the facilities that replace or correspond to standard Unix utilities. Learn how to compile code, link to libraries, and port Unix software to Mac OS X and much more with this concise guide.

  4. Office 2008 for Mac for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    LeVitus, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Office 2008 for Mac is here, with great new enhancements to all your favorite office productivity tools. Who better than "Dr. Mac, "Bob LeVitus, to show you how to load and use them all? From choosing the best version for your needs to managing your life with your online calendar, Office 2008 For Mac For Dummies covers what you need to know. It compares the Student/Teacher Edition, Standard Edition, and Professional Edition, then walks you through installing your preferred version and keeping it up to date. You'll find out all the things you can do with Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Entourage,

  5. Learn Office 2011 for Mac OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Office for Mac remains the leading productivity suite for Mac, with Apple's iWork and the free OpenOffice.org trailing far behind. And now it's being updated with a cleaner interface and more compatibility with Exchange and SharePoint. Learn Office 2011 for Mac OS X offers a practical, hands-on approach to using Office 2011 applications to create and edit documents and get work done efficiently. You'll learn how to customize Office, design, create, and share documents, manipulate data in a spreadsheet, and create lively presentations. You'll also discover how to organize your email, contacts,

  6. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The MACS/ACRS (Managed Access by Controlled Sensing/Access by Controlled Remote Sensing) system is a collection of communication devices, video capability, and distance-measuring equipment which can effectively substitute for the physical presence of a challenge inspector within a facility. The MACS design allows growth of the prototype, developed in response to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), into a versatile device for inspection of sensitive nuclear facilities under other international arrangements, for example the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Convention. A MACS/ACRS-type system in a standard, international-recognized configuration could resolve sensitive information and safety concerns through providing a means of achieving the goals of an inspection while excluding the inspector. We believe the technology used to develop MACS for the Defense Nuclear Agency, followed by ACRS for the Department of Energy, is universally adaptable for minimally-intrusive managed-access international inspections of sensitive sites

  7. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    The MACS/ACRS (Managed Access by Controlled Sensing/Access by Controlled Remote Sensing) system is a collection of communication devices, video capability, and distance-measuring equipment which can effectively substitute for the physical presence of a challenge inspector within a facility. The MACS design allows growth of the prototype, developed in response to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), into a versatile device for inspection of sensitive nuclear facilities under other international arrangements, for example the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Convention. A MACS/ACRS-type system in a standard, international-recognized configuration could resolve sensitive information and safety concerns through providing a means of achieving the goals of an inspection while excluding the inspector. We believe the technology used to develop MACS for the Defense Nuclear Agency, followed by ACRS for the Department of Energy, is universally adaptable for minimally-intrusive managed-access international inspections of sensitive sites.

  8. Learn Mac OS X Snow Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Scott

    2009-01-01

    You're smart and savvy, but also busy. This comprehensive guide to Apple's Mac OS X 10.6, Snow Leopard, gives you everything you need to know to live a happy, productive Mac life. Learn Mac OS X Snow Leopard will have you up and connected lickity split. With a minimum of overhead and a maximum of useful information, you'll cover a lot of ground in the time it takes other books to get you plugged in. If this isn't your first experience with Mac OS X, skip right to the "What's New in Snow Leopard" sections. You may also find yourself using this book as a quick refresher course or a way

  9. MAC reduction of isoflurane by sufentanil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, M D; Braithwaite, P; Jhaveri, R; McEwan, A I; Goodman, D K; Smith, L R; Glass, P S

    1994-01-01

    We have shown previously that a plasma fentanyl concentration of 1.67 ng ml-1 reduced the MAC of isoflurane by 50%. By comparing equal degrees of MAC reduction by sufentanil, we may determine the potency ratio of these opioids. Seventy-six patients were allocated randomly to receive predetermined infusions of sufentanil, and end-tidal concentrations of isoflurane in oxygen. Blood samples were obtained 10 min after the start of the infusion, and just before and after skin incision. Any purposeful movement by the patient was recorded. The MAC reduction of isoflurane produced by sufentanil was obtained using a logistic regression model. A sufentanil plasma concentration of 0.145 ng ml-1 (95% confidence limits 0.04, 0.26 ng ml-1) resulted in a 50% reduction in the MAC of isoflurane. At a plasma concentration greater than 0.5 ng ml-1, sufentanil exhibited a ceiling effect.

  10. Macintosh Troubleshooting Pocket Guide for Mac OS

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, David; Corporation, Tekserve

    2009-01-01

    The Macintosh Troubleshooting Pocket Guide covers the most common user hardware and software trouble. It's not just a book for Mac OS X (although it includes tips for OS X and Jaguar), it's for anyone who owns a Mac of any type-- there are software tips going back as far as OS 6. This slim guide distills the answers to the urgent questions that Tekserve's employee's answer every week into a handy guide that fits in your back pocket or alongside your keyboard.

  11. Enhanced Sleep Mode MAC Control for EPON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces sleep mode operations for EPON. New MAC control functions are proposed to schedule sleep periods. Traffic profiles are considered to optimize energy efficiency and network performances. Simulation results are analyzed in OPNET modeler.......This paper introduces sleep mode operations for EPON. New MAC control functions are proposed to schedule sleep periods. Traffic profiles are considered to optimize energy efficiency and network performances. Simulation results are analyzed in OPNET modeler....

  12. Wound Healing in Mac-1 Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. 2 Department of Defense Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software...study, we used a commercially available Mac-1 deficient strain to examine whether this deficit 5 extends to slightly smaller wounds and incisional...levels of Collagen I and Collagen III in wounds from the two strains of mice at any time point. Unwounded skin from both WT and Mac-1 -/- mice contained

  13. AeroMACS system characterization and demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, R. J.; Apaza, R. D.; Dimond, R. P.

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  14. McMAC: towards a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Bajaber, Fuad; Al-Hussein, Musaed; Alamri, Atif

    2012-11-12

    The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements for resource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challenges for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC,a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands and introduces a novel superframe structure based on the "transmit-whenever-appropriate"principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respective QoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposedto ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMAC is also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energy efficiency.

  15. MacSelfService online tutorial

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Mac Self-Service is a functionality within the Mac Desktop Service built and maintained to empower CERN users by giving them easy access to applications and configurations through the Self-Service application. This tutorial (text attached to the event page) explains how to install Mac Self-Service and how to use it to install applications and printers. Content owner: Vincent Nicolas Bippus Presenter: Pedro Augusto de Freitas Batista Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) https://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  16. MacBook Pro Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Miser, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Tips and techniques for forward-thinking MacBook Pro users Now that you have a MacBook Pro, you need just one more accessory, your very own copy of MacBook Pro Portable Genius, Third Edition. This handy, compact book lets you in on a wealth of tips and tricks, so you get the very most out of Apple's very popular notebook. Discover the latest on the most recent release of iLife, get the skinny on the new Intel Core i7 and i5 processors in the Pro, see how to go wireless in a smart way, and much more. The book is easy to navigate, doesn't skimp on the essentials, and helps you save time and avoi

  17. A MAC Mode for Lightweight Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luykx, Atul; Preneel, Bart; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight cryptography strives to protect communication in constrained environments without sacrificing security. However, security often conflicts with efficiency, shown by the fact that many new lightweight block cipher designs have block sizes as low as 64 or 32 bits. Such low block sizes lead...... no effect on the security bound, allowing an order of magnitude more data to be processed per key. Furthermore, LightMAC is incredibly simple, has almost no overhead over the block cipher, and is parallelizable. As a result, LightMAC not only offers compact authentication for resource-constrained platforms...

  18. Douglas MacArthur- An Administrative Biography

    OpenAIRE

    Tehan III, William J.

    2002-01-01

    For more than a half century Douglas MacArthur was a servant of the United States. He is best remembered as a general and a soldier, especially for his leadership during World War II and the Korean War. MacArthur was also the Superintendent of West Point, Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army, Generalissimo ( Commander) of the Armed Forces and Military Advisor (Minister of Defense) to the President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, and the Supreme Commander Allied Powers and the Military Gove...

  19. MacBook Pro Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Miser, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Discover loads of tips and techniques for the newest MacBook Pro You're already ahead of the game with a MacBook Pro. Now you can get even more out the popular Apple notebook with the new edition of this handy, compact book. Crammed with savvy insights and tips on key tools and shortcuts, this book will help you increase your productivity and keep your Apple digital lifestyle on track. From desktop sharing and wireless networking to running Windows applications, this book avoids fluff, doesn't skimp on the essentials, saves you time and hassle, and shows you what you most want to know. Include

  20. Mac OS X Snow Leopard pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Seiblod, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Whether you're new to the Mac or a longtime user, this handy book is the quickest way to get up to speed on Snow Leopard. Packed with concise information in an easy-to-read format, Mac OS X Snow Leopard Pocket Guide covers what you need to know and is an ideal resource for problem-solving on the fly. This book goes right to the heart of Snow Leopard, with details on system preferences, built-in applications, and utilities. You'll also find configuration tips, keyboard shortcuts, guides for troubleshooting, lots of step-by-step instructions, and more. Learn about new features and changes s

  1. 76 FR 35138 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Risk-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Risk-Based Capital Stress Test, Version 5.0 AGENCY: Farm Credit... credit rating agency) in regulations addressing the Risk-Based Capital Stress Test (RBCST or stress test...) (repealing and replacing Pub. L. 110-234). B. Risk-Based Capital and Credit Ratings Under our rules, Farmer...

  2. Results from the MAC Vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1987-05-01

    The design, construction, and performance characteristics of a high precision gaseous drift chamber made of thin walled proportional tubes are described. The device achieved an average spatial resolution of 45 μm in use for physics analysis with the MAC detector. The B-lifetime result obtained with this chamber is discussed

  3. The Big Mac Standard: A statistical Illustration

    OpenAIRE

    Yukinobu Kitamura; Hiroshi Fujiki

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate a statistical procedure for selecting the most suitable empirical model to test an economic theory, using the example of the test for purchasing power parity based on the Big Mac Index. Our results show that supporting evidence for purchasing power parity, conditional on the Balassa-Samuelson effect, depends crucially on the selection of models, sample periods and economies used for estimations.

  4. MacIntyre, Managerialism and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    MacIntyre's earlier work and concern with social science enquiry not only exposes its limits, but also provides an insight into how its knowledge claims have been put to ideological use. He maintains that the institutional embodiment of these ideological ideas is the bureaucratic manager who has had a negative role to play in social structures…

  5. Florence Jessie Mac Williams (1917-1990)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Florence Jessie Mac Williams (1917-1990). Featured Scientist Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 98-98. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/01/0098-0098. Resonance ...

  6. An Interview with Peter MacDonald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Peter MacDonald, Chairman of the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe in the United States speaks to such issues as energy development/management, oil companies, Navajo-Hopi relocation legislation, traditionalism, and the role of the Council of Energy Resource Tribes. (RTS)

  7. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1986-07-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. Thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes were used for detector elements. A study of radiation hardness was conducted under the conditions of the proposed design using different gases and different operating conditions

  8. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    General acceptance of the challenge provision in the Chemical Weapons Convention has the potential for influence in other arms control areas. While most applications of the challenge inspection may be straightforward, there may be instances where access to the site by inspectors may be problematic. The MACS system described in this paper was developed to respond to these situations. Inspection and verification may be difficult when a host is unwilling,for valid reasons, to permit physical access to a site. We proposed a system of remote sensors which may be used to demonstrate compliance with Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections even ff the inspector is physically excluded from a sensitive site. The system is based upon alternative-means-of-access provisions of the CWC. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) funded design and construction of a system prototype, designated as MACS for Managed Access by Controlled Sensing. Features of the MACS design allow growth of the prototype into a versatile device for international monitoring of production facilities and other sites. MACS consists of instrumentation and communication equipment allowing site personnel to conduct a facility tour and perform acceptable measurements, while physically excluding the inspector from the facility. MACS consists of a base station used by the inspector, and a mobile unit used within the facility and manipulated by the facility staff. The base station and the mobile unit are at sign ed by a communication system, currently realized as a fiber optic cable. The mobile unit is equipped with television cameras and remote-reading distance-measuring equipment (DME) for use in verifying locations and dimensions. Global Positioning System receivers on the mobile unit provide both precise location and dead reckoning, suitable for tracking the mobile unit's position while within a building when satellite signals are not available

  9. Mammalian Synthetic Biology: Time for Big MACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Andrea; Pollard, Steven M; Dai, Junbiao; Cai, Yizhi

    2016-10-21

    The enabling technologies of synthetic biology are opening up new opportunities for engineering and enhancement of mammalian cells. This will stimulate diverse applications in many life science sectors such as regenerative medicine, development of biosensing cell lines, therapeutic protein production, and generation of new synthetic genetic regulatory circuits. Harnessing the full potential of these new engineering-based approaches requires the design and assembly of large DNA constructs-potentially up to chromosome scale-and the effective delivery of these large DNA payloads to the host cell. Random integration of large transgenes, encoding therapeutic proteins or genetic circuits into host chromosomes, has several drawbacks such as risks of insertional mutagenesis, lack of control over transgene copy-number and position-specific effects; these can compromise the intended functioning of genetic circuits. The development of a system orthogonal to the endogenous genome is therefore beneficial. Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) are functional, add-on chromosomal elements, which behave as normal chromosomes-being replicating and portioned to daughter cells at each cell division. They are deployed as useful gene expression vectors as they remain independent from the host genome. MACs are maintained as a single-copy and can accommodate multiple gene expression cassettes of, in theory, unlimited DNA size (MACs up to 10 megabases have been constructed). MACs therefore enabled control over ectopic gene expression and represent an excellent platform to rapidly prototype and characterize novel synthetic gene circuits without recourse to engineering the host genome. This review describes the obstacles synthetic biologists face when working with mammalian systems and how the development of improved MACs can overcome these-particularly given the spectacular advances in DNA synthesis and assembly that are fuelling this research area.

  10. Outside-In Signal Transmission by Conformational Changes in Integrin Mac-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Craig T.; Hyun, Young-Min; Schultz, Joanne B.; Law, Foon-Yee; Waugh, Richard E.; Knauf, Philip A.; Kim, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular signals associated with or triggered by integrin ligation can control cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Despite accumulating evidence that conformational changes regulate integrin affinity to its ligands, how integrin structure regulates signal transmission from the outside to the inside of the cell remains elusive. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we addressed whether conformational changes in integrin Mac-1 are sufficient to transmit outside-in signals in human neutrophils. Mac-1 conformational activation induced by ligand occupancy or activating Ab binding, but not integrin clustering, triggered similar patterns of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation, including Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis, indicating that global conformational changes are critical for Mac-1-dependent outside-in signal transduction. In neutrophils and myeloid K562 cells, ligand ICAM-1 or activating Ab binding promoted switchblade-like extension of the Mac-1 extracellular domain and separation of the αM and β2 subunit cytoplasmic tails, two structural hallmarks of integrin activation. These data suggest the primacy of global conformational changes in the generation of Mac-1 outside-in signals. PMID:19864611

  11. Efficient MAC Protocol for Hybrid Wireless Network with Heterogeneous Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nasre Alam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several Directional Medium Access Control (DMAC protocols have been designed for use with homogeneous networks, it can take a substantial amount of time to change sensor nodes that are equipped with an omnidirectional antenna for sensor nodes with a directional antenna. Thus, we require a novel MAC protocol for use with an intermediate wireless network that consists of heterogeneous sensor nodes equipped with either an omnidirectional antenna or a directional antenna. The MAC protocols that have been designed for use in homogeneous networks are not suitable for use in a hybrid network due to deaf, hidden, and exposed nodes. Therefore, we propose a MAC protocol that exploits the characteristics of a directional antenna and can also work efficiently with omnidirectional nodes in a hybrid network. In order to address the deaf, hidden, and exposed node problems, we define RTS/CTS for the neighbor (RTSN/CTSN and Neighbor Information (NIP packets. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated through a numerical analysis using a Markov model. In addition, the analytical results of the MAC protocol are verified through an OPNET simulation.

  12. McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mostafa Monowar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements forresource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs poses significant challengesfor provisioning Quality of Service (QoS with multi-constraints (delay and reliability whilepreserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC,a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes inWBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands andintroduces a novel superframe structure based on the "transmit-whenever-appropriate"principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respectiveQoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposedto ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMACis also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate itsperformance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliabilityguarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energyefficiency.

  13. What are the key drivers of MAC curves? A partial-equilibrium modelling approach for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesicki, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves are widely used for the assessment of costs related to CO 2 emissions reduction in environmental economics, as well as domestic and international climate policy. Several meta-analyses and model comparisons have previously been performed that aim to identify the causes for the wide range of MAC curves. Most of these concentrate on general equilibrium models with a focus on aspects such as specific model type and technology learning, while other important aspects remain almost unconsidered, including the availability of abatement technologies and level of discount rates. This paper addresses the influence of several key parameters on MAC curves for the United Kingdom and the year 2030. A technology-rich energy system model, UK MARKAL, is used to derive the MAC curves. The results of this study show that MAC curves are robust even to extreme fossil fuel price changes, while uncertainty around the choice of the discount rate, the availability of key abatement technologies and the demand level were singled out as the most important influencing factors. By using a different model type and studying a wider range of influencing factors, this paper contributes to the debate on the sensitivity of MAC curves. - Highlights: ► A partial-equilibrium model is employed to test key sensitivities of MAC curves. ► MAC curves are found to be robust to wide-ranging changes in fossil fuel prices. ► Most influencing factors are the discount rate, availability of key technologies. ► Further important uncertainty in MAC curves is related to demand changes

  14. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modali, Sita D; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2011-08-01

    Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tripartite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation of MacB ATPase activity. Binding of MacA to MacB stabilizes the ATP-bound conformation of MacB, whereas interactions with both MacB and TolC affect the conformation of MacA. A single G353A substitution in the C-terminus of MacA inactivates MacAB-TolC function by changing the conformation of the membrane proximal domain of MacA and disrupting the proper assembly of the MacA-MacB complex. We propose that MacA acts in transport by promoting MacB transition into the closed ATP-bound conformation and in this respect, is similar to the periplasmic solute-binding proteins. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. MacBook Pro portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Gruman, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Learn the skills, tools and shortcuts you need in order to make the most of your MacBook Pro This easy-to-use, compact guide skips the fluff and gets right to the essentials so that you can maximize all the latest features of the MacBook Pro. Packed with savvy insights and tips on key tools and shortcuts, this handy book aims to help you increase your productivity and save you time and hassle. From desktop sharing and wireless networking to running Windows applications and more, this book shows you what you want to know. Includes the latest version of OS X, iCloud, FaceTime, and moreCovers al

  16. Modeling MAC layer for powerline communications networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrasnica, Halid; Haidine, Abdelfatteh

    2001-02-01

    The usage of electrical power distribution networks for voice and data transmission, called Powerline Communications, becomes nowadays more and more attractive, particularly in the telecommunication access area. The most important reasons for that are the deregulation of the telecommunication market and a fact that the access networks are still property of former monopolistic companies. In this work, first we analyze a PLC network and system structure as well as a disturbance scenario in powerline networks. After that, we define a logical structure of the powerline MAC layer and propose the reservation MAC protocols for the usage in the PLC network which provides collision free data transmission. This makes possible better network utilization and realization of QoS guarantees which can make PLC networks competitive to other access technologies.

  17. Millisecond timing on PCs and Macs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, W J; Taylor, T L

    2001-05-01

    A real-time, object-oriented solution for displaying stimuli on Windows 95/98, MacOS and Linux platforms is presented. The program, written in C++, utilizes a special-purpose window class (GLWindow), OpenGL, and 32-bit graphics acceleration; it avoids display timing uncertainty by substituting the new window class for the default window code for each system. We report the outcome of tests for real-time capability across PC and Mac platforms running a variety of operating systems. The test program, which can be used as a shell for programming real-time experiments and testing specific processors, is available at http://www.cs.dal.ca/~macinnwj. We propose to provide researchers with a sense of the usefulness of our program, highlight the ability of many multitasking environments to achieve real time, as well as caution users about systems that may not achieve real time, even under optimal conditions.

  18. Improved b lifetime measurement from MAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.T.

    1984-03-01

    Two recent publications, from the MAC and Mark II collaborations, have reported the somewhat surprising result that the lifetime of particles made up of b quarks is in the 1 to 2 picosecond range, or somewhat longer than the lifetimes of charm particles. Although the charm decays are favored transitions while those of b particles depend upon off-diagonal elements of the weak flavor mixing matrix, the smallness of the b decay rates in face of the large available phase space indicates that the off-diagonal elements are indeed very small. The possibility for complete determination of the mixing matrix was brought significantly nearer by the availability of the lifetime information; what is needed now is to reduce the uncertainty of the measurements, which was about 33% for both experiments. We describe here an extension of the b lifetime study with the MAC detector, incorporating some new data and improvements in the analysis. 12 references

  19. Installing Git under MacOS

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Step by step guide to installing the version control software Git under the Macintosh Operating System MacOS X (and later). Includes a seqeunce of screenshots with hand drawn arrows ;-) These slides are part of the materials for an Introductory course on the R language and environment for statistial computing. Free and Open Source materials for this course hosted on GitHub: https://github.com/brfitzpatrick/Intro_to_R

  20. Visualization of integrin Mac-1 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kihong; Hyun, Young-Min; Lambert-Emo, Kris; Topham, David J; Kim, Minsoo

    2015-11-01

    β2 integrins play critical roles in migration of immune cells and in the interaction with other cells, pathogens, and the extracellular matrix. Among the β2 integrins, Mac-1 (Macrophage antigen-1), composed of CD11b and CD18, is mainly expressed in innate immune cells and plays a major role in cell migration and trafficking. In order to image Mac-1-expressing cells both in live cells and mouse, we generated a knock-in (KI) mouse strain expressing CD11b conjugated with monomeric yellow fluorescent protein (mYFP). Expression of CD11b-mYFP protein was confirmed by Western blot and silver staining of CD11b-immunoprecipitates and total cell lysates from the mouse splenocytes. Mac-1-mediated functions of the KI neutrophils were comparable with those in WT cells. The fluorescence intensity of CD11b-mYFP was sufficient to image CD11b expressing cells in live mice using intravital two-photon microscopy. In vitro, dynamic changes in the intracellular localization of CD11b molecules could be measured by epifluorescent microscopy. Finally, CD11b-expressing immune cells from tissue were easily detected by flow cytometry without anti-CD11b antibody staining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Power Saving MAC Protocols for WSNs and Optimization of S-MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simarpreet Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Low power MAC protocols have received a lot of consideration in the last few years because of their influence on the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. Since, sensors typically operate on batteries, replacement of which is often difficult. A lot of work has been done to minimize the energy expenditure and prolong the sensor lifetime through energy efficient designs, across layers. Meanwhile, the sensor network should be able to maintain a certain throughput in order to fulfill the QoS requirements of the end user, and to ensure the constancy of the network. This paper introduces different types of MAC protocols used for WSNs and proposes S‐MAC, a Medium‐Access Control protocol designed for Wireless Sensor Networks. S‐MAC uses a few innovative techniques to reduce energy consumption and support selfconfiguration. A new protocol is suggested to improve the energy efficiency, latency and throughput of existing MAC protocol for WSNs. A modification of the protocol is then proposed to eliminate the need for some nodes to stay awake longer than the other nodes which improves the energy efficiency, latency and throughput and hence increases the life span of a wireless sensor network.

  2. Development of high yielding Soybean variety MACS 450 by using Kalitur mutant-MACS 111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, V.M.; Taware, S.P.; Halvankar, G.B.; Varghese, Philips

    2000-01-01

    A mutant variety -MACS 111 developed by treating seeds of indigenous black seeded 'Kalitur' variety with gamma irradiation + Ethyleneimine was used in development of high yielding varieties. MACS 450 a promising high yielding variety was selected from Bragg x MACS 111 cross by pedigree selection method. This variety gave the highest average seed yield in station trials (3422 kg/ha), coordinated breeding trials (2361 kg/ha) and varieties cum plant population trial (2215 kg/ha). On the basis of its performance in these trials it was released for commercial cultivation in Southern India. On all India basis, it also recorded the highest seed yield of 4076 kg/ha and 3582 kg/ha in Front line Demonstrations conducted on the farmers' field during 1998 and 1999 respectively. (author)

  3. One of the First Portable Macs

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    It was one of the first portable macs released. The Portable had many new advances in mobile computing : The display was crispy clear, and looked beautiful when used in daylight ; The Portable came with a Lead-acid gel/cell battery that could run a anywhere from 6 -12 hours ; It supported to internal hard drives, and an external one. The reaction to the laptop was weak because it was slow, it had no capacity for expansion, it weighed heavily, its price was expensive. It has been stayed 1 year and half on the market.

  4. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Modali, Sita D.; Zgurskaya, Helen I.

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tri-partite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation o...

  5. Turning the Big Mac Index into the Medical MAC Index | Wilson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to create a global medical earnings index, called the Medical MAC Index, to enable a comparison of what medical specialists earn in the countries included in the study. Design: The study gathered data on the earnings of specialist anaesthetists employed in state hospitals with five ...

  6. QL-MAC : a Q-learning based MAC for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galzarano, S.; Liotta, A.; Fortino, G.; Aversa, R.; Kolodziej, J.; Zhang, J.; Amato, F.; Fortino, G.

    2013-01-01

    WSNs are becoming an increasingly attractive technology thanks to the significant benefits they can offer to a wide range of application domains. Extending the system lifetime while preserving good network performance is one of the main challenges in WSNs. In this paper, a novel MAC protocol

  7. Essential Mac OS X panther server administration integrating Mac OS X server into heterogeneous networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosh, Michael

    2004-01-01

    If you've ever wondered how to safely manipulate Mac OS X Panther Server's many underlying configuration files or needed to explain AFP permission mapping--this book's for you. From the command line to Apple's graphical tools, the book provides insight into this powerful server software. Topics covered include installation, deployment, server management, web application services, data gathering, and more

  8. A Survey of MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2015-04-20

    The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN) can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN) is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC) layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research.

  9. Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, John

    2009-01-01

    Making Everything Easier!. Mac OS® X Snow Leopard Server for Dummies. Learn to::;. Set up and configure a Mac network with Snow Leopard Server;. Administer, secure, and troubleshoot the network;. Incorporate a Mac subnet into a Windows Active Directory® domain;. Take advantage of Unix® power and security. John Rizzo. Want to set up and administer a network even if you don't have an IT department? Read on!. Like everything Mac, Snow Leopard Server was designed to be easy to set up and use. Still, there are so many options and features that this book will save you heaps of time and effort. It wa

  10. A Mobile Automated Characterization System (MACS) for indoor floor characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, B.S.; Haley, D.C.; Dudar, A.M.; Ward, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an advanced Mobile Automated Characterization System (MACS) to characterize indoor contaminated floors. MACS is based upon Semi-Intelligent Mobile Observing Navigator (SIMON), an earlier floor characterization system developed at SRTC. MACS will feature enhanced navigation systems, operator interface, and an interface to simplify integration of additional sensors. The enhanced navigation system will provide the capability to survey large open areas much more accurately than is now possible with SIMON, which is better suited for hallways and corridors that provide the means for recalibrating position and heading. MACS operator interface is designed to facilitate MACS's use as a tool for health physicists, thus eliminating the need for additional training in the robot's control language. Initial implementation of MACS will use radiation detectors. Additional sensors, such as PCB sensors currently being developed, will be integrated on MACS in the future. Initial use of MACS will be focused toward obtaining comparative results with manual methods. Surveys will be conducted both manually and with MACS to compare relative costs and data quality. While clear cost benefits anticipated, data quality benefits should be even more significant

  11. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  12. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S

    1998-07-01

    This address delivered to the 40th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in India in 1998 opens by noting that a shortage of jobs for youth is India's most urgent problem but that the problems that attend the increasing numbers of elderly also require serious attention. The address then notes that the Earth's population is growing at an unsustainable rate while economic inequities among countries are increasing, so that, while intellectual property is becoming the most important asset in developed countries, nutritional anemia among pregnant women causes their offspring to be unable to achieve their full intellectual potential from birth. Next, the address uses a discussion of the 18th-century work on population of the Marquis de Condorcet and of Thomas Malthus to lead into a consideration of estimated increased needs of countries like India and China to import food grains in the near future. Next, the progress of demographic transition in Indian states is covered and applied to Mahbub ul Haq's measure of human deprivation developed for and applied to the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives). The address continues by reiterating some of the major recommendations forwarded by a government of India committee charged in 1995 with drafting a national population policy. Finally, the address suggests specific actions that could be important components of the Hunger-Free India Programme and concludes that all success rests on the successful implementation of appropriate population policies.

  13. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  14. Paradox applications integration ATP's for MAC and mass balance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, V.K.; Mullaney, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system were set up to run under one common applications program. This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness. The scope of the tests is minimal, since both MAC and MBA have already been tested in detail as stand-alone programs

  15. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.

    1986-01-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed in fall 1983 to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. The chamber had to be placed within the existing central drift chamber, making access for repairs difficult and costly. Therefore for detector elements thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes (straws) were used because of their simplicity and robustness. The diameter of the drift tubes was 6.9 mm. The radial extent of the proposed chamber was from 3 cm to 10 cm, the inner wall of the central drift. It was clear that radiation levels, from synchrotron x-rays and overfocussed electrons, were potentially high. Since the drift distance is short in the straws, it was desirable to operate them at the highest possible gas gain, to achieve the best spatial resolution. There was a likelihood of drawing large currents in the chamber and thus causing radiation damage. Therefore a study of radiation hardness under the conditions of their proposed design was undertaken. In tests, argon-hydrocarbon mixtures consistently became unusable at ∼0.05 C/cm collected charge, due to anode buildup. Argon-CO 2 mixtures, while underquenched, were operational to 0.25 C/cm, at which point loss of cathode material became intolerable. Argon-xenon-CO 2 proved to be quenched as well as argon-hydrocarbons, but was limited by cathode damage. The MAC vertex chamber has operated at a distance of 4.6 cm from the e + e - interaction point at PEP for two years and has shown no aging effects

  16. inaugral address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While political reorientation and economic redress were of immediate concern, ... South African context, where widespread changes have been proposed for education at all ... education at school and other levels and needs to be addressed so as to ..... the major national curriculum intervention in environmental education.

  17. Staging with spatial filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach

  18. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; Husent, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and frame into slots. Parent determines children's frame assigmnent based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. Firstly, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (includ ing itself). Secondly, the packet scheduling with TreelMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Thirdly, the data throughput to gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24 node test bed demonstrate that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput and energy efficiency, by comparing to the TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC[8]. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  19. GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

  20. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1993-01-01

    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  1. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, R

    1996-07-01

    By means of this graduation address at the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in Bombay, the Chancellor of Urdu University voiced his concerns about overpopulation in India. During the speaker's tenure as Health Minister of Maharashtra, he implemented a sterilization incentive program that resulted in the state's having the best family planning (FP) statistics in India for almost 10 years. The incentive program, however, was misused by overenthusiastic officials in other states, with the result that the FP program was renamed the Family Welfare Programme. Population is growing in India because of improvements in health care, but the population education necessary to change fertility will require more time than the seriousness of the population problem allows. In the longterm, poverty and illiteracy must be addressed to control population. In the meanwhile, the graduate program at the IIPS should be expanded to include an undergraduate program, marriage age laws should be enforced, and misconceptions about religious objections to FP must be addressed. India can not afford to use the measures forwarded by developed countries to control population growth. India must integrate population control efforts with the provision of health care because if population continues to grow in the face of reduced infant mortality and longer life expectancy, future generations will be forced to live in a state of poverty and economic degradation.

  2. Rectifier Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bladyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters

  3. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA) [fr

  4. Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosnan Robert J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Methods Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF containing either 0 or 4 mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4 mg/mL plus 0.4 mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801 was administered intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Results Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P  Conclusions Glycine receptor antagonism increases NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

  5. MacRuby Ruby and Cocoa on OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Aimonetti, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Want to build native Mac OS X applications with a sleek, developer-friendly alternative to Objective-C? MacRuby is an ideal choice. This in-depth guide shows you how Apple's implementation of Ruby gives you access to all the features available to Objective-C programmers. You'll get clear, detailed explanations of MacRuby, including quick programming techniques such as prototyping. Perfect for programmers at any level, this book is packed with code samples and complete project examples. If you use Ruby, you can tap your skills to take advantage of Interface Builder, Cocoa libraries, the Objec

  6. iMac G3 Blueberry 350MHz

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The iMac G3 is an all-in-one personal computer, encompassing both the monitor and the computer in one package. It allowed to revitalize the Apple brand that was in decline and close to financial ruin. Originally released in striking bondi blue and later a range of other translucent plastic envelopes in bright colors. The iMac comes with a keyboard and mouse matching the color of the case. The iMac G3 was sold from 1998 to 2003 and has been updated many times.

  7. Multichannel MAC Layer In Mobile Ad—Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logesh, K.; Rao, Samba Siva

    2010-11-01

    This paper we presented the design objectives and technical challenges in Multichannel MAC protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. In IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standards allow use of multiple channels, only a single channel is popularly used, due to the lack of efficient protocols that enable use of Multiple Channels. Even though complex environments in ad hoc networks require a combined control of physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers resources in order to optimize performance. And also we discuss the characteristics of cross-layer frame and give a multichannel MAC approach.

  8. The MacNuclide nuclear data environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Advance in technology have produced intriguing tools that can be applied to problems in nuclear science. Information management in nuclear science is an example of how technology is not quickly exploited. The U.S. Department of Energy supports an extensive program to evaluate published nuclear properties and store them in an electronic data base. Much of the evaluation effort has focused on producing the journal Nuclear Data Sheets and the publication Table of Isotopes. Although the electronic data base can itself be a valuable source of information, the software used to access is was designed using decades-old technologies. The authors of this paper have developed a novel data-base management system for nuclear properties. The application is known as MacNuclide. It is a nuclear data-base environment that uses the highly interactive and intuitive windowing environmentsof desk-top computers. The environment is designed around that image of the chart of nuclides. Questions are posed to the data base by placing constraints on properties and defining collections of nuclides to be used in data-base seraches. Results are displayed either as a simple list of nuclides that meet the imposed constraints or as a color chart of nuclides

  9. Infecting Windows, Linux & Mac in one go

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Still love bashing on Windows as you believe it is an insecure operating system? Hold on a second! Just recently, a vulnerability has been published for Java 7.   It affects Windows/Linux PCs and Macs, Internet Explorer, Safari and Firefox. In fact, it affects all computers that have enabled the Java 7 plug-in in their browser (Java 6 and earlier is not affected). Once you visit a malicious website (and there are plenty already out in the wild), your computer is infected… That's "Game Over" for you.      And this is not the first time. For a while now, attackers have not been targeting the operating system itself, but rather aiming at vulnerabilities inherent in e.g. your Acrobat Reader, Adobe Flash or Java programmes. All these are standard plug-ins added into your favourite web browser which make your web-surfing comfortable (or impossible when you un-install them). A single compromised web-site, however, is sufficient to prob...

  10. Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

  11. Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas, E-mail: Sven.Zacharias@ul.ie [University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

  12. Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

  13. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets...... the criteria for content, face, and construct validity. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed a variety of ways in which case studies of current OMERACT Working Groups complied with the Truth component of the Filter and what issues remained to be resolved. RESULTS: The case studies showed...... that there is broad agreement on criteria for meeting the Truth criteria through demonstration of content, face, and construct validity; however, several issues were identified that the Filter Working Group will need to address. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on how Truth...

  14. MAC mini acceptance test procedure, software Version 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) programs had some major improvements made to it to organize the main-tables by Location, Canister, and Material. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness

  15. Mechatronical Aided Concept (MAC) in Intelligent Transport Vehicles Design

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Pavlasek

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with the principles of synergy effect of mechatronical aided concept (MAC) to the design of intelligent transport vehicles products applying CA technologies and virtual reality design methods. Also includes presentation of intelligent railway vehicle development.

  16. Mac OS X : Tiger edition the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2005-01-01

    You can set your watch to it: As soon as Apple comes out with another version of Mac OS X, David Pogue hits the streets with another meticulous Missing Manual to cover it with a wealth of detail. The new Mac OS X 10.4, better known as Tiger, is faster than its predecessors, but nothing's too fast for Pogue and Mac OS X: The Missing Manual. There are many reasons why this is the most popular computer book of all time. With its hallmark objectivity, the Tiger Edition thoroughly explores the latest features to grace the Mac OS. Which ones work well and which do not? What should you look for? Th

  17. MAC layer security issues in wireless mesh networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K. Ganesh; Thilagam, P. Santhi

    2016-03-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have emerged as a promising technology for a broad range of applications due to their self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing capability, in addition to their low cost and easy maintenance. Securing WMNs is more challenging and complex issue due to their inherent characteristics such as shared wireless medium, multi-hop and inter-network communication, highly dynamic network topology and decentralized architecture. These vulnerable features expose the WMNs to several types of attacks in MAC layer. The existing MAC layer standards and implementations are inadequate to secure these features and fail to provide comprehensive security solutions to protect both backbone and client mesh. Hence, there is a need for developing efficient, scalable and integrated security solutions for WMNs. In this paper, we classify the MAC layer attacks and analyze the existing countermeasures. Based on attacks classification and countermeasures analysis, we derive the research directions to enhance the MAC layer security for WMNs.

  18. Nora Tully MacAlvay--Her Life in the Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    Recounts the life and times of a pioneer children's theater playwright and fiction author, Nora Tully MacAlvay (1900-86). Points out that her interest in children's theater and children's literature was lifelong and intense. (PA)

  19. MacMillan Pier Transportation Center Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The MacMillan Pier Transportation Center Feasibility Study examines two potential sites (landside and waterside) for a transportation center that provides a range of tourist and traveler information. It would serve as a gateway for Provincetown and t...

  20. After MacIntyre : Kaasaegsest vooruseetikast / Meego Remmel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remmel, Meego

    2006-01-01

    Alasdair MacIntyre panus 20. sajandi eetikasse. Tema käsitlus vooruseetikast ja vooruseetilisest perspektiivist, mida on võimalik näha komplekselt, vaadeldes voorust, praktikat, narratiivi ja traditsiooni mõisteid

  1. Big Mac arvestab raha ostujõudu / Harli Uljas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uljas, Harli

    2005-01-01

    The Economist võrdleb maailma valuutade suhestamiseks Big Mac'i burgeri hindu 120 riigis, kuna see meetod võimaldab saada ülevaate riikide elanikkonna tegelikust ostujõust. Tabel: Hamburgeri standard

  2. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farlinger, W.

    1997-01-01

    In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are' beating up on their only customer', at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro's monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report's assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market

  3. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.

    2003-01-01

    The program of this 9th Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors IGORR includes are quite a number of fascinating new research reactor projects in France, Germany, Russia, Canada, China, Thailand, and in Australia. In addition to the session about New Facilities there are interesting sessions on the Upgrades and on the Optimization of Operation and Utilization of existing research reactors, on Secondary Neutron Sources, on Neutron Scattering applications, and on the aspects of Safety, Licensing and Decommissioning. Two particular projects of new research reactors are mentioned specially: the TRR-II project in Taiwan, has unfortunately been terminated last year because of a change to anti-nuclear of the ruling parties in the government - and the new FRM-II in Munich, Germany, which will hopefully survive such a political change and receive its green light for nuclear start up in the very near future. The charter of IGORR and its objectives are part of this address: The International Group on Research Reactors IGORR was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. The main IGORR objectives are to promote contacts between its members, to identify and discuss problems of common interest, to distribute newsletters about once or twice every year and to organize meetings about once every one-and-a-half years

  4. Intelligent Local Avoided Collision (iLAC) MAC Protocol for Very High Speed Wireless Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Dinh Chi; Masuda, Akeo; Rabarijaona, Verotiana Hanitriniala; Shimamoto, Shigeru

    Future wireless communication systems aim at very high data rates. As the medium access control (MAC) protocol plays the central role in determining the overall performance of the wireless system, designing a suitable MAC protocol is critical to fully exploit the benefit of high speed transmission that the physical layer (PHY) offers. In the latest 802.11n standard [2], the problem of long overhead has been addressed adequately but the issue of excessive colliding transmissions, especially in congested situation, remains untouched. The procedure of setting the backoff value is the heart of the 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF) to avoid collision in which each station makes its own decision on how to avoid collision in the next transmission. However, collision avoidance is a problem that can not be solved by a single station. In this paper, we introduce a new MAC protocol called Intelligent Local Avoided Collision (iLAC) that redefines individual rationality in choosing the backoff counter value to avoid a colliding transmission. The distinguishing feature of iLAC is that it fundamentally changes this decision making process from collision avoidance to collaborative collision prevention. As a result, stations can avoid colliding transmissions with much greater precision. Analytical solution confirms the validity of this proposal and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithms by a large margin.

  5. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  6. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  7. Microfabricated inserts for magic angle coil spinning (MACS wireless NMR spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Badilita

    Full Text Available This article describes the development and testing of the first automatically microfabricated probes to be used in conjunction with the magic angle coil spinning (MACS NMR technique. NMR spectroscopy is a versatile technique for a large range of applications, but its intrinsically low sensitivity poses significant difficulties in analyzing mass- and volume-limited samples. The combination of microfabrication technology and MACS addresses several well-known NMR issues in a concerted manner for the first time: (i reproducible wafer-scale fabrication of the first-in-kind on-chip LC microresonator for inductive coupling of the NMR signal and reliable exploitation of MACS capabilities; (ii improving the sensitivity and the spectral resolution by simultaneous spinning the detection microcoil together with the sample at the "magic angle" of 54.74° with respect to the direction of the magnetic field (magic angle spinning - MAS, accompanied by the wireless signal transmission between the microcoil and the primary circuit of the NMR spectrometer; (iii given the high spinning rates (tens of kHz involved in the MAS methodology, the microfabricated inserts exhibit a clear kinematic advantage over their previously demonstrated counterparts due to the inherent capability to produce small radius cylindrical geometries, thus tremendously reducing the mechanical stress and tearing forces on the sample. In order to demonstrate the versatility of the microfabrication technology, we have designed MACS probes for various Larmor frequencies (194, 500 and 700 MHz testing several samples such as water, Drosophila pupae, adamantane solid and LiCl at different magic angle spinning speeds.

  8. A Mac Protocol Implementation for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Bhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.15.4 is an important standard for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LRWPAN. The IEEE 802.15.4 presents a flexible MAC protocol that provides good efficiency for data transmission by adapting its parameters according to characteristics of different applications. In this research work, some restrictions of this standard are explained and an improvement of traffic efficiency by optimizing MAC layer is proposed. Implementation details for several blocks of communication system are carefully modeled. The protocol implementation is done using VHDL language. The analysis gives a full understanding of the behavior of the MAC protocol with regard to backoff delay, data loss probability, congestion probability, slot effectiveness, and traffic distribution for terminals. Two ideas are proposed and tested to improve efficiency of CSMA/CA mechanism for IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Layer. Primarily, we dynamically adjust the backoff exponent (BE according to queue level of each node. Secondly, we vary the number of consecutive clear channel assessment (CCA for packet transmission. We demonstrate also that slot compensation provided by the enhanced MAC protocol can greatly avoid unused slots. The results show the significant improvements expected by our approach among the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC standards. Synthesis results show also hardware performances of our proposed architecture.

  9. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  10. Connectivity-Based Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol based on the connectivity information among the recipients. Enhancing the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC protocol, the reliable multicast MAC protocol significantly reduces the RAK (Request for ACK frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time and enhances the MAC performance. By the analytical performance analysis, the throughputs of the BMMM protocol and our proposed MAC protocol are derived. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol increases the reliable multicast MAC performance for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  11. Filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid filters, precoated by replaceable powders, which are used in the production of ultra pure water required for steam generation of electricity. The filter elements are capable of being installed and removed by remote control so that they can be used in nuclear power reactors. (UK)

  12. Learning Unix for Mac OS X Tiger Unlock the Power of Unix

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Dave

    2005-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and updated for Mac OS X Tiger, this new edition introduces Mac users to the Terminal application and shows you how to navigate the command interface, explore hundreds of Unix applications that come with the Mac, and, most importantly, how to take advantage of both the Mac and Unix interfaces. If you want to master the command-line, this gentle guide to using Unix on Mac OS X Tiger is well worth its cover price

  13. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  14. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  15. Victor Bérard et la Macédoine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Savev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un helléniste convaincu, Victor Bérard, en vient, au début du XXe siècle à soutenir l’existence de « Macédoniens » et le slogan « la Macédoine aux Macédoniens”.Le Congrès de Berlin en 1878 avait laissé la Macédoine aux mains des Ottomans. La Grèce, la Serbie et la Bulgarie, parvenues à ses limites et prévoyant le retrait futur des Ottomans peaufinent les arguments linguistiques et historiques qui justifieront leurs revendications territoriales. Victor Bérard, un helléniste respecté et bon connaisseur de la région sud balkanique, effectue des enquêtes en Macédoine en 1896 et 1903 qu’il publie à Paris.Cette étude montre comment, dans le contexte de la propagande nationaliste des prétendants à la possession de la Macédoine, Victor Bérard en vient progressivement à affirmer qu’il existe une population autochtone, les Macédoniens. Il soutient leur programme pour la constitution d’une fédération ou confédération avec le slogan « la Macédoine aux Macédoniens » ce qui fait toute l’actualité de ses ouvrages.In 1878, the Congress of Berlin had left Macedonia in the hands of the Ottomans. Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria had reached its limits. Anticipating the Ottoman retreat, they polish language and historical arguments that will justify their territorial claims. Victor Bérard, a respected Hellenist and a good expert of the southern Balkans, is doing researches in Macedonia in 1896 and 1903. These will be later published in Paris.This study shows how, in the context of the nationalist propaganda build-up made by the candidates for the possession of Macedonia, Victor Bérard comes progressively to assert the existence of a native population: the Macedonians. He supports their program for the forming of a federation or confederation which slogan would be “Macedonia to Macedonians”. This makes his works very topical.

  16. Design and FPGA implementation for MAC layer of Ethernet PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zengxi; Lin, Rujian; Chen, Jian; Ye, Jiajun; Chen, Xinqiao

    2004-04-01

    Ethernet passive optical network (EPON), which represents the convergence of low-cost, high-bandwidth and supporting multiple services, appears to be one of the best candidates for the next-generation access network. The work of standardizing EPON as a solution for access network is still underway in the IEEE802.3ah Ethernet in the first mile (EFM) task force. The final release is expected in 2004. Up to now, there has been no standard application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip available which fulfills the functions of media access control (MAC) layer of EPON. The MAC layer in EPON system has many functions, such as point-to-point emulation (P2PE), Ethernet MAC functionality, multi-point control protocol (MPCP), network operation, administration and maintenance (OAM) and link security. To implement those functions mentioned above, an embedded real-time operating system (RTOS) and a flexible programmable logic device (PLD) with an embedded processor are used. The software and hardware functions in MAC layer are realized through programming embedded microprocessor and field programmable gate array(FPGA). Finally, some experimental results are given in this paper. The method stated here can provide a valuable reference for developing EPON MAC layer ASIC.

  17. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  18. Dolphin natures, human virtues: MacIntyre and ethical naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, Shane Nicholas

    2008-09-01

    Can biological facts explain human morality? Aristotelian 'virtue' ethics has traditionally assumed so. In recent years Alasdair MacIntyre has reintroduced a form of Aristotle's 'metaphysical biology' into his ethics. He argues that the ethological study of dependence and rationality in other species--dolphins in particular--sheds light on how those same traits in the typical lives of humans give rise to the moral virtues. However, some goal-oriented dolphin behaviour appears both dependent and rational in the precise manner which impresses MacIntyre, yet anything but ethically 'virtuous'. More damningly, dolphin ethologists consistently refuse to evaluate such behaviour in the manner MacIntyre claims is appropriate to moral judgement. In light of this, I argue that virtues--insofar as they name a biological or ethological category--do not name a morally significant one.

  19. Office for iPad and Mac for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Weverka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The easy way to work with Office on your iPad or Mac Are you a Mac user who isn't accustomed to working with Microsoft Office? Consider this friendly guide your go-to reference! Written in plain English and packed with easy-to-follow, step-by-step instructions, Office for iPad and Mac For Dummies walks you through every facet of Office, from installing the software and opening files to working with Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Outlook-and beyond. Plus, you'll discover how to manage files, share content and collaborate online through social media, and find help when you need it. Two things a

  20. Performance analysis and improvement of WPAN MAC for home networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    The wireless personal area network (WPAN) is an emerging wireless technology for future short range indoor and outdoor communication applications. The IEEE 802.15.3 medium access control (MAC) is proposed to coordinate the access to the wireless medium among the competing devices, especially for short range and high data rate applications in home networks. In this paper we use analytical modeling to study the performance analysis of WPAN (IEEE 802.15.3) MAC in terms of throughput, efficient bandwidth utilization, and delay with various ACK policies under error channel condition. This allows us to introduce a K-Dly-ACK-AGG policy, payload size adjustment mechanism, and Improved Backoff algorithm to improve the performance of the WPAN MAC. Performance evaluation results demonstrate the impact of our improvements on network capacity. Moreover, these results can be very useful to WPAN application designers and protocol architects to easily and correctly implement WPAN for home networking.

  1. Performance Analysis and Improvement of WPAN MAC for Home Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Mehta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The wireless personal area network (WPAN is an emerging wireless technology for future short range indoor and outdoor communication applications. The IEEE 802.15.3 medium access control (MAC is proposed to coordinate the access to the wireless medium among the competing devices, especially for short range and high data rate applications in home networks. In this paper we use analytical modeling to study the performance analysis of WPAN (IEEE 802.15.3 MAC in terms of throughput, efficient bandwidth utilization, and delay with various ACK policies under error channel condition. This allows us to introduce a K-Dly-ACK-AGG policy, payload size adjustment mechanism, and Improved Backoff algorithm to improve the performance of the WPAN MAC. Performance evaluation results demonstrate the impact of our improvements on network capacity. Moreover, these results can be very useful to WPAN application designers and protocol architects to easily and correctly implement WPAN for home networking.

  2. Activity Modelling and Comparative Evaluation of WSN MAC Security Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawar, Pranav M.; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    and initiate security attacks that disturb the normal functioning of the network in a severe manner. Such attacks affect the performance of the network by increasing the energy consumption, by reducing throughput and by inducing long delays. Of all existing WSN attacks, MAC layer attacks are considered...... the most harmful as they directly affect the available resources and thus the nodes’ energy consumption. The first endeavour of this paper is to model the activities of MAC layer security attacks to understand the flow of activities taking place when mounting the attack and when actually executing it....... The second aim of the paper is to simulate these attacks on hybrid MAC mechanisms, which shows the performance degradation of aWSN under the considered attacks. The modelling and implementation of the security attacks give an actual view of the network which can be useful in further investigating secure...

  3. Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2012-01-01

    As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

  4. MacVEE - the intimate Macintosh-VME system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    The marriage of a mass-produced personal computer with the versatile VMEbus and CAMAC systems creates a cost-effective solution to many laboratory small system requirements. This paper describes MacVEE (Microcomputer Applied to the Control of VME Electronic Equipment), a novel system in which an Apple Macintosh computer is equipped with a special interface which allows it direct memory-mapped access to single or multiple VME and CAMAC crates interconnected by a ribbon cable bus. The bus is driven by an electronics plinth called MacPlinth, which attaches to the computer and becomes an integral part of it. (Auth.)

  5. MacIntyre's Moral Theory and Moral Relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Abedi Renani

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I seek to explain the similarity and disparity between MacIntyre’s moral theory and moral relativism. I will argue that MacIntyre’s moral theory can escape the charge of moral relativism because both his earlier social and his later metaphysical approaches appeal to some criteria, the human telos or universal human qualities respectively. The notion of telos is wider than the notion of function which is defined in social contexts. If there is a context-transcending notion of te...

  6. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  7. Link-layer Jamming Attacks on S-MAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Hartel, Pieter H.; den Hartog, Jeremy; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2004-01-01

    We argue that among denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, link-layer jamming is a more attractive option to attackers than radio jamming is. By exploiting the semantics of the link-layer protocol (aka MAC protocol), an attacker can achieve better efficiency than blindly jamming the radio signals alone.

  8. Link-layer jamming attacks on S-MAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Hartel, Pieter H.; den Hartog, Jeremy; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    We argue that among denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, link-layer jamming is a more attractive option to attackers than radio jamming is. By exploiting the semantics of the link-layer protocol (aka MAC protocol), an attacker can achieve better efficiency than blindly jamming the radio signals alone.

  9. Traffic Adaptive MAC Protocols in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Masud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs, every healthcare application that is based on physical sensors is responsible for monitoring the vital signs data of patient. WBANs applications consist of heterogeneous and dynamic traffic loads. Routine patient’s observation is described as low-load traffic while an alarming situation that is unpredictable by nature is referred to as high-load traffic. This paper offers a thematic review of traffic adaptive Medium Access Control (MAC protocols in WBANs. First, we have categorized them based on their goals, methods, and metrics of evaluation. The Zigbee standard IEEE 802.15.4 and the baseline MAC IEEE 802.15.6 are also reviewed in terms of traffic adaptive approaches. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of the protocols is made and their performances are analyzed in terms of delay, packet delivery ratio (PDR, and energy consumption. The literature shows that no review work has been done on traffic adaptive MAC protocols in WBANs. This review work, therefore, could add enhancement to traffic adaptive MAC protocols and will stimulate a better way of solving the traffic adaptivity problem.

  10. God, Sport Philosophy, Kinesiology: A MacIntyrean Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Sport philosophy is in crisis. This subdiscipline of kinesiology garners little to no respect and few tenure track lines in kinesiology departments. Why is this the case? Why isn't philosophy held in greater esteem? Is it possible that philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's (2009) diagnosis found in "God, Philosophy, Universities" could…

  11. Florence Jessie MacWilliams (1917-1990)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    famous mathematician Oscar Zariski, well known for his work in algebraic geometry, at. Johns Hopkins University, following him to Harvard University to study with him for a year. There was a break in her studies for many years following her marriage in 1941 to. W al ter Mac Williams, an engineer, and the birth and raising of ...

  12. Evaluation of the MacDonald scabbler for highway use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The MacDonald Scabbler is a small, hand held machine suitable for use in cleaning and roughening concrete surfaces, It weighs 308 pounds (140 kg), has 11 cutting heads, and, as a power source, requires a compressor capable of delivering 365 cubic foo...

  13. Integrated, Kerberized Login on MacOS X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Henry B.

    2006-01-01

    Context for this information. MacOS X login process and available hooks. Authorization Services configuration. Authorization Services plug-in s. Kerberos plug-in s. Other bugs and recommendations. Authorization Services Called by loginwindow, screen saver and fast user switching. It calls Directory Services, Login Hook, and Login Items (System Preferences).

  14. Increasing the permeability of Escherichia coli using MAC13243

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muheim, Claudio; Götzke, Hansjörg; Eriksson, Anna U.

    2017-01-01

    molecules that make the outer membrane of Escherichia coli more permeable. We identified MAC13243, an inhibitor of the periplasmic chaperone LolA that traffics lipoproteins from the inner to the outer membrane. We observed that cells were (1) more permeable to the fluorescent probe 1-N...

  15. Mechatronical Aided Concept (MAC in Intelligent Transport Vehicles Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pavlasek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the principles of synergy effect of mechatronical aided concept (MAC to the design of intelligent transport vehicles products applying CA technologies and virtual reality design methods. Also includes presentation of intelligent railway vehicle development.

  16. MAC mini acceptance test procedures, software Version 3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) programs had some improvements made to it to to change slightly the access authorized users had to the modification of critical data. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness

  17. A Novel Spectrally Efficient Asynchronous Multi-Channel MAC Using a Half-Duplex Transceiver for Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Devendiran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel medium access control (MAC protocols maximize network performance by enabling concurrent wireless transmissions over non-interfering channels. Despite physical layer advancements, the underlying IEEE 802.11 MAC standard cannot fully exploit features and support high-performance applications. In this work, we propose the novel spectrally efficient asynchronous multi-channel MAC (SA-MMAC protocol for wireless networks using a single half-duplex transceiver. A full-duplex mode of operation on data channels reduces the signaling overhead and boosts the spectrum efficiency. A revamped contention mechanism of IEEE 802.11 addresses the multi-channel hidden terminal problem, and a jamming signal from the receiver addresses the collisions in control signals. Furthermore, the control channel is used for data transmissions to increase the bandwidth utilization but under a restricted half-duplex mode to avoid causing a bottleneck situation. The simulator is tested for correctness. The results suggest that the protocol can work well on 3, 4, or 12 concurrent channels with high node density, providing about 12.5 times more throughput than IEEE 802.11 and 18% to 95% more throughput than its multi-channel variants under saturated traffic conditions.

  18. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  19. Filter This

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Barbakoff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes Audrey Barbakoff, a librarian at the Milwaukee Public Library, and Ahniwa Ferrari, Virtual Experience Manager at the Pierce County Library System in Washington, for a point-counterpoint piece on filtering in libraries. The opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and are not endorsed by their employers. [...

  20. TR-MAC: an energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks exploiting noise-based transmitted reference modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Dimitrova, D.C.; Brogle, M.; Braun, T.; Heijenk, Gerhard J.

    Energy-constrained behavior of sensor nodes is one of the most important criteria for successful deployment of wireless sensor net- works. The medium access control (MAC) protocol determines the time a sensor node transceiver spends listening or transmitting, and hence the energy consumption of the

  1. Library Signage: Applications for the Apple Macintosh and MacPaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, Jill A.; FitzGerald, Patricia

    1984-01-01

    Describes specific applications of the Macintosh computer at Carnegie-Mellon University Libraries, where MacPaint was used as a flexible, easy to use, and powerful tool to produce informational, instructional, and promotional signage. Profiles of system hardware and software, an evaluation of the computer program MacPaint, and MacPaint signage…

  2. Design of an autonomous decentralized MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Dal Pont, L.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    In this document the design of a MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks is discussed. The autonomous decentralized TDMA based MAC protocol minimizes power consumtion by efficiency implementing unicast/omnicast, scheduled rendezvous times and wakeup calls. The MAC protocol is an ongoing research

  3. Teaching a Classic for All Ages: Fairy Tales and Stories of George MacDonald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Glenn Edward

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the life and writings of George MacDonald (1824-1905). Suggests that the most striking feature of MacDonald's children's books is his sensitivity toward spiritual values and the power of change within the lives of his characters. Appends a list of questions to stimulate student response to MacDonald's writings. (RS)

  4. The Making Assessment Count (MAC consortium maximising assessment and feedback design by working together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark JP Kerrigan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Making Assessment Count (MAC project started at the University of Westminster in 2008. It sought to align staff and student expectations of feedback and support greater use of feed-forward approaches. A baseline analysis of staff views in the School of Life Sciences suggested that students did not make strategic use of the feedback they received. A similar analysis of the student position revealed that as a group they felt that the feedback provided to them was often insufficiently helpful. To address this dichotomy, a MAC process was developed in the School of Life Sciences and trialled with a cohort of about 350 first year undergraduate students. The process was based on a student-centred, three-stage model of feedback: Subject specific, Operational, and Strategic (SOS model. The student uses the subject tutor's feedback on an assignment to complete an online self-review questionnaire delivered by a simple tool. The student answers are processed by a web application called e-Reflect to generate a further feedback report. Contained within this report are personalised graphical representations of performance, time management, satisfaction and other operational feedback designed to help the student reflect on their approach to preparation and completion of future work. The student then writes in an online learning journal, which is shared with their personal tutor to support the personal tutorial process and the student's own development plan (PDP. Since the initial development and implementation of the MAC process within Life Sciences at Westminster, a consortium of universities has worked together to maximise the benefits of the project outcomes and collaboratively explore how the SOS model and e-Reflect can be exploited in different institutional and subject contexts. This paper presents and discusses an evaluation of the use of the MAC process within Life Sciences at Westminster from both staff and student perspective. In addition, the

  5. Noncooperative 802.11 MAC Layer Fingerprinting and Tracking of Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Robyns

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two novel noncooperative MAC layer fingerprinting and tracking techniques for Wi-Fi (802.11 enabled mobile devices. Our first technique demonstrates how a per-bit entropy analysis of a single captured frame allows an adversary to construct a fingerprint of the transmitter that is 80.0 to 67.6 percent unique for 50 to 100 observed devices and 33.0 to 15.1 percent unique for 1,000 to 10,000 observed devices. We show how existing mitigation strategies such as MAC address randomization can be circumvented using only this fingerprint and temporal information. Our second technique leverages peer-to-peer 802.11u Generic Advertisement Service (GAS requests and 802.11e Block Acknowledgement (BA requests to instigate transmissions on demand from devices that support these protocols. We validate these techniques using two datasets, one of which was recorded at a music festival containing 28,048 unique devices and the other at our research lab containing 138 unique devices. Finally, we discuss a number of countermeasures that can be put in place by mobile device vendors in order to prevent noncooperative tracking through the discussed techniques.

  6. Una lectura interpretativa de Tras la virtud, de Alasdair MacIntyre - An Interpretive Reading of After Virtue, by Alasdair MacIntyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Llebrez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article centers on the thought of Alasdair MacIntyre, whose most prominente work, After Virtue, is considered a classic of political science. In contrast with other reviews, this article will examine After Virtue within the broader context of MacIntyre’s thinking and publications. An overview of MacIntyre’s literary corpus and the evolution of his thinking will shed light on the volume examined and trace certain ideas that are characteristic of this Scottish political philosopher. Matters that remained unsettled in After Virtue have become over time more defined in MacIntyre’s thinking, such as the influence exerted upon him by Thomas Aquinas.

  7. Mac OS X Snow Leopard for Power Users Advanced Capabilities and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Granneman, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Mac OS X Snow Leopard for Power Users: Advanced Capabilities and Techniques is for Mac OS X users who want to go beyond the obvious, the standard, and the easy. If want to dig deeper into Mac OS X and maximize your skills and productivity using the world's slickest and most elegant operating system, then this is the book for you. Written by Scott Granneman, an experienced teacher, developer, and consultant, Mac OS X for Power Users helps you push Mac OS X to the max, unveiling advanced techniques and options that you may have not known even existed. Create custom workflows and apps with Automa

  8. Affordability of cataract surgery using the Big Mac prices

    OpenAIRE

    Van C. Lansingh; Marissa J. Carter; Kristen A. Eckert; Kevin L. Winthrop; João M. Furtado; Serge Resnikoff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: One barrier to cataract surgery is its high price in some countries. This study aims to understand to what extent the price of cataract surgery is over- or undervalued and whether it varies in relation to GDP using The Economist newspaper Big Mac Index (BMcI) methodology, which measures the purchasing power parity between different currencies. Methods: Peer-reviewed articles containing information on cataract surgery prices were searched from 1993 to June 2012 in databases. Ophtha...

  9. ITER management advisory committee (MAC) meeting in Naka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, M.

    2000-01-01

    The ITER Management Advisory Committee (MAC) Meeting was held on 28 June 2000 in Moskow, Russia. The main topics were the consideration of the report by the director on the ITER EDA status, the review of the work program, the review of the joint fund, the review of a schedule of ITER meetings and initial discussion and consideration on the disposition of R and D hardware and facilities and other dispositions relating to the termination of the EDA

  10. Detomidine reduces isoflurane anesthetic requirement (MAC) in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffey, Eugene P; Pascoe, Peter J

    2002-10-01

    To quantitate the dose- and time-related magnitude of the anesthetic sparing effect of, and selected physiological responses to detomidine during isoflurane anesthesia in horses. Randomized cross-over study. Three, healthy, young adult horses weighing 485 ± 14 kg. Horses were anesthetized on two occasions to determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in O 2 and then to measure the anesthetic sparing effect (time-related MAC reduction) following IV detomidine (0.03 and 0.06 mg kg -1 ). Selected common measures of cardiopulmonary function, blood glucose and urinary output were also recorded. Isoflurane MAC was 1.44 ± 0.07% (mean ± SEM). This was reduced by 42.8 ± 5.4% and 44.8 ± 3.0% at 83 ± 23 and 125 ± 36 minutes, respectively, following 0.03 and 0.06 mg kg -1 , detomidine. The MAC reduction was detomidine dose- and time-dependent. There was a tendency for mild cardiovascular and respiratory depression, especially following the higher detomidine dose. Detomidine increased both blood glucose and urine flow; the magnitude of these changes was time- and dose-dependent CONCLUSIONS: Detomidine reduces anesthetic requirement for isoflurane and increases blood glucose concentration and urine flow in horses. These changes were dose- and time-related. The results imply potent anesthetic sparing actions by detomidine. The detomidine-related increased urine flow should be considered in designing anesthetic protocols for individual horses. Copyright © 2002 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance of MAC protocols in beaconing Mobile Adhoc Multibroadcast Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rico García, Cristina; Lehner, Andreas; Robertson, Patrick; Strang, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of infrastructureless safety applications in dierent transportation systems is a hot research topic. The nodes in thevnetwork are designed to advertise to the rest of the nodes informationabout the current traffic situation by means of short beacon messages containing speed, direction, positions and other relevant safety information. The scheduling should be organized by the MAC layer so that the transmitted messages arrive successfully as soon as possible at the recei...

  12. LHC@home online tutorial for Mac users - recording

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A step-by-step online tutorial about LHC@home for Mac users by Alexandre Racine. It contains detailed instructions on how-to-join this volunteer computing project.  There are 3 screen capture videos with the real installation process accelerated attached to the event page. This 5' video is linked from http://lhcathome.web.cern.ch/join-us Also from the CDS e-learning category.

  13. MacWilliams Identity for M-Spotty Weight Enumerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Fujiwara, Eiji

    M-spotty byte error control codes are very effective for correcting/detecting errors in semiconductor memory systems that employ recent high-density RAM chips with wide I/O data (e.g., 8, 16, or 32bits). In this case, the width of the I/O data is one byte. A spotty byte error is defined as random t-bit errors within a byte of length b bits, where 1 le t ≤ b. Then, an error is called an m-spotty byte error if at least one spotty byte error is present in a byte. M-spotty byte error control codes are characterized by the m-spotty distance, which includes the Hamming distance as a special case for t =1 or t = b. The MacWilliams identity provides the relationship between the weight distribution of a code and that of its dual code. The present paper presents the MacWilliams identity for the m-spotty weight enumerator of m-spotty byte error control codes. In addition, the present paper clarifies that the indicated identity includes the MacWilliams identity for the Hamming weight enumerator as a special case.

  14. The role of MAC1 in diesel exhaust particle-induced microglial activation and loss of dopaminergic neuron function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Shannon; Taetzsch, Thomas; Lull, Melinda E; Johnson, Jo Anne; McGraw, Constance; Block, Michelle L

    2013-06-01

    Increasing reports support that air pollution causes neuroinflammation and is linked to central nervous system (CNS) disease/damage. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of urban air pollution, which has been linked to microglial activation and Parkinson's disease-like pathology. To begin to address how DEP may exert CNS effects, microglia and neuron-glia cultures were treated with either nanometer-sized DEP (neuron function was assessed. All three treatments showed enhanced ameboid microglia morphology, increased H2 O2 production, and decreased DA uptake. Mechanistic inquiry revealed that the scavenger receptor inhibitor fucoidan blocked DEP internalization in microglia, but failed to alter DEP-induced H2 O2 production in microglia. However, pre-treatment with the MAC1/CD11b inhibitor antibody blocked microglial H2 O2 production in response to DEP. MAC1(-/-) mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures were protected from DEP-induced loss of DA neuron function, as measured by DA uptake. These findings support that DEP may activate microglia through multiple mechanisms, where scavenger receptors regulate internalization of DEP and the MAC1 receptor is mandatory for both DEP-induced microglial H2 O2 production and loss of DA neuron function. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M; Komeda, I; Takizaki, K

    1982-01-01

    Bag filters are widely used throughout the cement industry for recovering raw materials and products and for improving the environment. Their general mechanism, performance and advantages are shown in a classification table, and there are comparisons and explanations. The outer and inner sectional construction of the Shinto ultra-jet collector for pulverized coal is illustrated and there are detailed descriptions of dust cloud prevention, of measures used against possible sources of ignition, of oxygen supply and of other topics. Finally, explanations are given of matters that require careful and comprehensive study when selecting equipment.

  16. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  17. Filtering and control of wireless networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dan; Yu, Li

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained book, written by leading experts, offers a cutting-edge, in-depth overview of the filtering and control of wireless networked systems. It addresses the energy constraint and filter/controller gain variation problems, and presents both the centralized and the distributed solutions. The first two chapters provide an introduction to networked control systems and basic information on system analysis. Chapters (3–6) then discuss the centralized filtering of wireless networked systems, presenting different approaches to deal with energy efficiency and filter/controller gain variation problems. The next part (chapters 7–10) explores the distributed filtering of wireless networked systems, addressing the main problems of energy constraint and filter gain variation. The final part (chapters 11–14) focuses on the distributed control of wireless networked systems.

  18. MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein of the macrolide transporter MacAB-TolC, binds lipopolysaccharide core specifically and with high affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2013-11-01

    The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC.

  19. Robust filtering for uncertain systems a parameter-dependent approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    This monograph provides the reader with a systematic treatment of robust filter design, a key issue in systems, control and signal processing, because of the fact that the inevitable presence of uncertainty in system and signal models often degrades the filtering performance and may even cause instability. The methods described are therefore not subject to the rigorous assumptions of traditional Kalman filtering. The monograph is concerned with robust filtering for various dynamical systems with parametric uncertainties, and focuses on parameter-dependent approaches to filter design. Classical filtering schemes, like H2 filtering and H¥ filtering, are addressed, and emerging issues such as robust filtering with constraints on communication channels and signal frequency characteristics are discussed. The text features: ·        design approaches to robust filters arranged according to varying complexity level, and emphasizing robust filtering in the parameter-dependent framework for the first time; ·...

  20. Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, M.S.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2009-01-01

    Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size

  1. TMAC: Timestamp-Ordered MAC Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal

    2011-05-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have emerged to meet a need for a self-organized and self-configured multi-hop wireless network infrastructure. Low cost infrastructure and ease of deployment have made WMNs an attractive technology for last mile access. However, 802.11 based WMNs are subject to serious fairness issues. With backlogged TCP traffic, nodes which are two or more hops away from the gateway are subject to starvation, while the one-hop away node saturates the channel with its own local traffic. We study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in WMNs to aid us in understanding and overcoming the unfairness problem. We propose a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput performance due to the effect of queue utilization and packet relaying. A closed form solution is derived to numerically derive the throughput. Based on the developed model, we propose a distributed MAC protocol called Timestamp-ordered MAC (TMAC), aiming to alleviate the unfairness problem in WMNs via a manipulative per-node scheduling mechanism which takes advantage of the age of each packet as a priority metric. Simulation is conducted to validate our model and to illustrate the fairness characteristics of TMAC. Our results show that TMAC achieves excellent resource allocation fairness while maintaining above 90% of maximum link capacity in parking lot and large grid topologies. Our work illuminates the factors affecting TCP fairness in WMNs. Our theoretical and empirical findings can be used in future research to develop more fairness-aware protocols for WMNs.

  2. Intelligent Cooperative MAC Protocol for Balancing Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Liu, K.; Huang, B.; Liu, F.

    To extend the lifetime of wireless sensor networks, we proposed an intelligent balanced energy consumption cooperative MAC protocol (IBEC-CMAC) based on the multi-node cooperative transmission model. The protocol has priority to access high-quality channels for reducing energy consumption of each transmission. It can also balance the energy consumption among cooperative nodes by using high residual energy nodes instead of excessively consuming some node's energy. Simulation results show that IBEC-CMAC can obtain longer network lifetime and higher energy utilization than direct transmission.

  3. Mac configuration management at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Allan B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) had a need for central configuration management of non-Windows computers. LANL has three to five thousand Macs and an equal number of Linux based systems. The primary goal was to be able to inventory all non-windows systems and patch Mc OS X systems. LANL examined a number of commercial and open source solutions and ultimately selected Puppet. This paper will discuss why we chose Puppet, how we implemented it, and some lessons we learned along the way.

  4. An Optimized Virtual Scheme for Reducing Collisions in MAC Layer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sivakumar; S. Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    The main function of Medium Access Control (MAC) is to share the channel efficiently between all nodes. In the real-time scenario, there will be certain amount of wastage in bandwidth due to back-off periods. More bandwidth will be wasted in idle state if the back-off period is very high and collision may occur if the back-off period is small. So, an optimization is needed for this problem. The main objective of the work is to reduce delay due to back-off period thereby reducing collision and...

  5. MAC/FAC: A Model of Similarity-Based Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Grapes (0.28) 327 Sour Grapes, analog The Taming of the Shrew (0.22), Merry Wives 251 (0.18), S[11 stories], Sour Grapes (-0.19) Sour Grapes, literal... The Institute for the 0 1 Learning Sciences Northwestern University CD• 00 MAC/FAC: A MODEL OF SIMILARITY-BASED RETRIEVAL Kenneth D. Forbus Dedre...Gentner Keith Law Technical Report #59 • October 1994 94-35188 wit Establisthed in 1989 with the support of Andersen Consulting Form Approved REPORT

  6. ETEEM- Extended Traffic Aware Energy Efficient MAC Scheme for WSNs

    OpenAIRE

    Younas Khan; Sheeraz Ahmed; Fakhri Alam Khan; Imran Ahmad; Saqib Shahid Rahim; M. Irfan Khattak

    2016-01-01

    Idle listening issue arises when a sensor node listens to medium despite the absence of data which results in consumption of energy. ETEEM is a variant of Traffic Aware Energy Efficient MAC protocol (TEEM) which focuses on energy optimization due to reduced idle listening time and much lesser overhead on energy sources. It uses a novel scheme for using idle listening time of sensor nodes. The nodes are only active for small amount of time and most of the time, will be in sleep mode when no da...

  7. Planeamiento Estratégico para Rímac Seguros

    OpenAIRE

    Alvitez Muñoz, Julio César; Esquivel Porras, César Augusto; Slocovich Salcedo, Erick Rodolfo

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo desarrolla una propuesta de valor en el ámbito del mercado de seguros de vida para ser implementada en Rímac Seguros, permitiendo asegurar a la empresa la sostenibilidad de su liderazgo a través del incremento de su participación en el mercado y la fidelización de sus clientes. Las condiciones en las que se desarrolla la industria de seguros en el mundo y en el Perú en particular, como la séptima en volumen de primas a nivel latinoamericano ofrece un mercado reducido ba...

  8. Allegheny County Addressing Landmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  9. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  10. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  11. Power-Controlled MAC Protocols with Dynamic Neighbor Prediction for Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; ZHANG Lin; XIAO Yong-kang; SHAN Xiu-ming

    2004-01-01

    Energy and bandwidth are the scarce resources in ad hoc networks because most of the mobile nodes are battery-supplied and share the exclusive wireless medium. Integrating the power control into MAC protocol is a promising technique to fully exploit these precious resources of ad hoc wireless networks. In this paper, a new intelligent power-controlled Medium Access Control (MAC) (iMAC) protocol with dynamic neighbor prediction is proposed. Through the elaborate design of the distributed transmit-receive strategy of mobile nodes, iMAC greatly outperforms the prevailing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocols in not only energy conservation but also network throughput. Using the Dynamic Neighbor Prediction (DNP), iMAC performs well in mobile scenes. To the best of our knowledge, iMAC is the first protocol that considers the performance deterioration of power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile scenes and then proposes a solution. Simulation results indicate that DNP is important and necessary for power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

  12. A Fair Cooperative MAC Protocol in IEEE 802.11 WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Mousavi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative communication techniques have recently enabled wireless technologies to overcome their challenges. The main objective of these techniques is to improve resource allocation. In this paper, we propose a new protocol in medium access control (MAC of the IEEE 802.11 standard. In our new protocol, which is called Fair Cooperative MAC (FC-MAC, every relay node participates in cooperation proportionally to its provided cooperation gain. This technique improves network resource allocation by exploiting the potential capacity of all relay candidates. Simulation results demonstrate that the FC-MAC protocol presents better performance in terms of throughput, fairness, and network lifetime.

  13. Learning Microsoft Excel 2011 for Mac video training DVD

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, Guy

    2011-01-01

    In this video tutorial for Microsoft Excel 2011 For Mac, expert author Guy Vaccaro teaches you to effectively utilize the features and functions of Excel through project based learning. You will complete various projects, and along they way learn to leverage the power of the most important features Excel 2011 has to offer the Mac user. Starting your training course with the creation of a spreadsheet to record and monitor sales data, you will learn the basics of what you can do with a spreadsheet. You will then move on to creating a Profit and Loss report, learning formulas along the way. Moving to score sheets for a sports day, you will discover conditional based formatting, lookups, and more. You then create a functional expense claim form, advancing your Excel expertise. Moving on to a sales contact management sheet, you will discover how you can manipulate text, and even create mail merges from Excel. Finally, you will utilize all your knowledge thus far to create a sales report, including charts, pivot ta...

  14. Autonomous Power Control MAC Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy limitation has become a performance bottleneck for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE 802.11 has been adopted as the current standard MAC protocol for ad hoc networks. However, it was developed without considering energy efficiency. To solve this problem, many modifications on IEEE 802.11 to incorporate power control have been proposed in the literature. The main idea of these power control schemes is to use a maximum possible power level for transmitting RTS/CTS and the lowest acceptable power for sending DATA/ACK. However, these schemes may degrade network throughput and reduce the overall energy efficiency of the network. This paper proposes autonomous power control MAC protocol (APCMP, which allows mobile nodes dynamically adjusting power level for transmitting DATA/ACK according to the distances between the transmitter and its neighbors. In addition, the power level for transmitting RTS/CTS is also adjustable according to the power level for DATA/ACK packets. In this paper, the performance of APCMP protocol is evaluated by simulation and is compared with that of other protocols.

  15. Is Kyoto Fatally Flawed? An Analysis with MacGEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyckmans, J.; Van Regemorter, D.; Van Steenberghe, V.

    2002-06-01

    In this paper we present some numerical simulations with the MacGEM model to evaluate the consequences of the recent Marrakesh agreements and the defection of the USA for the Kyoto Protocol. MacGEM is a global marginal abatement cost model for carbon emissions from fossil fuel use based on the GEM-E3-World general equilibrium. Nonparticipation of the USA causes the equilibrium carbon price in Annex B countries to fall by approximately 50% since an important share of permit demand falls out. Carbon sinks enhancement activities enable Parties to fulfil their reduction commitment at lower compliance costs and cause the equilibrium permit price to decrease by 40%. Finally, it is shown that the former Soviet Union and central European countries have substantial monopoly power in the Kyoto carbon permit market. We conclude that the recent accords have eroded completely the Kyoto Protocol's emission targets but that they have the merit to have saved the international climate change negotiation framework

  16. C-MAC compared with direct laryngoscopy for intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilization: A manikin trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smereka, Jacek; Ladny, Jerzy R; Naylor, Amanda; Ruetzler, Kurt; Szarpak, Lukasz

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare C-MAC videolaryngoscopy with direct laryngoscopy for intubation in simulated cervical spine immobilization conditions. The study was designed as a prospective randomized crossover manikin trial. 70 paramedics with immobilization (Scenario A); manual inline cervical immobilization (Scenario B); cervical immobilization using cervical extraction collar (Scenario C). Scenario A: Nearly all participants performed successful intubations with both MAC and C-MAC on the first attempt (95.7% MAC vs. 100% C-MAC), with similar intubation times (16.5s MAC vs. 18s C-MAC). Scenario B: The results with C-MAC were significantly better than those with MAC (pimmobilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC

    2016-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  18. Conceptualizing ¬the Abstractions of Earthquakes Through an Instructional Sequence Using SeisMac and the Rapid Earthquake Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.; Wysession, M.

    2007-12-01

    Newsworthy earthquakes provide an engaging hook for students in Earth science classes, particularly when discussing their effects on people and the landscape. However, engaging students in an analysis of earthquakes that extends beyond death and damage, is frequently hampered by the abstraction of recorded ground motion data in the form of raw seismograms and the inability of most students to personally relate to ground accelerations. To overcome these challenges, an educational sequence has been developed using two software tools: SeisMac by Daniel Griscom, and the Rapid Earthquake Viewer (REV) developed by the University of South Carolina in collaboration with IRIS and DLESE. This sequence presents a unique opportunity for Earth Science teachers to "create" foundational experiences for students as they construction a framework of understanding of abstract concepts. The first activity is designed to introduce the concept of a three-component seismogram and to directly address the very abstract nature of seismograms through a kinesthetic experience. Students first learn to take the pulse of their classroom through a guided exploration of SeisMac, which displays the output of the laptop's built-in Sudden Motion Sensor (a 3-component accelerometer). This exploration allows students to view a 3-component seismogram as they move or tap the laptop and encourages them to propose and carry out experiments to explain the meaning of the 3-component seismogram. Once completed students are then asked to apply this new knowledge to a real 3-component seismogram printed from REV. Next the activity guides students through the process of identifying P and S waves and using SeisMac to connect the physical motion of the laptop to the "wiggles" they see on the SeisMac display and then comparing those to the "wiggles" they see on their seismogram. At this point students are more fully prepared to engage in an S-P location exercise such as those included in many state standards

  19. Accuracy of the MacArthur competence assessment tool for clinical research (MacCAT-CR) for measuring children's competence to consent to clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Irma M; Troost, Pieter W; Lindeboom, Robert; Benninga, Marc A; Zwaan, C Michel; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2014-12-01

    An objective assessment of children's competence to consent to research participation is currently not possible. Age limits for asking children's consent vary considerably between countries, and, to our knowledge, the correlation between competence and children's age has never been systematically investigated. To test a standardized competence assessment instrument for children by modifying the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), to investigate its reliability and validity, and to examine the correlation of its assessment with age and estimate cutoff ages. This prospective study included children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years in the inpatient and outpatient departments of allergology, gastroenterology, oncology, ophthalmology, and pulmonology from January 1, 2012, through January 1, 2014. Participants were eligible for clinical research studies, including observational studies and randomized clinical trials. Competence judgments by experts aware of the 4 relevant criteria-understanding, appreciation, reasoning, and choice-were used to establish the reference standard. The index test was the MacCAT-CR, which used a semistructured interview format. Interrater reliability, validity, and dimensionality of the MacCAT-CR and estimated cutoff ages for competence. Of 209 eligible patients, we included 161 (mean age, 10.6 years; 47.2% male). Good reproducibility of MacCAT-CR total and subscale scores was observed (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.68-0.92). We confirmed unidimensionality of the MacCAT-CR. By the reference standard, we judged 54 children (33.5%) to be incompetent; by the MacCAT-CR, 61 children (37.9%). Criterion-related validity of MacCAT-CR scores was supported by high overall accuracy in correctly classifying children as competent against the reference standard (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.78). Age was a good predictor of competence on the MacCAT-CR (area under the receiver

  20. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  1. Low-power low-latency MAC protocol for aeronautical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Jordi; Kluge, Martin; Bovelli, Sergio; Schalk, Josef

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes asynchronous MAC (Medium Access Control) strategies based on the IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer for wireless aeronautical applications where low power and low latency are important requirements as well as security and data integrity. Sensor data is acquired and collected on request, by means of a mobile device, and later stored in a centralized database. In order to have the smallest power consumption the wireless sensor has to remain in deep sleep mode as long as possible and wake up and listen periodically for RF activity. If its unique ID is mentioned in the destination address field, the complete frame is received, processed and replied if necessary. If the detected packet is addressed to another sensor the reception will stop immediately and the wireless sensor will go into deep sleep mode again. Listening instead of sending actively does not 'pollute' the already crowded 2.45GHz spectrum, reduces collisions and increases security. The mobile data concentrator can not be synchronized with all the sensors installed in a distributed environment, therefore smart asynchronous data transmission strategies are needed to reduce latencies and increase throughput. For the considered application, sensors are independent of each other, simply share the medium and together with the data concentrator are organized in a star network topology. The centre of the star is the concentrator which is rarely in range. It coordinates and activates the wireless sensor nodes to collect the measured data.

  2. Statistical physics of community ecology: a cavity solution to MacArthur’s consumer resource model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Madhu; Bunin, Guy; Mehta, Pankaj

    2018-03-01

    A central question in ecology is to understand the ecological processes that shape community structure. Niche-based theories have emphasized the important role played by competition for maintaining species diversity. Many of these insights have been derived using MacArthur’s consumer resource model (MCRM) or its generalizations. Most theoretical work on the MCRM has focused on small ecosystems with a few species and resources. However theoretical insights derived from small ecosystems many not scale up to large ecosystems with many resources and species because large systems with many interacting components often display new emergent behaviors that cannot be understood or deduced from analyzing smaller systems. To address these shortcomings, we develop a statistical physics inspired cavity method to analyze MCRM when both the number of species and the number of resources is large. Unlike previous work in this limit, our theory addresses resource dynamics and resource depletion and demonstrates that species generically and consistently perturb their environments and significantly modify available ecological niches. We show how our cavity approach naturally generalizes niche theory to large ecosystems by accounting for the effect of collective phenomena on species invasion and ecological stability. Our theory suggests that such phenomena are a generic feature of large, natural ecosystems and must be taken into account when analyzing and interpreting community structure. It also highlights the important role that statistical-physics inspired approaches can play in furthering our understanding of ecology.

  3. HEPA filter concerns - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.F. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated a complete review of the DOE High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Program to identify areas for improvement. Although this process is currently ongoing, various issues and problems have already been identified for action that not only impacts the DOE HEPA filter program, but potentially the national and international air cleaning community as well. This paper briefly reviews a few of those concerns that may be of interest, and discusses actions initiated by the DOE to address the associated issues and problems. Issues discussed include: guidance standards, in-place testing, specifications, Test Facilities, portable units, vacuum cleaners, substitute aerosols, filter efficiencies, aging/shelf life/service life, fire suppression, handbook, Quality Products List (QPL), QA testing, and evaluations.

  4. License Address List

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  5. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  6. Antimoulting Activity of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Resumo. Os extratos e metabólitos secundários de plantas podem agir como agentes tóxicos e inibidores do da alimentação e do desenvolvimento em insetos. Neste estudo foi utilizado Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas (Hemiptera como modelo experimental a fim de avaliar as atividades do extrato etanólico bruto e frações obtidos das flores ou caules de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, na mortalidade e sobre o desenvolvimento do inseto. A fração butanólica obtida do extrato etanólico mostrou toxidade sobre as ninfas de O. fasciatus, bem como atividade de inibição do crescimento. Os resultados sugerem que a fração butanólica de E. erythropappus possui substâncias ativas sobre a fisiologia, crescimento e desenvolvimento de insetos.

  7. The Virtues of Scientific Practice: MacIntyre,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Daniel J; Stapleford, Thomas A

    2016-09-01

    “Practice” has become a ubiquitous term in the history of science, and yet historians have not always reflected on its philosophical import and in particular on its potential connections with ethics. This essay draws on the work of the virtue ethicist Alasdair MacIntyre to develop a theory of “communal practices” and explore how such an approach can inform the history of science, including allegations about the corruption of science by wealth or power, consideration of scientific ethics or “moral economies,” the role of values in science, the ethical distinctiveness (or not) of scientific vocations, and the relationship between history of science and the practice of science itself.

  8. Rocket measurements of electron density irregularities during MAC/SINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Four Super Arcas rockets were launched at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, as part of the MAC/SINE campaign to measure electron density irregularities with high spatial resolution in the cold summer polar mesosphere. They were launched as part of two salvos: the turbulent/gravity wave salvo (3 rockets) and the EISCAT/SOUSY radar salvo (one rocket). In both salvos meteorological rockets, measuring temperature and winds, were also launched and the SOUSY radar, located near the launch site, measured mesospheric turbulence. Electron density irregularities and strong gradients were measured by the rocket probes in the region of most intense backscatter observed by the radar. The electron density profiles (8 to 4 on ascent and 4 on descent) show very different characteristics in the peak scattering region and show marked spatial and temporal variability. These data are intercompared and discussed.

  9. MACS low-background doubly focusing neutron monochromator

    CERN Document Server

    Smee, S A; Scharfstein, G A; Qiu, Y; Brand, P C; Anand, D K; Broholm, C L

    2002-01-01

    A novel doubly focusing neutron monochromator has been developed as part of the Multi-Analyzer Crystal Spectrometer (MACS) at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. The instrument utilizes a unique vertical focusing element that enables active vertical and horizontal focusing with a large, 357-crystal (1428 cm sup 2), array. The design significantly reduces the amount of structural material in the beam path as compared to similar instruments. Optical measurements verify the excellent focal performance of the device. Analytical and Monte Carlo simulations predict that, when mounted at the NIST cold-neutron source, the device should produce a monochromatic beam (DELTA E=0.2 meV) with flux phi>10 sup 8 n/cm sup 2 s. (orig.)

  10. On PHY and MAC Performance in Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Henry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an empirical investigation on the performance of body implant communication using radio frequency (RF technology. In body implant communication, the electrical properties of the body influence the signal propagation in several ways. We use a Perspex body model (30 cm diameter, 80 cm height and 0.5 cm thickness filled with a liquid that mimics the electrical properties of the basic body tissues. This model is used to observe the effects of body tissue on the RF communication. We observe best performance at 3cm depth inside the liquid. We further present a simulation study of several low-power MAC protocols for an on-body sensor network and discuss the derived results. Also, the traditional preamble-based TMDA protocol is extended towards a beacon-based TDMA protocol in order to avoid preamble collision and to ensure low-power communication.

  11. On PHY and MAC Performance in Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on the performance of body implant communication using radio frequency (RF technology. In body implant communication, the electrical properties of the body influence the signal propagation in several ways. We use a Perspex body model (30 cm diameter, 80 cm height and 0.5 cm thickness filled with a liquid that mimics the electrical properties of the basic body tissues. This model is used to observe the effects of body tissue on the RF communication. We observe best performance at 3cm depth inside the liquid. We further present a simulation study of several low-power MAC protocols for an on-body sensor network and discuss the derived results. Also, the traditional preamble-based TMDA protocol is extended towards a beacon-based TDMA protocol in order to avoid preamble collision and to ensure low-power communication.

  12. 76 FR 71797 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... diligence procedures that are required for investments, but we do not intend to change the fundamental... Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investments and Liquidity... Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investments and Liquidity Management AGENCY...

  13. A MacWilliams Identity for Convolutional Codes: The General Case

    OpenAIRE

    Gluesing-Luerssen, Heide; Schneider, Gert

    2008-01-01

    A MacWilliams Identity for convolutional codes will be established. It makes use of the weight adjacency matrices of the code and its dual, based on state space realizations (the controller canonical form) of the codes in question. The MacWilliams Identity applies to various notions of duality appearing in the literature on convolutional coding theory.

  14. A MacWilliams Identity for Convolutional Codes : The General Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, Heide; Schneider, Gert

    A MacWilliams Identity for convolutional codes will be established. It makes use of the weight adjacency matrices of the code and its dual, based on state space realizations (the controller canonical form) of the codes in question. The MacWilliams Identity applies to various notions of duality

  15. Poincaré-MacMillan Equations of Motion for a Nonlinear Nonholonomic Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Hussain; Syed Tauseef, Mohyud-Din; Ahmet, Yildirim

    2012-03-01

    MacMillan's equations are extended to Poincaré's formalism, and MacMillan's equations for nonlinear nonholonomic systems are obtained in terms of Poincaré parameters. The equivalence of the results obtained here with other forms of equations of motion is demonstrated. An illustrative example of the theory is provided as well.

  16. Public Relations as "Practice": Applying the Theory of Alasdair MacIntyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Roy V.; Leeper, Kathie A.

    2001-01-01

    Considers how public relation's search for a unifying theory may be fulfilled through application of Alasdair MacIntyre's concept of a "practice," a very specific and value-laden concept. Explores what it would mean to be a public relations practice in MacIntyre's concept of the term and argues that such an approach to public relations…

  17. 78 FR 5320 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Capital Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... the business planning period a required discussion of how factors might impact Farmer Mac's current... discussion of any expected changes to Farmer Mac's business plan that are likely to have a material impact on... conditions that cause increases in delinquency rates caused by any variety of factors (e.g., widespread...

  18. Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105, anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered form the same area in Antartica, are characterized. Petrographic studies show that MAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan and highly aluminous (Al2O3-28 percent).

  19. Optimization and Verification of the TR-MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Heijenk, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficiency is an important requirement in the design of communication protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSN). TR-MAC is an energy-efficient medium access control (MAC) layer protocol for low power WSN that exploits transmitted-reference (TR) modulation in the physical layer. The

  20. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAC organisms are able to grow, persist, and colonize in water distribution systems and may amplify in hospital hot water systems. This study examined the response of MAC organisms (M. avium, M. intracellulare, and MX) to a range of temperatures commonly associated with drinking...

  1. Scheduled MAC in Beacon Overlay Networks for Underwater Localization and Time-Synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleunen, W.A.P.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we introduce a MAC protocol designed for underwater localization and time-synchronisation. The MAC protocol assumes a network of static reference nodes and allows blind nodes to be localized by listening-only to the beacon messages. Such a system is known to be very scalable. We show

  2. Un poste consulaire en Macédoine, Bitola-Monastir, 1851-1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lory

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les consuls, plus détachés des nationalismes locaux, rendent compte des réalités sociales, culturelles et politiques de Bitola entre 1851 et 1912.L’article tente de restituer, à partir des archives consulaires de la ville macédonienne de Bitola, entre 1851 et 1912, une réalité sociale et culturelle de la Macédoine, moins filtrée par les idéologies nationales que celle que traduit la documentation interne en langues balkaniques. La plus grande partie des informations fournies par les correspondances consulaires provient des drogmans, interprètes assurant l’interface entre les autorités locales ottomanes et les consuls, mais les consuls s’informent aussi les uns les autres. À partir des années 1890, les questions politiques détrônent les intérêts économiques. Même si les historiens macédoniens de Bitola soulignent le rôle modernisateur des consuls, le corps consulaire y est trop restreint et replié sur lui-même pour exercer une influence significative. L’article analyse l’action politique des différents consulats. Ceux des États balkaniques organisent la subversion contre le pouvoir ottoman, ceux d’Autriche-Hongrie et de Russie, pays ayant des intérêts immédiats dans la zone balkanique, interviennent dans les affaires locales, officiellement ou de façon occulte, tandis que le rôle de ceux de Grande-Bretagne, d’Italie et de France est de maintenir le statut de Grande Puissance de ces pays.The article attempts to restore, starting with the consular archives of the Macedonian city of Bitola, between 1851 and 1912, a social and cultural reality of Macedonia, less filtered by the national ideologies than that which translates the internal documentation into Balkan languages. The greatest part of the information furnished by the consular correspondences derives from drogmans, interpretors assuring the interface between the local Ottoman authorities and the consuls, but the consuls also inform one another

  3. Recirculating electric air filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  4. Identifying The Purchasing Power Parity of Indonesia Rupiah (IDR based on BIG MAC Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongam Sihol Nababan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify : (1 profile of exchange rate and purchasing power parity of IDR against US $ based on Big Mac Index compared to the exchange rate of other countries, and (2 the position of the Big Mac Affordability of  Indonesia compared to other ASEAN countries. The results showed that based on Big Mac index during the period April 1998 up to January 2015, IDR exchange rate tends to be undervalued against the USA dollar. The cause of the currency tends to be in a position of undervalued due to the components of non-tradable have not been included in Big Mac index. The index of Big Mac Affordability indicates that there is a great disparity of income between Singapore and five other ASEAN countries. The purchasing power of the real income of the people in Singapore is nearly five times the real income of the people in Indonesia.

  5. Impact of MAC Delay on AUV Localization: Underwater Localization Based on Hyperbolic Frequency Modulation Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungryul; Yoo, Younghwan

    2018-01-26

    Medium Access Control (MAC) delay which occurs between the anchor node's transmissions is one of the error sources in underwater localization. In particular, in AUV localization, the MAC delay significantly degrades the ranging accuracy. The Cramer-Rao Low Bound (CRLB) definition theoretically proves that the MAC delay significantly degrades the localization performance. This paper proposes underwater localization combined with multiple access technology to decouple the localization performance from the MAC delay. Towards this goal, we adopt hyperbolic frequency modulation (HFM) signal that provides multiplexing based on its good property, high-temporal correlation. Owing to the multiplexing ability of the HFM signal, the anchor nodes can transmit packets without MAC delay, i.e., simultaneous transmission is possible. In addition, the simulation results show that the simultaneous transmission is not an optional communication scheme, but essential for the localization of mobile object in underwater.

  6. Interference Analysis Status and Plans for Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Interference issues related to the operation of an aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) in the C-Band (specifically 5091-5150 MHz) is being investigated. The issue of primary interest is co-channel interference from AeroMACS into mobile-satellite system (MSS) feeder uplinks. The effort is focusing on establishing practical limits on AeroMACS transmissions from airports so that the threshold of interference into MSS is not exceeded. The analyses are being performed with the software package Visualyse Professional, developed by Transfinite Systems Limited. Results with omni-directional antennas and plans to extend the models to represent AeroMACS more accurately will be presented. These models should enable realistic analyses of emerging AeroMACS designs to be developed from NASA Test Bed, RTCA 223, and European results.

  7. Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs with Extended Service Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol by which the AP (Access Point) can transmit reliably its multicast data frames to the recipients in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range. The AP uses the STAs (Stations) that are directly associated with itself as the relays for the data delivery to the remote recipients that cannot be reached directly from itself. Based on the connectivity information among the recipients, the reliable multicast MAC protocol optimizes the number of the RAK (Request for ACK) frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol significantly enhances the MAC performance compared with the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC) protocol that is extended to support the recipients that are in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  8. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  9. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  10. Functional characterization of the copper transcription factor AfMac1 from Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Sung; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Yun, Cheol-Won

    2017-07-03

    Although copper functions as a cofactor in many physiological processes, copper overload leads to harmful effects in living cells. Thus, copper homeostasis is tightly regulated. However, detailed copper metabolic pathways have not yet been identified in filamentous fungi. In this report, we investigated the copper transcription factor AfMac1 ( A spergillus f umigatus Mac1 homolog) and identified its regulatory mechanism in A. fumigatus AfMac1 has domains homologous to the DNA-binding and copper-binding domains of Mac1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae , and AfMac1 efficiently complemented Mac1 in S. cerevisiae Expression of Afmac1 resulted in CTR1 up-regulation, and mutation of the DNA-binding domain of Afmac1 failed to activate CTR1 expression in S. cerevisiae The Afmac1 deletion strain of A. fumigatus failed to grow in copper-limited media, and its growth was restored by introducing ctrC We found that AfMac1 specifically bound to the promoter region of ctrC based on EMSA. The AfMac1-binding motif 5'-TGTGCTCA-3' was identified from the promoter region of ctrC , and the addition of mutant ctrC lacking the AfMac1-binding motif failed to up-regulate ctrC in A. fumigatus Furthermore, deletion of Afmac1 significantly reduced strain virulence and activated conidial killing activity by neutrophils and macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that AfMac1 is a copper transcription factor that regulates cellular copper homeostasis in A. fumigatus . © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Optimization of filter loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, J.H.; Gardiner, D.E.; Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Herald, CA)

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of 10 CFR Part 61 has created potential difficulties in the disposal of spent cartridge filters. When this report was prepared, Rancho Seco had no method of packaging and disposing of class B or C filters. This work examined methods to minimize the total operating cost of cartridge filters while maintaining them below the class A limit. It was found that by encapsulating filters in cement the filter operating costs could be minimized

  12. Evaluation of self-contained HEPA filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, T.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a self-contained high-efficiency particulate air filter (SHEPA) used in nuclear applications. A SCHEPA consists of filter medium encapsulated in a casing that is part of the system boundary. The SCHEPA filter serves as a combination of filter housing and filter. The filter medium is attached directly to the casing using adhesive as a bonding agent. A cylindrical connection in the middle of the end caps connects the filter assembly to adjoining ductwork. The SCHEPA must perform the functions of a filter housing, filter frame, and filter. It was recognized that the codes and standards do not address the SCHEPA specifically. Therefore, the investigation evaluated the SCHEPA against current codes and standards related to the functional requirements of an air-cleaning system. The specific standards used are required by DOE Order 6430.1A{sup 1} and include ASME N509{sup 3}, ASME N510{sup 4}, ERDA 76-21{sup 5}, MIL-F-51068F{sup 6}, NFPA 90A, {sup 7} and NFPA 91{sup 8}. The evaluation does not address whether the SCHEPA as a standard (off-the-shelf) filter could be upgraded to meet the current code requirements for an air-cleaning unit. The evaluation also did not consider how the SCHEPA was used in a system (e.g., whether it was under positive or negative pressure or whether it served as an air inlet filter to prevent contamination releases under system pressurization). The results of the evaluation show that, the SCHEPA filter does not meet design, fabrication, testing, and documentation requirements of ASME N509{sup 3} and ASME N510{sup 4}. The paper will identify these deficiencies. Specific exhaust system requirements and application should be considered when an evaluation of the SCHEPA filter is being performed in existing systems. When new designs are being comtemplated, other types of HEPA filter housings can be used in lieu of the SCHEPA filter.

  13. Design and Implementation of a MAC Protocol for Timely and Reliable Delivery of Command and Data in Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Van Vinh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and implements a new TDMA-based MAC protocol for providing timely and reliable delivery of data and command for monitoring and control networks. In this kind of network, sensor nodes are required to sense data from the monitoring environment periodically and then send the data to a sink. The sink determines whether the environment is safe or not by analyzing the acquired data. Sometimes, a command or control message is sent from the sink to a particular node or a group of nodes to execute the services or request further interested data. The proposed MAC protocol enables bidirectional communication, controls active and sleep modes of a sensor node to conserve energy, and addresses the problem of load unbalancing between the nodes near a sink and the other nodes. It can improve reliability of communication significantly while extending network lifetime. These claims are supported by the experimental results.

  14. Antibiotic Resistance Mediated by the MacB ABC Transporter Family: A Structural and Functional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Greene

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The MacB ABC transporter forms a tripartite efflux pump with the MacA adaptor protein and TolC outer membrane exit duct to expel antibiotics and export virulence factors from Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we review recent structural and functional data on MacB and its homologs. MacB has a fold that is distinct from other structurally characterized ABC transporters and uses a unique molecular mechanism termed mechanotransmission. Unlike other bacterial ABC transporters, MacB does not transport substrates across the inner membrane in which it is based, but instead couples cytoplasmic ATP hydrolysis with transmembrane conformational changes that are used to perform work in the extra-cytoplasmic space. In the MacAB-TolC tripartite pump, mechanotransmission drives efflux of antibiotics and export of a protein toxin from the periplasmic space via the TolC exit duct. Homologous tripartite systems from pathogenic bacteria similarly export protein-like signaling molecules, virulence factors and siderophores. In addition, many MacB-like ABC transporters do not form tripartite pumps, but instead operate in diverse cellular processes including antibiotic sensing, cell division and lipoprotein trafficking.

  15. Antibiotic Resistance Mediated by the MacB ABC Transporter Family: A Structural and Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas P.; Kaplan, Elise; Crow, Allister; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2018-01-01

    The MacB ABC transporter forms a tripartite efflux pump with the MacA adaptor protein and TolC outer membrane exit duct to expel antibiotics and export virulence factors from Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we review recent structural and functional data on MacB and its homologs. MacB has a fold that is distinct from other structurally characterized ABC transporters and uses a unique molecular mechanism termed mechanotransmission. Unlike other bacterial ABC transporters, MacB does not transport substrates across the inner membrane in which it is based, but instead couples cytoplasmic ATP hydrolysis with transmembrane conformational changes that are used to perform work in the extra-cytoplasmic space. In the MacAB-TolC tripartite pump, mechanotransmission drives efflux of antibiotics and export of a protein toxin from the periplasmic space via the TolC exit duct. Homologous tripartite systems from pathogenic bacteria similarly export protein-like signaling molecules, virulence factors and siderophores. In addition, many MacB-like ABC transporters do not form tripartite pumps, but instead operate in diverse cellular processes including antibiotic sensing, cell division and lipoprotein trafficking. PMID:29892271

  16. A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chon Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency.

  17. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Bhandari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In wireless body area networks (WBANs, various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  18. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-03-18

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  19. Laboratory for filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1987-07-01

    Filters used for mine draining in brown coal surface mines are tested by the Mine Draining Department of Poltegor. Laboratory tests of new types of filters developed by Poltegor are analyzed. Two types of tests are used: tests of scale filter models and tests of experimental units of new filters. Design and operation of the test stands used for testing mechanical properties and hydraulic properties of filters for coal mines are described: dimensions, pressure fluctuations, hydraulic equipment. Examples of testing large-diameter filters for brown coal mines are discussed.

  20. Adaptive Filtering Algorithms and Practical Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Diniz, Paulo S R

    2013-01-01

    In the fourth edition of Adaptive Filtering: Algorithms and Practical Implementation, author Paulo S.R. Diniz presents the basic concepts of adaptive signal processing and adaptive filtering in a concise and straightforward manner. The main classes of adaptive filtering algorithms are presented in a unified framework, using clear notations that facilitate actual implementation. The main algorithms are described in tables, which are detailed enough to allow the reader to verify the covered concepts. Many examples address problems drawn from actual applications. New material to this edition includes: Analytical and simulation examples in Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 10 Appendix E, which summarizes the analysis of set-membership algorithm Updated problems and references Providing a concise background on adaptive filtering, this book covers the family of LMS, affine projection, RLS and data-selective set-membership algorithms as well as nonlinear, sub-band, blind, IIR adaptive filtering, and more. Several problems are...

  1. Broadcast of four HD videos with LED ceiling lighting: optical-wireless MAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Olivier; Porcon, Pascal; Gueutier, Eric

    2011-09-01

    The European project "hOME Gigabit Access Network" (OMEGA) targeted various wireless and wired solutions for 1 Gbit/s connectivity in Home Area Networks (HANs). One objective was to evaluate the suitability of optical wireless technologies in two spectral regions: visible light (visible-light communications - VLC) and near infrared (infrared communications - IRC). Several demonstrators have been built, all of them largely relying on overthe- shelf components. The demonstrators included a "wide-area" VLC broadcast link based on LED ceiling lighting and a laser-based high-data-rate "wide-area" IRC prototype. In this paper we discuss an adapted optical-wireless media-access-control (OWMAC) sublayer, which was developed and implemented during the project. It is suitable for both IRC and VLC. The VLC prototype is based on DMT signal processing and provides broadcasting at { 100 Mbit/s over an area of approximately 5 m2. The IRC prototype provides {300 Mbit/s half-duplex communication over an area of approximately 30 m2. The IRC mesh network, composed of one base station and two terminals, is based on OOK modulation, multi-sector transceivers, and an ultra-fast sector switch. After a brief discussion about the design of the optical-wireless data link layer and the optical-wireless switch (OWS) card, we address the card development and implementation. We also present applications for the VLC and IRC prototypes and measurement results regarding the MAC layer.

  2. The Impact of Dynamic RTS Threshold Adjustment for IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mjidi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless technologies and application received great attention. The Medium Access Control (MAC protocol is the main element that determines the efficiency in sharing the limited communication bandwidth of the wireless channel in wireless local area networks (WLANs. IEEE 802.11 introduced the optional RTS/CTS handshaking mechanism to address the hidden terminal problem as well as to reduces the chance of collision in case of higher node density and traffic. RTS Threshold (RT determines when RTS/CTS mechanism should be used and proved to be an important parameter for performance characteristics in data transmission. We first investigate to find a meaningful threshold value according to the network situation and determine the impact of using or disengaging the RTS/CTS optional mechanism and dynamically adjust the RTS Threshold to maximize data transmission. The results show a significant improvement over existing CSMA/CA and RTS/CTS schemes. Our adaptive scheme performed even better when data rate increases. We verify our proposed scheme both analytically and with extensive network simulation using ns-2.

  3. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  4. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  5. MAC Version 3.2, MBA Version 1.3 acceptance test summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Materials Balance (MBA) programs had the Paradox Conversion to 4.0 ATP run to check out the systems. This report describes the results of the test and provides the signoff sheets associated with the testing. The test primarily concentrated on verifying that MAC and MBA software would run properly in the Paradox 4.0 environment. Changes in the MAC and MBA programs were basically limited to superficial items needed to accommodate the enhanced method of execution

  6. Learn AppleScript The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on MAC OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, Hanaan

    2009-01-01

    AppleScript is an English-like, easy-to-understand scripting language built into every Mac. AppleScript can automate hundreds of AppleScriptable applications, performing tasks both large and small, complex and simple. Learn AppleScript: The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on Mac OS X, Third Edition has been completely updated for Mac OS X Snow Leopard. It's all here, with an emphasis on practical information that will help you solve any automation problem-from the most mundane repetitive tasks to highly integrated workflows of complex systems. * Friendly enough for beginners, d

  7. Are hamburgers harmless? : the Big Mac Index in the twenty-first century

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Kwok Tong

    2016-01-01

    We make use of The Economist’s Big Mac Index (BMI) to investigate the Law of One Price (LOP) and whether the BMI can be used to predict future exchange rate and price changes. Deviations from Big Mac parity decay quickly, in approximately 1 year. The BMI is a better predictor of relative price changes than of exchange rate changes, and performs best when predicting a depreciation of a currency relative to the US dollar. Convergence to Big Mac parity occurs more rapidly for currencies with som...

  8. Identifying The Purchasing Power Parity of Indonesia Rupiah (IDR) based on BIG MAC Index

    OpenAIRE

    Tongam Sihol Nababan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify : (1) profile of exchange rate and purchasing power parity of IDR against US $ based on Big Mac Index compared to the exchange rate of other countries, and (2) the position of the Big Mac Affordability of Indonesia compared to other ASEAN countries. The results showed that based on Big Mac index during the period April 1998 up to January 2015, IDR exchange rate tends to be undervalued against the USA dollar. The cause of the currency tends to be in a posi...

  9. Design, control, and implementation of LCL-filter-based shunt active power filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the design, control and implementation of an LCL-filter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF), which can effectively compensate harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads in a three-phase three-wire power system. The use of LCL-filter at the output end of SAPF offer......-loop control system, and active damping implemented with fewer current sensors are all addressed here. An analytical design example is finally presented, being supported with experimental results, to verify its effectiveness and practicality.......This paper concentrates on the design, control and implementation of an LCL-filter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF), which can effectively compensate harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads in a three-phase three-wire power system. The use of LCL-filter at the output end of SAPF offers...

  10. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizarraras, Omar; Panduro, Marco; Méndez, Aldo L.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput. PMID:25140339

  11. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Elizarraras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15% compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput.

  12. Emergency Handling for MAC Protocol in Human Body Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Youngmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body communication (HBC is a technology that enables short range data communication using the human body as a medium, like an electrical wire. Thus it removes the need for a traditional antenna. HBC may be used as a type of data communication in body area network (BAN, while the devices are being in contact with body. One of important issues in BAN is an emergency alarm because it may be closely related to human life. For emergency data communication, the most critical factor is the time constraint. IEEE 802.15.6 specifies that the emergency alarm for the BAN must be notified in less than 1 sec and must provide prioritization mechanisms for emergency traffic and notification. As one type of BAN, the HBC must follow this recommendation, too. Existing emergency handling methods in BAN are based on the carrier sensing capability on radio frequencies to detect the status of channels. However, PHY protocol in HBC does not provide the carrier sensing. So the previous methods are not well suitable for HBC directly. Additionally, in the environment that the emergency rate is very low, the allocation of dedicated slot(s for emergency in each superframe is very wasteful. In this work, we proposed specific emergency handling operation for human body communication's medium access control (HBC-MAC protocol to meet the emergency requirements for BAN. We also showed the optimal number of emergency slots for the various combinations of beacon intervals and emergency rates.

  13. Bit Level Synchronized MAC Protocol for Multireader RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namboodiri Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of multiple RFID readers in close proximity results in interference between the readers. This issue is termed the reader collision problem and cannot always be solved by assigning them to different frequency channels due to technical and regulatory limitations. The typical solution is to separate the operation of such readers across time. This sequential operation, however, results in a long delay to identify all tags. We present a bit level synchronized (BLSync MAC protocol for multi-reader RFID networks that allows multiple readers to operate simultaneously on the same frequency channel. The BLSync protocol solves the reader collision problem by allowing all readers to transmit the same query at the same time. We analyze the performance of using the BLSync protocol and demonstrate benefits of 40%–50% in terms of tag reading delay for most settings. The benefits of BLSync, first demonstrated through analysis, are then validated and quantified through simulations on realistic reader-tag layouts.

  14. LAMAN: Load Adaptable MAC for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realp Marc

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc radio networks, mechanisms on how to access the radio channel are extremely important in order to improve network efficiency. In this paper, the load adaptable medium access control for ad hoc networks (LAMAN protocol is described. LAMAN is a novel decentralized multipacket MAC protocol designed following a cross-layer approach. Basically, this protocol is a hybrid CDMA-TDMA-based protocol that aims at throughput maximization in multipacket communication environments by efficiently combining contention and conflict-free protocol components. Such combination of components is used to adapt the nodes' access priority to changes on the traffic load while, at the same time, accounting for the multipacket reception (MPR capability of the receivers. A theoretical analysis of the system is developed presenting closed expressions of network throughput and packet delay. By simulations the validity of our analysis is shown and the performances of a LAMAN-based system and an Aloha-CDMA-based one are compared.

  15. Kalman filter-based gap conductance modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Geometric and thermal property uncertainties contribute greatly to the problem of determining conductance within the fuel-clad gas gap of a nuclear fuel pin. Accurate conductance values are needed for power plant licensing transient analysis and for test analyses at research facilities. Recent work by Meek, Doerner, and Adams has shown that use of Kalman filters to estimate gap conductance is a promising approach. A Kalman filter is simply a mathematical algorithm that employs available system measurements and assumed dynamic models to generate optimal system state vector estimates. This summary addresses another Kalman filter approach to gap conductance estimation and subsequent identification of an empirical conductance model

  16. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Simon-nitinol filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Kim, D.; Porter, D.H.; Kleshinski, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a filter that exploits the thermal shape-memory properties of the nitinol alloy to achieve an optimized filter shape and a fine-bore introducer. Experimental methods and materials are given and results are analyzed

  18. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  19. AER image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Paz, R.; Miró-Amarante, L.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows real-time virtual massive connectivity among huge number of neurons located on different chips.[1] By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timing), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. That is, more active neurons generate more events per unit time and access the interchip communication channel more frequently than neurons with low activity. In Neuromorphic system development, AER brings some advantages to develop real-time image processing system: (1) AER represents the information like time continuous stream not like a frame; (2) AER sends the most important information first (although this depends on the sender); (3) AER allows to process information as soon as it is received. When AER is used in artificial vision field, each pixel is considered like a neuron, so pixel's intensity is represented like a sequence of events; modifying the number and the frequency of these events, it is possible to make some image filtering. In this paper we present four image filters using AER: (a) Noise addition and suppression, (b) brightness modification, (c) single moving object tracking and (d) geometrical transformations (rotation, translation, reduction and magnification). For testing and debugging, we use USB-AER board developed by Robotic and Technology of Computers Applied to Rehabilitation (RTCAR) research group. This board is based on an FPGA, devoted to manage the AER functionality. This board also includes a micro-controlled for USB communication, 2 Mbytes RAM and 2 AER ports (one for input and one for output).

  20. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  1. Noise Reduction with Optimal Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of noise reduction is addressed as a linear filtering problem in a novel way by using concepts from subspace-based enhancement methods, resulting in variable span linear filters. This is done by forming the filter coefficients as linear combinations of a number...... included in forming the filter. Using these concepts, a number of different filter designs are considered, like minimum distortion, Wiener, maximum SNR, and tradeoff filters. Interestingly, all these can be expressed as special cases of variable span filters. We also derive expressions for the speech...... demonstrate the advantages and properties of the variable span filter designs, and their potential performance gain compared to widely used speech enhancement methods....

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Simulation Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Halkes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is often performed through simulation. These simulations necessarily abstract away from reality in many ways. However, the impact of these abstractions on the results of the simulations has received only limited attention. Moreover, many studies on the accuracy of simulation have studied either the physical layer and per link effects or routing protocol effects. To the best of our knowledge, no other work has focused on the study of the simulation abstractions with respect to MAC protocol performance. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental study of two often used abstractions in the simulation of WSN MAC protocols. We show that a simple SNR-based reception model can provide quite accurate results for metrics commonly used to evaluate MAC protocols. Furthermore, we provide an analysis of what the main sources of deviation are and thereby how the simulations can be improved to provide even better results.

  3. A new architecture and MAC protocol for fully flexible hybrid WDM/TDM PON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, G.; Lannoo, B.; Jung, H.D.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Colle, D.; Pickavet, M.; Demeester, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel architecture and MAC protocol for a scalable, cost effective WDM / TDM PON providing fully flexible dynamic bandwidth allocation for upstream and downstream data transmission.

  4. Evaluation of video transmission of MAC protocols in wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidin, Mahmuddin, M.; Kamaruddin, L. M.; Elsaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network which consists of sensor nodes scattered in a particular area which are used to monitor physical or environment condition. Each node in WSN is also scattered in sensor field, so an appropriate scheme of MAC protocol should have to develop communication link for data transferring. Video transmission is one of the important applications for the future that can be transmitted with low aspect in side of cost and also power consumption. In this paper, comparison of five different MAC WSN protocol for video transmission namely IEEE 802.11 standard, IEEE 802.15.4 standard, CSMA/CA, Berkeley-MAC, and Lightweight-MAC protocol are studied. Simulation experiment has been conducted in OMNeT++ with INET network simulator software to evaluate the performance. Obtained results indicate that IEEE 802.11 works better than other protocol in term of packet delivery, throughput, and latency.

  5. Corrections to "Connectivity-Based Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Woo-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have found the errors in the throughput formulae presented in our paper "Connectivity-based reliable multicast MAC protocol for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs". We provide the corrected formulae and numerical results.

  6. Analysis of an Adaptive P-Persistent MAC Scheme for WLAN Providing Delay Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chung-Ju; Chen, Yih-Shen; Huang, Ching Yao

    The paper proposes and analyzes an adaptive p-persistent-based (APP) medium access control (MAC) scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLAN. The APP MAC scheme intends to support delay fairness for every station in each access, denoting small delay variance. It differentiates permission probabilities of transmission for stations which are incurred with various packet delays. This permission probability is designed as a function of the numbers of retransmissions and re-backoffs so that stations with larger packet delay are endowed with higher permission probability. Also, the scheme is analyzed by a Markov-chain analysis, where the collision probability, the system throughput, and the average delay are successfully obtained. Numerical results show that the proposed APP MAC scheme can attain lower mean delay and higher mean throughput. In the mean time, simulation results are given to justify the validity of the analysis, and also show that the APP MAC scheme can achieve more delay fairness than conventional algorithms.

  7. 78 FR 26711 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Liquidity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Liquidity Management ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of comment... proposed rule that would amend its liquidity management regulations for the Federal Agricultural Mortgage... comment on the proposed liquidity regulations. [[Page 26712

  8. A Critique of MacIntyrean Morality From a Kantian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Mani Pathak

    2014-01-01

    This article is a critical examination of MacIntyre’s notion of morality in reference to Kant’s deontological moral theory. The examination shows that MacIntyre (a) criticizes Kant’s moral theory to defend virtue ethics or neo-Aristotelian ethics with a weak notion of morality; (b) favors the idea of local morality, which does not leave any room for moral assessment and reciprocity in an intercultural domain; and (c) f...

  9. Strategy, Operational Art and MacArthur in the Southwest Pacific 1944

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Guinea Campaign.11 It studies the campaign exclusively from the February 1944 through October 1944. The choice in dates argues that the campaign...the Pacific. King continued to maintain that MacArthur’s line of operation in SWPA, toward the Philippines to the exclusion of the central Pacific...with Nimitz allowed MacArthur the rare luxury of aircraft carriers providing a protective bubble over both the Morotai and Palaus operations. Escort

  10. Are Rural Costs of Living Lower? Evidence from a Big Mac Index Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Loveridge; Dusan Paredes

    2015-01-01

    Rural leaders can point to low housing costs as a reason that their area should be competitive for business attraction. To what extent do rural housing costs offset transportation and other locational disadvantages in costs structures? The US lacks information to systematically answer the question. We adapt a strategy employed by The Economist in exploring purchasing power parity: the Big Mac Index. We gather information on Big Mac prices with a random sample of restaurants across the contigu...

  11. Profile of a leader. Alena Jean MacMaster: administrator, educator, professional activist and community advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautreau, G; Winans, P

    1999-01-01

    This paper profiles Alena Jean MacMaster, an extraordinary nurse leader, activist, visionary and humanitarian from New Brunswick. Her determination and drive were instrumental in fostering the development and progression of health care, nursing education and nursing services at the local, provincial, federal and international levels. "First, loyalty to the institution in which you serve. The patient is the most important person in the entire institution," was Miss MacMaster's guiding principle throughout her career.

  12. MAC Version 3.3, MBA Version 1.3 acceptance test summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Materials Balance (MBA) programs had the Paradox Code Cleanup ATP run to check out the systems. This report describes the results of the test and provides the signoff sheets associated with the testing. The Acceptance Test results indicate that the MAC and MBA systems are ready for operation using the cleaned up code. The final codes were removed to the production space on the customer server on April 15th

  13. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  14. Retina-Inspired Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien

    2018-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel filter, which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer, and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model "virtual retina." This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatio-temporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina-inspired filter, studied in this paper. This filter is connected to the dynamic behavior of the retina, which enables the retina to increase the sharpness of the visual stimulus during filtering before its transmission to the brain. We establish that this retina-inspired transform forms a group of spatio-temporal Weighted Difference of Gaussian (WDoG) filters when it is applied to a still image visible for a given time. We analyze the spatial frequency bandwidth of the retina-inspired filter with respect to time. It is shown that the WDoG spectrum varies from a lowpass filter to a bandpass filter. Therefore, while time increases, the retina-inspired filter enables to extract different kinds of information from the input image. Finally, we discuss the benefits of using the retina-inspired filter in image processing applications such as edge detection and compression.

  15. A Full-Duplex MAC Tailored for 5G Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Melo Guimarães

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demands for high-data rate traffic stimulated the development of the fifth-generation (5G mobile networks. The envisioned 5G network is expected to meet its challenge by devising means to further improve spectrum usage. Many alternatives to enhance spectrum usage are being researched, such as massive MIMO, operation in mmWave frequency, cognitive radio, and the employment of full-duplex antennas. Efficient utilization of the potential of any of these technologies faces a set of challenges related to medium access control (MAC schemes. This work focuses on MAC schemes tailored for full-duplex antennas, since they are expected to play a major role in the foreseeable 5G networks. In this context, this paper presents a MAC layer technique to improve total transmission time when full-duplex antennas are employed. Several evaluations in different scenarios are conducted to assess the proposed MAC scheme. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme provides gains up to 156% when compared to a state-of-the-art full-duplex antenna MAC protocol. Compared to traditional half-duplex antenna MAC protocols, the proposed scheme yields gain up to 412%.

  16. Particle Filter Tracking without Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ortegon-Aguilar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available People tracking is an interesting topic in computer vision. It has applications in industrial areas such as surveillance or human-machine interaction. Particle Filters is a common algorithm for people tracking; challenging situations occur when the target's motion is poorly modelled or with unexpected motions. In this paper, an alternative to address people tracking is presented. The proposed algorithm is based in particle filters, but instead of using a dynamical model, it uses background subtraction to predict future locations of particles. The algorithm is able to track people in omnidirectional sequences with a low frame rate (one or two frames per second. Our approach can tackle unexpected discontinuities and changes in the direction of the motion. The main goal of the paper is to track people from laboratories, but it has applications in surveillance, mainly in controlled environments.

  17. Study of different filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.

    1959-01-01

    This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators

  18. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1980-01-01

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  19. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  20. Functional Implications of an Intermeshing Cogwheel-like Interaction between TolC and MacA in the Action of Macrolide-specific Efflux Pump MacAB-TolC*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbin; Song, Saemee; Moeller, Arne; Kim, Nahee; Piao, Shunfu; Sim, Se-Hoon; Kang, Mooseok; Yu, Wookyung; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Kangseok; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC has been identified in diverse Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli. The inner membrane transporter MacB requires the outer membrane factor TolC and the periplasmic adaptor protein MacA to form a functional tripartite complex. In this study, we used a chimeric protein containing the tip region of the TolC α-barrel to investigate the role of the TolC α-barrel tip region with regard to its interaction with MacA. The chimeric protein formed a stable complex with MacA, and the complex formation was abolished by substitution at the functionally essential residues located at the MacA α-helical tip region. Electron microscopic study delineated that this complex was made by tip-to-tip interaction between the tip regions of the α-barrels of TolC and MacA, which correlated well with the TolC and MacA complex calculated by molecular dynamics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the MacA hexamer interacts with TolC in a tip-to-tip manner, and implies the manner by which MacA induces opening of the TolC channel. PMID:21325274

  1. Functional implications of an intermeshing cogwheel-like interaction between TolC and MacA in the action of macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbin; Song, Saemee; Moeller, Arne; Kim, Nahee; Piao, Shunfu; Sim, Se-Hoon; Kang, Mooseok; Yu, Wookyung; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Kangseok; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2011-04-15

    Macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC has been identified in diverse gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli. The inner membrane transporter MacB requires the outer membrane factor TolC and the periplasmic adaptor protein MacA to form a functional tripartite complex. In this study, we used a chimeric protein containing the tip region of the TolC α-barrel to investigate the role of the TolC α-barrel tip region with regard to its interaction with MacA. The chimeric protein formed a stable complex with MacA, and the complex formation was abolished by substitution at the functionally essential residues located at the MacA α-helical tip region. Electron microscopic study delineated that this complex was made by tip-to-tip interaction between the tip regions of the α-barrels of TolC and MacA, which correlated well with the TolC and MacA complex calculated by molecular dynamics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the MacA hexamer interacts with TolC in a tip-to-tip manner, and implies the manner by which MacA induces opening of the TolC channel.

  2. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  3. Filter Bank Approach to the Estimation of Flexible Modes in Dynamic Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzellos, Konstantinos

    2007-01-01

    .... In this thesis the problem of identifying frequencies of disturbances in flexible systems using advanced Digital Signal Processing techniques such as filter banks and Quadrature Mirror Filters is addressed...

  4. Ceramic High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Final Report CRADA No. TC02160.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bergman, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    The technical objective of this project was to develop a ceramic HEPA filter technology, by initially producing and testing coupon ceramics, small scale prototypes, and full scale prototype HEPA filters, and to address relevant manufacturing and commercialization technical issues.

  5. Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.M.; O'Nan, A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing

  6. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  7. MacDonald Dam reconstruction : using roller-compacted concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2007-04-01

    Located in Nova Scotia, the MacDonald Dam was commissioned in 1928. The dam consists of a 122 metre-long, 16 metre-high concrete structure comprised of an intake structure, stoplog openings, and a 34 metre-long free-overflow spillway. A 488 metre-long power canal was added as an upgrade in the 1950s. This paper provided details of the roller-compact concrete (RCC) used in the dam's recent rehabilitation following a dam failure analysis in 2003 by Nova Scotia Power Inc. RCC was chosen to help keep the dam's construction project on schedule. The layout and cross-section of the spillway was selected with consideration given to the RCC placing operation. A lift thickness of 0.20 m was selected. A formed ogee crest consisting of conventional reinforced concrete was constructed on top of the RCC. The downstream steps of the spillway were also covered with cast-in-place concrete. A low level sluice was designed to resist the weight of the wet RCC. The design compressive strength of the RCC was 20 MPa. The forms used to support the cast-in-place facing concrete on the upstream face of the dam were constructed full height and were braced back to the downstream face of the existing concrete structure prior to the start of RCC placement. Formwork inserts were placed in the facing concrete as construction progressed. Crack inducers were pre-placed on the forms. Aggregates from a local source were transported to a pug mill as the RCC construction progressed. The RCC was spread into 0.20 m lifts using a small bull-dozer, and the facing concrete was vibrated into the lift below. RCC lifts were compacted using a 9 tonne vibratory drum roller. The RCC placing operation was completed over a period of 10 days. Following the completion of the RCC portion of the dam, the remainder of the cast-in-place concrete was completed. It was concluded that the RCC provided a durable, low-maintenance structure that was completed at a lower price and in a shorter time-frame than

  8. Quantum Image Filtering in the Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANTA, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the emerging field of Quantum Image Processing. We investigate the use of quantum computing systems to represent and manipulate images. In particular, we consider the basic task of image filtering. We prove that a quantum version for this operation can be achieved, even though the quantum convolution of two sequences is physically impossible. In our approach we use the principle of the quantum oracle to implement the filter function. We provide the quantum circuit that implements the filtering task and present the results of several simulation experiments on grayscale images. There are important differences between the classical and the quantum implementations for image filtering. We analyze these differences and show that the major advantage of the quantum approach lies in the exploitation of the efficient implementation of the quantum Fourier transform.

  9. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  10. MacDUST - a powder diffraction package developed for the ''ADONE'' high resolution diffraction station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burattini, E.; Cappuccio, G.; Maistrelli, P.; Simeoni, S.

    1993-01-01

    A High Resolution Powder Diffraction Station (PO.DI.STA.) was installed at the beginning of 1991 on the ADONE-Wiggler magnet beam line. The station and the first powder diffraction spectra, collected with synchrotron radiation, were presented at the EPDIC-1 Conference. More details can also be found in. For this station, a very sophisticated software package ''MacDUST'' has been developed on an Apple Macintosh computer, using the Microsoft QuickBASIC compiler. It allows very easy and comfortable operations by means of a graphical user interface environment, typical of the Macintosh system. The package consists of five major programs. The main program, MacDIFF, performs all the graphic operations on the experimental data, including zooming, overlapping, cursor scanning and editing of patterns, control of output operations to printers and HPGL plotters. It also includes several analysis routines for data smoothing, a first derivative peak search algorithm, two background subtraction routines and two profile fitting programs: one based on the simplex method and the other on the Marquardt modification of a least-square algorithm. MacPDF and MacRIC are both dedicated to phase identification. The first program is an archive manager for searching, displaying and printing phase records; MacRIC is a graphic aided search-match program based on the Hanawalt algorithm. Mac3-DIM is a plot program, useful, e.g., for representing kinetics three dimensionally. MacRIET is a Macintosh version of the well known Rietveld refinement program. This version, besides conventional structure refinements, also allows the determination of micro structural parameters, i.e. micro strain and crystallite size. The program can also be used to simulate a pattern, once the structure of the compound is known. Taking advantage of the very intuitive Macintosh graphic user interface, through dialog and alert boxes, the program allows straightforward introduction and modification of the structure

  11. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  12. Backflushable filter insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.C.; Vandenberg, T.; Randolph, M.C.; Lewis, T.B.; Gillis, P.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Filter elements are mounted on a tube plate beneath an accumulator chamber whose wall is extended by skirt and flange to form a closure for the top of pressure vessel. The accumulator chamber is annular around a central pipe which serves as the outlet for filtered water passing from the filter elements. The chamber contains filtered compressed air from supply. Periodically the filtration of water is stopped and vessel is drained. Then a valve is opened, allowing the accumulated air to flow from chamber up a pipe and down pipe, pushing the filtered water from pipe back through the filter elements to clean them. The accumulator chamber is so proportioned, relative to the volume of the system communicating therewith during backflushing, that the equilibrium pressure during backflushing cannot exceed the pressure rating of the vessel. However a line monitors the pressure at the top of the vessel, and if it rises too far a bleed valve is automatically opened to depressurise the system. The chamber is intended to replace the lid of an existing vessel to convert a filter using filter aid to one using permanent filter elements. (author)

  13. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs......, and interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition...

  14. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  15. Filters in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, K.H.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The topics of the nine papers given include the behavior of HEPA filters during exposure to air flows of high humidity as well as of high differential pressure, the development of steel-fiber filters suitable for extreme operating conditions, and the occurrence of various radioactive iodine species in the exhaust air from boiling water reactors. In an introductory presentation the German view of the performance requirements to be met by filters in nuclear facilities as well as the present status of filter quality assurance are discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Washing method of filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumidani, Masakiyo; Tanno, Kazuo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic filter operation and facilitate back-washing operation by back-washing filters used in a bwr nuclear power plant utilizing an exhaust gas from a ventilator or air conditioner. Method: Exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe of an ventilator or air conditioner is pressurized in a compressor and then introduced in a back-washing gas tank. Then, the exhaust gas pressurized to a predetermined pressure is blown from the inside to the outside of a filter to thereby separate impurities collected on the filter elements and introduce them to a waste tank. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. An energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management for delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Qiyue; Qu, Yugui; Zhao, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    Conventional MAC protocols for wireless sensor network perform poorly when faced with a delay-tolerant mobile network environment. Characterized by a highly dynamic and sparse topology, poor network connectivity as well as data delay-tolerance, delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks exacerbate the severe power constraints and memory limitations of nodes. This paper proposes an energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management (EQ-MAC) for power saving and data queue management. Via data transfers initiated by the target sink and the use of a dynamic queue management strategy based on priority, EQ-MAC effectively avoids untargeted transfers, increases the chance of successful data transmission, and makes useful data reach the target terminal in a timely manner. Experimental results show that EQ-MAC has high energy efficiency in comparison with a conventional MAC protocol. It also achieves a 46% decrease in packet drop probability, 79% increase in system throughput, and 25% decrease in mean packet delay.

  18. Social Collaborative Filtering by Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Lei, Yu; Liu, Jiming; Li, Wenjie

    2017-08-01

    Recommender systems are used to accurately and actively provide users with potentially interesting information or services. Collaborative filtering is a widely adopted approach to recommendation, but sparse data and cold-start users are often barriers to providing high quality recommendations. To address such issues, we propose a novel method that works to improve the performance of collaborative filtering recommendations by integrating sparse rating data given by users and sparse social trust network among these same users. This is a model-based method that adopts matrix factorization technique that maps users into low-dimensional latent feature spaces in terms of their trust relationship, and aims to more accurately reflect the users reciprocal influence on the formation of their own opinions and to learn better preferential patterns of users for high-quality recommendations. We use four large-scale datasets to show that the proposed method performs much better, especially for cold start users, than state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms for social collaborative filtering based on trust.

  19. Eliminating the Heart from the Curcumin Molecule: Monocarbonyl Curcumin Mimics (MACs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Dinesh; Kim, Yong Joon; Shim, Hyunsuk; Snyder, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a natural product with several thousand years of heritage. Its traditional Asian application to human ailments has been subjected in recent decades to worldwide pharmacological, biochemical and clinical investigations. Curcumin’s Achilles heel lies in its poor aqueous solubility and rapid degradation at pH ~ 7.4. Researchers have sought to unlock curcumin’s assets by chemical manipulation. One class of molecules under scrutiny are the monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs). A thousand plus such agents have been created and tested primarily against cancer and inflammation. The outcome is clear. In vitro, MACs furnish a 10–20 fold potency gain vs. curcumin for numerous cancer cell lines and cellular proteins. Similarly, MACs have successfully demonstrated better pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in mice and greater tumor regression in cancer xenografts in vivo than curcumin. The compounds reveal limited toxicity as measured by murine weight gain and histopathological assessment. To our knowledge, MAC members have not yet been monitored in larger animals or humans. However, Phase 1 clinical trials are certainly on the horizon. The present review focuses on the large and evolving body of work in cancer and inflammation, but also covers MAC structural diversity and early discovery for treatment of bacteria, tuberculosis, Alzheimer’s disease and malaria. PMID:25547726

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2008-01-01

    A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit

  1. A Power-Optimized Cooperative MAC Protocol for Lifetime Extension in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wu, Shan; Huang, Bo; Liu, Feng; Xu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    In wireless sensor networks, in order to satisfy the requirement of long working time of energy-limited nodes, we need to design an energy-efficient and lifetime-extended medium access control (MAC) protocol. In this paper, a node cooperation mechanism that one or multiple nodes with higher channel gain and sufficient residual energy help a sender relay its data packets to its recipient is employed to achieve this objective. We first propose a transmission power optimization algorithm to prolong network lifetime by optimizing the transmission powers of the sender and its cooperative nodes to maximize their minimum residual energy after their data packet transmissions. Based on it, we propose a corresponding power-optimized cooperative MAC protocol. A cooperative node contention mechanism is designed to ensure that the sender can effectively select a group of cooperative nodes with the lowest energy consumption and the best channel quality for cooperative transmissions, thus further improving the energy efficiency. Simulation results show that compared to typical MAC protocol with direct transmissions and energy-efficient cooperative MAC protocol, the proposed cooperative MAC protocol can efficiently improve the energy efficiency and extend the network lifetime.

  2. Eliminating the Heart from the Curcumin Molecule: Monocarbonyl Curcumin Mimics (MACs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Shetty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a natural product with several thousand years of heritage. Its traditional Asian application to human ailments has been subjected in recent decades to worldwide pharmacological, biochemical and clinical investigations. Curcumin’s Achilles heel lies in its poor aqueous solubility and rapid degradation at pH ~ 7.4. Researchers have sought to unlock curcumin’s assets by chemical manipulation. One class of molecules under scrutiny are the monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs. A thousand plus such agents have been created and tested primarily against cancer and inflammation. The outcome is clear. In vitro, MACs furnish a 10–20 fold potency gain vs. curcumin for numerous cancer cell lines and cellular proteins. Similarly, MACs have successfully demonstrated better pharmacokinetic (PK profiles in mice and greater tumor regression in cancer xenografts in vivo than curcumin. The compounds reveal limited toxicity as measured by murine weight gain and histopathological assessment. To our knowledge, MAC members have not yet been monitored in larger animals or humans. However, Phase 1 clinical trials are certainly on the horizon. The present review focuses on the large and evolving body of work in cancer and inflammation, but also covers MAC structural diversity and early discovery for treatment of bacteria, tuberculosis, Alzheimer’s disease and malaria.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul, E-mail: hnc@pusan.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute for Drug Development, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-01

    A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  4. MAP, MAC, and vortex-rings configurations in the Weinberg-Salam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Rosy; Ng, Ban-Loong; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2015-11-01

    We report on the presence of new axially symmetric monopoles, antimonopoles and vortex-rings solutions of the SU(2)×U(1) Weinberg-Salam model of electromagnetic and weak interactions. When the ϕ-winding number n = 1, and 2, the configurations are monopole-antimonopole pair (MAP) and monopole-antimonopole chain (MAC) with poles of alternating sign magnetic charge arranged along the z-axis. Vortex-rings start to appear from the MAP and MAC configurations when the winding number n = 3. The MAP configurations possess zero net magnetic charge whereas the MAC configurations possess net magnetic charge of 4 πn / e. In the MAP configurations, the monopole-antimonopole pair is bounded by the Z0 field flux string and there is an electromagnetic current loop encircling it. The monopole and antimonopole possess magnetic charges ± 4πn/e sin2θW respectively. In the MAC configurations there is no string connecting the monopole and the adjacent antimonopole and they possess magnetic charges ± 4 πn/e respectively. The MAC configurations possess infinite total energy and zero magnetic dipole moment whereas the MAP configurations which are actually sphalerons possess finite total energy and magnetic dipole moment. The configurations were investigated for varying values of Higgs self-coupling constant 0 ≤ λ ≤ 40 at Weinberg angle θW = π/4.

  5. Detection of constitutive heterodimerization of the integrin Mac-1 subunits by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Guo; Yang Huayan; Wang Chen; Zhang Feng; You Zhendong; Wang Guiying; He Cheng; Chen Yizhang; Xu Zhihan

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage differentiation antigen associated with complement three receptor function (Mac-1) belongs to β 2 subfamily of integrins that mediate important cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Biochemical studies have indicated that Mac-1 is a constitutive heterodimer in vitro. Here, we detected the heterodimerization of Mac-1 subunits in living cells by means of two fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques (fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy) and our results demonstrated that there is constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits and this constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits is cell-type independent. Through FRET imaging, we found that heterodimers of Mac-1 mainly localized in plasma membrane, perinuclear, and Golgi area in living cells. Furthermore, through analysis of the estimated physical distances between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fused to Mac-1 subunits, we suggested that the conformation of Mac-1 subunits is not affected by the fusion of CFP or YFP and inferred that Mac-1 subunits take different conformation when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, respectively

  6. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey; Hoel, Haakon; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  7. Neutron Beam Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of filters is to transmit neutrons with selected energy, while remove unwanted ones from the incident neutron beam. This reduces the background, and the number of spurious. The types of commonly used now-a-day neutron filters and their properties are discussed in the present work. There are three major types of neutron filters. The first type is filter of selective thermal neutron. It transmits the main reflected neutrons from a crystal monochromate, while reject the higher order contaminations accompanying the main one. Beams coming from the moderator always contain unwanted radiation like fast neutrons and gamma-rays which contribute to experimental background and to the biological hazard potential. Such filter type is called filter of whole thermal neutron spectrum. The third filter type is it transmits neutrons with energies in the resonance energy range (En . 1 KeV). The main idea of such neutron filter technique is the use of large quantities of a certain material which have the deep interference minima in its total neutron cross-section. By transmitting reactor neutrons through bulk layer of such material, one can obtain the quasimonochromatic neutron lines instead of white reactor spectrum.

  8. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  9. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  10. Filtering and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Fristedt, B; Krylov, N

    2007-01-01

    Filtering and prediction is about observing moving objects when the observations are corrupted by random errors. The main focus is then on filtering out the errors and extracting from the observations the most precise information about the object, which itself may or may not be moving in a somewhat random fashion. Next comes the prediction step where, using information about the past behavior of the object, one tries to predict its future path. The first three chapters of the book deal with discrete probability spaces, random variables, conditioning, Markov chains, and filtering of discrete Markov chains. The next three chapters deal with the more sophisticated notions of conditioning in nondiscrete situations, filtering of continuous-space Markov chains, and of Wiener process. Filtering and prediction of stationary sequences is discussed in the last two chapters. The authors believe that they have succeeded in presenting necessary ideas in an elementary manner without sacrificing the rigor too much. Such rig...

  11. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  12. Sub-micron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  13. MAC-layer protocol for TCP fairness in Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). We use a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput performance due to the effect of queue utilization and packet relaying. A closed form solution is derived to numerically determine the throughput. Based on the developed model, we propose a distributed MAC protocol to alleviate the unfairness problem in WMNs. Our protocol uses the age of packet as a priority metric for packet scheduling. Simulation is conducted to validate our model and to illustrate the fairness characteristics of our proposed MAC protocol. We conclude that we can achieve fairness with only little impact on network capacity.

  14. Microcrystallography, high-pressure cryocooling and BioSAXS at MacCHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englich, Ulrich, E-mail: ue22@cornell.edu; Kriksunov, Irina A. [MacCHESS (Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cerione, Richard A. [MacCHESS (Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cook, Michael J.; Gillilan, Richard [MacCHESS (Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M. [Field of Biophysics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Physics Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Huang, Qingqui; Kim, Chae Un; Miller, William; Nielsen, Soren; Schuller, David; Smith, Scott; Szebenyi, Doletha M. E. [MacCHESS (Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Three research initiatives pursued by the Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (MacCHESS) are presented. The Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (MacCHESS) is a national research resource supported by the National Center for Research Resources of the US National Institutes of Health. MacCHESS is pursuing several research initiatives designed to benefit both CHESS users and the wider structural biology community. Three initiatives are presented in further detail: microcrystallography, which aims to improve the collection of diffraction data from crystals a few micrometers across, or small well diffracting regions of inhomogeneous crystals, so as to obtain high-resolution structures; pressure cryocooling, which can stabilize transient structures and reduce lattice damage during the cooling process; and BioSAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering on biological solutions), which can extract molecular shape and other structural information from macromolecules in solution.

  15. Learn Objective-C on the Mac for OS X and iOS

    CERN Document Server

    Knaster, Scott; Malik, Waqar

    2012-01-01

    Learn to write apps for some of today's hottest technologies, including the iPhone and iPad (using iOS), as well as the Mac (using OS X). It starts with Objective-C, the base language on which the native iOS software development kit (SDK) and the OS X are based. Learn Objective-C on the Mac: For OS X and iOS, Second Edition updates a best selling book and is an extensive, newly updated guide to Objective-C. Objective-C is a powerful, object-oriented extension of C, making this update the perfect follow-up to Dave Mark's bestselling Learn C on the Mac. Whether you're an experienced C programmer

  16. Side channel analysis of some hash based MACs:A response to SHA-3 requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The forthcoming NIST's Advanced Hash Standard (AHS) competition to select SHA-3 hash function requires that each candidate hash function submission must have at least one construction to support FIPS 198 HMAC application. As part of its evaluation, NIST is aiming to select either a candidate hash...... function which is more resistant to known side channel attacks (SCA) when plugged into HMAC, or that has an alternative MAC mode which is more resistant to known SCA than the other submitted alternatives. In response to this, we perform differential power analysis (DPA) on the possible smart card...... implementations of some of the recently proposed MAC alternatives to NMAC (a fully analyzed variant of HMAC) and HMAC algorithms and NMAC/HMAC versions of some recently proposed hash and compression function modes. We show that the recently proposed BNMAC and KMDP MAC schemes are even weaker than NMAC...

  17. Macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel) in a 34-year-old patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Heleen; Wirix, Mieke; Spielberg, Leigh; Leys, Anita

    2014-09-23

    We report macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel) in a 34-year-old man, the youngest patient so far published with MacTel type 2. The patient presented with metamorphopsia and impaired reading ability. Diagnosis was based on bilateral abnormal macular autofluorescence, perifoveal telangiectasia with fluorescein angiographic hyperfluorescence without cystoid oedema, a small foveal avascular zone, asymmetric configuration of the foveal pit, disruptions in the inner segment/outer segment layer and hyper-reflective haze and spots in the outer nuclear layer. Although MacTel usually manifests with a slowly progressive decrease in visual acuity in the fifth to seventh decades of life, younger patients may occasionally be diagnosed with the disease. Awareness of subtle signs of the condition is essential for early diagnosis. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. A network architecture for precision formation flying using the IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Loren P.; Gao, Jay L.; Jennings, Esther H.; Okino, Clayton

    2005-01-01

    Precision Formation Flying missions involve the tracking and maintenance of spacecraft in a desired geometric formation. The strong coupling of spacecraft in formation flying control requires inter-spacecraft communication to exchange information. In this paper, we present a network architecture that supports PFF control, from the initial random deployment phase to the final formation. We show that a suitable MAC layer for the application protocol is IEEE's 802.11 MAC protocol. IEEE 802.11 MAC has two modes of operations: DCF and PCF. We show that DCF is suitable for the initial deployment phase while switching to PCF when the spacecraft are in formation improves jitter and throughput. We also consider the effect of routing on protocol performance and suggest when it is profitable to turn off route discovery to achieve better network performance.

  19. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  20. LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins bind to the serine/threonine-rich domain of thrombomodulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Eiji [Department of Molecular Pathobiology and Cell Adhesion Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Emergency and Critical Care Center, Mie University Hospital, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Okamoto, Takayuki, E-mail: okamotot@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Pathobiology and Cell Adhesion Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Takagi, Yoshimi [Department of Molecular Pathobiology and Cell Adhesion Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Honda, Goichi [Medical Affairs Department, Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, 1-105 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8101 (Japan); Suzuki, Koji [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, 3500-3, Minamitamagaki-cho, Suzuka, Mie 513-8679 (Japan); Imai, Hiroshi [Emergency and Critical Care Center, Mie University Hospital, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Shimaoka, Motomu, E-mail: shimaoka@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Pathobiology and Cell Adhesion Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2016-05-13

    LFA-1 (αLβ2) and Mac-1 (αMβ2) integrins regulate leukocyte trafficking in health and disease by binding primarily to IgSF ligand ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on endothelial cells. Here we have shown that the anti-coagulant molecule thrombomodulin (TM), found on the surface of endothelial cells, functions as a potentially new ligand for leukocyte integrins. We generated a recombinant extracellular domain of human TM and Fc fusion protein (TM-domains 123-Fc), and showed that pheripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) bind to TM-domains 123-Fc dependent upon integrin activation. We then demonstrated that αL integrin-blocking mAb, αM integrin-blocking mAb, and β2 integrin-blocking mAb inhibited the binding of PBMCs to TM-domains 123-Fc. Furthermore, we show that the serine/threonine-rich domain (domain 3) of TM is required for the interaction with the LFA-1 (αLβ2) and Mac-1 (αMβ2) integrins to occur on PBMCs. These results demonstrate that the LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins on leukocytes bind to TM, thereby establishing the molecular and structural basis underlying LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrin interaction with TM on endothelial cells. In fact, integrin-TM interactions might be involved in the dynamic regulation of leukocyte adhesion with endothelial cells. - Highlights: • LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins bind to the anti-coagulant molecule thrombomodulin. • The serine/threonine-rich domain of thrombomodulin is essential to interact with the LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins on PBMCs. • Integrin-TM interactions might be involved in the dynamic regulation of leukocyte adhesion with endothelial cells.

  1. Conformational stability analyses of alpha subunit I domain of LFA-1 and Mac-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debin Mao

    Full Text Available β₂ integrin of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 or macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1 binds to their common ligand of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and mediates leukocyte-endothelial cell (EC adhesions in inflammation cascade. Although the two integrins are known to have distinct functions, the corresponding micro-structural bases remain unclear. Here (steered-molecular dynamics simulations were employed to elucidate the conformational stability of α subunit I domains of LFA-1 and Mac-1 in different affinity states and relevant I domain-ICAM-1 interaction features. Compared with low affinity (LA Mac-1, the LA LFA-1 I domain was unstable in the presence or absence of ICAM-1 ligand, stemming from diverse orientations of its α₇-helix with different motifs of zipper-like hydrophobic junction between α₁- and α₇-helices. Meanwhile, spontaneous transition of LFA-1 I domain from LA state to intermediate affinity (IA state was first visualized. All the LA, IA, and high affinity (HA states of LFA-1 I domain and HA Mac-1 I domain were able to bind to ICAM-1 ligand effectively, while LA Mac-1 I domain was unfavorable for binding ligand presumably due to the specific orientation of S144 side-chain that capped the MIDAS ion. These results furthered our understanding in correlating the structural bases with their functions of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins from the viewpoint of I domain conformational stability and of the characteristics of I domain-ICAM-1 interactions.

  2. The MacNew Heart Disease health-related quality of life instrument: A summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyatt Gordon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The measurement of health, the effects of disease, and the impact of health care include not only an indication of changes in disease frequency and severity but also an estimate of patients' perception of health status before and after treatment. One of the more important developments in health care in the past decade may be the recognition that the patient's perspective is as legitimate and valid as the clinician's in monitoring health care outcomes. This has lead to the development of instruments to quantify the patients' perception of their health status before and after treatment. Methods We review evidence supporting the measurement properties of the MacNew Heart Disease Health-related Quality of Life [MacNew] Questionnaire which was designed to evaluate how daily activities and physical, emotional, and social functioning are affected by coronary heart disease and its treatment. Results Reliability was demonstrated by using internal consistency and the intraclass correlation coefficients for the three domains in the Dutch, English, Farsi, German, and Spanish versions of the MacNew. With internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficients =>0.73, reliability is high. Validity of the MacNew was examined with factor analysis and three core underlying factors, physical, emotional, and social, were identified, explaining 63.0 – 66.5% of the observed variance and replicated in the translations with psychometric data. Construct validity of the MacNew was further demonstrated by extensive substantiation of the logical relationships, defined a priori, between items and other comparison tools. The MacNew is responsive and sensitive to changes in HRQL following various interventions for patients with heart disease with 11 of 13 effect size statistics >0.80. Taking an average of 10 minutes or less to complete, the respondent-burden for the MacNew is low and its acceptability is demonstrated by response rates of over 90

  3. A DUAL RESERVATION CDMA-BASED MAC PROTOCOL WITH POWER CONTROL FOR AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Min; Chen Huimin; Yuan Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-channel Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol named as Dual Reservation Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) based MAC protocol with Power Control (DRCPC). The code channel is divided into common channel, broadcast channel and several data channels. And dynamic power control mechanism is implemented to reduce near-far interference. Compared with IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocol, the results show that the proposed mechanism improves the average throughput and limits the transmission delay efficiently.

  4. Learn Xcode Tools for Mac OS X and iPhone Development

    CERN Document Server

    Piper, I

    2010-01-01

    This book will give you a thorough grounding in the principal and supporting tools and technologies that make up the Xcode Developer Tools suite. Apple has provided a comprehensive collection of developer tools, and this is the first book to examine the complete Apple programming environment for both Mac OS X and iPhone. * Comprehensive coverage of all the Xcode developer tools * Additional coverage of useful third-party development tools* Not just a survey of features, but a serious examination of the complete development process for Mac OS X and iPhone applications What you'll learn* The boo

  5. Burgernomics: a big MacT guide to purchasing power parity

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R. Pakko; Patricia S. Pollard

    2003-01-01

    The theory of purchasing power parity (PPP) has long been a staple of international economic analysis. Recent years have seen the rise in popularity of a tongue-in-cheek, fast-food version of PPP: The Big Mac™ index. In this article, Michael Pakko and Patricia Pollard describe how comparisons of Big Mac prices around the world contain the ingredients necessary to demonstrate the fundamental principles of PPP. They show that the Big Mac index does nearly as well as more comprehensive measures ...

  6. Using The Economist’s Big Mac Index for Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Stegelin, Forrest E.

    2012-01-01

    The Economist first launched the concept of the Big Mac Index in 1986 as a guide to whether currencies were at their correct exchange rate; it is not intended to be a precise predictor of currency movements around the globe, but simply a way to make exchange-rate theory and discussions a bit more digestible. First used as a humorous illustration, the term “burgernomics†was coined and the Big Mac index became an annual occurrence. It is based upon one of the oldest concepts in internationa...

  7. Survey is based on Synchronized and Asynchronized Approach of MAC Protocols in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Chaurasia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A wireless network is made of spatially distributed autonomous devices. These devices are called sensors. The sensor is used for monitoring physical or environmental conditions. The potential application of wireless sensor network is environmental monitoring, healthcare applications and tactical systems. In this paper focus is on the MAC protocol for WSN. Wireless sensor network is deployed for wide range to send and receive data with the help of medium. Here literature survey of MAC protocol based on the synchronized and asynchronized approach is described which is used to meet different objective like access a medium, statistical channel allocation, spectrum utilization

  8. CoCoMac 2.0 and the future of tract-tracing databases

    OpenAIRE

    Rembrandt eBakker; Rembrandt eBakker; Rembrandt eBakker; Thomas eWachtler; Markus eDiesmann; Markus eDiesmann; Markus eDiesmann

    2012-01-01

    The CoCoMac database contains the results of published axonal tract-tracing studies in the macaque brain. The combined data are used to construct the macaque macro-connectome. We discuss the redevelopment of CoCoMac and compare it to six connectome-related projects: two resources that provide online access to raw tracing data in rodents, a connectome viewer for advanced 3d graphics, a partial but highly detailed rat connectome, a brain data management system that generates custom connectivity...

  9. The Mac'OS X command line Unix under the hood

    CERN Document Server

    McElhearn, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    The Mac command line offers a faster, easier way to accomplish many tasks. It''s also the medium for many commands that aren''t accessible using the GUI. The Mac OS X Command Line is a clear, concise, tutorial-style introduction to all the major functionality provided by the command line. It''s also packed with information the experienced users need, including little-known shortcuts and several chapters devoted to advanced topics. This is a book to get you started, but also a book you won't soon outgrow.

  10. A Critique of MacIntyrean Morality From a Kantian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mani Pathak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a critical examination of MacIntyre’s notion of morality in reference to Kant’s deontological moral theory. The examination shows that MacIntyre (a criticizes Kant’s moral theory to defend virtue ethics or neo-Aristotelian ethics with a weak notion of morality; (b favors the idea of local morality, which does not leave any room for moral assessment and reciprocity in an intercultural domain; and (c fails to provide good arguments for his moral historicism and against Kant’s moral universalism.

  11. A robust nonlinear filter for image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, V

    1995-01-01

    A class of nonlinear regression filters based on robust estimation theory is introduced. The goal of the filtering is to recover a high-quality image from degraded observations. Models for desired image structures and contaminating processes are employed, but deviations from strict assumptions are allowed since the assumptions on signal and noise are typically only approximately true. The robustness of filters is usually addressed only in a distributional sense, i.e., the actual error distribution deviates from the nominal one. In this paper, the robustness is considered in a broad sense since the outliers may also be due to inappropriate signal model, or there may be more than one statistical population present in the processing window, causing biased estimates. Two filtering algorithms minimizing a least trimmed squares criterion are provided. The design of the filters is simple since no scale parameters or context-dependent threshold values are required. Experimental results using both real and simulated data are presented. The filters effectively attenuate both impulsive and nonimpulsive noise while recovering the signal structure and preserving interesting details.

  12. Word-serial Architectures for Filtering and Variable Rate Decimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Grayver

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new flexible architecture is proposed for word-serial filtering and variable rate decimation/interpolation. The architecture is targeted for low power applications requiring medium to low data rate and is ideally suited for implementation on either an ASIC or an FPGA. It combines the small size and low power of an ASIC with the programmability and flexibility of a DSP. An efficient memory addressing scheme eliminates the need for power hungry shift registers and allows full reconfiguration. The decimation ratio, filter length and filter coefficients can all be changed in real time. The architecture takes advantage of coefficient symmetries in linear phase filters and in polyphase components.

  13. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  14. Practice patterns of retrievable inferior vena cava filters and predictors of filter retrieval in patients with pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jieun; Ko, Heung-Kyu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi-Young; Jo, Kyung-Wook; Huh, Jin Won; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Jae Seung

    2017-12-01

    Retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are increasingly used in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) who have contraindications to anticoagulant therapy. However, previous studies have shown that many retrievable filters are left permanently in patients. This study aimed to identify the common indications for IVC filter insertion, the filter retrieval rate, and the predictive factors for filter retrieval attempts. To this end, a retrospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary care center in South Korea between January 2010 and May 2016. Electronic medical charts were reviewed for patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) who underwent IVC filter insertion. A total of 439 cases were reviewed. The most common indication for filter insertion was a preoperative/procedural aim, followed by extensive iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Retrieval of the IVC filter was attempted in 44.9% of patients. The retrieval success rate was 93.9%. History of cerebral hemorrhage, malignancy, and admission to a nonsurgical department were the significant predictive factors of a lower retrieval attempt rate in multivariate analysis. With the increased use of IVC filters, more issues should be addressed before placing a filter and physicians should attempt to improve the filter retrieval rate.

  15. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-10-30

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sparse adaptive filters for echo cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Paleologu, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive filters with a large number of coefficients are usually involved in both network and acoustic echo cancellation. Consequently, it is important to improve the convergence rate and tracking of the conventional algorithms used for these applications. This can be achieved by exploiting the sparseness character of the echo paths. Identification of sparse impulse responses was addressed mainly in the last decade with the development of the so-called ``proportionate''-type algorithms. The goal of this book is to present the most important sparse adaptive filters developed for echo cancellati

  17. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  18. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  19. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...

  20. Real-time Java simulations of multiple interference dielectric filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, Alexandre N.; Martin, Olivier J. F.

    2008-12-01

    An interactive Java applet for real-time simulation and visualization of the transmittance properties of multiple interference dielectric filters is presented. The most commonly used interference filters as well as the state-of-the-art ones are embedded in this platform-independent applet which can serve research and education purposes. The Transmittance applet can be freely downloaded from the site http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk. Program summaryProgram title: Transmittance Catalogue identifier: AEBQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEBQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5778 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 90 474 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java Computer: Developed on PC-Pentium platform Operating system: Any Java-enabled OS. Applet was tested on Windows ME, XP, Sun Solaris, Mac OS RAM: Variable Classification: 18 Nature of problem: Sophisticated wavelength selective multiple interference filters can include some tens or even hundreds of dielectric layers. The spectral response of such a stack is not obvious. On the other hand, there is a strong demand from application designers and students to get a quick insight into the properties of a given filter. Solution method: A Java applet was developed for the computation and the visualization of the transmittance of multilayer interference filters. It is simple to use and the embedded filter library can serve educational purposes. Also, its ability to handle complex structures will be appreciated as a useful research and development tool. Running time: Real-time simulations

  1. A hybrid path-oriented code assignment CDMA-based MAC protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Fan, Guangyu; Xie, Lei; Cui, Jun-Hong

    2013-11-04

    Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC) protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA) CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC), is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA) or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA). Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols.

  2. A Hybrid Path-Oriented Code Assignment CDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC, is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA. Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols.

  3. Education for Personal Life: John MacMurray on Why Learning to Be Human Requires Emotional Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, James

    2014-01-01

    In this article I discuss the philosophy of John MacMurray, and in particular, his little-examined writings on discipline and emotion education. It is argued that discipline is a vital element in the emotion education MacMurray thought central to learning to be human, because for him it takes concerted effort to overcome the human tendency toward…

  4. Medicinal, Aromatic and Cosmetic (MAC) plants for community health and bio-cultural diversity conservation in Bali, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, Liesbeth Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    The general aim of this ethno-botanical study is to document, describe and analyse the Balinese community members’ knowledge, belief and practices with regard to medicinal, aromatic and cosmetic (MAC) plants in relation to community health and bio-cultural diversity conservation of MAC plants. This

  5. An Application of MacLaury's Vantage Theory to Abstract Categories: Identity and the Process of Categorisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiszak, Malgorzata

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an application of Robert E. MacLaury's Vantage Theory (VT) to the analysis of real life spoken discourse. It utilizes Dennis R. Preston's (1994) modification of MacLaury's VT. It elucidates how cognitive processes of coordinate selection and combination contribute to the on-line construction of category membership in the abstract…

  6. Metalcasting: Filtering Molten Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauren Poole; Lee Recca

    1999-01-01

    A more efficient method has been created to filter cast molten metal for impurities. Read about the resulting energy and money savings that can accrue to many different industries from the use of this exciting new technology

  7. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-01

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  8. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  9. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...... for defining core areas of measurement ("Filter 2.0 Core Areas of Measurement") was presented at OMERACT 11 to explore areas of consensus and to consider whether already endorsed core outcome sets fit into this newly proposed framework. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed the extent to which case......, presentation, and clarity of the framework were questioned. The discussion groups and subsequent feedback highlighted 20 such issues. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on accepting the proposed Filter 2.0 framework of Core Areas as the basis for the selection of Core Outcome...

  10. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  11. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  12. Counting addressing method: Command addressable element and extinguishing module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Jovan D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .

  13. Qualification of box HEPA filters for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Wilson, K.; Rainer, F.

    1995-03-01

    We have successfully completed qualification tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that are encapsulated within a box and manufactured by American Air Filters. The qualification tests are required by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Standard ASME N509 and the U.S. Military Standard MIL-F-51068 for HEPA filters to be used in nuclear applications. The qualification tests specify minimum filter efficiencies following exposure to heated air, overpressure, and rough handling. Prior to this study, no box HEPA filters from any manufacturer had been qualified despite their wide-spread use in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Box HEPA filters are not addressed in any of the existing HEPA standards and only briefly discussed in the Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook

  14. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  15. Microwave Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    1 Microwave Resonators and Filters Daniel E. Oates MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood St. Lexington, MA 02478 USA Email: oates@ll.mit.edu...explained in other chapters, the surface resistance of superconductors at microwave frequencies can be as much as three orders of magnitude lower than the...resonators and filters in the first edition of this handbook (Z.-Y. Shen 2003) discussed the then state of the art of microwave frequency applications

  16. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  17. Mobile Device Management horizons for CERN Managed iOS and Mac Self-Service

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; MUSZKOWSKI, Maciek; BIPPUS, Vincent Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Overview of the MDM (Mobile Device Mamagement) market in the context of the CERN needs and a discussion of technical capabilities of a range of MDM products, followed by a presentation of two new functionalities implemented using an MDM: Self-service Kiosk for Mac and delegated-management solution for professional tablets.

  18. Modeling a content-aware LTE MAC downlink scheduler with heterogeneous traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artuso, Matteo; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2013-01-01

    The scheduling policy adopted in the LTE (Long Term Evolution) MAC layer is the most valuable degree of freedom left from the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) consortium to the industry and the research community . This paper presents an OPNET model of the downlink scheduling in a one...

  19. Energy Efficient MAC Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks with High-Dimensional Data Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel and sustainable medium access control (MAC scheme for wireless sensor network (WSN systems that process high-dimensional aggregated data. Based on a preamble signal and buffer threshold analysis, it maximizes the energy efficiency of the wireless sensor devices which have limited energy resources. The proposed group management MAC (GM-MAC approach not only sets the buffer threshold value of a sensor device to be reciprocal to the preamble signal but also sets a transmittable group value to each sensor device by using the preamble signal of the sink node. The primary difference between the previous and the proposed approach is that existing state-of-the-art schemes use duty cycle and sleep mode to save energy consumption of individual sensor devices, whereas the proposed scheme employs the group management MAC scheme for sensor devices to maximize the overall energy efficiency of the whole WSN systems by minimizing the energy consumption of sensor devices located near the sink node. Performance evaluations show that the proposed scheme outperforms the previous schemes in terms of active time of sensor devices, transmission delay, control overhead, and energy consumption. Therefore, the proposed scheme is suitable for sensor devices in a variety of wireless sensor networking environments with high-dimensional data aggregate.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Simulation Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkes, G.P.; Langendoen, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation ofMAC protocols forWireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is often performed through simulation. These simulations necessarily abstract away from reality inmany ways. However, the impact of these abstractions on the results of the simulations has received only limited attention. Moreover,

  1. Debating Inclusion in Synecdoche, New York: A Response to Gresham and MacMillan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Dianne L.; Ferguson, Philip M.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the debate over the inclusion of children with disabilities in educational programs needs to explore research and issues beyond those considered by F. Gresham and D. MacMillan. Some of those issues are reviewed, focusing on a shift away from the medical deficit model. (SLD)

  2. The baby has not come: obstructed labour | MacKeith | South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The baby has not come: obstructed labour. Nancy MacKeith, Wal Bichiok Wur. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  3. Elevated levels of homocysteine increase IL-6 production in monocytic Mono Mac 6 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, B. E.; Jansen, J.; van Deventer, S. J.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The aim of this study was to analyze if exposure of monocytic cells to increased levels of homocysteine (HCY) induces the accumulation of inflammatory mediators. Interleukin (IL)-6 production by monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6

  4. Knowledge, Power, and Social Policy: John M. MacEachran and Alberta's 1928 Sexual Sterilization Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puplampu, Korbla P.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how academic knowledge and power have shaped the discourse on human classification and how political authorities use academic knowledge producers to legitimize public policy. Specifically, the article draws on the role of John M. MacEachran, a former academic at the University of Alberta, in the implementation of the Alberta…

  5. 78 FR 65541 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Liquidity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... attention issues and concerns that they believe warrant further or heightened FCA scrutiny. The second...; Divide the 90-day liquidity reserve into three tiers so Farmer Mac has a sufficient amount of cash and... that can be traded at fair value and an explicit public backstop.'' From the FCA's perspective, whether...

  6. Muusikamaailm : James Levine 25 aastat Metis. Taveneri ja MacMillani millenniumiteosed. Avafestival Sydneys / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    J. Harbisoni ooperi "The Great Gatsby" esmalavastusega tähistab New Yorgi Metropolitan Opera oma 25-aastast koostööd J. Levine'iga. J. Taveneri uudisteosest "The Fall and Resurrection", J. MacMillani millenniumiteose "Magnificat" maailmaesiettekandest. 5.-26. jaan. toimuvast Sydney muusikafestivalist

  7. Multiple-Antenna Interference Cancellation for WLAN with MAC Interference Avoidance in Open Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr M. Kuzminskiy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of multiantenna interference cancellation receiver algorithms for increasing the uplink throughput in WLAN systems such as 802.11 is investigated. The medium access control (MAC in such systems is based on carrier sensing multiple-access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA, which itself is a powerful tool for the mitigation of intrasystem interference. However, due to the spatial dependence of received signal strengths, it is possible for the collision avoidance mechanism to fail, resulting in packet collisions at the receiver and a reduction in system throughput. The CSMA/CA MAC protocol can be complemented in such scenarios by interference cancellation (IC algorithms at the physical (PHY layer. The corresponding gains in throughput are a result of the complex interplay between the PHY and MAC layers. It is shown that semiblind interference cancellation techniques are essential for mitigating the impact of interference bursts, in particular since these are typically asynchronous with respect to the desired signal burst. Semiblind IC algorithms based on second- and higher-order statistics are compared to the conventional no-IC and training-based IC techniques in an open access network (OAN scenario involving home and visiting users. It is found that the semiblind IC algorithms significantly outperform the other techniques due to the bursty and asynchronous nature of the interference caused by the MAC interference avoidance scheme.

  8. Multiple-Antenna Interference Cancellation for WLAN with MAC Interference Avoidance in Open Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzminskiy Alexandr M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of multiantenna interference cancellation receiver algorithms for increasing the uplink throughput in WLAN systems such as 802.11 is investigated. The medium access control (MAC in such systems is based on carrier sensing multiple-access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA, which itself is a powerful tool for the mitigation of intrasystem interference. However, due to the spatial dependence of received signal strengths, it is possible for the collision avoidance mechanism to fail, resulting in packet collisions at the receiver and a reduction in system throughput. The CSMA/CA MAC protocol can be complemented in such scenarios by interference cancellation (IC algorithms at the physical (PHY layer. The corresponding gains in throughput are a result of the complex interplay between the PHY and MAC layers. It is shown that semiblind interference cancellation techniques are essential for mitigating the impact of interference bursts, in particular since these are typically asynchronous with respect to the desired signal burst. Semiblind IC algorithms based on second- and higher-order statistics are compared to the conventional no-IC and training-based IC techniques in an open access network (OAN scenario involving home and visiting users. It is found that the semiblind IC algorithms significantly outperform the other techniques due to the bursty and asynchronous nature of the interference caused by the MAC interference avoidance scheme.

  9. TMAC: Timestamp-Ordered MAC for CSMA/CA Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal Saud Yousef; Jamshaid, Kamran; Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin-Han

    2011-01-01

    We propose TMAC, a timestamp-ordered MAC protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). TMAC extends CSMA/CA by scheduling data packets based on their age. Prior to transmitting a data packet, a transmitter broadcasts a request control message appended

  10. MAC-layer protocol for TCP fairness in Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal; Jamshaid, Kamran; Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin-Han

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). We use a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput performance due to the effect of queue

  11. Endotoxin testing of proteins for parenteral administration using the Mono Mac 6 assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D

    2000-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products containing proteins cause problems in testing for endotoxin and pyrogens. Many proteins interfere with the LAL test and the proteins are immunogenic in rabbits. The monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 is an alternative assay for detection of endotoxin and other pyrogens....

  12. Implantable Body Sensor Network MAC Protocols Using Wake-up Radio – Evaluation in Animal Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuppiah Ramachandran, Vignesh Raja; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Applications of implantable sensor networks in the health-care industry have increased tremendously over the last decade. There are different types of medium access control (MAC) protocols that are designed for implantable body sensor networks, using different physical layer technologies such as

  13. Not the Sum of Its Parts: A Critical Review of the MacDonald Triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Charlotte Hannah; Alleyne, Emma

    2018-01-01

    The MacDonald triad posits that animal cruelty, fire setting, and bed wetting in childhood is indicative of later aggressive and violent behavior in adults. Researchers refer to this phenomenon as a precursor to later antisocial behaviors including serial and sexual murder; while practitioners cite the triad in clinical formulations and risk assessments. However, there is yet to be a critical review and consolidation of the literature that establishes whether there is empirical support. This article explores the validity of the triad. We conducted a narrative review of the relevant studies examining the MacDonald triad and its individual constituents. There is evidence that any one of the triad behaviors could predict future violent offending, but it is very rare to find all three behaviors together as predictors. Thus, the empirical research on the MacDonald triad does not fully substantiate its premise. Rather, it would appear that the triad, or its individual constituents, is better used as an indicator of dysfunctional home environments, or poor coping skills in children. Future research is needed with robust and rigorous methodologies (e.g., adequate control groups, longitudinal designs) to fully establish the MacDonald triad's validity. Finally, further consideration is needed as to whether the triad behaviors are more indicative of other problematic outcomes (e.g., maladaptive coping to life stressors).

  14. The Big Mac and Teaching about Japan. Footnotes. Volume 8, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    2003-01-01

    The Big Mac can be effective tool in helping students achieve a better understanding of Japan. It can defeat Orientalist stereotypes about the Japanese--and also challenge young people who might have oversimplified notions of what exactly occurs when U.S. fast food chains take root in another culture. Many deride McDonald's as a villain…

  15. Detecting DIF in Polytomous Items Using MACS, IRT and Ordinal Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua, Paula; Wells, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the Type I error rate and power of two model-based procedures, the mean and covariance structure model (MACS) and the item response theory (IRT), and an observed-score based procedure, ordinal logistic regression, for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. A simulation…

  16. Ultrasonication of pyrogenic microorganisms improves the detection of pyrogens in the Mono Mac 6 assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D

    2000-01-01

    The monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 is sensitive to pyrogens. When exposed to pyrogens secretion of interleukin-6 is induced. However, some eukaryotic pyrogenic microorganisms are not detectable. The aim of this study is to introduce a pretreatment of samples to expand the detection range of the a...

  17. Dependence of AeroMACS Interference on Airport Radiation Pattern Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at the 497 major airports in the contiguous United States was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on the number of antenna beams per airport, gain patterns, and beam direction orientations was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  18. 78 FR 65145 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Capital Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... capital adequacy and capital planning. \\4\\ Bank for International Settlements, Basel Committee on Banking....60--Corporate Business Planning The Farm Credit Council commented that our reference to ``goals and.... 652.60 to read as follows: Sec. 652.60 Corporate business planning. (a) Farmer Mac's board of...

  19. Detecting and Preventing Beacon Replay Attacks in Receiver-Initiated MAC Protocols for Energy Efficient WSNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, Alessio; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In receiver-initiated MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), communication is initiated by the receiver of the data through beacons containing the receiver's identity. In this paper, we consider the case of a network intruder that captures and replays such beacons towards legitimate...

  20. Nuclear power history calculation for subcritical systems using Euler-MacLaurin formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrice Junior, Edson; Goncalves, Alessandro da Cruz

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient method for calculating the reactivity using inverse point kinetic equation for subcritical systems by applying the Euler-MacLaurin summation formula to calculate the nuclear power history. In accordance with the accuracy of the numerical results, this method does not require a large number of points for calculation, providing accurate results with low computational cost. (author)

  1. Scalable Video Streaming Adaptive to Time-Varying IEEE 802.11 MAC Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Jun; Suh, Doug-Young; Park, Gwang-Hoon; Huh, Jae-Doo

    This letter proposes a QoS control method for video streaming service over wireless networks. Based on statistical analysis, the time-varying MAC parameters highly related to channel condition are selected to predict available bitrate. Adaptive bitrate control of scalably-encoded video guarantees continuity in streaming service even if the channel condition changes abruptly.

  2. Dynamic Channel Slot Allocation Scheme and Performance Analysis of Cyclic Quorum Multichannel MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In high diversity node situation, multichannel MAC protocol can improve the frequency efficiency, owing to fewer collisions compared with single-channel MAC protocol. And the performance of cyclic quorum-based multichannel (CQM MAC protocol is outstanding. Based on cyclic quorum system and channel slot allocation, it can avoid the bottleneck that others suffered from and can be easily realized with only one transceiver. To obtain the accurate performance of CQM MAC protocol, a Markov chain model, which combines the channel-hopping strategy of CQM protocol and IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF, is proposed. The results of numerical analysis show that the optimal performance of CQM protocol can be obtained in saturation bound situation. And then we obtain the saturation bound of CQM system by bird swarm algorithm. In addition, to improve the performance of CQM protocol in unsaturation situation, a dynamic channel slot allocation of CQM (DCQM protocol is proposed, based on wavelet neural network. Finally, the performance of CQM protocol and DCQM protocol is simulated by Qualnet platform. And the simulation results show that the analytic and simulation results match very well; the DCQM performs better in unsaturation situation.

  3. A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node’s ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B-MAC

  4. The Visual Effects of Intraocular Colored Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern life is associated with a myriad of visual problems, most notably refractive conditions such as myopia. Human ingenuity has addressed such problems using strategies such as spectacle lenses or surgical correction. There are other visual problems, however, that have been present throughout our evolutionary history and are not as easily solved by simply correcting refractive error. These problems include issues like glare disability and discomfort arising from intraocular scatter, photostress with the associated transient loss in vision that arises from short intense light exposures, or the ability to see objects in the distance through a veil of atmospheric haze. One likely biological solution to these more long-standing problems has been the use of colored intraocular filters. Many species, especially diurnal, incorporate chromophores from numerous sources (e.g., often plant pigments called carotenoids into ocular tissues to improve visual performance outdoors. This review summarizes information on the utility of such filters focusing on chromatic filtering by humans.

  5. MacA is a second cytochrome c peroxidase of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Julian; Hoffmann, Maren; Ellis, Katie E; Seidel, Antonia; Spatzal, Thomas; Gerhardt, Stefan; Elliott, Sean J; Einsle, Oliver

    2012-04-03

    The metal-reducing δ-proteobacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces a large number of c-type cytochromes, many of which have been implicated in the transfer of electrons to insoluble metal oxides. Among these, the dihemic MacA was assigned a central role. Here we have produced G. sulfurreducens MacA by recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and have solved its three-dimensional structure in three different oxidation states. Sequence comparisons group MacA into the family of diheme cytochrome c peroxidases, and the protein indeed showed hydrogen peroxide reductase activity with ABTS(-2) as an electron donor. The observed K(M) was 38.5 ± 3.7 μM H(2)O(2) and v(max) was 0.78 ± 0.03 μmol of H(2)O(2)·min(-1)·mg(-1), resulting in a turnover number k(cat) = 0.46 · s(-1). In contrast, no Fe(III) reductase activity was observed. MacA was found to display electrochemical properties similar to other bacterial diheme peroxidases, in addition to the ability to electrochemically mediate electron transfer to the soluble cytochrome PpcA. Differences in activity between CcpA and MacA can be rationalized with structural variations in one of the three loop regions, loop 2, that undergoes conformational changes during reductive activation of the enzyme. This loop is adjacent to the active site heme and forms an open loop structure rather than a more rigid helix as in CcpA. For the activation of the protein, the loop has to displace the distal ligand to the active site heme, H93, in loop 1. A H93G variant showed an unexpected formation of a helix in loop 2 and disorder in loop 1, while a M297H variant that altered the properties of the electron transfer heme abolished reductive activation.

  6. Manual Ability Classification System (MACS: reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. R. Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS has been widely used to describe the manual ability of children with cerebral palsy (CP; however its reliability has not been verified in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To establish the inter- and intra-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS by comparing the classifications given by therapists and parents of children with CP. METHOD: Data were obtained from 90 children with CP between the ages of 4 and 18 years, who were treated at the neurology and rehabilitation clinics of a Brazilian hospital. Therapists (an occupational therapist and a student classified manual ability (MACS through direct observation and information provided by parents. Therapists and parents used the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was obtained using unweighted Kappa coefficient (k and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. The Chi-square test was used to identify the predominance of disagreements in the classification of parents and therapists. RESULTS: An almost perfect agreement resulted among therapists [K=0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.97; ICC=0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.98], as well as with intra-rater (therapists, with Kappa ranging between 0.83 and 0.95 and ICC between 0.96 and 0.99 for the evaluator with more and less experience in rehabilitation, respectively. The agreement between therapists and parents was fair [K=0.36 (95% CI 0.22-0.50; ICC=0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.86]. CONCLUSIONS: The Portuguese version of the MACS is a reliable instrument to be used jointly by parents and therapists.

  7. Assessment of manual material handling using Iranian MMH regulations and comparison with NIOSH equation and MAC method in one of the metal casting industries in Tehran, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Result: Results showed an acceptable agreement between Iranian regulation and MAC method as well as Iranian regulation and NIOSH equation. However, no acceptable agreement was observed between MAC method and NIOSH equation.

  8. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  9. Resonator memories and optical novelty filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dana Z.; Erle, Marie C.

    Optical resonators having holographic elements are potential candidates for storing information that can be accessed through content addressable or associative recall. Closely related to the resonator memory is the optical novelty filter, which can detect the differences between a test object and a set of reference objects. We discuss implementations of these devices using continuous optical media such as photorefractive materials. The discussion is framed in the context of neural network models. There are both formal and qualitative similarities between the resonator memory and optical novelty filter and network models. Mode competition arises in the theory of the resonator memory, much as it does in some network models. We show that the role of the phenomena of "daydreaming" in the real-time programmable optical resonator is very much akin to the role of "unlearning" in neural network memories. The theory of programming the real-time memory for a single mode is given in detail. This leads to a discussion of the optical novelty filter. Experimental results for the resonator memory, the real-time programmable memory, and the optical tracking novelty filter are reviewed. We also point to several issues that need to be addressed in order to implement more formal models of neural networks.

  10. Anti-clogging filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Erik P.

    2015-05-19

    An anti-clogging filter system for filtering a fluid containing large particles and small particles includes an enclosure with at least one individual elongated tubular filter element in the enclosure. The individual elongated tubular filter element has an internal passage, a closed end, an open end, and a filtering material in or on the individual elongated tubular filter element. The fluid travels through the open end of the elongated tubular element and through the internal passage and through the filtering material. An anti-clogging element is positioned on or adjacent the individual elongated tubular filter element and provides a fluid curtain that preferentially directs the larger particulates to one area of the filter material allowing the remainder of the filter material to remain more efficient.

  11. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  12. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon; Chernov, Alexey; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  13. Multirate Digital Filters Based on FPGA and Its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf El-Din, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is one of the fastest growing techniques in the electronics industry. It is used in a wide range of application fields such as, telecommunications, data communications, image enhancement and processing, video signals, digital TV broadcasting, and voice synthesis and recognition. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) offers good solution for addressing the needs of high performance DSP systems. The focus of this thesis is on one of the basic DSP functions, namely filtering signals to remove unwanted frequency bands. Multi rate Digital Filters (MDFs) are the main theme here. Theory and implementation of MDF, as a special class of digital filters, will be discussed. Multi rate digital filters represent a class of digital filters having a number of attractive features like, low requirements for the coefficient word lengths, significant saving in computation and storage requirements results in a significant reduction in its dynamic power consumption. This thesis introduces an efficient FPGA realization of a multi rate decimation filter with narrow pass-band and narrow transition band to reduce the frequency sample rate by factor of 64 for noise thermometer applications. The proposed multi rate decimation filter is composed of three stages; the first stage is a Cascaded Integrator Comb (CIC) decimation filter, the second stage is a two-coefficient Half-Band (HB) filter and the last stage is a sharper transition HB filter. The frequency responses of individual stages as well as the overall filter response have been demonstrated with full simulation using MATLAB. The design and implementation of the proposed MDF on FPGA (XILINX Virtex XCV800 BG432-4), using VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL), has been introduced. The implementation areas of the proposed filter stages are compared. Using CIC-HB technique saves 18% of the design area, compared to using six stages HB decimation filters.

  14. THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) RECOVERED FROM LOS ANGELES POTABLE WATER, A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF INFECTION IN AIDS PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles water was investigated as a possible source of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in patients with AIDS. MAC consists of M.avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI) and Mycobacterium X (MX)(positive for MAC by DNA probe but not MA or MI). The study included 13 reser...

  15. Forms of address in Isizulu

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.A. (African Studies) The study deals with forms of address in isiZulu. Therefore, the various aspects of speech that play roles when addressing a person, the factors affecting forms of address in isiZulu and the effect of languages such as English, Afrikaans and other African languages on the forms of address in isiZulu are of interest. Research was conducted on forms of address in isiZulu in parts of Soweto and it was discovered that form of address are determined by different factors i...

  16. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    “Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  17. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imaging...... using the original OMERACT Filter and the newly proposed structure. Breakout groups critically reviewed the extent to which the candidate biomarkers complied with the proposed stepwise approach, as a way of examining the utility of the proposed 3-dimensional structure. RESULTS: Although...... was obtained for a proposed tri-axis structure to assess validation of imaging and soluble biomarkers; nevertheless, additional work is required to better evaluate its place within the OMERACT Filter 2.0....

  18. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  19. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  20. Quantum reality filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudder, Stan

    2010-01-01

    An anhomomorphic logic A* is the set of all possible realities for a quantum system. Our main goal is to find the 'actual reality' Φ a element of A* for the system. Reality filters are employed to eliminate unwanted potential realities until only φ a remains. In this paper, we consider three reality filters that are constructed by means of quantum integrals. A quantum measure μ can generate or actualize a Φ element of A* if μ(A) is a quantum integral with respect to φ for a density function f over events A. In this sense, μ is an 'average' of the truth values of φ with weights given by f. We mainly discuss relations between these filters and their existence and uniqueness properties. For example, we show that a quadratic reality generated by a quantum measure is unique. In this case we obtain the unique actual quadratic reality.

  1. [Spanish validation of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment interview to assess patients competence to consent treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Marrodán, Ignacio; Baón Pérez, Beatriz; Navío Acosta, Mercedes; López-Antón, Raul; Lobo Escolar, Elena; Ventura Faci, Tirso

    2014-09-09

    To validate the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) Spanish version, which assesses the mental capacity of patients to consent treatment, by examining 4 areas (Understanding, Appreciation, Reasoning and Expressing a choice). 160 subjects (80 Internal Medicine inpatients, 40 Psychiatric inpatients and 40 healthy controls). MacCAT-T, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). Feasibility study, reliability and validity calculations (against to gold standard of clinical expert). Mean duration of the MacCAT-T interview was 18min. Inter-rater reliability: Intraclass correlation coefficient for Understanding=0.98, Appreciation=0.97, Reasoning=0.98, Expressing a choice=0.91. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha): Understanding=0.87, for Appreciation=0.76, for Reasoning=0.86. Patients considered to be incapable (gold standard) scored lower in all the MacCAT-T areas. Poor performance on the MacCAT-T was related to cognitive impairment assessed by MMSE. Spanish version of the MacCAT-T is feasible, reliable, and valid for assessing the capacity of patients to consent treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Matrix-assisted cocrystallization (MAC) simultaneous production and formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals by hot-melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boksa, Kevin; Otte, Andrew; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2014-09-01

    A novel method for the simultaneous production and formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals, matrix-assisted cocrystallization (MAC), is presented. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) is used to create cocrystals by coprocessing the drug and coformer in the presence of a matrix material. Carbamazepine (CBZ), nicotinamide (NCT), and Soluplus were used as a model drug, coformer, and matrix, respectively. The MAC product containing 80:20 (w/w) cocrystal:matrix was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed for quantifying the efficiency of cocrystal formation. The MAC product was estimated to be 78% (w/w) cocrystal (theoretical 80%), with approximately 0.3% mixture of free (unreacted) CBZ and NCT, and 21.6% Soluplus (theoretical 20%) with the PLS model. A physical mixture (PM) of a reference cocrystal (RCC), prepared by precipitation from solution, and Soluplus resulted in faster dissolution relative to the pure RCC. However, the MAC product with the exact same composition resulted in considerably faster dissolution and higher maximum concentration (∼five-fold) than those of the PM. The MAC product consists of high-quality cocrystals embedded in a matrix. The processing aspect of MAC plays a major role on the faster dissolution observed. The MAC approach offers a scalable process, suitable for the continuous manufacturing and formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. Short-term hydro generation scheduling of Three Gorges–Gezhouba cascaded hydropower plants using hybrid MACS-ADE approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Li; Lu, Peng; Wang, Chao; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • MACS and ADE algorithms are hybridized as MACS-ADE method for solving STHGS problem. • An adaptive mutation is integrated into the proposed algorithm to avoid premature convergence. • MACS and ADE are run in parallel in search of better solution. • Several effective heuristic strategies are designed for dealing with various constraints of STHGS problem. - Abstract: Short-term hydro generation scheduling (STHGS) aims at determining optimal hydro generation scheduling to obtain minimum water consumption for one day or week while meeting various system constraints. In this paper, the STHGS problem is decomposed into two sub-problems: (i) unit commitment (UC) sub-problem; (ii) economic load dispatch (ELD) sub-problem. Then, we present a hybrid algorithm based on multi ant colony system (MACS) and differential evolution (DE) for solving the STHGS problem. First, MACS is used for dealing with UC sub-problem. A set of cooperating ant colonies cooperate to choose the unit state over the scheduled time horizon. Then, the adaptive differential evolution (ADE) is used to solve ELD sub-problem. MACS and ADE are run in parallel with adjusting their solutions in search of a better solution. Meanwhile, local and global pheromone updating rules in MACS and adaptive dynamic parameter adjusting strategy in DE are applied for enhancing the search ability of MACS-ADE. Finally, the proposed method is implemented to solve STHGS problem of Three Gorges–Gezhouba cascaded hydropower plants to verify the feasibility and effectiveness. Compared with other established methods, the simulation results reveal that the proposed MACS-ADE approach has the best convergence property, computational efficiency with less water consumption

  4. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  5. Alarm filtering and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  6. The Big Mac Index: A Shortcut To Inflation And Exchange Rate Dynamics? Price Tracking And Predictive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Luis San Vicente Portes; Vidya Atal

    2014-01-01

    The Economist magazine has been publishing the Big Mac Index using it as a rule of thumb to determine the over- or under-valuation of international currencies based on the theory of Purchasing Power Parity since 1986. According to the theory, using the Big Mac as a tradable single-good basket, the Dollar-value of the hamburger should be equalized around the world due to arbitrage. The popularity and following of the Big Mac Index led the authors to the following two questions: 1) How effectiv...

  7. Annie Marion MacLean: “the mother of contemporary etnography” and pioneer in sociology distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia García Dauder

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces Anne Marion MacLean into the United States' scientific sociology at its very origins (1892, when the Department of Sociology of the Chicago University was created. It also puts MacLean in a network called "Women's School of Chicago", and the forgotten contributions of these social sciences' pioneers, submitted to the American Journal of Sociology, are analyzed. Two MacLean's key contributions are highlighted: the correspondence courses in teaching sociology and her research by means of participant observation in workplaces focusing on women's work.

  8. Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the α-stable and generalized-t. We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the “normal” equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.

  9. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  10. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  11. Review of Sustainable Energy -- Without the Hot Air by David MacKay (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Hamman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available David MacKay. Sustainable Energy: Without the hot air. (Cambridge, England: UIT Cambridge Ltd., 2009. 384 pp. ISBN 978-0954452933 (also available as a free e-book. Physicist David MacKay transforms what has historically been a debate fraught with skepticism and hysteria into an informed conversation. He does this by providing clear, accurate quantitative information on energy production and consumption in a form that allows comparison and invites thoughtful analysis. By recalibrating power into kilowatt-hours per day per person, he makes the numbers meaningful on an individual level. He then meticulously estimates the productive capacity of various renewable energy sources, explores alternative energy solutions, and ends with an array of concrete plans to get the planet off fossil fuels for good.

  12. Application of the implicit MacCormack scheme to the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. L.; Tannehill, J. C.; Chaussee, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    MacCormack's implicit finite-difference scheme was used to solve the two-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. This method for solving the PNS equations does not require the inversion of block tridiagonal systems of algebraic equations and permits the original explicit MacCormack scheme to be employed in those regions where implicit treatment is not needed. The advantages and disadvantages of the present adaptation are discussed in relation to those of the conventional Beam-Warming scheme for a flat plate boundary layer test case. Comparisons are made for accuracy, stability, computer time, computer storage, and ease of implementation. The present method was also applied to a second test case of hypersonic laminar flow over a 15% compression corner. The computed results compare favorably with experiment and a numerical solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equations.

  13. Objective-C for Absolute Beginners iPhone and Mac Programming Made Easy

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Gary; Fisher, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    It seems as if everyone is writing applications for Apple's iPhone and iPad, but how do they all do it? It's best to learn Objective-C, the native language of both the iOS and Mac OS X, but where to begin? Right here, even if you've never programmed before! Objective-C for Absolute Beginners will teach you how to write software for your Mac, iPhone,or iPad using Objective-C, an elegant and powerful language with a rich set of developer tools. Using a hands-on approach, you'll learn to think in programming terms, how to use Objective-C to build program logic, and how to write your own applicati

  14. Obtaining porous silicon suitable for sensor technology using MacEtch nonelectrolytic etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iatsunskyi I. R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author suggests to use the etching method MacEtch (metal-assisted chemical etching for production of micro- and nanostructures of porous silicon. The paper presents research results on the morphology structures obtained at different parameters of deposition and etching processes. The research has shown that, depending on the parameters of deposition of silver particles and silicon wafers etching, the obtained surface morphology may be different. There may be both individual crater-like pores and developed porous or macroporous surface. These results indicate that the MacEtch etching is a promising method for obtaining micro-porous silicon nanostructures suitable for effective use in gas sensors and biological object sensors.

  15. A comparative study of upwind and MacCormack schemes for CAA benchmark problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, K.; Sankar, L. N.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, upwind schemes and MacCormack schemes are evaluated as to their suitability for aeroacoustic applications. The governing equations are cast in a curvilinear coordinate system and discretized using finite volume concepts. A flux splitting procedure is used for the upwind schemes, where the signals crossing the cell faces are grouped into two categories: signals that bring information from outside into the cell, and signals that leave the cell. These signals may be computed in several ways, with the desired spatial and temporal accuracy achieved by choosing appropriate interpolating polynomials. The classical MacCormack schemes employed here are fourth order accurate in time and space. Results for categories 1, 4, and 6 of the workshop's benchmark problems are presented. Comparisons are also made with the exact solutions, where available. The main conclusions of this study are finally presented.

  16. An FEC Adaptive Multicast MAC Protocol for Providing Reliability in WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalamah, Anas; Sato, Takuro

    For wireless multicast applications like multimedia conferencing, voice over IP and video/audio streaming, a reliable transmission of packets within short delivery delay is needed. Moreover, reliability is crucial to the performance of error intolerant applications like file transfer, distributed computing, chat and whiteboard sharing. Forward Error Correction (FEC) is frequently used in wireless multicast to enhance Packet Error Rate (PER) performance, but cannot assure full reliability unless coupled with Automatic Repeat Request forming what is knows as Hybrid-ARQ. While reliable FEC can be deployed at different levels of the protocol stack, it cannot be deployed on the MAC layer of the unreliable IEEE802.11 WLAN due to its inability to exchange ACKs with multiple recipients. In this paper, we propose a Multicast MAC protocol that enhances WLAN reliability by using Adaptive FEC and study it's performance through mathematical analysis and simulation. Our results show that our protocol can deliver high reliability and throughput performance.

  17. A Reconfigurable Design and Architecture of the Ethernet and HomePNA3.0 MAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilydermany, M.; Hosseinghadiry, M.

    In this paper a reconfigurable architecture for Ethernet and HomePNA MAC is presented. By using this new architecture, Ethernet and HomePNA reconfigurable network card can be produced. This architecture has been implemented using VHDL language and after that synthesized on a chip. The differences between HomePNA (synchronized and unsynchronized mode) and Ethernet in collision detection mechanism and priority access to media have caused the need to separate architectures for Ethernet and HomePNA, but by using similarities of them, both the Ethernet and the HomePNA can be implemented in a single chip with a little extra hardware. The number of logical elements of the proposed architecture is increased by 19% in compare to when only an Ethernet MAC is implemented

  18. Global Mobile Satellite Service Interference Analysis for the AeroMACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Hall, Ward; Phillips, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based on the IEEE 802.16-2009 mobile wireless standard, is envisioned as the wireless network which will cover all areas of airport surfaces for next generation air transportation. It is expected to be implemented in the 5091-5150 MHz frequency band which is also occupied by mobile satellite service uplinks. Thus the AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. Simulations using Visualyse software were performed utilizing a global database of 6207 airports. Variations in base station and subscriber antenna distribution and gain pattern were examined. Based on these simulations, recommendations for global airport base station and subscriber antenna power transmission limitations are provided.

  19. A Novel Video Data-Source Authentication Model Based on Digital Watermarking and MAC in Multicast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Anjun; LU Xiangli; GUO Lei

    2006-01-01

    A novel video data authentication model based on digital video watermarking and MAC (message authentication code) in multicast protocol is proposed in this paper. The digital watermarking which composes of the MAC of the significant video content, the key and instant authentication data is embedded into the insignificant video component by the MLUT (modified look-up table) video watermarking technology. We explain a method that does not require storage of each data packet for a time, thus making receiver not vulnerable to DOS (denial of service) attack. So the video packets can be authenticated instantly without large volume buffer in the receivers. TESLA(timed efficient stream loss-tolerant authentication) does not explain how to select the suitable value for d, which is an important parameter in multicast source authentication. So we give a method to calculate the key disclosure delay (number of intervals). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms improve the performance of data source authentication in multicast.

  20. Le meurtre du prêtre comme violence inaugurale (Bulgarie 1872, Macédoine 1900)

    OpenAIRE

    Lory, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Quand la violence révolutionnaire se retourne-t-elle contre la communauté qu'elle prétend promouvoir ? Enquêtant sur les premiers Bulgares exécutés par le Comité Central Révolutionnaire Bulgare et les premiers Macédoniens exécutés par l'Organisation Révolutionnaire Intérieure Macédonienne, cet article analyse deux épisodes qui présentent des analogies frappantes. En 1872, le diacre Paisij est assassiné à Orhanie dans des circonstances troublantes, puisque ce meurtre a été annoncé par deux rêv...

  1. Mario Sironi nas chamadas Coleções Matarazzo do MAC USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ronqui

    Full Text Available O acervo de arte moderna italiana do MAC-USP pode ser considerado a maior coleção desse gênero fora da Itália e vem sendo objeto de estudo nos últimos anos. Das 71 obras italianas, seis são de autoria de Mario Sironi. Este artigo propõe uma apresentação do percurso do artista, com breve análise de sua evolução pictórica, a partir dos estudos já existentes, a fim de situar as obras sironianas do acervo do MAC no contexto de sua produção.

  2. Persistent RCSMA: A MAC Protocol for a Distributed Cooperative ARQ Scheme in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alonso-Zárate

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The persistent relay carrier sensing multiple access (PRCSMA protocol is presented in this paper as a novel medium access control (MAC protocol that allows for the execution of a distributed cooperative automatic retransmission request (ARQ scheme in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. The underlying idea of the PRCSMA protocol is to modify the basic rules of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol to execute a distributed cooperative ARQ scheme in wireless networks in order to enhance their performance and to extend coverage. A closed formulation of the distributed cooperative ARQ average packet transmission delay in a saturated network is derived in the paper. The analytical equations are then used to evaluate the performance of the protocol under different network configurations. Both the accuracy of the analysis and the performance evaluation of the protocol are supported and validated through computer simulations.

  3. Make your own video with QuickTime on the Mac

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A step-by-step video tutorial on how to do a screen recording using QuickTime player on a Mac. QuickTime is a multimedia framework, which is natively installed on most Mac computers. This tutorial explains how to do a screen recording using Quicktime and how to export the video. A pdf document on the subject is available as material from the indico event page. Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) http://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  4. Multiple lupus-associated ITGAM variants alter Mac-1 functions on neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yebin; Wu, Jianming; Kucik, Dennis F; White, Nathan B; Redden, David T; Szalai, Alexander J; Bullard, Daniel C; Edberg, Jeffrey C

    2013-11-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ITGAM locus (including the nonsynonymous SNPs rs1143679, rs1143678, and rs1143683) are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ITGAM encodes the protein CD11b, a subunit of the β2 integrin Mac-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ITGAM genetic variation on the biologic functions of neutrophil Mac-1. Neutrophils from ITGAM-genotyped and -sequenced healthy donors were isolated for functional studies. The phagocytic capacity of neutrophil ITGAM variants was probed with complement-coated erythrocytes, serum-treated zymosan, heat-treated zymosan, and IgG-coated erythrocytes. The adhesion capacity of ITGAM variants, in adhering to either purified intercellular adhesion molecule 1 or tumor necrosis factor α-stimulated endothelial cells, was assessed in a flow chamber. Expression levels of total CD11b and activation of CD11b were assessed by flow cytometry. Mac-1-mediated neutrophil phagocytosis, determined in cultures with 2 different complement-coated particles, was significantly reduced in individuals with nonsynonymous variant alleles of ITGAM. This reduction in phagocytosis was related to variation at either rs1143679 (in the β-propeller region) or rs1143678/rs1143683 (highly linked SNPs in the cytoplasmic/calf-1 regions). Phagocytosis mediated by Fcγ receptors was also significantly reduced in donors with variant ITGAM alleles. Similarly, firm adhesion of neutrophils was significantly reduced in individuals with variant ITGAM alleles. These functional alterations were not attributable to differences in total receptor expression or activation. The nonsynonymous ITGAM variants rs1143679 and rs1143678/rs113683 contribute to altered Mac-1 function on neutrophils. These results underscore the need to consider multiple nonsynonymous SNPs when assessing the functional consequences of ITGAM variation on immune cell processes and the risk of SLE

  5. Does PPP hold for Big Mac price or consumer price index? Evidence from panel cointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Fu Chen; Chung-Hua Shen; Chien-An Wang

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the validity of purchasing power parity (PPP) using CPI and Big Mac prices. The benchmark model, i.e., the OLS method, which does not take nonstationarity into account, rejects the hypothesis of PPP regardless of prices used. We next use the panel cointegration method to consider the nonstationary nature of variables. Estimated results for CPI are mixed. The PPP is rejected when the nominal exchange rate is employed as the dependent variable but is not rejected when the pr...

  6. Metabolome and fecal microbiota in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight: a Big Mac challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Maukonen, Johanna; Mattila, Ismo; Rissanen, Aila; Saarela, Maria; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Hy?tyl?inen, Tuulia; Pietil?inen, Kirsi H.; Ore?i?, Matej

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial responses to food are complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. We studied postprandial responses to a Big Mac meal challenge in monozygotic co-twins highly discordant for body weight. This unique design allows assessment of the contribution of obesity, independent of genetic liability. Comprehensive metabolic profiling using 3 analytical platforms was applied to fasting and postprandial serum samples from 16 healthy monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight (...

  7. Pulmonary symptoms and diagnoses are associated with HIV in the MACS and WIHS cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingo, Matthew R; Balasubramani, Goundappa K; Rice, Thomas B; Kingsley, Lawrence; Kleerup, Eric C; Detels, Roger; Seaberg, Eric C; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Holman, Susan; Huang, Laurence; Sutton, Sarah H; Bertolet, Marnie; Morris, Alison

    2014-04-30

    Several lung diseases are increasingly recognized as comorbidities with HIV; however, few data exist related to the spectrum of respiratory symptoms, diagnostic testing, and diagnoses in the current HIV era. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of HIV on prevalence and incidence of respiratory disease in the current era of effective antiretroviral treatment. A pulmonary-specific questionnaire was administered yearly for three years to participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Adjusted prevalence ratios for respiratory symptoms, testing, or diagnoses and adjusted incidence rate ratios for diagnoses in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected participants were determined. Risk factors for outcomes in HIV-infected individuals were modeled. Baseline pulmonary questionnaires were completed by 907 HIV-infected and 989 HIV-uninfected participants in the MACS cohort and by 1405 HIV-infected and 571 HIV-uninfected participants in the WIHS cohort. In MACS, dyspnea, cough, wheezing, sleep apnea, and incident chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were more common in HIV-infected participants. In WIHS, wheezing and sleep apnea were more common in HIV-infected participants. Smoking (MACS and WIHS) and greater body mass index (WIHS) were associated with more respiratory symptoms and diagnoses. While sputum studies, bronchoscopies, and chest computed tomography scans were more likely to be performed in HIV-infected participants, pulmonary function tests were no more common in HIV-infected individuals. Respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected individuals were associated with history of pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, or use of HAART. A diagnosis of asthma or COPD was associated with previous pneumonia. In these two cohorts, HIV is an independent risk factor for several respiratory symptoms and pulmonary diseases including COPD and sleep apnea. Despite a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms

  8. Environmental Assessment for Construction of Radial Arm Spill Gates MacDill Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    chromates . A detailed tracking and accounting system is in place to identify potentially hazardous materials and to ensure that MacDill AFB organizations...compressed gases, pesticides, herbicides, nitrates, and chromates . A detailed tracking and accounting system is in place to identify potentially...County, Florida Before the undersigned authority personally appeared C. Pugh, who on oath says that she is the Advertising Billing Analyst of The

  9. Optimization of hybrid token-CDMA MAC system using cross-layer information

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Liu, I-S

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid MAC scheme is capable to implement in either ad hoc or wireless mesh networks (WMN). For WMN configuration, stations are served as access networks utilizing non-mobile relaying nodes to provide wireless backbone services for nomadic users... University and a PhD degree from University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. His research interests are in the general areas of adaptive signal processing, digital and wireless communications and data networks. Co-author: Professor Hong-Jun Xu...

  10. Patients with MAC Lung Disease Have a Low Visceral Fat Area and Low Nutrient Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Wakamatsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to examine the nutritional status and nutrient intake of patients with MAC lung disease with a focus on visceral fat area. Patients and Methods. Among 116 patients of our hospital with nontuberculous mycobacteriosis who were registered between May 2010 and August 2011, 103 patients with MAC lung disease were included in this study. In all patients, nutritional status and nutrient intake were prospectively examined. Results. Patients were 23 men and 80 women (mean age, 72.3±10.9 years. BMI (kg/m2 at the time of registration was 20.4±2.7 in men and 19.2±2.9 in women. Visceral fat area (cm2 was significantly lower in women (35.7±26.6 than in men (57.5±47.4 (p=0.0111. The comparison with general healthy adults according to age revealed a markedly reduced visceral fat area among patients with MAC lung disease. With respect to nutrient intake, energy adequacy (86.1±15.7%, protein adequacy (82.4±18.2%, lipid adequacy (78.1±21.8%, and carbohydrate adequacy (89.6±19.2% ratios were all low at the time of registration. BMI was significantly correlated with protein adequacy (p=0.0397 and lipid adequacy (p=0.0214 ratios, while no association was found between visceral fat area and nutrient intake. Conclusion. Patients with MAC lung disease had a low visceral fat area and low nutrient intake.

  11. Four Unknown Prison Poems by H. C. Bosman | MacKenzie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four Unknown Prison Poems by H. C. Bosman. C MacKenzie. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eia.v40i2.1 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  12. Enhancing MAC performance of DCF protocol for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2017-01-01

    The DCF (Distributed Coordination Function) is the basic MAC (Medium Access Control) protocol of IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs and compatible with various IEEE 802.11 PHY extensions. The performance of the DCF degrades exponentially as the number of nodes participating in the DCF transmission procedure increases. To deal with this problem, we propose a simple, however efficient modification of the DCF by which the performance of the DCF is greatly enhanced.

  13. The Long-Run Value of Currencies: A Big Mac Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yihui Lan

    2001-01-01

    Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), the link between exchange rates and prices, is a fundamental building block of international finance, one which has been attracting increasing research interest during the past three decades. The Big Mac Index (BMI), invented by 'The Economist' magazine in 1986, has played a major role in popularising PPP and bringing its practical implications to the attention of financial markets. The aim of this paper is to derive long-run equilibrium values of currencies usi...

  14. Stochastic simulation of climate change impacts on ice road operations, MacKenzie River, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Mingko; Lonergan, S.

    1990-01-01

    Winter roads constitute an important part of the transportation network in the MacKenzie Delta, the Yellowknife area, and between the MacKenzie Highway and the Canol Road. Climatic changes in the MacKenzie Valley will alter the probabilities of ice cover thickness and duration, impacting on the periods when ice road river crossings are viable. Stochastic models were developed to generate air temperature and precipitation data to analyze climate impacts on when ice road crossing of the MacKenzie River at Norman Wells is feasible. The data were employed to simulate river ice growth and decay. Several general circulation models were employed to determine the impacts of climatic change on the ice regime. For precipitation simulation, the occurrence of wet or dry days was determined from Markov chain transition probabilities. In general, the Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS) model predicted the largest increase in monthly precipitation and the Oregon State University (OSU) model predicted the least changes. The various scenarios indicated that the duration for vehicular traffic over ice will be significantly reduced, compared to present day Norman Wells ice crossing operation. For 20 tonne vehicles, the current duration for safe crossing averages 169±14.6 days per year, while for the OSU scenario it will be reduced to 148±14.7 days, is further reduced to 127±24.9 days for the GISS scenario, and drops to 122±21.7 days for the GFDL (General Fluid Dynamics Laboratory) scenario. 5 refs., 1 fig

  15. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  16. Filter assembly for metallic and intermetallic tube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Lippert, Thomas E.; Bruck, Gerald J.; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    2001-01-01

    A filter assembly (60) for holding a filter element (28) within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel is provided, containing: a filter housing (62), said filter housing having a certain axial length and having a peripheral sidewall, said sidewall defining an interior chamber (66); a one piece, all metal, fail-safe/regenerator device (68) within the interior chamber (66) of the filter housing (62) and/or extending beyond the axial length of the filter housing, said device containing an outward extending radial flange (71) within the filter housing for seating an essential seal (70), the device also having heat transfer media (72) disposed inside and screens (80) for particulate removal; one compliant gasket (70) positioned next to and above the outward extending radial flange of the fail-safe/regenerator device; and a porous metallic corrosion resistant superalloy type filter element body welded at the bottom of the metal fail-safe/regenerator device.

  17. Preconditioner-free Wiener filtering with a dense noise matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffenberger, Kevin M.

    2018-05-01

    This work extends the Elsner & Wandelt (2013) iterative method for efficient, preconditioner-free Wiener filtering to cases in which the noise covariance matrix is dense, but can be decomposed into a sum whose parts are sparse in convenient bases. The new method, which uses multiple messenger fields, reproduces Wiener-filter solutions for test problems, and we apply it to a case beyond the reach of the Elsner & Wandelt (2013) method. We compute the Wiener-filter solution for a simulated Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) map that contains spatially varying, uncorrelated noise, isotropic 1/f noise, and large-scale horizontal stripes (like those caused by atmospheric noise). We discuss simple extensions that can filter contaminated modes or inverse-noise-filter the data. These techniques help to address complications in the noise properties of maps from current and future generations of ground-based Microwave Background experiments, like Advanced ACTPol, Simons Observatory, and CMB-S4.

  18. Digital Simulation of a Hybrid Active Filter - An Active Filter in Series with a Shunt Passive Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V

    1998-01-01

    Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.

  19. An Efficient and QoS Supported Multichannel MAC Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caixia; Tan, Guozhen; Yu, Chao

    2017-10-09

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety (transport efficiency and infotainment) applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. Different types of applications require different levels Quality-of-Service (QoS) support. Recently, transport efficiency and infotainment applications (e.g., electronic map download and Internet access) have received more and more attention, and this kind of applications is expected to become a big market driver in a near future. In this paper, we propose an Efficient and QoS supported Multichannel Medium Access Control (EQM-MAC) protocol for VANETs in a highway environment. The EQM-MAC protocol utilizes the service channel resources for non-safety message transmissions during the whole synchronization interval, and it dynamically adjusts minimum contention window size for different non-safety services according to the traffic conditions. Theoretical model analysis and extensive simulation results show that the EQM-MAC protocol can support QoS services, while ensuring the high saturation throughput and low transmission delay for non-safety applications.

  20. An Efficient and QoS Supported Multichannel MAC Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety (transport efficiency and infotainment applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. Different types of applications require different levels Quality-of-Service (QoS support. Recently, transport efficiency and infotainment applications (e.g., electronic map download and Internet access have received more and more attention, and this kind of applications is expected to become a big market driver in a near future. In this paper, we propose an Efficient and QoS supported Multichannel Medium Access Control (EQM-MAC protocol for VANETs in a highway environment. The EQM-MAC protocol utilizes the service channel resources for non-safety message transmissions during the whole synchronization interval, and it dynamically adjusts minimum contention window size for different non-safety services according to the traffic conditions. Theoretical model analysis and extensive simulation results show that the EQM-MAC protocol can support QoS services, while ensuring the high saturation throughput and low transmission delay for non-safety applications.

  1. ASAP: A MAC Protocol for Dense and Time-Constrained RFID Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyounghwan Lee

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel medium access control (MAC protocol for radio frequency identification (RFID systems which exploits the statistical information collected at the reader. The protocol, termed adaptive slotted ALOHA protocol (ASAP, is motivated by the need to significantly improve the total read time performance of the currently suggested MAC protocols for RFID systems. In order to accomplish this task, ASAP estimates the dynamic tag population and adapts the frame size in the subsequent round via a simple policy that maximizes an appropriately defined efficiency function. We demonstrate that ASAP provides significant improvement in total read time performance over the current RFID MAC protocols. We next extend the design to accomplish reliable performance of ASAP in realistic scenarios such as the existence of constraints on frame size, and mobile RFID systems where tags move at constant velocity in the reader's field. We also consider the case where tags may fail to respond because of a physical breakdown or a temporary malfunction, and show the robustness in those scenarios as well.

  2. CoCoMac 2.0 and the future of tract-tracing databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rembrandt eBakker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The CoCoMac database contains the results of published axonal tract-tracing studies in the macaque brain. The combined data are used to construct the macaque macro-connectome. We discuss the redevelopment of CoCoMac and compare it to six connectome-related projects: two resources that provide online access to raw tracing data in rodents, a connectome viewer for advanced 3d graphics, a partial but highly detailed rat connectome, a brain data management system that generates custom connectivity matrices, and a software package that covers the complete pipeline from connectivity data to large scale brain simulations.The 2nd edition of CoCoMac features many enhancements over the original. For example, a search wizard is provided for full access to all tables. Connectivity matrices are computed on demand in a user selected nomenclature. An online data entry system is available as a preview, and is to become a generic solution for community-driven manual data entry.We end with the question whether tract-tracing will remain the gold standard to uncover the wiring of brains, thereby mentioning developments in human connectome construction, tracer substances, polarized light imaging and serial block face scanning electron microscopy.

  3. CoCoMac 2.0 and the future of tract-tracing databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Rembrandt; Wachtler, Thomas; Diesmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The CoCoMac database contains the results of several hundred published axonal tract-tracing studies in the macaque monkey brain. The combined results are used for constructing the macaque macro-connectome. Here we discuss the redevelopment of CoCoMac and compare it to six connectome-related projects: two online resources that provide full access to raw tracing data in rodents, a connectome viewer for advanced 3D graphics, a partial but highly detailed rat connectome, a brain data management system that generates custom connectivity matrices, and a software package that covers the complete pipeline from connectivity data to large-scale brain simulations. The second edition of CoCoMac features many enhancements over the original. For example, a search wizard is provided for full access to all tables and their nested dependencies. Connectivity matrices can be computed on demand in a user-selected nomenclature. A new data entry system is available as a preview, and is to become a generic solution for community-driven data entry in manually collated databases. We conclude with the question whether neuronal tracing will remain the gold standard to uncover the wiring of brains, thereby highlighting developments in human connectome construction, tracer substances, polarized light imaging, and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

  4. The MacGyver effect: alive and well in health services research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriarty Helen J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a manner similar to the television action hero MacGyver, health services researchers need to respond to the pressure of unpredictable demands and constrained time frames. The results are often both innovative and functional, with the creation of outputs that could not have been anticipated in the initial planning and design of the research. Discussion In the conduct of health services research many challenges to robust research processes are generated as a result of the interface between academic research, health policy and implementation agendas. Within a complex and rapidly evolving environment the task of the health services researcher is, therefore, to juggle sometimes contradictory pressures to produce valid results. Summary This paper identifies the MacGyver-type dilemmas which arise in health services research, wherein innovation may be called for, to maintain the intended scientific method and rigour. These 'MacGyver drivers' are framed as opposing issues from the perspective of both academic and public policy communities. The ideas expressed in this paper are illustrated by four examples from research projects positioned at the interface between public policy strategy and academia.

  5. IDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Satellite Networks with Consideration on Channel Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongliang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the shortcomings of existing medium access control (MAC protocols based on TDMA or CDMA in satellite networks, interleave division multiple access (IDMA technique is introduced into satellite communication networks. Therefore, a novel wide-band IDMA MAC protocol based on channel quality is proposed in this paper, consisting of a dynamic power allocation algorithm, a rate adaptation algorithm, and a call admission control (CAC scheme. Firstly, the power allocation algorithm combining the technique of IDMA SINR-evolution and channel quality prediction is developed to guarantee high power efficiency even in terrible channel conditions. Secondly, the effective rate adaptation algorithm, based on accurate channel information per timeslot and by the means of rate degradation, can be realized. What is more, based on channel quality prediction, the CAC scheme, combining the new power allocation algorithm, rate scheduling, and buffering strategies together, is proposed for the emerging IDMA systems, which can support a variety of traffic types, and offering quality of service (QoS requirements corresponding to different priority levels. Simulation results show that the new wide-band IDMA MAC protocol can make accurate estimation of available resource considering the effect of multiuser detection (MUD and QoS requirements of multimedia traffic, leading to low outage probability as well as high overall system throughput.

  6. A Selective-Awakening MAC Protocol for Energy-Efficient Data Forwarding in Linear Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iclia Villordo-Jimenez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Selective-Awakening MAC (SA-MAC protocol which is a synchronized duty-cycled protocol with pipelined scheduling for Linear Sensor Networks (LSNs. In the proposed protocol, nodes selectively awake depending on node density and traffic load conditions and on the state of the buffers of the receiving nodes. In order to characterize the performance of the proposed protocol, we present a Discrete-Time Markov Chain-based analysis that is validated through extensive discrete-event simulations. Our results show that SA-MAC significantly outperforms previous proposals in terms of energy consumption, throughput, and packet loss probability. This is particularly true under high node density and high traffic load conditions, which are expected to be common scenarios in the context of IoT applications. We also present an analysis by grade (i.e., the number of hops to the sink, which is located at one end of the LSN that reveals that LSNs exhibit heterogeneous performance depending on the nodes’ grade. Such results can be used as a design guideline for future LSN implementations.

  7. PaleoMac: A Macintosh™ application for treating paleomagnetic data and making plate reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogné, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    This brief note provides an overview of a new Macintosh™ application, PaleoMac, (MacOS 8.0 or later, 15Mb RAM required) which permits rapid processing of paleomagnetic data, from the demagnetization data acquired in the laboratory, to the treatment of paleomagnetic poles, plate reconstructions, finite rotation computations on a sphere, and characterization of relative plate motions. Capabilities of PaleoMac include (1) high interactivity between the user and data displayed on screen which provides a fast and easy way to handle, add and remove data or contours, perform computations on subsets of points, change projections, sizes, etc.; (2) performance of all standard principal component analysis and statistical processing on a sphere [, 1953] etc.); (3) output of high quality plots, compatible with graphic programs such as Adobe Illustrator, and output of numerical results as ASCII files. Beyond its usefulness in treating paleomagnetic data, its ability to handle plate motion computations should be of large interest to the Earth science community.

  8. Strategies for Optimal MAC Parameters Tuning in IEEE 802.15.6 Wearable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2015-09-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) has penetrated immensely in revolutionizing the classical heath-care system. Recently, number of WBAN applications has emerged which introduce potential limits to existing solutions. In particular, IEEE 802.15.6 standard has provided great flexibility, provisions and capabilities to deal emerging applications. In this paper, we investigate the application-specific throughput analysis by fine-tuning the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) parameters of the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. Based on PHY characterizations in narrow band, at the MAC layer, carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and scheduled access protocols are extensively analyzed. It is concluded that, IEEE 802.15.6 standard can satisfy most of the WBANs applications throughput requirements by maximum achieving 680 Kbps. However, those emerging applications which require high quality audio or video transmissions, standard is not able to meet their constraints. Moreover, delay, energy efficiency and successful packet reception are considered as key performance metrics for comparing the MAC protocols. CSMA/CA protocol provides the best results to meet the delay constraints of medical and non-medical WBAN applications. Whereas, the scheduled access approach, performs very well both in energy efficiency and packet reception ratio.

  9. Performance Analysis of a Cluster-Based MAC Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alonso-Zárate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model to evaluate the non-saturated performance of the Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks (DQMANs in single-hop networks is presented in this paper. DQMAN is comprised of a spontaneous, temporary, and dynamic clustering mechanism integrated with a near-optimum distributed queuing Medium Access Control (MAC protocol. Clustering is executed in a distributed manner using a mechanism inspired by the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF of the IEEE 802.11. Once a station seizes the channel, it becomes the temporary clusterhead of a spontaneous cluster and it coordinates the peer-to-peer communications between the clustermembers. Within each cluster, a near-optimum distributed queuing MAC protocol is executed. The theoretical performance analysis of DQMAN in single-hop networks under non-saturation conditions is presented in this paper. The approach integrates the analysis of the clustering mechanism into the MAC layer model. Up to the knowledge of the authors, this approach is novel in the literature. In addition, the performance of an ad hoc network using DQMAN is compared to that obtained when using the DCF of the IEEE 802.11, as a benchmark reference.

  10. An Enhanced Reservation-Based MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, José A.; Silva, Helder D.; Macedo, Pedro; Rocha, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is an enabling standard for wireless sensor networks. In order to support applications requiring dedicated bandwidth or bounded delay, it provides a reservation-based scheme named Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS). However, the GTS scheme presents some drawbacks, such as inefficient bandwidth utilization and support to a maximum of only seven devices. This paper presents eLPRT (enhanced Low Power Real Time), a new reservation-based MAC protocol that introduces several performance enhancing features in comparison to the GTS scheme. This MAC protocol builds on top of LPRT (Low Power Real Time) and includes various mechanisms designed to increase data transmission reliability against channel errors, improve bandwidth utilization and increase the number of supported devices. A motion capture system based on inertial and magnetic sensors has been used to validate the protocol. The effectiveness of the performance enhancements introduced by each of the new features is demonstrated through the provision of both simulation and experimental results. PMID:22163826

  11. CoCoMac 2.0 and the future of tract-tracing databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Rembrandt; Wachtler, Thomas; Diesmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The CoCoMac database contains the results of several hundred published axonal tract-tracing studies in the macaque monkey brain. The combined results are used for constructing the macaque macro-connectome. Here we discuss the redevelopment of CoCoMac and compare it to six connectome-related projects: two online resources that provide full access to raw tracing data in rodents, a connectome viewer for advanced 3D graphics, a partial but highly detailed rat connectome, a brain data management system that generates custom connectivity matrices, and a software package that covers the complete pipeline from connectivity data to large-scale brain simulations. The second edition of CoCoMac features many enhancements over the original. For example, a search wizard is provided for full access to all tables and their nested dependencies. Connectivity matrices can be computed on demand in a user-selected nomenclature. A new data entry system is available as a preview, and is to become a generic solution for community-driven data entry in manually collated databases. We conclude with the question whether neuronal tracing will remain the gold standard to uncover the wiring of brains, thereby highlighting developments in human connectome construction, tracer substances, polarized light imaging, and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy. PMID:23293600

  12. Detection of Legionella, L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) along Potable Water Distribution Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Bentham, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of potable water presents a potential route of exposure to opportunistic pathogens and hence warrants significant public health concern. This study used qPCR to detect opportunistic pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC at multiple points along two potable water distribution pipelines. One used chlorine disinfection and the other chloramine disinfection. Samples were collected four times over the year to provide seasonal variation and the chlorine or chloramine residual was measured during collection. Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC were detected in both distribution systems throughout the year and were all detected at a maximum concentration of 103 copies/mL in the chlorine disinfected system and 106, 103 and 104 copies/mL respectively in the chloramine disinfected system. The concentrations of these opportunistic pathogens were primarily controlled throughout the distribution network through the maintenance of disinfection residuals. At a dead-end and when the disinfection residual was not maintained significant (p < 0.05) increases in concentration were observed when compared to the concentration measured closest to the processing plant in the same pipeline and sampling period. Total coliforms were not present in any water sample collected. This study demonstrates the ability of Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC to survive the potable water disinfection process and highlights the need for greater measures to control these organisms along the distribution pipeline and at point of use. PMID:25046636

  13. Cross Layer PHY-MAC Protocol for Wireless Static and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Blondia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Multihop mobile wireless networks have drawn a lot of attention in recent years thanks to their wide applicability in civil and military environments. Since the existing IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF standard does not provide satisfactory access to the wireless medium in multihop mobile networks, we have designed a cross-layer protocol, (CroSs-layer noise aware power driven MAC (SNAPdMac, which consists of two parts. The protocol first concentrates on the flexible adjustment of the upper and lower bounds of the contention window (CW to lower the number of collisions. In addition, it uses a power control scheme, triggered by the medium access control (MAC layer, to limit the waste of energy and also to decrease the number of collisions. Thanks to a noticeable energy conservation and decrease of the number of collisions, it prolongs significantly the lifetime of the network and delays the death of the first node while increasing both the throughput performance and the sending bit rate/throughput fairness among contending flows.

  14. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Landsberger, S.

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration

  15. Detection of Legionella, L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) along potable water distribution pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Bentham, Richard

    2014-07-18

    Inhalation of potable water presents a potential route of exposure to opportunistic pathogens and hence warrants significant public health concern. This study used qPCR to detect opportunistic pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC at multiple points along two potable water distribution pipelines. One used chlorine disinfection and the other chloramine disinfection. Samples were collected four times over the year to provide seasonal variation and the chlorine or chloramine residual was measured during collection. Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC were detected in both distribution systems throughout the year and were all detected at a maximum concentration of 103 copies/mL in the chlorine disinfected system and 106, 103 and 104 copies/mL respectively in the chloramine disinfected system. The concentrations of these opportunistic pathogens were primarily controlled throughout the distribution network through the maintenance of disinfection residuals. At a dead-end and when the disinfection residual was not maintained significant (p pipeline and sampling period. Total coliforms were not present in any water sample collected. This study demonstrates the ability of Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC to survive the potable water disinfection process and highlights the need for greater measures to control these organisms along the distribution pipeline and at point of use.

  16. Experimental study of filter cake formation on different filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2009-01-01

    Removal of particulate matter from gases generated in the process industry is important for product recovery as well as emission control. Dynamics of filtration plant depend on operating conditions. The models, that predict filter plant behaviour, involve empirical resistance parameters which are usually derived from limited experimental data and are characteristics of the filter media and filter cake (dust deposited on filter medium). Filter cake characteristics are affected by the nature of filter media, process parameters and mode of filter regeneration. Removal of dust particles from air is studied in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter facility resembling closely to the industrial filters. Limestone dust and ambient air are used in this study with two widely different filter media. All important parameters like pressure drop, gas flow rate, dust settling, are recorded continuously at 1s interval. The data is processed for estimation of the resistance parameters. The pressure drop rise on test filter media is compared. Results reveal that the surface of filter media has an influence on pressure drop rise (concave pressure drop rise). Similar effect is produced by partially jet pulsed filter surface. Filter behaviour is also simulated using estimated parameters and a simplified model and compared with the experimental results. Distribution of cake area load is therefore an important aspect of jet pulse cleaned bag filter modeling. Mean specific cake resistance remains nearly constant on thoroughly jet pulse cleaned membrane coated filter bags. However, the trend can not be confirmed without independent cake height and density measurements. Thus the results reveal the importance of independent measurements of cake resistance. (author)

  17. Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.

    2017-09-01

    Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.

  18. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  19. Stable and efficient cubature-based filtering in dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ballreich, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    The book addresses the problem of calculation of d-dimensional integrals (conditional expectations) in filter problems. It develops new methods of deterministic numerical integration, which can be used to speed up and stabilize filter algorithms. With the help of these methods, better estimates and predictions of latent variables are made possible in the fields of economics, engineering and physics. The resulting procedures are tested within four detailed simulation studies.

  20. Heroic Measures for an American Hero: Attempting to Save the Life of General Douglas MacArthur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Theodore N

    2017-12-01

    General Douglas MacArthur was a towering public figure on an international stage for the first half of the 20th century. He was healthy throughout his life but developed a series of medical problems when he entered his 80s. This article reviews the General's medical care during two separate life-threatening medical crises that required surgical intervention. The first episode occurred in 1960 when MacArthur presented with renal failure due to an obstructed prostate. Four years later after his 84th birthday, MacArthur developed bile duct obstruction from common duct stones. He underwent an uncomplicated cholecystectomy and common duct exploration but developed variceal bleeding requiring an emergent splenorenal shunt. His terminal event was precipitated by strangulated bowel in long-ignored very large inguinal hernias. MacArthur died, despite state-of-the-art surgical intervention, due to renal failure and hepatic coma.

  1. Deformation, Failure, and Fatigue Life of SiC/Ti-15-3 Laminates Accurately Predicted by MAC/GMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) (ref.1) has been extended to enable fully coupled macro-micro deformation, failure, and fatigue life predictions for advanced metal matrix, ceramic matrix, and polymer matrix composites. Because of the multiaxial nature of the code's underlying micromechanics model, GMC--which allows the incorporation of complex local inelastic constitutive models--MAC/GMC finds its most important application in metal matrix composites, like the SiC/Ti-15-3 composite examined here. Furthermore, since GMC predicts the microscale fields within each constituent of the composite material, submodels for local effects such as fiber breakage, interfacial debonding, and matrix fatigue damage can and have been built into MAC/GMC. The present application of MAC/GMC highlights the combination of these features, which has enabled the accurate modeling of the deformation, failure, and life of titanium matrix composites.

  2. A Differential Geometric Approach to Nonlinear Filtering: The Projection Filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, D.; Hanzon, B.; LeGland, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new and systematic method of approximating exact nonlinear filters with finite dimensional filters, using the differential geometric approach to statistics. The projection filter is defined rigorously in the case of exponential families. A convenient exponential family is

  3. Bayesian Parameter Estimation via Filtering and Functional Approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Matthies, Hermann G.

    2016-11-25

    The inverse problem of determining parameters in a model by comparing some output of the model with observations is addressed. This is a description for what hat to be done to use the Gauss-Markov-Kalman filter for the Bayesian estimation and updating of parameters in a computational model. This is a filter acting on random variables, and while its Monte Carlo variant --- the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) --- is fairly straightforward, we subsequently only sketch its implementation with the help of functional representations.

  4. Bayesian Parameter Estimation via Filtering and Functional Approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Matthies, Hermann G.; Litvinenko, Alexander; Rosic, Bojana V.; Zander, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    The inverse problem of determining parameters in a model by comparing some output of the model with observations is addressed. This is a description for what hat to be done to use the Gauss-Markov-Kalman filter for the Bayesian estimation and updating of parameters in a computational model. This is a filter acting on random variables, and while its Monte Carlo variant --- the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) --- is fairly straightforward, we subsequently only sketch its implementation with the help of functional representations.

  5. Current evidence for the use of C-MAC videolaryngoscope in adult airway management: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue FS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fu-Shan Xue, Hui-Xian Li, Ya-Yang Liu, Gui-Zhen Yang Department of Anesthesiology, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The C-MAC videolaryngoscope is the first Macintosh-typed videolaryngoscope. Since the advent of its original version video Macintosh system in 1999, this device has been modified several times. A unique feature of C-MAC device is its ability to provide the 2 options of direct and video laryngoscopy with the same device. The available evidence shows that in patients with normal airways, C-MAC videolaryngoscope compared with direct laryngoscopy can provide comparable or better laryngeal views and exerts less force on maxillary incisors, but does not offer conclusive benefits with regard to intubation time, intubation success, number of intubation attempts, the use of adjuncts, and hemodynamic responses to intubation. In patients with predicted or known difficult airways, C-MAC videolaryngoscope can achieve a better laryngeal view, a higher intubation success rate and a shorter intubation time than direct laryngoscopy. Furthermore, the option to perform direct and video laryngoscopy with the same device makes C-MAC videolaryngoscope exceptionally useful for emergency intubation. In addition, the C-MAC videolaryngoscope is a very good tool for tracheal intubation teaching. However, tracheal intubation with C-MAC videolaryngoscope may occasionally fail and introduction of C-MAC videolaryngoscope in clinical practice must be accompanied by formal training programs in normal and difficult airway managements. Keywords: videolaryngoscopy, direct laryngoscopy, airway management, tracheal intubation, patient safety

  6. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  7. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  8. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  9. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  10. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  11. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos, L.; Arista, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  12. An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol Using Dynamic Queue Management for Delay-Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugui Qu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional MAC protocols for wireless sensor network perform poorly when faced with a delay-tolerant mobile network environment. Characterized by a highly dynamic and sparse topology, poor network connectivity as well as data delay-tolerance, delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks exacerbate the severe power constraints and memory limitations of nodes. This paper proposes an energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management (EQ-MAC for power saving and data queue management. Via data transfers initiated by the target sink and the use of a dynamic queue management strategy based on priority, EQ-MAC effectively avoids untargeted transfers, increases the chance of successful data transmission, and makes useful data reach the target terminal in a timely manner. Experimental results show that EQ-MAC has high energy efficiency in comparison with a conventional MAC protocol. It also achieves a 46% decrease in packet drop probability, 79% increase in system throughput, and 25% decrease in mean packet delay.

  13. TLR4-mediated expression of Mac-1 in monocytes plays a pivotal role in monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Jin Lee

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is known to mediate monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, however, its role on the expression of monocyte adhesion molecules is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of TLR4 on the expression of monocyte adhesion molecules, and determined the functional role of TLR4-induced adhesion molecules on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. When THP-1 monocytes were stimulated with Kdo2-Lipid A (KLA, a specific TLR4 agonist, Mac-1 expression was markedly increased in association with an increased adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. These were attenuated by anti-Mac-1 antibody, suggesting a functional role of TLR4-induced Mac-1 on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. In monocytes treated with MK886, a 5-lipoxygenase (LO inhibitor, both Mac-1 expression and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by KLA were markedly attenuated. Moreover, KLA increased the expression of mRNA and protein of 5-LO, suggesting a pivotal role of 5-LO on these processes. In in vivo studies, KLA increased monocyte adhesion to aortic endothelium of wild-type (WT mice, which was attenuated in WT mice treated with anti-Mac-1 antibody as well as in TLR4-deficient mice. Taken together, TLR4-mediated expression of Mac-1 in monocytes plays a pivotal role on monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium, leading to increased foam cell formation in the development of atherosclerosis.

  14. La République de Macédoine dans la presse française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Glamcevski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les médias français s'intéressent à la République de Macédoine quand la Grèce refuse de la reconnaître, mais souvent adoptent des positions progrecques.Malgré son nom illustre, la Macédoine est un pays très mal connu en France. Jusqu’en 1991, très peu de gens connaissaient l’existence de la République de Macédoine. Les médias français commencent à s’intéresser au pays lors du blocus de sa reconnaissance par la Grèce (1991. De nombreux articles, commentaires, interviews tentent alors d’éclaircir la situation du pays, mais il y a eu très peu d’interventions de la part des intellectuels et « experts ». Cette communication montre les grandes lignes des articles parus en France dans la période entre 1991 et 2009. Mais la presse française, en assimilant le peuple macédonien au terme « Slaves », voulait sans doute pendant le conflit du Kosovo et le conflit de 2001, éclaircir la situation, mais l’utilisation de ce terme est aussi comprise comme une tentative de négation de l’existence du peuple macédonien. Le nom de la République de Macédoine bloque le pays dans son passé, c'est aux Macédoniens de définir leur identité, pas à leurs voisins ni aux membres de l'UE.In spite of its famous name, Macedonia is not well-known in France. Till 1991, very few persons even knew the existence of a Republic of Macedonia. The French Medias began to get interested in it with the Greek blocus of Macedonia. A lot of papers, comments, interviews tried then to explain the main lines of the country's situation but with a very light participation of experts or intellectuals. One can find in this paper the main lines of the French press on Macedonia from spring 1999 to September 2001. The French papers, as a whole, assimilating the “Macedonian” people to “Slaves”, perhaps to make a clear difference when explaining the situation during the Kossovo crisis or later, during the crisis inside Macedonia, contributed

  15. Stochastic stacking without filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth

  16. Multilevel particle filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-01-06

    This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.

  17. Filtered cathodic arc source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45 degree to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures

  18. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  19. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  20. Quick-change filter cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.