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Sample records for maastrichtian dinosaurian assemblages

  1. Calcareous nannofossils from the Boreal upper Campanian-Maastrichtian Chalk of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    Boreal calcareous nannofossil assemblages have been documented from three sections in Denmark. from the Upper Campanian to Upper Maastrichtian (nannofossil zones UC16a(BP) to UC20d(BP)): the Stevns-1 borehole, next to the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary section of Stevns Klint, eastern Sjaelland...

  2. Revision of the Maastrichtian-Palaeocene charophyte biostratigraphy of the Fontllonga reference section (southern Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain)

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    Vicente, A.; Villalba-Breva, S.; Ferrandez-Cañadell, C.; Martin-Closa

    2016-07-01

    The Fontllonga section is one of the best-known stratigraphic sections wordwide for the study of charophyte biostratigraphy of the Maastrichtian and lower Palaeocene. An updated proposal for the charophyte biostratigraphy of this section is presented after summarizing previous knowledge. The zone of Peckichara cancellata allows the upper Campanian–lowermost Maastrichtian to be characterised in the base of the section (La Maçana Formation). The Microchara punctata biozone represents most of the Maastrichtian (Figuerola Formation). Within this biozone, a Clavator ultimus subzone is proposed to improve characterisation of the lower and middle Maastrichtian. Both the upper and lower boundaries of the Microchara punctata biozone proposed in previous studies are modified based on new occurrences of the index species. A charophyte assemblage belonging to the Dughiella bacillaris biozone is reported for the first time from the middle of the section (Perauba Complex) and provides an age for this unit ranging from the upper Danian to lower Thanetian. A foraminifer assemblage found in the basal marine deposits above the non-marine succession of the Fontllonga section provides new biostratigraphic data to locate the upper boundary of the non-marine succession at least within the upper Thanetian. (Author)

  3. Astronomical calibration of the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husson, Dorothée; Galbrun, Bruno; Laskar, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    /Pg boundary, considering the uncertainty of the long-term variation of the 405 ka eccentricity cycle. The first proposal provides a Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary age of 65.59 ± 0.07 Ma and the second an age of 66 ± 0.07 Ma, which is coherent with the most recent radio-isotopic datings. Magnetochron boundaries...... and the Campanian/Maastrichtian boundary are dated relative to these numerical ages of the K/Pg boundary....

  4. Low beta diversity of Maastrichtian dinosaurs of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrek, Matthew J.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2010-01-01

    Beta diversity is an important component of large-scale patterns of biodiversity, but its explicit examination is more difficult than that of alpha diversity. Only recently have data sets large enough been presented to begin assessing global patterns of species turnover, especially in the fossil record. We present here an analysis of beta diversity of a Maastrichtian (71–65 million years old) assemblage of dinosaurs from the Western Interior of North America, a region that covers ≈1.5 × 106 km2, borders an epicontinental sea, and spans ≈20° of latitude. Previous qualitative analyses have suggested regional groupings of these dinosaurs and generally concluded that there were multiple distinct faunal regions. However, these studies did not directly account for sampling bias, which may artificially decrease similarity and increase turnover between regions. Our analysis used abundance-based data to account for sampling intensity and was unable to support any hypothesis of multiple distinct faunas; earlier hypothesized faunal delineations were likely a sampling artifact. Our results indicate a low beta diversity and support a single dinosaur community within the entire Western Interior region of latest Cretaceous North America. Homogeneous environments are a known driver of low modern beta diversities, and the warm equable climate of the late Cretaceous modulated by the epicontenental seaway is inferred to be an underlying influence on the low beta diversity of this ancient ecosystem. PMID:20404176

  5. Late Maastrichtian foraminiferids and diatoms from the Polish Carpathians (Ropianka Formation, Skole Nappe): a case study from the Chmielnik-Grabówka composite section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiński, M. Adam; Olshtynska, Alexandra; Uchman, Alfred

    2013-12-01

    Gasiński, M.A., Olshtynska, A. and Uchman, A. 2013. Late Maastrichtian foraminiferids and diatoms from the Polish Carpathians (Ropianka Formation, Skole Nappe): a case study from the Chmielnik-Grabowka composite section. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63(4), 515-525. Warszawa. Well-preserved foraminiferids have been found in the Chmielnik-Grabowka section (Skole Nappe, Polish Carpathians). The Abathomphalus mayaroensis (late Maastrichtian) and Racemiguembelina fructicosa (earlylate Maastrichtian) standard planktonic foraminiferal biozones have been recognized, based on the occurrence of their respective index species. Sediments of the R. fructicosa Zone contain diatoms, which are a rare component of Cretaceous flysch microfossil assemblages in the Carpathians. The diatom frustules and some foraminiferid tests are pyritized, probably after burial in the sediment, below the redox boundary or in the oxygen- deficient microenvironment inside the frustules or tests of microfossils; the presence of trace fossils and bioturbational structures in the same bed indicate an oxygenated sea floor.

  6. Controls on upper Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk deposition in the eastern Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2017-01-01

    % of the sediment. Sedimentation took place in deep water, below the photic zone and storm-wave base, and is characterized by decimetre to metre-scale variations in facies and trace fossil assemblages indicating repeated shifts in depositional environment. Integration of facies with published data on sea...... of accumulation rates and sea temperatures and is interpreted to represent a very broad set of deep water environmental conditions with an ample supply of calcareous nannofossil debris and intense bioturbation. Longer term shifts in deposition are best expressed by distribution of clay, flint and bioturbated...... micro-wackestone, bioturbated wackestone and laminated mudstone chalk facies, whereas the trace fossil assemblages appear less useful. The data set indicates overall shallowing over time with two distinctive events of clay influx to the basin during the late Campanian-earliest Maastrichtian and late...

  7. Stratigraphy of the type Maastrichtian – a synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, J.W.M.; Jagt-Yazykova, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    A synthesis of the stratigraphy of the Maastrichtian Stage in its extended type area, that is, southern Limburg (the Netherlands), and adjacent Belgian and German territories, is presented with a brief historical overview. Quarrying activities at the large quarry complex of ENCI-HeidelbergCement

  8. Dinosaur remains from the type Maastrichtian: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weishampel, David B.; Mulder, Eric W A; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W M; Jianu, Coralia Maria; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Peeters, Hans H G; Schulp, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated cranial and post-cranial remains of hadrosaurid dinosaurs have been collected from various outcrops in the type area of the Maastrichtian stage during the last few years. In the present contribution, dentary and maxillary teeth are recorded from the area for the first time. Post-cranial

  9. The ornithologist Alfred Russel Wallace and the controversy surrounding the dinosaurian origin of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    Over many years of his life, the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) explored the tropical forests of Malaysia, collecting numerous specimens, including hundreds of birds, many of them new to science. Subsequently, Wallace published a series of papers on systematic ornithology, and discovered a new species on top of a volcano on Ternate, where he wrote, in 1858, his famous essay on natural selection. Based on this hands-on experience, and an analysis of an Archaeopteryx fossil, Wallace suggested that birds may have descended from dinosaurian ancestors. Here, we describe the "dinosaur-bird hypothesis" that originated with the work of Thomas H. Huxley (1825-1895). We present the strong evidence linking theropod dinosaurs to birds, and briefly outline the long and ongoing controversy around this concept. Dinosaurs preserving plumage, nesting sites and trace fossils provide overwhelming evidence for the dinosaurian origin of birds. Based on these recent findings of paleontological research, we conclude that extant birds indeed descended, with some modifications, from small, Mesozoic theropod dinosaurs. In the light of Wallace's view of bird origins, we critically evaluate recent opposing views to this idea, including Ernst Mayr's (1904-2005) arguments against the "dinosaur-bird hypothesis", and document that this famous ornithologist was not correct in his assessment of this important aspect of vertebrate evolution.

  10. Geology and taphonomy of the L'Espinau dinosaur bonebed, a singular lagoonal site from the Maastrichtian of South-Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevilla, V.; Vicente, A.; Battista, F.; Sellés, A. G.; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Martín-Closas, C.; Anadón, P.; Vila, B.; Razzolini, N. L.; Galobart, À.; Oms, O.

    2017-06-01

    The L'Espinau site is a dinosaur bonebed from the Upper Cretaceous of the South-Central Pyrenees (north-eastern Spain) that have provided hundreds of bone remains attributed to hadrosauroids, together with a rich assemblage of herpetofauna, fish and microflora. Magnetostratigraphy calibrated the site with the early late Maastrichtian, and the combined sedimentology, stable isotope geochemistry and palaeoecology revealed that this fossil site formed in a lagoon, in which a mixed freshwater-brackish palaeoenvironment was developed. This setting displays a south-north charophyte zonation from freshwater (Clavator brachycerus-dominated assemblage) to brackish or eurihaline conditions (Feistiella malladae-dominated assemblage), revealing a palaeoenvironment change towards the coast. Sedimentology and taphonomy (bidirectional arrangement of long bones, abrasion and disarticulation) indicate that the L'Espinau site is the result of a cohesive mass flow event originated very close to the sea. This process entrained and mixed fauna from both the terrestrial and the brackish/marine environment of a lagoon. An increasing of the water runoff (e.g. by intense rainfall) reworking poorly consolidated sediments is considered here as the most probable triggering mechanism. Mass flow-hosted bonebeds are commonly linked to fluvial palaeoenvironments, so our study case is a rare example of bones accumulating near the sea. This study adds evidence that hadrosauroids inhabited littoral environments during the Maastrichtian in the southern Pyrenean area.

  11. The lower Maastrichtian Hivdskud succession, Møns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelby, M.E.; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Surlyk, Finn

    2014-01-01

    with the cored boreholes Stevns-1 (Denmark) and ODP Site 762C (Indian Ocean). Hvidskud encompasses the 405 kyr eccentricity cycles Ma40513 – Ma40511 within magnetochron C31r. A sedimentation rate of 5.0 cm kyr-1 can be inferred from correlation to geochronological tie-points in ODP 762C, suggesting an age of ~70...... Maastrichtian in north-western Europe. Information on palaeo-seawater temperatures can be drawn from oxygen isotope records obtained from bulk rock samples and 24 micromorphic brachiopod specimens (Terebratulina faujasii). The brachiopod data show a clear diagenetic trend but point to an upper range...

  12. First evidence of dinosaurian secondary cartilage in the post-hatching skull of Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Dinosauria, Ornithischia.

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    Alida M Bailleul

    Full Text Available Bone and calcified cartilage can be fossilized and preserved for hundreds of millions of years. While primary cartilage is fairly well studied in extant and fossilized organisms, nothing is known about secondary cartilage in fossils. In extant birds, secondary cartilage arises after bone formation during embryonic life at articulations, sutures and muscular attachments in order to accommodate mechanical stress. Considering the phylogenetic inclusion of birds within the Dinosauria, we hypothesized a dinosaurian origin for this "avian" tissue. Therefore, histological thin sectioning was used to investigate secondary chondrogenesis in disarticulated craniofacial elements of several post-hatching specimens of the non-avian dinosaur Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae. Secondary cartilage was found on three membrane bones directly involved with masticatory function: (1 as nodules on the dorso-caudal face of a surangular; and (2 on the bucco-caudal face of a maxilla; and (3 between teeth as islets in the alveolar processes of a dentary. Secondary chondrogenesis at these sites is consistent with the locations of secondary cartilage in extant birds and with the induction of the cartilage by different mechanical factors - stress generated by the articulation of the quadrate, stress of a ligamentous or muscular insertion, and stress of tooth formation. Thus, our study reveals the first evidence of "avian" secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur. It pushes the origin of this "avian" tissue deep into dinosaurian ancestry, suggesting the creation of the more appropriate term "dinosaurian" secondary cartilage.

  13. Fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  14. Strange Assemblage

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    David Robert Cole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper contends that the power of Deleuze & Guattari’s (1988 notion of assemblage as theorised in 1000 Plateaus can be normalised and reductive with reference to its application to any social-cultural context where an open system of dynamic and fluid elements are located. Rather than determining the assemblage in this way, this paper argues for an alternative conception of ‘strange assemblage’ that must be deliberately and consciously created through rigorous and focused intellectual, creative and philosophical work around what makes assemblages singular. The paper will proceed with examples of ‘strange assemblage’ taken from a film by Peter Greenaway (A Zed and 2 Noughts; the film ‘Performance’; educational research with Sudanese families in Australia; the book, Bomb Culture by Jeff Nuttall (1970; and the band Hawkwind. Fittingly, these elements are themselves chosen to demonstrate the concept of ‘strange assemblage’, and how it can be presented. How exactly the elements of a ‘strange assemblage’ come together and work in the world is unknown until they are specifically elaborated and created ‘in the moment’. Such spontaneous methodology reminds us of the 1960s ‘Happenings’, the Situationist International and Dada/Surrealism. The difference that will be opened up by this paper is that all elements of this ‘strange assemblage’ cohere in terms of a rendering of ‘the unacceptable.'

  15. Palynology and biostratigraphy of the Maastrichtian Coal Measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The palynomorph abundance and diversity peaks and fossil assemblage of Mamu Formation show similarity with South American forms characterized by colder and warmer climate. These are directly related to eustatic change in sea level resulting to transgression and regression phases. The marine incursion resulted in ...

  16. An astronomical time scale for the Maastrichtian at the Zumaia and Sopelana sections (Basque country, northern Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batenburg, Sietske J.; Gale, Andy S.; Sprovieri, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The rhythmically bedded limestone–marl alternations in the coastal cliffs of Sopelana and Zumaia in the Basque country, northern Spain, permit testing and refining of existing Maastrichtian chronologies (latest Cretaceous). The recently established astronomical time scale for the late Maastrichtian...

  17. Marine macrofossil communities in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Surlyk, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Three successive marine habitats and their benthic macrofossil communities have been recognised and assessed in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark. The mound-bedded lower Sigerslev Member was deposited below the photic zone under the influence of persistent, non-erosive bo......Three successive marine habitats and their benthic macrofossil communities have been recognised and assessed in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark. The mound-bedded lower Sigerslev Member was deposited below the photic zone under the influence of persistent, non...

  18. The North African Mosasaur Globidens phosphaticus from the Maastrichtian of Angola

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    Polcyn, Michael J.; Jacobs, Louis L.; Schulp, Anne S.; Mateus, Octávio

    New mosasaur fossils from Maastrichtian beds at Bentiaba, Angola, representing elements of the skull and postcranial axial skeleton from two individuals of the durophagous genus Globidens, are reported. Based on dental morphology, specifically the inflated posterior surface and vertical sulci, the

  19. Stable isotopes, niche partitioning and the paucity of elasmosaur remains in the Maastrichtian type area

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    Schulp, Anne S.; Janssen, Renée; Van Baal, Remy R.; Jagt, John W M; Mulder, Eric W A; Vonhof, Hubert B.

    2017-01-01

    Remains of elasmosaurid plesiosaurs are exceedingly rare in the type-Maastrichtian strata (Late Cretaceous, southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium), in stark contrast to relatively common skeletal remains of mosasaurs. Here, we present an analysis of δ13C stable isotope values for tooth enamel

  20. Coniacian-maastrichtian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and carbon-isotope stratigraphy in the Zagros Basin (Iran)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmjooei, Mohammad Javad; Thibault, Nicolas; Kani, Anoshiravan

    2014-01-01

    , White Fall, Kingsdown, Michel Dean, Haven Brow, Horseshoe Bay, Buckle, Hawks Brow, Santonian/Campanian boundary (SCBE) and Campanian/Maastrichtian boundary (CMBE) events. Correlation to a recently proposed global δ13C stack for the Late Cretaceous points to a major mismatch of this compilation...... and calcareous nannofossil bio-horizons, and (2) their correlation between the Tethyan and Boreal realms....

  1. Maastrichtian or Maestrichtian? A proposal to the Subcommision on Cretaceous Stratigraphy (IUGS, International Commission on Stratigraphy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herngreen, G.F.W.

    2003-01-01

    This contribution deals with the dual spelling of the terminal Cretaceous Stage, the Maastrichtian or Maestrichtian. From a historical point of view and in agreement with the recommendations of the International Stratigraphic Guide (1st and 2nd editions) only Maestrichtian is justified.

  2. Bio-magnetochronology for the upper Campanian-Maastrichtian from the Gubbio area, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardin, Silvia; Galbrun, Bruno; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2012-01-01

    A new bio-chronostratigraphic framework is presented for the upper Campanian - Maastrichtian pelagic sediments of the Gubbio area (Bottaccione and Contessa Highway sections, Italy). New planktonic foraminiferal (FO of P. hantkeninoides), calcareous nannofossil (FO of M. prinsii, base acme of M. m...

  3. Another record of a hadrosaurid dinosaur from the Maastrichtian type area (The Netherlands, Belgium): Seeley revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E. W A; Jagt, J. W M; Schulp, Anne S.

    2005-01-01

    An incomplete left tibia of an indeterminate hadrosaurid from the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage, contained in the collections of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität Berlin (ex Binkhorst van den Binkhorst Colin), is described, illustrated and compared with the type lot of

  4. Nature of the Campano-Maastrichtian Sub-Basins in the Gongola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main structural features of the western part of Gongola Basin from E-W, are the N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE trending faults. These series of faults controll the basin subsidence and deposition of the Campano-Maastrichtian succession in the Dukku, Akko and Bashar sub-basins.The lateral and vertical facies variation within ...

  5. Dinosaurs from the Maastrichtian-type area (southeastern Netherlands, northeastern Belgium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, J. W M; Mulder, E. W. A.; Schulp, Anne S.; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Fraaije, R. H B

    In comparison to pre-1980 records of nonavian dinosaur remains from the Maastrichtian type strata, material collected during the past 20 years is both fairly common and diverse, consisting mostly of isolated cranial and post-cranial remains of hadrosaurids. With the exception of the type specimen of

  6. Changes in floral diversities, floral turnover rates, and climates in Campanian and Maastrichtian time, North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1989-01-01

    One-hundred-and-ten angiosperm pollen taxa have been found in upper Campanian to Masstrichtian rocks of the Colville River region, North Slope of Alaska. These are the highest paleolatitude Campanian and Maastrichtian floras known from North America. Total angiosperm pollen diversity rose during the Campanian and declined toward the end of the Maastrichtian. However, anemophilous porate pollen of the Betulaceae-Myricaceae-Ulmaceae complex increased gradually in diversity during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian and into the Paleocene. Turnover of angiosperm taxa was active throughout most of late Campanian and Maastrichtian time; rapid turnover affected mainly the taxa of zoophilous herbs, representing an bundant but ecologically subordinate element of the vegetation. Last appearances of pollen taxa during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian probably represented mainly extinctions rather than emigrations; end- Cretaceous angiosperm extinctions in the North American Arctic began well before the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event. The last appearances in the late Maastrichtian took place in bursts; they appear to represent stepwise rather than gradual events, which may indicate the existence of pulses of climatic change particularly in late Maastrichtian time. ?? 1989.

  7. Bone histological correlates for air sacs and their implications for understanding the origin of the dinosaurian respiratory system.

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    Lambertz, Markus; Bertozzo, Filippo; Sander, P Martin

    2018-01-01

    Air sacs are an important component of the avian respiratory system, and corresponding structures also were crucial for the evolution of sauropod dinosaur gigantism. Inferring the presence of air sacs in fossils so far is restricted to bones preserving internal pneumatic cavities and foramina as osteological correlates. We here present bone histological correlates for air sacs as a new potential identification tool for these elements of the respiratory system. The analysis of several avian and non-avian dinosaur samples revealed delicate fibres in secondary trabecular and secondary endosteal bone that in the former case (birds) is known or in the latter (non-avian dinosaurs) assumed to have been in contact with air sacs, respectively. The bone histology of this 'pneumosteal tissue' is markedly different from those regions where muscles attached presenting classical Sharpey's fibres. The pneumatized bones of several non-dinosaurian taxa do not exhibit the characteristics of this 'pneumosteum'. Our new histology-based approach thus can be instrumental in reconstructing the origin of air sacs among dinosaurs and hence for our understanding of this remarkable evolutionary novelty of the respiratory system. © 2018 The Author(s).

  8. Belemnite-based strontium, carbon and oxygen isotope stratigraphy of the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonhof, H.B.; Jagt, J.W.M.; Immenhauser, A.; Smit, J.; Berg, Y.W. van den; Saher, M.; Keutgen, N.; Reijmer, J.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Belemnitellid cephalopods from the Maastrichtian stratotype area (southeast Netherlands) are shown to be comparatively well preserved. Although partial diagenetic alteration has been observed, micromilling techniques have permitted the extraction of pristine belemnite calcite, suitable for the

  9. Upper Campanian-Maastrichtian chronostratigraphy of the Skælskør-1 core, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Anderskouv, Kresten; Bjerager, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The lithostratigraphy, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, carbon- and oxygen-isotope stratigraphy and gamma-ray profile are presented for the Skælskør-1 core, eastern Denmark. The correlation of carbon isotopes to Gubbio (Italy) and ODP Site 762C (Indian Ocean) provides...... the chronostratigrahical framework of the core through a tie to magnetostratigraphy. Two new carbon-isotope excursions are defined for the uppermost Maastrichtian of the core and prove useful for long-distance correlation. Twenty stratigraphic tie-points are used for correlation of the upper Campanian......-Maastrichtian interval by combining carbon-isotope and gamma-ray variations. Significant dissimilarities in the gamma-ray profiles of the Danish Basin cores preclude the sole use of this tool for basin-scale correlations. Bulk oxygen-isotopes and semi-quantitative abundance changes in the warm-water calcareous...

  10. Preliminary data on dinosaurs habitat during the Upper Maastrichtian, Hateg Basin, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, D.; Klarik, L.; Bojar, A.-V.

    2002-01-01

    The Hateg basin is located in the south-western part of the Transylvanian Depression and it is filled with sediments that overly the crystalline rocks of the Getic nappe. The basin show multiple stage of Mesozoic evolution. The Latest Cretaceous (Middle and Upper Maastrichtian) with continuous transition to Paleocene is represented by two continental lithostratigraphic units: the Densus-Ciula and the Sinpetru Formations. The Upper Maastrichtian of Densus-Ciula Formation at Tustea Quarry is represented by a pebbly alluvium with massive, matrix supported conglomerates, cross bedded sandstones and mudstones, the last one containing calcretes and dinosaur remains, including eggs and hatchlings of the hadrosaurid Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus. In order to constrain the paleoenvironment in which dinosaurs lived, calcretes and dinosaur eggshells were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopic composition

  11. Lower Maastrichtian cyclostratigraphy of the Bidart section (Basque Country, SW France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husson, Dorothée; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Galbrun, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    various cyclostratigraphic tools. A statistically significant orbital signal is detected, with a remarkable record of the precession corresponding to the limestone-marl couplets. This well expressed orbital forcing allows the building of a relative cyclostratigraphic time scale for the MS and δ13C records...... based on the 100 kyr eccentricity cycle. The total duration of the section is estimated at 1.44 ± 0.22 Myr. Correlation based on calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and comparison of the scaled Bidart δ13C record to the astronomically calibrated δ13C signal of ODP hole 762C shows that the studied...... as the onset of the early Maastrichtian cooling event. With its excellent record of the precessional forcing, the Bidart section, along with other sections of the Basque country, is a useful tool for the refinement of the Maastrichtian timescale....

  12. Preliminary data on dinosaurs habitat during the Upper Maastrichtian, Hateg Basin, Romania

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    Grigorescu, D; Klarik, L [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics (Romania); Bojar, A -V [Department of Geology and Paleontology, Graz (Austria)

    2002-10-01

    The Hateg basin is located in the south-western part of the Transylvanian Depression and it is filled with sediments that overly the crystalline rocks of the Getic nappe. The basin show multiple stage of Mesozoic evolution. The Latest Cretaceous (Middle and Upper Maastrichtian) with continuous transition to Paleocene is represented by two continental lithostratigraphic units: the Densus-Ciula and the Sinpetru Formations. The Upper Maastrichtian of Densus-Ciula Formation at Tustea Quarry is represented by a pebbly alluvium with massive, matrix supported conglomerates, cross bedded sandstones and mudstones, the last one containing calcretes and dinosaur remains, including eggs and hatchlings of the hadrosaurid Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus. In order to constrain the paleoenvironment in which dinosaurs lived, calcretes and dinosaur eggshells were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopic composition.

  13. Integrated stratigraphy of the late Campanian - Maastrichtian in the Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Stemmerik, Lars

    2016-01-01

    New stratigraphic (calcareous nannofossils and carbon isotope) and sedimentological results from the upper Campanian – Maastrichtian of the Stevns-2 core, Denmark, allow for regional correlations and building of a solid age-model with the definition of 17 stratigraphic tie-points in the Danish Ba...... is presented for the Danish Basin, calibrated in age and correlated to high-resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy. Common, regional changes in sediment accumulation rates highlight trends that appear linked to climatic conditions....

  14. Ornithopod and Sauropod Dinosaur Remains from the Maastrichtian Al-Khod Conglomerate, Sultanate of Oman

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    Ann S. Schulp

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fieldwork in the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian Al-Khod Conglomerates in the Sultanate of Oman led to the discovery of a large bone fragment tentatively identified as a partial distal left humerus of a sauropod and an ornithopod dorsal vertebra. The very fragmentary state of preservation of the dorsal vertebra makes specific attribution difficult, but it shows remarkable similarities to the rhabdodontid dinosaurs Rhabdodon and Zalmoxes.

  15. A multidisciplinary approach to digital mapping of dinosaurian tracksites in the Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian–Barremian Broome Sandstone of the Dampier Peninsula, Western Australia

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    Anthony Romilio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundant dinosaurian tracksites of the Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian–Barremian Broome Sandstone of the Dampier Peninsula, Western Australia, form an important part of the West Kimberley National Heritage Place. Previous attempts to document these tracksites using traditional mapping techniques (e.g., surface overlays, transects and gridlines combined with conventional photography have been hindered by the non-trivial challenges associated with working in this area, including, but not limited to: (1 the remoteness of many of the tracksites; (2 the occurrence of the majority of the tracksites in the intertidal zone; (3 the size and complexity of many of the tracksites, with some extending over several square kilometres. Using the historically significant and well-known dinosaurian tracksites at Minyirr (Gantheaume Point, we show how these issues can be overcome through the use of an integrated array of remote sensing tools. A combination of high-resolution aerial photography with both manned and unmanned aircraft, airborne and handheld high-resolution lidar imaging and handheld photography enabled the collection of large amounts of digital data from which 3D models of the tracksites at varying resolutions were constructed. The acquired data encompasses a very broad scale, from the sub-millimetre level that details individual tracks, to the multiple-kilometre level, which encompasses discontinuous tracksite exposures and large swathes of coastline. The former are useful for detailed ichnological work, while the latter are being employed to better understand the stratigraphic and temporal relationship between tracksites in a broader geological and palaeoecological context. These approaches and the data they can generate now provide a means through which digital conservation and temporal monitoring of the Dampier Peninsula’s dinosaurian tracksites can occur. As plans for the on-going management of the tracks in this area progress, analysis of

  16. Is torosaurus triceratops? Geometric morphometric evidence of late maastrichtian ceratopsid dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maiorino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent assessments of morphological changes in the frill during ontogeny hypothesized that the late Maastrichtian horned dinosaur Torosaurus represents the "old adult" of Triceratops, although acceptance of this finding has been disputed on several lines of evidence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Examining the cranial morphology of 28 skulls in lateral view and 36 squamosals of Nedoceratops hatcheri, Triceratops spp. and Torosaurus spp. by means of landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we compared ontogenetic trajectories among these taxa. Principal Component Analysis and cluster analysis confirmed different cranial morphologies. Torosaurus shape space is well separated from Triceratops, whereas Triceratops horridus and Triceratops prorsus partially overlap within Triceratops shape space. Linear regressions between shape and size suggest different ontogenetic trajectories among these taxa. Results support the "traditional" taxonomic status of Torosaurus. We hypothesize that ontogeny drives cranial morphology with different patterns between Torosaurus and Triceratops. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Torosaurus is a distinct and valid taxon. Whether looking at entire skulls, skulls without the frill, frills alone, or squamosals, Torosaurus has different morphologies and distinct allometric trajectories compared to Triceratops. This new approach confirms the taxonomic status of Torosaurus as well as the comparatively low diversity of ceratopsids at the end of the Maastrichtian in North America.

  17. Soft sediment deformation structures in the Maastrichtian Ajali Formation Western Flank of Anambra Basin, Southern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabode, Solomon Ojo

    2014-01-01

    Soft sediment deformation structures were recognized in the Maastrichtian shallow marine wave to tide influenced regressive sediments of Ajali Formation in the western flank of Anambra basin, southern Nigerian. The soft sediment deformation structures were in association with cross bedded sands, clay and silt and show different morphological types. Two main types recognised are plastic deformations represented by different types of recumbent folds and injection structure represented by clastic dykes. Other structures in association with the plastic deformation structures include distorted convolute lamination, subsidence lobes, pillars, cusps and sand balls. These structures are interpreted to have been formed by liquefaction and fluidization mechanisms. The driving forces inferred include gravitational instabilities and hydraulic processes. Facies analysis, detailed morphologic study of the soft sediment deformation structures and previous tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main trigger agent for deformation is earthquake shock. The soft sediment deformation structures recognised in the western part of Anambra basin provide a continuous record of the tectonic processes that acted on the regressive Ajali Formation during the Maastrichtian.

  18. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous (Campanian - Maastrichtian) sequences in the Peri-Tethys basin; Moghan area, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Mahboobeh; Safari, Amrollah; Vaziri-Moghaddam, Hossain; Ghalavand, Hormoz

    2018-04-01

    The Upper Cretaceous sediments in the Moghan area, NW Iran, contain diverse planktonic and benthic foraminifera, with a total of 33 genera and 53 species (17 genera and 38 species of planktonic foraminifera and 16 genera and 15 species from benthic foraminifera), which led to the identification of six biozones spanning the middle Campanian to late Maastrichtian. A detailed paleontological study and biostratigraphic zonation of these sequences has been carried out in four surface sections. This study shows that there are two different facies in the Moghan area, based on the faunal content. A deep open marine condition exists in the Molok, Selenchai and Nasirkandi sections. In these sections, Upper Cretaceous sequences have diverse planktonic foraminiferal species including the Globotruncana ventricosa (middle to late Campanian), Globotruncanella havanensis (late Campanian), Globotruncana aegyptiaca (latest Campanian), Gansserina gansseri (latest Campanian to early Maastrichtian), Contusotruncana contusa- Racemiguembelina fructicosa (early to late Maastrichtian) and Abathomphalus mayaroensis (late Maastrichtian) zones. This deep open marine setting grades laterally into shallower marine condition dominated by large benthic foraminifera such as Orbitoides media, Orbitoides gruenbachensis, Orbitoides cf. apiculata, Lepidorbitoides minor, Pseudosiderolites sp., Siderolites praecalcitrapoides, Siderolites aff. calcitrapoides and Siderolites calcitrapoides. This facies is mainly recorded in the Hovay section. A detailed biostratigraphic zonation scheme is presented for the studied sections and correlated with the results of other studies in the Tethyan realm. This is the first biozonation scheme for Upper Cretaceous sequences of the Moghan area that can be used as a basis for ongoing studies in this area and other parts of Tethys basin.

  19. Upper Campanian–Maastrichtian nannofossil biostratigraphy and high-resolution carbon-isotope stratigraphy of the Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Harlou, Rikke; Schovsbo, Niels

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy of the upper Campanian – Maastrichtian is recorded in the Boreal Realm from a total of 1968 bulk chalk samples of the Stevns-1 core, eastern Denmark. Isotopic trends are calibrated by calcareous nannofossil bio-events and are correlated with a lower...

  20. A new elasmosaurid from the early Maastrichtian of Angola and the implications of girdle morphology on swimming style in plesiosaurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araújo, R.; Polcyn, Michael J.; Schulp, A. S.; Mateus, O.; Jacobs, L.; Gonçalves, António Olímpio; Morais, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    We report here a new elasmosaurid from the early Maastrichtian at Bentiaba, southern Angola. Phylogenetic analysis places the new taxon as the sister taxon to Styxosaurus snowii, and that clade as the sister of a clade composed of (Hydrotherosaurus alexandrae (Libonectes morgani + Elasmosaurus

  1. New aristonectine elasmosaurid plesiosaur specimens from the Early Maastrichtian of Angola and comments on paedomorphism in plesiosaurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araújo, R.; Polcyn, Michael J.; Lindgren, J.; Jacobs, L.; Schulp, A. S.; Mateus, O.; Gonçalves, António Olímpio; Morais, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    New elasmosaurid plesiosaur specimens are described from the Early Maastrichtian of Angola. Phylogenetic analyses reconstruct the Angolan taxon as an aristonectine elasmosaurid and the sister taxon of an unnamed form of similar age from New Zealand. Comparisons also indicate a close relationship

  2. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    the paper raises the questions where to locate aesthetics when planners and architects wishes to design for aesthetical experiences and sensations rather than formal objects. The paper will proceed through a brief outline of the recent notion of assemblage and affect in urban studies, planning theory...... happens to aesthetics and how does it change the existing social and geographical understanding of urban space? The paper sets out to reintroduce aesthetical aspects of affects and assemblages in relation to urban space and urban planning. It presupposes urban space as a continuous state of becoming where...

  3. Assemblages of Patient Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsas Lekkas, Angelos

    2016-01-01

    This thesis identifies how design processes emerge during the use of devices in healthcare, by attending to assemblages where contingencies of risk and harm co-exist with the contribution of healthcare professionals to the safe care of patients. With support from the field of Science and Technology...... practices of interdisciplinary care....

  4. Translanguaging and Semiotic Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2017-01-01

    This paper asks what translanguaging could start to look like if it incorporated an expanded version of language and questioned not only to the borders between languages but also the borders between semiotic modes. Developing the idea of spatial repertoires and assemblages, and looking at data from a Bangladeshi-owned corner shop, this paper…

  5. Astronomical tuning and carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Maastrichtian in Sopelana and Zumaia (Basque country, N-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, S. J.; Gale, A. S.; Hilgen, F. J.; Hüsing, S. K.; Laskar, J.; Orue-Etxebarria, X.; Sprovieri, M.; Voigt, S.

    2012-04-01

    Astronomical tuning has led to significant refinement of the Geological Time Scale for the Cenozoic, however the Late Cretaceous time scale still has potential errors of ~0.5 Myr. The Basque sections of Sopelana and Zumaia (N-Spain) provide a high-resolution sedimentary archive encompassing the Maastrichtian up to the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. Rhythmic limestone-marl alternations, deposited in a hemipelagic setting, reflect the influence of the periodicities of eccentricity modulated precession. Starting from a K/Pg boundary age of 66.0 Ma, consecutive 405-kyr minima are tuned to the new astronomical solution La2011. This orbital tuning, together with the expression of individual precessional cycles, allows for unprecedented refinement of the Geologic Time Scale for the Maastrichtian with errors analysis of magnetic susceptibility and colour reflectance data. A cyclostratigraphic framework and orbital tuning of the Zumaia section has recently been obtained. This is extended further back in time by correlation to the Sopelana section by recognition of orbital patterns and marker beds. The total amount of time represented by the two sections is 5 Myr. The lower boundary falls within chron C32N1n, almost reaching the Campanian/Maastrichtian boundary. Magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data allow for application of the cyclostratigraphic framework worldwide, and comparison to previously published Maastrichtian time scales. Additionally, we present an orbitally tuned bulk carbon isotope curve. The high resolution and large amplitude of shifts in δ13C on the 405-kyr and 1.2-Myr scales enables correlation to deep marine oceanic sites, several sections from the Boreal chalk sea and Italy and, importantly, the Campanian/Maastrichtian boundary GSSP at Tercis, France. This will provide a globally applicable cyclostratigraphic framework for the entire Maastrichtian. We will discuss the implications for the orbital pacing theory of the late Cretaceous climate

  6. An age-calibrated record of upper Campanian – Maastrichtian climate change in the Boreal Realm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Schovsbo, Niels; Harlou, Rikke

    nannofossil chalk is in agreement with planktic biotic events of the latest Cretaceous and matches well with climatic trends of intermediate- and deep-waters from other oceanic basins recorded through benthic foraminiferal d18O (Barrera and Savin, 1999). However, most planktic foraminiferal d18O data do......The latest Cretaceous climate of the Boreal Realm was recorded through high-resolution bulk carbon- and oxygen-stable isotopes and a nannofossil temperature index (NTI) on the Stevns-1 core (Denmark) which recovered 456 m of upper Campanian to basal Danian chalk with ~100% recovery and an excellent...... temperatures (SSTs) in the Boreal Realm. Three warming events punctuate the overall cooling trend of the latest Cretaceous: (1) the late Campanian climatic optimum (73.9–71.6 Ma) is characterized by maximum SSTs of 20°C, (2) the mid-Maastrichtian warming (69.7–68 Ma) is characterized by stable SSTs around 17°C...

  7. Multivariate analysis of calcareous nanno fossils and stable isotopic ({delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C) in the upper Campanian - lower Maastrichtian of the Campos Basin, Brazil; Analise multivariada em nanofosseis calcarios e isotopos estaveis ({delta}{sup 18}O e {delta}{sup 13}C) do Campaniano superior - Maastrichtiano inferior na Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Veiga de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia]. E-mail: lcveiga@petrobras.com.br; Rodrigues, Rene; Lemos, Valesca Brasil

    2005-05-01

    Qualitative analysis in calcareous nanno fossils is a powerful tool for bio stratigraphic uses, principally in identification of bio zones and determination of relative age. But quantitative studies must be applied for pale oceanographic applications and high resolution bio stratigraphy. In order to better understand the relationships between the different species of nanno fossils, new methodologies and non-traditional correlation tools were tested on a 18 m upper Campanian - lower Maastrichtian core from Campos Basin. Multiple regression helped to determine the best counting method. Watznaueria barnesae and Micula decussata dominate the fossil assemblage and have inverse abundances to each other. Both were opportunist species in competition for nutrients. Q mode factorial analysis (57 samples, 19 variables) was applied to the same core and shows that two factors explain 99.2% of the total variance of the micro fossil assemblage. The first factor represents 83.6% and the second factor only 15.6% of the total variance. The former is associated with Watznaueria barnesae, Cribrosphaerella ehrenbergii and Stradneria crenulata, which represent the original population of nano plankton. The latter factor is associated with Micula decussata, which is believed to represent the effect of solution at the sediment water interface. Both factors were used to develop a dissolution-sea level curve for nanno fossils. When combined with oxygen and carbon isotopes, this curve clearly shows that higher dissolution occurred during the late Campanian - early Maastrichtian time when {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 13} C and TOC all had lower values. These correlations indicate a strong link between high sea levels, high temperatures and lower amount of continental organic debris. (author)

  8. Stable isotope distribution in continental Maastrichtian vertebrates from the Haţeg Basin, South Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Csiki, Zoltan; Grigorescu, Dan

    2010-05-01

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of biogenic apatite from crocodiles, turtles and dinosaurs, and their relationship to climate and physiology have been evidenced by several studies (Barrick and Showers, 1995; Kolodny et al., 1996; Barrick et al., 1999; Fricke and Rogers, 2000; Stoskopf et al., 2001; Straight et al., 2004; Amiot et al., 2007). To date, few attempts have been made to correlate the enamel d13C to dietary resources of dinosaurs (Bocherens et al., 1988; Stanton Thomas and Carlson, 2004; Fricke and Pearson, 2008; Fricke, et al., 2008). One additional complication is that for dinosaurs, the d18O of enamel phosphate depends on both body water and variations in body temperature. Several studies addressed the issue of endothermy vs. ectothermy of fossil vertebrates by studying inter- and intra-bone and enamel isotopic variability (Barrick and Showers, 1994, 1995; Barrick et al., 1996; 1998; Fricke and Rogers, 2000). More recent investigations provided evidence for inter-tooth temporal variations and related them to seasonality and/or changes in physiology (Straight et al., 2004; Stanton Thomas and Carlson, 2004). The main objectives of this study are to extract palaeoclimatic information considering, beside lithofacial characteristics and the isotopic distribution of carbonates formed in paleosols, the stable isotope composition of vertebrate remains from the Haţeg Basin. We also sampled several teeth along their growth axis in order to get further information about growth rates and the amplitude of isotopic variation. Located in the South Carpathians in Romania, the Haţeg Basin contains a thick sequence of Maastrichtian continental deposits yielding a rich dinosaur and mammalian fauna. Stable isotope analyses of both calcretes and dinosaur, crocodilian and turtle remains from two localities (Tuştea and Sibişel) were integrated in order to reconstruct environmental conditions during the Maastrichtian time and to gain further insights into the metabolism

  9. A new Arctic hadrosaurid from the Prince Creek Formation (lower Maastrichtian of northern Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotsugu Mori

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Liscomb bonebed in the Price Creek Formation of northern Alaska has produced thousands of individual bones of a saurolophine hadrosaurid similar to Edmontosaurus; however, the specific identity of this taxon has been unclear, in part because the vast majority of the remains represent immature individuals. In this study, we address the taxonomic status of the Alaskan material through a comparative and quantitative morphological analysis of juvenile as well several near adult-sized specimens with particular reference to the two known species of Edmontosaurus, as well as a cladistic analysis using two different matrices for Hadrosauroidea. In the comparative morphological analysis, we introduce a quantitative method using bivariate plots to address ontogenetic variation. Our comparative anatomical analysis reveals that the Alaskan saurolophine possesses a unique suite of characters that distinguishes it from Edmontosaurus, including a premaxillary circumnarial ridge that projects posterolaterally without a premaxillary vestibular promontory, a shallow groove lateral to the posterodorsal premaxillary foramen, a relatively narrow jugal process of the postorbital lacking a postorbital pocket, a relatively tall maxilla, a relatively gracile jugal, a more strongly angled posterior margin of the anterior process of the jugal, wide lateral exposure of the quadratojugal, and a short symphyseal process of the dentary. The cladistic analyses consistently recover the Alaskan saurolophine as the sister taxon to Edmontosaurus annectens + Edmontosaurus regalis. This phylogenetic assessment is robust even when accounting for ontogenetically variable characters. Based on these results, we erect a new taxon, Ugrunaaluk kuukpikensis gen. et sp. nov. that contributes to growing evidence for a distinct, early Maastrichtian Arctic dinosaur community that existed at the northernmost extent of Laramidia during the Late Cretaceous.

  10. Biometric analysis of the Arkhangelskiella group in the upper Campanian-Maastrichtian of the stevns-1 borehole, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The taxonomy of the calcareous nannofossil Arkhangelskiella is revised using the results of a biometric analysis performed on 599 specimens from various stratigraphic levels throughout the upper Campanian-Maastrichtian of the Stevns-1 borehole, Denmark. Combined qualitative labelling and biometric...... in the coccolith length and in the rim width, and that the central opening is an important additional parameter allowing distinction between the different morphogroups. Biometric analysis shows, however, that the morphogroups are strongly overlapping on all measured parameters. Therefore, the three distinct...

  11. Bournonia excavata (D’Orbigny from the Campanian-Maastrichtian of Stranice (north-east of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Caffau

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The rudist fauna of Stranice, in the north-east of Slovenia, has been studied for a long time thanks to the good preservation-state of the specimens found in the calcareous breccias from Campanian-Maastrichtian. The presence of Bournonia excavata (d’Orbignyat Stranice is reported for the first time in this work. The specimen described in this paper is compared with other specimens from other carbonate platform deposits, previously described by different authors. In addition, a complete individual with both valves ofRadiolites angeiodes (Lapeirouse is described.

  12. Trace fossils of a cyclic chalk-marl succession; the upper Maastrichtian Rørdal Member, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bodil Wesenberg; Surlyk, Finn; Bromley, Richard Granville

    2011-01-01

    Trace fossils from an upper Maastrichtian cyclic chalk–marl succession, the Rørdal Member, exposed in the Rørdal quarry, Denmark, are analysed in order to test whether the changes in substrate lithology exerted any control over the ichnodiversity, tiering complexity, and density of the infauna...... in the visibility of traces between chalk and marl and not due to differences in ecological stress upon the endobenthic community of the two lithologies. The study thus provides an excellent example of how the effect of taphonomic factors may give a misleading and biased impression of apparent differences...

  13. A CHARACEAN THALLUS WITH ATTACHED GYROGONITES AND ASSOCIATED FOSSIL CHAROPHYTES FROM THE MAASTRICHTIAN OF THE EASTERN PYRENEES (CATALONIA, SPAIN)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba-Breva, Sheila; Martín-Closas, Carles

    2011-02-01

    The new species Clavatoraxis microcharophorus is described from the Lower Maastrichtian of the Eastern Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain). Microchara sp. gyrogonites were found in anatomical connection with this thallus, attached to bract-cell rosettes and coated by a structural tunica, formed by an expanded bract cell. This is a feature unknown in extant characeans, which only display lime incrustations similar to tunicae in extremely alkaline and well-illuminated environments. This is the first time that a complete fossil characean is described. The attribution of characean vegetative remains to the genus Clavatoraxis shows that this genus is not exclusive of clavatoraceans as previously thought. The taphonomic study of C. microcharophorus sp. nov. and associated fossil charophytes, along with sedimentological and microfacies analyses, has enabled us to characterize the habitat of this species in the Maastrichtian lake of Vallcebre. They grew forming meadows, and their remains were deposited in the poorly oxygenated lake bottom, where they were well preserved. A number of other characeans and porocharaceans were living in shallower belts. This was the case for Peckichara sp. and Munieria grambasti in the freshwater lacustrine meadows. Another species, Feistiella malladae, was found parautochthonous in brackish lakes. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  14. paleoenvironmental settings and assemblage changes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kasanzu

    shallow borehole drilled in the southern coastal basin of Tanzania with the aim of characterizing foraminifera and palynomorphs assemblage changes aiming at reconstructing ..... decline in temperature at EOT which caused the extinction of ...

  15. Astronomical calibration of upper Campanian–Maastrichtian carbon isotope events and calcareous plankton biostratigraphy in the Indian Ocean (ODP Hole 762C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Husson, Dorothée; Harlou, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    An integrated framework of magnetostratigraphy, calcareous microfossil bio-events, cyclostratigraphy and d13C stratigraphy is established for the upper Campanian–Maastrichtian of ODP Hole 762C (Exmouth Plateau, Northwestern Australian margin). Bulk-carbonate d13C events and nannofossil bio-events...

  16. Seagrass stems with attached roots from the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage (NE Belgium, SE Netherlands) : Morphology, anatomy, and ecological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, R.W.J.M.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; Jagt, J.W.M.; Indeherberge, L.; Meuris, R.; Deckers, M.J.M.; Renkens, S.; Laffineur, J.

    Seagrasses are the only seed plants to have invaded marine environments successfully. Seagrass fossils are both rare and have received scant attention so far. However, among the limited number of plant fossils from marine strata in the Maastrichtian type area, remains of seagrasses are relatively

  17. Sedimentology of the Upper Maastrichtian chalk, Danish Central Graben. M-10X (Dan Field), E-5X (Tyra SE Field) facies and core logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ineson, J.R.

    2004-07-01

    Based on detailed logs presented here at 1:10, the cored Upper Maastrichtian succession of the M-10X (Dan Field) and E-5X (Tyra SE Field) wells in the southern Danish Central Graben is subdivided into eight lithofacies and five ichnofabrics. The dominant bioturbated or laminated chalk mudstones and subordinate sparse skeletal wackestones are largely the result of pelagic carbonate production, sedimented by suspension settling and small volume, low density turbidity currents. Evidence of winnowing/reduced sedimentation rates is yielded by rare incipient hardgrounds; a well-developed mature hardground profile is developed at the Cretaceous-Danian boundary (the ''Maastrichtian hardground''). Rare marl laminae are recorded and a discrete marly chalk bed associated with an interval of finegrained skeletal chalk wackestones near the top of the Maastrichtian is recognised in both wells. Comparison between the two wells demonstrates that the m-scale laminated-bioturbated chalk cycles described from the Dan Field area are both stratigraphically and areally restricted; this has implications for both cyclostratigraphic correlation and reconstruction of depositional environments and Late Maastrichtian evolution of the Danish Central Graben. (au)

  18. The chronostratigraphic framework of the South-Pyrenean Maastrichtian succession reappraised: Implications for basin development and end-Cretaceous dinosaur faunal turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevilla, Víctor; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Oms, Oriol

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of the end-Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems and faunas outside of North America is largely restricted to the European Archipelago. The information scattered in this last area can only be integrated in a chronostratigraphic framework on the basis of robust age constraints and stratigraphy. Therefore, we have revisited the puzzling age calibration of the sedimentary infilling from the Isona sector in the Tremp syncline (South-Central Pyrenees), an area renowned for its rich Maastrichtian dinosaur fossil record. Aiming to shed light to existing controversial age determinations, we carried out a new magnetostratigraphic study along the ~ 420 m long Orcau and Nerets sections of that area. Our results reveal that most of the succession correlates to the early Maastrichtian (mostly chron C31r) in accordance to ages proposed by recent planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy. The resulting chronostratigraphic framework of the entire Maastrichtian basin recorded in the Tremp syncline shows that a significant sedimentary hiatus of about 3 My characterizes most of the late Maastrichtian in the study area. This hiatus, related to an abrupt migration of the basin depocenter, is temporally close to similar hiatuses, decreases in sedimentary rates and facies shifts recorded in other southwestern European areas. The present chronologic framework sets the basis for a thorough assessment of end-Cretaceous terrestrial faunal turnover and extinction patterns, and the establishment of a more rigorous Pyrenean basin evolution analysis.

  19. Differential early diagenetic low-Mg calcite cementation and rhythmic hardground development in Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molenaar, Nicolaas; J.J.P., Zijlstra

    1997-01-01

    and differences in the degree of early diagenesis. Cemented layers and hardgrounds are the result of differential early marine calcite cementation. In these limestones early calcite cementation cannot be explained by the supply of cementing materials from saturated seawater, An alternative model for early marine......The Campanian-Maastrichtian limestones in the south of the Netherlands are well-sorted fine-grained mudstones and silt- to fine sand-sized bioclastic grainstones. These limestones show a distinct lithological cyclicity manifested by fining-upward grain-size cycles with calcite-cemented layers...... calcite cementation is proposed, in which early calcite cementation occurred within the sediment at some distance below the seafloor as a result of organic matter degradation and internal redistribution of bioclastic carbonate. Bacterial organic matter degradation caused dissolution of relatively unstable...

  20. Public Sphere as Digital Assemblage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    the 1990s onwards digitalization brought concepts of network and complexity into the theoretical discourse. This relational turn changed the social ontology of the public sphere into a dynamic and complex system, erasing the division between the fields of reality (the world), representation (discourse......Normative theories of public sphere have struggled with the topic of materiality. The historical narrative of the ‘public sphere’ situated the phenomenon in specific spaces, where practices (public deliberation) and language (discourse) constructed political agencies, and further publics. From......), and subjectivity (agency). This changed the public sphere into an assemblage consisting of both human and non-human actors interactingin a highly dynamic, networked environment. This paper proposes a framework for considering this new materiality in the field of the public sphere: the assemblage and complexity...

  1. A Maastrichtian microbial reef and associated limestones in the Roca Formation of Patagonia (Neuquén Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kiessling

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a small microbial reef and associated limestones occurring in a Maastrichtian transgressive succession of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic lithologies at Sierra Huantraico near Chos Malal (Neuquén, Argentina. Strontium isotope data suggest that the reef is of earliest Maastrichtian age. The small reef (0.8 m thick, 2 m wide is mostly composed of peloidal bindstone, dense stromatolite-cement crusts and thrombolite. Except for some ostracods, no metazoan fossils were found in the reef structure, although the majority of peloids are fecal pellets, probably of larger crustaceans. Small foraminifers with calcite tests and probable green algae have also been noted. Sedimentological data and fossils within and immediately above the reef suggest that the reef was formed in a transgressive systems tract under freshwater to brackish-water conditions. Limestones above the reef are serpulid-bryozoan packstones and intraclast-ooid grainstones. These limestones yield a mixture of typical non-tropical (common serpulids and bryozoans and typical tropical aspects (common dasycladaceans and ooids. This mosaic is explained by salinity fluctuations, which in our case dominate over temperature in determining the grain associations. Wir beschreiben ein kleines mikrobielles Riff, das in der Sierra Hunatraico (Neuquén, Argentinien in einer transgressiven, gemischt siliziklastisch-kalkigen Abfolge gefunden wurde. Nach Strontiumisotopen-Datierung ist das Riff in das unterste Maastrichtium zu stellen. Das kleine Riff (0,8 m Mächtigkeit, 2 m Breite besteht überwiegend aus peloidalem Bindstone, dichten Stromatolith-Zement-Krusten und Thrombolith. Mit Ausnahme von Ostrakoden konnten keine Metazoen in der Riffstruktur nachgewiesen werden, obwohl die Mehrzahl der Peloide als Kotpillen zu interpretieren sind, die vermutlich auf größere Krebse zurückgehen. Kleine Foraminiferen und mögliche Grünalgen sind die einzigen zusätzlich nachweisbaren Eukaryoten

  2. Habitat segregation in fish assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Ibbotson, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    The segregation of habitats of fish assemblages found in the chalk streams and rivers within the Wessex, South West and Southern Water Authority boundaries in southern England have been examined. Habitat segregation is the most frequent type of resource partitioning in natural communities. The habitat of individual fish species will be defined in order to determine the following: (1) the requirements of each species in terms of depth, current velocity, substrate, cover etc.; (2) identify the ...

  3. Recent saltmarsh foraminiferal assemblages from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbers, Julia; Schönfeld, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    This study reports for the first time boreal to subarctic intertidal foraminiferal assemblages from saltmarshes at Borgarnes and Faskrudsfjördur on Iceland. The composition of living and dead foraminiferal assemblages was investigated along transects from the tidal flat to the highest reach of halophytic plants. The foraminiferal assemblages from Borgarnes showed 18 species in the total foraminiferal assemblage of which only 7 species were recorded in the living fauna. The assemblages were dominated by agglutinated taxa, whereas 3 calcareous species were recorded, of which only Haynesina orbicularis was found in the living fauna. The distribution limit of calcifying species corresponds to the lower boundary of the lower saltmarsh vegetation zone. Furthermore, calcareous tests showed many features of dissolution, which is an indication of a carbonate corrosive environment. The species forming the dead assemblages were mainly derived from the ambient intertidal areas and were displaced by tidal currents into the saltmarsh. The foraminiferal assemblages from Faskrudsfjördur showed two species, of which only one species was recorded in the living fauna. The assemblage was dominated by the agglutinated foraminifer Trochaminita irregularis. The foraminiferal species recorded on Iceland were the same as commonly found elsewhere in Europa. Since no species was found which is endemic to North America, Iceland is considered part of the European bio province. The foraminiferal could have been immigrated to Iceland from Europe through warm water currents, migratory birds or marine traffic since the last Ice Age.

  4. A new species of Allodaposuchus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous of Spain: phylogenetic and paleobiological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blanco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Late Cretaceous is a keystone period to understand the origin and early radiation of Crocodylia, the group containing all extant lineages of crocodilians. Among the taxa described from the latest Cretaceous of Europe, the genus Allodaposuchus is one of the most common but also one of the most controversial. However, because of its fragmentary record, several issues regarding its phylogenetic emplacement and its ecology remain unsolved or unknown. The discovery of a single specimen attributed to Allodaposuchus, represented by both cranial and postcranial remains, from the Casa Fabà site (Tremp Basin, NE Spain in the lower red unit of the Tremp Fm. (early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous offers a unique opportunity to deepen in the phylogenetic relationships of the group and its ecological features.Methods. The specimen is described in detail, and CT scan of the skull is performed in order to study the endocranial morphology as well as paratympanic sinuses configuration. In addition, myological and phylogenetic analyses are also carried out on the specimen for to shed light in ecological and phylogenetic issues, respectively.Results. The specimen described herein represents a new species, Allodaposuchus hulki sp. nov., closely related to the Romanian A. precedens. The CT scan of the skull revealed an unexpected paratympanic sinuses configuration. Allosaposuchus hulki exhibits an “anterodorsal tympanic sinus” not observed in any other extant or extinct crocodilian. The caudal tympanic recesses are extremely enlarged, and the expanded quadratic sinus seems to be connected to the middle-ear channel. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the emplacement of the informal taxonomic group ‘Allodaposuchia’ at the base of Crocodylia, being considered the sister group of Borealosuchus and Planocraniidae.Discussion. Although this is a preliminary hypothesis, the unique paratympanic configuration displayed by A. hulki suggests that it could

  5. Abrupt Climatic Change during the Latest Maastrichtian: Establishing Robust Temporal Links with the Onset of Deccan Volcanism and K/Pg Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnet, J.; Littler, K.; Kroon, D.; Leng, M. J.; Westerhold, T.; Roehl, U.; Zachos, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    A transient period of climate change, characterized by a global warming of 2.5-5°C followed by a cooling to pre-excursion conditions, occurred during the last 300 kyr of the Maastrichtian ( 66.34-66.02 Ma). This instability may have played a role in destabilizing marine and terrestrial ecosystems, priming the system for abrupt extinction at the K-Pg boundary, likely triggered by a large bolide impact. This pre-K-Pg warming event has often been linked to the main phase of Deccan Trap volcanism, however large uncertainties associated with radio-isotopic dating methods of basalts, along with low sedimentation rates and hiatuses in many studied sedimentary sequences, have long hampered a definitive correlation. To complement recent advances in dating of the traps, we have generated the first complete and highest resolution (2.5-4 kyr) benthic stable δ13C and δ18O record for the final million years of the Maastrichtian using the epifaunal foraminifera species Nuttallides truempyi from ODP Site 1262, Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic, calibrated to an updated orbitally-tuned age model. We then compare our data to other previously published geochemical data from other sites in the high, middle, and low latitudes. Our data confirms that the onset of the warming event coincides with the onset of the main phase of Deccan volcanism, strongly suggesting a causal link. Furthermore, spectral analysis of our extended late Maastrichtian-Early Eocene record suggests that the onset of the warming event corresponds to a 405-kyr eccentricity minima, in contrast to many transient warming events (hyperthermals) of the Paleogene, suggesting a control by orbital forcing alone is unlikely. A peculiar feature of the event, compared to other hyperthermals, is a muted carbon cycle response during warming, which may be related to the comparatively heavier δ13C signature of volcanogenic CO2 (-7‰), compared to other sources of light carbon invoked to explain Paleogene hyperthermals. The warming

  6. Rapid biotic homogenization of marine fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magurran, Anne E.; Dornelas, Maria; Moyes, Faye; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; McGill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The role human activities play in reshaping biodiversity is increasingly apparent in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the responses of entire marine assemblages are not well-understood, in part, because few monitoring programs incorporate both spatial and temporal replication. Here, we analyse an exceptionally comprehensive 29-year time series of North Atlantic groundfish assemblages monitored over 5° latitude to the west of Scotland. These fish assemblages show no systematic change in species richness through time, but steady change in species composition, leading to an increase in spatial homogenization: the species identity of colder northern localities increasingly resembles that of warmer southern localities. This biotic homogenization mirrors the spatial pattern of unevenly rising ocean temperatures over the same time period suggesting that climate change is primarily responsible for the spatial homogenization we observe. In this and other ecosystems, apparent constancy in species richness may mask major changes in species composition driven by anthropogenic change. PMID:26400102

  7. Microhabitat influence on larval fish assemblages within ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined larval and juvenile fish assemblage structure in relation to microhabitat variables within the St. Louis River estuary, a drowned river mouth of Lake Superior. Fish were sampled in vegetated beds throughout the estuary, across a gradient of vegetation types and densities (including disturbed, preserved and post-restoration sites). Canonical correspondence analysis, relating species abundances to environmental variables revealed that plant species richness, turbidity and aquatic plant cover were most influential in structuring assemblages. Results from this microhabitat analysis at this crucial life stage has potential to inform wetland restoration efforts within the St. Louis River and other Great Lake coastal wetlands. not applicable

  8. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Kear

    Full Text Available Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.

  9. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open intertidal areas on the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania. ... it is recommended that conservation efforts along the Tanzanian coast should focus here. Keywords: benthic macrofauna, community structure, littoral zone, Tanganyika, Western Indian Ocean ...

  10. Benthic assemblages of mega epifauna on the Oregon continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemery, Lenaïg G.; Henkel, Sarah K.; Cochrane, Guy R.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental assessment studies are usually required by a country's administration before issuing permits for any industrial activities. One of the goals of such environmental assessment studies is to highlight species assemblages and habitat composition that could make the targeted area unique. A section of the Oregon continental slope that had not been previously explored was targeted for the deployment of floating wind turbines. We carried out an underwater video survey, using a towed camera sled, to describe its benthic assemblages. Organisms were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible and assemblages described related to the nature of the seafloor and the depth. We highlighted six invertebrate assemblages and three fish assemblages. For the invertebrates within flat soft sediments areas we defined three different assemblages based on primarily depth: a broad mid-depth (98–315 m) assemblage dominated by red octopus, sea pens and pink shrimps; a narrower mid-depth (250–270 m) assemblage dominated by box crabs and various other invertebrates; and a deeper (310–600 m) assemblage dominated by sea urchins, sea anemones, various snails and zoroasterid sea stars. The invertebrates on mixed sediments also were divided into three different assemblages: a shallow (~100 m deep) assemblage dominated by plumose sea anemones, broad mid-depth (170–370 m) assemblage dominated by sea cucumbers and various other invertebrates; and, again, a narrower mid-depth (230–270 m) assemblage, dominated by crinoids and encrusting invertebrates. For the fish, we identified a rockfish assemblage on coarse mixed sediments at 170–370 m and another fish assemblage on smaller mixed sediments within that depth range (250–370 m) dominated by thornyheads, poachers and flatfishes; and we identified a wide depth-range (98–600 m) fish assemblage on flat soft sediments dominated by flatfishes, eelpouts and thornyheads. Three of these assemblages (the two

  11. Benthic assemblages of mega epifauna on the Oregon continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemery, Lenaïg G.; Henkel, Sarah K.; Cochrane, Guy R.

    2018-05-01

    Environmental assessment studies are usually required by a country's administration before issuing permits for any industrial activities. One of the goals of such environmental assessment studies is to highlight species assemblages and habitat composition that could make the targeted area unique. A section of the Oregon continental slope that had not been previously explored was targeted for the deployment of floating wind turbines. We carried out an underwater video survey, using a towed camera sled, to describe its benthic assemblages. Organisms were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible and assemblages described related to the nature of the seafloor and the depth. We highlighted six invertebrate assemblages and three fish assemblages. For the invertebrates within flat soft sediments areas we defined three different assemblages based on primarily depth: a broad mid-depth (98-315 m) assemblage dominated by red octopus, sea pens and pink shrimps; a narrower mid-depth (250-270 m) assemblage dominated by box crabs and various other invertebrates; and a deeper (310-600 m) assemblage dominated by sea urchins, sea anemones, various snails and zoroasterid sea stars. The invertebrates on mixed sediments also were divided into three different assemblages: a shallow ( 100 m deep) assemblage dominated by plumose sea anemones, broad mid-depth (170-370 m) assemblage dominated by sea cucumbers and various other invertebrates; and, again, a narrower mid-depth (230-270 m) assemblage, dominated by crinoids and encrusting invertebrates. For the fish, we identified a rockfish assemblage on coarse mixed sediments at 170-370 m and another fish assemblage on smaller mixed sediments within that depth range (250-370 m) dominated by thornyheads, poachers and flatfishes; and we identified a wide depth-range (98-600 m) fish assemblage on flat soft sediments dominated by flatfishes, eelpouts and thornyheads. Three of these assemblages (the two broad fish assemblages and the deep

  12. Mangrove macrobenthos: Assemblages, services, and linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Y.

    2008-02-01

    Macrobenthic assemblages are relatively poorly known compared to other components of the mangrove ecosystem. Tropical mangroves support macrobenthic biodiversity resources yet to be properly documented and interpreted. Some methodological challenges, such as the generally high spatial heterogeneity and complexity of the habitat, evidently reduce sampling efficiency and accuracy, while also leaving some microhabitats under-sampled. Macrobenthic assemblage structure seems to be influenced by local environmental conditions, such as hydroperiod, organic matter availability and sediment characteristics. Brachyurans, gastropods and oligochaetes dominate in the sediment, with the former two groups also common on hard surfaces provided by tree trunks, while insects and arachnids inhabit the canopy. Traditionally, studies of mangrove macrobenthos have focused on assemblage structure or the biology of individual species, but more complex inter-specific interactions and the inter-relationship between habitat and the biota are recently being addressed. Brachyuran crabs are the best-studied macrobenthos group, but many issues about their role in mangrove ecosystem dynamics are still controversial. Despite many species of mangrove macrobenthos being referred to as 'trophic dead ends', most serve as important links between recalcitrant mangrove organic matter and estuarine secondary production, through feeding excursion by mobile nekton during the high tide, and macrobenthos-mediated processing and exportation of organic matter. A significant difference in the standing crop biomass of forests between the Indo-west-Pacific (IWP)' and Atlantic-east-Pacific (AEP) mangroves may be related to the difference in species richness of mangrove as well as macrobenthos diversity in the two bioregions. Such differences in assemblage structure may also result in different ecosystem functioning, but the nature of the links is, however, yet to be explored. There is also a strong need for

  13. Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained

  14. The endemic Patagonian vespertilionid assemblage is a depauperate ecomorphological vicariant of species-rich neotropical assemblages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Analía L.GIM(E)NEZ; Norberto P. GIANNINI

    2017-01-01

    Vespertilionidae is the most diverse chiropteran family,and its diversity is concentrated in warm regions of the World;however,due to physiological and behavioral adaptations,these bats also dominate bat faunas in temperate regions.Here we performed a comparative study of vespertilionid assemblages from two broad regions of the New World,the cold and harsh Patagonia,versus the remaining temperate-to-subtropical,extra-Patagonian eco-regions of the South American Southern Cone.We took an ecomorphological approach and analyzed the craniodental morphological structure of these assemblages within a phylogenetic framework.We measured 17 craniodental linear variables from 447 specimens of 22 currently recognized vespertilionid species of the study regions.We performed a multivariate analysis to define the morphofunctional space,and calculated the pattern and degree of species packing for each assemblage.We assessed the importance of phylogeny and biogeography,and their impact on depauperate (Patagonian) versus rich (extra-Patagonian) vespertilionid assemblages as determinants of morphospace structuring.We implemented a sensitivity analysis associated to small samples of rare species.The morphological patterns were determined chiefly by the evolutionary history of the family.The Patagonian assemblage can be described as a structurally similar but comparatively depauperate ecomorphological version of those assemblages from neighboring extra-Patagonian eco-regions.The Patagonian assemblage seems to have formed by successively adding populations from Northern regions that eventually speciated in the region,leaving corresponding sisters (vicariants) in extraPatagonian eco-regions that continued to be characteristically richer.Despite being structurally akin,degree of species packing in Patagonia was comparatively very low,which may reflect the effect of limited dispersal success into a harsh region for bat survival.

  15. Consumer–brand assemblages in advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrisgaard, Sofie Møller; Kjeldgaard, Dannie; Bengtson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how the use of tattoos in advertising renders diverse brand–consumer assemblages visible. In considering advertising practitioners as professionals of entanglement, the paper emphasizes the embeddedness of practitioners’ use of tattoo symbolism in institutionalized marketing...... systems and in the cultural history of tattooing. In accordance with recent emphasis on the importance of material devices for understanding contemporary sociality, this paper presents a semiotic analysis of a convenience sample of advertisements depicting tattoos. Tattoos are productive for the study...... potency. This analysis demonstrates how the emergence of brand tattoos in advertising challenges the dominant consumer centrism in consumer research and suggests a networked, emerging understanding of the subject in which agency is distributed in socio-technical assemblages....

  16. Multivariate and Spatial Visualisation of Archaeological Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sterry

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate analyses, in particular correspondence analysis (CA, have become a standard exploratory tool for analysing and interpreting variance in archaeological assemblages. While they have greatly helped analysts, they unfortunately remain abstract to the viewer, all the more so if the viewer has little or no experience with multivariate statistics. A second issue with these analyses can arise from the detachment of archaeological material from its geo-referenced location and typically considered only in terms of arbitrary classifications (e.g. North Europe, Central Europe, South Europe instead of the full range of local conditions (e.g. proximity to other assemblages, relationships with other spatial phenomena. This article addresses these issues by presenting a novel method for spatially visualising CA so that these analyses can be interpreted intuitively. The method works by transforming the resultant bi-plots of the CA into colour maps using the HSV colour model, in which the similarity and difference between assemblages directly corresponds to the similarity and difference of the colours used to display them. Utilising two datasets – ceramics from the excavations of the Roman fortress of Vetera I, and terra sigillata forms collected as part of 'The Samian Project' – the article demonstrates how the method is applied and how it can be used to draw out spatial and temporal trends.

  17. Assemblaged by desire: Potterheads’ productive consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Harry Potter saga became one of the cultural products with a major impact on the twenty-first century. Its fans, called potterheads, relate in a social space known as fandom. Their practices are based on the appropriation of the cultural text in a productive consumption process within a context of participatory culture. Assuming desire from the perspective of Deleuzian assemblage theory, which presents this concept as a flow of productive energy that is articulated through a collective force, this study aimed to understand how potterheads’ productive consumption is assemblaged by desire. We therefore explored multifocal data concerning practices of potterheads available on digital platforms using Foucauldian Discourse Analysis. Our results revealed that potterheads’ desire assemblage maintains their bond with the canonical universe of the saga, as a way of maintaining identity and security in the transition to adult life, through relationships in the fandom and in pursuit of broader social legitimacy. The study contributes theoretically by adopting the Deleuzian notion of desire as a lens to understand the collective action of consumers in cultural contexts of practice.

  18. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P.; Telfer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  19. Moral assemblages of volunteer tourism development in Cusco, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Burrai, Elisa.; Mostafanezhad, Mary.; Hannam, Kevin.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a conceptual approach from which to examine the moral landscape of volunteer tourism development in Cusco, Peru. Drawing from recent work on assemblage theory in geography and tourism studies, we explore how assemblage thinking can facilitate new understandings of volunteer tourism development. Using assemblage as an analytical framework allows us to understand volunteer tourism as a series of relational, processual, unequal and mobile practices. These practices, we ...

  20. Demersal and larval fish assemblages in the Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Brenda L.; Holladay, Brenda A.; Busby, Morgan S.; Mier, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    A multidisciplinary research cruise was conducted in the Chukchi Sea in summer 2004 during which we investigated assemblages of small demersal fishes and ichthyoplankton and the water masses associated with these assemblages. This study establishes a baseline of 30 demersal fish and 25 ichthyoplankton taxa in US and Russian waters of the Chukchi Sea. Presence/absence of small demersal fish clustered into four assemblages: Coastal Fishes, Western Chukchi Fishes, South Central Chukchi Fishes, and North Central Chukchi Fishes. Habitats occupied by small demersal fishes were characterized by sediment type, bottom salinity, and bottom temperature. Abundance of ichthyoplankton grouped into three assemblages with geographical extent similar to that of the bottom assemblages, except that there was a single assemblage for Central Chukchi Fishes. Water-column temperature and salinity characterized ichthyoplankton habitats. Three water masses, Alaska Coastal Water, Bering Sea Water, and Winter Water, were identified from both bottom and depth-averaged water-column temperature and salinity. A fourth water mass, Resident Chukchi Water, was identified only in the bottom water. The water mass and habitat characteristics with which demersal and larval fish assemblages were associated create a baseline to measure anticipated effects of climate change that are expected to be most severe at high latitudes. Monitoring fish assemblages could be a tool for assessing the effects of climate change. Climate-induced changes in distributions of species would result in a restructuring of fish assemblages in the Chukchi Sea.

  1. Holocene molluscan assemblages in the Magellan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gordillo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Magellan region, much of the shoreline of the Beagle Channel coast (54°53´S; 67° - 68°W is bordered by Holocene raised beaches, which contain a large number of molluscs and other shelled taxa. The purpose of this work is to document the presence of various molluscan assemblages deposited with little or no postmortem transportation. An epifaunal Chlamys patagonica palaeocommunity (ca. 8,000 - 7,000 BP and three infaunal (Tawera gayi, Ameghinomya antiqua - Hiatella solida and Ameghinomya antiqua - Ensis macha palaeocommunities (ca. 4,400 - 4,000 BP were recognized. All the assemblages studied represent shallow, subtidal, cold-temperate environments. Based on comparisons with modern benthic communities in this region, these associations show that no remarkable ecologic and climatic changes occurred during the period ca. 8,000 - 4,000 BP. Thus, an apparent stability of modern marine communities over a period of several thousand years is suggested.

  2. Techniques de formage et d'assemblage

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, G; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Les sections Techniques d'Assemblage du groupe EST/MF et Brasage du groupe EST/SM ont été groupées en un seul service dans un but de rationalisation accrue des ressources et méthodes. Ce service dispose de nombreux moyens : soudure et découpe LASER (YAG, 350 W), soudure par faisceau d'électrons (deux installations, 35 et 7.5 kW), équipements TIG orbital, jet line, MIG, soudure plasma, boîte à gants, portique de soudage trois axes multiprocédés, presses plieuses, rouleuses, moyens de repoussage, alimentation à induction 12 kW et divers fours sous vide et à air. Le service est composé de 17 personnes dont la polyvalence est encouragée. Les activités de la section seront décrites à travers quelques exemples significatifs récents, notamment : l'assemblage des amenées de courant HTS, la réalisation des chambres LSS, des tubes HET, d'enveloppes céramiques pour détecteurs PET-HPD, le brasage de RFQ, la soudure du Barrel d'ATLAS ou encore le soudage des lignes de thermalisation du toroïde d'AT...

  3. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Architecture of Maastrichtian carbonate deposits of the United Arab Emirates and Oman Sultanate border region; Architecture des corps carbonates du Maastrichtien de la zone frontaliere Emirats Arabes Unis - Sultanat d'Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vennin, E. [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, 75 - Paris (France); Barrier, P. [Institut Geologique Alber-de-Lapparent (France); Soudet, H.J. [Societe ELF, 75 - Paris (France); Bideau, T.; Proudhon, B. [Elf Exploration Production, 64 - Pau (France); Cogema, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    1999-09-01

    This paper discusses the sedimentary model, sequence framework and geometry quantification of sedimentary bodies in an Upper Cretaceous carbonate platform, abounding in oil reservoirs. The outcrops are located along the western margin of the northern Oman Mountains in the border region of the United Arab Emirates and the Sultanate of Oman. The Maastrichtian Simsima Formation outcrops on several N-S-trending jebels, situated between the localities of Al Dhaid and Al Ain. Jebel Rawdah was studied in detail, whereas Jebel Faiyah is documented as another reference section for correlation purposes. A sedimentary reconstruction of the latest Campanian - Late Maastrichtian interval displays a gradual change from tidal flat and fore-shore to outer platform settings. This evolution shows the flooding of the study area after Late Campanian times. Two third-order sequences were identified on the Maastrichtian intra-platform ramps. Both of them can be subdivided into a complex arrangement of 4. and 5. order sequences. Third-order sequences exhibit composite features and contain aggradational/retro-gradational and pro-gradational trends. A direct relationship was identified between the sequence framework and the palaeo-ecological distribution of reef builder and free organisms. The former developed essentially in retro-gradational trends whereas the benthic foraminifera Loftusia commonly appears in platform flooding intervals, and orbitoids mainly occur within pro-gradational trends. Widespread sedimentary tectonic activity is documented in the palaeo-geographic reconstruction of the Simsima Formation. Several palaeo-highs and grabens, related to the general foreland basin context of the UAE platform, are recognised in the Jebel Rawdah. Finally, the sequence framework of the Simsima Formation in the Jebel Falyah is similar to that of the Jebel Rawdah and makes it possible to propose an accurate sequence framework correlation. (authors)

  5. Here Comes the Sun ... and I Say, "It' an Assemblage"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how she combines science lesson with a hands-on art project. She used the wonderfully creative suns shown on the Sunday edition of "The CBS Morning Show" to give the students fodder for thought. She describes how to create an assemblage. An assemblage is like a collage, but it moves past the two-dimensional…

  6. Meiofaunal assemblages associated with native and non-indigenous macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Puri; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Rubal, Marcos

    2016-07-01

    Meiofauna is a useful tool to detect effects of different disturbances; however, its relevance in the frame of biological invasions has been almost fully neglected. Meiofaunal assemblages associated with the invasive macroalga Sargassum muticum were studied and compared with those associated with two native macroalgae (Bifurcaria bifurcata and Chondrus crispus). We used a linear mixed model to determine the influence of habitat size (i.e. macroalgal biomass) in shaping meiofaunal assemblages. Results showed that habitat size (i.e. macroalgal biomass) shaped meiofaunal assemblages influencing its abundance, richness and structure. However, the identity of macroalga (i.e. species) appears also to play a significant role, particularly the differences of complexity among the studied species may shape their meiofaunal assemblages. Finally, the invasive macroalga appears to influence positively species richness. Our results highlight the need of including different faunal components to achieve a comprehensive knowledge on effects of invasive macroalgae and that meiofaunal assemblages may be a valuable tool to examine them.

  7. No correlation between the diversity and productivity of assemblages: evidence from the phytophage and predator assemblages in various cotton agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Men, XingYuan; Ge, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Biodiversity research has shown that primary productivity increases with plant species number, especially in many experimental grassland systems. Here, we assessed the correlation between productivity and diversity of phytophages and natural enemy assemblages associated with planting date and intercropping in four cotton agroecosystems. Twenty-one pairs of data were used to determine Pearson correlations between species richness, total number of individuals, diversity indices and productivity for each assemblage every five days from 5 June to 15 September 2012. At the same trophic level, the productivity exhibited a significant positive correlation with species richness of the phytophage or predator assemblage. A significant correlation was found between productivity and total number of individuals in most cotton fields. However, no significant correlations were observed between productivity and diversity indices (including indices of energy flow diversity and numerical diversity) in most cotton fields for either the phytophage or the predator assemblages. Species richness of phytophage assemblage and total individual numbers were significantly correlated with primary productivity. Also, species richness of natural enemy assemblage and total number of individuals correlated with phytophage assemblage productivity. A negative but not significant correlation occurred between the indices of numerical diversity and energy flow diversity and lower trophic-level productivity in the cotton-phytophage and phytophage-predator assemblages for most intercropped cotton agroecosystems. Our results clearly showed that there were no correlations between diversity indices and productivity within the same or lower trophic levels within the phytophage and predator assemblages in cotton agroecosystems, and inter-cropped cotton fields had a stronger ability to support the natural enemy assemblage and potentially to reduce phytophages.

  8. Global assemblages and structural models of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    -category of assemblages – those constructed as malleable and governable which I call ‘governance-objects’ – is central to structure in international relations. The chapter begins with standard definitions of what structures are – patterns of interaction between elements – and briefly covers the range of models currently...... used to simplify different structures. Next the chapter points to the blindness of most structural theories of IR to the role of assemblages in general and governance-objects in particular. Thirdly, the idea that a polity is constituted precisely by the assemblage of a governance...

  9. Partitioning taxonomic diversity of aquatic insect assemblages ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity can be divided into: alpha (α, local), beta (β, difference in assemblage composition among locals), and gamma (γ, total diversity). We assessed the partitioning of taxonomic diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) and of functional feeding groups (FFG) in Neotropical Savanna (southeastern Brazilian Cerrado) streams. To do so, we considered three diversity components: stream site (α), among stream sites (β1), and among hydrologic units (β2). We also evaluated the association of EPT genera composition with heterogeneity in land use, instream physical habitat structure, and instream water quality variables. The percent of EPT taxonomic α diversity (20.7%) was lower than the β1 and β2 diversities (53.1% and 26.2%, respectively). The EPT FFG α diversity (26.5%) was lower than the β1 diversity (55.8%) and higher than the β2 (17.7%) diversity. The collector-gatherer FFG was predominant and had the greatest β diversity among stream sites (β1, 55.8%). Our findings support the need for implementing regional scale conservation strategies in the Cerrado biome, which has been degraded by anthropogenic activities. Using adaptations of the US EPA’s National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) designs and methods, Ferreira and colleagues examined the distribution of taxonomic and functional diversity of aquatic insects among basins, stream sites within basins, and within stream sample reaches. They sampled 160 low-order stre

  10. Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara

    2008-09-01

    In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

  11. Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibb, H.; Sanders, N. J.; Dunn, R. R.; Watson, S.; Photakis, M.; Abril, S.; Andersen, A. N.; Angulo, E.; Armbrecht, I.; Arnan, X.; Baccaro, F. B.; Bishop, T. R.; Boulay, R.; Castracani, C.; Del Toro, I.; Delsinne, T.; Diaz, M.; Donoso, D. A.; Enríquez, M. L.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Feener Jr., D. H.; Fitzpatrik, M. C.; Gómez, C.; Grasso, D. A.; Groc, S.; Heterick, B.; Hoffmann, B. D.; Lach, L.; Lattke, J.; Leponce, M.; Lessard, J.-P.; Longino, J.; Lucky, A.; Majer, J.; Menke, S. B.; Mezger, D.; Mori, A.; Munyai, T. C.; Paknia, O.; Pearce-Duvet, J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Philpott, S. M.; de Souza, J. L. P.; Tista, M.; Vasconcelos, H. L.; Vonshak, M.; Parr, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 1808 (2015), article number 20150418 ISSN 0962-8452 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : assemblage structure * dominance * global warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.823, year: 2015

  12. Individual variation in habitat use in two stream fish assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Resende Manna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The habitat use is an individual choice that is influenced by physical conditions such as substrate type, food resources availability and adequate depth. However, habitat use is often measured only through interspecific variability because intraspecific variability is supposed to be low. Here, the differences in habitat use by two stream fish assemblages in two different environments (Brazilian rainforest and semiarid were investigated at both interspecific and intraspecific levels. We performed 55 hours of underwater observation in a 200 meters long stretch in each stream and quantified the following habitat descriptors: (i water velocity, (ii distance from the stream bank, (iii substratum, (iv water column depth, (v aquatic cover, and (vi canopy percentage. To compare intra and interspecific variability we summarized the multivariate habitat use databases using Principal Components Analysis (PCA on Euclidean distance. An Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM was performed to test the differences in habitat use by the two assemblages. Besides, in each fish community we did an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA to test within vs between species variability for individual position on each PCA axes. To go further than these univariate tests, the differences among the species and assemblages were tested with Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA. The habitat use between assemblages was significantly different (ANOSIM – R=0.14; p<0.001. PERMANOVA revealed significant differences among species in both assemblages (Rainforest - F=7.25; p<0.001; semiarid - F=4.84; p<0.001. Lower F values in the semiarid assemblage revealed a higher level of intraspecific variability for this assemblage. Our findings showed high intra and interspecific variability in both stream fish assemblages and highlight the importance of measuring individual’s differences for this feature of fish biodiversity. Additionally, the versatility described for tropical

  13. Determinants of fish assemblage structure in Northwestern Great Plains streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, J.A.; Bramblett, R.G.; Guy, C.S.; Zale, A.V.; Roberts, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie streams are known for their harsh and stochastic physical conditions, and the fish assemblages therein have been shown to be temporally variable. We assessed the spatial and temporal variation in fish assemblage structure in five intermittent, adventitious northwestern Great Plains streams representing a gradient of watershed areas. Fish assemblages and abiotic conditions varied more spatially than temporally. The most important variables explaining fish assemblage structure were longitudinal position and the proportion of fine substrates. The proportion of fine substrates increased proceeding upstream, approaching 100% in all five streams, and species richness declined upstream with increasing fine substrates. High levels of fine substrate in the upper reaches appeared to limit the distribution of obligate lithophilic fish species to reaches further downstream. Species richness and substrates were similar among all five streams at the lowermost and uppermost sites. However, in the middle reaches, species richness increased, the amount of fine substrate decreased, and connectivity increased as watershed area increased. Season and some dimensions of habitat (including thalweg depth, absolute distance to the main-stem river, and watershed size) were not essential in explaining the variation in fish assemblages. Fish species richness varied more temporally than overall fish assemblage structure did because common species were consistently abundant across seasons, whereas rare species were sometimes absent or perhaps not detected by sampling. The similarity in our results among five streams varying in watershed size and those from other studies supports the generalization that spatial variation exceeds temporal variation in the fish assemblages of prairie and warmwater streams. Furthermore, given longitudinal position, substrate, and stream size, general predictions regarding fish assemblage structure and function in prairie streams are possible. ?? American

  14. Global warming transforms coral reef assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Terry P; Kerry, James T; Baird, Andrew H; Connolly, Sean R; Dietzel, Andreas; Eakin, C Mark; Heron, Scott F; Hoey, Andrew S; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Liu, Gang; McWilliam, Michael J; Pears, Rachel J; Pratchett, Morgan S; Skirving, William J; Stella, Jessica S; Torda, Gergely

    2018-04-01

    Global warming is rapidly emerging as a universal threat to ecological integrity and function, highlighting the urgent need for a better understanding of the impact of heat exposure on the resilience of ecosystems and the people who depend on them 1 . Here we show that in the aftermath of the record-breaking marine heatwave on the Great Barrier Reef in 2016 2 , corals began to die immediately on reefs where the accumulated heat exposure exceeded a critical threshold of degree heating weeks, which was 3-4 °C-weeks. After eight months, an exposure of 6 °C-weeks or more drove an unprecedented, regional-scale shift in the composition of coral assemblages, reflecting markedly divergent responses to heat stress by different taxa. Fast-growing staghorn and tabular corals suffered a catastrophic die-off, transforming the three-dimensionality and ecological functioning of 29% of the 3,863 reefs comprising the world's largest coral reef system. Our study bridges the gap between the theory and practice of assessing the risk of ecosystem collapse, under the emerging framework for the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Ecosystems 3 , by rigorously defining both the initial and collapsed states, identifying the major driver of change, and establishing quantitative collapse thresholds. The increasing prevalence of post-bleaching mass mortality of corals represents a radical shift in the disturbance regimes of tropical reefs, both adding to and far exceeding the influence of recurrent cyclones and other local pulse events, presenting a fundamental challenge to the long-term future of these iconic ecosystems.

  15. The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koufos, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes a great number of taxa, described in numerous articles since the first decades of the 19th Century. The present article is a revision of all these taxa, providing information about their history, localities, age, as well as their stratigraphic distribution and palaeoenvironment. The Early/Middle Miocene carnivore record of Greece is poor as the available fossiliferous sites and material are rare. However, the Late Miocene one is quite rich, including numerous taxa. The Miocene localities with carnivores and their age are given in a stratigraphic table covering the European Mammal zones from MN 4 to MN 13. The type locality, holotype, and some historical and morphological remarks are given for each taxon. Several carnivore taxa were erected from Greek material and new photos of their holotypes are given. The stratigraphic distribution of the Greek carnivore taxa indicates that they are covering the time span from ~19.0-5.3Ma. The majority of the Miocene taxa (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis disappeared at the end of Miocene. The composition of the Early/Middle Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes mainly viverrids (Lophocyon, Euboictis, while the hyaenids, percrocutids, felids and mustelids are very few. On the contrary the Late Miocene assemblage is richer, including more subfamilies and species; the hyaenids and mustelids dominate, while the viverrids are absent. The Late Miocene carnivore guild structure is similar to that of the modern Serengeti, indicating a relatively open, savannah-like environment.

    La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su

  16. Exploring coral microbiome assemblages in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lin; Tian, Ren-Mao; Zhou, Guowei; Tong, Haoya; Wong, Yue Him; Zhang, Weipeng; Chui, Apple Pui Yi; Xie, James Y; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Ang, Put O; Liu, Sheng; Huang, Hui; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2018-02-05

    Coral reefs are significant ecosystems. The ecological success of coral reefs relies on not only coral-algal symbiosis but also coral-microbial partnership. However, microbiome assemblages in the South China Sea corals remain largely unexplored. Here, we compared the microbiome assemblages of reef-building corals Galaxea (G. fascicularis) and Montipora (M. venosa, M. peltiformis, M. monasteriata) collected from five different locations in the South China Sea using massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and multivariate analysis. The results indicated that microbiome assemblages for each coral species were unique regardless of location and were different from the corresponding seawater. Host type appeared to drive the coral microbiome assemblages rather than location and seawater. Network analysis was employed to explore coral microbiome co-occurrence patterns, which revealed 61 and 80 co-occurring microbial species assembling the Galaxea and Montipora microbiomes, respectively. Most of these co-occurring microbial species were commonly found in corals and were inferred to play potential roles in host nutrient metabolism; carbon, nitrogen, sulfur cycles; host detoxification; and climate change. These findings suggest that the co-occurring microbial species explored might be essential to maintain the critical coral-microbial partnership. The present study provides new insights into coral microbiome assemblages in the South China Sea.

  17. Public sphere as assemblage: the cultural politics of roadside memorialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates contemporary academic accounts of the public sphere. In particular, it takes stock of post-Habermasian public sphere scholarship, and acknowledges a lively and variegated debate concerning the multiple ways in which individuals engage in contemporary political affairs. A critical eye is cast over a range of key insights which have come to establish the parameters of what 'counts' as a/the public sphere, who can be involved, and where and how communicative networks are established. This opens up the conceptual space for re-imagining a/the public sphere as an assemblage. Making use of recent developments in Deleuzian-inspired assemblage theory - most especially drawn from DeLanda's (2006) 'new philosophy of society' - the paper sets out an alternative perspective on the notion of the public sphere, and regards it as a space of connectivity brought into being through a contingent and heterogeneous assemblage of discursive, visual and performative practices. This is mapped out with reference to the cultural politics of roadside memorialization. However, a/the public sphere as an assemblage is not simply a 'social construction' brought into being through a logic of connectivity, but is an emergent and ephemeral space which reflexively nurtures and assembles the cultural politics (and political cultures) of which it is an integral part. The discussion concludes, then, with a consideration of the contribution of assemblage theory to public sphere studies. (Also see Campbell 2009a). © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  18. Shaping up: a geometric morphometric approach to assemblage ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, L M; Piller, K R

    2015-09-01

    This study adopts an ecomorphological approach to test the utility of body shape as a predictor of niche relationships among a stream fish assemblage of the Tickfaw River (Lake Pontchartrain Basin) in southeastern Louisiana, U.S.A. To examine the potential influence of evolutionary constraints, analyses were performed with and without the influence of phylogeny. Fish assemblages were sampled throughout the year, and ecological data (habitat and tropic guild) and body shape (geometric morphometric) data were collected for each fish specimen. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine relationships and differences between body shape and ecological data. Results indicate that a relationship exists between body shape and trophic guild as well as flow regime, but no significant correlation between body shape and substratum was found. Body shape was a reliable indicator of position within assemblage niche space. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Mass coral bleaching causes biotic homogenization of reef fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laura E; Graham, Nicholas A J; Pratchett, Morgan S; Eurich, Jacob G; Hoey, Andrew S

    2018-04-06

    Global climate change is altering community composition across many ecosystems due to nonrandom species turnover, typically characterized by the loss of specialist species and increasing similarity of biological communities across spatial scales. As anthropogenic disturbances continue to alter species composition globally, there is a growing need to identify how species responses influence the establishment of distinct assemblages, such that management actions may be appropriately assigned. Here, we use trait-based analyses to compare temporal changes in five complementary indices of reef fish assemblage structure among six taxonomically distinct coral reef habitats exposed to a system-wide thermal stress event. Our results revealed increased taxonomic and functional similarity of previously distinct reef fish assemblages following mass coral bleaching, with changes characterized by subtle, but significant, shifts toward predominance of small-bodied, algal-farming habitat generalists. Furthermore, while the taxonomic or functional richness of fish assemblages did not change across all habitats, an increase in functional originality indicated an overall loss of functional redundancy. We also found that prebleaching coral composition better predicted changes in fish assemblage structure than the magnitude of coral loss. These results emphasize how measures of alpha diversity can mask important changes in the structure and functioning of ecosystems as assemblages reorganize. Our findings also highlight the role of coral species composition in structuring communities and influencing the diversity of responses of reef fishes to disturbance. As new coral species configurations emerge, their desirability will hinge upon the composition of associated species and their capacity to maintain key ecological processes in spite of ongoing disturbances. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304 collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth, down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth. Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of

  1. Downstream impacts of dams: shifts in benthic invertivorous fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzotti, Rafaela Vendrametto; Miranda, Leandro E.; Agostinho, Angelo A.; Gomes, Luiz Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Impoundments alter connectivity, sediment transport and water discharge in rivers and floodplains, affecting recruitment, habitat and resource availability for fish including benthic invertivorous fish, which represent an important link between primary producers and higher trophic levels in tropical aquatic ecosystems. We investigated long-term changes to water regime, water quality, and invertivorous fish assemblages pre and post impoundment in three rivers downstream of Porto Primavera Reservoir in south Brazil: Paraná, Baía and Ivinhema rivers. Impacts were distinct in the Paraná River, which is fully obstructed by the dam, less evident in the Baía River which is partially obstructed by the dam, but absent in the unimpounded Ivinhema River. Changes in water regime were reflected mainly as changes in water-level fluctuation with little effect on timing. Water transparency increased in the Paraná River post impoundment but did not change in the Baía and Ivinhema rivers. Changes in fish assemblages included a decrease in benthic invertivorous fish in the Paraná River and a shift in invertivorous fish assemblage structure in the Baía and Paraná rivers but not in the unimpounded Ivinhema River. Changes in water regime and water transparency, caused by impoundment, directly or indirectly impacted invertivorous fish assemblages. Alterations of fish assemblages following environmental changes have consequences over the entire ecosystem, including a potential decrease in the diversity of mechanisms for energy flow. We suggest that keeping existing unimpounded tributaries free of dams, engineering artificial floods, and intensive management of fish habitat within the floodplain may preserve native fish assemblages and help maintain functionality and ecosystem services in highly impounded rivers.

  2. Patterns in reef fish assemblages: Insights from the Chagos Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilys, Melita; Roche, Ronan; Koldewey, Heather; Turner, John

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of variability in the composition of fish assemblages across the Indo-Pacific region is crucial to support coral reef ecosystem resilience. Whilst numerous relationships and feedback mechanisms between the functional roles of coral reef fishes and reef benthic composition have been investigated, certain key groups, such as the herbivores, are widely suggested to maintain reefs in a coral-dominated state. Examining links between fishes and reef benthos is complicated by the interactions between natural processes, disturbance events and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure. This study examined fish assemblages and associated benthic variables across five atolls within the Chagos Archipelago, where fishing pressure is largely absent, to better understand these relationships. We found high variability in fish assemblages among atolls and sites across the archipelago, especially for key groups such as a suite of grazer-detritivore surgeonfish, and the parrotfishes which varied in density over 40-fold between sites. Differences in fish assemblages were significantly associated with variable levels of both live and recently dead coral cover and rugosity. We suggest these results reflect differing coral recovery trajectories following coral bleaching events and a strong influence of 'bottom-up' control mechanisms on fish assemblages. Species level analyses revealed that Scarus niger, Acanthurus nigrofuscus and Chlorurus strongylocephalos were key species driving differences in fish assemblage structure. Clarifying the trophic roles of herbivorous and detritivorous reef fishes will require species-level studies, which also examine feeding behaviour, to fully understand their contribution in maintaining reef resilience to climate change and fishing impacts.

  3. Phytoplankton Assemblage Patterns in the Southern Mid-Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinen, Carla; Moisan, Tiffany A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Wallops Coastal Oceans Observing Laboratory (Wa-COOL) Project, we sampled a time-series transect in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) biweekly. Our 2-year time-series data included physical parameters, nutrient concentrations, and chlorophyll a concentrations. A detailed phytoplankton assemblage structure was examined in the second year. During the 2-year study, chlorophyll a concentration (and ocean color satellite imagery) indicated that phytoplankton blooms occurred in January/February during mixing conditions and in early autumn under stratified conditions. The chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.25 microgram 1(exp -1) to 15.49 microgram 1(exp -1) during the 2-year period. We were able to discriminate approximately 116 different species under phase contrast microscopy. Dominant phytoplankton included Skeletonema costatum, Rhizosolenia spp., and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens. In an attempt to determine phytoplankton species competition/succession within the assemblage, we calculated a Shannon Weaver diversity index for our diatom microscopy data. Diatom diversity was greatest during the winter and minimal during the spring. Diatom diversity was also greater at nearshore stations than at offshore stations. Individual genera appeared patchy, with surface and subsurface patches appearing abruptly and persisting for only 1-2 months at a time. The distribution of individual species differed significantly from bulk variables of the assemblage (chlorophyll a ) and total phytoplankton assemblage (cells), which indicates that phytoplankton species may be limited in growth in ways that differ from those of the total assemblage. Our study demonstrated a highly diverse phytoplankton assemblage throughout the year, with opportunistic species dominating during spring and fall in response to seasonal changes in temperature and nutrients in the southern MAB.

  4. Patterns in reef fish assemblages: Insights from the Chagos Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ronan; Koldewey, Heather; Turner, John

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of variability in the composition of fish assemblages across the Indo-Pacific region is crucial to support coral reef ecosystem resilience. Whilst numerous relationships and feedback mechanisms between the functional roles of coral reef fishes and reef benthic composition have been investigated, certain key groups, such as the herbivores, are widely suggested to maintain reefs in a coral-dominated state. Examining links between fishes and reef benthos is complicated by the interactions between natural processes, disturbance events and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure. This study examined fish assemblages and associated benthic variables across five atolls within the Chagos Archipelago, where fishing pressure is largely absent, to better understand these relationships. We found high variability in fish assemblages among atolls and sites across the archipelago, especially for key groups such as a suite of grazer-detritivore surgeonfish, and the parrotfishes which varied in density over 40-fold between sites. Differences in fish assemblages were significantly associated with variable levels of both live and recently dead coral cover and rugosity. We suggest these results reflect differing coral recovery trajectories following coral bleaching events and a strong influence of ‘bottom-up’ control mechanisms on fish assemblages. Species level analyses revealed that Scarus niger, Acanthurus nigrofuscus and Chlorurus strongylocephalos were key species driving differences in fish assemblage structure. Clarifying the trophic roles of herbivorous and detritivorous reef fishes will require species-level studies, which also examine feeding behaviour, to fully understand their contribution in maintaining reef resilience to climate change and fishing impacts. PMID:29351566

  5. A classic Late Frasnian chondrichthyan assemblage from southern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Michał; Gouwy, Sofie; Goolaerts, Stijn

    2017-09-01

    Samples from the Upper Frasnian (Devonian) of Lompret Quarry and Nismes railway section in Dinant Synclinorium, southern Belgium, yielded several chondrichthyan teeth and scales. The teeth belong to three genera: Phoebodus, Cladodoides and Protacrodus. The comparison with selected Late Frasnian chondrichthyan assemblages from the seas between Laurussia and Gondwana revealed substantial local differences of taxonomic composition due to palaeoenvironmental conditions, such as depth, distance to submarine platforms, oxygenation of water, and possibly also temperature. The assemblage from Belgium, with its high frequency of phoebodonts, is the most similar to that from the Ryauzyak section, South Urals, Russia, and the Horse Spring section, Canning Basin, Australia.

  6. Modelling of acid-base titration curves of mineral assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamberg Karel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modelling of acid-base titration curves of mineral assemblages was studied with respect to basic parameters of their surface sites to be obtained. The known modelling approaches, component additivity (CA and generalized composite (GC, and three types of different assemblages (fucoidic sandstones, sedimentary rock-clay and bentonite-magnetite samples were used. In contrary to GC-approach, application of which was without difficulties, the problem of CA-one consisted in the credibility and accessibility of the parameters characterizing the individual mineralogical components.

  7. Demersal Assemblages on the Soft Bottoms off the Catalan-Levante Coast of the Spanish Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano García-Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of 255 bottom trawl samples obtained in annual experimental surveys (2007–2010 along the western Mediterranean shows the existence of five well-defined demersal assemblages that follow a depth distribution: (a upper shelf assemblages, including two assemblages differentiated by the type of substrate (sand-muddy and terrigenous muddy bottoms; (b a middle shelf assemblage; (c an upper slope assemblage; (d a middle slope assemblage. Faunally, they are dominated by fish (37% of 452 total species, followed by crustaceans (22%, molluscs (17%, echinoderms (9%, and other invertebrates (15%. The assemblages identified showed major alterations on the shelf and shelf edge and less pronounced ones on the upper and middle slope. The average diversity values were more or less high, evidencing the high species richness in the western Mediterranean. The identified assemblages may facilitate future multispecies fisheries management based on an ecosystem approach.

  8. The Liana assemblage of a Congolian rainforest : diversity, structure and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewango Ekokinya, Corneille

    2010-01-01

    Key words: Liana assemblage, species composition, community, dynamics, canopy openness, Manniophyton fulvum, functional traits, population density, pervasive change.

    This study analyzes the diversity, composition, and dynamics of the liana assemblage of the Ituri rain forest in

  9. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in the Near Coastal Zone of Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been used as indicators of ecological condition because their responses integrate localized environmental conditions of the sediments and overlying water. Assemblages of benthic invertebrates in the near coastal region are of particular...

  10. [Characteristics of ichthyoplankton assemblages in Yangtze Estuary and adjacent waters in spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-De; Xian, Wei-Wei; Liu, Dong

    2008-10-01

    Based on the investigation data of ichthyoplankton assemblages and environmental factors in Yangtze Estuary and adjacent waters in May 1999 and 2001, the characteristics of ichthyoplankton assemblages in these areas in spring were studied by using TWINSPAN (two-way indicator species analysis) and CCA (canonical correspondence analysis). A total of 11 540 ichthyoplankton individuals were taxonomically identified, belonging to 11 orders, 18 families and 32 species, of which, Coilia mystus, Engraulis japonicus, Chaeturichthys hexanema, Allanetta bleekeri, and Trachidermis fasciatus were the dominant species. The ichthyoplankton communities were classified into three assemblages by using TWINSPAN, i.e., estuarine assemblage dominated by C. mystus, coastal assemblage dominated by A. bleekeri and T. fasciatus; and shelf assemblage featured by E. japonicus and C. hexanema. The CCA ordination of the interrelations among the three assemblages and their correlations to the environmental variables revealed that salinity, depth, dissolved oxygen, and total suspended particulate matter were the major factors affecting the ichthyoplankton assemblages in the study areas.

  11. Learning in the "Platform Society": Disassembling an Educational Data Assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Schools are increasingly involved in diverse forms of student data collection. This article provides a sociotechnical survey of a data assemblage used in education. ClassDojo is a commercial platform for tracking students' behaviour data in classrooms and a social media network for connecting teachers, students, and parents. The hybridization of…

  12. The distribution patterns of Red Sea Chaetodontid assemblages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekeria, ZA; Afeworki, Y; Videler, JJ; Zekeria, A.

    2005-01-01

    1. The occurrence and abundance of butterflyfishes were investigated in northern, central and southern areas of the Eritrean Red Sea coast. Visual census was used to estimate the presence and abundance of the species along 100-metre long transects. 2. The assemblages of buttertlyfishes from the

  13. Temporal variability in epifaunal assemblages associated with temperate gorgonian gardens

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, I.M.; Curdia, Joao; Cunha, M.R.; Santos, M.N.; Carvalho, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The present study is one of the few that investigate the temporal variability of epifaunal assemblages associated with coral species, particularly the octocorals Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica in south Portugal. The results suggest time rather than colony size as a primary driver of the ecological patterns of these assemblages, which were dominated by amphipods, molluscs and polychaetes. Temporal variability was linked to changes in environmental parameters, namely temperature, chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon. Hence, temporal variability must be taken into account for the design of future biodiversity assessment studies, as different patterns may be observed depending on the sampling time. Associated epifaunal assemblages were consistently dominated by resident species (i.e. species present in all sampling periods) and a peak of rare species was observed in the transition from spring to summer following the increase of seawater temperature. Turnover was particularly high in the transition between the spring and summer periods. In both hosts, turnover was higher in the small sized colonies, which generally harboured less diverse and less abundant assemblages which also differed from those inhabiting larger size colonies. The high levels of diversity associated with gorgonian colonies highlights the need for the conservation of this priority habitat.

  14. The ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Algoa Bay nearshore region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Algoa Bay nearshore region in relation to coastal zone utilization by juvenile fish. ... The various taxa occurring in the ichthyoplankton are discussed in terms of distribution of adults and juveniles, breeding biology and available information on early life history. The paucity of larvae of ...

  15. Changes in density and composition of algal assemblages in certain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water purification plants at Virginia and Bothaville, South Africa, experience problems with cyanobacteria and other algae. Their algal assemblages were studied during 2010 and 2011 to determine the dominant species that may pose problems in purification. Cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were the dominant ...

  16. Shikarpur lithic assemblage: New questions regarding Rohri chert blade production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charusmita Gadekar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent excavations at Shikarpur, a fortified Harappan site situated near the Gulf of Kuchchh in Gujarat, Western India, brought to light a large collection of Rohri chert blades.  Chert found in the Rohri hill near Sukkur in Sindh, central Pakistan is distinctive and easily identifiable. The wide distribution of standardized Rohri chert blades is often regarded as a testimony to the Harappan efficiency in long distance trade and craft production.  The possibility of localized production of Rohri chert blades in Gujarat is often negated due to the constraints of raw-material availability.  The absence of Rohri chert working debitage from most of the sites in Gujarat, has lent support to this position. The Shikarpur Rohri blade assemblage however incorporates more than 650 blades, a large fluted blade-core and a few Rohri chert debitage.  These have led the excavators to suggest that some of the blades found at Shikarpur were locally produced from raw materials brought to the site from the Rohri hills.  Typo-technological features of the Rohri chert assemblage from Shikarpur have been analysed in this background. These along with metrical features of the assemblage are compared with Rohri chert assemblages from other major Harappan sites in the region to check the validity of the proposed ‘limited local production’.

  17. Cinema Experiences at School: Assemblages as Encounters with Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Marta

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse how 15 students at a public elementary school detach from immobile representations of identity through aesthetic self-expressive work with cinema. Drawing on Deleuze and Guattari's concept of assemblage, I interrogate students' experiences of discrimination and challenge their processes of developing a short…

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF SUBMERGED MACROPHYTES ON SEDIMENTARY DIATOM ASSEMBLAGES(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaire, Jesse C; Prairie, Yves T; Gregory-Eaves, Irene

    2011-12-01

    Submerged macrophytes are a central component of lake ecosystems; however, little is known regarding their long-term response to environmental change. We have examined the potential of diatoms as indicators of past macrophyte biomass. We first sampled periphyton to determine whether habitat was a predictor of diatom assemblage. We then sampled 41 lakes in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate whether whole-lake submerged macrophyte biomass (BiomEpiV) influenced surface sediment diatom assemblages. A multivariate regression tree (MRT) was used to construct a semiquantitative model to reconstruct past macrophyte biomass. We determined that periphytic diatom assemblages on macrophytes were significantly different from those on wood and rocks (ANOSIM R = 0.63, P macrophyte, nutrient-limited lakes (BiomEpiV ≥525 μg · L(-1) ; total phosphorus [TP] macrophyte, nutrient-limited lakes (BiomEpiV macrophytes have a significant influence on diatom community structure and that sedimentary diatom assemblages can be used to infer past macrophyte abundance. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  19. UV EXPOSURE OF CORAL ASSEMBLAGES IN THE FLORIDA KEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have indicated that solar radiation can be a significant stressor of coral assemblages in tropical and subtropical marine environments. Here we review the scientific literature related to the interactions of solar radiation with coral reefs, with emphasis on harm...

  20. Microfloral assemblage, age and paleoenvironment of the Upper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microfloral assemblage, age and paleoenvironment of the Upper Cretaceous Patti Formation, southeastern Bida Basin, Nigeria. OJ Ojo, SO Akande. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 44 (1) 2008: pp. 71-82. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  1. Effects of oil pollution on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroinvertebrate assemblages from uncontaminated and contaminated sites in the Gamba Complex (Gabon) were compared, the latter sites having been subjected to ongoing oil spills since the 1970s. Vegetation communities surrounding the sites included savannah, shrub–scrub, palm forest, gallery forest and thick ...

  2. Temporal variability in epifaunal assemblages associated with temperate gorgonian gardens

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, I.M.

    2015-10-19

    The present study is one of the few that investigate the temporal variability of epifaunal assemblages associated with coral species, particularly the octocorals Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica in south Portugal. The results suggest time rather than colony size as a primary driver of the ecological patterns of these assemblages, which were dominated by amphipods, molluscs and polychaetes. Temporal variability was linked to changes in environmental parameters, namely temperature, chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon. Hence, temporal variability must be taken into account for the design of future biodiversity assessment studies, as different patterns may be observed depending on the sampling time. Associated epifaunal assemblages were consistently dominated by resident species (i.e. species present in all sampling periods) and a peak of rare species was observed in the transition from spring to summer following the increase of seawater temperature. Turnover was particularly high in the transition between the spring and summer periods. In both hosts, turnover was higher in the small sized colonies, which generally harboured less diverse and less abundant assemblages which also differed from those inhabiting larger size colonies. The high levels of diversity associated with gorgonian colonies highlights the need for the conservation of this priority habitat.

  3. Insect assemblage and the pollination system in cocoa ecosystems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... Key words: Cocoa, pollinators, insect assemblage, Forcipomyia spp, pollination system. INTRODUCTION ... that the ecological prediction of plant reproductive successes and ..... non-interaction between some resident insects and the cocoa plant might be as a result of evolution of floral structure of the ...

  4. The health of benthic diatom assemblages in lower stretch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study examines the ecological state of epilithic diatom assemblages along the lower stretch of Mandakini, a glacier-fed Himalayan river. The diatoms were sampled at four stations during winter and summer, only once in each season. Valve counts were obtained from Naphrax mounts prepared from each sample.

  5. Marine heatwaves and optimal temperatures for microbial assemblage activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint, Ian; Smale, Dan A

    2017-02-01

    The response of microbial assemblages to instantaneous temperature change was measured in a seasonal study of the coastal waters of the western English Channel. On 18 occasions between November 1999 and December 2000, bacterial abundance was assessed and temperature responses determined from the incorporation of 3 H leucine, measured in a temperature gradient from 5°C to 38°C. Q 10 values varied, being close to 2 in spring and summer but were >3 in autumn. There was a seasonal pattern in the assemblage optimum temperature (T opt ), which was out of phase with sea surface temperature. In July, highest 3 H-leucine incorporation rates were measured at temperatures that were only 2.8°C greater than ambient sea surface temperature but in winter, T opt was ∼20°C higher than the ambient sea surface temperature. Sea surface temperatures for the adjacent English Channel and Celtic Sea for 1982-2014 have periodically been >3°C higher than climatological mean temperatures. This suggests that discrete periods of anomalously high temperatures might be close to, or exceed, temperatures at which maximum microbial assemblage activity occurs. The frequency and magnitude of marine heatwaves are likely to increase as a consequence of anthropogenic climate change and extreme temperatures may influence the role of bacterial assemblages in biogeochemical processes. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Reef fish and coral assemblages at Maptaput, Rayong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voravit Cheevaporn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the structure of coral and fish assemblages of a group of small islands and pinnacles in the vicinity of Maptaput deep sea port, Rayong Province, Thailand during 2002. The coral and fish assemblages at Saket Island and nearby pinnacle, Hin-Yai, which are located less than 1 km from the deep sea port, had changed. Living coral cover in 2002 was 8% at Hin-Yai and 4% at Saket Island which decreased from 33% and 64%, respectively in the previous report in 1992. Numbers of coral species at Saket Island decreased from 41 species to 13 species. Acropora spp. that previously dominated the area had nearly disappeared. For fishes, a total of 40 species were found in 2002 the numbers decreased to only 6 species at Saket Island and 36 species at Hin-Yai. Fishes that dominated the area are small pomacentrids. After 1997, the conditions of coral and fish assemblages at Saket Island and Hin-Yai had markedly changed, whereas, the conditions found in the nearby area are much better. Sediment load from port construction was the primary cause of the degradation. This should indicate the adverse effect of sedimentation on coral and reef fish assemblages at Maptaput. Coral communities developed on rock pinnacles west of Maptaput deep-sea port are reported and described herein for the first time.

  7. Response of phytoplankton assemblages isolated for short periods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of phytoplankton assemblages isolated in enclosures for short periods of time was examined in hyper-eutrophic Lake Chivero (Harare, Zimbabwe), to determine the factors that influenced the structure of the phytoplankton community, after noticing a marked decline in the dominance of Microcystis aeruginosa ...

  8. Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Heloise; Sanders, Nathan J.; Dunn, Robert R.; Watson, Simon; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Andersen, Alan N.; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Inge; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Bishop, Tom R.; Boulay, Raphael; Castracani, Cristina; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A.; Enríquez, Martha L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Feener, Donald H.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Gómez, Crisanto; Grasso, Donato A.; Groc, Sarah; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin D.; Lach, Lori; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Majer, Jonathan; Menke, Sean B.; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Munyai, Thinandavha C.; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M.; de Souza, Jorge L. P.; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vonshak, Merav; Parr, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction among temperature, precipitation and disturbance shaped species richness and evenness. The effect was manifested through a failure of species richness to increase substantially with temperature in transformed habitats at low precipitation. At low precipitation levels, evenness increased with temperature in undisturbed sites, peaked at medium temperatures in disturbed sites and remained low in transformed sites. In warmer climates with lower rainfall, the effects of increasing disturbance on species richness and evenness were akin to decreases in temperature of up to 9°C. Anthropogenic disturbance and ongoing climate change may interact in complicated ways to shape the structure of assemblages, with hot, arid environments likely to be at greatest risk. PMID:25994675

  9. Relationships between structural complexity, coral traits, and reef fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Emily S.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.; Nash, Kirsty L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2017-06-01

    With the ongoing loss of coral cover and the associated flattening of reef architecture, understanding the links between coral habitat and reef fishes is of critical importance. Here, we investigate whether considering coral traits and functional diversity provides new insights into the relationship between structural complexity and reef fish communities, and whether coral traits and community composition can predict structural complexity. Across 157 sites in Seychelles, Maldives, the Chagos Archipelago, and Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we find that structural complexity and reef zone are the strongest and most consistent predictors of reef fish abundance, biomass, species richness, and trophic structure. However, coral traits, diversity, and life histories provided additional predictive power for models of reef fish assemblages, and were key drivers of structural complexity. Our findings highlight that reef complexity relies on living corals—with different traits and life histories—continuing to build carbonate skeletons, and that these nuanced relationships between coral assemblages and habitat complexity can affect the structure of reef fish assemblages. Seascape-level estimates of structural complexity are rapid and cost effective with important implications for the structure and function of fish assemblages, and should be incorporated into monitoring programs.

  10. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  11. Improving the energy efficiency of mine fan assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, Euler

    2015-01-01

    Energy associated with ventilating an underground operation comprises a significant portion of a mine operation's base energy demand and is consequently responsible for a large percentage of the total operating costs. Ventilation systems may account from 25 to 40% of the total energy costs and 40–50% of the energy consumption of a mine operation. Fans are the most important mechanical devices used to ventilate underground mines and the total fan power installed in a single mine operation can easily exceed 10,000 kW. Investigations of a number of mine main fan installations have determined their assemblage to be, in general, very energy inefficient. The author has found that 40–80% of the energy consumed by a main fan is used to overcome the resistance of fan assemblage components. This paper presents how engineering design principles can be applied to improve the performance and efficiency of fan installations, resulting in substantial reductions in power consumption, operating cost and greenhouse gas emissions. A detailed case study is presented to demonstrate that, by designing fan assemblages using proper engineering concepts of fluid physics and industrial ventilation design, main fan systems will operate at efficiencies well above 80–90% (compared to common operating efficiencies of between 20 and 65%), resulting in a drastic reduction in a mine's overall costs and base electrical and energy loads. - Highlights: • Increases in fan assemblage efficiencies with minimum capital investment. • Improved designs for substantial fan power and operating cost savings. • General solutions and tactics for improving existing main fan installations. • Case study presented to demonstrate proper design of fan assemblages.

  12. Depth as an organizer of fish assemblages in floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Depth reduction is a natural process in floodplain lakes, but in many basins has been accelerated by anthropogenic disturbances. A diverse set of 42 floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin (Mississippi, USA) was examined to test the hypothesis of whether depth reduction was a key determinant of water quality and fish assemblage structure. Single and multiple variable analyses were applied to 10 commonly monitored water variables and 54 fish species. Results showed strong associations between depth and water characteristics, and between depth and fish assemblages. Deep lakes provided less variable environments, clearer water, and a wider range of microhabitats than shallow lakes. The greater environmental stability was reflected by the dominant species in the assemblages, which included a broader representation of large-body species, species less tolerant of extreme water quality, and more predators. Stability in deep lakes was further reflected by reduced among-lake variability in taxa representation. Fish assemblages in shallow lakes were more variable than deep lakes, and commonly dominated by opportunistic species that have early maturity, extended breeding seasons, small adult size, and short lifespan. Depth is a causal factor that drives many physical and chemical variables that contribute to organizing fish assemblages in floodplain lakes. Thus, correlations between fish and water transparency, temperature, oxygen, trophic state, habitat structure, and other environmental descriptors may ultimately be totally or partly regulated by depth. In basins undergoing rapid anthropogenic modifications, local changes forced by depth reductions may be expected to eliminate species available from the regional pool and could have considerable ecological implications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG (outside the USA).

  13. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  14. Faunistic assemblages of a sublittoral coarse sand habitat of the northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pubill

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The sublittoral megabenthic assemblages of a northwestern Mediterranean coarse sandy beach exploited for the bivalve Callista chione were studied. The spatial and bathymetric variability of its distinctive faunal assemblages was characterised by quantitative sampling performed with a clam dredge. The taxa studied were Mollusca Bivalvia and Gastropoda, Crustacea Decapoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, which accounted for over 99% of the total biomass. Three well-differentiated species assemblages were identified: (1 assemblage MSS (Medium Sand Shallow in medium sand (D50=0.37 mm and shallow waters (mean depth =6.5 m, (2 assemblage CSS (Coarse Sand Shallow in coarse sand (D50=0.62 mm in shallow waters (mean depth =6.7 m, and (3 assemblage CSD (Coarse Sand Deep in coarse sand (D50=0.64 mm in deeper waters (mean depth =16.2 m. Assemblage MSS was characterised by the codominance of the bivalves Mactra stultorum and Acanthocardia tuberculata. C. chione was dominant in both density and biomass in assemblages CSS and CSD. The occurrence of the crab Thia scutellata also characterised assemblage CSS, whereas the occurrence of the sea urchin Echinocardium mediterraneum characterised assemblage CSD. A depth breaking point of around 10 m determined the discontinuity between assemblages CSS and CSD, which was related to the closure depth of the beaches in the study area. Species richness was highest in the coarse sand communities; however, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou equitability indexes were higher in the shallow fine sand community.

  15. Movers and stayers: Novel assemblages in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Richard L.; Valentine, Leonie E.; Standish, Rachel J.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2018-01-01

    How species will respond to ongoing climate and other change is of increasing concern.Most attention is given to how species move or are moved, but many species stay.Understanding the dynamics of new species combinations is essential for successful conservation in a changing climate.Increased attention to species movement in response to environmental change highlights the need to consider changes in species distributions and altered biological assemblages. Such changes are well known from paleoecological studies, but have accelerated with ongoing pervasive human influence. In addition to species that move, some species will stay put, leading to an array of novel interactions. Species show a variety of responses that can allow movement or persistence. Conservation and restoration actions have traditionally focused on maintaining or returning species in particular places, but increasingly also include interventions that facilitate movement. Approaches are required that incorporate the fluidity of biotic assemblages into the goals set and interventions deployed.

  16. Hybrid carbon nanostructure assemblage for high performance pseudo-capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mishra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of novel nanocomposites for pseudo-capacitors with high capacitance and energy density is the spotlight of current energy research. In the present work, hybrid carbon nanostructure assemblage of graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes has been used as carbon support to nanostructured RuO2 and polyaniline for high energy supercapacitors. Maximum specific capacitances of 110, 235 and 440 F g−1 at the voltage sweep rate of 10 mV s−1 and maximum energy densities of 7, 12.5 and 20.5 Wh kg−1 were observed for carbon assemblage and its RuO2 and polyanilne decorated nanocomposites, respectively, with 1M H2SO4 as electrolyte.

  17. A new Lower Triassic ichthyopterygian assemblage from Fossil Hill, Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil P. Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a new ichthyopterygian assemblage from Lower Triassic horizons of the Prida Formation at Fossil Hill in central Nevada. Although fragmentary, the specimens collected so far document a diverse fauna. One partial jaw exhibits isodont dentition with blunt tipped, mesiodistally compressed crowns and striated enamel. These features are shared with the Early Triassic genus Utatsusaurus known from coeval deposits in Japan and British Columbia. An additional specimen exhibits a different dentition characterized by relatively small, rounded posterior teeth resembling other Early Triassic ichthyopterygians, particularly Grippia. This Nevada assemblage marks a southward latitudinal extension for Early Triassic ichthyopterygians along the eastern margin of Panthalassa and indicates repeated trans-hemispheric dispersal events in Early Triassic ichthyopterygians.

  18. Individual variation in habitat use in two stream fish assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Resende Manna; Carla Ferreira Rezende

    2015-01-01

    The habitat use is an individual choice that is influenced by physical conditions such as substrate type, food resources availability and adequate depth. However, habitat use is often measured only through interspecific variability because intraspecific variability is supposed to be low. Here, the differences in habitat use by two stream fish assemblages in two different environments (Brazilian rainforest and semiarid) were investigated at both interspecific and intraspecific levels. We perfo...

  19. Temporal variation in fish assemblage composition on a tidal flat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry L. Spach

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual variation in the fish assemblage characteristics on a tidal flat was studied in coastal Paraná, in southern Brazil. Fish were collected between August 1998 and July 1999, during the diurnal high tide and diurnal and nocturnal low tide of the syzygial (full moon and quadrature (waning moon tides, to characterize temporal change in assemblage composition. A total of 64,265 fish in 133 species were collected. The average number of species and individuals, biomass, species richness, diversity (mass and equitability varied significantly over time . The dissimilarity of the assemblage was greatest in August, September and October in contrast with the period from November to January, with the lowest dissimilarity. The combined action of water temperature, salinity and wind intensity had a great influence over the structure of the fish assemblage.Os peixes de uma planície de maré da praia Balneário de Pontal do Sul, Paraná, foram coletados, na preamar diurna e na baixa-mar diurna e noturna das marés de sizígia e de quadratura, visando caracterizar as mudanças temporais entre agosto de 1998 e julho de 1999. As coletas totalizaram 64.265 peixes de 133 espécies. Foram observadas diferenças significativas na captura média em número de espécies e de peixes, peso total e nos índices de riqueza, diversidade (H' peso e eqüitatividade entre os meses de coleta. A dissimilaridade da ictiofauna foi maior entre os meses de agosto, setembro e outubro em comparação com o período de novembro a janeiro. A ação combinada da temperatura da água, salinidade e intensidade do vento, influenciaram mais sobre a estrutura da assembléia de peixes.

  20. Phylogenetic community structure: temporal variation in fish assemblage

    OpenAIRE

    Santorelli, Sergio; Magnusson, William; Ferreira, Efrem; Caramaschi, Erica; Zuanon, Jansen; Amadio, Sidnéia

    2014-01-01

    Hypotheses about phylogenetic relationships among species allow inferences about the mechanisms that affect species coexistence. Nevertheless, most studies assume that phylogenetic patterns identified are stable over time. We used data on monthly samples of fish from a single lake over 10 years to show that the structure in phylogenetic assemblages varies over time and conclusions depend heavily on the time scale investigated. The data set was organized in guild structures and temporal scales...

  1. Seasonal dynamics of fish assemblage in a pond canal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, J.; Adámek, Zdeněk; Baranyi, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3-4 (2007), s. 217-226 ISSN 0967-6120. [New Challenges in Pond Aquaculture. České Budějovice, 26.04.2005-28.04.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : fish assemblage * pond canal * species richness * seasonal dynamics * alien species Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2007

  2. Characterizing lentic freshwater fish assemblages using multiple sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Quist, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing fish assemblages in lentic ecosystems is difficult, and multiple sampling methods are almost always necessary to gain reliable estimates of indices such as species richness. However, most research focused on lentic fish sampling methodology has targeted recreationally important species, and little to no information is available regarding the influence of multiple methods and timing (i.e., temporal variation) on characterizing entire fish assemblages. Therefore, six lakes and impoundments (48–1,557 ha surface area) were sampled seasonally with seven gear types to evaluate the combined influence of sampling methods and timing on the number of species and individuals sampled. Probabilities of detection for species indicated strong selectivities and seasonal trends that provide guidance on optimal seasons to use gears when targeting multiple species. The evaluation of species richness and number of individuals sampled using multiple gear combinations demonstrated that appreciable benefits over relatively few gears (e.g., to four) used in optimal seasons were not present. Specifically, over 90 % of the species encountered with all gear types and season combinations (N = 19) from six lakes and reservoirs were sampled with nighttime boat electrofishing in the fall and benthic trawling, modified-fyke, and mini-fyke netting during the summer. Our results indicated that the characterization of lentic fish assemblages was highly influenced by the selection of sampling gears and seasons, but did not appear to be influenced by waterbody type (i.e., natural lake, impoundment). The standardization of data collected with multiple methods and seasons to account for bias is imperative to monitoring of lentic ecosystems and will provide researchers with increased reliability in their interpretations and decisions made using information on lentic fish assemblages.

  3. Ecological release in lizard assemblages of neotropical savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Daniel Oliveira; Colli, Guarino Rinaldi; Vitt, Laurie J

    2007-08-01

    We compare lizard assemblages of Cerrado and Amazonian savannas to test the ecological release hypothesis, which predicts that niche dimensions and abundance should be greater in species inhabiting isolated habitat patches with low species richness (Amazonian savannas and isolated Cerrado patches) when compared with nonisolated areas in central Cerrado with greater species richness. We calculated microhabitat and diet niche breadths with data from 14 isolated Cerrado patches and Amazon savanna areas and six central Cerrado populations. Morphological data were compared using average Euclidean distances, and lizard abundance was estimated using the number of lizards captured in pitfall traps over an extended time period. We found no evidence of ecological release with respect to microhabitat use, suggesting that historical factors are better microhabitat predictors than ecological factors. However, data from individual stomachs indicate that ecological release occurs in these areas for one species (Tropidurus) but not others (Ameiva ameiva, Anolis, Cnemidophorus, and Micrablepharus), suggesting that evolutionary lineages respond differently to environmental pressures, with tropidurids being more affected by ecological factors than polychrotids, teiids, and gymnophthalmids. We found no evidence that ecological release occurs in these areas using morphological data. Based on abundance data, our results indicate that the ecological release (density compensation) hypothesis is not supported: lizard species are not more abundant in isolated areas than in nonisolated areas. The ecology of species is highly conservative, varying little from assemblage to assemblage. Nevertheless, increases in niche breadth for some species indicate that ecological release occurs as well.

  4. Seagrass Parameter Affect the Fish Assemblages in Karimunjawa Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Susilo, Endang; Nugroho Sugianto, Denny; Munasik; Nirwani; Adhi Suryono, Chrisna

    2018-02-01

    Seagrass beds promote high species diversity, abundance and biomass, and become important habitats for some economically important fishes. Plants of seagrasses result in structurally highly complex habitats and offering feeding grounds, shelter from predation as well as nursery areas for diverse fish assemblages. However, research on fish communities in Southeast Asian seagrass bed is rarely conducted. In the present study fish assemblages in seagrass beds with different parameters (cover, diversity and similarity indices, domination) was investigated in the Karimunjawa Islands, Indonesia. The purpose of this study were to assess whether fish assemblages differ concerning on the abundance and the species number. This study was conducted on the seagrass bed on Karimunjawa Islands in Java Sea, particularly in the water of Menjangan Besar and Menjangan Kecil Island. Line-quadrant transect was used to assess seagrass data, while the occurrence and individual number of fish harboured in the selected seagrass bed was counted by using underwater visual census in the stationary point count transects. Seagrass cover in Menjangan Kecil Island (41%) with various canopy included both upper and lower canopy was considerable higher than those in Menjangan Besar Island (5%). Fish diversity, species composition and abundance are considerably different between the two study sites. This study revealed that seagrass density or cover and canopy structure affected the fish abundance and species number harboured.

  5. Altered vegetative assemblage trajectories within an urban brownfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Frank J., E-mail: Gallagher@sebs.rutgers.edu [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Pechmann, Ildiko; Holzapfel, Claus [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, State University, 195 University Avenue, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Grabosky, Jason [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Recognizing the growing importance of both structure (maintenance of biodiversity) and function (fostering natural cycles) of urban ecologies, we examine coarse scale (herbaceous, shrub and forest) beta guild trajectory in an urban brownfield. The distribution of the pioneer forest assemblage dominated by Betula populifolia Marsh. and Populus spp. could be correlated positively with total soil metal load (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc, lead and vanadium),whereas herbaceous and shrub guilds were negatively correlated. Distinct assemblage development trajectories above and below a critical soil metal threshold are demonstrated. In addition, we postulate that the translocation of metals into the plant tissue of several dominant species may provide a positive feedback loop, maintaining relatively high concentrations of metals in the litter and soil. Therefore assembly theory, which allows for the development of alternate stable states, may provide a better model for the establishment of restoration objectives on degraded urban sites. - Highlights: > Forest distribution and total soil metal load yield strong positive correlations. > Shrub and herbaceous guild distribution and TML are negative and weaker. > Below a critical TML threshold transition between guilds exhibit a standard trajectory. > Above the critical TML threshold the shrub guild is virtually absent. > Metal cycling has the potential to lead to an alternative steady state. - High concentrationsof soil metals, impact the trajectory of vegetative assemblages in an urban brownfield leading to the speculation of an alternate stable state.

  6. Altered vegetative assemblage trajectories within an urban brownfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Frank J.; Pechmann, Ildiko; Holzapfel, Claus; Grabosky, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing the growing importance of both structure (maintenance of biodiversity) and function (fostering natural cycles) of urban ecologies, we examine coarse scale (herbaceous, shrub and forest) beta guild trajectory in an urban brownfield. The distribution of the pioneer forest assemblage dominated by Betula populifolia Marsh. and Populus spp. could be correlated positively with total soil metal load (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc, lead and vanadium),whereas herbaceous and shrub guilds were negatively correlated. Distinct assemblage development trajectories above and below a critical soil metal threshold are demonstrated. In addition, we postulate that the translocation of metals into the plant tissue of several dominant species may provide a positive feedback loop, maintaining relatively high concentrations of metals in the litter and soil. Therefore assembly theory, which allows for the development of alternate stable states, may provide a better model for the establishment of restoration objectives on degraded urban sites. - Highlights: → Forest distribution and total soil metal load yield strong positive correlations. → Shrub and herbaceous guild distribution and TML are negative and weaker. → Below a critical TML threshold transition between guilds exhibit a standard trajectory. → Above the critical TML threshold the shrub guild is virtually absent. → Metal cycling has the potential to lead to an alternative steady state. - High concentrationsof soil metals, impact the trajectory of vegetative assemblages in an urban brownfield leading to the speculation of an alternate stable state.

  7. Gradients in Catostomid assemblages along a reservoir cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Keretz, Kevin R.; Gilliland, Chelsea R.

    2017-01-01

    Serial impoundment of major rivers leads to alterations of natural flow dynamics and disrupts longitudinal connectivity. Catostomid fishes (suckers, family Catostomidae) are typically found in riverine or backwater habitats yet are able to persist in impounded river systems. To the detriment of conservation, there is limited information about distribution of catostomid fishes in impounded rivers. We examined the longitudinal distribution of catostomid fishes over 23 reservoirs of the Tennessee River reservoir cascade, encompassing approximately 1600 km. Our goal was to develop a basin-scale perspective to guide conservation efforts. Catostomid species composition and assemblage structure changed longitudinally along the reservoir cascade. Catostomid species biodiversity was greatest in reservoirs lower in the cascade. Assemblage composition shifted from dominance by spotted sucker Minytrema melanops and buffalos Ictiobus spp. in the lower reservoirs to carpsuckers Carpiodes spp. midway through the cascade and redhorses Moxostoma spp. in the upper reservoirs. Most species did not extend the length of the cascade, and some species were rare, found in low numbers and in few reservoirs. The observed gradients in catostomid assemblages suggest the need for basin-scale conservation measures focusing on three broad areas: (1) conservation and management of the up-lake riverine reaches of the lower reservoirs, (2) maintenance of the access to quality habitat in tributaries to the upper reservoirs and (3) reintroductions into currently unoccupied habitat within species' historic distributions

  8. Brood size modifications affect plumage bacterial assemblages of European starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Françoise S; Moureau, Benoit; Jourdie, Violaine; Heeb, Philipp

    2005-02-01

    During reproduction, birds face trade-offs between time and energy devoted to parental effort and traits associated with self-maintenance. We manipulated brood sizes to investigate the effects of such trade-offs on feather bacterial densities and the structure of bacterial assemblages on feathers in adult European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, and in vitro feather degradation. As predicted by a trade-off between parental effort and self-maintenance, we found that birds with enlarged broods had more free-living bacteria on their feathers than birds with reduced broods. Furthermore, we found a significant interaction between brood manipulation and original brood size on free-living bacterial densities suggesting that the trade-off is mediated by the adults' initial reproductive investment. In contrast, brood size manipulations had no significant effect on densities of attached bacteria. Using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), we demonstrated that brood manipulations significantly modified the structure (band pattern) of feather-degrading bacterial assemblages, but had no significant effect on their richness (number of bands) or the in vitro feather degradation. In vitro feather degradation varied in relation to the premanipulation brood size and positively with the richness of the feather degrading bacterial community. Besides brood manipulation effect, we found that ecological factors and individual traits, such as the age, the nest location or the capture date, shaped bacterial assemblages and feather degradation capacities.

  9. Ichthyoplankton assemblage structure of springs in the Yangtze Estuary revealed by biological and environmental visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Xian, Weiwei; Liu, Shude

    2015-01-01

    The ichthyoplankton assemblage structure in the Yangtze Estuary was analyzed based on four springs in 1999, 2001, 2004 and 2007 in order to provide detailed characterizations of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in springs, examine the long-term dynamics of spring ichthyoplankton assemblages, and evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and inter-annual variations of ichthyoplankton assemblages associated with the Yangtze Estuary. Forty-two ichthyoplankton species belonging to 23 families were collected. Engraulidae was the most abundant family, including six species and comprising 67.91% of the total catch. Only four species (Coilia mystus, Engraulis japonicus, Trachidermis fasciatus and Allanetta bleekeri) could be considered dominant, accounting for 88.70% of total abundance. The structure of the ichthyoplankton spring assemblage persisted on an annual basis, with the dominant species reappearing consistently even though their abundance fluctuated from year to year. This inter-annual variation probably reflects variable environmental conditions influenced by jellyfish blooms, declining river flow, and overfishing. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated aspatial structure of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in three areas: (1) an inner assemblage dominated by C. mystus; (2) a central assemblage dominated by A. bleekeri and T. fasciatus; and (3) a shelf assemblage featuring E. japonicus. The observed ichthyoplankton assemblage structure appears to be strongly influenced by depth, salinity and suspended particulate matter gradients.

  10. Drivers of larval fish assemblage shift during the spring-summer transition in the coastal Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Itziar; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Jordi, Antoni; Palmer, Miquel; Sabatés, Ana; Basterretxea, Gotzon

    2012-01-01

    The influence of coastal environmental conditions from winter-spring to summer on fish larvae assemblages in a temperate area has suggested a seasonal shift in ecosystem-level variation through which trophic pathways shift from the pelagic to the benthic system. This variation may be related to marked effects in the reproductive strategies in the fishes inhabiting the area and indirectly affect ichthyoplankton assemblages. Larval fish assemblages were sampled fortnightly at three stations located in coastal waters off southern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean) from March to August 2007, covering the main spawning period for the resident coastal fish in this region. The larval fish assemblage showed clear seasonality with higher specific abundance but lower diversity in the spring. Two main assemblages were identified: a spring assemblage, occurring at surface seawater temperatures ichthyoplankton communities occurred in early June, coinciding with the onset of summer hydrographical conditions and the local benthic productivity peak.

  11. Long-Term Bird Assemblage Trends in Areas of High and Low Human Population Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, K.; Romagosa, C.M.; Williams, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Urban areas are expanding globally, and the impact of high human population density (HHPD) on bird species richness remains unresolved. Studies primarily focus on species richness along an urban-to-rural gradient; however, some studies have analyzed larger-scale patterns and found results that contrast with those obtained at smaller scales. To move the discussion beyond static species richness patterns, we analyzed the effect of HHPD on bird assemblage dynamics (year-to-year extinction probability, turnover, changes in species richness) across the United States over a 25-year period. We found that bird assemblages in both high and low human population density areas changed significantly over the period of record. Specifically, bird assemblages increased in species richness on average. Assemblage change in areas of HHPD was not significantly different from assemblage change in areas with LHPD. These results suggest that human population density alone does not alter the persistence of avian assemblage patterns.

  12. Mnemiopsis leidyi Gut Harbors Seasonally Variant and Commensal Microbial Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariita, R. M.; Hossain, M. J.; Liles, M. R.; Moss, A.

    2016-02-01

    Studies have shown that with widespread use of antibiotics in human and domestic animal populations, antibiotic resistance becomes increasingly common in the environment. Estuaries provide ideal conditions for acquisition and dissemination of drug resistance genes because they serve as sinks for pollution. This study aimed to identify M. leidyi microbial diversity and richness and their potential to act as vectors for antibiotic resistance determinants (ARDs). M. leidyi, although native to study area are highly invasive. Metagenomic analyses indicate that there are temporal variations of bacterioplankton assemblages in M. leidyi gut. Overall, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria are the most abundant phyla. Despite the temporal dynamics in the microbial assemblages in M. leidyi gut, they seem to retain Propionibacterium acnes (gut microbiota in some insects) and select proteobacteria across all seasons. The results contradict previous studies that suggest that M. leidyi does not have constant a microbiota, but only seasonally variant microbial assemblages. Here we reveal the presence of M. leidyi gut ARDs in winter and summer, probably because of the ctenophores' positive geotaxis during rough surface conditions. Genes responsible for resistance to fluoroquinolones, multidrug resistance efflux pumps, mercuric reductase, copper homeostasis and blaR1 genes were observed. This is the first study to demonstrate that M. leidyi harbors constant microbiota and provides a baseline for understanding M. leidyi gut microbial and ARDs ecology. It also suggests that M. leidyi bacterial taxonomic and functional dynamics is influenced by season. Funding: Alabama EPSCoR GRSP fellowship, AU-CMB fellowship, NSF EPS-1158862, USDA-Hatch 370225-310100 (AGM, ML).

  13. Taming Distraction: The Second Screen Assemblage, Television and the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Stauff

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that television’s resilience in the current media landscape can best be understood by analyzing its role in a broader quest to organize attention across different media. For quite a while, the mobile phone was considered to be a disturbance both for watching television and for classroom teaching. In recent years, however, strategies have been developed to turn the second screen’s distractive potential into a source for intensified, personalized and social attention. This has consequences for television’s position in a multimedia assemblage: television’s alleged specificities (e.g. liveness become mouldable features, which are selectively applied to guide the attention of users across different devices and platforms. Television does not end, but some of its traditional features do only persist because of its strategic complementarity with other media; others are re-adapted by new technologies thereby spreading televisual modes of attention across multiple screens. The article delineates the historical development of simultaneous media use as a ‘problematization’—from alternating (and competitive media use to multitasking and finally complementary use of different media. Additionally, it shows how similar strategies of managing attention are applied in the ‘digital classroom’. While deliberately avoiding to pin down, what television is, the analysis of the problem of attention allows for tracing how old and new media features are constantly reshuffled. This article combines three arguments: (1 the second screen is conceived of as both a danger to attention and a tool to manage attention. (2 To organize attention, the second screen assemblage modulates the specific qualities of television and all the other devices involved. (3 While being a fragile and often inconsistent assemblage, the second screen spreads its dynamics—and especially the problem of attention—far beyond television, e.g. into the realm of

  14. Variation in Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages among coral colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stat, Michael; Bird, Christopher E; Pochon, Xavier; Chasqui, Luis; Chauka, Leonard J; Concepcion, Gregory T; Logan, Dan; Takabayashi, Misaki; Toonen, Robert J; Gates, Ruth D

    2011-01-05

    Endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are fundamentally important to the biology of scleractinian corals, as well as to a variety of other marine organisms. The genus Symbiodinium is genetically and functionally diverse and the taxonomic nature of the union between Symbiodinium and corals is implicated as a key trait determining the environmental tolerance of the symbiosis. Surprisingly, the question of how Symbiodinium diversity partitions within a species across spatial scales of meters to kilometers has received little attention, but is important to understanding the intrinsic biological scope of a given coral population and adaptations to the local environment. Here we address this gap by describing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages recovered from colonies of the reef building coral Montipora capitata sampled across Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i. A total of 52 corals were sampled in a nested design of Coral Colony(Site(Region)) reflecting spatial scales of meters to kilometers. A diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences was recovered with the majority of variance partitioning at the level of the Coral Colony. To confirm this result, the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence diversity in six M. capitata colonies were analyzed in much greater depth with 35 to 55 clones per colony. The ITS2 sequences and quantitative composition recovered from these colonies varied significantly, indicating that each coral hosted a different assemblage of Symbiodinium. The diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages retrieved from individual colonies of M. capitata here highlights the problems inherent in interpreting multi-copy and intra-genomically variable molecular markers, and serves as a context for discussing the utility and biological relevance of assigning species names based on Symbiodinium ITS2 genotyping.

  15. Temporal changes in taxonomic and functional diversity of fish assemblages downstream from mountaintop mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Chambers, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Mountaintop mining (MTM) affects chemical, physical, and hydrological properties of receiving streams, but the long-term consequences for fish-assemblage structure and function are poorly understood. We sampled stream fish assemblages using electrofishing techniques in MTM exposure sites and reference sites within the Guyandotte River basin, USA, during 2010–2011. We calculated indices of taxonomic diversity (species richness, abundance, Shannon diversity) and functional diversity (functional richness, functional evenness, functional divergence) to compare exposure and reference assemblages between seasons (spring and autumn) and across years (1999–2011). We based temporal comparisons on 2 sites that were sampled during 1999–2001 by Stauffer and Ferreri (2002). Exposure assemblages had lower taxonomic and functional diversity than reference assemblages or simulated assemblages that accounted for random variation. Differences in taxonomic composition between reference and exposure assemblages were associated with conductivity and aqueous Se concentrations. Exposure assemblages had fewer species, lower abundances, and less biomass than reference assemblages across years and seasons. Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) became numerically dominant in exposure assemblages over time because of their persistence and losses of other taxa. In contrast, species richness increased over time in reference assemblages, a result that may indicate recovery from drought. Mean individual biomass increased as fish density decreased and most obligate invertivores were apparently extirpated at MTM exposure sites. Effects of MTM were not related to physical-habitat conditions but were associated with water-quality variables, which may limit quality and availability of benthic macroinvertebrate prey. Simulations revealed effects of MTM that could not be attributed to random variation in fish assemblage structure.

  16. Presence of riparian vegetation increases biotic condition of fish assemblages in two Brazilian reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fabio Cop; Souza, Ursulla Pereira; Petrere Junior2, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The riparian vegetation in lakes and reservoirs is source of course wood structures such as trunks and branches and is used as sheltering, spawning and foraging habitats for fishes. The reduction of these submerged structures can thus, affect the composition and structure of fish assemblages in reservoirs. Aim To evaluate the influence of riparian vegetation on the biotic condition of fish assemblage by adapting the Reservoir Fish Assemblage Index (RFAI) to two reservoirs in the Upp...

  17. The sexuality-assemblages of young men: a new materialist analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alldred, P; Fox, N

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new materialist exploration of young men and sexuality that shifts the focus away from bodies and individuals, toward the affective flow within assemblages of bodies, things, ideas and social institutions, and the sexual capacities this flow produces. Using data from two empirical studies, we explore the sexuality assemblages of teen boys and young men, and the micropolitics of these assemblages. We find that the sexuality produced in the bodies of young men is highly te...

  18. Marine heatwaves and optimal temperatures for microbial assemblage activity

    OpenAIRE

    Joint, IR; Smale, DA

    2016-01-01

    The response of microbial assemblages to instantaneous temperature change was measured in a seasonal study of the coastal waters of the western English Channel. On 18 occasions between November 1999 and December 2000, bacterial abundance was assessed and temperature responses determined from the incorporation of 3H leucine, measured in a temperature gradient from 5°C to 38°C. Q10 values varied, being close to 2 in spring and summer but were >3 in autumn. There was a seasonal pattern in the as...

  19. Autumn ichthyoplankton assemblage in the Yangtze Estuary shaped by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Xian, Weiwei; Liu, Shude

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the response of the ichthyoplankton community to environmental changes in the Yangtze Estuary using canonical correspondence analysis. Ichthyoplankton community and environmental data were recorded during the autumns of 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2009. Among the ichthyoplankton, the dominant larval and juvenile families were the Engraulidae, Gobiidae and Salangidae, and the most common eggs were from Trichiurus lepturus. The ichthyoplankton was identified via canonical correspondence analysis to three assemblages: an estuary assemblage dominated by Chaeturichthys stigmatias, a coastal assemblage dominated by Engraulis japonicus and Stolephorus commersonii, and an offshore assemblage dominated by Trichiurus lepturus. Regarding environmental factors in the Yangtze Estuary, suspended matter and surface seawater salinity were the main factors influencing the distributions of the different assemblages, while sediment from the Yangtze River during the rainy season and chlorophyll a were the principle drivers of the annual variances in the distribution of ichthyoplankton assemblages. Our aims in this study were to provide detailed characterizations of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in the autumns of seven years, examine the long-term dynamics of autumn ichthyoplankton assemblages, and evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and inter-annual variations of ichthyoplankton assemblages associated with the Yangtze Estuary.

  20. Land use structures fish assemblages in reservoirs of the Tennessee River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bies, J. M.; Hann, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Inputs of nutrients, sediments and detritus from catchments can promote selected components of reservoir fish assemblages, while hindering others. However, investigations linking these catchment subsidies to fish assemblages have generally focussed on one or a handful of species. Considering this paucity of community-level awareness, we sought to explore the association between land use and fish assemblage composition in reservoirs. To this end, we compared fish assemblages in reservoirs of two sub-basins of the Tennessee River representing differing intensities of agricultural development, and hypothesised that fish assemblage structure indicated by species percentage composition would differ among reservoirs in the two sub-basins. Using multivariate statistical analysis, we documented inter-basin differences in land use, reservoir productivity and fish assemblages, but no differences in reservoir morphometry or water regime. Basins were separated along a gradient of forested and non-forested catchment land cover, which was directly related to total nitrogen, total phosphorous and chlorophyll-a concentrations. Considering the extensive body of knowledge linking land use to aquatic systems, it is reasonable to postulate a hierarchical model in which productivity has direct links to terrestrial inputs, and fish assemblages have direct links to both land use and productivity. We observed a shift from an invertivore-based fish assemblage in forested catchments to a detritivore-based fish assemblage in agricultural catchments that may be a widespread pattern among reservoirs and other aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Autumn ichthyoplankton assemblage in the Yangtze Estuary shaped by environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the response of the ichthyoplankton community to environmental changes in the Yangtze Estuary using canonical correspondence analysis. Ichthyoplankton community and environmental data were recorded during the autumns of 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2009. Among the ichthyoplankton, the dominant larval and juvenile families were the Engraulidae, Gobiidae and Salangidae, and the most common eggs were from Trichiurus lepturus. The ichthyoplankton was identified via canonical correspondence analysis to three assemblages: an estuary assemblage dominated by Chaeturichthys stigmatias, a coastal assemblage dominated by Engraulis japonicus and Stolephorus commersonii, and an offshore assemblage dominated by Trichiurus lepturus. Regarding environmental factors in the Yangtze Estuary, suspended matter and surface seawater salinity were the main factors influencing the distributions of the different assemblages, while sediment from the Yangtze River during the rainy season and chlorophyll a were the principle drivers of the annual variances in the distribution of ichthyoplankton assemblages. Our aims in this study were to provide detailed characterizations of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in the autumns of seven years, examine the long-term dynamics of autumn ichthyoplankton assemblages, and evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and inter-annual variations of ichthyoplankton assemblages associated with the Yangtze Estuary.

  2. Mollusc life and death assemblages on a tropical rocky shore as proxies for the taphonomic loss in a fossil counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Surlyk, Finn

    2013-01-01

    a lower taxonomic agreement to the death assemblage than found in previous published studies. Rocky shore life and death assemblages thus appear to show lower taxonomic agreement compared to muddy or sandy shelf assemblages due to the mix after death with the sandy beach assemblage. A hypothetical fossil......Comparison of a modern rocky shore mollusc life assemblage from Thailand with the associated death assemblage, and interpretation of the fossilization potential of the latter, are used to investigate the fidelity in reconstruction of ancient analogues. The fauna from the death assemblage represents...... species from the rocky shore and the associated sandy pocket beaches, and only a few exotic species from other, completely different habitats are present. The environmental fidelity between the life and death assemblage is thus high, with the majority of species from the death assemblage representing...

  3. Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Sancak, Kerem; Jansson, Nicklas

    2016-03-01

    Old living oaks (Quercus robur) are known as a very species-rich habitat for saproxylic beetles, but it is less clear to what extent such veteran trees differ from an even rarer feature: downed trunks of large oaks. In this study, we set out to sample this habitat, using window traps, with two aims: (1) to describe the variation of assemblages among downed trunks of different type and (2) to compare beetles on downed oaks with data from veteran standing trees. The results showed that trunk volume and sun exposure better explained assemblages as well as species numbers on downed trunks than did decay stage. Furthermore, species classified as facultative saproxylic species showed weak or no differentiation among downed trunks. Species with different feeding habits showed no apparent differentiation among downed trunks. Furthermore, species composition on dead, downed oak trunks differed sharply from that of living, veteran oaks. Wood or bark feeders were more common on veterans than downed trunks, but there was no difference for those species feeding on fungi or those feeding on insects and their remains. In conclusion, for a successful conservation of the saproxylic beetle fauna it is important to keep downed oak trunks, and particularly large ones, in forest and pastures as they constitute a saproxylic habitat that differs from that of living trees.

  4. Rock encrusting assemblages: Structure and distribution along the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Monika; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Kukliński, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Aquatic community structure and dynamics are generally controlled by a variety of biological and physical factors. Among these factors in marine ecosystems, salinity is known to have a significant effect on species occurrence and composition. In this study, we investigated the large-scale distribution and abundance of encrusting fauna along a salinity gradient on the shallow Baltic Sea rocky coast. Rock samples collected from 14 locations distributed between the Gulf of Bothnia (salinity 0.6) and Skagerrak (salinity 28) supported a total number of 24 encrusting species. The faunas were composed mostly of marine species with opportunistic life histories; however, some brackish water specialists were also present. The number of species and abundance counts is strongly positively correlated with increases in salinity. No encrusting faunas were recorded below salinity level 4. Multivariate analysis (nMDS) revealed three major groups based on species composition that differed in terms of abundance and number of species. Each group was associated with specific salinity conditions. The first assemblage type occurred within salinity 4-7, the second within salinity between 22 and 27, and the third type was a mixture between the two observed at a salinity of approximately 17. This study indicates that to determine the assemblage structure of the Baltic Sea encrusting fauna, analyses at the family level were found to be a reliable surrogate for species composition.

  5. Coastal Upwelling Drives Intertidal Assemblage Structure and Trophic Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddin, Carl J; Docmac, Felipe; O'Connor, Nessa E; Bothwell, John H; Harrod, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Similar environmental driving forces can produce similarity among geographically distant ecosystems. Coastal oceanic upwelling, for example, has been associated with elevated biomass and abundance patterns of certain functional groups, e.g., corticated macroalgae. In the upwelling system of Northern Chile, we examined measures of intertidal macrobenthic composition, structure and trophic ecology across eighteen shores varying in their proximity to two coastal upwelling centres, in a hierarchical sampling design (spatial scales of >1 and >10 km). The influence of coastal upwelling on intertidal communities was confirmed by the stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) of consumers, including a dominant suspension feeder, grazers, and their putative resources of POM, epilithic biofilm, and macroalgae. We highlight the utility of muscle δ15N from the suspension feeding mussel, Perumytilus purpuratus, as a proxy for upwelling, supported by satellite data and previous studies. Where possible, we used corrections for broader-scale trends, spatial autocorrelation, ontogenetic dietary shifts and spatial baseline isotopic variation prior to analysis. Our results showed macroalgal assemblage composition, and benthic consumer assemblage structure, varied significantly with the intertidal influence of coastal upwelling, especially contrasting bays and coastal headlands. Coastal topography also separated differences in consumer resource use. This suggested that coastal upwelling, itself driven by coastline topography, influences intertidal communities by advecting nearshore phytoplankton populations offshore and cooling coastal water temperatures. We recommend the isotopic values of benthic organisms, specifically long-lived suspension feeders, as in situ alternatives to offshore measurements of upwelling influence.

  6. Marine assemblages respond rapidly to winter climate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, James W; Batt, Ryan D; Pinsky, Malin L

    2017-07-01

    Even species within the same assemblage have varied responses to climate change, and there is a poor understanding for why some taxa are more sensitive to climate than others. In addition, multiple mechanisms can drive species' responses, and responses may be specific to certain life stages or times of year. To test how marine species respond to climate variability, we analyzed 73 diverse taxa off the southeast US coast in 26 years of scientific trawl survey data and determined how changes in distribution and biomass relate to temperature. We found that winter temperatures were particularly useful for explaining interannual variation in species' distribution and biomass, although the direction and magnitude of the response varied among species from strongly negative, to little response, to strongly positive. Across species, the response to winter temperature varied greatly, with much of this variation being explained by thermal preference. A separate analysis of annual commercial fishery landings revealed that winter temperatures may also impact several important fisheries in the southeast United States. Based on the life stages of the species surveyed, winter temperature appears to act through overwinter mortality of juveniles or as a cue for migration timing. We predict that this assemblage will be responsive to projected increases in temperature and that winter temperature may be broadly important for species relationships with climate on a global scale. © The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. "Controlling ourselves, by ourselves": risk assemblages on Malaysia's assembly lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the Malaysian government has identified factories as high risk for HIV and AIDS. Signaling epidemiological concerns over the rising rates of HIV among factory workers, a significant proportion of whom are women, the label also appeared to reconstitute stereotypes of factory women as dangerously sexual and of factories as immoral spaces. Drawing on ethnographic research in the export processing zones of Penang, Malaysia in the mid-1990s, I examine the meanings and experiences of HIV risk among factory women themselves. Data were analyzed using discourse and grounded theory methods, the former to identify women's multiple modes of rationalizing HIV risks, and the latter to theorize the sources and significance of women's HIV risk assemblages. The heuristic of assemblages as localized knowledge spaces helped to show that biomedical and socioreligious risk lexica operated not as fixed epistemological categories but as situational resources in women's risk scripts. Overall, women desired multiple risk knowledges to help them "control themselves by themselves," a project of reflexive self-shaping mediated by the diverse and discordant discourses of gender, ethnicity, and modernity in Malaysia that shaped how HIV risks were engendered and experienced.

  8. Phytoplankton assemblage of a small, shallow, tropical African reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-12-01

    I measured physico-chemical properties and phytoplankton in the small, shallow tropical reservoir of Oyun (Offa, Nigeria) between January 2002 and December 2003. I identified 25 phytoplankton genera in three sampling stations. Bacillariophyceae dominated (75.3%), followed by Chlorophyceae (12.2%), Cyanobacteria (11.1%) and Desmidiaceae (0.73%). The high amount of nutrients (e.g. nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and silica) explain phytoplankton heterogeneity (p<0.05). Phytoplankton was abundant during the rainy season, but the transition period had the richest assemblage and abundance. Fluctuations in phytoplankton density were a result of seasonal changes in concentration of nutrients, grazing pressure and reservoir hydrology. The reservoir is eutrophic with excellent water quality and a diverse phytoplankton assemblage: fish production would be high. These conditions resulted from strategies such as watershed best management practices (BMPs) to control eutrophication and sedimentation, and priorities for water usage established through legislation. Additional measures are recommended to prevent oligotrophy, hypereutrophy, excessive phytoplankton bloom, toxic cyanobacteria, and run-off of organic waste and salts.

  9. Life history theory predicts fish assemblage response to hydrologic regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Meryl C; Olden, Julian D

    2012-01-01

    The hydrologic regime is regarded as the primary driver of freshwater ecosystems, structuring the physical habitat template, providing connectivity, framing biotic interactions, and ultimately selecting for specific life histories of aquatic organisms. In the present study, we tested ecological theory predicting directional relationships between major dimensions of the flow regime and life history composition of fish assemblages in perennial free-flowing rivers throughout the continental United States. Using long-term discharge records and fish trait and survey data for 109 stream locations, we found that 11 out of 18 relationships (61%) tested between the three life history strategies (opportunistic, periodic, and equilibrium) and six hydrologic metrics (two each describing flow variability, predictability, and seasonality) were statistically significant (P history strategies, with 82% of all significant relationships observed supporting predictions from life history theory. Specifically, we found that (1) opportunistic strategists were positively related to measures of flow variability and negatively related to predictability and seasonality, (2) periodic strategists were positively related to high flow seasonality and negatively related to variability, and (3) the equilibrium strategists were negatively related to flow variability and positively related to predictability. Our study provides important empirical evidence illustrating the value of using life history theory to understand both the patterns and processes by which fish assemblage structure is shaped by adaptation to natural regimes of variability, predictability, and seasonality of critical flow events over broad biogeographic scales.

  10. How could discharge management affect Florida spring fish assemblage structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Kirsten; Codner, Keneil; Gibbs, Melissa

    2017-08-01

    Freshwater bodies are increasingly affected by reductions in water quantity and quality and by invasions of exotic species. To protect water quantity and maintain the ecological integrity of many water bodies in central Florida, a program of adopting Minimum Flows and Levels (MFLs) has begun for both lentic and lotic waters. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were relationships between discharge and stage, water quality, and biological parameters for Volusia Blue Spring, a first magnitude spring (discharge > 380,000 m 3 day -1 or 100 mgd) for which an MFL program was adopted in 2006. Over the course of fourteen years, we assessed fish density and diversity weekly, monthly, or seasonally with seine and snorkel counts. We evaluated annual changes in the assemblages for relationships with water quantity and quality. Low discharge and dissolved oxygen combined with high stage and conductivity produced a fish population with a lower density and diversity in 2014 than in previous years. Densities of fish taxonomic/functional groups also were low in 2014 and measures of water quantity were significant predictors of fish assemblage structure. As a result of the strong relationships between variation in discharge and an array of chemical and biological characteristics of the spring, we conclude that maintaining the historical discharge rate is important for preserving the ecological integrity of Volusia Blue Spring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of landscape structure on reef fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grober-Dunsmore, R.; Frazer, T.K.; Beets, J.P.; Lindberg, W.J.; Zwick, P.; Funicelli, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    Management of tropical marine environments calls for interdisciplinary studies and innovative methodologies that consider processes occurring over broad spatial scales. We investigated relationships between landscape structure and reef fish assemblage structure in the US Virgin Islands. Measures of landscape structure were transformed into a reduced set of composite indices using principal component analyses (PCA) to synthesize data on the spatial patterning of the landscape structure of the study reefs. However, composite indices (e.g., habitat diversity) were not particularly informative for predicting reef fish assemblage structure. Rather, relationships were interpreted more easily when functional groups of fishes were related to individual habitat features. In particular, multiple reef fish parameters were strongly associated with reef context. Fishes responded to benthic habitat structure at multiple spatial scales, with various groups of fishes each correlated to a unique suite of variables. Accordingly, future experiments should be designed to test functional relationships based on the ecology of the organisms of interest. Our study demonstrates that landscape-scale habitat features influence reef fish communities, illustrating promise in applying a landscape ecology approach to better understand factors that structure coral reef ecosystems. Furthermore, our findings may prove useful in design of spatially-based conservation approaches such as marine protected areas (MPAs), because landscape-scale metrics may serve as proxies for areas with high species diversity and abundance within the coral reef landscape. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Surface water dynamics in the Reykjanes Ridge area during the Holocene as revealed by coccolith assemblages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balestra, B.; Ziveri, P.; Baumann, K. H.; Troelstra, S.R.; Monechi, S.

    2010-01-01

    The calcareous nannofossil assemblages from sediment core DS97-2P from the Reykjanes Ridge have been investigated to document oceanographic changes in surface water during the Holocene. The recorded variations in coccolithophore species assemblages and accumulation rates indicate that the region was

  13. "Peeling an onion": Layering as a methodology to understand learning as an embodied assemblage of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Liv Kondrup

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers science learning as an embodied assemblages of practices and seeks to propose a methodology to systematically analyze the multiple layers that shape how students’ do and learn science. Science learning as an embodied assemblage of practices sensitizes us towards the dimension...

  14. Lions as Bone Accumulators? Paleontological and Ecological Implications of a Modern Bone Assemblage from Olduvai Gorge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Carmen Arriaza

    Full Text Available Analytic models have been developed to reconstruct early hominin behaviour, especially their subsistence patterns, revealed mainly through taphonomic analyses of archaeofaunal assemblages. Taphonomic research is used to discern which agents (carnivores, humans or both generate the bone assemblages recovered at archaeological sites. Taphonomic frameworks developed during the last decades show that the only large-sized carnivores in African biomes able to create bone assemblages are leopards and hyenas. A carnivore-made bone assemblage located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti (within Olduvai Gorge was studied. Taphonomic analyses of this assemblage including skeletal part representation, bone density, breakage patterns and anatomical distribution of tooth marks, along with an ecological approach to the prey selection made by large carnivores of the Serengeti, were carried out. The results show that this bone assemblage may be the first lion-accumulated assemblage documented, although other carnivores (namely spotted hyenas may have also intervened through postdepositional ravaging. This first faunal assemblage potentially created by lions constitutes a new framework for neotaphonomic studies. Since lions may accumulate carcasses under exceptional circumstances, such as those documented at the site reported here, this finding may have important consequences for interpretations of early archaeological and paleontological sites, which provide key information about human evolution.

  15. Lions as Bone Accumulators? Paleontological and Ecological Implications of a Modern Bone Assemblage from Olduvai Gorge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Yravedra, José; Baquedano, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Analytic models have been developed to reconstruct early hominin behaviour, especially their subsistence patterns, revealed mainly through taphonomic analyses of archaeofaunal assemblages. Taphonomic research is used to discern which agents (carnivores, humans or both) generate the bone assemblages recovered at archaeological sites. Taphonomic frameworks developed during the last decades show that the only large-sized carnivores in African biomes able to create bone assemblages are leopards and hyenas. A carnivore-made bone assemblage located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti (within Olduvai Gorge) was studied. Taphonomic analyses of this assemblage including skeletal part representation, bone density, breakage patterns and anatomical distribution of tooth marks, along with an ecological approach to the prey selection made by large carnivores of the Serengeti, were carried out. The results show that this bone assemblage may be the first lion-accumulated assemblage documented, although other carnivores (namely spotted hyenas) may have also intervened through postdepositional ravaging. This first faunal assemblage potentially created by lions constitutes a new framework for neotaphonomic studies. Since lions may accumulate carcasses under exceptional circumstances, such as those documented at the site reported here, this finding may have important consequences for interpretations of early archaeological and paleontological sites, which provide key information about human evolution.

  16. Testing for functional convergence of temperate rainforest tree assemblages in Chile and New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lusk, C.H.; Jimenez-Castillo, M.; Aragón, R.; Easdale, T.A.; Poorter, L.; Hinojosa, L.F.; Mason, N.W.H.W.H.

    2016-01-01

    An important tenet of biogeography and comparative ecology is that disjunct assemblages in similar physical environments are functionally more similar to each other than to assemblages from other environments. Temperate rainforests in South America, New Zealand and Australia share certain

  17. Social Equity and the Assemblage of Values in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal; Lingard, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The paper argues that the policy concept of social equity cannot be adequately understood in a generalised abstract manner, but is better viewed as an assemblage that brings together a number of contrasting, and sometimes competing, values. Our use of assemblage is somewhat eclectic and is designed to underscore the performative character of…

  18. Assemblage Organization in Stream Fishes: Effects of Enviromental Variation and Interspecific Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary D. Grossman; Robert E. Ratajczak; Maurice Crawford; Mary C. Freeman

    1998-01-01

    We assessed the relative importance of environmental variation, interspecific competition for space, and predator abundance on assemblage structure and microhabitat use in a stream fish assemblage inhabiting Coweeta Creek, North Carolina, USA. Our study encompassed a l0-yr time span (1983-1992) and included some of the highest and lowest flows in the last 58 years. We...

  19. Lions as Bone Accumulators? Paleontological and Ecological Implications of a Modern Bone Assemblage from Olduvai Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Yravedra, José; Baquedano, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Analytic models have been developed to reconstruct early hominin behaviour, especially their subsistence patterns, revealed mainly through taphonomic analyses of archaeofaunal assemblages. Taphonomic research is used to discern which agents (carnivores, humans or both) generate the bone assemblages recovered at archaeological sites. Taphonomic frameworks developed during the last decades show that the only large-sized carnivores in African biomes able to create bone assemblages are leopards and hyenas. A carnivore-made bone assemblage located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti (within Olduvai Gorge) was studied. Taphonomic analyses of this assemblage including skeletal part representation, bone density, breakage patterns and anatomical distribution of tooth marks, along with an ecological approach to the prey selection made by large carnivores of the Serengeti, were carried out. The results show that this bone assemblage may be the first lion-accumulated assemblage documented, although other carnivores (namely spotted hyenas) may have also intervened through postdepositional ravaging. This first faunal assemblage potentially created by lions constitutes a new framework for neotaphonomic studies. Since lions may accumulate carcasses under exceptional circumstances, such as those documented at the site reported here, this finding may have important consequences for interpretations of early archaeological and paleontological sites, which provide key information about human evolution. PMID:27144649

  20. Recovery of macrobenthic assemblages following experimental sand burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Barrón

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was supported by a fund provided by the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (UNAM and a fund provided to Celia Olabarria in 2004 and 2005 by the University of Vigo for overseas short stays.AbstractPeriodic inundation by sand is a very common feature of rocky coasts throughout the world. Even so, there have been few direct observations or experiments to investigate the role of sediments on intertidal rocky shores. We designed a field experiment in Mazatlán Bay, Mexico, to test the initial impact and subsequent recovery of intertidal macrobenthic assemblages exposed to sand burial at two sites of varying wave exposure. Both sites supported different natural assemblages. Treatment plots for the addition of sediment and control plots (50 × 50 cm, separated by at least 1.5 m, were randomly placed across the mid-water tidal level. The initial response of the resident macrobenthos and the subsequent recolonization was monitored over a period of 95 days. The main effect of sediment deposition at both sites was mortality and removal of biota due to smothering. The recovery process was rapid and may in part have been the result of the mechanism by which the small, disturbed patches were recolonized. Most of the invertebrates colonized the patches as adults; several seaweeds exhibited vegetative growth as the major mechanism of colonization (e.g., Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753, Amphiroa valonioides Yendo, 1902 and Chaetomorpha antennina (Borgensen Kutzing, 1849. The rate of recovery varied between the sites, however. Recovery of species numbers proceeded quickly at the sheltered site (day 7, but took 95 days at the exposed site. In contrast, biomass reached control levels by day 45 at the sheltered site, but already by day 15 at the exposed site. By day 95, the assemblages recovered to 83.5% and 81% similarity with the controls at the sheltered and exposed sites respectively. Although differences in wave exposure could be very

  1. Bleaching response of coral species in the context of assemblage response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Timothy D.; DuBois, Emily; Goldberg, Scott J.; Backman, Vadim; Marcelino, Luisa A.

    2017-06-01

    Caribbean coral reefs are declining due to a mosaic of local and global stresses, including climate change-induced thermal stress. Species and assemblage responses differ due to factors that are not easily identifiable or quantifiable. We calculated a novel species-specific metric of coral bleaching response, taxon- α and - β, which relates the response of a species to that of its assemblages for 16 species over 18 assemblages. By contextualizing species responses within the response of their assemblages, the effects of environmental factors are removed and intrinsic differences among taxa are revealed. Most corals experience either a saturation response, overly sensitive to weak stress ( α > 0) but under-responsive compared to assemblage bleaching ( β bleaching ( β > 1). This metric may help reveal key factors of bleaching susceptibility and identify species as targets for conservation.

  2. SESAM – a new framework integrating macroecological and species distribution models for predicting spatio-temporal patterns of species assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guisan, Antoine; Rahbek, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Two different approaches currently prevail for predicting spatial patterns of species assemblages. The first approach (macroecological modelling, MEM) focuses directly on realized properties of species assemblages, whereas the second approach (stacked species distribution modelling, S-SDM) starts...

  3. Participating Technologies? Nonhuman Others and Socio-Material Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    -material assemblages of humans and nonhumans that form actions. Thus nonhumans become participants of social actions. But, actor-network theory misses the moment-by-moment development of practices, which, for example, can be seen in workplace studies (Luff, Hindmarsh, & Heath 2001) and does not distinguish different......This talk takes up the conversation analytical understanding of participation and combines it with the idea of technical agency developed in actor-network theory (Latour 2005). Rather than depicting nonhumans as objects of human actions, actor-network theory understands actions as socio...... an interchange between a human and a human-like software programme. The analysis shows how (episodically) the technology can becomes a conversation partner. The other example derives from a try-out period in which people with acquired brain injury were introduced to a new walking help. The analysis shows how...

  4. The (Big Data-security assemblage: Knowledge and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Aradau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Snowden revelations and the emergence of ‘Big Data’ have rekindled questions about how security practices are deployed in a digital age and with what political effects. While critical scholars have drawn attention to the social, political and legal challenges to these practices, the debates in computer and information science have received less analytical attention. This paper proposes to take seriously the critical knowledge developed in information and computer science and reinterpret their debates to develop a critical intervention into the public controversies concerning data-driven security and digital surveillance. The paper offers a two-pronged contribution: on the one hand, we challenge the credibility of security professionals’ discourses in light of the knowledge that they supposedly mobilize; on the other, we argue for a series of conceptual moves around data, human–computer relations, and algorithms to address some of the limitations of existing engagements with the Big Data-security assemblage.

  5. Microplastic-associated Bacterial Assemblages in the Intertidal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P.; Zhao, S.; Zhu, L.; Li, D.

    2017-12-01

    Plastic debris is posing a planetary-scale threat. As a zone where terrestrial and marine ecosystems interactions occur, the accumulation of plastic marine debris (PMD) in intertidal environments has been well documented. But the information of plastic-associated microbial community (the "Plastisphere") in the intertidal zone is scanty. Utilizing the high-throughput sequencing, we profiled the bacterial communities attached to microplastic samples from the intertidal locations around Yangtze estuary. The structure and composition of Plastisphere communities in current study varied significantly with geographical stations. The taxonomic composition on microplastic samples implied their sedimental and aquatic origins. Some members of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms and potential pathogens were detected on microplastic. Overall, our findings fuel the evidence for the occurrence of diverse microbial assemblages on PMD and improving our understanding of Plastisphere ecology, which could support the management action and policy change related to PMD.

  6. Queer Gamer Assemblages and the Affective Elements of Digital Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Taylor Berdiago Ruelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Centering a discussion of gaming as an embodied experience, this essay explores the affective and embodied relationship between LGBT/queer gamers and video games. Drawing on qualitative interviews with seven queer gamers, I argue in that we should understand gamers as socio-technological assemblages, in order to illustrate how gamer identity, subjectivity, and sociality are enacted through the relationship between the body of a gamer and the game technologies. I further expand upon this by tending to how queer gamers talk about their embodied experiences and affective connections to various games through worlding and storytelling elements. These stories illustrate how games create affective possibilities for connection and belonging for queer gamers. I conclude by arguing that an attention to gaming as an embodied experience expands our conceptualizations of play and helps us understand the worldmaking practices that queer gamers often employ.

  7. Functional and Taxonomic Differentiation of Macrophyte Assemblages Across the Yangtze River Floodplain Under Human Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; García Molinos, Jorge; Zhang, Xiaolin; Xu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and the consequent extirpations of species have been changing the composition of species assemblages worldwide. These anthropogenic impacts alter not only the richness of assemblages but also the biological dissimilarity among them. One of the main gaps in the assessment of biodiversity change in freshwater ecosystems is our limited understanding regarding how taxonomic and functional facets of macrophyte assemblages respond to human impacts on regional scales. Here, we assess the temporal (before 1970s against after 2000s) changes in taxonomic and functional richness and compositional dissimilarities, partitioned into its turnover and nestedness components, of freshwater macrophyte assemblages across the floodplain lakes of the Yangtze River in China. We found that functional and taxonomic assemblage differentiation occurred simultaneously under increasing human impact, concomitant to a general decrease in functional and taxonomic richness. However, this effect weakened when the historical level of taxonomic dissimilarity among assemblages was high. Macrophyte species with large dispersal range and submersed life form were significantly more susceptible to extirpation. The impact of human activities on differentiation was complex but habitat loss and fishery intensity were consistently the main drivers of assemblage change in these lakes, whereas water quality (i.e., light pollution and nutrient enrichment) had weaker effects. Further, macrophyte taxonomic and functional differentiation was mainly driven by the nestedness component of dissimilarity, accounting for changes in assemblage composition related to changes in species richness independent of species replacement. This result, markedly different from previous studies on freshwater fish assemblages conducted in these lakes, represents a novel contribution toward achieving a more holistic understanding of how human impacts contribute to shape community assemblages in natural ecosystems.

  8. Ichthyoplankton assemblages of coastal west-central Lake Erie and associated habitat characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, J.E.; Hunter, R. Douglas; Fabrizio, M.C.; Savino, J.F.; Todd, T.N.; Bur, M.

    2008-01-01

    Early life stage survival often determines fish cohort strength and that survival is affected by habitat conditions. The structure and dynamics of ichthyoplankton assemblages can tell us much about biodiversity and fish population dynamics, but are poorly understood in nearshore areas of the Great Lakes, where most spawning and nursery habitats exist. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected with a neuston net in waters 2-13 m deep weekly or biweekly from mid-April through August, during 3 years (2000-2002) as part of a study of fish assemblages in west-central Lake Erie. A suite of abiotic variables was simultaneously measured to characterize habitat. Cluster and ordination analyses revealed several distinct ichthyoplankton assemblages that changed seasonally. A lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) dominated assemblage appeared first in April. In May, assemblages were dominated by several percid species. Summer assemblages were overwhelmingly dominated by emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), with large gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) components. This seasonal trend in species assemblages was also associated with increasing temperature and water clarity. Water depth and drift processes may also play a role in structuring these assemblages. The most common and widely distributed assemblages were not associated with substratum type, which we characterized as either hard or soft. The timing of hatch and larval growth separated the major groups in time and may have adaptive significance for the members of each major assemblage. The quality and locations (with reference to lake circulation) of spawning and nursery grounds may determine larval success and affect year class strength.

  9. Removing forest canopy cover restores a reptile assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, David A; Webb, Jonathan K; Shine, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Humans are rapidly altering natural systems, leading to changes in the distribution and abundance of species. However, so many changes are occurring simultaneously (e.g., climate change, habitat fragmentation) that it is difficult to determine the cause of population fluctuations from correlational studies. We used a manipulative field experiment to determine whether forest canopy cover directly influences reptile assemblages on rock outcrops in southeastern Australia. Our experimental design consisted of three types of rock outcrops: (1) shady sites in which overgrown vegetation was manually removed (n = 25); (2) overgrown controls (n = 30); and (3) sun-exposed controls (n = 20). Following canopy removal, we monitored reptile responses over 30 months. Canopy removal increased reptile species richness, the proportion of shelter sites used by reptiles, and relative abundances of five species that prefer sun-exposed habitats. Our manipulation also decreased the abundances of two shade-tolerant species. Canopy cover thus directly influences this reptile assemblage, with the effects of canopy removal being dependent on each species' habitat preferences (i.e., selection or avoidance of sun-exposed habitat). Our study suggests that increases in canopy cover can cause declines of open-habitat specialists, as previously suggested by correlative studies from a wide range of taxa. Given that reptile colonization of manipulated outcrops occurred rapidly, artificially opening the canopy in ecologically informed ways could help to conserve imperiled species with patchy distributions and low vagility that are threatened by vegetation overgrowth. One such species is Australia's most endangered snake, the broadheaded snake (Hoplocephalus bungaroides).

  10. Patch dynamics of a foraging assemblage of bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David Hamilton

    1985-03-01

    The composition and dynamics of foraging assemblages of bees were examined from the standpoint of species-level arrival and departure processes in patches of flowers. Experiments with bees visiting 4 different species of flowers in subalpine meadows in Colorado gave the following results: 1) In enriched patches the rates of departure of bees were reduced, resulting in increases in both the number of bees per species and the average number of species present. 2) The reduction in bee departure rates from enriched patches was due to mechanical factors-increased flower handling time, and to behavioral factors-an increase in the number of flowers visited per inflorescence and in the number of inflorescences visited per patch. Bees foraging in enriched patches could collect nectar 30-45% faster than those foraging in control patches. 3) The quantitative changes in foraging assemblages due to enrichment, in terms of means and variances of species population sizes, fraction of time a species was present in a patch, and in mean and variance of the number of species present, were in reasonable agreement with predictions drawn from queuing theory and studies in island biogeography. 4) Experiments performed with 2 species of flowers with different corolla tube lengths demonstrated that manipulation of resources of differing availability had unequal effects on particular subsets of the larger foraging community. The arrival-departure process of bees on flowers and the immigration-extinction process of species on islands are contrasted, and the value of the stochastic, species-level approach to community composition is briefly discussed.

  11. Spatial segregation in eastern North Pacific skate assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Bizzarro

    Full Text Available Skates (Rajiformes: Rajoidei are common mesopredators in marine benthic communities. The spatial associations of individual species and the structure of assemblages are of considerable importance for effective monitoring and management of exploited skate populations. This study investigated the spatial associations of eastern North Pacific (ENP skates in continental shelf and upper continental slope waters of two regions: central California and the western Gulf of Alaska. Long-term survey data were analyzed using GIS/spatial analysis techniques and regression models to determine distribution (by depth, temperature, and latitude/longitude and relative abundance of the dominant species in each region. Submersible video data were incorporated for California to facilitate habitat association analysis. We addressed three main questions: 1 Are there regions of differential importance to skates?, 2 Are ENP skate assemblages spatially segregated?, and 3 When skates co-occur, do they differ in size? Skate populations were highly clustered in both regions, on scales of 10s of kilometers; however, high-density regions (i.e., hot spots were segregated among species. Skate densities and frequencies of occurrence were substantially lower in Alaska as compared to California. Although skates are generally found on soft sediment habitats, Raja rhina exhibited the strongest association with mixed substrates, and R. stellulata catches were greatest on rocky reefs. Size segregation was evident in regions where species overlapped substantially in geographic and depth distribution (e.g., R. rhina and Bathyraja kincaidii off California; B. aleutica and B. interrupta in the Gulf of Alaska. Spatial niche differentiation in skates appears to be more pronounced than previously reported.

  12. Spatial segregation in eastern North Pacific skate assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarro, Joseph J; Broms, Kristin M; Logsdon, Miles G; Ebert, David A; Yoklavich, Mary M; Kuhnz, Linda A; Summers, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    Skates (Rajiformes: Rajoidei) are common mesopredators in marine benthic communities. The spatial associations of individual species and the structure of assemblages are of considerable importance for effective monitoring and management of exploited skate populations. This study investigated the spatial associations of eastern North Pacific (ENP) skates in continental shelf and upper continental slope waters of two regions: central California and the western Gulf of Alaska. Long-term survey data were analyzed using GIS/spatial analysis techniques and regression models to determine distribution (by depth, temperature, and latitude/longitude) and relative abundance of the dominant species in each region. Submersible video data were incorporated for California to facilitate habitat association analysis. We addressed three main questions: 1) Are there regions of differential importance to skates?, 2) Are ENP skate assemblages spatially segregated?, and 3) When skates co-occur, do they differ in size? Skate populations were highly clustered in both regions, on scales of 10s of kilometers; however, high-density regions (i.e., hot spots) were segregated among species. Skate densities and frequencies of occurrence were substantially lower in Alaska as compared to California. Although skates are generally found on soft sediment habitats, Raja rhina exhibited the strongest association with mixed substrates, and R. stellulata catches were greatest on rocky reefs. Size segregation was evident in regions where species overlapped substantially in geographic and depth distribution (e.g., R. rhina and Bathyraja kincaidii off California; B. aleutica and B. interrupta in the Gulf of Alaska). Spatial niche differentiation in skates appears to be more pronounced than previously reported.

  13. Seasonal variability of morphospaces in a subtropical fish assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Correia Siliprandi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of fishes are essential to evaluate the functional structure of assemblages, being morphological differences indicative of distinct ecological and adaptive strategies. The ecomorphology using morphospaces analyzes the structure of a fish assemblage through the values of intervals between homologous points positioned in anatomical structures of organisms phylogenetically related. These intervals can be quantified by morphogeometric and multivariate analyses. Seasonally during 2013-2014, standardized images were obtained from fishes sampled in Araça Bay, São Sebastião District, Brazil, using nine fishing gears which were grouped to verify the species occurrence variation. Qualitative approach (presence/absence data was used to carry out morphological analyses. A total of 27 landmarks and semilandmarks with anatomical, ecological and taxonomical meaning were positioned in species images of the left profile. Consensus figures were made embedding the intraspecific variability. Uniform components of the shape variation (RWs were generated. To build morphospaces, the first eight RWs were considered (explain more than 95% of the total morphological variability and were defined using Convex Hull. The RWs were also used to calculate the Morphological Richness (MR, Morphological Disparity (MD and Morphogeometric Index (EMI. The MD indicates the morphospace size and showed greater values in summer (0.051 and winter (0.047 as MR, related to the higher number of species (MRsummer=7.93; MRwinter=8.65. During all the year, the Araça Bay presents high diversity of fishes. Nevertheless, winter and summer seasons reached the highest diversity, periods when horizontal mobile fishes with elongated shapes arrive to the region, implying an increase of morphological diversity and shape’s redundancy (represented by the lowest values of EMI: winter=0.120; summer=0.123.

  14. Environmental variables measured at multiple spatial scales exert uneven influence on fish assemblages of floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the interaction between environmental variables measured at three different scales (i.e., landscape, lake, and in-lake) and fish assemblage descriptors across a range of over 50 floodplain lakes in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Mississippi and Arkansas. Our goal was to identify important local- and landscape-level determinants of fish assemblage structure. Relationships between fish assemblage structure and variables measured at broader scales (i.e., landscape-level and lake-level) were hypothesized to be stronger than relationships with variables measured at finer scales (i.e., in-lake variables). Results suggest that fish assemblage structure in floodplain lakes was influenced by variables operating on three different scales. However, and contrary to expectations, canonical correlations between in-lake environmental characteristics and fish assemblage structure were generally stronger than correlations between landscape-level and lake-level variables and fish assemblage structure, suggesting a hierarchy of influence. From a resource management perspective, our study suggests that landscape-level and lake-level variables may be manipulated for conservation or restoration purposes, and in-lake variables and fish assemblage structure may be used to monitor the success of such efforts.

  15. C9.A/14 steelwork joints de poutres par plaque frontale : assemblages par gousset

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Les Tables de résistances ultimes des assemblages boulonnés par plaque frontale et par gousset, complétées par une description des modèles de calcul et des exemples d’application, ont pour but de faciliter la tâche de l'ingénieur et du constructeur. Cette première partie C9.A/14 contient les chapitres suivants: - Joints de poutres par plaque frontale en acier S235 et S355 - Assemblages par gousset en acier S235 et S355 Les Tables contiennent des données relatives à la géométrie ainsi que les valeurs de calcul correspondantes des résistances ultimes des assemblages ; elles remplacent le chapitre « Assemblages par plaques frontales et boulons HR » des anciennes Tables C9.1 de 1983 / 2002. Le calcul de ces assemblages par plaque frontale est basé sur les hypothèses du modèle de la méthode des composants décrite dans la norme SN EN 1993-1-8. Les vérifications sont effectuées selon la norme SIA 263:2013. Les assemblages par gousset remplacent les assemblages par double cornière, (telle...

  16. Differences in stability of seed-associated microbial assemblages in response to invasion by phytopathogenic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Rezki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are involved in the vertical transmission of microorganisms from one plant generation to another and consequently act as reservoirs for the plant microbiota. However, little is known about the structure of seed-associated microbial assemblages and the regulators of assemblage structure. In this work, we have assessed the response of seed-associated microbial assemblages of Raphanus sativus to invading phytopathogenic agents, the bacterial strain Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc 8004 and the fungal strain Alternaria brassicicola Abra43. According to the indicators of bacterial (16S rRNA gene and gyrB sequences and fungal (ITS1 diversity employed in this study, seed transmission of the bacterial strain Xcc 8004 did not change the overall composition of resident microbial assemblages. In contrast seed transmission of Abra43 strongly modified the richness and structure of fungal assemblages without affecting bacterial assemblages. The sensitivity of seed-associated fungal assemblage to Abra43 is mostly related to changes in relative abundance of closely related fungal species that belong to the Alternaria genus. Variation in stability of the seed microbiota in response to Xcc and Abra43 invasions could be explained by differences in seed transmission pathways employed by these micro-organisms, which ultimately results in divergence in spatio-temporal colonization of the seed habitat.

  17. Aquatic insect assemblages associated with subalpine stream segment types in relict glaciated headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Joshua S.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Bolton, Susan M.; Weekes, Anne A.; Gara, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    1. Aquatic habitats and biotic assemblages in subalpine headwaters are sensitive to climate and human impacts. Understanding biotic responses to such perturbations and the contribution of high-elevation headwaters to riverine biodiversity requires the assessment of assemblage composition among habitat types. We compared aquatic insect assemblages among headwater stream segment types in relict glaciated subalpine basins in Mt. Rainier National Park, Washington, USA. 2. Aquatic insects were collected during summer and autumn in three headwater basins. In each basin, three different stream segment types were sampled: colluvial groundwater sources, alluvial lake inlets, and cascade-bedrock lake outlets. Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis revealed high β diversity in aquatic insect assemblages, and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that spatial and temporal patterns in assemblage composition differed among headwater stream segment types. Aquatic insect assemblages showed more fidelity to stream segment types than to individual basins, and the principal environmental variables associated with assemblage structure were temperature and substrate. 3. Indicator species analyses identified specific aquatic insects associated with each stream segment type. Several rare and potentially endemic aquatic insect taxa were present, including the recently described species, Lednia borealis (Baumann and Kondratieff). 4. Our results indicate that aquatic insect assemblages in relict glaciated subalpine headwaters were strongly differentiated among stream segment types. These results illustrate the contribution of headwaters to riverine biodiversity and emphasise the importance of these habitats for monitoring biotic responses to climate change. Monitoring biotic assemblages in high-elevation headwaters is needed to prevent the potential loss of unique and sensitive biota.

  18. Elevated land runoff after European settlement perturbs persistent foraminiferal assemblages on the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, S; Patel, F; Ditchburn, R

    2012-01-01

    Coral reefs are under pressure from a variety of human-induced disturbances, but demonstration of ecosystem changes and identification of stressors are often difficult. We tested whether global change or increased agricultural runoff after European settlement of Northeast Australia (ca. 1860) has affected inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef. Eleven sediment cores were retrieved from inner reefs, intermediate reefs, and outer-island reefs, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages were analyzed in dated (14C, 210Pb, 137Cs) core sections (N = 82 samples). Data were grouped into six age bands ( 1500 yr). Principal component analysis and two-factor (Zone and Age) permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) suggested that assemblages from the three zones were significantly different from each other over several millennia, with symbiont-bearing (mixotrophic) species dominating the outer reefs. A significant interaction term indicated that within-zone patterns varied. Assemblages in outer reefs unaffected from increased land runoff were persistent until present times. In both other zones, assemblages were also persistent until 150 yr ago, suggesting that benthic foraminiferal assemblages are naturally highly persistent over long (> 2000 yr) timescales. Assemblages in core sections PERMANOVA. With some exceptions, changes on the inner and intermediate reefs were consistent with a model predicting that increased nutrients and higher turbidity enhance relative abundance of heterotrophic species. Given that assemblages did not change in outer-island reefs (not impacted by runoff) we argue that changes in assemblages due to global change can be rejected as an explanation. Thus, the findings are more consistent with the hypothesis that agricultural runoff since European settlement altered foraminiferal assemblages than with the hypothesis that global forcing caused changes.

  19. Determinism in fish assemblages of floodplain lakes of the vastly disturbed Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Lucas, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley between southern Illinois and southern Louisiana contains hundreds of floodplain lakes, most of which have been adversely affected by landscape modifications used to control flooding and support agriculture. We examined fish assemblages in lakes of this region to determine whether deterministic patterns developed in relation to prominent abiotic lake characteristics and to explore whether relevant abiotic factors could be linked to specific assemblage structuring mechanisms. The distributions of 14 taxa in 29 lakes were governed primarily by two gradients that contrasted assemblages in terms of lake area, lake elongation, and water clarity. The knowledge of whether a lake was clear or turbid, large or small, and long or short helped determine fish assemblage characteristics. Abiotic factors influenced fish assemblage structures, plausibly through limitations on foraging and physiological tolerances. Determinism in assemblage organization of floodplain lakes relative to recurrence in physicochemical features has been documented for unaltered rivers. Whereas the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has been subjected to vast anthropogenic disturbances and is not a fully functional floodplain river, fish assemblages in its floodplain lakes remain deterministic and organized by the underlying factors that also dictate assemblages in unaltered rivers. In advanced stages of lake aging, fish assemblages in these lakes are expected to largely include species that thrive in turbid, shallow systems with few predators and low oxygen concentrations. The observed patterns related to physical characteristics of these lakes suggest three general conservation foci, including (1) watershed management to control erosion, (2) removal of sediments or increases in water level to alleviate depth reductions and derived detriments to water physicochemistry, and (3) management of fish populations through stockings, removals, and harvest regulations.

  20. Pampean lizard assemblage from subtropical Brazil: a temporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele R. Winck

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing human occupation of natural environments is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. To mitigate the negative anthropogenic effects, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of natural populations and the natural history of species. A study was conducted with an assemblage of lizards from a disturbed area of the Pampa biome, from February 2001 to January 2004. The assemblage showed a unimodal seasonal pattern, with the recruitment period occurring during the warmer months. The captures were seasonal for two of the three monitored years, and concentrated within warmer months. The minimum temperature explained the number of catches for the assemblage as a whole. However, when the species were analyzed individually, the temperature only explained the seasonal occurrence of Teius oculatus. The abundance of species was significantly different in the third year of study for Cercosaura schreibersii and Ophiodes striatus. This latter species was no longer registered in the study area from May 2003 until the end of the study. Therefore, O. striatus may be more sensitive to environmental changes, considering the events of change in vegetation during the study. With frequent and increasing environmental disturbances, it is necessary to take conservation measures and encourage the increase of knowledge on Pampean lizards.O crescimento da ocupação humana sobre ambientes naturais é uma das maiores ameaças à biodiversidade. Para amenizar os efeitos negativos antropogênicos, é necessário entender as características das populações naturais, e a história natural das espécies. Um estudo foi conduzido com uma assembeia de lagartos de uma área perturbada do Pampa, de fevereiro de 2002 a janeiro de 2004. A assembleia apresentou padrão sazonal unimodal, com recrutamento ocorrendo durante os meses mais quentes. As capturas foram sazonais durante dois dos três anos monitorados, e concentradas nos meses mais quentes. A

  1. Structure of molluscan assemblages in sheltered intertidal unconsolidated environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Denadai

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The molluscan macrofauna from 13 oceanic sheltered intertidal unconsolidated environments and its relationship with abiotic factors were studied in order to establish the degree of species richness and to understand the role environment plays in structuring such assemblages. Four distinct intertidal habitat types were recognized based on molluscan assemblage descriptors (diversity, richness and density and abiotic characteristics. The mean grain size (in phy units and the beach slope showed a negative relationship with the diversity, richness and density. Coarser sediments were favorable to molluscan fauna in the study areas, contrasting the well-known negative effect of this type of sand on fauna in typical oceanic beaches. The low-tide terraces, typical from tide-dominated areas, and the presence of physical (rocky fragments and biogenic (gravel structures, were also associated to the higher values of richness. The high richness in the study area as a whole seemed to be a direct consequence of its environmental heterogeneity, once it was composed by quite distinct habitat types.A malacofauna de 13 ambientes oceânicos, protegidos, entremarés e não-consolidados e sua relação com os fatores abióticos foram estudados com o intuito de conhecer a riqueza de espécies e compreender o papel dos fatores abióticos na estruturação das associações. Quatro tipos distintos de ambiente entremarés foram reconhecidos com base nos descritores da comunidade (diversidade, riqueza e densidade e nas características abióticas. O tamanho médio do grão de areia (em phy e a inclinação da praia mostraram uma relação negativa com a diversidade, riqueza e densidade. Sedimentos grossos foram favoráveis à fauna de moluscos nas áreas estudadas, contrastando o bem conhecido efeito negativo deste tipo de areia sobre a fauna em praias oceânicas típicas. Os terraços de maré baixa, típicos de áreas dominadas pela maré, e a presença de estruturas

  2. Diatom assemblage in a tropical lake of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition and spatial variation of diatom assemblage in surface sediments of Caçó Lake (shallow, mesotrophic and weakly acid lake - Maranhão State, Brazil were analyzed in order to know the distribution pattern of the species along the lake during rainy season (April 1999. Four zones were established in the lake based on 21 diatoms species and habitat affinities. The first three zones (prime three meters deep to six meters deep were marked by the occurrence of Pinnularia gigas, Frustulia rhomboides, Encyonopsis krasskei, Eunotia camelus, E. femoriformis and E. monodon. Zone IV (seven to nine meters deep was inhabited mainly by Surirella biseriata and Fragilariforma floridana. During the beginning of the rainy season, the diatom assemblage in Caçó Lake was composed mainly by benthic and epiphytic forms that reflected the low lake levels and the abundance of littoral vegetation present in this lake.Com o objetivo de se conhecer a dinâmica espacial e a distribuição das diatomáceas contidas no sedimento superficial do lago Caçó, durante o período de chuvas (abril de 1999 foram realizadas coletas em um "transect" horizontal. A partir da observação destas coletas efetuadas a cada 1 metro pode-se observar que a distribuição das diatomáceas esteve fortemente ligada a ocorrência do banco de macrófitas da sua margem, com a ocorrência maciça das espécies epifíticas e bentônicas. A análise de agrupamento de dados permitiu uma melhor visualização, da sua distribuição a cada profundidade e também das associações específicas em cada zona. Os resultados deste estudo permitiram concluir que a ocorrência e distribuição das diatomáceas do Lago Caçó está fortemente ligada ao banco de macrófitas localizado em suas margens, definindo assim zonas características dentro do lago.

  3. Late Maastrichtian chalk mounds, Stevns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Damholt, Tove; Surlyk, Finn

    2007-01-01

    that were largely biological and associated with benthic growth and sediment trapping of mainly bryozoans. Examples of end-member conditions are known from Haute Normandy, France and the lower Danian of Stevns Klint. The structures described here adds to the considerable complexity of depositional styles...

  4. Fossil evidence for serpentinization fluids fueling chemosynthetic assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartaud, Franck; Little, Crispin T S; de Rafelis, Marc; Bayon, Germain; Dyment, Jerome; Ildefonse, Benoit; Gressier, Vincent; Fouquet, Yves; Gaill, Françoise; Le Bris, Nadine

    2011-05-10

    Among the deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites discovered in the past 30 years, Lost City on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is remarkable both for its alkaline fluids derived from mantle rock serpentinization and the spectacular seafloor carbonate chimneys precipitated from these fluids. Despite high concentrations of reduced chemicals in the fluids, this unique example of a serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal system currently lacks chemosynthetic assemblages dominated by large animals typical of high-temperature vent sites. Here we report abundant specimens of chemosymbiotic mussels, associated with gastropods and chemosymbiotic clams, in approximately 100 kyr old Lost City-like carbonates from the MAR close to the Rainbow site (36 °N). Our finding shows that serpentinization-related fluids, unaffected by high-temperature hydrothermal circulation, can occur on-axis and are able to sustain high-biomass communities. The widespread occurrence of seafloor ultramafic rocks linked to likely long-range dispersion of vent species therefore offers considerably more ecospace for chemosynthetic fauna in the oceans than previously supposed.

  5. Continental drift and climate change drive instability in insect assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqing; Tierno de Figueroa, José Manuel; Lek, Sovan; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-06-01

    Global change has already had observable effects on ecosystems worldwide, and the accelerated rate of global change is predicted in the future. However, the impacts of global change on the stability of biodiversity have not been systematically studied in terms of both large spatial (continental drift) and temporal (from the last inter-glacial period to the next century) scales. Therefore, we analyzed the current geographical distribution pattern of Plecoptera, a thermally sensitive insect group, and evaluated its stability when coping with global change across both space and time throughout the Mediterranean region—one of the first 25 global biodiversity hotspots. Regional biodiversity of Plecoptera reflected the geography in both the historical movements of continents and the current environmental conditions in the western Mediterranean region. The similarity of Plecoptera assemblages between areas in this region indicated that the uplift of new land and continental drift were the primary determinants of the stability of regional biodiversity. Our results revealed that climate change caused the biodiversity of Plecoptera to slowly diminish in the past and will cause remarkably accelerated biodiversity loss in the future. These findings support the theory that climate change has had its greatest impact on biodiversity over a long temporal scale.

  6. The Colonization of Newly Built Fishponds by the Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Řezníčková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The succession of standing waters by aquatic macroinvertebrates is a present and insufficiently surveyed topic. This study is addressed to the issue of colonisation of newly created small standing waters. Two fishponds situated in the north of Moravia (Czech Republic were studied. The aim of this study was to determine the character and colonisation rate of these ponds by macroinvertebrates, to evaluate the abundance, taxonomic composition and changes in composition of freshwater assemblages as a result of the fish stock influence. Basic abiotic parameters were also measured within the sampling occasions (e.g. water temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates were taken monthly during the years 2012 and 2013, by kick sampling method using the hand net. The character of sampled fishponds was very similar, environmental parameters (e.g. area, substrate, depth etc. were comparable. The colonisation of both fishponds was very fast. The pioneer colonists were mainly insect larvae (e.g. chironomids. Very low numbers of macroinvertebrates as a result of fish stock influence were recorded on both sites during the observation with the highest abundances in summer season.

  7. Simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages in response to increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Bronwyn; White, John; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Cooke, Raylene

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal marsupials play an essential role in ecosystem function including regulating insect and plant populations, facilitating pollen and seed dispersal and acting as a prey source for higher-order carnivores in Australian environments. Primarily, research has focused on their biology, ecology and response to disturbance in forested and urban environments. We used presence-only species distribution modelling to understand the relationship between occurrences of arboreal marsupials and eco-geographical variables, and to infer habitat suitability across an urban gradient. We used post-proportional analysis to determine whether increasing urbanization affected potential habitat for arboreal marsupials. The key eco-geographical variables that influenced disturbance intolerant species and those with moderate tolerance to disturbance were natural features such as tree cover and proximity to rivers and to riparian vegetation, whereas variables for disturbance tolerant species were anthropogenic-based (e.g., road density) but also included some natural characteristics such as proximity to riparian vegetation, elevation and tree cover. Arboreal marsupial diversity was subject to substantial change along the gradient, with potential habitat for disturbance-tolerant marsupials distributed across the complete gradient and potential habitat for less tolerant species being restricted to the natural portion of the gradient. This resulted in highly-urbanized environments being inhabited by a few generalist arboreal marsupial species. Increasing urbanization therefore leads to functional simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages, thus impacting on the ecosystem services they provide.

  8. Simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages in response to increasing urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Isaac

    Full Text Available Arboreal marsupials play an essential role in ecosystem function including regulating insect and plant populations, facilitating pollen and seed dispersal and acting as a prey source for higher-order carnivores in Australian environments. Primarily, research has focused on their biology, ecology and response to disturbance in forested and urban environments. We used presence-only species distribution modelling to understand the relationship between occurrences of arboreal marsupials and eco-geographical variables, and to infer habitat suitability across an urban gradient. We used post-proportional analysis to determine whether increasing urbanization affected potential habitat for arboreal marsupials. The key eco-geographical variables that influenced disturbance intolerant species and those with moderate tolerance to disturbance were natural features such as tree cover and proximity to rivers and to riparian vegetation, whereas variables for disturbance tolerant species were anthropogenic-based (e.g., road density but also included some natural characteristics such as proximity to riparian vegetation, elevation and tree cover. Arboreal marsupial diversity was subject to substantial change along the gradient, with potential habitat for disturbance-tolerant marsupials distributed across the complete gradient and potential habitat for less tolerant species being restricted to the natural portion of the gradient. This resulted in highly-urbanized environments being inhabited by a few generalist arboreal marsupial species. Increasing urbanization therefore leads to functional simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages, thus impacting on the ecosystem services they provide.

  9. Hearing diversity in moths confronting a neotropical bat assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Kössl, Manfred; Mora, Emanuel C

    2017-09-01

    The tympanal ear is an evolutionary acquisition which helps moths survive predation from bats. The greater diversity of bats and echolocation strategies in the Neotropics compared with temperate zones would be expected to impose different sensory requirements on the neotropical moths. However, even given some variability among moth assemblages, the frequencies of best hearing of moths from different climate zones studied to date have been roughly the same: between 20 and 60 kHz. We have analyzed the auditory characteristics of tympanate moths from Cuba, a neotropical island with high levels of bat diversity and a high incidence of echolocation frequencies above those commonly at the upper limit of moths' hearing sensitivity. Moths of the superfamilies Noctuoidea, Geometroidea and Pyraloidea were examined. Audiograms were determined by non-invasively measuring distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. We also quantified the frequency spectrum of the echolocation sounds to which this moth community is exposed. The hearing ranges of moths in our study showed best frequencies between 36 and 94 kHz. High sensitivity to frequencies above 50 kHz suggests that the auditory sensitivity of moths is suited to the sounds used by sympatric echolocating bat fauna. Biodiversity characterizes predators and prey in the Neotropics, but the bat-moth acoustic interaction keeps spectrally matched.

  10. Fabrication of microstructures and microdevices by the particle assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mikihiko; Shinya, Norio; Dan, Takehiro; Fudouzi, Hiroshi; Konno, Takeshi; Egashira, Mitsuru

    2001-08-01

    We aim to fabricate microstructure and microdevices by integrating and arranging powder particles, i.e., the particle assemblage. We have developed three assembling techniques of the particles. The details of the assembling techniques and samples of the assembled microstructures are introduced. A manipulator is developed to manipulate and to weld metal particles by using a tungsten probe. Nickel alloy particles of 50 micrometers were piled on a gold substrate by the manipulator, and a leaning tower of the particles is fabricated. The array of the leaning tower is considered to act as an actuator. For the integration of a great number of particles, we developed another method based on the principle with the xerography. An electron beam or an ion beam is irradiated on an insulating substrate. An electrified pattern is formed on the substrate by the doped electron or doped ion. Fine particles are attracted to the pattern by the electrostatic force. Thus, we can arrange particles by immersing the substrate in the suspension of particles. The third is a productive method of ordered mixture by the electrostatic force. A self- thermostatic heater is made from the composite particles of BaTiO3 and In produced by the method.

  11. Differences in biological traits composition of benthic assemblages between unimpacted habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolam, S.G.; Garcia, C.; Eggleton, J.

    2017-01-01

    of unimpacted benthic assemblages vary between different sedimentary habitats. Assemblages in deep, muddy environments unaffected by anthropogenic disturbance show increased proportions of downward conveyors and surface deposit-feeders, while burrowing, diffusive mixing, scavenging and predation traits assume...... greater numerical proportions in shallower habitats. Deep, coarser sediments are numerically more dominated by sessile, upward conveyors and suspension feeders. In contrast, unimpacted assemblages of coarse sediments in shallower regions are proportionally dominated by the diffusive mixers, burrowers......, scavengers and predators. Finally, assemblages of gravelly sediments exhibit a relatively greater numerical dominance of non-bioturbators and asexual reproducers. These findings may be used to form the basis of ranking habitats along a functional sensitivity gradient...

  12. Effects of immune supplementation and immune challenge on bacterial assemblages in the avian cloaca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, Kevin D.; Versteegh, Maaike A.; van der Velde, Marco; Tieleman, B. Irene

    Relationships between avian physiology and bacterial assemblages in the cloaca are poorly understood. We used molecular techniques to analyze cloacal swabs from pigeons that were subjected to two immunological manipulations: lysozyme supplementation and endotoxin challenge. From the swabs, we

  13. Asian longhorned beetle complicates the relationship between taxonomic diversity and pest vulnerability in street tree assemblages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Urban foresters routinely emphasise the importance of taxonomic diversity to reduce the vulnerability of tree assemblages to invasive pests, but it is unclear to...

  14. Mesh size effects on assessments of planktonic hydrozoan abundance and assemblage structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Pukanski, Luis Eduardo de M.; Souza-Conceição, José M.

    2015-04-01

    The choice of appropriate mesh-size is paramount to accurately quantify planktonic assemblages, however there is no such information available for hydrozoans. Here planktonic hydrozoan abundance and assemblage structure were compared using 200 and 500 μm meshes at Babitonga estuary (S Brazil), throughout a year cycle. Species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity were higher in the 200 μm mesh, while evenness was typically higher in the 500 μm. Assemblage structure was significantly different between meshes (PERMANOVA, P 8 mm in October. These results suggest that both meshes have their drawbacks and the best choice would depend on the objectives of each study. Nevertheless species richness, total abundances and most taxa were better represented by the 200 μm mesh, suggesting that it is more appropriate to quantitatively sample planktonic hydrozoan assemblages.

  15. Fish assemblage patterns as a tool to aid conservation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish assemblage patterns as a tool to aid conservation in the Olifants River catchment ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ... South Africa has committed to address freshwater conservation at the ...

  16. Functional diversity of macrobenthic assemblages decreases in response to sewage discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusmao, Joao B.; Brauko, Kalina M.; Eriksson, Britas K.; Lana, Paulo C.

    We analyzed the effects of sewage discharge on a subtropical estuary by comparing the functional diversity of intertidal macroinvertebrate assemblages in contaminated with non-contaminated reference areas. Functional structure was assessed using biological traits analysis (BTA) and four multivariate

  17. Partitioning taxonomic diversity of aquatic insect assemblages and functional feeding groups in Neotropical Savanna headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity can be divided into: alpha (α, local), beta (β, difference in assemblage composition among locals), and gamma (γ, total diversity). We assessed the partitioning of taxonomic diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) and of functional feedin...

  18. ANALISIS PERMUKIMAN PEMULUNG SEBAGAI SEBUAH ASSEMBLAGE STUDI KASUS: PERMUKIMAN PEMULUNG DI WILAYAH JURANGMANGU, TANGERANG SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Permanasari

    2017-01-01

    There are some research on social and economical condition of informal waste-picker settlements. However, the research on the urban assemblage of informal waste-picker settlements are not very common. Therefore, this research focus on how the social and economical condition shape the informal waste-picker settlements in terms of urban assemblage.   This research investigates the development and transformation of the informal waste-picker settlements in two prime locations in Jurangmangu, South Tangerang. The methods are through observation and interview to key persons (leaders on each settlement. The urban assemblage on these waste-picker settlements is heavily influenced by social and economical condition and activity of their users.   Key words: waste picker settlements, urban assemblage, informality

  19. Tidal Channel Diatom Assemblages Reflect within Wetland Environmental Conditions and Land Use at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    We characterized regional patterns of the tidal channel benthic diatom community and examined the relative importance of local wetland and surrounding landscape level factors measured at multiple scales in structuring this assemblage. Surrounding land cover was characterized at ...

  20. Landform-Sediment Assemblages Units of the Upper Mississippi River Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Wisconsinan and Holocene Landform-Sediment Assemblages of the Upper Mississippi River Valley. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of natural and cultural resources...

  1. Tracking the history of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in sediments from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; Borole, D.V.; Nath, B.N.; Singhal, R.K.

    In order to trace the history of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and provide new insights in to Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) dynamics in monsoon influenced tropical environments, sediment cores were collected from four different coastal locations along...

  2. Surface water connectivity drives richness and composition of Arctic lake fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laske, Sarah M.; Haynes, Trevor B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Koch, Joshua C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2016-01-01

    Surface water connectivity can influence the richness and composition of fish assemblages, particularly in harsh environments where colonisation factors and access to seasonal refugia are required for species persistence.

  3. Herbaceous forage and selection patterns by ungulates across varying herbivore assemblages in a South African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treydte, A.C.; Baumgartner, S.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Grant, C.C.; Getz, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivores generally have strong structural and compositional effects on vegetation, which in turn determines the plant forage species available. We investigated how selected large mammalian herbivore assemblages use and alter herbaceous vegetation structure and composition in a southern African

  4. Coral reef fish assemblages along a disturbance gradient in the northern Persian Gulf: A seasonal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazilou, Amir; Shokri, Mohammad Reza; Gladstone, William

    2016-04-30

    Seasonal dynamics of coral reef fish assemblages were assessed along a gradient of potential anthropogenic disturbance in the Northern Persian Gulf. Overall, the attributes of coral reef fish assemblages showed seasonality at two different levels: seasonal changes irrespective of the magnitude of disturbance level (e.g. species richness), and seasonal changes in response to disturbance level (e.g. total abundance and assemblage composition). The examined parameters mostly belonged to the second group, but the interpretation of the relationship between patterns of seasonal changes and the disturbance level was not straightforward. The abundance of carnivorous fishes did not vary among seasons. SIMPER identified the family Nemipteridae as the major contributor to the observed spatiotemporal variations in the composition of coral reef fish assemblages in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relative importance of regional, local, and evolutionary factors structuring cryptobenthic coral-reef assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Tornabene, Luke; Smith, David J.; Pezold, Frank L.

    2018-03-01

    Factors shaping coral-reef fish species assemblages can operate over a wide range of spatial scales (local versus regional) and across both proximate and evolutionary time. Niche theory and neutral theory provide frameworks for testing assumptions and generating insights about the importance of local versus regional processes. Niche theory postulates that species assemblages are an outcome of evolutionary processes at regional scales followed by local-scale interactions, whereas neutral theory presumes that species assemblages are formed by largely random processes drawing from regional species pools. Indo-Pacific cryptobenthic coral-reef fishes are highly evolved, ecologically diverse, temporally responsive, and situated on a natural longitudinal diversity gradient, making them an ideal group for testing predictions from niche and neutral theories and effects of regional and local processes on species assemblages. Using a combination of ecological metrics (fish density, diversity, assemblage composition) and evolutionary analyses (testing for phylogenetic niche conservatism), we demonstrate that the structure of cryptobenthic fish assemblages can be explained by a mixture of regional factors, such as the size of regional species pools and broad-scale barriers to gene flow/drivers of speciation, coupled with local-scale factors, such as the relative abundance of specific microhabitat types. Furthermore, species of cryptobenthic fishes have distinct microhabitat associations that drive significant differences in assemblage community structure between microhabitat types, and these distinct microhabitat associations are phylogenetically conserved over evolutionary timescales. The implied differential fitness of cryptobenthic fishes across varied microhabitats and the conserved nature of their ecology are consistent with predictions from niche theory. Neutral theory predictions may still hold true for early life-history stages, where stochastic factors may be more

  6. Molluscan assemblages on coral reefs and associated hard substrata in the northern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuschin, M.; Hohenegger, J.; Steininger, F.

    2001-09-01

    Information on spatial variability and distribution patterns of organisms in coral reef environments is necessary to evaluate the increasing anthropogenic disturbance of marine environments (Richmond 1993; Wilkinson 1993; Dayton 1994). Therefore different types of subtidal, reef-associated hard substrata (reef flats, reef slopes, coral carpets, coral patches, rock grounds), each with different coral associations, were investigated to determine the distribution pattern of molluscs and their life habits (feeding strategies and substrate relations). The molluscs were strongly dominated by taxa with distinct relations to corals, and five assemblages were differentiated. The Dendropoma maxima assemblage on reef flats is a discrete entity, strongly dominated by this encrusting and suspension-feeding gastropod. All other assemblages are arranged along a substrate gradient of changing coral associations and potential molluscan habitats. The Coralliophila neritoidea- Barbatia foliata assemblage depends on the presence of Porites and shows a dominance of gastropods feeding on corals and of bivalves associated with living corals. The Chamoidea- Cerithium spp. assemblage on rock grounds is strongly dominated by encrusting bivalves. The Drupella cornus-Pteriidae assemblage occurs on Millepora- Acropora reef slopes and is strongly dominated by bivalves associated with living corals. The Barbatia setigera- Ctenoides annulata assemblage includes a broad variety of taxa, molluscan life habits and bottom types, but occurs mainly on faviid carpets and is transitional among the other three assemblages. A predicted degradation of coral coverage to rock bottoms due to increasing eutrophication and physical damage in the study area (Riegl and Piller 2000) will result in a loss of coral-associated molluscs in favor of bivalve crevice dwellers in dead coral heads and of encrusters on dead hard substrata.

  7. Terrestrial and Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages as a Function of Wetland Type across a Mountain Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G; Jones, Jennifer R; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Pierotti, Lyra F; Love, Jason P

    2011-01-01

    Fens and wet meadows are important mountain wetland types, but influences onassemblage structure of associated invertebrates are poorly understood compared with other aspects of the ecology of these habitats. We sought to determine the relative contributions of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates to diversity and abundance in these wetlands, the extent to which terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate assemblages differ with wetland type, and to what degree the aquatic assemblages vary as a fun...

  8. Snake assemblages of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Moreira Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the diversity, natural history and structure of snake assemblages from Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, after analyzing 439 specimens deposited in herpetological collections. We tested the hypothesis that snake assemblages from forest and open areas of Marajó Island are distinct with regard to their structure, composition and functional groups. To compare the snake composition of the forest and open areas of Marajó with other comparable assemblages in Brazil, Principal Coordinate Analysis and Clustering tests were performed. A total of 61 species of snakes was recorded for Marajó, with ten species cited for the first time for the study area (Atractus natans Hoogmoed & Prudente, 2003, A. schach (Boie, 1827, Dendrophidion dendrophis (Schlegel, 1837, Helicops hagmanni Roux, 1910, Hydrops martii (Wagler in Spix, 1824, Lygophis meridionalis (Schenkel, 1901, Erythrolamprus typhlus (Linnaeus, 1758, Philodryas argentea (Daudin, 1803, Siphlophis cervinus (Laurenti, 1768, and Thamnodynastes sp.. The composition and structure of snake assemblages between forested and open were different, with five functional groups of snakes in forest areas, and three groups in open areas, based on habit and habitat. In all, 19 species were exclusive to forest areas, 10 were exclusive to open areas and 26 species were recorded in both areas. Our results revealed greater richness for forested areas, probably due to greater habitat heterogeneity. The species composition for forested area in Marajó was similar to that found in other Amazonian assemblages, while that for open areas was more similar to the Pantanal region than other open area assemblages. The general structure of the snake assemblage of Marajó was dominated by anurophagous, terrestrial and diurnal species. Terrestrial, arboreal and semi-arboreal snakes showed a seasonal offspring production pattern, while the pattern for aquatic and semi-aquatic species was aseasonal. The

  9. Environmental influences on fish assemblage distribution of an estuarine coastal lagoon, Ria de Aveiro (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Pombo, L.; Elliott, M.; Rebelo, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    Fish assemblage was examined for patterns in spatial and seasonal structure within an estuarine coastal lagoon, Ria de Aveiro. Two years of variation in abiotic conditions were recorded to identify factors responsible for maintaining the structure of fish assemblages. Nine sites were sampled monthly with a traditional “chincha” beach-seine net between November 1998 and October 2000. Fish abundance and biomass changed significantly between sites. Temperature was found to be the most important ...

  10. Reptile assemblage response to restoration of fire-suppressed longleaf pine sandhills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, David A; Smith, Lora L; Conner, L M; Litt, Andrea R; Provencher, Louis; Hiers, J Kevin; Pokswinski, Scott; Guyer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the effects of ecological restoration on wildlife assemblages requires study on broad temporal and spatial scales. Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forests are imperiled due to fire suppression and subsequent invasion by hardwood trees. We employed a landscape-scale, randomized-block design to identify how reptile assemblages initially responded to restoration treatments including removal of hardwood trees via mechanical methods (felling and girdling), application of herbicides, or prescribed burning alone. Then, we examined reptile assemblages after all sites experienced more than a decade of prescribed burning at two- to thee-year return intervals. Data were collected concurrently at reference sites chosen to represent target conditions for restoration. Reptile assemblages changed most rapidly in response to prescribed burning, but reptile assemblages at all sites, including reference sites, were generally indistinguishable by the end of the study. Thus, we suggest that prescribed burning in longleaf pine forests over long time periods is an effective strategy for restoring reptile assemblages to the reference condition. Application of herbicides or mechanical removal of hardwood trees provided no apparent benefit to reptiles beyond what was achieved by prescribed fire alone.

  11. Patterns of Spatial Variation of Assemblages Associated with Intertidal Rocky Shores: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Miloslavich, Patricia; Palomo, Gabriela; Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Pohle, Gerhard; Trott, Tom; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Herrera, César; Hernández, Alejandra; Sardi, Adriana; Bueno, Andrea; Castillo, Julio; Klein, Eduardo; Guerra-Castro, Edlin; Gobin, Judith; Gómez, Diana Isabel; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Mead, Angela; Bigatti, Gregorio; Knowlton, Ann; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs); however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample) was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index) were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution), we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses. PMID:21179546

  12. Spatial and seasonal patterns in fish assemblage in Corrego Rico, upper Parana River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erico L. H Takahashi

    Full Text Available The upper Paraná River basin drains areas of intensive industry and agriculture, suffering negative impacts. The Córrego Rico flows through sugar cane fields and receives urban wastewater. The aim of this work is to describe and to compare the fish assemblage structure in Córrego Rico. Six standardized bimonthly samples were collected between August 2008 and June 2009 in seven different stretches of Córrego Rico. Fishes were collected with an experimental seine and sieves, euthanized, fixed in formalin and preserved in ethanol for counting and identification. Data were recorded for water parameters, instream habitat and riparian features within each stretch. Non-metric multidimensional scaling, species richness and diversity analysis were performed to examine spatial and seasonal variation in assemblage structure. Fish assemblage structure was correlated with instream habitat and water parameters. The fish assemblage was divided in three groups: upper, middle and lower reaches. High values of richness and diversity were observed in the upper and lower stretches due to connectivity with a small lake and Mogi Guaçu River, respectively. Middle stretches showed low values of richness and diversity suggesting that a small dam in the middle stretch negatively impacts the fish assemblage. Seasonal differences in fish assemblage structure were observed only in the lower stretches.

  13. Arthropod assemblages on native and nonnative plant species of a coastal reserve in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Susanne K

    2010-06-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative plant species are a widespread phenomenon. Many studies have shown strong ecological impacts of plant invasions on native plant communities and ecosystem processes. Far fewer studies have examined effects on associated animal communities. From the perspective of a reserve's land management, I addressed the question of whether arthropod assemblages on two nonnative plant species of concern were impoverished compared with those assemblages associated with two predominant native plant species of that reserve. If the nonnative plant species, Conium maculatum L., and Phalaris aquatica L., supported highly depauperate arthropod assemblages compared with the native plant species, Baccharis pilularis De Candolle and Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilger, this finding would provide additional support for prioritizing removal of nonnatives and restoration of natives. I assessed invertebrate assemblages at the taxonomic levels of arthropod orders, Coleoptera families, and Formicidae species, using univariate analyses to examine community attributes (richness and abundance) and multivariate techniques to assess arthropod assemblage community composition differences among plant species. Arthropod richness estimates by taxonomic level between native and nonnative vegetation showed varying results. Overall, arthropod richness of the selected nonnative plants, examined at higher taxonomic resolution, was not necessarily less diverse than two of common native plants found on the reserve, although differences were found among plant species. Impacts of certain nonnative plant species on arthropod assemblages may be more difficult to elucidate than those impacts shown on native plants and ecosystem processes.

  14. Fish assemblage structure and relations with environmental conditions in a Rocky Mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Hubert, W.A.; Isaak, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Fish and habitat were sampled from 110 reaches in the Salt River basin (Idaho and Wyoming) during 1996 and 1997 to assess patterns in fish assemblage structure across a Rocky Mountain watershed. We identified four distinct fish assemblages using cluster analysis: (1) allopatric cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)); (2) cutthroat trout - brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell, 1814)) - Paiute sculpin (Cottus beldingi Eigenmann and Eigenmann, 1891); (3) cutthroat trout - brown trout (Salmo trutta L., 1758) - mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi Girard, 1850); and (4) Cyprinidae-Catostomidae. The distribution of fish assemblages was explained by thermal characteristics, stream geomorphology, and local habitat features. Reaches with allopatric cutthroat trout and the cutthroat trout - brook trout - Paiute sculpin assemblage were located in high-elevation, high-gradient streams. The other two fish assemblages were generally located in low-elevation streams. Associations between habitat gradients, locations of reaches in the watershed, and occurrence of species were further examined using canonical correspondence analysis. The results suggest that stream geomorphology, thermal conditions, and local habitat characteristics influence fish assemblage structure across a Rocky Mountain watershed, and they provide information on the ecology of individual species that can guide conservation activities. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  15. Effects of environmental and water quality parameters on the functioning of copepod assemblages in tropical estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana V.; Dias, Cristina O.; Bonecker, Sérgio L. C.

    2017-07-01

    We examined changes in the functioning of copepod assemblages with increasing pollution in estuaries, using sampling standardization of the salinity range to enable comparisons. Copepod assemblages were analyzed in four southeast Brazilian estuaries with different water quality levels and hydrodynamic characteristics over two years. We obtained mesozooplankton samples together with environmental and water quality parameters in the estuaries, every two months under predetermined salinities ranging from 15 to 25. The values of parameters, except species size, associated with the functioning of the copepod assemblages (biomass, productivity, and turnover rate) did not differ among estuaries. However, in the more polluted estuaries, the biomass and productivity of copepod assemblages of mesozooplankton were negatively correlated with concentration of pollution indicator parameters. Conversely, in the less polluted estuaries some degree of enrichment still seems to increase the system biomass and productivity, as these parameters were inversely related to indicators of improved water quality. The pollution level of estuaries distorted the relationship between temperature and the efficiency of converting energy to organic matter. In the less polluted estuaries, the relationship between turnover rate and temperature was over 70%, while in the most polluted estuaries, this relationship was only approximately 50%. Our results demonstrated that the functioning of assemblages in the estuaries was affected differently by increasing pollution depending on the water quality level of the system. Thus, investigating the functioning of assemblages can be a useful tool for the analysis of estuarine conditions.

  16. Survival of ship biofouling assemblages during and after voyages to the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Farrah T; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Bailey, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    Human-mediated vectors often inadvertently translocate species assemblages to new environments. Examining the dynamics of entrained species assemblages during transport can provide insights into the introduction risk associated with these vectors. Ship biofouling is a major transport vector of nonindigenous species in coastal ecosystems globally, yet its magnitude in the Arctic is poorly understood. To determine whether biofouling organisms on ships can survive passages in Arctic waters, we examined how biofouling assemblage structure changed before, during, and after eight round-trip military voyages from temperate to Arctic ports in Canada. Species richness first decreased (~70% loss) and then recovered (~27% loss compared to the original assemblages), as ships travelled to and from the Arctic, respectively, whereas total abundance typically declined over time (~55% total loss). Biofouling community structure differed significantly before and during Arctic transits as well as between those sampled during and after voyages. Assemblage structure varied across different parts of the hull; however, temporal changes were independent of hull location, suggesting that niche areas did not provide protection for biofouling organisms against adverse conditions in the Arctic. Biofouling algae appear to be more tolerant of transport conditions during Arctic voyages than are mobile, sessile, and sedentary invertebrates. Our results suggest that biofouling assemblages on ships generally have poor survivorship during Arctic voyages. Nonetheless, some potential for transporting nonindigenous species to the Arctic via ship biofouling remains, as at least six taxa new to the Canadian Arctic, including a nonindigenous cirripede, appeared to have survived transits from temperate to Arctic ports.

  17. Coral reef fish assemblages at Clipperton Atoll (Eastern Tropical Pacific and their relationship with coral cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora M. Ricart

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clipperton Atoll, one of the most isolated coral reefs worldwide, is of great scientific interest due to its geomorphology and high levels of endemism. This study explored the reef fish assemblage structure of Clipperton Atoll and its relationship with live coral cover. Nine stations were sampled at three sites and three depths (6, 12 and 20 m around the reef, measuring fish species richness and biomass and hermatypic coral cover (at genus level. We evaluated variation in species richness, biomass and diversity of fish assemblages among sites and depths, as well as the relationship between the entire fish assemblage composition and live coral cover. The results showed that species richness and biomass were similar among sites, but differed across depths, increasing with depth. In contrast, diversity differed among sites but not among depths. Multivariate analyses indicated that fish assemblage composition differed among sites and depths in relation to changes in cover of coral of the genera Pocillopora, Porites, Pavona and Leptoseris, which dominate at different depths. The results showed that fish species richness and diversity were low at Clipperton Atoll and that, in isolated coral reefs with a low habitat heterogeneity and low human disturbance, live coral cover has a significant influence on the spatial variation of the reef fish assemblages. This study highlights the importance of coral habitat structure in shaping coral reef fish assemblages.

  18. Thermal and hydrologic responses to climate change predict marked alterations in boreal stream invertebrate assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Kaisa-Riikka; Mykrä, Heikki; Marttila, Hannu; Sarremejane, Romain; Veijalainen, Noora; Sippel, Kalle; Muotka, Timo; Hawkins, Charles P

    2018-06-01

    Air temperature at the northernmost latitudes is predicted to increase steeply and precipitation to become more variable by the end of the 21st century, resulting in altered thermal and hydrological regimes. We applied five climate scenarios to predict the future (2070-2100) benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages at 239 near-pristine sites across Finland (ca. 1200 km latitudinal span). We used a multitaxon distribution model with air temperature and modeled daily flow as predictors. As expected, projected air temperature increased the most in northernmost Finland. Predicted taxonomic richness also increased the most in northern Finland, congruent with the predicted northwards shift of many species' distributions. Compositional changes were predicted to be high even without changes in richness, suggesting that species replacement may be the main mechanism causing climate-induced changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages. Northern streams were predicted to lose much of the seasonality of their flow regimes, causing potentially marked changes in stream benthic assemblages. Sites with the highest loss of seasonality were predicted to support future assemblages that deviate most in compositional similarity from the present-day assemblages. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were also predicted to change more in headwaters than in larger streams, as headwaters were particularly sensitive to changes in flow patterns. Our results emphasize the importance of focusing protection and mitigation on headwater streams with high-flow seasonality because of their vulnerability to climate change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Tanner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii, there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study. Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay.

  20. Seagrass epiphytic assemblages are strong indicators of agricultural discharge but weak indicators of host features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Patricia

    2018-05-01

    Wastewater pulses from rice agriculture are persistently discharged into the northern shore of the Alfacs Bay (Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean) from April to November. The bay also receives water from coastal lagoons which are subjected to freshwater inputs from the Ebro River mixed to an unknown extent with agricultural wastewater during the same period. This paper compares epiphyte assemblages growing on leaves of Cymodocea nodosa in sites exposed to agricultural drainage channels, lagoon connection channels, and control sites in the Ebro Delta Natural Park (southern shore of the bay). Leaf epiphytic assemblages of Zostera noltii patches in the northern shore of the bay were also compared with those of adjacent beds of C. nodosa. Drainage channel sites had consistently distinctive assemblages (higher species richness, biomass load, and taxa composition) than control sites. Assemblages from lagoon channel sites were more variable, with three sites showing particularly high covers of epiphytic algae and two sites more similar to controls. Epiphyte patterns clearly matched in situ measures of nutrient availability, and were consistent with decreased shoot densities in discharge sites. In contrast, differences in epiphyte assemblages between seagrass species were minor, and mostly a result of higher epiphytic loads on C. nodosa than on Z. noltii, which features thinner leaves. Further research is needed to investigate the consequences of these plant and epiphyte alterations in important ecosystem processes such as decomposition and export rates, as well as overall effects of nutrients and salinity in secondary producers such as associated macroinvertebrate assemblages supporting locally important marine fisheries.

  1. Patterns of spatial variation of assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores: a global perspective.

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    Juan José Cruz-Motta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org. There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs; however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution, we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses.

  2. Spatial and seasonal patterns of ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters of China

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    Li, Zengguang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Wan, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Surveys were conducted in five voyages in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent coastal area from March to December 2011 during full moon spring tides. The ichthyoplankton assemblages and the environmental factors that affect their spatial and seasonal patterns were determined. Totally 35 and 12 fish egg and larvae taxa were identified, respectively. Over the past several decades, the egg and larval species composition has significantly changed in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters, most likely corresponding with the alteration of fishery resources, which are strongly affected by anthropogenic activities and climate change. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index identified four assemblages: near-shore bay assemblage, middle bay assemblage and two closely related assemblages (near-shore/middle bay assemblage and middle/edge of bay assemblage). The primary species of each assemblage principally reflected the spawning strategies of adult fish. The near-shore bay assemblage generally occurred in near-shore bay, with depths measuring ichthyoplankton in each assemblage were determined by interactions between biological behavioral traits and oceanographic features, particularly the variation of local conditions within the constraint of a general reproductive strategy. The results of Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated that both fish egg and larval abundance were positively correlated with depth, which is critical to the oceanographic features in Haizhou Bay.

  3. Fish stomach contents in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage assessments

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    TH. Tupinambás

    for studies that only sample fish assemblages to evaluate aquatic ecosystem impacts. Therefore, this approach can be useful to amplify assessments of human impacts, and to incorporate additional bioindicators.

  4. Next generation sequencing reveals the hidden diversity of zooplankton assemblages.

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    Penelope K Lindeque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zooplankton play an important role in our oceans, in biogeochemical cycling and providing a food source for commercially important fish larvae. However, difficulties in correctly identifying zooplankton hinder our understanding of their roles in marine ecosystem functioning, and can prevent detection of long term changes in their community structure. The advent of massively parallel next generation sequencing technology allows DNA sequence data to be recovered directly from whole community samples. Here we assess the ability of such sequencing to quantify richness and diversity of a mixed zooplankton assemblage from a productive time series site in the Western English Channel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Plankton net hauls (200 µm were taken at the Western Channel Observatory station L4 in September 2010 and January 2011. These samples were analysed by microscopy and metagenetic analysis of the 18S nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. Following quality control a total of 419,041 sequences were obtained for all samples. The sequences clustered into 205 operational taxonomic units using a 97% similarity cut-off. Allocation of taxonomy by comparison with the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database identified 135 OTUs to species level, 11 to genus level and 1 to order, <2.5% of sequences were classified as unknowns. By comparison a skilled microscopic analyst was able to routinely enumerate only 58 taxonomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Metagenetics reveals a previously hidden taxonomic richness, especially for Copepoda and hard-to-identify meroplankton such as Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Polychaeta. It also reveals rare species and parasites. We conclude that Next Generation Sequencing of 18S amplicons is a powerful tool for elucidating the true diversity and species richness of zooplankton communities. While this approach allows for broad diversity assessments of plankton it may

  5. Epilithic algal assemblages in the Forsmark Biotest basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeijs, P.

    1987-04-01

    The Forsmark Biotest Basin is an artificial offshore brackish lake, through which the cooling water is led from the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station on the Swedish east coast. The Biotest Basin differs from the Bothnian Sea surrounding it by a temperature elevation of up to 10 degrees C, no ice cover in winter, and an artificial, fast current. At 11 sites in- and outside the basin, benthic algal assemblages on stones in the hydrolittoral belt were sampled every third week during one year. Cover abundances were estimated for all algae occurring on the stones, but for diatoms only when they formed blooms. The results of the vegetation analyses are given. Diversity indices and dominance-diversity curves were computed for each site on the basis of pooled data for the cold season and for the rest of the year. The algae included both unicellular and multicellular forms. In total 88 taxa were distinguished in the species lists: 29 Cyanophyta, 7 Rhodophyta, 1 Chrysophyceae, 9 Fucophyceae, 17 Diatomophyceae and 25 Chlorophyta. In terms of percentage cover-abundance, blue-green and green algae increased with temperature, while red and brown algae and diatoms decreased with temperature in the interval between the minimum (0 degrees C) and the maximum (25.7 degrees C) water temperatures that were measured during the investigation period. Melosira spp. and Nitzschia filiformis proved to be the diatoms most favoured by the cooling water discharge. Lower diversity and greater dominance of one or a few species over the other was caused by thermal discharge at sites with fast-flowing water, but the opposite occurred at sites with quiescent water, mainly due to a greater number and higher abundances of blue-green algal species and thread-like green algae at the latter sites. This report also gives some notes on taxonomy of the encountered species.

  6. Can global weed assemblages be used to predict future weeds?

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    Louise Morin

    Full Text Available Predicting which plant taxa are more likely to become weeds in a region presents significant challenges to both researchers and government agencies. Often it is done in a qualitative or semi-quantitative way. In this study, we explored the potential of using the quantitative self-organising map (SOM approach to analyse global weed assemblages and estimate likelihoods of plant taxa becoming weeds before and after they have been moved to a new region. The SOM approach examines plant taxa associations by analysing where a taxon is recorded as a weed and what other taxa are recorded as weeds in those regions. The dataset analysed was extracted from a pre-existing, extensive worldwide database of plant taxa recorded as weeds or other related status and, following reformatting, included 187 regions and 6690 plant taxa. To assess the value of the SOM approach we selected Australia as a case study. We found that the key and most important limitation in using such analytical approach lies with the dataset used. The classification of a taxon as a weed in the literature is not often based on actual data that document the economic, environmental and/or social impact of the taxon, but mostly based on human perceptions that the taxon is troublesome or simply not wanted in a particular situation. The adoption of consistent and objective criteria that incorporate a standardized approach for impact assessment of plant taxa will be necessary to develop a new global database suitable to make predictions regarding weediness using methods like SOM. It may however, be more realistic to opt for a classification system that focuses on the invasive characteristics of plant taxa without any inference to impacts, which to be defined would require some level of research to avoid bias from human perceptions and value systems.

  7. Eco-cities as an Assemblage of Worlding Practices

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    Zack Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eco-cities are gaining attention in policy and academic circles over the past few years. Yet they pose difficulties as objects of study since they have been diversely defined and implemented. This paper argues that eco-cities are better understood as an assemblage of worlding practices. Combining these two concepts foregoes the emphasis on the eco-city’s physical structures and focuses more on its policy environment and its relations with other locations. The case study being examined is the Philippine’s Clark Green, the country’s first eco-city project. Its main proponent is an independent government agency, the Bases Conversion and Development Authority (BCDA, tasked with developing former military locations for civilian uses. Their vision is to create a world-class project built by international stakeholders in order to elevate the status of the Philippines and the Filipinos. They have chosen to emulate the Songdo International Business District in South Korea as their benchmark model. Not only are they adopting the ideas of a smart city but also similar strategies to enter the international education and logistics industries. The paper will show how the BCDA uses the eco-city idea as a tool to enter various national and international discourses that extend beyond the project’s geographical boundaries. Yet the strategies and visions of an independent government-owned corporation are tempered by challenges from local stakeholders, conflicting national priorities, and failures from similar policies applied elsewhere. The paper highlights the need for worlding projects to be embedded in their own national context for greater policy coordination.

  8. Dendrobium protoplast co-culture promotes phytochemical assemblage in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abitha; Pujari, Ipsita; Shetty, Vasudeep; Joshi, Manjunath B; Rai, Padmalatha S; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Babu, Vidhu Sankar

    2017-07-01

    The present study is intended to analyze the occurrence of potent, low produce, naturally occurring stilbenes in protoplasts of wild species and hybrids of Dendrobium. The wild species selected for the study was Dendrobium ovatum, endemic to Western Ghats of India. Protoplasts were isolated from leaves and tepal tissues of all the species and were cultured purely to generate homofusants and cross-cultured to raise heterofusants. Phytochemical composition of protoplast culture with atypical and pure microcolonies was performed using mass spectrometry. Enzyme cocktail of 4% pectinase together with 2% cellulase displayed the highest competence for protoplast isolations. Maximum protoplast density of 30.11 × 10 4 /ml was obtained from D. ovatum leaves in 2 h. Subcellular features such as the presence of partially formed cell wall, the position of the nucleus, chloroplast density, colony existence, and integrity of the plasma membrane were analyzed. Among the pure and cross-cultured protoplasts, the number of heterofusants and homofusants formed were enumerated. The spectral feature extraction of the mass spectrometry indicated the presence of five phenolic marker compounds, viz., tristin, confusarin, gigantol, moscatilin, and resveratrol, some of them in pure and others in assorted protoplast cultures raised from Dendrobium leaves and tepals. The study demonstrated that protoplast fusion technique enabled phytochemical assemblage in vitro as stilbenes tend to get restricted either in a tissue or species specific manner. This is the first report showing the presence of resveratrol, moscatilin, tristin, gigantol, and confusarin in wild and hybrid species from cultured Dendrobium protoplasts in vitro.

  9. Trace-fossil assemblages with a new ichnogenus in "spotted"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimo, Vladimír; Tomašových, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Highly-bioturbated "spotted" limestones and marls (Fleckenmergel-Fleckenkalk facies) of the Early Jurassic, which were deposited in broad and recurrent deep-shelf habitats of the Northern Tethys, are characterized by rare benthic carbonate-producing macroinvertebrates. To address this paradox, we analyse trace-fossil assemblages in a ~85 m-thick succession of Pliensbachian spotted deposits (Zliechov Basin, Western Carpathians). They are dominated by infaunal and semi-infaunal deposit-feeders, with 9 ichnogenera and pyritized tubes of the semi-infaunal foraminifer Bathysiphon, being dominated by Chondrites, Lamellaeichnus (new ichnogenus), and Teichichnus. Lamellaeichnus, represented by a horizontal basal cylindrical burrow and an upper row of stacked convex-up gutters, was produced by a mobile deposit-feeder inhabiting shallow tiers because it is crossed by most other trace fossils. We show that the spotty appearance of the deposits is generated by a mixture of (1) dark, organic-rich shallow- and deep-tier traces (TOC = 0.16-0.36), and (2) light grey, organic-poor mottled or structurless sediment (TOC = 0.09-0.22). The higher TOC in shallow-tier burrows of Lamellaeichnus demonstrates that uppermost sediment layers were affected by poor redox cycling. Such conditions imply a limited mixed-layer depth and inefficient nutrient recycling conditioned by hypoxic bottom-waters, allowed by poor circulation and high sedimentation rates in depocenters of the Zliechov Basin. Hypoxic conditions are further supported by (1) dominance of trace-fossils produced by infaunal deposit feeders, (2) high abundance of hypoxiatolerant agglutinated foraminifer Bathysiphon, and (3) high abundance of Chondrites with ~0.5 mm-sized branches. Oxygen-deficient bottom-conditions can thus simultaneously explain the rarity of benthic carbonate-producing macroinvertebrates and high standing abundance of tolerant soft-shell and agglutinated organisms in spotted deposits.

  10. Vertebrate assemblages from the early Late Cretaceous of southeastern Morocco: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, L.; Tong, H.; Boudad, L.; Meister, C.; Piuz, A.; Tabouelle, J.; Aarab, M.; Amiot, R.; Buffetaut, E.; Dyke, G.; Hua, S.; Le Loeuff, J.

    2010-07-01

    Fossils of vertebrates have been found in great abundance in the continental and marine early Late Cretaceous sediments of Southeastern Morocco for more than 50 years. About 80 vertebrate taxa have so far been recorded from this region, many of which were recognised and diagnosed for the first time based on specimens recovered from these sediments. In this paper, we use published data together with new field data to present an updated overview of Moroccan early Late Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages. The Cretaceous series we have studied encompasses three Formations, the Ifezouane and Aoufous Formations, which are continental and deltaic in origin and are often grouped under the name "Kem Kem beds", and the Akrabou Formation which is marine in origin. New field observations allow us to place four recognised vertebrate clusters, corresponding to one compound assemblage and three assemblages, within a general temporal framework. In particular, two ammonite bioevents characterise the lower part of the Upper Cenomanian ( Calycoceras guerangeri Zone) at the base of the Akrabou Formation and the upper part of the Lower Turonian ( Mammites nodosoides Zone), that may extend into the Middle Turonian within the Akrabou Formation, and allow for more accurate dating of the marine sequence in the study area. We are not yet able to distinguish a specific assemblage that characterises the Ifezouane Formation when compared to the similar Aoufous Formation, and as a result we regard the oldest of the four vertebrate "assemblages" in this region to be the compound assemblage of the "Kem Kem beds". This well-known vertebrate assemblage comprises a mixture of terrestrial (and aerial), freshwater and brackish vertebrates. The archosaur component of this fauna appears to show an intriguingly high proportion of large-bodied carnivorous taxa, which may indicate a peculiar trophic chain, although collecting biases alter this palaeontological signal. A small and restricted assemblage, the

  11. Sponge assemblages on the deep Mediterranean continental shelf and slope (Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Andreu; Grinyó, Jordi; Ambroso, Stefano; Uriz, Maria J.; Gori, Andrea; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Sponge assemblages on continental shelves and slopes around the world have been known about for centuries. However, due to limitations of the traditional sampling systems, data about individual sponge species rather than assemblages have been reported. This study characterizes sponge assemblages over a wide bathymetric range ( 50-350 m depth) and covering the entire continental shelf and the upper slope of the Menorca Channel, an area soon to be declared a Marine Protected Area (MPA) as part of the Natura 2000 Network. Quantitative analysis of 85 video-transects (a total linear distance of 75 km), together with representative collections to confirm species identifications, allowed us to discriminate six major assemblages. Differences in the assemblages mainly corresponded to differences in substrate type and depth. On the inner continental shelf, a semi-sciaphilous Axinellid assemblage dominated the rocky outcrops. Maërl beds on the inner continental shelf were dominated by Haliclona (Reniera) mediterranea, whereas the horny sponge Aplysina cavernicola and several other haliclonids mostly dominated maërl beds and rocky substrates of the outer shelf. Soft sediments on the shelf break hosted a monospecific Thenea muricata assemblage, whereas rocky substrates of the shelf break were characterized by a mixture of encrusting, columnar and fan-shaped sponges. Finally, the upper slope was dominated by Hamacantha (Vomerula) falcula and the hexactinellid Tretodictyum reiswigi. Overall, sponge diversity showed its highest values above the shelf break, plummeting severely on the upper slope. Despite this diversity decrease, we found very high densities (> 70 ind./m2) of sponges over vast areas of both the shelf break and the upper slope.

  12. Changing bee and hoverfly pollinator assemblages along an urban-rural gradient.

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    Adam J Bates

    Full Text Available The potential for reduced pollination ecosystem service due to global declines of bees and other pollinators is cause for considerable concern. Habitat degradation, destruction and fragmentation due to agricultural intensification have historically been the main causes of this pollinator decline. However, despite increasing and accelerating levels of global urbanization, very little research has investigated the effects of urbanization on pollinator assemblages. We assessed changes in the diversity, abundance and species composition of bee and hoverfly pollinator assemblages in urban, suburban, and rural sites across a UK city.Bees and hoverflies were trapped and netted at 24 sites of similar habitat character (churchyards and cemeteries that varied in position along a gradient of urbanization. Local habitat quality (altitude, shelter from wind, diversity and abundance of flowers, and the broader-scale degree of urbanization (e.g. percentage of built landscape and gardens within 100 m, 250 m, 500 m, 1 km, and 2.5 km of the site were assessed for each study site. The diversity and abundance of pollinators were both significantly negatively associated with higher levels of urbanization. Assemblage composition changed along the urbanization gradient with some species positively associated with urban and suburban land-use, but more species negatively so. Pollinator assemblages were positively affected by good site habitat quality, in particular the availability of flowering plants.Our results show that urban areas can support diverse pollinator assemblages, but that this capacity is strongly affected by local habitat quality. Nonetheless, in both urban and suburban areas of the city the assemblages had fewer individuals and lower diversity than similar rural habitats. The unique development histories of different urban areas, and the difficulty of assessing mobile pollinator assemblages in just part of their range, mean that complementary studies in

  13. Effects of Management Legacies on Stream Fish and Aquatic Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Michael C.; Schultz, Randall D.

    2014-09-01

    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly

  14. Juvenile bottlenecks and salinity shape grey mullet assemblages in Mediterranean estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Luis; Hereu, Bernat; Torras, Xavier

    2008-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that competitive bottlenecks may exist for the Mediterranean grey mullets (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae) at the fry stage with the exotic Cyprinus carpio (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae) playing a central role. As a consequence, the structure of grey mullet assemblages at later stages is thought to reflect previous competition as well as differences in osmoregulatory skills. This paper tests that hypothesis by examining four predictions about the relative abundance of five grey mullet species in 42 Western Mediterranean estuary sites from three areas (Aiguamolls de l'Empordà, Ebro Delta and Minorca) differing in the salinity level and occurrence of C. carpio. Field data confirmed the predictions as: (1) Liza aurata and Mugil cephalus were scarce everywhere and never dominated the assemblage; (2) Liza saliens dominated the assemblage where the salinity level was higher than 13; (3) Liza ramado always dominated the assemblage where the salinity level was lower than 13 and C. carpio was present; and (4) Chelon labrosus dominated the assemblage only where the salinity level was lower than 13 and C. carpio was absent. The catch per unit effort of C. labrosus of any size was smaller in the presence of C. carpio than where it had not been introduced, which is in agreement with the juvenile competitive bottleneck hypothesis. Discriminant analysis confirmed that the assemblage structure was linked to the salinity level and the occurrence of C. carpio for both early juveniles and late juveniles as well as adults. The data reported here reveal that the structure of grey mullet assemblages inhabiting Mediterranean estuaries is determined by salinity and competitive interactions at the fry stage.

  15. Groundwater declines are linked to changes in Great Plains stream fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Joshuah S; Gido, Keith B; Falke, Jeffrey A; Fausch, Kurt D; Crockett, Harry; Johnson, Eric R; Sanderson, John

    2017-07-11

    Groundwater pumping for agriculture is a major driver causing declines of global freshwater ecosystems, yet the ecological consequences for stream fish assemblages are rarely quantified. We combined retrospective (1950-2010) and prospective (2011-2060) modeling approaches within a multiscale framework to predict change in Great Plains stream fish assemblages associated with groundwater pumping from the United States High Plains Aquifer. We modeled the relationship between the length of stream receiving water from the High Plains Aquifer and the occurrence of fishes characteristic of small and large streams in the western Great Plains at a regional scale and for six subwatersheds nested within the region. Water development at the regional scale was associated with construction of 154 barriers that fragment stream habitats, increased depth to groundwater and loss of 558 km of stream, and transformation of fish assemblage structure from dominance by large-stream to small-stream fishes. Scaling down to subwatersheds revealed consistent transformations in fish assemblage structure among western subwatersheds with increasing depths to groundwater. Although transformations occurred in the absence of barriers, barriers along mainstem rivers isolate depauperate western fish assemblages from relatively intact eastern fish assemblages. Projections to 2060 indicate loss of an additional 286 km of stream across the region, as well as continued replacement of large-stream fishes by small-stream fishes where groundwater pumping has increased depth to groundwater. Our work illustrates the shrinking of streams and homogenization of Great Plains stream fish assemblages related to groundwater pumping, and we predict similar transformations worldwide where local and regional aquifer depletions occur.

  16. Species richness and trait composition of butterfly assemblages change along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leingärtner, Annette; Krauss, Jochen; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2014-06-01

    Species richness patterns along altitudinal gradients are well-documented ecological phenomena, yet very little data are available on how environmental filtering processes influence the composition and traits of butterfly assemblages at high altitudes. We have studied the diversity patterns of butterfly species at 34 sites along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 600 to 2,000 m a.s.l. in the National Park Berchtesgaden (Germany) and analysed traits of butterfly assemblages associated with dispersal capacity, reproductive strategies and developmental time from lowlands to highlands, including phylogenetic analyses. We found a linear decline in butterfly species richness along the altitudinal gradient, but the phylogenetic relatedness of the butterfly assemblages did not increase with altitude. Compared to butterfly assemblages at lower altitudes, those at higher altitudes were composed of species with larger wings (on average 9%) which laid an average of 68% more eggs. In contrast, egg maturation time in butterfly assemblages decreased by about 22% along the altitudinal gradient. Further, butterfly assemblages at higher altitudes were increasingly dominated by less widespread species. Based on our abundance data, but not on data in the literature, population density increased with altitude, suggesting a reversed density-distribution relationship, with higher population densities of habitat specialists in harsh environments. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for significant shifts in the composition of butterfly assemblages and for the dominance of different traits along the altitudinal gradient. In our study, these changes were mainly driven by environmental factors, whereas phylogenetic filtering played a minor role along the studied altitudinal range.

  17. Fish assemblages in borrow-pit lakes of the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Killgore, K. J.; Hoover, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Borrow-pit lakes encompass about a third of the lentic water habitats (by area) in the active floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River, yet little is known about their fish assemblages. We investigated whether fish assemblages supported by borrow-pit lakes resembled those in oxbow lakes to help place the ecological relevance of borrow-pit lakes in context with that of natural floodplain lakes. In all, we collected 75 fish species, including 65 species in eight borrow-pit lakes, 52 species in four riverside oxbow lakes, and 44 species in eight landside oxbow lakes. Significant differences in several species richness metrics were evident between borrow-pit lakes and landside oxbow lakes but not between borrow-pit lakes and riverside oxbow lakes. All three lake types differed in fish assemblage composition. Borrow-pit lakes and riverside oxbow lakes tended to include a greater representation of fish species that require access to diverse environments, including lentic, lotic, and palustrine habitats; fish assemblages in landside oxbow lakes included a higher representation of lacustrine species. None of the fish species collected in borrow-pit lakes was federally listed as threatened or endangered, but several were listed as species of special concern by state governments in the region, suggesting that borrow-pit lakes provide habitat for sensitive riverine and wetland fish species. Differences in fish assemblages among borrow-pit lakes were linked to engineered morphologic features, suggesting that diversity in engineering can contribute to diversity in fish assemblages; however, more research is needed to match engineering designs with fish assemblage structures that best meet conservation needs.

  18. Differences in the structure of copepod assemblages in four tropical estuaries: Importance of pollution and the estuary hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana V; Dias, Cristina O; Bonecker, Sérgio L C

    2017-02-15

    We examined the relationship between pollution and structure of copepod assemblages in estuaries, using sampling standardization of salinity range to reduce the effects of "Estuarine Quality Paradox". Copepod assemblages were analyzed in four Southeast Brazilian estuaries with different water quality levels and different hydrodynamic characteristics. The pollution negatively impacted the descriptors of the assemblage structure. The distribution of structure of copepod assemblages also showed a main separation trend between the most polluted estuaries and those less polluted. Temperature was the main factor affecting the assemblage structuring in the four estuaries. This factor acted in synergism with the effects of pollution impact and physical characteristics of the estuaries on the structure of copepod assemblages, supporting the potential vulnerability of coastal environments due to nutrient enrichment associated with climate change. Our study demonstrated the importance of sampling standardization of the salinity range in estuaries for reliable analysis of pollution effects on biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Mineral Assemblages Containing Unstable Hydrous Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Wilson, S. A.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S.

    2011-12-01

    for sampling cold-environment deposits at the lunar poles, at the poles of Mercury, on icy satellites, and on many other bodies that may host hydrous minerals. The problem of adequate in situ analysis of such mutable assemblages extends to Earth as well, for example in the need for improved understanding of polar and permafrost regions, deep sea clathrates, cave minerals, and mine dump efflorescence. Advanced methods of in situ analysis are needed, including but not limited to contact instruments and instrumentation that can be inserted by probe or operated within a borehole that could be advanced with minimal thermal disturbance. One of the lessons of robotic analysis is that field instruments, which by necessity are less capable than laboratory equivalents, provide greatly improved interpretations if data from several different instruments can be compared.

  20. Environmental constraints on the compositional and phylogenetic beta-diversity of tropical forest snake assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Mario R; Costa, Henrique C; Argôlo, Antônio J S; Jetz, Walter

    2017-09-01

    The ongoing biodiversity crisis increases the importance and urgency of studies addressing the role of environmental variation on the composition and evolutionary history of species assemblages, but especially the tropics and ectotherms remain understudied. In regions with rainy summers, coexistence of tropical ectothermic species may be determined by the partitioning of the climatic niche, as ectotherms can rely on water availability and thermoregulatory behaviour to buffer constraints along their climatic niche. Conversely, tropical ectotherms facing dry summers would have fewer opportunities to climatic niche partitioning and other processes rather than environmental filtering would mediate species coexistence. We used 218 snake assemblages to quantify the compositional (CBD) and phylogenetic (PBD) beta-diversity of snakes in the Atlantic Forest (AF) hotspot, South America. We identify two AF regions with distinct climatological regimes: dry summers in the northern-AF and rainy summers in the southern-AF. While accounting for the influence of multiscale spatial processes, we disentangle the relative contribution of thermal, water-related and topographic conditions in structuring the CBD and PBD of snake assemblages, and determine the extent in which snake assemblages under distinct climatological regimes are affected by environmental filtering. Thermal conditions best explain CBD and PBD of snakes for the whole AF, whereas water-related factors best explain the structure of snake assemblages within a same climatological regime. CBD and PBD patterns are similarly explained by spatial factors but snake assemblages facing dry summers are more affected by spatial processes operating at fine to intermediate spatial scale, whereas those assemblages in regions with rainy summers have a stronger signature of coarse-scale processes. As expected, environmental filtering plays a stronger role in southern-AF than northern-AF, and the synergism between thermal and water

  1. Fish assemblages on fringing reefs in the southern Caribbean: biodiversity, biomass and feeding types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahson B. Alemu I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reef fish assemblages in the Caribbean are under increasing pressure from human activities. Inadequate enforcement of legislation coupled with unreliable and data-poor landings in Tobago have led to the unregulated exploitation of reef fish for decades. This study addresses the lack of data on major reefs. Visual observations of fish fauna were conducted from November 2011-May 2013 at open access reef sites (Speyside, Charlotteville, Culloden, Arnos Vale, Mt. Irvine, La Guira, Kilgwyn, Plymouth and Black Rock and one protected area (Buccoo Reef Marine Park. Belt transects surveys were used to determine fish density, species diversity and abundance at the 10-15m depth contour. Fish sizes were converted to biomass using the length-weight relationship of fish W=aLb. Most fish assemblages were dominated by small herbivores (40cm e.g. Serranidae, were noted, which is indicative of fishing pressure. MDS ordination identified three fish assemblages: i northeastern, ii southwestern and iii intermediate. The northwestern cluster (Speyside and Charlotteville were most representative of reef fish assemblages across the entire island, and exhibited the highest species richness, diversity and biomass. However, the southwestern cluster the highest numerical abundance. The marine protected area contained higher fish biomass, abundance, diversity and richness, but it was only representative of reef fish assemblages on the southwest of the island and not the entire Tobago. Research on the reef fishery, particularly spear fishing, is recommended to determine impact.

  2. Effects of Water Level Increase on Phytoplankton Assemblages in a Drinking Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangdong Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive water level fluctuation may affect physico-chemical characteristics, and consequently ecosystem function, in lakes and reservoirs. In this study, we assessed the changes of phytoplankton assemblages in response to water level increase in Danjiangkou Reservoir, one of the largest drinking water reservoirs in Asia. The water level increased from a low of 137 m to 161 m in 2014 as a part of the South–North Water Diversion Project. Phytoplankton assemblages were sampled four times per year before, during and after the water level increase, at 10 sites. Environmental variables such as total nitrogen as well as phytoplankton biomass decreased after the water level increase. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis indicated that before the water level increase, phytoplankton assemblages showed distinct seasonal variation with diatom dominance in both early and late seasons while such seasonal variation was much less evident after the water level increase. Month and year (before and after explained 13% and 6% of variance in phytoplankton assemblages (PERMANOVA, p < 0.001 respectively, and phytoplankton assemblages were significantly different before and after the water level increase. Both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria became more abundant in 2015. Phytoplankton compositional change may largely reflect the environmental changes, such as hydrodynamics mediated by the water level increase.

  3. Fish assemblage relationships with physical characteristics and presence of dams in three eastern Iowa rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Clay; Nicholas L. Ahrens,; Anna K. Loan-Wilsey,; Gregory A. Simmons,; Gregory T. Gelwicks,

    2013-01-01

    Fish assemblages in rivers of the Midwestern United States are an important component of the region's natural resources and biodiversity. We characterized the physical environment and presence of dams in a series of reaches in three eastern Iowa rivers tributary to the Mississippi River and related these characteristics to the fish assemblages present. Some physical characteristics were similar among the 12 study reaches, whereas others differed substantially. We found a total of 68 species across the 12 study reaches; 56 in the Turkey River, 51 in the Maquoketa River and 50 in the Wapsipinicon River. Seventeen species could be described as ‘downstream-distributed’; 15 being found only in the lowest reach of one or more rivers and the other two being found only in the lowest reaches or two or more contiguous reaches including the lowest reach. Two species could be described as ‘upstream-distributed’, being found only in an uppermost reach. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination illustrated similarities among reaches, and five physical variables were significantly correlated with assemblage similarities. Catchment area and number of dams between reaches and the Mississippi River were strongly correlated with assemblage similarities, but the directions of their effects were opposite. Catchment area and number of dams were confounded. The collective evidence to date suggests that the pervasiveness of dams on rivers significantly alters fish assemblages, making underlying patterns of species change and relationships with naturally varying and human-influenced physical characteristics along a river's course difficult to discern.

  4. Fish assemblage structure and habitat associations in a large western river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.D.; Quist, Michael C.; Hardy, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal gradients of fish assemblage and habitat structure were investigated in the Kootenai River of northern Idaho. A total of 43 500-m river reaches was sampled repeatedly with several techniques (boat-mounted electrofishing, hoop nets and benthic trawls) in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Differences in habitat and fish assemblage structure were apparent along the longitudinal gradient of the Kootenai River. Habitat characteristics (e.g. depth, substrate composition and water velocity) were related to fish assemblage structure in three different geomorphic river sections. Upper river sections were characterized by native salmonids (e.g. mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni), whereas native cyprinids (peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and non-native fishes (pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, yellow perch Perca flavescens) were common in the downstream section. Overall, a general pattern of species addition from upstream to downstream sections was discovered and is likely related to increased habitat complexity and additions of non-native species in downstream sections. Assemblage structure of the upper sections were similar, but were both dissimilar to the lower section of the Kootenai River. Species-specific hurdle regressions indicated the relationships among habitat characteristics and the predicted probability of occurrence and relative abundance varied by species. Understanding fish assemblage structure in relation to habitat could improve conservation efforts of rare fishes and improve management of coldwater river systems.

  5. Examining shifts in Carabidae assemblages across a forest-agriculture ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, T W; Biddinger, D J; Rohr, J R; Hulting, A G; Mortensen, D A; Fleischer, S J

    2014-02-01

    Northeastern U.S. farms are often situated adjacent to forestland due to the heterogeneous nature of the landscape. We investigated how forested areas influence Carabidae diversity within nearby crop fields by establishing transects of pitfall traps. Trapping extended across a forest-agriculture ecotone consisting of maize, an intermediate mowed grass margin, and a forest edge. Carabidae diversity was compared among the three habitats, and community and population dynamics were assessed along the transect. We used a principal response curve to examine and visualize community change across a spatial gradient. The highest levels of richness and evenness were observed in the forest community, and carabid assemblages shifted significantly across the ecotone, especially at the forest-grass interface. Despite strong ecotone effects, population distributions showed that some species were found in all three habitats and seemed to thrive at the ecotone. Based on similarity indices, carabid assemblages collected in maize adjacent to forest differed from carabid assemblages in maize not adjacent to forest. We conclude that forest carabid assemblages exhibit high degrees of dissimilarity with those found in agricultural fields and forested areas should thus be retained in agricultural landscapes to increase biodiversity at the landscape scale. However, ecotone species found at forest edges can still noticeably influence carabid community composition within neighboring agricultural fields. Further studies should determine how these shifts in carabid assemblages influence agroecosystem services in relation to ecosystem services observed in fields embedded in an agricultural matrix.

  6. Spatial and seasonal variations of fish assemblages in mangrove creek systems in Zanzibar (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwandya, Augustine W.; Gullström, Martin; Andersson, Mathias H.; Öhman, Marcus C.; Mgaya, Yunus D.; Bryceson, Ian

    2010-11-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of fish assemblage composition were studied in three non-estuarine mangrove creeks of Zanzibar (Tanzania). Fish were collected monthly for one year at three sites (lower, intermediate and upper reaches) in each creek using a seine net (each haul covering 170 m 2). Density, species number and diversity of fish were all higher at sites with dense cover of macrophytes (seagrass and macroalgae) than over unvegetated sandy sites. In general, fish assemblages mainly comprised juveniles of a few abundant taxa, e.g. Mugil cephalus, Mugilidae spp. and Leiognathus equulus at sites with mud substratum and Gerres oyena, Lethrinus harak and Sillago sihama at sites dominated by macrophytes. Multivariate analyses revealed significant separations in fish assemblage composition within the two creeks where the bottom substratum differed among sites. Overall, season seemed to have little effect on density, species number, diversity index ( H') and assemblage structure of fish. Water condition variables were also relatively stable across the season, although a short-term fluctuation primarily induced by decreased salinity, occurred during the heavy rains in April and May. Fish assemblage structure was not significantly affected by any of the abiotic factors tested. However, significant regressions were found between the other fish variables and environmental variables, but since these associations were mostly species-specific and generally inconsistent, we suggest that the overall distribution patterns of fish were mainly an effect of particular substrate preferences of fish species rather than contemporary water conditions.

  7. Demersal fish assemblages off southern New Zealand in relation to depth and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, W.; McClatchie, S.; Probert, P. K.; Hurst, R. J.

    1998-12-01

    We examined the relationship between demersal fish assemblage and depth, temperature, latitude and longitude off southern New Zealand (46-54°S and 165-180°E) in water depths of 80-787 m. Catch weight data were analysed by two-way indicator analysis (TWIA), groupaverage agglomerative clustering (UPGMA) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). The spatial pattern of demersal fish off southern New Zealand conforms to the concept of species groups or fish assemblages related to environmental gradients. Shallow-water assemblages were dominated by species from the families Gempylidae, Squalidae, Triakidae and Moridae, mainly represented by Thyrsites atun, Squalus acanthias, Galeorhinus australis, and Pseudophycis bachus. Deep water assemblages were dominated by Chimaeridae, Argentinidae, Merlucciidae and Macrouridae, mainly represented by Hydrolagus novaezelandiae, Argentina elongata, Macruronus novaezelandiae, and Lepidorhynchus denticulatus. Total catch weight was often dominated by Merlucciidae, Macrouridae and Gempylidae. Fish assemblages were related to discrete ranges of depth (300 m) and temperature (9.5°C), but the range of sediment types was too narrow to show any correlation.

  8. Influence of environmental factors on fish assemblages in streams of the Elbe and Oder basins

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    Luboš Kůra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of environmental parameters on changes in the structure of fish assemblages were studied in the Elbe and the Odra basin. Research was done at 819 sites surveyed in the field during the period 1993-2007. The impact of 46 factors derived from the maps through a GIS was tested as well as the impact of 10 factors recognized in the field. To evaluate the influence of these factors the indirect (DCA and direct (CCA multivariate cluster analysis were used. Analyses were performed with data on presence-absence and relative abundance of each species. DCA well reflects changes in assemblages in the longitudinal profile of streams. CCA refers to a significant influence of regional and temporal variability and influence of individual factors. The fish assemblages are best characterized by distance from the source location, stream slope, altitude of locality, representation of arable land in the basin, number of ponds in the sub-basin above the locality, type of waters (salmonid or cyprinid, and water temperature (the only of the parameters of the field. The analyzed factors better reflect the variability in fish assemblages of the Odra than of Elbe river basin. The analysis showed good practical efficiency of processing information from a large sample of data from ichthyological surveys. The tools of GIS and the use of statistical methods make possible to characterize basic ecological requirements of most species and specify conditions determining specific composition of fish assemblages.

  9. Role of riparian shade on the fish assemblage of a reservoir littoral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, C. D.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the effects of shade on reservoir fish assemblages is lacking, with most investigations focused on streams. Unlike many streams, the canopy in a reservoir shades only a narrow fringe of water adjacent to the shoreline, and may not have the influential effect on the aquatic environment reported in streams. We compared fish assemblages between shaded and unshaded sites in a shallow reservoir. Overall species richness (gamma diversity) was higher in shaded sites, and fish assemblage composition differed between shaded and unshaded sites. Average light intensity was 66 % lower in shaded sites, and differences in average temperature and dissolved oxygen were small. Unlike streams where shade can have large effects on water physicochemistry, in reservoirs shade-related differences in fish assemblages seemed to be linked principally to differences in light intensity. Diversity in light intensity in shaded and unshaded sites in reservoirs can create various mosaics of light-based habitats that enable diversity of species assemblages. Managing to promote the habitat diversity provided by shade may require coping with the artificial nature of reservoir riparian zones and water level fluctuations.

  10. Temporal distribution of intertidal macrozoobenthic assemblages in a Nanozostera noltii-dominated area (Lagoon of Venice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliapietra, D; Pessa, G; Cornello, M; Zitelli, A; Magni, P

    2016-03-01

    We describe the temporal distribution of intertidal macrozoobenthic assemblages in a small marsh pond of the Lagoon of Venice colonized by the seagrass Nanozostera noltii (Hornemman) Tomlinson et Posluzny. Three stations ranging in the degree of N. noltii cover were selected about 100 m apart and sampled 9 times at regular intervals from March 1996 to March 1997. We applied the concepts of resistance and resilience to "natural stress" (e.g. extent of protection from seagrass meadows, exposure of macrozoobenthic assemblages to high temperatures in summer) with the aim to assess the stability of a community along a gradient of seagrass coverage. Results showed that the most structured and taxa-rich macrozoobenthic assemblage occurred at the station covered by a continuous stand of N. noltii, where permanent taxa (i.e. found in 100% of samples) were almost double than those found at the other stations. During the annual cycle, the macrozoobenthic assemblages showed a cyclical pattern, with temporal fluctuations increasing as they moved further away from the seagrass beds. We propose the role of N. noltii offering structural complexity and stability as the more probable explanation to the observed differences between stations in the intertidal assemblages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Uniform functional structure across spatial scales in an intertidal benthic assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R S K; Hamylton, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the causes of the remarkable similarity of emergent assemblage properties that has been demonstrated across disparate intertidal seagrass sites and assemblages, this study examined whether their emergent functional-group metrics are scale related by testing the null hypothesis that functional diversity and the suite of dominant functional groups in seagrass-associated macrofauna are robust structural features of such assemblages and do not vary spatially across nested scales within a 0.4 ha area. This was carried out via a lattice of 64 spatially referenced stations. Although densities of individual components were patchily dispersed across the locality, rank orders of importance of the 14 functional groups present, their overall functional diversity and evenness, and the proportions of the total individuals contained within each showed, in contrast, statistically significant spatial uniformity, even at areal scales functional groups in their geospatial context also revealed weaker than expected levels of spatial autocorrelation, and then only at the smaller scales and amongst the most dominant groups, and only a small number of negative correlations occurred between the proportional importances of the individual groups. In effect, such patterning was a surface veneer overlying remarkable stability of assemblage functional composition across all spatial scales. Although assemblage species composition is known to be homogeneous in some soft-sediment marine systems over equivalent scales, this combination of patchy individual components yet basically constant functional-group structure seems as yet unreported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rare species contribute disproportionately to the functional structure of species assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Rafael P; Zuanon, Jansen; Villéger, Sébastien; Williams, Stephen E; Baraloto, Christopher; Fortunel, Claire; Mendonça, Fernando P; Mouillot, David

    2016-04-13

    There is broad consensus that the diversity of functional traits within species assemblages drives several ecological processes. It is also widely recognized that rare species are the first to become extinct following human-induced disturbances. Surprisingly, however, the functional importance of rare species is still poorly understood, particularly in tropical species-rich assemblages where the majority of species are rare, and the rate of species extinction can be high. Here, we investigated the consequences of local and regional extinctions on the functional structure of species assemblages. We used three extensive datasets (stream fish from the Brazilian Amazon, rainforest trees from French Guiana, and birds from the Australian Wet Tropics) and built an integrative measure of species rarity versus commonness, combining local abundance, geographical range, and habitat breadth. Using different scenarios of species loss, we found a disproportionate impact of rare species extinction for the three groups, with significant reductions in levels of functional richness, specialization, and originality of assemblages, which may severely undermine the integrity of ecological processes. The whole breadth of functional abilities within species assemblages, which is disproportionately supported by rare species, is certainly critical in maintaining ecosystems particularly under the ongoing rapid environmental transitions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Seasonal changes in fish assemblage structure at a shallow seamount in the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Salvador J; Klimley, A Peter; Muhlia-Melo, Arturo; Morgan, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Seamounts have generally been identified as locations that can promote elevated productivity, biomass and predator biodiversity. These properties attract seamount-associated fisheries where elevated harvests can be obtained relative to surrounding areas. There exists large variation in the geological and oceanographic environment among the thousands of locations that fall within the broad definition of seamount. Global seamount surveys have revealed that not all seamounts are hotspots of biodiversity, and there remains a strong need to understand the mechanisms that underlie variation in species richness observed. We examined the process of fish species assembly at El Bajo Espiritu Santo (EBES) seamount in the Gulf of California over a five-year study period. To effectively quantify the relative abundance of fast-moving and schooling fishes in a 'blue water' habitat, we developed a simplified underwater visual census (UVC) methodology and analysis framework suitable for this setting and applicable to future studies in similar environments. We found correlations between seasonally changing community structure and variability in oceanographic conditions. Individual species responses to thermal habitat at EBES revealed three distinct assemblages, a 'fall assemblage' tracking warmer overall temperature, a 'spring assemblage' correlated with cooler temperature, and a 'year-round assemblage' with no significant response to temperature. Species richness was greatest in spring, when cool and warm water masses stratified the water column and a greater number of species from all three assemblages co-occurred. We discuss our findings in the context of potential mechanisms that could account for predator biodiversity at shallow seamounts.

  14. Seafloor massive sulfide deposits support unique megafaunal assemblages: Implications for seabed mining and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschen, Rachel E; Rowden, Ashley A; Clark, Malcolm R; Pallentin, Arne; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2016-04-01

    Mining of seafloor massive sulfides (SMS) is imminent, but the ecology of assemblages at SMS deposits is poorly known. Proposed conservation strategies include protected areas to preserve biodiversity at risk from mining impacts. Determining site suitability requires biological characterisation of the mine site and protected area(s). Video survey of a proposed mine site and protected area off New Zealand revealed unique megafaunal assemblages at the mine site. Significant relationships were identified between assemblage structure and environmental conditions, including hydrothermal features. Unique assemblages occurred at both active and inactive chimneys and are particularly at risk from mining-related impacts. The occurrence of unique assemblages at the mine site suggests that the proposed protected area is insufficient alone and should instead form part of a network. These results provide support for including hydrothermally active and inactive features within networks of protected areas and emphasise the need for quantitative survey data of proposed sites. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Bottom fish assemblages at the shelf and continental slope off East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Hvingel, Carsten; Møller, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    During 2006 and 2008 two bottom trawl surveys were conducted at East Greenland to 72°N covering depths down to 1500 m. In the 149 trawl hauls in total 113 fish species were recorded of which 37 were considered pelagic and excluded from the analyses. As a first step the abundance data for the 76...... benthic species were used for analyses of the fish fauna diversity and fish assemblages. Nine assemblages were found by a standard type of cluster analysis. A Bayesian multinomial logit model was then applied to calculate vectors of probabilities defining the likelihood of each haul belonging to each...... distribution, species composition, temperature and depth. Three of the assemblages were located in the cold Iceland Sea while six were found in the somewhat warmer Irminger Sea...

  16. Effect of copper on multiple successional stages of a marine fouling assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, David J; Hochuli, Dieter F; Doblin, Martina A; Murphy, Richard J; Blackburn, Robert J; Coleman, Ross A

    2017-11-01

    Copper based paints are used to prevent fouling on the hulls of ships. The widely documented effect of copper on hull assemblages may be primarily due to direct effects on the invertebrates themselves or indirect effects from copper absorbed into the microbial biofilm before settlement has commenced. Artificial units of habitat were exposed to varied regimes of copper to examine (1) the photosynthetic efficiency and pigments of early-colonising biofilms, and (2) subsequent macroinvertebrate assemblage change in response to the different regimes of copper. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were found to be less sensitive to the direct effects of copper than indirect effects as delivered through biofilms that have been historically exposed to copper, with some species more tolerant than others. This raises further concern for the efficacy of copper as a universal antifoulant on the hulls of ships, which may continue to assist the invasion of copper-tolerant invertebrate species.

  17. Soil metal concentrations and vegetative assemblage structure in an urban brownfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Frank J.; Pechmann, Ildiko; Bogden, John D.; Grabosky, Jason; Weis, Peddrick

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic sources of toxic elements have had serious ecological and human health impacts. Analysis of the soil samples from a brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, NJ, USA, showed that arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium exist at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Accumulation and translocation features were characterized for the dominant plant species of four vegetative assemblages. The trees Betula populifolia and Populus deltoides were found to be accumulating Zn in leaf tissue at extremely high levels. B. populifolia, P. deltoides and Rhus copallinum accumulated Cr primarily in the root tissue. A comparison of soil metal maps and vegetative assemblage maps indicates that areas of increasing total soil metal load were dominated by successional northern hardwoods while semi-emergent marshes consisting mostly of endemic species were restricted primarily to areas of low soil metal load. - The study yields insight into the impact of metal contaminates soils on vegetative assemblage structure and development

  18. How does the Taquari River influence in the cladoceran assemblages in three oxbow lakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA. Panarelli

    Full Text Available This study examined the cladoceran assemblages in three oxbow lakes of the Taquari River floodplain, near the transition between the plateau and the plain. We sought to answer the following questions: does the Taquari River function as a geographical barrier or dispersal corridor for Cladocera? Can different degrees of connection induce different structures in the assemblages in each lake? Cladocerans and limnological variables were sampled every other month for one year. Forty-one species were recorded, four of which were common to all the lakes. Our results indicated that the different degrees of connection between the river and the oxbow lakes favoured environmental heterogeneity and diversification in the cladoceran assemblages. The greatest dissimilarity between the two lakes connected with the river indicates that in this case the river functions better as a barrier than a dispersal corridor.

  19. Intra-Diegetic Cameras as Cinematic Actor Assemblages in Found Footage Horror Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødje, Kjetil

    2017-01-01

    that comprises what is commonly known as human actors as well as material entities that play an active part in motion picture images. The use of intra-diegetic cameras in contemporary found footage horror films constitutes a particular case of such cinematic actor assemblages. Through a dynamic relational...... performance, cameras here take on roles as active agents with the potential to affect other elements within the images as well as the films’ audiences. In found footage horror the assemblage mode of operation creates suspense, since the vulnerability of the camera threatens the viewer's access to the depicted...... events. While human characters and individual entities making up the camera assemblage are disposable, the recording is not. Found footage horror crucially hinges upon the survival of the footage. I will further suggest that these films allow filmmakers to experiment with the acting capabilities of intra...

  20. Rudist and foraminifer assemblages in the Santonian-Campanian sequence of Nanos Mountain (Western Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Caffau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Santonian-Campanian limestones of Nanos Mountain are mainly characterized by wackestone-packstone with benthic foraminifers, thaumatoporellaceans and rudists. Rudists in growth position are rare and rudist congregations are found only in bouquets with less than ten individuals. Rudist shells are chaotically deposited in beds and frequently show signs of bioturbation and erosion. The analyzed sequence from Nanos Mountain testifies an inner shelf environment in a ramp-like depositional setting. In the lower part of the sequence, rudist assemblages are characterized by abundant hippuritids and radiolitids whereas benthic foraminifers are rare and poorly preserved. In the upper part of the sequence, rudist assemblages consist of abundant radiolitids and rare hippuritids. Benthic foraminifers are usually well-preserved and the presence of the Keramosphaerina tergestina (Stache is recorded. The vertical distribution of rudist and foraminifer assemblages with the presence of K. tergestina reflect sea level changes in an inner shelf environment during Santonian-Campanian.

  1. Climate change effects on North American inland fish populations and assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Myers, Bonnie; Chu, Cindy; Eby, Lisa A.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Krabbenhoft, Trevor J.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Lyons, John; Paukert, Craig P.; Whitney, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Climate is a critical driver of many fish populations, assemblages, and aquatic communities. However, direct observational studies of climate change impacts on North American inland fishes are rare. In this synthesis, we (1) summarize climate trends that may influence North American inland fish populations and assemblages, (2) compile 31 peer-reviewed studies of documented climate change effects on North American inland fish populations and assemblages, and (3) highlight four case studies representing a variety of observed responses ranging from warmwater systems in the southwestern and southeastern United States to coldwater systems along the Pacific Coast and Canadian Shield. We conclude by identifying key data gaps and research needs to inform adaptive, ecosystem-based approaches to managing North American inland fishes and fisheries in a changing climate.

  2. Time-averaged molluscan death assemblages: Palimpsests of richness, snapshots of abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Susan M.

    2002-09-01

    Field tests that compare living communities to associated dead remains are the primary means of estimating the reliability of biological information in the fossil record; such tests also provide insights into the dynamics of skeletal accumulation. Contrary to expectations, molluscan death assemblages capture a strong signal of living species' rank-order abundances. This finding, combined with independent evidence for exponential postmortem destruction of dead cohorts, argues that, although the species richness of a death assemblage may be a time-averaged palimpsest of the habitat (molluscan death assemblages contain, on average, ˜25% more species than any single census of the local live community, after sample-size standardization), species' relative-abundance data from the same assemblage probably constitute a much higher acuity record dominated by the most recent dead cohorts (e.g., from the past few hundred years or so, rather than the several thousand years recorded by the total assemblage and usually taken as the acuity of species-richness information). The pervasive excess species richness of molluscan death assemblages requires further analysis and modeling to discriminate among possible sources. However, time averaging alone cannot be responsible unless rare species (species with low rates of dead-shell production) are collectively more durable (have longer taphonomic half-lives) than abundant species. Species richness and abundance data thus appear to present fundamentally different taphonomic qualities for paleobiological analysis. Relative- abundance information is more snapshot-like and thus taphonomically more straightforward than expected, especially compared to the complex origins of dead-species richness.

  3. Coastal fish assemblages reflect geological and oceanographic gradients within an Australian zootone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan S Harvey

    Full Text Available Distributions of mobile animals have been shown to be heavily influenced by habitat and climate. We address the historical and contemporary context of fish habitats within a major zootone: the Recherche Archipelago, southern western Australia. Baited remote underwater video systems were set in nine habitat types within three regions to determine the species diversity and relative abundance of bony fishes, sharks and rays. Constrained ordinations and multivariate prediction and regression trees were used to examine the effects of gradients in longitude, depth, distance from islands and coast, and epibenthic habitat on fish assemblage composition. A total of 90 species from 43 families were recorded from a wide range of functional groups. Ordination accounted for 19% of the variation in the assemblage composition when constrained by spatial and epibenthic covariates, and identified redundancy in the use of distance from the nearest emergent island as a predictor. A spatial hierarchy of fourteen fish assemblages was identified using multivariate prediction and regression trees, with the primary split between assemblages on macroalgal reefs, and those on bare or sandy habitats supporting seagrass beds. The characterisation of indicator species for assemblages within the hierarchy revealed important faunal break in fish assemblages at 122.30 East at Cape Le Grand and subtle niche partitioning amongst species within the labrids and monacanthids. For example, some species of monacanthids were habitat specialists and predominantly found on seagrass (Acanthaluteres vittiger, Scobinichthys granulatus, reef (Meuschenia galii, Meuschenia hippocrepis or sand habitats (Nelusetta ayraudi. Predatory fish that consume molluscs, crustaceans and cephalopods were dominant with evidence of habitat generalisation in reef species to cope with local disturbances by wave action. Niche separation within major genera, and a sub-regional faunal break, indicate future

  4. Diversity of non-biting midge larvae assemblages in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Márcia Regina; Secretti, Elisangela

    2012-01-01

    The richness and composition of a mountain-river chironomid larvae assemblage in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil were studied, and compared with other riverine non-biting midge larvae assemblages previously studied in the country. Additionally, the influence of some regional-scale environmental characteristics on the spatial distribution of these assemblages was tested. The specimens were collected at 12 sites in the middle course of the Jacuí River basin (in the state of Rio Grande do Sul) between April 2000 and May 2002. Around 100 taxa were recorded. The dominant taxa belonged to the genera Rheotanytarsus, Cricotopus, Polypedilum, and Pseudochironomus. Twenty-two rare taxa were found, representing 22% of the total of taxa inventoried. Fourteen genera (Aedokritus, Axarus, Endotribelos, Kiefferulus, Manoa, Oukuriella, Phaenopsectra, Stenochironomus, Xenochironomus, Xestochironomus, Cardiocladius, Metriocnemus, Paracladius, and Rheocricotopus) represent new occurrences in Rio Grande do Sul. The similarity analysis of the chironomid larvae assemblages inventoried in 32 regions of Brazil indicated five groups with similarity higher than 50%. The groups, when the effects of spatial autocorrelation were removed, displayed a weak positive correlation between the assemblage composition and the aquatic system or hydraulic conditions and the hydrographic basin, and a weak negative correlation in relation to the biome. The altitude showed no correlation with the composition of the assemblage. The relatively high richness of the region surveyed in relation to other Brazilian regions corroborates some tendencies already noted in other parts of the world, such as: i) lotic systems may constitute an exception to the rule that diversity is greater in tropical regions, ii) regions of transitional relief may contain the greatest richness of Chironomidae, and iii) in rivers, the group might have its spatial distribution influenced to a greater extent by local environmental

  5. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  6. Origin of an Assemblage Massively Dominated by Carnivorans from the Miocene of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, M. Soledad; Alberdi, M. Teresa; Azanza, Beatriz; Silva, Pablo G.; Morales, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Carnivoran-dominated fossil sites provide precious insights into the diversity and ecology of species rarely recovered in the fossil record. The lower level assemblage of Batallones-1 fossil site (Late Miocene; Madrid Basin, Spain) has yielded one of the most abundant and diversified carnivoran assemblage ever known from the Cenozoic record of mammals. A comprehensive taphonomic study is carried out here in order to constrain the concentration mode of this remarkable assemblage. Another distinctive feature of Batallones-1 is that the accumulation of carnivoran remains took place in the context of a geomorphological landform (cavity formation through a piping process) practically unknown in the generation of fossil sites. Two characteristics of the assemblage highly restrict the probable causes for the accumulation of the remains: (1) the overwhelming number of carnivorans individuals; and (2) the mortality profiles estimated for the four most abundant taxa do not correspond to the classic mortality types but rather were the consequence of the behavior of the taxa. This evidence together with other taphonomic data supports the hypothesis that carnivoran individuals actively entered the cavity searching for resources (food or water) and were unable to exit. The scarcity of herbivores implies that the shaft was well visible and avoided by these taxa. Fossil bones exhibit a very good preservation state as a consequence of their deposition in the restricted and protective environment of the chamber. Batallones-1 had another assemblage (upper level assemblage) that was dominated by herbivore remains and that potentially corresponded to the final stages of the cavity filling. PMID:23650542

  7. Functional redundancy patterns reveal non-random assembly rules in a species-rich marine assemblage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillemot

    Full Text Available The relationship between species and the functional diversity of assemblages is fundamental in ecology because it contains key information on functional redundancy, and functionally redundant ecosystems are thought to be more resilient, resistant and stable. However, this relationship is poorly understood and undocumented for species-rich coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we used underwater visual censuses to examine the patterns of functional redundancy for one of the most diverse vertebrate assemblages, the coral reef fishes of New Caledonia, South Pacific. First, we found that the relationship between functional and species diversity displayed a non-asymptotic power-shaped curve, implying that rare functions and species mainly occur in highly diverse assemblages. Second, we showed that the distribution of species amongst possible functions was significantly different from a random distribution up to a threshold of ∼90 species/transect. Redundancy patterns for each function further revealed that some functions displayed fast rates of increase in redundancy at low species diversity, whereas others were only becoming redundant past a certain threshold. This suggested non-random assembly rules and the existence of some primordial functions that would need to be fulfilled in priority so that coral reef fish assemblages can gain a basic ecological structure. Last, we found little effect of habitat on the shape of the functional-species diversity relationship and on the redundancy of functions, although habitat is known to largely determine assemblage characteristics such as species composition, biomass, and abundance. Our study shows that low functional redundancy is characteristic of this highly diverse fish assemblage, and, therefore, that even species-rich ecosystems such as coral reefs may be vulnerable to the removal of a few keystone species.

  8. Self-assemblage and post-radiation recovery of cell supramolecular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinskij, D.M.; Kolomiets, K.D.

    1979-01-01

    The role of the molecular equation and self-assemblage in post-radiation chromatin recovery of meristematic cells of pea rootlets is shown. Found are the two repair types at the chromatin level by fractionating of the radiation dose. The first type comprises transient processes including DNA repair, the second type comprises processes including biosynthesis of the chromatin components and proteins, in the first place. The role of protein biosynthesis in the process of recovery of the chromatin supramolecular structure is shown. The improved radiostability of chromatin self-assemblage is characteristic for the level of its subunits. The supramolecular chromatin structure of the other levels has less radiostability

  9. Mean latitudinal range sizes of bird assemblages in six Neotropical forest chronosequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Robert R.; Romdal, Tom Skovlund

    2005-01-01

    Aim The geographical range size frequency distributions of animal and plant assemblages are among the most important factors affecting large-scale patterns of diversity. Nonetheless, the relationship between habitat type and the range size distributions of species forming assemblages remains poorly...... towards more small ranged species occurs. Even relatively old secondary forests have bird species with larger average ranges than mature forests. As a consequence, conservation of secondary forests alone will miss many of the species most at risk of extinction and most unlikely to be conserved in other...

  10. Bacterial assemblages of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveal both vertical and latitudinal biogeographic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, C. J.; Franklin, R. B.; McCallister, S. L.; Rivera, M. C.

    2012-06-01

    Microbial communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of bacterial assemblages in three different water layer habitats: surface (2-20 m), deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28-90 m), and deep (100-4600 m) at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. The sampling of three discrete, predefined habitat types from different depths, Longhurstian provinces, and geographical locations allowed us to investigate whether marine bacterial assemblages show spatial variation and to determine if the observed spatial variation is influenced by current environmental conditions, historical/geographical contingencies, or both. The PCR amplicons of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA from 16 microbial assemblages were pyrosequenced, generating a total of 352 029 sequences; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized operational taxonomic units (OTU) using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Community ecology statistical analyses demonstrate that the eastern Atlantic Ocean bacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers characterized by unique environmental signals (e.g., temperature, salinity, and nutrients). Genetic compositions of bacterial assemblages from the same water layer are more similar to each other than to assemblages from different water layers. The observed clustering of samples by water layer allows us to conclude that contemporary environments are influencing the observed biogeographic patterns. Moreover, the implementation of a novel Bayesian inference approach that allows a more efficient and explicit use of all the OTU abundance data shows a distance effect suggesting the influence of historical contingencies on the composition of bacterial assemblages. Surface

  11. Bacterial assemblages of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveal both vertical and latitudinal biogeographic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Friedline

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of bacterial assemblages in three different water layer habitats: surface (2–20 m, deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28–90 m, and deep (100–4600 m at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. The sampling of three discrete, predefined habitat types from different depths, Longhurstian provinces, and geographical locations allowed us to investigate whether marine bacterial assemblages show spatial variation and to determine if the observed spatial variation is influenced by current environmental conditions, historical/geographical contingencies, or both. The PCR amplicons of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA from 16 microbial assemblages were pyrosequenced, generating a total of 352 029 sequences; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized operational taxonomic units (OTU using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Community ecology statistical analyses demonstrate that the eastern Atlantic Ocean bacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers characterized by unique environmental signals (e.g., temperature, salinity, and nutrients. Genetic compositions of bacterial assemblages from the same water layer are more similar to each other than to assemblages from different water layers. The observed clustering of samples by water layer allows us to conclude that contemporary environments are influencing the observed biogeographic patterns. Moreover, the implementation of a novel Bayesian inference approach that allows a more efficient and explicit use of all the OTU abundance data shows a distance effect suggesting the influence of historical contingencies on the composition of bacterial

  12. Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Sporadic Giardiasis and Parasite Assemblages in North West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Corrado; Lamden, Kenneth; Durband, Caroline; Cheesbrough, John; Platt, Katherine; Charlett, Andre; O'Brien, Sarah J; Fox, Andrew; Wastling, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a major cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide, and it is diversified into eight genetic assemblages (A to H), which are distinguishable only by molecular typing. There is some evidence that the assemblages infecting humans (assemblages A and B) may have different transmission routes, but systematically acquired data, combining epidemiological and molecular findings, are required. We undertook a case-control study with Giardia genotyping in North West England, to determine general and parasite assemblage-specific risk factors. For people without a history of foreign travel, swimming in swimming pools and changing diapers were the most important risk factors for the disease. People infected with assemblage B reported a greater number of symptoms and higher frequencies of vomiting, abdominal pain, swollen stomach, and loss of appetite, compared with people infected with assemblage A. More importantly, keeping a dog was associated only with assemblage A infections, suggesting the presence of a potential zoonotic reservoir for this assemblage. This is the first case-control study to combine epidemiological data with Giardia genotyping, and it shows the importance of integrating these two levels of information for better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Copyright © 2015, Minetti et al.

  13. Fish assemblage dynamics in a Neotropical floodplain relative to aquatic macrophytes and the homogenizing effect of a flood pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, L.C.; Bulla, C. K.; Agostinho, A. A.; Vasconcelos, L. P.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of aquatic macrophytes is a key factor in the selection of habitats by fish in floodplain lakes because these plants enhance the physical and biological complexities of aquatic habitats. The seasonal flood pulse may influence this interaction, but there is no information in the literature about the effects that flood events may have on macrophytes assemblages and its associated effects on fish assemblages. Thus, this article aimed to investigate whether species richness, evenness and similarities in fish assemblage composition differed between littoral areas vegetated with macrophytes and unvegetated areas, before and after a flood. We sampled three lakes in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River basin. Sampling was conducted before (December 2004 and January 2005) and after (early March, late March and May 2005) a flood event. Overall, species richness and evenness were higher in macrophytes-covered areas. Before the flood, the composition of fish assemblages was distinct when comparing vegetated and unvegetated areas. After the flood, the similarity in fish assemblage composition was higher, indicating a homogenization effect of floods for fish inhabiting littoral areas of floodplain lakes. After the flood, opportunistic species dominated the fish assemblages in aquatic macrophytes, apparently restructuring assemblages in the littoral, restarting a succession process. Thus, the observed homogenization effect of the flood could minimize biological interactions and could induce fish assemblages to begin a new process of structurization.

  14. Characteristics of microfossils assemblages of core SB-01 from Sanshui basin and discussion of paleocene-eocene boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Xie Yecai; Wang Zhengqing; Ma Chuang

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of microfossils assemblages of core SB-01 from Sanshui Basin have been analysised in this paper. Based on micropaleontological study and data from carbon and oxygen isotopes of bulk carbonates, which depth of Paleocene-Eocene boundary from the core was discussed. Ostracode assemblages include the Sinocypris nitela-Cyprois buxinensis-Limnocythere honggangensis assemblage(89.0-73.38 m) with few species and low abundance and the Sinocypris nitela-Cyprois buxinensis-Limnocythere honggangensis assemblage (73.38-0 m) with few species and low abundance during early and middle the core deposition and relatively many species and abundance increasing quickly of the late time of the core deposition; Charophyte assemblages contain the Peckichara subspherica-Rhabdochara jiangduensis assemblage (89.0-73.38 m) with rich species, high abundance and large sizes of fossils and the Gyrogona qianjiangica-Obtusochara brevicylindrica assemblage (73.38-53.75 m) with few species,low abundance and small sizes of fossils. At 73.38 m core depth, the great changes of microfossils assemblages and carbon isotopes values (decrease by more than 3.0 per thousand) and oxygen isotopes values of bulk carbonates take place, which consist with the geological records of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Hence, Paleocene-Eocene boundary of SanShui Basin should be roughly placed at 73.38 m core depth. (authors)

  15. Impacts of fishing and environmental factors driving changes on littoral fish assemblages in a subtropical oceanic island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Martín-García, Laura; Hernández, José Carlos; Concepción, Laura; Fernández, Raúl; Clemente, Sabrina

    2013-08-01

    The structure of demersal fish assemblages of commercial interest was studied at 51 sites on La Palma Island (Canary Islands, northeastern Atlantic). On this island, demersal fish populations are limited and independent from other islands. As deep water separates the islands and the shallow sublittoral platforms are not continuous, adult inter-island migrations are not possible except between the islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Otherwise, each island functions as a closed system, and the status of an island fish assemblage depends on local environmental conditions and activities performed in situ by the islanders. These circumstances provide a unique opportunity to test the intrainsular variability of fish assemblages. With this background, environmental parameters, fishing pressure and distance to the MPA were considered to identify the main factors explaining the spatial variation of fish assemblages off La Palma Island. Twenty-six fish species were recorded, but 60% of the total fish biomass was represented by only five species (Sparisoma cretense, Pomadasys incisus, Canthidermis sufflamen, Diplodus cervinus cervinus and Bodianus scrofa). However, the structure of assemblages was heterogeneous in response to different variables and showed substantial spatial variation. The assemblages were strongly modified by the presence of upright seaweed cover, fishing activities, and certain environmental variables. Differences were more pronounced in species that occupied the higher trophic levels. The most disturbed assemblages were those located in areas with lower upright seaweed cover and with higher fishing pressure, whereas the best-preserved assemblages corresponded to sites with controlled fishing activities, located within the MPA.

  16. Sensitivity of metrics of phylogenetic structure to scale, source of data and species pool of hummingbird assemblages along elevational gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián González-Caro

    Full Text Available Patterns of phylogenetic structure of assemblages are increasingly used to gain insight into the ecological and evolutionary processes involved in the assembly of co-occurring species. Metrics of phylogenetic structure can be sensitive to scaling issues and data availability. Here we empirically assess the sensitivity of four metrics of phylogenetic structure of assemblages to changes in (i the source of data, (ii the spatial grain at which assemblages are defined, and (iii the definition of species pools using hummingbird (Trochilidae assemblages along an elevational gradient in Colombia. We also discuss some of the implications in terms of the potential mechanisms driving these patterns. To explore how source of data influence phylogenetic structure we defined assemblages using three sources of data: field inventories, museum specimens, and range maps. Assemblages were defined at two spatial grains: coarse-grained (elevational bands of 800-m width and fine-grained (1-km(2 plots. We used three different species pools: all species contained in assemblages, all species within half-degree quadrats, and all species either above or below 2000 m elevation. Metrics considering phylogenetic relationships among all species within assemblages showed phylogenetic clustering at high elevations and phylogenetic evenness in the lowlands, whereas those metrics considering only the closest co-occurring relatives showed the opposite trend. This result suggests that using multiple metrics of phylogenetic structure should provide greater insight into the mechanisms shaping assemblage structure. The source and spatial grain of data had important influences on estimates of both richness and phylogenetic structure. Metrics considering the co-occurrence of close relatives were particularly sensitive to changes in the spatial grain. Assemblages based on range maps included more species and showed less phylogenetic structure than assemblages based on museum or field

  17. Microbial assemblages in soil microbial succession after glacial retreat in Svalbard (High Arctic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštovská, Klára; Elster, Josef; Stibal, Marek; Šantrůčková, H.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2005), s. 396-407 ISSN 0095-3628 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : microbial assemblages * deglaciated soil * Svalbard Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2005

  18. The Role of Regional Factors in Structuring Ouachita Mountain Stream Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance R. Williams; Christopher M. Taylor; Melvin L. Warren; J. Alan Clingenpeel

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - We used Basin Area Stream Survey data from the USDA Forest Service, Ouachita National Forest to evaluate the relationship between regional fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental variability (both natural and anthropogenic). Data were collected for three years (1990-1992) from six hydrologically variable stream systems in...

  19. Distribution patterns of fish assemblages in an Eastern Mediterranean intermittent river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardakas L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution patterns of fish assemblages within streams can provide insights for river type classifications and may warrant specific conservation actions. However, there is limited knowledge of how fish assemblages assort along a longitudinal axis in Mediterranean intermittent streams. Patterns in spatial and temporal distribution of fish communities were analysed in a Mediterranean intermittent river (Evrotas River located in Southern Greece, hosting three endemic range restricted species of high conservation concern, during the period 2007−2009, with 80% of the river’s total length desiccating in the 2007 and 2008 droughts. The general trend was an increase in fish density and species richness along an upstream-downstream gradient. Fish assemblages from upstream to downstream were characterized by a decrease of the most rheophilic species (Squalius keadicus and an increase of the most stagnophilic species (Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus. Three river segments, characterized by a high degree of homogeneity were delineated. Habitat and environmental preferences for the studied fish species were identified, with elevation and low flowing habitats being the most important environmental factors affecting fish distribution patterns. The current study provides evidence that even in an intermittent river an assemblage pattern following a longitudinal gradient can be identified, mainly due to the lack of instream barriers that allows recolonization after flow resumption.

  20. Airborne bacterial assemblage in a zero carbon building: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, M H Y; Tong, X; Tong, J C K; Lee, P K H

    2018-01-01

    Currently, there is little information pertaining to the airborne bacterial communities of green buildings. In this case study, the air bacterial community of a zero carbon building (ZCB) in Hong Kong was characterized by targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Bacteria associated with the outdoor environment dominated the indoor airborne bacterial assemblage, with a modest contribution from bacteria associated with human skin. Differences in overall community diversity, membership, and composition associated with short (day-to-day) and long-term temporal properties were detected, which may have been driven by specific environmental genera and taxa. Furthermore, time-decay relationships in community membership (based on unweighted UniFrac distances) and composition (based on weighted UniFrac distances) differed depending on the season and sampling location. A Bayesian source-tracking approach further supported the importance of adjacent outdoor air bacterial assemblage in sourcing the ZCB indoor bioaerosol. Despite the unique building attributes, the ZCB microbial assemblage detected and its temporal characteristics were not dissimilar to that of conventional built environments investigated previously. Future controlled experiments and microbial assemblage investigations of other ZCBs will undoubtedly uncover additional knowledge related to how airborne bacteria in green buildings may be influenced by their distinctive architectural attributes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Seasonal changes in caddis larvae assemblages in river-floodplain habitats along a hydrological connectivity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink, F.W.B.; Van der Velde, G.; Wijnhoven, S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of seasonality versus connectivity on the ecological quality of the Lower Rhine river-floodplain habitats, we studied the seasonal variation in diversity and species assemblages of caddis larvae by monthly sampling of the littoral zone of four water bodies over a

  2. Assessing the Cyborg Center: Assemblage-Based, Feminist Frameworks toward Socially Just Writing Center Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Erin M.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation will broaden the purview of recent scholarship pertaining to socially just writing assessments by making connections among assemblage theory and materialism, studies of ecological and anti-racist assessments, and studies of writing center work, to ground theoretical conversations in everyday practices. Focusing on systemic…

  3. Diel variation in the structure of fish assemblages in south western Amazon streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim We investigate the influence of luminosity, habitat conservation and pluviometric periods in fish assemblages of in pasture and forest small streams in western amazon. Methods Sampling was conducted every two months from July 2013 to April 2014 in nine first- and second-order streams using seine nets and dip nets during the day and night. Fish composition, richness and total abundance were determined for each sampling period. The PERMANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of land use, season, and photoperiod, on fish assemblages. Fish assemblage structure for each stream in the presence and absence of photoperiod was ordered by NMDS analysis. Results In the light period, 3,484 specimens from 69 species were collected, while 4,574 specimens from 71 species where collected in the dark period. No significant differences in abundance and species richness were recorded between the presence and absence of luminosity periods, rainy and dry seasons and streams in forest and deforested areas. We found evidence of the dark phase composition and richness of exclusive species (22% of species collected were found at night, which were greater than in the light period (20% of species. Conclusion Despite our failure to identify any nycterohemeral segregation, the results complement existing knowledge of regional ichthyofauna and help provide a better understanding of the distributional, behavioral and functional ecological patterns of fish assemblages.

  4. Effect of oil palm on the Plecoptera and Trichoptera (Insecta) assemblages in streams of eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Carina Kaory Sasahara; de Faria, Ana Paula Justino; Calvão, Lenize Batista; Juen, Leandro

    2017-08-01

    The production of oil palm is expected to increase in the Amazon region. However, expansion of oil palm plantation leads to significant changes in the physical structure of aquatic ecosystems, mainly through the reduction of riparian vegetation that is essential for aquatic biodiversity. Here, we evaluated the effects of oil palm on the physical habitat structure of Amazonian stream environments and assemblages of Plecoptera and Trichoptera (PT), ​both found in these streams. We compared streams sampled in oil palm plantations (n = 13) with natural forest areas ("reference" streams, n = 8), located in the eastern Amazon, Brazil. Our results showed that oil palm streams were more likely to be in close proximity to roads, had higher pH values, and higher amounts of fine substrate deposited in the channel than reference streams. Further, these environmental changes had important effects on the aquatic invertebrate assemblages, reducing the abundance and richness of PT. Nevertheless, the genera composition of the assemblages did not differ between reference and oil palm (PERMANOVA, pseudo-F (1,19)  = 1.891; p = 0.111). We conclude that oil palm production has clear negative impacts on aquatic environments and PT assemblages in Amazonian streams. We recommend that oil palm producers invest more in planning of road networks to avoid the construction of roads near to the riparian vegetation. This planning can minimize impacts of oil palm production on aquatic systems in the Amazon.

  5. Mineral assemblages and their distribution patterns in the sediments of the Gulf of Bohai Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L; Luan, Z; Zheng, T; Xu, W; Dong, T

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the mineral assemblages and their distribution patterns in the sediments of the Gulf of Bohai Sea. The 212 bottom-surface sediment samples were collected from the Gulf of Bohai Sea and its tributaries.

  6. Influence of the Nazaré Canyon, central Portuguese margin, on late winter coccolithophore assemblages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro, C.; Sá, C.; de Stigter, H.; Oliveira, A.; Cachão, M.; Cros, L.; Borges, C.; Quaresma, L.; Santos, A.I.; Fortuño, J.-M.; Rodrigez, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a first attempt to characterize coccolithophore assemblages occurring in the context of an active submarine canyon. Coccolithophores from the upper-middle sections of the Nazaré Canyon (central Portuguese margin) – one of the largest canyons of the European continental margin –

  7. Effects of forest conversion on the assemblages' structure of aquatic insects in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago R.N. Bertaso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of forest conversion to agricultural land uses on assemblages of aquatic insects were analyzed in subtropical streams. Organisms and environmental variables were collected in six low-order streams: three streams located in a forested area, and three in areas converted to agricultural land uses. We expected that the aquatic insects' assemblage attributes would be significantly affected by forest conversion, as well as by environmental variables. Streams in converted areas presented lower species richness, abundance and proportion of sensitive insect taxa. The ANOSIM test evidenced strong difference in EPT assemblage structure between streams of forested and converted areas. The ISA test evidenced several EPT genera with high specificity to streams in forested areas and only one genus related to streams in converted areas. Thus, the impacts of the conversion of forested area to agricultural land uses have significantly affected the EPT assemblages, while environmental variables were not affected. We suggest that the effects detected can be influenced by two processes related to vegetation cover: i lower input of allochthonous material, and ii increased input of fine sediments in streams draining converted areas.

  8. Comparing demersal fish assemblage between periods of contrasting climate and fishing pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    Fish communities are dynamic and their structure is known to change over time. Traditionally, these changes were considered to be fisheries-induced, but recent analyses also suggest that global warming could affect the distribution, abundance, and assemblage composition of marine fish. However,

  9. Seasonal dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in the southeastern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Jr. Miller; Jonathan L. Horton

    2008-01-01

    The potential for seasonal dynamics in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal assemblages has important implications for the ecology of both the host trees and the fungal associates. We compared EM fungus distributions on root systems of out-planted oak seedlings at two sites in mixed southeastern Appalachian Mountain forests at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina...

  10. The scales of variability of stream fish assemblage at tributary confluences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Czeglédi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tributary confluences play an important role in the dispersal of organisms, and consequently, in shaping regional scale diversity in stream networks. Despite their importance in dispersal processes, little is known about how ecological assemblages are organized in these habitats. We studied the scales of variability of stream fish assemblages over three seasons using a hierarchical sampling design, which incorporated three tributaries, three sites at the mouth of each tributary and using four sampling units at each site. We found strong scale dependent variability in species richness, composition and relative abundance. Most of the variation was accounted for by the interactive effect of season, between stream and between site effects, while habitat structure of the sampling units had a relatively minor role. Species richness showed a continuous decrease from the mainstem river in most cases, while species composition and relative abundance changed less consistently along the longitudinal profile. Consequently, we found that not only the junctions presented a strong filter on the species pool, but some species were filtered out if they passed this critical habitat bottleneck. Spatial position of the tributaries along the river also contributed to assemblage variability in the confluences. Overall, our results suggest high variability in fish assemblages across multiple scales at tributary confluences. Environmental management should take a more critical care on the filtering role of tributary confluences in species dispersal, for better understanding patterns and processes in the branches of dendritic stream networks.

  11. High phylogenetic diversity is preserved in species-poor high-elevation temperate moth assemblages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Hausmann, Axel; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diversity and composition of species assemblages and identifying underlying biotic and abiotic determinants represent great ecological challenges. Addressing some of these issues, we investigated the α-diversity and phylogenetic composition of species-rich geometrid moth

  12. Decapod crustacean assemblages off the West coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fanelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Community structure and faunal composition of decapod crustaceans off the west coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean were investigated. Samples were collected during five trawl surveys carried out from June 1996 to June 2000 from 16 to 750 m depth. Multivariate analysis revealed the occurrence of five faunistic assemblages: 1 a strictly coastal community over sandy bottoms at depths

  13. A multi-scaled approach to evaluating the fish assemblage structure within southern Appalachian streams USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Joseph; Peterson, James T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty about the relative roles of stream habitat and landscape characteristics in structuring stream-fish assemblages. We evaluated the relative importance of environmental characteristics on fish occupancy at the local and landscape scales within the upper Little Tennessee River basin of Georgia and North Carolina. Fishes were sampled using a quadrat sample design at 525 channel units within 48 study reaches during two consecutive years. We evaluated species–habitat relationships (local and landscape factors) by developing hierarchical, multispecies occupancy models. Modeling results suggested that fish occupancy within the Little Tennessee River basin was primarily influenced by stream topology and topography, urban land coverage, and channel unit types. Landscape scale factors (e.g., urban land coverage and elevation) largely controlled the fish assemblage structure at a stream-reach level, and local-scale factors (i.e., channel unit types) influenced fish distribution within stream reaches. Our study demonstrates the utility of a multi-scaled approach and the need to account for hierarchy and the interscale interactions of factors influencing assemblage structure prior to monitoring fish assemblages, developing biological management plans, or allocating management resources throughout a stream system.

  14. Acoustic and temporal partitioning of cicada assemblages in city and mountain environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Sen Shieh

    Full Text Available Comparing adaptations to noisy city environments with those to natural mountain environments on the community level can provide significant insights that allow an understanding of the impact of anthropogenic noise on invertebrates that employ loud calling songs for mate attraction, especially when each species has its distinct song, as in the case of cicadas. In this study, we investigated the partitioning strategy of cicada assemblages in city and mountain environments by comparing the acoustic features and calling activity patterns of each species, recorded using automated digital recording systems. Our comparison of activity patterns of seasonal and diel calling revealed that there was no significant temporal partitioning of cicada assemblages in either environment. In addition, there was no correlation between the acoustic distance based on spectral features and temporal segregation. Heterospecific spectral overlap was low in both city and mountain environments, although city and mountain cicada assemblages were subject to significantly different levels of anthropogenic or interspecific noise. Furthermore, for the common species found in both environments, the calling activity patterns at both seasonal and diel time scales were significantly consistent across sites and across environments. We suggest that the temporal calling activity is constrained by endogenous factors for each species and is less flexible in response to external factors, such as anthropogenic noise. As a result, cicada assemblages in city environments with low species diversity do not demonstrate a more significant temporal partitioning than those in mountain environments with high species diversity.

  15. Abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two Mediterranean echinoids off the

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    Elzahrae Elmasry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the variability in abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two echinoid species, the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816 and black urchin Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus, 1758 in the Southeastern Mediterranean (SEM along the coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Four seasonal trips were made during the years 2014–2015 covering 55 km of the shore with depths ranging between 3 and 9 m. The sea urchin species composition, density and size structure and distribution were compared. The associated macrobenthic invertebrates with prominent presence and biomass were observed as well as other benthic fauna and flora associations. The present results showed that P. lividus was the dominant echinoid spatially and temporally. A. lixula showed frequent occurrence in Sidi Bishr and Sidi Gaber stations in the spring season. The most dominant size class was the medium to large-sized classes for P. lividus and large-sized classes for A. lixula. The commercial size for the edible P. lividus represented 33% of the sampled population. Furthermore, the most dominant macrobenthic assemblages beside the echinoid population were primarily oysters, sea cucumbers, and mussels. Beside these, assemblage of seaweeds (red, green, brown and crustose algae, Porifera, Cnidaria, Crustacea, other Echinodermata, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Tunicata, Bryozoa and Annelida were found. The present study shows that the investigated area represents stable habitats for the echinoid population with rich and diversified algal assemblages as well as other potential food resources.

  16. Impacts of exotic mangroves and mangrove control on tide pool fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. MacKenzie; Cailtin L. Kryss

    2013-01-01

    Fish were sampled from tide pools in Hawaii to determine how exotic mangroves Rhizophora mangle and the use of herbicides to chemically eradicate them are impacting tide pool fish assemblages. Ecological parameters were compared among mangrove-invaded, native vegetated, and non-vegetated tide pools before and after mangroves had been chemically...

  17. Differential response of fish assemblages to coral reef-based seaweed farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E James Hehre

    Full Text Available As the global demand for seaweed-derived products drives the expansion of seaweed farming onto shallow coral ecosystems, the effects of farms on fish assemblages remain largely unexplored. Shallow coral reefs provide food and shelter for highly diverse fish assemblages but are increasingly modified by anthropogenic activities. We hypothesized that the introduction of seaweed farms into degraded shallow coral reefs had potential to generate ecological benefits for fish by adding structural complexity and a possible food source. We conducted 210 transects at 14 locations, with sampling stratified across seaweed farms and sites adjacent to and distant from farms. At a seascape scale, locations were classified by their level of exposure to human disturbance. We compared sites where (1 marine protected areas (MPAs were established, (2 neither MPAs nor blast fishing was present (hence "unprotected", and (3 blast fishing occurred. We observed 80,186 fish representing 148 species from 38 families. The negative effects of seaweed farms on fish assemblages appeared stronger in the absence of blast fishing and were strongest when MPAs were present, likely reflecting the positive influence of the MPAs on fish within them. Species differentiating fish assemblages with respect to seaweed farming and disturbance were typically small but also included two key target species. The propensity for seaweed farms to increase fish diversity, abundance, and biomass is limited and may reduce MPA benefits. We suggest that careful consideration be given to the placement of seaweed farms relative to MPAs.

  18. Differential response of fish assemblages to coral reef-based seaweed farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehre, E James; Meeuwig, J J

    2015-01-01

    As the global demand for seaweed-derived products drives the expansion of seaweed farming onto shallow coral ecosystems, the effects of farms on fish assemblages remain largely unexplored. Shallow coral reefs provide food and shelter for highly diverse fish assemblages but are increasingly modified by anthropogenic activities. We hypothesized that the introduction of seaweed farms into degraded shallow coral reefs had potential to generate ecological benefits for fish by adding structural complexity and a possible food source. We conducted 210 transects at 14 locations, with sampling stratified across seaweed farms and sites adjacent to and distant from farms. At a seascape scale, locations were classified by their level of exposure to human disturbance. We compared sites where (1) marine protected areas (MPAs) were established, (2) neither MPAs nor blast fishing was present (hence "unprotected"), and (3) blast fishing occurred. We observed 80,186 fish representing 148 species from 38 families. The negative effects of seaweed farms on fish assemblages appeared stronger in the absence of blast fishing and were strongest when MPAs were present, likely reflecting the positive influence of the MPAs on fish within them. Species differentiating fish assemblages with respect to seaweed farming and disturbance were typically small but also included two key target species. The propensity for seaweed farms to increase fish diversity, abundance, and biomass is limited and may reduce MPA benefits. We suggest that careful consideration be given to the placement of seaweed farms relative to MPAs.

  19. Comparison of termite assemblages along a landuse gradient on peat areas in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen, T.; Verwer, C.; Demies, M.; Kaliang, H.; Meer, van der P.J.

    2011-01-01

    VAESSEN T, VERWER C, DEMIES M, KALIANG H & VAN DER MEER PJ. 2011. Comparison of termite assemblages along a landuse gradient on peat areas in Sarawak, Malaysia. In this study we assessed the species density and relative abundance of termites in peat land in Sarawak, Malaysia. Termites were

  20. Flow seasonality and fish assemblage in a tropical river, French Guiana, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leonardo Tejerina-Garro

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to verify the existence of a seasonal pattern of variation in the fish assemblages of a tropical river using taxonomic and functional descriptors. Fish were sampled using gillnets at two sites on the Comté River, a large-sized river 254.8 km long, flowing entirely through rainforest areas of French Guiana. Samplings were conducted every other month from August 1998 to July 2000. Four types of fish assemblage descriptors were used: the species descriptor (number of individual fish of each species in the sample; the family descriptor (number of individual fish of each family in the sample; the trophic descriptor (distribution of the fish biomass in each feeding guild and the specific maximum observed size - MOS (number of individual fish in each of four classes of MOS: 300 mm. Results point out that changes in the fish assemblage are related to water level oscillations. The role of migration seems to be weak and is limited to trophic displacements characteristic of few species. In the low-water season, characterized by weak water level oscillation, fish species and families belonging to piscivorous or aquatic invertivorous guilds were predominant, whereas in the high-water season the environment is submitted to strong variations caused by fast and large water level oscillations, and the fish assemblage was characterized by species or families with an opportunistic omnivorous diet.

  1. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  2. The Roman-Irish Bath: Medical/health history as therapeutic assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan

    2014-04-01

    The invention of a new form of hot-air bath in Blarney, Ireland in 1856, variously known in its lifetime as the Roman-Irish or Turkish Bath, acted as the starting point for a the production of a globalised therapeutic landscape. Tracking the diffusion of the Roman-Irish bath template from its local invention in Ireland to a global reach across the Victorian world and recognizing its place within a wider hydrotherapeutic history, this paper frames that diffusion as a valuable empirical addition to assemblage theory. The specific empirical history of the spread of the Roman-Irish/Turkish bath idea is drawn from primary archival and secondary historical sources. It is then discussed and, drawing from work on assemblage theory, analyzed against three broad themes: mobile networks, socio-material practices and contested emergence. The emergent relational geographies of the Roman-Irish Bath identify important roles for the diffusion and transformation of specific medical settings, identities and functions. These were linked in turn to competing social-healing pathways wherein bodies were technologically and morally managed, to produce a more inhabited form of therapeutic assemblage. In all cases the differential diffusion of the bath idea, it's shifting and fractured material forms and multiple inhabitations and discourses were contested and mobile and spoke to an assemblage approach which has ripe potential for exploration across a range of medical/health geography settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of discarded plastic bags on marine assemblages and ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Blockley, David James; Rocha, Carlos; Thompson, Richard

    2015-05-05

    The accumulation of plastic debris is a global environmental problem due to its durability, persistence, and abundance. Although effects of plastic debris on individual marine organisms, particularly mammals and birds, have been extensively documented (e.g., entanglement and choking), very little is known about effects on assemblages and consequences for ecosystem functioning. In Europe, around 40% of the plastic items produced are utilized as single-use packaging, which rapidly accumulate in waste management facilities and as litter in the environment. A range of biodegradable plastics have been developed with the aspiration of reducing the persistence of litter; however, their impacts on marine assemblages or ecosystem functioning have never been evaluated. A field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of conventional and biodegradable plastic carrier bags as litter on benthic macro- and meio-faunal assemblages and biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, redox condition, organic matter content, and pore-water nutrients) on an intertidal shore near Dublin, Ireland. After 9 weeks, the presence of either type of bag created anoxic conditions within the sediment along with reduced primary productivity and organic matter and significantly lower abundances of infaunal invertebrates. This indicates that both conventional and biodegradable bags can rapidly alter marine assemblages and the ecosystem services they provide.

  4. Toward a Social Ontology for Science Education: Introducing Deleuze and Guattari's Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse; Kayumova, Shakhnoza

    2016-01-01

    This essay's main objective is to develop a theoretical, ontological basis for critical, social justice-oriented science education. Using Deleuze and Guattari's notion of assemblages, rhizomes, and arborescent structures, this article challenges authoritarian institutional practices, as well as the subject of these practices, and offers a way for…

  5. The role of connectivity and hydrodynamic conditions in the configuration of ichthyoplankton assemblages in coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Quispe, Jhoni I.; Umgiesser, Georg; Ghezzo, Michol; De Pascalis, Francesca; Marcos, Concepción

    2014-05-01

    Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons are constituted by species with different gilds and life stories including estuarine residents but also a high percentage of marine stragglers and marine migrants. Previous studies showed that different ichthyoplancton assemblages can be identified inside a lagoon, depending on hydrological conditions, but at the same time a high spatial and temporal variability haven observed. The proposed models to explain lagoon assemblages configuration based on probabilities of colonization from the open sea involves an important stochastic component and introduces some randomness that could lead to that high spatial and temporal variability at short and long-term scales. In this work we analyze the relationship between ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Mar Menor lagoon and the adjacent open sea in the framework of the hydrodynamics of the lagoon and connectivity between sampling stations using hydrodynamic models. The results, show a complex interaction between the different factors that lead to a highly variable system with high accumulated richness and diversity of species, and a large proportion of occasional visitors and stragglers suggesting that the mechanisms of competitive lottery can play an important role in the maintenance of communities of coastal lagoons , where environmental variability occurs in a system with strong differences in colonization rates and connectivity, not only with the open sea, but also between locations within the lagoon.

  6. Temporal variability of fish larvae assemblages: influence of natural and anthropogenic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Reynalte-Tataje

    Full Text Available Natural and induced disturbances greatly influence the temporal distribution of ichthyoplankton abundance. This study assesses and compares the temporal variability of fish larvae assemblages in controlled and free environments to determine the influence of environment variables on the main taxa in these systems. The study was conducted at the Chapecó (without dam impact and Ligeiro (with dam impact river mouths, which are located in the upper Uruguay River. Samples were made between October 2001 and March 2004 during three reproductive periods. The larvae assemblages were composed of small and medium-sized Characiformes and Siluriformes. The variation in the distribution of larvae was mainly temporal (>85%. When the three reproductive periods were compared, it was observed in the second period, characterized by a larger water flow and a lower temperature, that there was a reduction in abundance, a lower number of taxa, an absence of stages in post-flexion and a high dissimilarity in larvae assemblage structure. In general, the environmental variables of water flow and temperature most influenced the distribution of egg and larvae abundance. In the studied area, a smaller temporal variability was observed in the structure of larvae assemblages at the sampling sites in the Chapecó River mouth than in in the Ligeiro River mouth under the influence of dams.

  7. Multi-scale sampling to evaluate assemblage dynamics in an oceanic marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew R; Watson, William; McClatchie, Sam; Weber, Edward D

    2012-01-01

    To resolve the capacity of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) to enhance fish productivity it is first necessary to understand how environmental conditions affect the distribution and abundance of fishes independent of potential reserve effects. Baseline fish production was examined from 2002-2004 through ichthyoplankton sampling in a large (10,878 km(2)) Southern Californian oceanic marine reserve, the Cowcod Conservation Area (CCA) that was established in 2001, and the Southern California Bight as a whole (238,000 km(2) CalCOFI sampling domain). The CCA assemblage changed through time as the importance of oceanic-pelagic species decreased between 2002 (La Niña) and 2003 (El Niño) and then increased in 2004 (El Niño), while oceanic species and rockfishes displayed the opposite pattern. By contrast, the CalCOFI assemblage was relatively stable through time. Depth, temperature, and zooplankton explained more of the variability in assemblage structure at the CalCOFI scale than they did at the CCA scale. CalCOFI sampling revealed that oceanic species impinged upon the CCA between 2002 and 2003 in association with warmer offshore waters, thus explaining the increased influence of these species in the CCA during the El Nino years. Multi-scale, spatially explicit sampling and analysis was necessary to interpret assemblage dynamics in the CCA and likely will be needed to evaluate other focal oceanic marine reserves throughout the world.

  8. Multi-scale sampling to evaluate assemblage dynamics in an oceanic marine reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Thompson

    Full Text Available To resolve the capacity of Marine Protected Areas (MPA to enhance fish productivity it is first necessary to understand how environmental conditions affect the distribution and abundance of fishes independent of potential reserve effects. Baseline fish production was examined from 2002-2004 through ichthyoplankton sampling in a large (10,878 km(2 Southern Californian oceanic marine reserve, the Cowcod Conservation Area (CCA that was established in 2001, and the Southern California Bight as a whole (238,000 km(2 CalCOFI sampling domain. The CCA assemblage changed through time as the importance of oceanic-pelagic species decreased between 2002 (La Niña and 2003 (El Niño and then increased in 2004 (El Niño, while oceanic species and rockfishes displayed the opposite pattern. By contrast, the CalCOFI assemblage was relatively stable through time. Depth, temperature, and zooplankton explained more of the variability in assemblage structure at the CalCOFI scale than they did at the CCA scale. CalCOFI sampling revealed that oceanic species impinged upon the CCA between 2002 and 2003 in association with warmer offshore waters, thus explaining the increased influence of these species in the CCA during the El Nino years. Multi-scale, spatially explicit sampling and analysis was necessary to interpret assemblage dynamics in the CCA and likely will be needed to evaluate other focal oceanic marine reserves throughout the world.

  9. Effects of geomorphology, habitat, and spatial location on fish assemblages in a watershed in Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Jessica L; Williams, Lance R; Witter, Jonathan D; Ward, Andy

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate relationships between in-stream habitat, water chemistry, spatial distribution within a predominantly agricultural Midwestern watershed and geomorphic features and fish assemblage attributes and abundances. Our specific objectives were to: (1) identify and quantify key environmental variables at reach and system wide (watershed) scales; and (2) evaluate the relative influence of those environmental factors in structuring and explaining fish assemblage attributes at reach scales to help prioritize stream monitoring efforts and better incorporate all factors that influence aquatic biology in watershed management programs. The original combined data set consisted of 31 variables measured at 32 sites, which was reduced to 9 variables through correlation and linear regression analysis: stream order, percent wooded riparian zone, drainage area, in-stream cover quality, substrate quality, gradient, cross-sectional area, width of the flood prone area, and average substrate size. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and variance partitioning were used to relate environmental variables to fish species abundance and assemblage attributes. Fish assemblages and abundances were explained best by stream size, gradient, substrate size and quality, and percent wooded riparian zone. Further data are needed to investigate why water chemistry variables had insignificant relationships with IBI scores. Results suggest that more quantifiable variables and consideration of spatial location of a stream reach within a watershed system should be standard data incorporated into stream monitoring programs to identify impairments that, while biologically limiting, are not fully captured or elucidated using current bioassessment methods.

  10. Asian longhorned beetle complicates the relationship between taxonomic diversity and pest vulnerability in street tree assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban foresters routinely emphasise the importance of taxonomic diversity to reduce the vulnerability of tree assemblages to invasive pests, but it is unclear to what extent diversity reduces vulnerability to polyphagous (i.e. generalist) pests. Drawing on field data from seven c...

  11. Agency and Assemblage in Pattern Generalisation: A Materialist Approach to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Francesca; Ferrari, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on the contemporary perspective of inclusive materialism offered by de Freitas and Sinclair to contribute to current discussions on the role of the body in the learning of mathematics. Using the notions of "distributed agency" and "assemblage," we illustrate the way in which three students engage with a…

  12. Influence of matrix type on tree community assemblages along tropical dry forest edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Gallardo-Vásquez, Julio César; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Y; Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel

    2014-05-01

    • Anthropogenic habitat edges have strong negative consequences for the functioning of tropical ecosystems. However, edge effects on tropical dry forest tree communities have been barely documented.• In Chamela, Mexico, we investigated the phylogenetic composition and structure of tree assemblages (≥5 cm dbh) along edges abutting different matrices: (1) disturbed vegetation with cattle, (2) pastures with cattle and, (3) pastures without cattle. Additionally, we sampled preserved forest interiors.• All edge types exhibited similar tree density, basal area and diversity to interior forests, but differed in species composition. A nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination showed that the presence of cattle influenced species composition more strongly than the vegetation structure of the matrix; tree assemblages abutting matrices with cattle had lower scores in the ordination. The phylogenetic composition of tree assemblages followed the same pattern. The principal plant families and genera were associated according to disturbance regimes as follows: pastures and disturbed vegetation (1) with cattle and (2) without cattle, and (3) pastures without cattle and interior forests. All habitats showed random phylogenetic structures, suggesting that tree communities are assembled mainly by stochastic processes. Long-lived species persisting after edge creation could have important implications in the phylogenetic structure of tree assemblages.• Edge creation exerts a stronger influence on TDF vegetation pathways than previously documented, leading to new ecological communities. Phylogenetic analysis may, however, be needed to detect such changes. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  13. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in narrow hedgerows in a Danish agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövei, G. L.; Magura, T.

    2015-01-01

    Sorbus intermedia), and the non-native spruce (Picea spp.). We hypothesised that hedgerows with deciduous trees harbour more diverse ground beetle assemblages than hedges composed of non-native conifer trees. We also investigated which vegetation structure characteristics might influence the ground...

  14. Spatial and temporal dynamics of drosophilid larval assemblages associated to fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Alves da Mata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of organisms and their resources is critical to further understanding population dynamics in space and time. Although drosophilids have been widely used as biological models, their relationship with breeding and feeding sites has received little attention. Here, we investigate drosophilids breeding in fruits in the Brazilian Savanna, in two contrasting vegetation types, throughout 16 months. Specifically, larval assemblages were compared between savannas and forests, as well as between rainy and dry seasons. The relationships between resource availability and drosophilid abundance and richness were also tested. The community (4,022 drosophilids of 23 species and 2,496 fruits of 57 plant taxa varied widely in space and time. Drosophilid assemblages experienced a strong bottleneck during the dry season, decreasing to only 0.5% of the abundance of the rainy season. Additionally, savannas displayed lower richness and higher abundance than the forests, and were dominated by exotic species. Both differences in larval assemblages throughout the year and between savannas and gallery forests are consistent with those previously seen in adults. Although the causes of this dynamic are clearly multifactorial, resource availability (richness and abundance of rotten fruits was a good predictor of the fly assemblage structure.

  15. Assemblage characteristics and diet of fish in the shallow coastal waters of James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Pavel; Roche, Kevin Francis; Sedláček, I.; Všetičková, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 12 (2016), s. 2299-2309 ISSN 0722-4060 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Antarctic Peninsula * Fish assemblage structure * Notothenioidei * Shallow coastal waters * Ice pack * Czech Antarctic Station Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.949, year: 2016

  16. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bonnington

    Full Text Available Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  17. Tropical rain-forest matrix quality affects bat assemblage structure in secondary forest patches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleut, I.; Levy-Tacher, I.; Galindo-Gonzalez, J.; Boer, de W.F.; Ramirez-Marcial, N.

    2012-01-01

    We studied Phyllostomidae bat assemblage structure in patches of secondary forest dominated by the pioneer tree Ochroma pyramidale, largely (.85%) or partially (,35%) surrounded by a matrix of tropical rain forest, to test 3 hypotheses: the highest bat diversity and richness is observed in the

  18. Presence of riparian vegetation increases biotic condition of fish assemblages in two Brazilian reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cop Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The riparian vegetation in lakes and reservoirs is source of course wood structures such as trunks and branches and is used as sheltering, spawning and foraging habitats for fishes. The reduction of these submerged structures can thus, affect the composition and structure of fish assemblages in reservoirs. Aim To evaluate the influence of riparian vegetation on the biotic condition of fish assemblage by adapting the Reservoir Fish Assemblage Index (RFAI to two reservoirs in the Upper Paranapanema river basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Methods The RFAI was adapted from metrics related to the functional characteristics and composition of fish assemblages through a protocol of metric selection and validation, and to its response to the presence of riparian vegetation. Results The final RFAI was composed by nine metrics, been lower in sites without riparian vegetation as consequence of the predominance of larger individuals and the percent of piscivorous and detritivorous fishes. Conclusions These results suggest that increasing shore habitat complexity in reservoirs by maintaining riparian vegetation increases fish biotic integrity.

  19. Giardia in a selected population of dogs and cats in Germany - diagnostics, coinfections and assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, M F; Rupp, P; Pietsch, M; Kaspar, A; Beelitz, P

    2018-01-15

    Infections with the zoonotic endoparasite Giardia duodenalis are widely spread among dogs and cats worldwide. Since the question whether the infection might be transmitted from domestic animals to their owners is still an important topic, a reliable detection of patent Giardia infections and the determination of the associated Giardia assemblages is of major concern. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of Giardia infections in dogs and cats living in Germany using different diagnostic tests and to identify the Giardia assemblages of infected animals. Furthermore, a possible correlation of coinfections with other endoparasites was analysed. All samples were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), merthiolate-iodine-formalin concentration technique (MIFC) and zinc chloride flotation. ELISA-positive samples were additionally screened with a direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Faecal DNA was extracted from all Giardia cyst-positive samples and used for multilocus sequence typing with nested PCRs targeting the following gene loci: SSU rRNA (SSU), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi). Samples from dogs and cats tested positive for Giardia coproantigen (ELISA) in 30.6% and 17.9%, respectively. The MIFC technique revealed Giardia cysts in 33.9% of canine and in 34.6% of feline ELISA-positive samples, while using IFA, cysts were present in 90.4% of canine and in 76.9% of feline ELISA-positive samples. Coinfections with other endoparasites besides Giardia were found in both dogs and cats, yet a statistically significant correlation could solely be drawn for the canine samples. The success rate of the different PCR protocols varied between 23.1% (tpi) and 91.3% (SSU) for dogs and between 25.0% (gdh) and 90.0% (SSU) for cats. Dog-specific Giardia assemblages C and D were detected in 42 and 55 canine isolates, respectively. The cat-specific Giardia assemblage F was detected in 14 feline isolates

  20. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

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    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1 describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2 identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3 identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org. A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2% appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs. In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska. No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05. Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages.

  1. Environmental Factors Support the Formation of Specific Bacterial Assemblages on Microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Labrenz, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    While the global distribution of microplastics (MP) in the marine environment is currently being critically evaluated, the potential role of MP as a vector for distinct microbial assemblages or even pathogenic bacteria is hardly understood. To gain a deeper understanding, we investigated how different in situ conditions contribute to the composition and specificity of MP-associated bacterial communities in relation to communities on natural particles. Polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE), and wooden pellets were incubated for 2 weeks along an environmental gradient, ranging from marine (coastal Baltic Sea) to freshwater (waste water treatment plant, WWTP) conditions. The associated assemblages as well as the water communities were investigated applying high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Our setup allowed for the first time to determine MP-dependent and -independent assemblage factors as subject to different environmental conditions in one system. Most importantly, plastic-specific assemblages were found to develop solely under certain conditions, such as lower nutrient concentration and higher salinity, while the bacterial genus Erythrobacter, known for the ability to utilize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), was found specifically on MP across a broader section of the gradient. We discovered no enrichment of potential pathogens on PE or PS; however, the abundant colonization of MP in a WWTP by certain bacteria commonly associated with antibiotic resistance suggests MP as a possible hotspot for horizontal gene transfer. Taken together, our study clarifies that the surrounding environment prevailingly shapes the biofilm communities, but that MP-specific assemblage factors exist. These findings point to the ecological significance of specific MP-promoted bacterial populations in aquatic environments and particularly in plastic accumulation zones. PMID:29403454

  2. The response of chironomid assemblages to mineral richness gradient in the Western Carpathian helocrenes

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    Vít Syrovátka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid assemblages of helocrene springs were investigated in the Western Carpathians in order to identify potential effect of water mineral richness on the taxonomic structure of the assemblages. A complex gradient considering water chemistry and substratum was used as a measure of basicity (mineral richness. Taxonomic structure, total abundance and abundance of most frequent taxa were related to this gradient with regards to two contrasting habitats: trickle (A and water-loged soil with standing water (B. The variance in chironomid assemblage attributable to basicity was estimated and tested via PERMANOVA as well as the possible effect of the other environmental variables. The response of individual taxa was examined using GAM. The results indicate a strong relationship between basicity and substratum characteristics, with coarser mineral substrata at basic and high amount of organic matter at acidic conditions. Although water chemistry was correlated with and inseparable from these substratum properties, it could not be substituted with them, as they discriminated well only between acidic and basic springs, but did not follow the basicity gradient in either acidic or basic group of springs. Chironomid assemblage showed a strong and systematic response to the complex gradient of mineral richness, which explained the largest portion of variance in both the habitat A and B faunal data and was projected on the first axes of both NMDS ordinations. The assemblage response could be documented by the preference of several taxa for particular mineral richness conditions, while the number of taxa seemed to be highest in the middle of the basicity gradient. As only 17 samples were analysed so far, the results are considered preliminary and, hopefully, more confident results will be available in near future.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1403.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  3. Assemblage structure: an overlooked component of human-mediated species movements among freshwater ecosystems

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    D. Andrew R. Drake

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spread and impact of alien species among freshwater ecosystems has increased with global trade and human movement; therefore, quantifying the role of anthropogenic and ecological factors that increase the risk of invasion is an important conservation goal. Two factors considered as null models when assessing the potential for invasion are colonization pressure (i.e., the number of species introduced and propagule pressure [i.e., the number (propagule size, and frequency (propagule number, of individuals of each species introduced]. We translate the terminology of species abundance distributions to the invasion terminology of propagule size and colonization size (PS and CS, respectively. We conduct hypothesis testing to determine the underlying statistical species abundance distribution for zooplankton assemblages transported between freshwater ecosystems; and, on the basis of a lognormal distribution, construct four hypothetical assemblages spanning assemblage structure, rank-abundance gradient (e.g., even vs uneven, total abundance (of all species combined, and relative contribution of PS vs CS. For a given CS, many combinations of PS and total abundance can occur when transported assemblages conform to a lognormal species abundance distribution; therefore, for a given transportation event, many combinations of CS and PS are possible with potentially different ecological outcomes. An assemblage exhibiting high PS but low CS (species poor, but highly abundant may overcome demographic barriers to establishment, but with lower certainty of amenable environmental conditions in the recipient region; whereas, the opposite extreme, high CS and low PS (species rich, but low abundance per species may provide multiple opportunities for one of n arriving species to circumvent environmental barriers, albeit with lower potential to overcome demographic constraints. Species abundance distributions and the corresponding influence of CS and PS are some of

  4. Influence of Interspecific Competition and Landscape Structure on Spatial Homogenization of Avian Assemblages

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    Robertson, Oliver J.; McAlpine, Clive; House, Alan; Maron, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced biotic homogenization resulting from landscape change and increased competition from widespread generalists or ‘winners’, is widely recognized as a global threat to biodiversity. However, it remains unclear what aspects of landscape structure influence homogenization. This paper tests the importance of interspecific competition and landscape structure, for the spatial homogeneity of avian assemblages within a fragmented agricultural landscape of eastern Australia. We used field observations of the density of 128 diurnal bird species to calculate taxonomic and functional similarity among assemblages. We then examined whether taxonomic and functional similarity varied with patch type, the extent of woodland habitat, land-use intensity, habitat subdivision, and the presence of Manorina colonies (a competitive genus of honeyeaters). We found the presence of a Manorina colony was the most significant factor positively influencing both taxonomic and functional similarity of bird assemblages. Competition from members of this widespread genus of native honeyeater, rather than landscape structure, was the main cause of both taxonomic and functional homogenization. These species have not recently expanded their range, but rather have increased in density in response to agricultural landscape change. The negative impacts of Manorina honeyeaters on assemblage similarity were most pronounced in landscapes of moderate land-use intensity. We conclude that in these human-modified landscapes, increased competition from dominant native species, or ‘winners’, can result in homogeneous avian assemblages and the loss of specialist species. These interacting processes make biotic homogenization resulting from land-use change a global threat to biodiversity in modified agro-ecosystems. PMID:23724136

  5. Spatial and temporal structure of fish assemblages in an ''inverse estuary'', the Sine Saloum system (Senegal)

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    Simier, M.; Blanc, L.; Aliaume, C.; Diouf, P. S.; Albaret, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    As a consequence of the Sahelian drought, the Sine Saloum, a large estuarine system located in Senegal (West Africa), has become an "inverse estuary" since the late sixties, i.e. salinity increases upstream and reaches 100 in some places. To study the fish assemblages of such a modified system, a survey was conducted in 1992, collecting fish every two months with a purse seine at eight sites spread over the three main branches of the estuary. A total of 73 species belonging to 35 families were identified. Eight species comprised 97% of the total numbers of fish. The predominant species was a small clupeid, Sardinella maderensis, representing more than half of the total biomass and nearly 70% of the total number of fish. The spatio-temporal structure of the fish assemblages was studied using the STATIS-CoA method, which combines the multitable approach with the correspondence analysis method. Whatever the season, a strong spatial organization of fish assemblages was observed, mainly related to depth and salinity. Three types of assemblages were identified. In shallow water areas, fish assemblages were dominated by Mugilidae, Gerreidae and Cichlidae and were stable with time. In open water areas, large fluctuations in the species composition were observed, due to the occasional presence of large schools of pelagic species: in the southern area, where salinity and water transparency were the lowest, the main species were Ilisha africana, Brachydeuterus auritus and Chloroscombrus chrysurus, associated with a few Sciaenidae and Tetraodontidae, while the poorest areas were characterized by only two dominant species, S. maderensis and Scomberomorus tritor.

  6. Riverine Landscape Patch Heterogeneity Drives Riparian Ant Assemblages in the Scioto River Basin, USA.

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    Paradzayi Tagwireyi

    Full Text Available Although the principles of landscape ecology are increasingly extended to include riverine landscapes, explicit applications are few. We investigated associations between patch heterogeneity and riparian ant assemblages at 12 riverine landscapes of the Scioto River, Ohio, USA, that represent urban/developed, agricultural, and mixed (primarily forested, but also wetland, grassland/fallow, and exurban land-use settings. Using remotely-sensed and ground-collected data, we delineated riverine landscape patch types (crop, grass/herbaceous, gravel, lawn, mudflat, open water, shrub, swamp, and woody vegetation, computed patch metrics (area, density, edge, richness, and shape, and conducted coordinated sampling of surface-active Formicidae assemblages. Ant density and species richness was lower in agricultural riverine landscapes than at mixed or developed reaches (measured using S [total number of species], but not using Menhinick's Index [DM], whereas ant diversity (using the Berger-Park Index [DBP] was highest in agricultural reaches. We found no differences in ant density, richness, or diversity among internal riverine landscape patches. However, certain characteristics of patches influenced ant communities. Patch shape and density were significant predictors of richness (S: R2 = 0.72; DM: R2=0.57. Patch area, edge, and shape emerged as important predictors of DBP (R2 = 0.62 whereas patch area, edge, and density were strongly related to ant density (R2 = 0.65. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarities distinguished ant assemblage composition in grass and swamp patches from crop, gravel, lawn, and shrub as well as ant assemblages in woody vegetation patches from crop, lawn, and gravel (stress = 0.18, R2 = 0.64. These findings lend insight into the utility of landscape ecology to river science by providing evidence that spatial habitat patterns within riverine landscapes can influence assemblage characteristics of riparian

  7. Environmental Factors Support the Formation of Specific Bacterial Assemblages on Microplastics

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    Sonja Oberbeckmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While the global distribution of microplastics (MP in the marine environment is currently being critically evaluated, the potential role of MP as a vector for distinct microbial assemblages or even pathogenic bacteria is hardly understood. To gain a deeper understanding, we investigated how different in situ conditions contribute to the composition and specificity of MP-associated bacterial communities in relation to communities on natural particles. Polystyrene (PS, polyethylene (PE, and wooden pellets were incubated for 2 weeks along an environmental gradient, ranging from marine (coastal Baltic Sea to freshwater (waste water treatment plant, WWTP conditions. The associated assemblages as well as the water communities were investigated applying high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Our setup allowed for the first time to determine MP-dependent and -independent assemblage factors as subject to different environmental conditions in one system. Most importantly, plastic-specific assemblages were found to develop solely under certain conditions, such as lower nutrient concentration and higher salinity, while the bacterial genus Erythrobacter, known for the ability to utilize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, was found specifically on MP across a broader section of the gradient. We discovered no enrichment of potential pathogens on PE or PS; however, the abundant colonization of MP in a WWTP by certain bacteria commonly associated with antibiotic resistance suggests MP as a possible hotspot for horizontal gene transfer. Taken together, our study clarifies that the surrounding environment prevailingly shapes the biofilm communities, but that MP-specific assemblage factors exist. These findings point to the ecological significance of specific MP-promoted bacterial populations in aquatic environments and particularly in plastic accumulation zones.

  8. Diversity and abundance of invertebrate epifaunal assemblages associated with gorgonians are driven by colony attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Curdia, Joao

    2015-03-20

    The present study aimed to explicitly quantify the link between the attributes of shallow-water gorgonian colonies (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) and the ecological patterns of associated non-colonial epifaunal invertebrates. Based on multiple regression analysis, we tested the contribution of several attributes (colony height, width, and area, fractal dimension as a measure of colony complexity, lacunarity as a measure of the heterogeneity, and “colonial” epibiont cover) to abundance and taxonomic richness of associated assemblages. The results highlight the variation in the response of epifaunal assemblages to the gorgonian colony characteristics. The nature and intensity of the relationships were gorgonian species-dependent and varied from one taxonomic group to another. For both gorgonian species analyzed, the strongest predictor of species richness and abundance of the epifaunal assemblages was “colonial” epibiont cover, possibly due to a trophic effect (direct or indirect enhancement of food availability) combined with the surface available for colonization (species–area effect). Although structural complexity is usually indicated as the main driver for rich and abundant coral-associated assemblages, no significant relationship was observed between fractal dimension and the community descriptors; lacunarity, which reflects the sizes of the inter-branch spaces, was only linked to taxonomic richness in the assemblages associated with Leptogorgia lusitanica. The validity of the paradigm that structural complexity enhances biodiversity may be scale-dependent. In the case of gorgonians, the effect of complexity at the “garden” level may be more relevant than at the individual colony level. This reinforces the need for the conservation of gorgonian aggregation areas as a whole in order to preserve host diversity and size structure. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  9. Two-stage recovery of amphibian assemblages following selective logging of tropical forests.

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    Adum, Gilbert Baase; Eichhorn, Markus Peter; Oduro, William; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of quantitative information on the effectiveness of selective-logging practices in ameliorating effects of logging on faunal communities. We conducted a large-scale replicated field study in 3 selectively logged moist semideciduous forests in West Africa at varying times after timber extraction to assess post logging effects on amphibian assemblages. Specifically, we assessed whether the diversity, abundance, and assemblage composition of amphibians changed over time for forest-dependent species and those tolerant of forest disturbance. In 2009, we sampled amphibians in 3 forests (total of 48 study plots, each 2 ha) in southwestern Ghana. In each forest, we established plots in undisturbed forest, recently logged forest, and forest logged 10 and 20 years previously. Logging intensity was constant across sites with 3 trees/ha removed. Recently logged forests supported substantially more species than unlogged forests. This was due to an influx of disturbance-tolerant species after logging. Simultaneously Simpson's index decreased, with increased in dominance of a few species. As time since logging increased richness of disturbance-tolerant species decreased until 10 years after logging when their composition was indistinguishable from unlogged forests. Simpson's index increased with time since logging and was indistinguishable from unlogged forest 20 years after logging. Forest specialists decreased after logging and recovered slowly. However, after 20 years amphibian assemblages had returned to a state indistinguishable from that of undisturbed forest in both abundance and composition. These results demonstrate that even with low-intensity logging (≤3 trees/ha) a minimum 20-year rotation of logging is required for effective conservation of amphibian assemblages in moist semideciduous forests. Furthermore, remnant patches of intact forests retained in the landscape and the presence of permanent brooks may aid in the effective recovery of amphibian

  10. Dynamics of avian haemosporidian assemblages through millennial time scales inferred from insular biotas of the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Leticia; Latta, Steven C; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-06-20

    Although introduced hemosporidian (malaria) parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) have hastened the extinction of endemic bird species in the Hawaiian Islands and perhaps elsewhere, little is known about the temporal dynamics of endemic malaria parasite populations. Haemosporidian parasites do not leave informative fossils, and records of population change are lacking beyond a few decades. Here, we take advantage of the isolation of West Indian land-bridge islands by rising postglacial sea levels to estimate rates of change in hemosporidian parasite assemblages over a millennial time frame. Several pairs of West Indian islands have been connected and separated by falling and rising sea levels associated with the advance and retreat of Pleistocene continental glaciers. We use island isolation following postglacial sea-level rise, ca. 2.5 ka, to characterize long-term change in insular assemblages of hemosporidian parasites. We find that assemblages on formerly connected islands are as differentiated as assemblages on islands that have never been connected, and both are more differentiated than local assemblages sampled up to two decades apart. Differentiation of parasite assemblages between formerly connected islands reflects variation in the prevalence of shared hemosporidian lineages, whereas differentiation between islands isolated by millions of years reflects replacement of hemosporidian lineages infecting similar assemblages of avian host species.

  11. Megabenthic assemblages in the continental shelf edge and upper slope of the Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyó, Jordi; Gori, Andrea; Greenacre, Michael; Requena, Susana; Canepa, Antonio; Lo Iacono, Claudio; Ambroso, Stefano; Purroy, Ariadna; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2018-03-01

    Highly diverse megabenthic assemblages dominated by passive and active suspension feeders have been recently reported in shelf edge environments of the Mediterranean Sea. Due to their frequent association with species of commercial interest, these assemblages have been heavily impacted by fishing. The vulnerability and low resilience of these assemblages, composed mainly by long-living and slow-growing species, have motivated the implementation of management measures such as the restriction of bottom trawling, and the establishment of large protected areas embracing these environments. The Menorca Channel is one of such areas recently included in the European Union Natura 2000 network. Quantitative analysis of video transects recorded at 95-360 m depth by manned submersible and remotely operated vehicles were used to characterize megabenthic assemblages and to assess their geographical and bathymetric distribution. Six different assemblages were identified, mainly segregated by substrate type and depth. Hard substrates hosted coral gardens and sponge grounds, whereas soft sediments were mainly characterized by large extensions of the crinoid Leptometra phalangium and the brachiopod Gryphus vitreus. The good preservation of most of the observed assemblages is probably related to a low bottom trawling pressure, which mainly concentrates deeper on the adjacent continental slope. Because of their biological and ecological value, management and conservation measures need to be established to preserve these benthic assemblages.

  12. Effects of reconstruction of a pre-European vertebrate assemblage on ground-dwelling arachnids in arid Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Colin J; Hayward, Matthew W; Gibb, Heloise

    2015-06-01

    Species loss can result in changes in assemblage structure and ecosystem function through ecological cascades. Australian vertebrate assemblages changed significantly following European colonisation, which resulted in the establishment of invasive vertebrates and the loss of native marsupials, many of which consume invertebrates. Conservation focusses on the removal of invasive carnivores and the reintroduction of regionally extinct species to fenced sites, resulting in what could be considered a reconstruction of pre-European vertebrate assemblages. In semi-arid Australian spinifex mallee ecosystems, we asked: (1) what is the effect of reconstructed pre-European vertebrate assemblages on native arachnid assemblages? and (2) what direct or indirect mechanisms (predation, disturbance and/or competition) could plausibly be responsible for these effects? We compared sites with reconstructed vertebrate assemblages with paired control sites. Arachnids were sampled using pitfall trapping and direct searching. Hypotheses regarding mechanisms were tested using scat analysis (predation) and by comparing burrow depth (disturbance) and scorpion mass (competition) between control and reconstructed sites. The dominant dune scorpion, Urodacus yaschenkoi, was less abundant and a wolf spider (Lycosa gibsoni species group) more abundant in reconstructed sites. Differences in spider assemblage composition were marginally non-significant. Scat analysis confirmed native vertebrate predation on scorpions and we found no evidence that competition or disturbance affected scorpions. We, thus, suggest that changes in spider assemblages may have resulted from ecological cascades via decreases in dune scorpions. The loss of omnivorous mammals and other changes associated with the invasion of carnivores may, therefore, have had broad-reaching consequences for native arachnid assemblages in Australian ecosystems.

  13. First record of Elasmosaurid Plesiosaurs (Sauropterygia: Plesiosauria in upper levels of the Dorotea Formation, Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian, Puerto Natales, Chilean Patagonia Primer Registro de Plesiosaurios Elasmosáuridos (Sauropterygia: Plesiosauria en estratos superiores de la Formación Dorotea, Cretácico Tardío (Maastrichtiano, Puerto Natales, Patagonia Chilena

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    Rodrigo A Otero

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available New remains of plesiosaurs (Diapsida; Sauropterygia found in a transported block correlated with upper levels of the Dorotea Formation, Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian are describedherein. They were collected on the southern slopes of Sierra Dorotea located northeast of Puerto Natales (51 °41 '20,4"S, 72°26'07,4"W, Magallanes Región, Chile. This is the first disco very of the family Elasmosauridae in high latitudes of South America, complementing the previously known paleodistribution of this group in the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Antarctic during the latest Cretaceous.Se describen nuevos restos de plesiosaurios (Diapsida; Sauropterygia incluidos en un bloque rodado correlacionado con estratos superiores de la Formación Dorotea (Cretácico Tardío, Maastrichtiano, recolectados en la parte sur de la sierra homómma, ubicada al noreste de Puerto Natales (51°41'20,4"S, 72°26'07,4"W, Región de Magallanes, Chile. Se reconoce por primera vez la presencia de la familia Elasmosauridae en altas latitudes de Sudamérica, complementando así la paleodistribution previamente conocida de este grupo en el margen oriental del Océano Pacífico y de la Antartica durante la última parte del Cretácico Tardío.

  14. Lake Bacterial Assemblage Composition Is Sensitive to Biological Disturbance Caused by an Invasive Filter Feeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denef, Vincent J; Carrick, Hunter J; Cavaletto, Joann; Chiang, Edna; Johengen, Thomas H; Vanderploeg, Henry A

    2017-01-01

    One approach to improve forecasts of how global change will affect ecosystem processes is to better understand how anthropogenic disturbances alter bacterial assemblages that drive biogeochemical cycles. Species invasions are important contributors to global change, but their impacts on bacterial community ecology are rarely investigated. Here, we studied direct impacts of invasive dreissenid mussels (IDMs), one of many invasive filter feeders, on freshwater lake bacterioplankton. We demonstrated that direct effects of IDMs reduced bacterial abundance and altered assemblage composition by preferentially removing larger and particle-associated bacteria. While this increased the relative abundances of many free-living bacterial taxa, some were susceptible to filter feeding, in line with efficient removal of phytoplankton cells of <2 μm. This selective removal of particle-associated and larger bacteria by IDMs altered inferred bacterial functional group representation, defined by carbon and energy source utilization. Specifically, we inferred an increased relative abundance of chemoorganoheterotrophs predicted to be capable of rhodopsin-dependent energy generation. In contrast to the few previous studies that have focused on the longer-term combined direct and indirect effects of IDMs on bacterioplankton, our study showed that IDMs act directly as a biological disturbance to which freshwater bacterial assemblages are sensitive. The negative impacts on particle-associated bacteria, which have been shown to be more active than free-living bacteria, and the inferred shifts in functional group representation raise the possibility that IDMs may directly alter bacterially mediated ecosystem functions. IMPORTANCE Freshwater bacteria play fundamental roles in global elemental cycling and are an intrinsic part of local food webs. Human activities are altering freshwater environments, and much has been learned regarding the sensitivity of bacterial assemblages to a variety of

  15. Megabenthic assemblages at the Hudson Canyon head (NW Atlantic margin): Habitat-faunal relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdomenico, Martina; Gori, Andrea; Guida, Vincent G.; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of megabenthic communities at the head of Hudson Canyon and adjacent continental shelf was studied by means of underwater video transects and still photo imagery collected using a towed camera system. The goal was to explore the relationships between faunal distribution and physical seafloor conditions and to test the hypothesis that increased seafloor heterogeneity in the Hudson Canyon supports a larger diversity of benthic communities, compared with the adjacent continental shelf. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify benthic assemblages as defined in imagery. The BIO-ENV procedure and the Canonical Correspondence Analysis were carried out to elucidate species groupings in relation to terrain variables extracted from bathymetric data. Species accumulation curves were generated to evaluate species turn over in and out of Hudson Canyon. The results indicate that seafloor morphology is the main physical factor related to benthic community composition and distribution. Assemblages dominated by sponges, zoanthids and cup corals colonized the canyon margins and flanks, and were associated with coarse-grained sediments, while sea pen assemblages were observed along muddy seafloor within the thalweg. An assemblage dominated by sea stars occurred on the shelf, associated with a sandy seafloor. Some assemblages were exclusively observed in the canyon area, suggesting that the increased variability of seafloor composition, together with the oceanographic processes specific to the canyon area, enhance beta diversity. The colonization by benthic suspension feeders within the canyon, in contrast to shelf assemblages, mainly composed of carnivores and detritus feeders could be favored the intense hydrodynamics at the canyon head that increase the availability of suspended organic matter. From the perspective of management and conservation of marine resources, the results obtained support the relevance of Hudson Canyon as a biodiversity hotspot

  16. Sediment and carbon deposition vary among vegetation assemblages in a coastal salt marsh

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    J. J. Kelleway

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal salt marshes are dynamic, intertidal ecosystems that are increasingly being recognised for their contributions to ecosystem services, including carbon (C accumulation and storage. The survival of salt marshes and their capacity to store C under rising sea levels, however, is partially reliant upon sedimentation rates and influenced by a combination of physical and biological factors. In this study, we use several complementary methods to assess short-term (days deposition and medium-term (months accretion dynamics within a single marsh that contains three salt marsh vegetation types common throughout southeastern (SE Australia.We found that surface accretion varies among vegetation assemblages, with medium-term (19 months bulk accretion rates in the upper marsh rush (Juncus assemblage (1.74 ± 0.13 mm yr−1 consistently in excess of estimated local sea-level rise (1.15 mm yr−1. Accretion rates were lower and less consistent in both the succulent (Sarcocornia, 0.78 ± 0.18 mm yr−1 and grass (Sporobolus, 0.88 ± 0.22 mm yr−1 assemblages located lower in the tidal frame. Short-term (6 days experiments showed deposition within Juncus plots to be dominated by autochthonous organic inputs with C deposition rates ranging from 1.14 ± 0.41 mg C cm−2 d−1 (neap tidal period to 2.37 ± 0.44 mg C cm−2 d−1 (spring tidal period, while minerogenic inputs and lower C deposition dominated Sarcocornia (0.10 ± 0.02 to 0.62 ± 0.08 mg C cm−2 d−1 and Sporobolus (0.17 ± 0.04 to 0.40 ± 0.07 mg C cm−2 d−1 assemblages.Elemental (C : N, isotopic (δ13C, mid-infrared (MIR and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analyses revealed little difference in either the source or character of materials being deposited among neap versus spring tidal periods. Instead, these analyses point to substantial redistribution of materials within the Sarcocornia and

  17. Comparison of fish assemblages in two littoral habitats in a Neotropical morichal stream in Venezuela

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    Carmen G. Montaña

    Full Text Available Morichales are lowland streams in South American savannas with riparian forest dominated by the moriche palm (Mauritia flexuosa. We sampled littoral habitats from ten flooded vegetated patches (dominated by Mauritiella aculeate and six sand banks in two months of the dry season (Feb-Mar 2005 in a stream in the savannas of Apure State, Venezuela. We collected samples that compromised 12,407 individual fishes of 107 species. Small-bodied fishes (< 100 mm, representing diverse trophic and life history strategies, were abundant. The most abundant species were in the families Characidae and Cichlidae. Fish assemblages from flooded vegetated patches differed significantly from those on adjacent sand banks. High structural complexity along vegetated shoreline habitats of morichal streams likely contributes to species richness and affects assemblage composition.

  18. Spectral and physical properties of metal in meteorite assemblages - implications of asteroid surface materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffey, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    One of the objectives of the present paper is related to a definition of the spectral contribution of the nickel-iron metal component in meteoritic assemblages. Another objective is the elucidation of the chemical, physical, and petrographic properties of the metal grains which affect the spectral signature in asteroid surface materials. It is pointed out that an improved understanding of the spectral and physical properties of metal in asteroid regoliths should permit an improved characterization of these objects, and, in particular, a better evaluation of the differentiated or undifferentiated nature of the S-type and M-type asteroids. Attention is given to the spectra of iron and nickel-iron metals, the spectral effects of metal in chondritic assemblages, the spectral reflectance of metal grains in ordinary chondrites, the nature of the surfaces of chondritic metal grains, the origin of coats on chondritic metal grains, and the fragmentation of metal on asteroid surfaces. 57 references

  19. Planktonic rotifer assemblages of the Danube River at Budapest after the red sludge pollution in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöll, Károly; Szövényi, Gergely

    2011-08-01

    In the autumn of 2010 an industrial red sludge spill occurred in Hungary. The toxic chemical waste with high alkalinity (pH 13.5) reached the Danube 2 days later, where no change was expected because of the high level of dilution. The planktonic rotifer assemblages of the Danube were investigated at Budapest during the contamination. The median of community density decreased from 500 ind. 100 L(-1) to zero, the species richness from 3.00 to 0.00, Shannon-Weaver diversity from 1.10 to 0.00 after the arrival of the contamination. The rotifer assemblages seemed to have recovered after 3 weeks, but the initial levels of diversity and density were not reached again.

  20. Initial stresses in two-layer metal domes due to imperfections of their production and assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebed Evgeniy Vasil’evich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of construction of two-layer metal domes is analyzed to illustrate the causes of initial stresses in the bars of their frames. It has been noticed that it is impossible to build such structures with ideal geometric parameters because of imperfections caused by objective reasons. These imperfections cause difficulties in the process of connection of the elements in the joints. The paper demonstrates the necessity of fitting operations during assemblage that involve force fitting and yield initial stresses due to imperfections. The authors propose a special method of computer modeling of enforced elimination of possible imperfections caused by assemblage process and further confirm the method by an analysis of a concrete metal dome.

  1. Introductions do not compensate for functional and phylogenetic losses following extinctions in insular bird assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Fernando L; Lees, Alexander C; Cianciaruso, Marcus V

    2016-09-01

    The ratio of species extinctions to introductions has been comparable for many insular assemblages, suggesting that introductions could have 'compensated' for extinctions. However, the capacity for introduced species to replace ecological roles and evolutionary history lost following extinction is unclear. We investigated changes in bird functional and phylogenetic diversity in the wake of extinctions and introductions across a sample of 32 islands worldwide. We found that extinct and introduced species have comparable functional and phylogenetic alpha diversity. However, this was distributed at different positions in functional space and in the phylogeny, indicating a 'false compensation'. Introduced and extinct species did not have equivalent functional roles nor belong to similar lineages. This makes it unlikely that novel island biotas composed of introduced taxa will be able to maintain ecological roles and represent the evolutionary histories of pre-disturbance assemblages and highlights the importance of evaluating changes in alpha and beta diversity concurrently. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Effects of dredged sediment disposal on the coastal marine macrobenthic assemblage in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Angonesi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the deposition impact of dredged material from Patos lagoon estuary on a benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure in an adjacent coastal marine area. Nine sampling stations were chosen at random in the disposal area, and nine others in the same way in an adjacent control area. Samples were collected at a 19 m depth before sediment disposal (11 July 2000, during dredging and disposal operations (25 Oct. 2000, and three months thereafter (24 Aug. 2001. Statistical analysis indicated that sampling periods presented similar characteristics in both the control and disposal sites. Disposal of dredged sediment from Patos lagoon had no detectable detrimental effects upon macrobenthic faunal assemblage at the dumping site. This result is attributed both to adaptation of resident biota to dynamic sedimentary conditions and to the fine estuarine sediment dredged, the dispersion of which in the water column might have minimized sediment deposition and consequent damage to the benthic fauna.

  3. Assessing disruption of longitudinal connectivity on macroinvertebrate assemblages in a semiarid lowland river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Leiva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Our aim in this study was evaluate the effects of flow regulation for irrigation on the macroinvertebrate assemblages in a semiarid river. Methods We sampled two reaches in Dulce River; one placed upstream a weir that diverts flow into a network of irrigation channels and the other downstream that weir, in the assessment of the fluvial discontinuity. We assess the differences among reaches and sites, environmental variables, invertebrate density, richness and Shannon-Wiener index applying non-parametric analyses of variance Kruskal Wallis. The similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER was used to identify which species contributed to the dissimilarities on macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was performed with the total set of samples to explore macroinvertebrate distribution in reaches and associations of the assemblages with habitat variables. Results The density, richness and Shannon index values did not show differences between the reaches located upstream and downstream. Beta diversity (Whittaker was 0.72 among upstream sites, 0.56 among downstream sites and higher species turnover (0.73 was obtained between both reaches. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis explained 46.71% of the variance differentiating upstream sites explained by higher values of organic matter of bottom sediments and discharge, high density of Nais communis, Bothrioneurum americanum, Pelomus, Stephensoniana trivandrana, Pristina menoni, P. jenkinae, P.longidentata, P. americana, Dero obtusa, Endotribelos, Heleobia and Turbellaria. The downstream sites were associated to coarser substratum and higher density of Lopescladius, Polypedilum, Cricotopus, Thienamaniella, Cryptochironomus, Baetidae, Nematoda and Corbicula fluminea. Conclusions The low-flow disturbance had effects on the composition of the benthic invertebrate assemblages, but attributes (such as density and richness showed a lower variability probably

  4. Disentangling the effects of solar radiation, wrack macroalgae and beach macrofauna on associated bacterial assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Iván F; Fernandes, Joana P; Mucha, Ana P

    2015-12-01

    Wrack detritus plays a significant role in shaping community dynamics and food-webs on sandy beaches. Macroalgae is the most abundant beach wrack, and it is broken down by the combination of environmental processes, macrofauna grazing, and microbial degradation before returning to the sea as nutrients. The role of solar radiation, algal species and beach macrofauna as ecological drivers for bacterial assemblages associated to wrack was investigated by experimental manipulation of Laminaria ochroleuca and Sargassum muticum. We examined the effects of changes in solar radiation on wrack-associated bacterial assemblages by using cut-off filters: PAR + UVA + UVB (280-700 nm; PAB), PAR + UVA (320-700 nm; PA), PAR (400-700 nm; P), and a control with no filter (C). Results showed that moderate changes in UVR are capable to promote substantial differences on bacterial assemblages so that wrack patches exposed to full sunlight treatments (C and PAB) showed more similar assemblages among them than compared to patches exposed to treatments that blocked part of the solar radiation (P and PA). Our findings also suggested that specific algal nutrient quality-related variables (i.e. nitrogen, C:N ratio and phlorotannins) are main determinants of bacterial dynamics on wrack deposits. We showed a positive relationship between beach macrofauna, especially the most abundant and active wrack-users, the amphipod Talitrus saltator and the coleopteran Phaleria cadaverina, and both bacterial abundance and richness. Moderate variations in natural solar radiation and shifts in the algal species entering beach ecosystems can modify the role of wrack in the energy-flow of nearshore environments with unknown ecological implications for coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New materialist social inquiry: Designs, methods and the research-assemblage

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, NJ; Alldred, P

    2015-01-01

    This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund. This paper discusses issues of research design and methods in new materialist social inquiry, an approach that is attracting increasing interest across the social sciences as an alternative to either realist or constructionist ontologies. New materialism de-privileges human agency, focusing instead upon how assemblages of the animate and inanimate together produce the world, with fundamental implications f...

  6. Using assemblage data in ecological indicators: A comparison and evaluation of commonly available statistical tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph M.; Mather, Martha E.

    2012-01-01

    Ecological indicators are science-based tools used to assess how human activities have impacted environmental resources. For monitoring and environmental assessment, existing species assemblage data can be used to make these comparisons through time or across sites. An impediment to using assemblage data, however, is that these data are complex and need to be simplified in an ecologically meaningful way. Because multivariate statistics are mathematical relationships, statistical groupings may not make ecological sense and will not have utility as indicators. Our goal was to define a process to select defensible and ecologically interpretable statistical simplifications of assemblage data in which researchers and managers can have confidence. For this, we chose a suite of statistical methods, compared the groupings that resulted from these analyses, identified convergence among groupings, then we interpreted the groupings using species and ecological guilds. When we tested this approach using a statewide stream fish dataset, not all statistical methods worked equally well. For our dataset, logistic regression (Log), detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), cluster analysis (CL), and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) provided consistent, simplified output. Specifically, the Log, DCA, CL-1, and NMDS-1 groupings were ≥60% similar to each other, overlapped with the fluvial-specialist ecological guild, and contained a common subset of species. Groupings based on number of species (e.g., Log, DCA, CL and NMDS) outperformed groupings based on abundance [e.g., principal components analysis (PCA) and Poisson regression]. Although the specific methods that worked on our test dataset have generality, here we are advocating a process (e.g., identifying convergent groupings with redundant species composition that are ecologically interpretable) rather than the automatic use of any single statistical tool. We summarize this process in step-by-step guidance for the

  7. Bait effects in sampling coral reef fish assemblages with stereo-BRUVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Stacey R; Harvey, Euan S; Newman, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Baited underwater video techniques are increasingly being utilised for assessing and monitoring demersal fishes because they are: 1) non extractive, 2) can be used to sample across multiple habitats and depths, 3) are cost effective, 4) sample a broader range of species than many other techniques, 5) and with greater statistical power. However, an examination of the literature demonstrates that a range of different bait types are being used. The use of different types of bait can create an additional source of variability in sampling programs. Coral reef fish assemblages at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, were sampled using baited remote underwater stereo-video systems. One-hour stereo-video recordings were collected for four different bait treatments (pilchards, cat food, falafel mix and no bait (control)) from sites inside and outside a targeted fishery closure (TFC). In total, 5209 individuals from 132 fish species belonging to 41 families were recorded. There were significant differences in the fish assemblage structure and composition between baited and non-baited treatments (Pcat food and pilchards contained similar ingredients and were found to record similar components of the fish assemblage. There were no significant differences in the fish assemblages in areas open or closed to fishing, regardless of the bait used. Investigation of five targeted species indicated that the response to different types of bait was species-specific. For example, the relative abundance of Pagrus auratus was found to increase in areas protected from fishing, but only in samples baited with pilchards and cat food. The results indicate that the use of bait in conjunction with stereo-BRUVs is advantageous. On balance, the use of pilchards as a standardised bait for stereo-BRUVs deployments is justified for use along the mid-west coast of Western Australia.

  8. Bait effects in sampling coral reef fish assemblages with stereo-BRUVs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey R Dorman

    Full Text Available Baited underwater video techniques are increasingly being utilised for assessing and monitoring demersal fishes because they are: 1 non extractive, 2 can be used to sample across multiple habitats and depths, 3 are cost effective, 4 sample a broader range of species than many other techniques, 5 and with greater statistical power. However, an examination of the literature demonstrates that a range of different bait types are being used. The use of different types of bait can create an additional source of variability in sampling programs. Coral reef fish assemblages at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, were sampled using baited remote underwater stereo-video systems. One-hour stereo-video recordings were collected for four different bait treatments (pilchards, cat food, falafel mix and no bait (control from sites inside and outside a targeted fishery closure (TFC. In total, 5209 individuals from 132 fish species belonging to 41 families were recorded. There were significant differences in the fish assemblage structure and composition between baited and non-baited treatments (P<0.001, while no difference was observed with species richness. Samples baited with cat food and pilchards contained similar ingredients and were found to record similar components of the fish assemblage. There were no significant differences in the fish assemblages in areas open or closed to fishing, regardless of the bait used. Investigation of five targeted species indicated that the response to different types of bait was species-specific. For example, the relative abundance of Pagrus auratus was found to increase in areas protected from fishing, but only in samples baited with pilchards and cat food. The results indicate that the use of bait in conjunction with stereo-BRUVs is advantageous. On balance, the use of pilchards as a standardised bait for stereo-BRUVs deployments is justified for use along the mid-west coast of Western Australia.

  9. Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Guidetti

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS and thermophilic species (ThS is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1 MPAs are numerous, 2 fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3 the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP, partially-protected MPAs (IP and fished areas (F at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators, but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide.

  10. Predicting invertebrate assemblage composition from harvesting pressure and environmental characteristics on tropical reef flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, H.; Dumas, P.; Ponton, D.; Ferraris, J.

    2012-03-01

    Invertebrates represent an essential component of coral reef ecosystems; they are ecologically important and a major resource, but their assemblages remain largely unknown, particularly on Pacific islands. Understanding their distribution and building predictive models of community composition as a function of environmental variables therefore constitutes a key issue for resource management. The goal of this study was to define and classify the main environmental factors influencing tropical invertebrate distributions in New Caledonian reef flats and to test the resulting predictive model. Invertebrate assemblages were sampled by visual counting during 2 years and 2 seasons, then coupled to different environmental conditions (habitat composition, hydrodynamics and sediment characteristics) and harvesting status (MPA vs. non-MPA and islets vs. coastal flats). Environmental conditions were described by a principal component analysis (PCA), and contributing variables were selected. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) was used to test the effects of different factors (status, flat, year and season) on the invertebrate assemblage composition. Multivariate regression trees (MRT) were then used to hierarchically classify the effects of environmental and harvesting variables. MRT model explained at least 60% of the variation in structure of invertebrate communities. Results highlighted the influence of status (MPA vs. non-MPA) and location (islet vs. coastal flat), followed by habitat composition, organic matter content, hydrodynamics and sampling year. Predicted assemblages defined by indicator families were very different for each environment-exploitation scenario and correctly matched a calibration data matrix. Predictions from MRT including both environmental variables and harvesting pressure can be useful for management of invertebrates in coral reef environments.

  11. Effects of pulsed nutrient inputs on phytoplankton assemblage structure and blooms in an enclosed coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatharis, Sofie; Tsirtsis, George; Danielidis, Daniel B.; Chi, Thang Do; Mouillot, David

    2007-07-01

    The response of phytoplankton assemblage structure to terrestrial nutrient inputs was examined for the Gulf of Kalloni in the Northern Aegean Sea, a productive semi-enclosed coastal marine ecosystem. The study was focused on a typical annual cycle, and emphasis was placed on the comparative analysis between blooms developing after significant nutrient inputs from the watershed, and naturally occurring blooms. Baseline information was collected on a monthly basis from a network of stations located in the oligotrophic open sea and the interior and more productive part of the embayment. Intensive sampling was also carried out along a gradient in the vicinity of a river which was the most important source of freshwater and nutrient input for the Gulf. Phytoplankton assemblage structure was analyzed from 188 samples using diversity indices (Shannon and Average Taxonomic Distinctness), multivariate plotting methods (NMDS), multivariate statistics (PERMANOVA), and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Three characteristic assemblages were recognized: (1) an autumn assemblage developed under nutrient depleted conditions, having low diversity due to the dominance of two small diatoms, (2) a winter bloom of the potentially toxic species Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha occurring immediately after a nutrient peak and characterized by very low diversity, and (3) a naturally occurring early summer bloom of centric diatoms with relatively high diversity. The results of the study support the view that moderate nutrient inputs may have a beneficial effect on the functioning of coastal ecosystems, stimulating the taxonomic diversity through the growth of different taxonomic groups and taxa. On the other hand, a sudden pulse of high nutrient concentrations may greatly affect the natural succession of organisms, have a negative effect on the diversity through the dominance of a single species, and can increase the possibility of a harmful algal bloom development.

  12. Long-term changes in the fish assemblage of a neotropical hydroelectric reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, M L; Britton, J R

    2014-06-01

    The changes in the fish assemblage of the Capivara Reservoir, Brazil, were assessed over a 20 year period. Of 50 native fishes present in the initial samples, 27 were no longer present in the final samples, but there had been an addition of 11 invasive fishes, suggesting the occurrence of substantial shifts in fish diversity and abundance. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. The impact of sediment removal on the aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblage in a fishpond littoral zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk ADÁMEK

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bottom sediment removal, a widely used technique in restoration management of standing water bodies, has a strong influence on communities of aquatic organisms. As most information on the impact of sediment removal on the aquatic environment comes from studies on lakes, the aim of this study was to describe macroinvertebrate assemblage succession in a fishpond (Štěpánek fishpond, Bohemian-Moravian highlands, Czech Republic littoral zone following restoration by sediment removal during the winter of 2003/2004. Semi-quantitative hand net sampling was undertaken one year before (2003 and in each of the following five years (2004–2008 after sediment removal. A significant decrease in both abundance (approx. 90% of individuals and diversity (approx. 30% of taxa of macroinvertebrates was detected immediately after pond restoration. The values gradually increased over subsequent years, reaching comparable abundance and diversity three years after sediment removal. A significant shift was recorded in the taxonomic and functional composition of the macroinvertebrate assemblage after sediment removal. Mayfly larvae were the dominant invertebrates before restoration, while chironomid larvae and oligochaetes dominated after sediment removal. Phytophilous taxa, grazers and scrapers, and swimming or diving invertebrates were common in 2003, whilst open-water taxa preferring mud and other mostly inorganic microhabitats, gatherers/collectors, and burrowing/boring invertebrates were relatively common after sediment removal. In 2008, the assemblage reverted towards the situation before sediment removal, probably connected with a lower water level and accelerated macrophyte bed succession. Principal Component Analysis on the species data confirmed the differences in invertebrate taxonomic structure among sampling years. Succession of the fishpond invertebrate assemblage in the years following sediment removal was mainly influenced by fish farming practice and

  14. Species composition, richness and nestedness of lizard assemblages from Restinga habitats along the brazilian coast

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    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation is well known to adversely affect species living in the remaining, relatively isolated, habitat patches, especially for those having small range size and low density. This negative effect has been critical in coastal resting habitats. We analysed the lizard composition and richness of restinga habitats in 16 restinga habitats encompassing three Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia and more than 1500km of the Brazilian coast in order to evaluate if the loss of lizard species following habitat reduction occur in a nested pattern or at random, using the “Nestedness Temperature Calculator” to analyse the distribution pattern of lizard species among the restingas studied. We also estimated the potential capacity that each restinga has to maintain lizard species. Eleven lizard species were recorded in the restingas, although not all species occurred in all areas. The restinga with the richest lizard fauna was Guriri (eight species whereas the restinga with the lowest richness was Praia do Sul (located at Ilha Grande, a large coastal island. Among the restingas analysed, Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves, were the most hospitable for lizards. The matrix community temperature of the lizard assemblages was 20.49° (= P <0.00001; 5000 randomisations; randomisation temperature = 51.45° ± 7.18° SD, indicating that lizard assemblages in the coastal restingas exhibited a considerable nested structure. The degree in which an area is hospitable for different assemblages could be used to suggest those with greater value of conservation. We concluded that lizard assemblages in coastal restingas occur at a considerable level of ordination in restinga habitats and that some restinga areas such as Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves are quite important to preserve lizard diversity of restinga environments.

  15. Diet and trophic organization of the fish assemblage from the Mamanguape River Estuary, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Aline Paiva Morais de; Xavier, Josias Henrique de Amorim; Rosa, Ierecê Maria de Lucena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present work aims to characterize a fish assemblage from a northeastern Brazilian estuary according to its diet and trophic organization along the estuarine-reef gradient. Sampling was performed at the Mamanguape Estuary, and fishes were collected using three types of nets at seventeen sites, grouped into four regions according to salinity range: reefs and the lower, middle, and upper estuary. The most abundant species were Atherinella brasiliensis, Mugil curema, and Sphoeroides ...

  16. Short-term responses of reptile assemblages to fire in native and weedy tropical savannah

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    Rickard Abom

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fire is frequently used as a management tool to reduce the cover of weeds, to reduce the amount of fuel available for future fires, and to create succession mosaics that may enhance biodiversity. We determined the influence of fire on wildlife, by quantifying reptile assemblage composition in response to fire in a weedy environment characterised by very short-term fire return intervals (<2 years. We used reptiles because they are often understudied, and are only moderately vagile compared to other vertebrates, and they respond strongly to changes in vegetation structure. We repeatedly sampled 24 replicate sampling sites after they had been unburned for two years, just prior to burning (pre-burnt, just after burning (post-burnt, and up to 15 months after burning (revegetated and monitored vegetation structure and reptile richness, abundance and assemblage composition. Our sites were not spatially auto-correlated, and were covered by native kangaroo grass (Themeda triandra, black spear grass (Heteropogon contortus, or an invasive weed (grader grass, Themeda quadrivalvis. Reptile abundance and richness were highest when sites had been unburned for 2 years, and greatly reduced in all areas post burning. The lowest reptile abundances occurred in sites dominated by the weed. Reptile abundance and richness had recovered in all grass types 15 months after burning, but assemblage composition changed. Some species were present only in before our focus fire in native grass, and their populations did not recover even 15 months post-burning. Even in fire-prone, often-burnt habitats such as our study sites, in which faunal richness and abundance were not strongly influenced by fire, reptile assemblage composition was altered. To maintain faunal biodiversity in fire-prone systems, we suggest reducing the frequency of prescribed fires, and (if possible excluding fire from weedy invasions if it allows native grasses to return.

  17. Impacts of temperature on primary productivity and respiration in naturally structured macroalgal assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh W Tait

    Full Text Available Rising global temperatures caused by human-mediated change has already triggered significant responses in organismal physiology, distribution and ecosystem functioning. Although the effects of rising temperature on the physiology of individual organisms are well understood, the effect on community-wide processes has remained elusive. The fixation of carbon via primary productivity is an essential ecosystem function and any shifts in the balance of primary productivity and respiration could alter the carbon balance of ecosystems. Here we show through a series of tests that respiration of naturally structured algal assemblages in southern New Zealand greatly increases with rising temperature, with implications for net primary productivity (NPP. The NPP of in situ macroalgal assemblages was minimally affected by natural temperature variation, possibly through photo-acclimation or temperature acclimation responses, but respiration rates and compensating irradiance were negatively affected. However, laboratory experiments testing the impacts of rising temperature on several photosynthetic parameters showed a decline in NPP, increasing respiration rates and increasing compensating irradiance. The respiration Q10 of laboratory assemblages (the difference in metabolic rates over 10°C averaged 2.9 compared to a Q10 of 2 often seen in other autotrophs. However, gross primary productivity (GPP Q10 averaged 2, indicating that respiration was more severely affected by rising temperature. Furthermore, combined high irradiance and high temperature caused photoinhibition in the laboratory, and resulted in 50% lower NPP at high irradiance. Our study shows that communities may be more severely affected by rising global temperatures than would be expected by responses of individual species. In particular, enhanced respiration rates and rising compensation points have the potential to greatly affect the carbon balance of macroalgal assemblages through declines in

  18. Reef fishes of Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles: assemblage structure across a gradient of habitat types.

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    Wes Toller

    Full Text Available Saba Bank is a 2,200 km(2 submerged carbonate platform in the northeastern Caribbean Sea off Saba Island, Netherlands Antilles. The presence of reef-like geomorphic features and significant shelf edge coral development on Saba Bank have led to the conclusion that it is an actively growing, though wholly submerged, coral reef atoll. However, little information exists on the composition of benthic communities or associated reef fish assemblages of Saba Bank. We selected a 40 km(2 area of the bank for an exploratory study. Habitat and reef fish assemblages were investigated in five shallow-water benthic habitat types that form a gradient from Saba Bank shelf edge to lagoon. Significant coral cover was restricted to fore reef habitat (average cover 11.5% and outer reef flat habitat (2.4% and declined to near zero in habitats of the central lagoon zone. Macroalgae dominated benthic cover in all habitats (average cover: 32.5--48.1% but dominant algal genera differed among habitats. A total of 97 fish species were recorded. The composition of Saba Bank fish assemblages differed among habitat types. Highest fish density and diversity occurred in the outer reef flat, fore reef and inner reef flat habitats. Biomass estimates for commercially valued species in the reef zone (fore reef and reef flat habitats ranged between 52 and 83 g/m(2. The composition of Saba Bank fish assemblages reflects the absence of important nursery habitats, as well as the effects of past fishing. The relatively high abundance of large predatory fish (i.e. groupers and sharks, which is generally considered an indicator of good ecosystem health for tropical reef systems, shows that an intact trophic network is still present on Saba Bank.

  19. Bathymetric and regional changes in benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the deep Eastern Brazilian margin, SW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino, Angelo Fraga; Berenguer, Vanessa; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Venina P.

    2016-05-01

    Deep-sea continental slopes have valuable mineral and biological resources in close proximity to diverse, undersampled and fragile marine benthic ecosystems. The eastern Brazilian Continental Margin (19.01°S to 21.06°S, 37.88°W to 40.22°W) is an important economic region for both fishing and oil industries, but is poorly understood with respect to the structure of the soft-sediment benthic fauna, their regional distribution and their bathymetric patterns. To identify spatial and temporal patterns of benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the slope (400 to 3000 m), the Espirito Santo Basin Assessment Project (AMBES, coordinated by Cenpes-Petrobras) sampled 42 stations across the Brazilian Eastern Slope during both Summer 2012 and Winter 2013. We found a significant decrease in macrofaunal abundance at the 400 m isobath along the slope near the northern region of the Espirito Santo Basin, suggesting benthic responses to upwelling events towards the south in Campos Basin and southern Espirito Santo Basin. The taxonomic diversity and assemblage composition also changed significantly across depth zones with mid-slope peaks of diversity at 1000-1300 m. In general, macrofaunal assemblages were strongly related to slope depth, suggesting a strong influence of productivity gradients and water mass distribution on this oligotrophic margin. Sediment grain size was marginally important to macrofaunal composition on the upper slope. In general, macrofaunal assemblages on the slope of Espirito Santo Basin are similar to other areas of the SE Brazilian margin, but regional changes in response to productivity and depth need to be considered for management strategies in the face of increasing economic activities off-shore.

  20. Learning spaces in the countryside: university students and the Harper assemblage

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Using the concepts of affect and assemblage, this paper expands the boundaries of the geographies of education by shifting the student focus from the urban to the rural. Based on the findings of student interviews, it demonstrates how a multiscalar and diversely constituted network of material and non-material things (including buildings, animals and plants) coalesces with students to create affective atmospheres of learning in a specialist agri-food and land-based rural university. This lear...

  1. Recent disturbances augment community shifts in coral assemblages in Moorea, French Polynesia

    KAUST Repository

    Pratchett, Morgan S.; Trapon, Melanie L.; Berumen, Michael L.; Chong-Seng, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    Coral reefs are often subject to disturbances that can cause enduring changes in community structure and abundance of coral reef organisms. In Moorea, French Polynesia, frequent disturbances between 1979 and 2003 caused marked shifts in taxonomic composition of coral assemblages. This study explores recent changes in live cover and taxonomic structure of coral communities on the north coast of Moorea, French Polynesia, to assess whether coral assemblages are recovering (returning to a previous Acropora-dominated state) or continuing to move towards an alternative community structure. Coral cover declined by 29.7% between July 2003 and March 2009, mostly due to loss of Acropora and Montipora spp. Coral mortality varied among habitats, with highest levels of coral loss on the outer reef slope (7-20 m depth). In contrast, there was limited change in coral cover within the lagoon, and coral cover actually increased on the reef crest. Observed changes in coral cover and composition correspond closely with the known feeding preferences and observed spatial patterns of Acanthaster planci L., though observed coral loss also coincided with at least one episode of coral bleaching, as well as persistent populations of the corallivorous starfish Culcita novaeguineae Muller & Troschel. While climate change poses an important and significant threat to the future structure and dynamics coral reef communities, outbreaks of A. planci remain a significant cause of coral loss in Moorea. More importantly, these recent disturbances have followed long-term shifts in the structure of coral assemblages, and the relative abundance of both Pocillopora and Porites continue to increase due to disproportionate losses of Acropora and Montipora. Moreover, Pocillopora and Porites dominate assemblages of juvenile corals, suggesting that there is limited potential for a return to an Acropora-dominated state, last recorded in 1979. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Recent disturbances augment community shifts in coral assemblages in Moorea, French Polynesia

    KAUST Repository

    Pratchett, Morgan S.

    2010-09-19

    Coral reefs are often subject to disturbances that can cause enduring changes in community structure and abundance of coral reef organisms. In Moorea, French Polynesia, frequent disturbances between 1979 and 2003 caused marked shifts in taxonomic composition of coral assemblages. This study explores recent changes in live cover and taxonomic structure of coral communities on the north coast of Moorea, French Polynesia, to assess whether coral assemblages are recovering (returning to a previous Acropora-dominated state) or continuing to move towards an alternative community structure. Coral cover declined by 29.7% between July 2003 and March 2009, mostly due to loss of Acropora and Montipora spp. Coral mortality varied among habitats, with highest levels of coral loss on the outer reef slope (7-20 m depth). In contrast, there was limited change in coral cover within the lagoon, and coral cover actually increased on the reef crest. Observed changes in coral cover and composition correspond closely with the known feeding preferences and observed spatial patterns of Acanthaster planci L., though observed coral loss also coincided with at least one episode of coral bleaching, as well as persistent populations of the corallivorous starfish Culcita novaeguineae Muller & Troschel. While climate change poses an important and significant threat to the future structure and dynamics coral reef communities, outbreaks of A. planci remain a significant cause of coral loss in Moorea. More importantly, these recent disturbances have followed long-term shifts in the structure of coral assemblages, and the relative abundance of both Pocillopora and Porites continue to increase due to disproportionate losses of Acropora and Montipora. Moreover, Pocillopora and Porites dominate assemblages of juvenile corals, suggesting that there is limited potential for a return to an Acropora-dominated state, last recorded in 1979. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C; Bonzom, J-M; Della-Vedova, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Villenave, C; Gaschak, S; Coppin, F; Dubourg, N; Maksimenko, A; Adam-Guillermin, C; Garnier-Laplace, J

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h(-1). These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H'). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h(-1). This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites. This might

  4. Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic

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    Nagy John

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

  5. Markedly Divergent Tree Assemblage Responses to Tropical Forest Loss and Fragmentation across a Strong Seasonality Gradient.

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    Orihuela, Rodrigo L L; Peres, Carlos A; Mendes, Gabriel; Jarenkow, João A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of forest fragmentation on the structure and composition of tree assemblages within three seasonal and aseasonal forest types of southern Brazil, including evergreen, Araucaria, and deciduous forests. We sampled three southernmost Atlantic Forest landscapes, including the largest continuous forest protected areas within each forest type. Tree assemblages in each forest type were sampled within 10 plots of 0.1 ha in both continuous forests and 10 adjacent forest fragments. All trees within each plot were assigned to trait categories describing their regeneration strategy, vertical stratification, seed-dispersal mode, seed size, and wood density. We detected differences among both forest types and landscape contexts in terms of overall tree species richness, and the density and species richness of different functional groups in terms of regeneration strategy, seed dispersal mode and woody density. Overall, evergreen forest fragments exhibited the largest deviations from continuous forest plots in assemblage structure. Evergreen, Araucaria and deciduous forests diverge in the functional composition of tree floras, particularly in relation to regeneration strategy and stress tolerance. By supporting a more diversified light-demanding and stress-tolerant flora with reduced richness and abundance of shade-tolerant, old-growth species, both deciduous and Araucaria forest tree assemblages are more intrinsically resilient to contemporary human-disturbances, including fragmentation-induced edge effects, in terms of species erosion and functional shifts. We suggest that these intrinsic differences in the direction and magnitude of responses to changes in landscape structure between forest types should guide a wide range of conservation strategies in restoring fragmented tropical forest landscapes worldwide.

  6. Markedly Divergent Tree Assemblage Responses to Tropical Forest Loss and Fragmentation across a Strong Seasonality Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L L Orihuela

    Full Text Available We examine the effects of forest fragmentation on the structure and composition of tree assemblages within three seasonal and aseasonal forest types of southern Brazil, including evergreen, Araucaria, and deciduous forests. We sampled three southernmost Atlantic Forest landscapes, including the largest continuous forest protected areas within each forest type. Tree assemblages in each forest type were sampled within 10 plots of 0.1 ha in both continuous forests and 10 adjacent forest fragments. All trees within each plot were assigned to trait categories describing their regeneration strategy, vertical stratification, seed-dispersal mode, seed size, and wood density. We detected differences among both forest types and landscape contexts in terms of overall tree species richness, and the density and species richness of different functional groups in terms of regeneration strategy, seed dispersal mode and woody density. Overall, evergreen forest fragments exhibited the largest deviations from continuous forest plots in assemblage structure. Evergreen, Araucaria and deciduous forests diverge in the functional composition of tree floras, particularly in relation to regeneration strategy and stress tolerance. By supporting a more diversified light-demanding and stress-tolerant flora with reduced richness and abundance of shade-tolerant, old-growth species, both deciduous and Araucaria forest tree assemblages are more intrinsically resilient to contemporary human-disturbances, including fragmentation-induced edge effects, in terms of species erosion and functional shifts. We suggest that these intrinsic differences in the direction and magnitude of responses to changes in landscape structure between forest types should guide a wide range of conservation strategies in restoring fragmented tropical forest landscapes worldwide.

  7. Diversity and composition of estuarine and lagoonal fish assemblages of Socotra Island, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, E; Zajonz, U; Krupp, F; Naseeb, F; Aideed, M S

    2016-05-01

    Estuarine and lagoonal surveys of Socotra Island and selected sites on the Hadhramout coast of Yemen were conducted with the objective of documenting and analysing fish diversity and assemblage structure. A total of 74 species in 35 families were recorded, among which 65 species in 32 families were from Socotra and 20 species in 17 families were from mainland Yemen. Twenty-one species represent new faunal records for Socotra. Including historic records re-examined in this study, the total fish species richness of estuaries and lagoons of Socotra Island reaches 76, which is relatively high compared to species inventories of well-researched coastal estuaries in southern Africa. Five species dominate the occurrence and abundance frequencies: Terapon jarbua, Hyporhamphus sindensis, Aphanius dispar, Ambassis gymnocephala and Chelon macrolepis. Rarefaction and extrapolation analyses suggest that the actual number of fish species inhabiting some of those estuaries might be higher than the one observed. Thus, additional sampling at specific sites should be conducted to record other less conspicuous species. Ordination and multivariate analyses identified four main distinct assemblage clusters. Two groups are geographically well structured and represent northern Socotra and mainland Yemen, respectively. The other two assemblage groups tend to be determined to a greater extent by the synchrony between physical (e.g. estuary opening periods) and biological (e.g. spawning and recruitment periods) variables than by geographical location. Finally, the single intertidal lagoon of Socotra represents by itself a specific fish assemblage. The high proportion of economically important fish species (38) recorded underscores the paramount importance of these coastal water bodies as nursery sites, and for sustaining vital provisioning ecosystem services. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Determinants of Tree Assemblage Composition at the Mesoscale within a Subtropical Eucalypt Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hero, Jean-Marc; Butler, Sarah A.; Lollback, Gregory W.; Castley, James G.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of environmental processes, including topography, edaphic and disturbance factors can influence vegetation composition. The relative influence of these patterns has been known to vary with scale, however, few studies have focused on environmental drivers of composition at the mesoscale. This study examined the relative importance of topography, catchment flow and soil in influencing tree assemblages in Karawatha Forest Park; a South-East Queensland subtropical eucalypt forest embedded in an urban matrix that is part of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network South-East Queensland Peri-urban SuperSite. Thirty-three LTER plots were surveyed at the mesoscale (909 ha), where all woody stems ≥1.3 m high rooted within plots were sampled. Vegetation was divided into three cohorts: small (≥1–10 cm DBH), intermediate (≥10–30 cm DBH), and large (≥30 cm DBH). Plot slope, aspect, elevation, catchment area and location and soil chemistry and structure were also measured. Ordinations and smooth surface modelling were used to determine drivers of vegetation assemblage in each cohort. Vegetation composition was highly variable among plots at the mesoscale (plots systematically placed at 500 m intervals). Elevation was strongly related to woody vegetation composition across all cohorts (R2: 0.69–0.75). Other topographic variables that explained a substantial amount of variation in composition were catchment area (R2: 0.43–0.45) and slope (R2: 0.23–0.61). Soil chemistry (R2: 0.09–0.75) was also associated with woody vegetation composition. While species composition differed substantially between cohorts, the environmental variables explaining composition did not. These results demonstrate the overriding importance of elevation and other topographic features in discriminating tree assemblage patterns irrespective of tree size. The importance of soil characteristics to tree assemblages was also influenced by topography, where ridge top sites were

  9. Late Neogene leaf assemblage from Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland

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    Worobiec Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf macroremains collected in the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland were investigated. The fossil assemblage consists of leaves of Acer, Betula, Carpinus, Dicotylophyllum, Fagus, ?Magnolia, “Parrotia”, Pinus, Quercus, and Zelkova. Mesophytic (zonal elements dominate, with admixture of riparian (azonal leaf taxa. The floristic composition points to late Neogene (late Miocene to late Pliocene age and suggests favourable temperate climate with mild winters.

  10. Benthic foraminifera baseline assemblages from a coastal nearshore reef complex on the central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jamie; Perry, Chris; Smithers, Scott; Morgan, Kyle

    2016-04-01

    Declining water quality due to river catchment modification since European settlement (c. 1850 A.D.) represents a major threat to the health of coral reefs on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), particularly for those located in the coastal waters of the GBR's inner-shelf. These nearshore reefs are widely perceived to be most susceptible to declining water quality owing to their close proximity to river point sources. Despite this, nearshore reefs have been relatively poorly studied with the impacts and magnitudes of environmental degradation still remaining unclear. This is largely due to ongoing debates concerning the significance of increased sediment yields against naturally high background sedimentary regimes. Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as tools for monitoring environmental and ecological change on coral reefs. On the GBR, the majority of studies have focussed on the spatial distributions of contemporary benthic foraminiferal assemblages. While baseline assemblages from other environments (e.g. inshore reefs and mangroves) have been described, very few records exist for nearshore reefs. Here, we present preliminary results from the first palaeoecological study of foraminiferal assemblages of nearshore reefs on the central GBR. Cores were recovered from the nearshore reef complex at Paluma Shoals using percussion techniques. Recovery was 100%, capturing the entire Holocene reef sequence of the selected reef structures. Radiocarbon dating and subsequent age-depth modelling techniques were used to identify reef sequences pre-dating European settlement. Benthic foraminifera assemblages were reconstructed from the identified sequences to establish pre-European ecological baselines with the aim of providing a record of foraminiferal distribution during vertical reef accretion and against which contemporary ecological change may be assessed.

  11. Demersal fish assemblages on seamounts and other rugged features in the northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, Andrea M.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Singer, Randal; Roa-Varon, Adela; Chaytor, Jason D.

    2017-05-01

    Recent investigations of demersal fish communities in deepwater (>50 m) habitats have considerably increased our knowledge of the factors that influence the assemblage structure of fishes across mesophotic to deep-sea depths. While different habitat types influence deepwater fish distribution, whether different types of rugged seafloor features provide functionally equivalent habitat for fishes is poorly understood. In the northeastern Caribbean, different types of rugged features (e.g., seamounts, banks, canyons) punctuate insular margins, and thus create a remarkable setting in which to compare demersal fish communities across various features. Concurrently, several water masses are vertically layered in the water column, creating strong stratification layers corresponding to specific abiotic conditions. In this study, we examined differences among fish assemblages across different features (e.g., seamount, canyon, bank/ridge) and water masses at depths ranging from 98 to 4060 m in the northeastern Caribbean. We conducted 26 remotely operated vehicle dives across 18 sites, identifying 156 species of which 42% of had not been previously recorded from particular depths or localities in the region. While rarefaction curves indicated fewer species at seamounts than at other features in the NE Caribbean, assemblage structure was similar among the different types of features. Thus, similar to seamount studies in other regions, seamounts in the Anegada Passage do not harbor distinct communities from other types of rugged features. Species assemblages, however, differed among depths, with zonation generally corresponding to water mass boundaries in the region. High species turnover occurred at depths <1200 m, and may be driven by changes in water mass characteristics including temperature (4.8-24.4 °C) and dissolved oxygen (2.2-9.5 mg per l). Our study suggests the importance of water masses in influencing community structure of benthic fauna, while considerably adding

  12. Host trait combinations drive abundance and canopy distribution of atmospheric bromeliad assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Cleber Juliano Neves; Dyonisio, Júlio César; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytes are strongly dependent on the conditions created by their host's traits and a certain degree of specificity is expected between them, even if these species are largely abundant in a series of tree hosts of a given environment, as in the case of atmospheric bromeliads. Despite their considerable abundance in these environments, we hypothesize that stochasticity alone cannot explain the presence and abundance of atmospheric bromeliads on host trees, since host traits could have a greater influence on the establishment of these bromeliads. We used secondary and reforested seasonal forests and three distinct silvicultures to test whether species richness, phylogenetic diversity and functional diversity of trees can predict the differential presence, abundance and distribution of atmospheric bromeliads on hosts. We compared the observed parameters of their assemblage with null models and performed successive variance hierarchic partitions of abundance and distribution of the assemblage to detect the influence of multiple traits of the tree hosts. Our results do not indicate direct relationships between the abundance of atmospheric bromeliads and phylogenetic or functional diversity of trees, but instead indicate that bromeliads occurred on fewer tree species than expected by chance. We distinguished functional tree patterns that can improve or reduce the abundance of atmospheric bromeliads, and change their distribution on branches and trunk. While individual tree traits are related to increased abundance, species traits are related to the canopy distribution of atmospheric bromeliad assemblages. A balance among these tree functional patterns drives the atmospheric bromeliad assemblage of the forest patches. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  13. Large-Scale Assessment of Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas Effects on Fish Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide. PMID:24740479

  14. Ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce embayments, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Ureña, H

    1996-12-01

    Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in December (rainy season), 1993 and February (dry season), 1994, during the RV Victor Hensen German-Costa Rican Expedition to the Gulf of Nicoya and Gulfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Samples from the inner, central, and outer areas of each gulf were collected in oblique tows with a bongo net of 0.6 m mouth diameter, 2.5 m long and 1000-micron mesh. A total of 416 fish larvae of 22 families were sorted out of 14 samples. Stations of both the maximum (11) and the minimum (1) family richness were located in Golfo Dulce. Mean total larval abundances were 124.9 and 197.2 individuals 10 m-2 for the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce, respectively, while mean larval densities ranged from 95.3 larvae 10 m-2 in December to 236.7 larvae 10 m-2 in February. However, no statistical differences between gulfs or seasons were detected, due to the high within-group variability. Cluster Analysis, Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), and non-parametric tests showed two well-defined major groups: (1) the Gulf of Nicoya neritic assemblage, represented by Engraulids, Sciaenids, and Gobiids (inner and central stations), and (2) the oceanic assemblage, dominated by Myctophids, Bregmacerotids, Ophiidids, and Trichiurids (outer stations off the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce). A third, although less defined group, was an Ophichthid-dominated assemblage (typical in areas nearby coral or rocky reefs). These assemblages closely resemble the clusters based upon adult fish data of the beamtrawl catches of the same cruise. This publication is the first to report on the ichthyoplankton community of Golfo Dulce.

  15. Factors affecting assemblage attributes of freshwater Oligochaeta in Neotropical shallow floodplain lakes

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    Vanessa Ernandes de Amo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Identify the effects of sediment composition and water conditions on diversity, richness, evenness, density and composition of freshwater Oligochaeta in shallow floodplain lakes. Methods We sampled 13 shallow floodplain lakes quarterly during the year 2010 in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. In each lake, four sediment samples were taken from the shore and central regions, three of them were used for biological analysis, and one for granulometric analysis. Concomitantly, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, turbidity and chlorophyll-a were also measured. Initially, the biological samples were analyzed by a stereoscopic microscope. Oligochaeta individuals were identified under optical microscope at the lowest possible taxonomic level. For data analysis, we quantified density, richness, evenness and diversity index of freshwater Oligochaeta. In order to show differences between the months and the analyzed lakes, in relation to the percentages of coarse and fine organic material, the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test was used. We also calculated the sediment granulometric diversity using the Shannon-Wienner index, using a simple regression analysis. We correlated assemblage attributes of Oligochaeta with sediment diversity and the assemblage species with the limnological variables using the Spearman correlation. Results A total of 2,090 individuals were found distributed among 27 species. From the total individuals number, 57% were Pristina americana, followed by Dero (Dero righii with 13%. Assemblage attributes were not significantly correlated with sediment diversity, and 7 of the 27 species recorded showed significant correlations with at least some of the abiotic variables. Conclusions We verified that the abiotic variables of the water present greater influence on the attributes of the assemblage of freshwater Oligochaeta, when compared with sediment influences. Although we found low local diversity of

  16. Assessing effects of stocked trout on nongame fish assemblages in southern Appalachian Mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries managers are faced with the challenge of balancing the management of recreational fisheries with that of conserving native species and preserving ecological integrity. The negative effects that nonnative trout species exert on native trout are well documented and include alteration of competitive interactions, habitat use, and production. However, the effects that nonnative trout may exert on nongame fish assemblages are poorly understood. Our objectives were to quantify the effects of trout stocking on native nongame fish assemblages intensively on one newly stocked river, the North Toe River, North Carolina, and extensively on other southern Appalachian Mountain streams that are annually stocked with trout. In the intensive study, we adopted a before-after, control-impact (BACI) experimental design to detect short-term effects on the nongame fish assemblage and found no significant differences in fish density, species richness, species diversity, or fish microhabitat use associated with trout stocking. We observed differences in fish microhabitat use between years, however, which suggests there is a response to environmental changes, such as the flow regime, which influence available habitat. In the extensive study, we sampled paired stocked and unstocked stream reaches to detect long-term effects from trout stocking; however, we detected no differences in nongame fish density, species richness, species diversity, or population size structure between paired sites. Our results revealed high inherent system variation caused by natural and anthropogenic factors that appear to overwhelm any acute or chronic effect of stocked trout. Furthermore, hatchery-reared trout may be poor competitors in a natural setting and exert a minimal or undetectable impact on native fish assemblages in these streams. These findings provide quantitative results necessary to assist agencies in strategic planning and decision making associated with trout fisheries, stream

  17. Assemblage of drosophilids (Diptera, Drosophilidae inhabiting flooded and nonflooded areas in the extreme South of Brazil

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    L.B. Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several studies on the potential use of drosophilid assemblages as bioindicator systems have been carried out in the last years. Nevertheless, the successful application of these organisms in these systems requires adequate filling of several knowledge gaps. In this sense, little is known about drosophilid assemblages in wetlands and flooded areas. The present study provides the first survey of drosophilid species inhabiting such environments in the extreme South of Brazil and compares general beta-diversity patterns between assemblages of flooded versus nonflooded areas. The specimens were collected with banana-baited traps, and the assemblages recovered in eight wetlands of the southernmost coast of Brazil were compared to those recovered from seven nonflooded areas of the Pampa and Atlantic Forest biomes. A total of 5028 and 2571 individuals encompassing 27 and 37 species were collected in the flooded and nonflooded areas, respectively. The differential species composition patterns presented between these areas was statistically supported, which seems to be related to the lower beta-diversity presented by swamps, especially in regard to dominance patterns. So, the open and climatically harsher environment provided by wetlands possibly constitutes a hostile environment for the entry and, mainly, for the persistence of several native Drosophilidae species, in contrast to some exotic and more plastic species (as Drosophila simulans and Zaprionus indianus. Since the diversity gradient of flooded areas does not seem to be related to the conservation status of the swamp, our results question the use of Drosophilidae species as bioindicators of environmental disturbance and antropic influence in wetlands.

  18. Viral infections stimulate the metabolism and shape prokaryotic assemblages in submarine mud volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    Mud volcanoes are geological structures in the oceans that have key roles in the functioning of the global ecosystem. Information on the dynamics of benthic viruses and their interactions with prokaryotes in mud volcano ecosystems is still completely lacking. We investigated the impact of viral infection on the mortality and assemblage structure of benthic prokaryotes of five mud volcanoes in the Mediterranean Sea. Mud volcano sediments promote high rates of viral production (1.65-7.89 × 10(9) viruses g(-1) d(-1)), viral-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM) (33% cells killed per day) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (3.0-8.3 μgC g(-1) d(-1)) when compared with sediments outside the mud volcano area. The viral shunt (that is, the microbial biomass converted into dissolved organic matter as a result of viral infection, and thus diverted away from higher trophic levels) provides 49 mgC m(-2) d(-1), thus fuelling the metabolism of uninfected prokaryotes and contributing to the total C budget. Bacteria are the dominant components of prokaryotic assemblages in surface sediments of mud volcanoes, whereas archaea dominate the subsurface sediment layers. Multivariate multiple regression analyses show that prokaryotic assemblage composition is not only dependant on the geochemical features and processes of mud volcano ecosystems but also on synergistic interactions between bottom-up (that is, trophic resources) and top-down (that is, VIPM) controlling factors. Overall, these findings highlight the significant role of the viral shunt in sustaining the metabolism of prokaryotes and shaping their assemblage structure in mud volcano sediments, and they provide new clues for our understanding of the functioning of cold-seep ecosystems.

  19. The Pollination Ecology of an Assemblage of Grassland Asclepiads in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    OLLERTON, JEFF; JOHNSON, STEVEN D.; CRANMER, LOUISE; KELLIE, SAM

    2003-01-01

    The KwaZulu‐Natal region of South Africa hosts a large diversity of asclepiads (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), many of which are endemic to the area. The asclepiads are of particular interest because of their characteristically highly evolved floral morphology. During 3 months of fieldwork (November 2000 to January 2001) the flower visitors and pollinators to an assemblage of nine asclepiads at an upland grassland site were studied. These observations were augmented by laboratory studies of f...

  20. The heterogeneity of wooded-agricultural landscape mosaics influences woodland bird community assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Jessica L.; Griffiths, Geoffrey H.; Foster, Christopher W.; Holloway, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Context\\ud Landscape heterogeneity (the composition and configuration of different landcover types) plays a key role in shaping woodland bird assemblages in wooded-agricultural mosaics. Understanding how species respond to landscape factors could contribute to preventing further decline of woodland bird populations.\\ud Objective\\ud To investigate how woodland birds with different species traits respond to landscape heterogeneity, and to identify whether specific landcover types are important ...

  1. Downstream effects of hydropower production on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two rivers in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Ulloa, Ramsa; Umaña-Villalobos, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2014-04-01

    Despite the fact that little is known about the consequences of hydropower production in tropical areas, many large dams (> 15 m high) are currently under construction or consideration in the tropics. We researched the effects of large hydroelectric dams on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two Costa Rican rivers. We measured physicochemical characteristics and sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates from March 2003 to March 2004 in two dammed rivers, Peñas Blancas and San Lorenzo, as well as in the undammed Chachagua River. Sites above and below the dam had differences in their physicochemical variables, with wide variation and extreme values in variables measured below the dam in the San Lorenzo River. Sites below the dams had reduced water discharges, velocities, and depths when compared with sites above the dams, as well as higher temperatures and conductivity. Sites above dams were dominated by collector-gatherer-scrapers and habitat groups dominated by swimmer-clingers, while sites below dams had a more even representation of groups. In contrast, a comparison between two sites at different elevation in the undammed river maintained a similar assemblage composition. Tributaries might facilitate macroinvertebrate recovery above the turbine house, but the assemblage below the turbine house resembled the one below the dam. A massive sediment release event from the dam decreased the abundance per sample and macroinvertebrate taxa below the dam in the Peñas Blancas River. Our study illustrates the effects of hydropower production on neotropical rivers, highlighting the importance of using multiple measures of macroinvertebrate assemblage structure for assessing this type of environmental impact.

  2. Ecological shifts in Mediterranean coralligenous assemblages related to gorgonian forest loss.

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    Massimo Ponti

    Full Text Available Mediterranean gorgonian forests are threatened by several human activities and are affected by climatic anomalies that have led to mass mortality events in recent decades. The ecological role of these habitats and the possible consequence of their loss are poorly understood. Effects of gorgonians on the recruitment of epibenthic organisms were investigated by manipulating presence of gorgonians on experimental panels at 24 m depth, for Eunicella cavolinii, and at 40 m depth, for Paramuricea clavata, at two sites: Tavolara Island (Tyrrhenian Sea and Portofino Promontory (Ligurian Sea. After 4 months, the most abundant taxa on the panels were encrusting green algae, erect red algae and crustose coralline algae at 24 m depth and encrusting brown algae and erect red algae at 40 m depth. Assemblages on the panels were significantly affected by the presence of the gorgonians, although effects varied across sites and between gorgonian species. Species diversity and evenness were lower on panels with gorgonian branches. Growth of erect algae and recruitment of serpulid polychaetes were also affected by the presence of the gorgonians, primarily at Tavolara. Crustose coralline algae and erect sponges were more abundant on E. cavolinii panels at 24 m depth, while encrusting bryozoans were more abundant on P. clavata panels at 40 m depth. Effects of gorgonians on recruited assemblages could be due to microscale modification of hydrodynamics and sediment deposition rate, or by a shading effect reducing light intensity. Gorgonians may also intercept settling propagules, compete for food with the filter-feeders and/or for space by producing allelochemicals. Presence of gorgonians mainly limits the growth of erect algae and enhances the abundance of encrusting algae and sessile invertebrates. Therefore, the gorgonian disappearances may cause a shift from assemblages characterised by crustose coralline algae to filamentous algae assemblages, decreasing

  3. Disentangling the effects of a century of eutrophication and climate warming on freshwater lake fish assemblages.

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    Peter C Jacobson

    Full Text Available Eutrophication and climate warming are profoundly affecting fish in many freshwater lakes. Understanding the specific effects of these stressors is critical for development of effective adaptation and remediation strategies for conserving fish populations in a changing environment. Ecological niche models that incorporated the individual effects of nutrient concentration and climate were developed for 25 species of fish sampled in standard gillnet surveys from 1,577 Minnesota lakes. Lake phosphorus concentrations and climates were hindcasted to a pre-disturbance period of 1896-1925 using existing land use models and historical temperature data. Then historical fish assemblages were reconstructed using the ecological niche models. Substantial changes were noted when reconstructed fish assemblages were compared to those from the contemporary period (1981-2010. Disentangling the sometimes opposing, sometimes compounding, effects of eutrophication and climate warming was critical for understanding changes in fish assemblages. Reconstructed abundances of eutrophication-tolerant, warmwater taxa increased in prairie lakes that experienced significant eutrophication and climate warming. Eutrophication-intolerant, warmwater taxa abundance increased in forest lakes where primarily climate warming was the stressor. Coolwater fish declined in abundance in both ecoregions. Large changes in modeled abundance occurred when the effects of both climate and eutrophication operated in the same direction for some species. Conversely, the effects of climate warming and eutrophication operated in opposing directions for other species and dampened net changes in abundance. Quantifying the specific effects of climate and eutrophication will allow water resource managers to better understand how lakes have changed and provide expectations for sustainable fish assemblages in the future.

  4. Human impacts on functional and taxonomic homogenization of plateau fish assemblages in Yunnan, China

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    Guohuan Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human activities and the consequent extinctions of native species and invasions of non-native species have been changing the composition of species assemblages worldwide. These anthropogenic impacts alter not only the richness of assemblages but also the biological dissimilarity among them. However, much of the research effort to date has focused on changes in taxonomic dissimilarity (i.e. accounting for species composition whether assessments of functional dissimilarity (i.e. accounting for the diversity of biological traits are much more scarce, despite revealing important complimentary information by accounting for changes in the diversity of biological traits. Here, we assess the temporal (1950s against 2000s changes in both taxonomic and functional dissimilarities of freshwater fish assemblages across lakes from the Yunnan Plateau in China. The Jaccard index to quantify the changes in both taxonomic and functional dissimilarity. We then partitioned dissimilarity to extract its turnover component and measured the changes in the contribution of turnover to dissimilarity. We found that functional and taxonomic homogenization occurred simultaneously. However, patterns between these two processes differed for some lakes. Taxonomic and functional homogenizations were stronger when the historical level of taxonomic dissimilarity among assemblages was high. The impact of extinctions of native species and invasions of non-native species on homogenization was otherwise complex to disentangle with no significant effect of any of the studied environmental factors. In agreement with other studies, our study proved that change in taxonomic dissimilarity cannot be used to predict changes in functional dissimilarity and, as an indicator of ecosystem functioning, functional dissimilarity should be used together with taxonomic dissimilarity to attain a more holistic understanding of human impacts on natural ecosystems.

  5. On the Geological Age of the Sundyr Faunal Assemblage of Permian Tetrapods from the East European Platform

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    Golubev V.K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new Sundyr faunal assemblage of Permian tetrapods was discovered in Eastern Europe. It includes dinocephalians Titanosuchia fam. indet., tapinocephalians aff. Ulemosauridae, anomodontians aff. Suminia, therocephalians, gorgonopians Burnetioidea fam. indet., diapsids ? Eosuchia, chroniosuchians Suchonica vladimiri Golubev, enosuchids aff. Enosuchus, seymouriamorphs Microphon exiguus Ivachnenko and Leptoropha aff. talonophora, batrachomorphs Dvinosaurus sp. The Sundyr assemblage is a transitional one from the Isheevo to Sokolki assemblages. It is described as the last stage of evolution undergone by the dinocephalian community of tetrapods in Eastern Europe. Based on the bio- and magnetostratigraphic data, the beds with Sundyr tetrapod fauna pertain to the lower part of the Upper Severodvinian (= Putyatinian regional stage. These strata were distinguished into a new Suchonica vladimiri tetrapod assemblage zone. In the Sukhona River basin, the beds with Sundyr tetrapod fossils were distinguished into a new Ustpoldarsa Member of the Poldarsa Formation.

  6. Butterfly (Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) assemblages associated with natural, exotic, and restored riparian habitats along the lower Colorado River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.M.; Andersen, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Butterfly assemblages were used to compare revegetated and natural riparian areas along the lower Colorado River. Species richness and correspondence analyses of assemblages showed that revegetated sites had fewer biological elements than more natural sites along the Bill Williams River. Data suggest that revegetated sites do not provide resources needed by some members of the butterfly assemblage, especially those species historically associated with the cottonwood/willow ecosystem. Revegetated sites generally lacked nectar resources, larval host plants, and closed canopies. The riparian system along the regulated river segment that contains these small revegetated sites also appears to have diminished habitat heterogeneity and uncoupled riparian corridors.Revegetated sites were static environments without the successional stages caused by flooding disturbance found in more natural systems. We hypothesize that revegetation coupled with a more natural hydrology is important for restoration of butterfly assemblages along the lower Colorado River. 

  7. Foraminiferal assemblages and their use as indicators of sediments movement: a study in the shelf region off Navapur, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    water runoff and organic matter content in the sediments. A comparison of living and dead tests distribution of important assemblages indicates movement of sediment towards east southeast and thus a current. The study is particularly important...

  8. Environmental gradients structure gorgonian assemblages on coral reefs in SE Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Sonia J.

    2018-06-01

    Indonesian coral reefs are the epicenter of marine biodiversity, yet are under rapid anthropogenically induced decline. Therefore, ecological monitoring of high diversity taxa is paramount to facilitate effective management and conservation. This study presents an initial report from a comprehensive survey of shallow-water (0-15 m) gorgonian assemblage composition and structure across sites with varying habitat quality within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), SE Sulawesi, Indonesia. Current estimates of over 90 morphospecies from 38 genera and 12 families within the calcaxonian, holaxonian and scleraxonian groups are reported. This extensive survey confirms high local gorgonian abundance, diversity and species richness in the absence of anthropogenic influence and increasing with depth. Notably, morphological variants of the zooxanthellate species Isis hippuris Linnaeus, 1758, and Briareum Blainville, 1830, drive site and habitat assemblage differences across environmental gradients. Azooxanthellate taxa, particularly within the Plexauridae, drive species richness and diversity with depth. Of the 14 predictor variables measured, benthic characteristics, water flow and natural light explained just 30% of gorgonian assemblage structure. Furthermore, zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate taxa partitioned distinct gorgonian communities into two trophic groups—autotrophs and heterotrophs, respectively—with contrasting diversity and abundance patterns within and between study sites. This study strongly supports the WMNP as an area of high regional gorgonian abundance and diversity. Varying ecological patterns across environmental clines can provide the foundation for future research and conservation management strategies in some of the most biodiverse marine ecosystems in the world.

  9. Seasonal fluctuations of ichthyoplankton assemblage in the northeastern South China Sea influenced by the Kuroshio intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Delian; Zhang, Xia; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Arbi, Iman; Jiang, Xin; Huang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Wenjing

    2017-09-01

    The distribution and assemblage of ichthyoplankton related to local hydrographic features, especially intrusion of the Kuroshio Current (KC) and Guangdong Coastal Current (GCC) in the northeastern South China Sea (NESCS) were investigated in this study. A total of 193 species of ichthyoplankton belonging to 141 genera and 66 families were recognized in summer 2015 and late-winter 2016. The ichthyoplankton assemblage was identified with distinct seasonal differences, and the differences were responded well with the oceanography conditions. In summer, the assemblages were identified into offshore and inshore groups, as controlled by the South China Sea Warm Current (SCSWC) in off-shelf, upwelling, and the diluted water from the Pearl River in inshore. In winter, three groups were divided, representing the southwestern inshore, intrusion of the KC in the eastern offshore, and the GCC in the northern inshore area, respectively. Furthermore, Sigmops gracilis and Vinciguerria sp.3 were probably brought into the NESCS by intrusion of the KC from the eastern Luzon Strait. In addition, high ichthyoplankton abundance was found in high chlorophyll a located in upwelling areas in the northern coastal area in summer and in the southwestern Taiwan Bank in winter, respectively. The nutrition outcropped by the upwelling together, and those brought from the Pearl River probably supported high food availability of the ichthyoplankton in the northern coast of the NESCS.

  10. Effects of anthropogenic impacts on benthic macroinvertebrates assemblages in subtropical mountain streams

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    Leticia M. Mesa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the riparian and surrounding landscape has been modified by anthropogenic activities, which may subsequently alter the composition and functional structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages. The effect of these changes on function of benthic fauna is difficult to assess due to the scarce knowledge on functional structures in tropical streams. In this study we evaluate whether sites impacted and unimpacted by anthropogenic alterations differed in assemblage composition and density, richness and diversity of each functional feeding group. The selection of the sites was related to their distinct riparian characteristics, following the QBRy riparian quality index. Collector-gatherer was the dominant functional feeding group, comprising 91% of total density, whereas the proportion of shredders was very low, representing less of 0.5% of total density. Asemblage composition of macroinvertebrates differed between impacted and unimpacted sites. Predators were dominant in taxa number, representing about 60% of total taxa richness. In addition, the diversity and richness of collector-gatherers differed significantly between degraded and unimpacted sites, reflecting the sensitivity of this group to environmental changes and the utility to be used in the assessment of anthropogenic modifications. The results of this study reinforce the idea that riparian corridor management is critical for the distribution of macroinvertebrate assemblages as well as functional organization of lotic streams.

  11. Cost-benefit of three different methods for studying Mediterranean rocky benthic assemblages

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    Natàlia Sant

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we compare the applicability, the information provided and the cost-benefit of three sampling methods usually used in the study of rocky benthic assemblages. For comparative purposes, sampling was performed seasonally and along a depth gradient (0-50 m in the Cabrera Archipelago (western Mediterranean. The destructive scraping (collection method was the least cost-effective but provided the best qualitative and quantitative information. The in situ visual method was the most time-effective but provided low levels of taxonomic resolution and its accuracy decreased with depth due to the increasing difficulty of recognizing species in situ due to nitrogen narcosis, reduced light and cold. The photoquadrat method showed intermediate values of cost-effectiveness and information but was not suitable for multilayered assemblages, as it only accounted for the overstory. A canonical correspondence analysis showed that depth was highlighted as the main environmental gradient (16.0% of variance by the three methods. However, differences due to the sampling method (7.9% of variance were greater than differences due to temporal variability (5.8% of variance, suggesting that the three methods are valid but their selection has to be carefully assessed in relation to the targeted assemblages and the specific goals of each study.

  12. Impacts of shrimp farming cultivation cycles on macrobenthic assemblages and chemistry of sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Luisa F.; Eça, Gilmara F.; Barros, Francisco; Hatje, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a shrimp farm cultivation cycle in the composition of sediments and on the structure of macrobenthic assemblages. Concentrations of nutrients, Zn and Cu were significantly higher in impact than control areas. In general, the level of contaminants was highest during the harvesting period and in sites closest to the discharge of effluents. Abundances and number of taxa of benthic invertebrates were at least one order of magnitude smaller in impacted areas than in controls. The structure of the benthic assemblages was significantly different at these two treatments. The combined use of biological and chemical data showed to be efficient to provide precise answers regarding the extent of impacts caused by shrimp cultivation. The results provide the basis for a better understanding of impacts of this activity and can subsidize the development of better management practices for coastal areas. - Highlights: • Aquaculture impacts significantly the ecosystems that surround a shrimp farm. • Negative impacts were observed through contamination and benthic macrofauna. • Concentrations of metals and nutrients were higher in impact than control sites. • Negative impacts changed the structure of benthic assemblages. • Regulation is urgently needed to avoid the jeopardizing of ecosystem services. - The combined use of biological and chemical data showed to be efficient to provide precise answers regarding the extent of temporal and spatial impacts caused by shrimp cultivation.

  13. Hyporheic invertebrate assemblages at reach scale in a Neotropical stream in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, R; Messana, G; Di Lorenzo, T

    2015-11-01

    In the Neotropical Region, information concerning hyporheic communities is virtually non-existent. We carried out a sampling survey in the hyporheic zone of the Tijuca River, in the Tijuca National Park, located in the urban area of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Biological samples from the hyporheic zone were collected in three different stream reaches, in June 2012. The main objectives were: 1) to describe the structure of invertebrate assemblages in the hyporheic zone of a neotropical stream; 2) to apply a reach-scale approach in order to investigate spatial patterns of the hyporheic assemblages in relation to hydrology, depth and microhabitat typology. A total of 1460 individuals were collected and identified in 31 taxa belonging to Nematoda, Annelida, Crustacea, Hydrachnidia and Insecta. The class Insecta dominated the upper layer of the hyporheic zone. Copepods were the most abundant taxon among crustaceans and occurred mostly in the upwelling areas of the reaches. The results of this study represent one of the few contributions so far about hyporheic invertebrate assemblages of the Neotropical Region.

  14. Consequences of organ choice in describing bacterial pathogen assemblages in a rodent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villette, P; Afonso, E; Couval, G; Levret, A; Galan, M; Tatard, C; Cosson, J F; Giraudoux, P

    2017-10-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies now allow for rapid cost-effective surveys of multiple pathogens in many host species including rodents, but it is currently unclear if the organ chosen for screening influences the number and identity of bacteria detected. We used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to identify bacterial pathogens in the heart, liver, lungs, kidneys and spleen of 13 water voles (Arvicola terrestris) collected in Franche-Comté, France. We asked if bacterial pathogen assemblages within organs are similar and if all five organs are necessary to detect all of the bacteria present in an individual animal. We identified 24 bacteria representing 17 genera; average bacterial richness for each organ ranged from 1·5 ± 0·4 (mean ± standard error) to 2·5 ± 0·4 bacteria/organ and did not differ significantly between organs. The average bacterial richness when organ assemblages were pooled within animals was 4·7 ± 0·6 bacteria/animal; Operational Taxonomic Unit accumulation analysis indicates that all five organs are required to obtain this. Organ type influences bacterial assemblage composition in a systematic way (PERMANOVA, 999 permutations, pseudo-F 4,51 = 1·37, P = 0·001). Our results demonstrate that the number of organs sampled influences the ability to detect bacterial pathogens, which can inform sampling decisions in public health and wildlife ecology.

  15. Seasonal variability of rocky reef fish assemblages: Detecting functional and structural changes due to fishing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Sofia; Pais, Miguel Pessanha; Costa, Maria José; Cabral, Henrique Nogueira

    2013-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of seasonal variation on the stability of fish-based metrics and their capability to detect changes in fish assemblages, which is yet poorly understood despite the general idea that guilds are more resilient to natural variability than species abundances. Three zones subject to different levels of fishing pressure inside the Arrábida Marine Protected Area (MPA) were sampled seasonally. The results showed differences between warm (summer and autumn) and cold (winter and spring) seasons, with the autumn clearly standing out. In general, the values of the metrics density of juveniles, density of invertebrate feeders and density of omnivores increased in warm seasons, which can be attributed to differences in recruitment patterns, spawning migrations and feeding activity among seasons. The density of generalist/opportunistic individuals was sensitive to the effect of fishing, with higher values at zones with the lowest level of protection, while the density of individuals with high commercial value only responded to fishing in the autumn, due to a cumulative result of both juveniles and adults abundances during this season. Overall, this study showed that seasonal variability affects structural and functional features of the fish assemblage and that might influence the detection of changes as a result of anthropogenic pressures. The choice of a specific season, during warm sea conditions after the spawning period (July-October), seems to be more adequate to assess changes on rocky-reef fish assemblages.

  16. Balanced Fertilization Decreases Environmental Filtering on Soil Bacterial Community Assemblage in North China

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    Youzhi Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although increasing evidences have emerged for responses of soil microorganisms to fertilizations, the knowledge regarding community assemblages that cause variations in composition is still lacking, as well as the possible feedback to soil fertility. Phylogenetic conservatism of species indicates their similar environmental preferences and/or function traits and phylogenetic signals further can infer community assemblages and influenced ecological processes. Here, we calculated the mean pairwise phylogenetic distance and nearest relative index, characterizing phylogenetic signal and the undergone ecological process to evaluate the community assembly of soil bacterial phylotypes in 20-year fertilized soils. The bacterial community assembly is structured by environmental filtering, regardless of fertilization regime. Soil phosphorous (P availability imposes selection on community assemblage and influences their community turnover among fertilizations. When P nutrient lacks, the effect of environmental filtering becomes stronger, hence bacterial functional traits become more coherent; this process results into increased intraspecific interactions characterized by co-occurrence network analysis. In contrast, when P nutrient becomes abundant, the environmental selection is mitigated; function traits are evened. This process reduces intraspecific interactions and increases carbon sequestration efficiency, which is finally of great favor to the increases in soil fertility. This study has made the first attempt, at the bacterial level, to understand how fertilization affects agroecosystems. When more phylogenetic information on how nutrient cycling-related microbes respond to fertilization becomes available, the systematic knowledge will eventually provide guidance to optimal fertilization strategies.

  17. Testing the effect of habitat structure and complexity on nekton assemblages using experimental oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Austin T.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Kimball, Matthew E.; Rozas, Lawrence P.

    2011-01-01

    Structurally complex habitats are often associated with more diverse and abundant species assemblages in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Biogenic reefs formed by the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) are complex in nature and are recognized for their potential habitat value in estuarine systems along the US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Few studies, however, have examined the response of nekton to structural complexity within oyster reefs. We used a quantitative sampling technique to examine how the presence and complexity of experimental oyster reefs influence the abundance, biomass, and distribution of nekton by sampling reefs 4 months and 16 months post-construction. Experimental oyster reefs were colonized immediately by resident fishes and decapod crustaceans, and reefs supported a distinct nekton assemblage compared to mud-bottom habitat. Neither increased reef complexity, nor age of the experimental reef resulted in further changes in nekton assemblages or increases in nekton abundance or diversity. The presence of oyster reefs per se was the most important factor determining nekton usage.

  18. Benthic assemblages of rock pools in northern Portugal: seasonal and between-pool variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Bertocci

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal (winter vs summer and within season and spatial (between-pool variability of benthic assemblages of rock pools at mid-intertidal level along the shore of Viana do Castelo (North Portugal. Physical traits of rock pools, including size, depth and position along the shore, were also compared between pools. While pools did not differ for any of the examined physical traits, results indicated a clear seasonal difference in the structure of assemblages, including a total of 49 macroalgal and 13 animal taxa. This finding was driven by six taxa that are more abundant in winter (the reef-forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata, the articulated coralline algae Corallina spp., the brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata, the encrusting coralline alga Lithophyllum incrustans, the red alga Chondracanthus acicularis and the grazing snails Gibbula spp. and four algal taxa that are more abundant in summer (the invasive brown Sargassum muticum, the green Ulva spp., the kelp Laminaria ochroleuca and the filamentous red Ceramium spp.. These data provide a new contribution to the knowledge of rock pool systems and have potential implications for monitoring programmes aimed at assessing ecological modifications related to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and for identifying processes responsible for the variability of rock pool assemblages.

  19. Characteristics of the mesophotic megabenthic assemblages of the vercelli seamount (north tyrrhenian sea.

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    Marzia Bo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of the megabenthic assemblages of the mesophotic zone of a Tyrrhenian seamount (Vercelli Seamount is described using Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV video imaging from 100 m depth to the top of the mount around 61 m depth. This pinnacle hosts a rich coralligenous community characterized by three different assemblages: (i the top shows a dense covering of the kelp Laminaria rodriguezii; (ii the southern side biocoenosis is mainly dominated by the octocorals Paramuricea clavata and Eunicella cavolinii; while (iii the northern side of the seamount assemblage is colonized by active filter-feeding organisms such as sponges (sometimes covering 100% of the surface with numerous colonies of the ascidian Diazona violacea, and the polychaete Sabella pavonina. This study highlights, also for a Mediterranean seamount, the potential role of an isolated rocky peak penetrating the euphotic zone, to work as an aggregating structure, hosting abundant benthic communities dominated by suspension feeders, whose distribution may vary in accordance to the geomorphology of the area and the different local hydrodynamic conditions.

  20. Calling phenology of a diverse amphibian assemblage in response to meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenderleith, T. Lynette; Stratford, Danial; Lollback, Gregory W.; Chapple, David G.; Reina, Richard D.; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2017-12-01

    The strong association between amphibian activity, breeding and recruitment with local environmental conditions raises concerns regarding how changes in climate may affect the persistence of species populations into the future. Additionally, in a highly diverse assemblage of anurans, competition for breeding sites affects the time and duration of activity, as species compete for limited resources such as water. Meteorological conditions are strong drivers of amphibian activity, so we assessed whether temperature, rainfall, atmospheric pressure and humidity were associated with the calling phenology of an assemblage of anurans in South East Queensland, Australia. We performed calling surveys and collected digital recordings at 45 ponds in an area known for high anuran diversity. We performed detection analyses to investigate the influence of 10 meteorological variables in detection of calling activity in 19 amphibian species. Our results suggest four breeding strategies in the assemblage: explosive summer breeders, prolonged breeders, opportunistic breeders and a winter breeder. Classifying these species into associations provides a framework for understanding how species respond to environmental conditions. Explosive breeders (i.e. species demonstrating short and highly synchronised breeding periods) were particularly responsive to temperature. Our findings help elucidate the breeding phenology of frogs and provide valuable information on their mating systems in native Australian forests. This study highlights the difficulties of surveying even common anurans. We highlight the importance of predictability and stability in climate and the vulnerability of species for which reproduction appears to require highly specific environmental cues.

  1. How complementary are epibenthic assemblages in artificial and nearby natural rocky reefs?

    KAUST Repository

    Carvalho, Susana

    2013-12-01

    The present study analyses the composition, structure and trophic function of epibenthic assemblages in two artificial reefs (ARs) 16 years after deployment and in nearby natural reefs (NRs), aiming at providing insights on the complementarity between both habitats. Current findings suggest that after 16 years the ARs (concrete blocks), located in southern Portugal, do not act as surrogates for NRs, as epibenthic assemblages differed between reef types in composition, structure and trophic function. NRs showed higher diversity and complementarity (i.e. beta-diversity) than ARs, evidencing higher redundancy. Higher heterogeneity within NRs was also evidenced by the multi-dimensional scaling analysis based on abundance, biomass and trophic composition. NRs presented higher abundance of molluscs and biomass of sponges, resulting in differences in the trophic function: suspension-feeding dominated the NRs, while within ARs there was an ascendency of carnivory. Although not acting as surrogates for NRs and provided that no adverse effects (e.g. establishment of non-native species) were detected, ARs may have a significant contribution for the increase of regional diversity, as evidenced by the highest complementarity levels observed between assemblages in both reefs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effects of CO2 hydrate on deep-sea foraminiferal assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricketts, E. R.; Kennett, J. P.; Hill, T. M.; Barry, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    This study, conducted with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), is the first to investigate potential effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrates on benthic microfossils, specifically oraminifera. The experiment was conducted in September 2003 aboard the R/V Western Flier using the ROV Tiburon. Experimental (CO2 exposed) and control cores were collected at 3600m and stained to distinguish live (stained) from dead (unstained) individuals. Foraminifera are ideal for these investigations because of differing test composition (calcareous and agglutinated) and thickness, and diverse epifaunal and infaunal depth preferences. The effects of the CO2 on assemblages have been tracked both vertically (10cm depth) and horizontally, and between live and dead individuals. Increased mortality and dissolution of calcareous forms resulted from exposure to CO2 hydrate. Preliminary results suggest several major effects on surface sediment assemblages: 1) total number of foraminifera in a sample decreases; 2) foraminiferal diversity decreases in both stained and unstained specimens. The number of planktonic and hyaline calcareous tests declines greatly, with milliolids being more resistant to dissolution when stained; and 3) percentage of stained (live) forms is higher. Down-core trends (up to 10cm) indicate: 1) percent agglutinated forms decline and calcareous forms increasingly dominate; 2) agglutinated diversity decreases with depth; and 3) assemblages become increasingly similar with depth to those in control cores not subjected to CO2 hydrate. These results imply almost complete initial mortality and dissolution upon CO2 hydrate emplacement in the corrals. (Author)

  3. Species composition and assemblages of ichthyoplankton during summer in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han-Yang; Chiu, Mei-Yun; Shih, Yu-Ming; Chen, I.-Shiung; Lee, Ming-An; Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2016-09-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) is one of the most important fish spawning and nursery grounds in the north Pacific. Even though summer is an important spawning season for many fishes in the region, large-scale molecular identification studies on ichthyoplankton during this season are few. In this study, we sampled 8,933 fish eggs and 12,161 fish larvae from 25 stations during the summer of 2009. Using DNA barcoding, a number of the fish eggs and larvae were identified and classified into 45 and 124 taxa, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) categorized the inshore stations of the Changjiang Diluted Water area as having the hydrographic features of low sea surface temperature (SST), salinity (SSS) and high chlorophyll a (SSC) contents, whereas the continental shelf and offshore stations under the influence of the Kuroshio Current displayed the opposite results. Ichthyoplankton was more abundant at the inshore stations than the offshore stations, but species diversity was lower at the former locations. Species compositions of both fish eggs and fish larvae at the 25 stations were categorized into three different assemblages based on a non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis. Combining the assemblage patterns of ichthyoplankton with the results of the PCA and satellite images of SST and SSC showed that the assemblage patterns of fish eggs were correlated with water mass, while those of the fish larvae were not.

  4. How complementary are epibenthic assemblages in artificial and nearby natural rocky reefs?

    KAUST Repository

    Carvalho, Susana; Moura, Ana; Cú rdia, Joã o; Cancela da Fonseca, Luí s; Santos, Miguel N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses the composition, structure and trophic function of epibenthic assemblages in two artificial reefs (ARs) 16 years after deployment and in nearby natural reefs (NRs), aiming at providing insights on the complementarity between both habitats. Current findings suggest that after 16 years the ARs (concrete blocks), located in southern Portugal, do not act as surrogates for NRs, as epibenthic assemblages differed between reef types in composition, structure and trophic function. NRs showed higher diversity and complementarity (i.e. beta-diversity) than ARs, evidencing higher redundancy. Higher heterogeneity within NRs was also evidenced by the multi-dimensional scaling analysis based on abundance, biomass and trophic composition. NRs presented higher abundance of molluscs and biomass of sponges, resulting in differences in the trophic function: suspension-feeding dominated the NRs, while within ARs there was an ascendency of carnivory. Although not acting as surrogates for NRs and provided that no adverse effects (e.g. establishment of non-native species) were detected, ARs may have a significant contribution for the increase of regional diversity, as evidenced by the highest complementarity levels observed between assemblages in both reefs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Holocene Millennial-scale Surface and Bottom Water Variability, Feni Drift, NE Atlantic Ocean: Foraminiferal Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, S. J.; Richter, T. O.; de Stigter, H. C.; van Weering, T. C. E.; de Haas, H.

    A high-resolution sediment core from Feni Drift (ENAM9606, 56N 14W, 2543 m wa- ter depth) was investigated for planktonic and benthic foraminiferal assemblages dur- ing the last 12,000 years. During the Preboreal, peak abundances of T.quinqueloba indicate the passage of the Arctic front over the core site. Holocene planktonic foraminiferal assemblages indicate a gradual warming trend of surface water masses punctuated by a major cooling (8,200ky event s.l.), and possibly a slight cooling dur- ing the last 3,000 years. The interval from 10 to 5kyrs shows higher and fluctuating abundances of T.quinqueloba and G.bulloides, which suggest proximity of the subarc- tic front and enhanced spring blooms compared to the upper Holocene. Abundance peaks of N.pachyderma(s) and/or T.quinqueloba indicate a series of millennial-scale cooling events during the entire Holocene, which can be correlated to similar episodes previously described from other locations in the North Atlantic and Norwegian- Greenland Sea. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages indicate a gradual transition from seasonal, spring-bloom related food supply in the Lower Holocene (dominance of the phytodetritus species E.exigua) to possibly lower, but more sustained food supply in the Upper Holocene (dominance of C.obtusa and C.laevigata).

  6. Multi-scale analysis of hermatypic coral assemblages at Mexican Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joicye Hernández-Zulueta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Central Pacific is located in a zone of oceanographic transition between two biogeographic provinces with particular conditions that affect the associated fauna. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of hermatypic coral assemblages in this region and to determine their relationship with the heterogeneity of the benthonic habitat and spatial variables. A total of 156 transects were carried out at 41 sites in the years 2010 and 2011. The sampling effort returned 96.7% of the coral richness expected for the area, with a total of 15 species recorded. The results showed that richness, diversity and cover of corals varied only at the site and state scales. However, the composition and coverage of all coral species, as well as the benthonic habitat structure, differed significantly across the study scales (i.e. sites, zones and states. Canonical redundancy analysis showed that variation in the richness, diversity and assemblages of corals was explained by the cover of live corals, articulated calcareous algae, sandy substrate, sponges and fleshy macroalgae. This study suggests that local scale (i.e. site variation in the coral assemblages of the Mexican Central Pacific is the result of the heterogeneity of the benthonic habitat, while geomorphological and oceanographic characteristics play a greater role at regional scale.

  7. An early geikiid dicynodont from the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone (late Permian of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F. Kammerer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on specimens previously identified as Tropidostoma, a new taxon of dicynodont (Bulbasaurus phylloxyron gen. et sp. nov. from the Karoo Basin of South Africa is described. Bulbasaurus is a medium-sized dicynodont (maximum dorsal skull length 16.0 cm restricted to the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone (early Lopingian of the Beaufort Group. Bulbasaurus can be distinguished from Tropidostoma by an array of characters including the presence of a tall, sharp premaxillary ridge, large, rugose, nearly-confluent nasal bosses, a nasofrontal ridge, massive tusks, robust pterygoids, prominently twisted subtemporal bar, and absence of a distinct postfrontal. Inclusion of Bulbasaurus in a phylogenetic analysis of anomodont therapsids recovers it as a member of Geikiidae, a clade of otherwise later Permian dicynodonts such as Aulacephalodon and Pelanomodon. Bulbasaurus exhibits many of the characters typical of adult Aulacephalodon, but at substantially smaller skull size (these characters are absent in comparably-sized Aulacephalodon juveniles, suggesting that the evolution of typical geikiid morphology preceded gigantism in the clade. Bulbasaurus is the earliest known geikiid and the only member of the group known from the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone; discovery of this taxon shortens a perplexing ghost lineage and indicates that abundant clades from the later Permian of South Africa (e.g., Geikiidae, Dicynodontoidea may have originated as rare components of earlier Karoo assemblage zones.

  8. Bacterioplankton assemblages in coastal ponds reflect the influence of hydrology and geomorphological setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Megan J; Kavazos, Christopher R J; Bernasconi, Rachele; Czarnik, Robert; Horwitz, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    The factors that shape microbial community assembly in aquatic ecosystems have been widely studied; yet it is still unclear how distinct communities within a connected landscape influence one another. Coastal lakes are recipients of, and thus are connected to, both marine and terrestrial environments. Thus, they may host microbial assemblages that reflect the relative degree of influence by, and connectivity to, either system. In order to address this idea, we interrogated microbial community diversity at 49 sites in seven ponds in two seasons in the Lake MacLeod basin, a system fed by seawater flowing inland through underground karst. Environmental and spatial variation within ponds explain <9% of the community structure, while identity of the pond that samples were taken from explains 50% of community variation. That is, ponds each host distinct assemblages despite similarities in size, environment and position in the landscape, indicating a dominant role for local species sorting. The ponds contain a substantial amount of previously unknown microbial taxa, reflecting the unusual nature of this inland system. Rare marine taxa, possibly dispersed from seawater assemblages via the underground karst connection, are abundant within the inland system, suggesting an important role for regional dispersal within the metacommunities. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Plumage bacterial assemblages in a breeding wild passerine: relationships with ecological factors and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saag, Pauli; Tilgar, Vallo; Mänd, Raivo; Kilgas, Priit; Mägi, Marko

    2011-05-01

    Microorganisms have been shown to play an important role in shaping the life histories of animals, and it has recently been suggested that feather-degrading bacteria influence the trade-off between parental effort and self-preening behavior in birds. We studied a wild breeding population of great tits (Parus major) to explore habitat-, seasonal-, and sex-related variation in feather-degrading and free-living bacteria inhabiting the birds' yellow ventral feathers and to investigate associations with body condition. The density and species richness of bacterial assemblages was studied using flow cytometry and ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. The density of studied bacteria declined between the nest-building period and the first brood. The number of bacterial phylotypes per bird was higher in coniferous habitat, while bacterial densities were higher in deciduous habitat. Free-living bacterial density was positively correlated with female mass; conversely, there was a negative correlation between attached bacterial density and female mass during the period of peak reproductive effort. Bacterial species richness was sex dependent, with more diverse bacterial assemblages present on males than females. Thus, this study revealed that bacterial assemblages on the feathers of breeding birds are affected both by life history and ecological factors and are related to body condition.

  10. Termite assemblages in five semideciduous Atlantic Forest fragments in the northern coastland limit of the biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Bruno de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Termites are abundant organisms in tropical ecosystems and strongly influence the litter decomposition and soil formation. Despite their importance, few studies about their assemblage structures have been made in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments, especially in the area located north of the São Francisco River. This study aims to analyze the assemblage composition of five Atlantic Forest fragments located in the northern biome limit along the Brazilian coast. A standardized sampling protocol of termites was applied in each fragment. Thirty-three termite species belonging to twenty genera and three families were found in the forest fragments. The wood-feeder group was dominant both concerning to species richness and number of encounters in all areas. In sites northern to 7°S, there is an evident simplification of the termite assemblage composition regarding species richness and number of encounters by feeding group. This fact is apparently due to a higher sandy level in soils and to semideciduous character of the vegetation in the northern fragments. Thus, even on the north of São Francisco River, termite biodiversity is heterogeneously spread with highest density of species in the portion between 07°S and São Francisco River mouth (10°29'S.

  11. Relations between altered stramflow variability and fish assemblages in Eastern USA streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael R.; Carlisle, Daren M.

    2012-01-01

    Although altered streamflow has been implicated as a major factor affecting fish assemblages, understanding the extent of streamflow alteration has required quantifying attributes of the natural flow regime. We used predictive models to quantify deviation from expected natural streamflow variability for streams in the eastern USA. Sites with >25% change in mean daily streamflow variability compared with what would be expected in a minimally disturbed environment were defined as having altered streamflow variability, based on the 10th and 90th percentiles of the distribution of streamflow variability at 1279 hydrological reference sites. We also used predictive models to assess fish assemblage condition and native species loss based on the proportion of expected native fish species that were observed. Of the 97 sites, 49 (50.5%) were classified as altered with reduced streamflow variability, whereas no sites had increased streamflow variability. Reduced streamflow variability was related to a 35% loss in native fish species, on average, and a >50% loss of species with a preference for riffle habitats. Conditional probability analysis indicated that the probability of fish assemblage impairment increased as the severity of altered streamflow variability increased. Reservoir storage capacity and wastewater discharges were important predictors of reduced streamflow variability as revealed by random forest analysis. Management and conservation of streams will require careful consideration of natural streamflow variation and potential factors contributing to altered streamflow within the entire watershed to limit the loss of critical stream habitats and fish species uniquely adapted to live in those habitats.

  12. Calling phenology of a diverse amphibian assemblage in response to meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenderleith, T. Lynette; Stratford, Danial; Lollback, Gregory W.; Chapple, David G.; Reina, Richard D.; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2018-05-01

    The strong association between amphibian activity, breeding and recruitment with local environmental conditions raises concerns regarding how changes in climate may affect the persistence of species populations into the future. Additionally, in a highly diverse assemblage of anurans, competition for breeding sites affects the time and duration of activity, as species compete for limited resources such as water. Meteorological conditions are strong drivers of amphibian activity, so we assessed whether temperature, rainfall, atmospheric pressure and humidity were associated with the calling phenology of an assemblage of anurans in South East Queensland, Australia. We performed calling surveys and collected digital recordings at 45 ponds in an area known for high anuran diversity. We performed detection analyses to investigate the influence of 10 meteorological variables in detection of calling activity in 19 amphibian species. Our results suggest four breeding strategies in the assemblage: explosive summer breeders, prolonged breeders, opportunistic breeders and a winter breeder. Classifying these species into associations provides a framework for understanding how species respond to environmental conditions. Explosive breeders (i.e. species demonstrating short and highly synchronised breeding periods) were particularly responsive to temperature. Our findings help elucidate the breeding phenology of frogs and provide valuable information on their mating systems in native Australian forests. This study highlights the difficulties of surveying even common anurans. We highlight the importance of predictability and stability in climate and the vulnerability of species for which reproduction appears to require highly specific environmental cues.

  13. Streamflow characteristics and benthic invertebrate assemblages in streams across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, Anne M.D.; Konrad, Chris P.; May, Jason T.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Close, Rebecca N.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrographic characteristics of streamflow, such as high-flow pulses, base flow (background discharge between floods), extreme low flows, and floods, significantly influence aquatic organisms. Streamflow can be described in terms of magnitude, timing, duration, frequency, and variation (hydrologic regime). These characteristics have broad effects on ecosystem productivity, habitat structure, and ultimately on resident fish, invertebrate, and algae communities. Increasing human use of limited water resources has modified hydrologic regimes worldwide. Identifying the most ecologically significant hydrographic characteristics would facilitate the development of water-management strategies.Benthic invertebrates include insects, mollusks (snails and clams), worms, and crustaceans (shrimp) that live on the streambed. Invertebrates play an important role in the food web, consuming other invertebrates and algae and being consumed by fish and birds. Hydrologic alteration associated with land and water use can change the natural hydrologic regime and may affect benthic invertebrate assemblage composition and structure through changes in density of invertebrates or taxa richness (number of different species).This study examined associations between the hydrologic regime and characteristics of benthic invertebrate assemblages across the western United States and developed tools to identify streamflow characteristics that are likely to affect benthic invertebrate assemblages.

  14. Determining light stress responses for a tropical multi-species seagrass assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statton, John; McMahon, Kathryn; Lavery, Paul; Kendrick, Gary A

    2018-03-01

    Existing mitigations to address deterioration in water clarity associated with human activities are based on responses from single seagrass species but may not be appropriate for diverse seagrass assemblages common to tropical waters. We present findings from a light experiment designed to determine the effects of magnitude and duration of low light on a mixed tropical seagrass assemblage. Mixed assemblages of three commonly co-occurring Indo-West Pacific seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis and Halophila ovalis were grown in climate-controlled tanks, where replicate pots were subjected to a gradient in light availability (0.9-21.6 mols PAR m -2 day -1 ) for 12 weeks. Increased shading resulted in declines in growth and changes in cellular and photosynthesis responses for all species, although time-scale and magnitude of response were species-specific. Applying management criteria (e.g. thresholds) relevant to one species may under- or over-estimate potential for impact on other species and the meadow as a whole. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Habitat characteristics and environmental parameters influencing fish assemblages of karstic pools in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Vega-Cendejas

    Full Text Available Fish assemblage structure was evaluated and compared among 36 karstic pools located within protected areas of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve (southern Mexico and unprotected adjacent areas beyond the Reserve. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS, indicator species analysis (ISA, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA were used to identify which environmental factors reflected local influences and to evaluate the correlation of these variables with fish assemblages structure. Thirty-one species were encountered in these karstic pools, some for the first time within the Reserve. These aquatic environments were separated into three groups based on physico-chemical characteristics. Although CCA identified significant associations between several fish species (based on their relative abundance and environmental variables (K, NH4, NO3, and conductivity, the most abundant species (Astyanax aeneus, Poecilia mexicana, and Gambusia sexradiata occur in most pools and under several environmental conditions. Baseline data on fish diversity along with a continued monitoring program are essential in order to evaluate the conservation status of fish assemblages and their habitats, as well as to measure the influence of anthropogenic impacts on pristine habitats such as the karstic pools of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve.

  16. Widespread microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in tropical estuaries subjected to anthropogenic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendel, A.L.; Bessa, F.; Alves, V.E.N.; Amorim, A.L.A.; Patrício, J.; Palma, A.R.T.

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to quantify microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in two tropical Brazilian estuaries and to evaluate whether biological and ecological factors influence the ingestion of microplastics by fish species. Of 2233 fish from both estuaries (from 69 species) examined in this study, 9% of the individuals (24 species) had microplastics in their gut contents. Microplastic ingestion occurred irrespective of fish size and functional group. The diet of fish species was analyzed based on prey items identified in the fish's full stomach contents and five feeding guilds were defined. Microplastics were common throughout all feeding guilds. Low (average ingestion values 1.06 ± 0.30 items/total fish) but widespread occurrence among estuaries also indicates proliferation of microplastic pollution. Our findings highlight the need to focus on assemblage level studies to understand the real magnitude of the problem and emphasize the urgency of mitigation measures directed at microplastic pollution in estuarine ecosystems. - Highlights: • We analyzed microplastic ingestion in 69 fish species collected along two estuaries. • Microplastic ingestion was widespread in fish assemblages in two tropical estuaries. • Microplastic ingestion was independent of fish size and fish functional groups. • Microplastics were observed in fish from five different feeding guilds. • The level of anthropogenic pressures did not influence microplastic ingestion.

  17. A comparison of resident fish assemblages in managed and unmanaged coastal wetlands in North Carolina and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2014-01-01

    The dominant fish species within impounded coastal wetlands in the southeastern US may be different from the species that dominate natural marshes. We tested the hypothesis that resident fish assemblages inhabiting impounded coastal wetlands in South Carolina would differ from resident assemblages in natural marshes of the southeastern United States. We used rarefied species richness, Shannon's H' diversity,J' evenness, Morisita's index of similarity, and the percent similarity index to compare resident fish assemblages from two impoundments to 12 open-marsh resident fish assemblages from previously published studies in North and South Carolina. We used rotenone to sample fish assemblages in impoundments. The assemblages in natural marsh habitat had been sampled with rotenone and seines. We classified comparisons yielding a similarity index ≥0.50 as moderately similar and those with an index ≥0.75 as very similar. Fifty-three percent of the among-impoundment comparisons (Morisita's index) were at least moderately similar, whereas 7% of impoundment—natural marsh comparisons were moderately similar. A difference in tidal influence was the only parameter in the best-fitting model describing the observed Morisita's indices. The index of similarity decreased by 63% when tidal influence differed between compared assemblages. Species richness and diversity were greater in impoundments than natural marshes, but evenness was similar between habitat types. Our results support the hypothesis that resident fish assemblages in impounded wetlands and natural marshes are different, and suggest that a degree of tidal influence is the most important factor behind the difference.

  18. A Fragment of Ophiolite Assemblage of Kasargi Lake Area: East-Urals Megazone, Northern Part of the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of rocks of ophiolite assemblage exposed on the east coast of Kasargi Lake are presented. The ophiolite assemblage is formed with the serpentinised ultramafic rocks of dunite-harzburgite association, which are residual and the shlirenbanded gabbros with a number of later dikes of diabases and porphiritic gabbros. The chemical content of mafic and ultramafic rocks of Kasargi massif shows that they are likely the equivalent rocks encountered within the backarc spreading ridges.

  19. Taxonomic composition and trophic structure of the continental bony fish assemblage from the early late cretaceous of Southeastern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Lionel; Boudad, Larbi; Tong, Haiyan; Läng, Emilie; Tabouelle, Jérôme; Vullo, Romain

    2015-01-01

    The mid-Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage from south-eastern Morocco is one of the most diversified continental vertebrate assemblages of this time worldwide. The bony fish component (coelacanths, lungfishes and ray-finned fishes) is represented by relatively complete specimens and, mostly, by fragmentary elements scattered along 250 kilometres of outcrops. Here we revisit the bony fish assemblage by studying both isolated remains collected during several fieldtrips and more complete material kept in public collections. The assemblage comprises several lungfish taxa, with the first mention of the occurrence of Arganodus tiguidiensis, and possibly two mawsoniid coelacanths. A large bichir cf. Bawitius, is recorded and corresponds to cranial elements initially referred to 'Stromerichthys' from coeval deposits in Egypt. The ginglymodians were diversified with a large 'Lepidotes' plus two obaichthyids and a gar. We confirm here that this gar belongs to a genus distinctive from Recent gars, contrary to what was suggested recently. Teleosteans comprise a poorly known ichthyodectiform, a notopterid, a probable osteoglossomorph and a large tselfatiiform, whose cranial anatomy is detailed. The body size and trophic level for each taxon are estimated on the basis of comparison with extant closely related taxa. We plotted the average body size versus average trophic level for the Kem Kem assemblage, together with extant marine and freshwater assemblages. The Kem Kem assemblage is characterized by taxa of proportionally large body size, and by a higher average trophic level than the trophic level of the extant compared freshwater ecosystems, but lower than for the extant marine ecosystems. These results should be regarded with caution because they rest on a reconstructed assemblage known mostly by fragmentary remains. They reinforce, however, the ecological oddities already noticed for this mid-Cretaceous vertebrate ecosystem in North Africa.

  20. Environmental stressors as a driver of the trait composition of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in polluted Iberian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovic, Maja; Dolédec, Sylvain; de Castro-Catala, Nuria; Ginebreda, Antoni; Sabater, Sergi; Muñoz, Isabel; Barceló, Damià

    2017-07-01

    We used the trait composition of macroinvertebrate communities to identify the effects of pesticides and multiple stressors associated with urban land use at different sites of four rivers in Spain. Several physical and chemical stressors (high metal pollution, nutrients, elevated temperature and flow alterations) affected the urban sites. The occurrence of multiple stressors influenced aquatic assemblages at 50% of the sites. We hypothesized that the trait composition of macroinvertebrate assemblages would reflect the strategies that the assemblages used to cope with the respective environmental stressors. We used RLQ and fourth corner analysis to address the relationship between stressors and the trait composition of benthic macroinvertebrates. We found a statistically significant relationship between the trait composition and the exposure of assemblages to environmental stressors. The first RLQ dimension, which explained most of the variability, clearly separated sites according to the stressors. Urban-related stressors selected taxa that were mainly plurivoltine and fed on deposits. In contrast, pesticide impacted sites selected taxa with high levels of egg protection (better egg survival), indicating a potentially higher risk for egg mortality. Moreover, the trait diversity of assemblages at urban sites was low compared to that observed in pesticide impacted sites, suggesting the homogenization of assemblages in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ambiguous taxa: Effects on the characterization and interpretation of invertebrate assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Bilger, Michael D.; Haigler, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Damaged and immature specimens often result in macroinvertebrate data that contain ambiguous parent-child pairs (i.e., abundances associated with multiple related levels of the taxonomic hierarchy such as Baetis pluto and the associated ambiguous parent Baetis sp.). The choice of method used to resolve ambiguous parent-child pairs may have a very large effect on the characterization of invertebrate assemblages and the interpretation of responses to environmental change because very large proportions of taxa richness (73-78%) and abundance (79-91%) can be associated with ambiguous parents. To address this issue, we examined 16 variations of 4 basic methods for resolving ambiguous taxa: RPKC (remove parent, keep child), MCWP (merge child with parent), RPMC (remove parent or merge child with parent depending on their abundances), and DPAC (distribute parents among children). The choice of method strongly affected assemblage structure, assemblage characteristics (e.g., metrics), and the ability to detect responses along environmental (urbanization) gradients. All methods except MCWP produced acceptable results when used consistently within a study. However, the assemblage characteristics (e.g., values of assemblage metrics) differed widely depending on the method used, and data should not be combined unless the methods used to resolve ambiguous taxa are well documented and are known to be comparable. The suitability of the methods was evaluated and compared on the basis of 13 criteria that considered conservation of taxa richness and abundance, consistency among samples, methods, and studies, and effects on the interpretation of the data. Methods RPMC and DPAC had the highest suitability scores regardless of whether ambiguous taxa were resolved for each sample separately or for a group of samples. Method MCWP gave consistently poor results. Methods MCWP and DPAC approximate the use of family-level identifications and operational taxonomic units (OTU), respectively. Our

  2. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C.; Bonzom, J.-M.; Della-Vedova, C.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Villenave, C.; Gaschak, S.; Coppin, F.; Dubourg, N.; Maksimenko, A.; Adam-Guillermin, C.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2014-01-01

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h −1 . These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H′). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h −1 . This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites. This might

  3. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C., E-mail: catherine.lecomte-pradines@irsn.fr [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Bonzom, J.-M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, 6, rue Frederic Mistral, 84160 Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Villenave, C. [ELISOL Environment, Building 12, Campus de la Gaillarde, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Dubourg, N. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, GARM Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Maksimenko, A. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France)

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup −1}. These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H′). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h{sup −1}. This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites

  4. Suprabenthic assemblages from the Capbreton area (SE Bay of Biscay). Faunal recovery after a canyon turbidity disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, Inmaculada; Sorbe, Jean Claude

    2017-12-01

    In the Capbreton area, suprabenthic assemblages were sampled with a sledge towed over the bottom, at different sites located within the upper part of a 'gouf-type' canyon (8 hauls between 642 m and 797 m, on the axis of the thalweg or on flat perched flank terraces such as site K), on the northern adjacent open slope (2 hauls between 500 and 567 m) and on the northern adjacent shelf margin (2 hauls between 151 m and 158 m). A multivariate analysis carried on the faunal data discriminated different assemblages in this area: a near-canyon shelf assemblage (55 species, mainly amphipods and decapods; 3496 ind./100 m2, 40% mysids; dominant species: Nyctiphanes couchii, Leptomysis gracilis, Weswoodilla rectirostris, Anchialina agilis, Scopelocheirus hopei and Philocheras bispinosus); an open slope assemblage (111 species, mainly amphipods and isopods; 249 ind./100 m2, 36% amphipods; dominant species: Disconectes phalangium, Munnopsurus atlanticus and Boreomysis arctica); a canyon E assemblage (129 species, mainly amphipods, mysids and cumaceans; 1172 ind./100 m2, 58% amphipods; dominant species: Melphidippa sp. B, Chelator insignis); a canyon E' assemblage (107 species, mainly amphipods and mysids; 507 ind./100 m2, 73% amphipods; dominant species: Cleonardopsis carinata, Bonnierella abyssorum, Rhachotropis caeca and Arcturopsis giardi); and a temporary canyon assemblage at site K (34 species, mainly amphipods and mysids; 899 ind./100 m2, 85% amphipods; dominant species: Tmetomyx similis, Caeconyx caeculus, Nebalia sp. A and Cleonardopsis carinata). Site K was sampled only four months after a turbidity event, detected on sediment cores (18 cm thick Bouma sequence) taken during the same cruise and triggered by the violent storm ('ouragan Martin', wind up to 200 km/h) which affected the French Atlantic coast on 27 December 1999. The corresponding suprabenthic assemblage showed evidence of deep structural changes after this catastrophic event, characterized by relative low

  5. Temporal assemblage turnovers of intertidal foraminiferal communities from tropical (SE Caribbean) and temperate (NE England and SW Spain) regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Ashleigh; Wilson, Brent; Horton, Benjamin P.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.

    2018-05-01

    This is the first quantitative study of temporal assemblage turnovers of the relationships between intertidal foraminifera. Time series datasets collected from tropical Caroni Swamp and Claxton Bay (Trinidad, SE Caribbean) and temperate Cowpen Marsh (NE England, U.K.) and Bay of Cadiz (SW Spain) were used. The assemblage turnover index (ATI) examined species interrelationships through comparisons of monthly or biweekly species proportional abundances over one or two years. Species contributing to major assemblage turnovers (ATI > x + σ) were identified using the conditioned on-boundary index (CoBI). Foraminiferal species are heterogeneously distributed within the sediment; multiple sample stations at a study location cumulatively represent the foraminiferal metacommunity and clusters represent foraminiferal assemblages. The ATI and CoBI were applied to the proportional abundances of live specimens recorded for the metacommunity and assemblages at each location. At Caroni Swamp and Claxton Bay, major assemblage turnovers were driven by the most abundant species and the majority coincided with seasonal change or the arrival of the seasonal Orinoco plume in the Gulf of Paria. Seasonal turnovers of the foraminiferal metacommunities at temperate Cowpen Marsh and Bay of Cádiz occurred during the summer and winter. Major assemblage turnovers in the upper Cowpen Marsh occurred in the summer, and the lower marsh in the winter. Foraminiferans are useful bioindicators for monitoring the health of coastal environments. Understanding foraminiferal population dynamics will allow cyclical changes to be differentiated from abrupt and persistent changes, which are related to anthropogenic disturbances or long-term climate change. The ATI and CoBI are useful indices for quantitatively exploring relationships of foraminiferal populations over time.

  6. Understanding the effects of predictability, duration, and spatial pattern of drying on benthic invertebrate assemblages in two contrasting intermittent streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schiller, Daniel; Barberá, Gonzalo G.; Díaz, Angela M.; Arce, Maria Isabel; del Campo, Rubén; Tockner, Klement

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of different drying conditions on the composition, structure and function of benthic invertebrate assemblages. We approached this objective by comparing invertebrate assemblages in perennial and intermittent sites along two intermittent Mediterranean streams with contrasting predictability, duration, and spatial patterns of drying: Fuirosos (high predictability, short duration, downstream drying pattern) and Rogativa (low predictability, long duration, patchy drying pattern). Specifically, we quantified the contribution of individual taxa to those differences, the degree of nestedness, and shifts in the composition, structure and function of benthic invertebrate assemblages along flow intermittence gradients. We observed greater effects of drying on the benthic invertebrate composition in Fuirosos than in Rogativa, resulting in a higher dissimilarity of assemblages between perennial and intermittent sites, as well as a lower degree of nestedness. Furthermore, a higher number of biotic metrics related to richness, abundance and biological traits were significantly different between perennial and intermittent sites in Fuirosos, despite a shorter dry period compared to Rogativa. At the same time, slightly different responses were detected during post-drying (autumn) than pre-drying (spring) conditions in this stream. In Rogativa, shifts in benthic invertebrate assemblages along increasing gradients of flow intermittence were found for three metrics (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) and Odonata, Coleoptera and Heteroptera (OCH) abundances and aerial active dispersal. Furthermore, we demonstrated that combined gradients of dry period duration and distance to nearest perennial reach can generate complex, and different, responses of benthic invertebrate assemblages, depending on the flow intermittence metric. Our study advances the notion that special attention should be paid to the predictability, duration and

  7. Spatial variability in intertidal macroalgal assemblages on the North Portuguese coast: consistence between species and functional group approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, P.; Rubal, M.; Vieira, R.; Arenas, F.; Sousa-Pinto, I.

    2013-03-01

    Natural assemblages are variable in space and time; therefore, quantification of their variability is imperative to identify relevant scales for investigating natural or anthropogenic processes shaping these assemblages. We studied the variability of intertidal macroalgal assemblages on the North Portuguese coast, considering three spatial scales (from metres to 10 s of kilometres) following a hierarchical design. We tested the hypotheses that (1) spatial pattern will be invariant at all the studied scales and (2) spatial variability of macroalgal assemblages obtained by using species will be consistent with that obtained using functional groups. This was done considering as univariate variables: total biomass and number of taxa as well as biomass of the most important species and functional groups and as multivariate variables the structure of macroalgal assemblages, both considering species and functional groups. Most of the univariate results confirmed the first hypothesis except for the total number of taxa and foliose macroalgae that showed significant variability at the scale of site and area, respectively. In contrast, when multivariate patterns were examined, the first hypothesis was rejected except at the scale of 10 s of kilometres. Both uni- and multivariate results indicated that variation was larger at the smallest scale, and thus, small-scale processes seem to have more effect on spatial variability patterns. Macroalgal assemblages, both considering species and functional groups as surrogate, showed consistent spatial patterns, and therefore, the second hypothesis was confirmed. Consequently, functional groups may be considered a reliable biological surrogate to study changes on macroalgal assemblages at least along the investigated Portuguese coastline.

  8. Effectiveness of benthic foraminiferal and coral assemblages as water quality indicators on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, S.; Thompson, A.; Schaffelke, B.

    2010-03-01

    Although the debate about coral reef decline focuses on global disturbances (e.g., increasing temperatures and acidification), local stressors (nutrient runoff and overfishing) continue to affect reef health and resilience. The effectiveness of foraminiferal and hard-coral assemblages as indicators of changes in water quality was assessed on 27 inshore reefs along the Great Barrier Reef. Environmental variables (i.e., several water quality and sediment parameters) and the composition of both benthic foraminiferal and hard-coral assemblages differed significantly between four regions (Whitsunday, Burdekin, Fitzroy, and the Wet Tropics). Grain size and organic carbon and nitrogen content of sediments, and a composite water column parameter (based on turbidity and concentrations of particulate matter) explained a significant amount of variation in the data (tested by redundancy analyses) in both assemblages. Heterotrophic species of foraminifera were dominant in sediments with high organic content and in localities with low light availability, whereas symbiont-bearing mixotrophic species were dominant elsewhere. A similar suite of parameters explained 89% of the variation in the FORAM index (a Caribbean coral reef health indicator) and 61% in foraminiferal species richness. Coral richness was not related to environmental setting. Coral assemblages varied in response to environmental variables, but were strongly shaped by acute disturbances (e.g., cyclones, Acanthaster planci outbreaks, and bleaching), thus different coral assemblages may be found at sites with the same environmental conditions. Disturbances also affect foraminiferal assemblages, but they appeared to recover more rapidly than corals. Foraminiferal assemblages are effective bioindicators of turbidity/light regimes and organic enrichment of sediments on coral reefs.

  9. Identity Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Line Helverskov

    The study aims at exploring how identity is enacted within the context of a two-year programme in Service, Hospitality, and Tourism Management (SHTM). This research thus investigates how students and educators go about their daily lives in different educational contexts both on and off campus...... as a contribution to the body of literature of ANT-based studies. Second, it contributes to existing identity theories by exemplifying a socio-material approach to identity issues. Third, the study enables reflections upon how educational institutions as fundamentally identity-producing organisations acknowledge...

  10. Coral assemblages are structured along a turbidity gradient on the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico, Veracruz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán-Garza, A. G.; González-Gándara, C.; Salas-Pérez, J. J.; Morales-Barragan, A. M.

    2017-04-01

    Corals on the reef corridor of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico have evolved on a terrigenous shallow continental shelf under the influence of several natural river systems. As a result, water turbidity on these reefs can be high, with visibility as low as turbidity and chlorophyll-a, the coral species composition and environmental variables were analyzed for the three main reef systems of the reef corridor of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Completeness of the data set was assessed using species accumulation curves and non-parametric estimators of species richness. Differences in coral assemblages' composition between the reef systems were investigated using univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (nMDS, ANOSIM, SIMPER) analyses and the relationship between the assemblages and environmental data was assessed using a forward selection process in canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to eliminate non-significant environmental variables. The northern and central Veracruz reef systems share a similar number of coral species (p=0.78 mult. comp.) and both showed higher species richness than the southern system (pturbidity and productivity were significant on the final CCA configuration, which showed a gradient of increasing turbidity from north to south. Reef geomorphology and the effect of turbidity help explain differences in coral assemblages' composition. More studies are necessary to establish if turbidity could function as a refuge for future environmental stress. Each Veracruz reef system is at the same time unique and shares a pool of coral species. To protect these ecosystems it is necessary to effectively manage water quality and consider coral diversity on the reef corridor of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Relationships among catch, angler catisfaction, and fish assemblage characteristics of an urban small impoundment fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivasauskas, Tomas J.; Xiong, Wilson N.; Engman, Augustin C.; Fischer, Jesse R.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Rundle, Kirk R.

    2017-01-01

    Urban fisheries provide unique angling opportunities for people from traditionally underrepresented demographics. Lake Raleigh is a 38-ha impoundment located on the North Carolina State University campus in Raleigh. Like many urban fisheries, little is known about angler use and satisfaction or how angling catch rate is related to fish availability in Lake Raleigh. We characterized the recreational fishery and fish assemblage with concurrent creel and boat electrofishing surveys over the course of one year. In total, 245 anglers were interviewed on 68 survey days. On average, anglers spent 1.7 h fishing per trip and caught 0.385 fish h –1. A large proportion of anglers (43.9%) targeted multiple species, whereas 36.5% targeted largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), 10.0% targeted panfish (i.e., sunfishes [Lepomis spp.] and crappies [Pomoxis spp.]), and 9.6% targeted catfish (Ameiurus spp. and Ictalurus spp.). Most anglers (69.4%) were satisfied with their experience, and overall satisfaction was unrelated to catch rate. Pulsed-DC boat electrofishing was conducted on 25 dates, and 617 fish were sampled. Angler catch rate was unrelated to electrofishing catch rate, implying that anglers' catch rate was independent of fish density or availability. Our results demonstrate that even minimally managed urban fisheries can provide high angler satisfaction, with limited dedication of management resources. Relationships Among Catch, Angler Satisfaction, and Fish Assemblage Characteristics of an Urban Small Impoundment Fishery (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316636550_Relationships_Among_Catch_Angler_Satisfaction_and_Fish_Assemblage_Characteristics_of_an_Urban_Small_Impoundment_Fishery [accessed Aug 11, 2017].

  12. The Fish Assemblage of a Newfoundland Estuary: Diel, Monthly and Annual Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methven, D. A.; Haedrich, R. L.; Rose, G. A.

    2001-06-01

    Twice monthly sampling over two 16 month periods at a shallow site on Newfoundland's east coast showed the fish assemblage to be dominated by four taxa ( Gasterosteus aculeatus, G. wheatlandi, Osmerus mordax, Gadus spp.) that accounted for 96% of the individuals collected. Of the 16 479 fish measured, 65% were adults based on the estimated size of first spawning. The fish assemblage was dominated (86%) by species with demersal eggs, several of which spawn at the same shallow sites used by juveniles as nursery sites. Coastal spawning and demersal eggs maintain offspring in coastal nursery areas where survival is thought to be increased. Number of species and number of fish were both correlated with water temperature being highest from mid-summer to early autumn and lowest in winter. Temperature, time of spawning, and movements of juveniles and adults facilitated grouping species into five assemblages based on seasonal abundance: seasonal periodic species (summer and winter), regular species, regular species collected in all seasons except winter, and occasional (rare) species. At the diel scale, two consistent species groupings were observed: species that showed no significant difference between day and night and species caught primarily at night. Number of night species exceeded day species by a factor of two. No seine-caught species in shallow water exhibited significantly higher catches during the day. Observations by SCUBA divers indicated some species were more abundant during day time at slightly deeper depths. This observation in conjunction with day and night seining in shallower water, suggests these species aggregate in deeper water during day and move to shallow waters at night.

  13. Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Determinants of Functional Composition of Bolivian Bat Assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Aguirre

    Full Text Available Understanding diversity patterns and the potential mechanisms driving them is a fundamental goal in ecology. Examination of different dimensions of biodiversity can provide insights into the relative importance of different processes acting upon biotas to shape communities. Unfortunately, patterns of diversity are still poorly understood in hyper-diverse tropical countries. Here, we assess spatial variation of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of bat assemblages in one of the least studied Neotropical countries, Bolivia, and determine whether changes in biodiversity are explained by the replacement of species or functional groups, or by differences in richness (i.e., gain or loss of species or functional groups. Further, we evaluate the contribution of phylogenetic and taxonomic changes in the resulting patterns of functional diversity of bats. Using well-sampled assemblages from published studies we examine noctilionoid bats at ten study sites across five ecoregions in Bolivia. Bat assemblages differed from each other in all dimensions of biodiversity considered; however, diversity patterns for each dimension were likely structured by different mechanisms. Within ecoregions, differences were largely explained by species richness, suggesting that the gain or loss of species or functional groups (as opposed to replacement was driving dissimilarity patterns. Overall, our results suggest that whereas evolutionary processes (i.e., historical connection and dispersal routes across Bolivia create a template of diversity patterns across the country, ecological mechanisms modify these templates, decoupling the observed patterns of functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in Bolivian bats. Our results suggests that elevation represents an important source of variability among diversity patterns for each dimension of diversity considered. Further, we found that neither phylogenetic nor taxonomic diversity can fully account for

  14. Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Determinants of Functional Composition of Bolivian Bat Assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis F; Montaño-Centellas, Flavia A; Gavilanez, M Mercedes; Stevens, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding diversity patterns and the potential mechanisms driving them is a fundamental goal in ecology. Examination of different dimensions of biodiversity can provide insights into the relative importance of different processes acting upon biotas to shape communities. Unfortunately, patterns of diversity are still poorly understood in hyper-diverse tropical countries. Here, we assess spatial variation of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of bat assemblages in one of the least studied Neotropical countries, Bolivia, and determine whether changes in biodiversity are explained by the replacement of species or functional groups, or by differences in richness (i.e., gain or loss of species or functional groups). Further, we evaluate the contribution of phylogenetic and taxonomic changes in the resulting patterns of functional diversity of bats. Using well-sampled assemblages from published studies we examine noctilionoid bats at ten study sites across five ecoregions in Bolivia. Bat assemblages differed from each other in all dimensions of biodiversity considered; however, diversity patterns for each dimension were likely structured by different mechanisms. Within ecoregions, differences were largely explained by species richness, suggesting that the gain or loss of species or functional groups (as opposed to replacement) was driving dissimilarity patterns. Overall, our results suggest that whereas evolutionary processes (i.e., historical connection and dispersal routes across Bolivia) create a template of diversity patterns across the country, ecological mechanisms modify these templates, decoupling the observed patterns of functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in Bolivian bats. Our results suggests that elevation represents an important source of variability among diversity patterns for each dimension of diversity considered. Further, we found that neither phylogenetic nor taxonomic diversity can fully account for patterns of functional

  15. Nestedness and successional trajectories of macroinvertebrate assemblages in man-made wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhí, Albert; Boix, Dani; Gascón, Stéphanie; Sala, Jordi; Quintana, Xavier D

    2013-02-01

    Current successional models, primarily those based on floral succession, propose several distinct trajectories based on the integration of two key hypotheses from succession theory: convergence versus divergence in species composition among successional sites, and progression towards versus deviation from a desired reference state. We applied this framework to faunal succession, including differential colonization between active and passive dispersers, and the nested patterns generated as a consequence of this peculiarity. Nine man-made wetlands located in three different areas, from 0-3 years from wetland creation, were assessed. In addition, 91 wetlands distributed throughout the region were used as references for natural macroinvertebrate communities. We predicted the following: (1) highly nested structures in pioneering assemblages will decrease to lower mid-term values due to a shift from active pioneering taxa to passive disperser ones; (2) passive idiosyncratic taxa will elicit divergent successional trajectories among areas; (3) the divergent trajectories will provoke lower local and higher regional diversity values in the mid-term assemblages than in pioneer assemblages. Our results were largely congruent with hypotheses (1) and (2), diverging from the anticipated patterns only in the case of the temporary wetlands area. However, overall diversity trends based on hypothesis (3) did not follow the expected pattern. The divergent successional trajectories did not compensate for regional biodiversity losses that occurred as a consequence of pioneering colonizer decline over time. Consequently, we suggest reconsidering wetland construction for mitigation purposes within mid-term time frames (≤ 3 years). Wetlands may not offset, within this temporal scenario, regional biodiversity loss because the ecosystem may not support idiosyncratic taxa from natural wetlands.

  16. Neogene reef coral assemblages of the Bocas del Toro region, Panama: the rise of Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J. S.; McNeill, D. F.; Budd, A. F.; Coates, A. G.

    2012-03-01

    Temporal patterns are evaluated in Neogene reef coral assemblages from the Bocas del Toro Basin of Panama in order to understand how reef ecosystems respond to long-term environmental change. Analyses are based on a total of 1,702 zooxanthellate coral specimens collected from six coral-bearing units ranging in age from the earliest Late Miocene to the Early Pleistocene: (1) Valiente Formation (12-11 Ma), (2) Fish Hole Member of the Old Bank Formation (5.8-5.6 Ma), (3) La Gruta Member of the Isla Colon Formation (2.2-1.4 Ma), (4) Ground Creek Member of the Isla Colon Formation (2.2-1.4 Ma), (5) Mimitimbi Member of the Urracá Formation (1.2-0.8 Ma), and (6) Hill Point Member of the Urracá Formation (1.2-0.8 Ma). Over 100 coral species occur in the six units, with faunal assemblages ranging from less than 10% extant taxa (Valiente Formation) to over 85% extant taxa (Ground Creek Member). The collections provide new temporal constraints on the emergence of modern Caribbean reefs, with the La Gruta Member containing the earliest occurrence of large monospecific stands of the dominant Caribbean reef coral Acropora palmata, and the Urracá Formation containing the last fossil occurrences of 15 regionally extinct taxa. Canonical correspondence analysis of 41 Late Miocene to Recent reef coral assemblages from the Caribbean region suggests changes in community structure coincident with effective oceanic closure of the Central American Seaway (~3.5 Ma). These changes, including increased Acropora dominance, may have contributed to a protracted period of elevated extinction debt prior to the major peak in regional coral extinctions (~2-1 Ma).

  17. Effects of competition and facilitation on species assemblage in two types of tropical cloud forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Long

    Full Text Available Competition and facilitation between tree individuals are two kinds of non-random processes influencing the structure and functioning of forest communities, but how these two plant-plant interactions change along gradient of resources or environments remains very much a matter of debate. We developed a null model to test the size-distance regression, and assessed the effects of competition and facilitation (including interspecific interactions, intraspecific interactions and overall species interactions on each adult tree species assemblage [diameter at breast height (dbh ≥5 cm] across two types of tropical cloud forest with different environmental and resource regimes. The null model test revealed that 17% to 27% tree species had positive dbh-distance correlations while 11% to 19% tree species showed negative dbh-distance correlations within these two forest types, indicating that both competition and facilitation processes existed during the community assembly. The importance of competition for heterospecific species, and the intensity of competition for both heterospecific and overall species increased from high to low resources for all the shared species spanning the two forests. The importance of facilitation for conspecific and overall species, as well as that the intensity of facilitation for both heterospecific and conspecific species increased with increasing low air temperature stress for all the shared species spanning the two forests. Our results show that both competition and facilitation processes simultaneously affect parts of species assemblage in the tropical cloud forests. Moreover, the fact that nearly 50% species assemblage is not detected with our approaches suggest that tree species in these tropical forest systems are assembled with multiple ecological processes, and that there is a need to explore the processes other than the two biotic interactions in further researches.

  18. Icthyoplankton Assemblages and Distribution in the Chukchi Sea 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, M. S.; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Mier, K. L.; Tabisola, H. M.

    2016-02-01

    There is significant interest in the effects of climate change on the Pacific arctic ecosystem, and in determining relationships between physical drivers and biological response. Ichthyoplankton surveys have become an integral component of ecosystem studies in the Pacific arctic over the past decade. In summer 2012 and 2013, large scale fisheries oceanographic surveys that included ichthyoplankton tows were conducted in the northern Bering and eastern Chukchi Seas as part of the Arctic Ecosystem Integrated Survey (Arctic Eis). Spatial and temporal analyses of fish larvae collected determined that yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera) was the most abundant larval fish caught followed by Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). Cluster analyses showed L. aspera to be the dominant component of a southern, nearshore assemblage strongly associated with the northward moving Alaska Coastal Current (ACC) characterized by relatively warm-low salinity water. Boreogadus saida larvae dominated a more northern assemblage in close proximity to the ice edge and were more abundant in 2013 than 2012. Collections of pelagic fish eggs determined locations of spawning centers for L. aspera nearshore of the Seward Peninsula and Bering flounder (Hippoglossoides robustus) to the west and offshore from Point Barrow in 2012. Similar but less pronounced trends in egg distribution were observed in 2013. Larvae of the forage fish species capelin (Mallotus villosus) and Arctic sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) were important assemblage components in 2012 and 2013 respectively. These patterns in the distribution of eggs and larvae are similar to those observed in other studies. The influence of circulation patterns on the distributions of fish in the Chukchi Sea is being investigated and will be discussed.

  19. Seasonal-dial shifts of ichthyoplankton assemblages and plastic debris around an Equatorial Atlantic archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Araújo Lima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality was a stronger influence in the ichthyoplankton assemblages around the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA than distance from the islands. Plastic debris were ubiquitous and although it presented diel trends, no other spatiotemporal patterns was showed. Larval Oxyporhamphus micropterus was the most important taxa (29.37% of the total catch, followed by Ceratoscopelus warmingii and Entomacrodus vomerianus. Exocoetidae eggs represented 41.01%. Mesopelagic fish larvae dominated the community. Myctophidae had the highest species richness (15. Four larval fish assemblages occured: (1 nighttime demersal/bathydemersal (Anguillidae, Congridae; (2 daytime mesopelagic/bathypelagic/epipelagic (Myctophidae, Cyclothone acclinidens; (3 daytime epipelagic (Exocoetidae, Coryphaena hippurus, Thunnus albacares and (4 nighttime reef and demersal (Blennidae, Pomacentridae, Lutjanidae. The dry season (lower temperature, higher chlorophyll a and higher SW wind velocity influenced the first two assemblages. The rainy season (higher temperatures and lower NW wind velocity influenced the last two. Nighttime abundance of dominant species in the rainy season suggests diel vertical migration nearshore. Plastics were 2.12 times more abundant than the most abundant fish larvae. Comparable amounts of larvae and plastics in the water column increase the chances of interaction between these two compartments and might disturb the local marine food web and promote the transfer of microplastic from one habitat to another, especially when smaller taxa contaminated by ingested fragments are preyed by migratory animals such as marine birds and tuna. A study around the area concluded that at least a part of the plastic debris can have local source due to fishing activities. Small-scale oceanographic mechanisms such as the interaction between the topography and currents (SEC and EUC seem to be responsible for the retention of fish eggs, fish larvae and plastics

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from dung pats vary with dung beetle species and with assemblage composition.

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    Irene Piccini

    Full Text Available Cattle farming is a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Recent research suggests that GHG fluxes from dung pats could be affected by biotic interactions involving dung beetles. Whether and how these effects vary among beetle species and with assemblage composition is yet to be established. To examine the link between GHGs and different dung beetle species assemblages, we used a closed chamber system to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O from cattle dung pats. Targeting a total of four dung beetle species (a pat-dwelling species, a roller of dung balls, a large and a small tunnelling species, we ran six experimental treatments (four monospecific and two mixed and two controls (one with dung but without beetles, and one with neither dung nor beetles. In this setting, the overall presence of beetles significantly affected the gas fluxes, but different species contributed unequally to GHG emissions. When compared to the control with dung, we detected an overall reduction in the total cumulative CO2 flux from all treatments with beetles and a reduction in N2O flux from the treatments with the three most abundant dung beetle species. These reductions can be seen as beneficial ecosystem services. Nonetheless, we also observed a disservice provided by the large tunneler, Copris lunaris, which significantly increased the CH4 flux-an effect potentially traceable to the species' nesting strategy involving the construction of large brood balls. When fluxes were summed into CO2-equivalents across individual GHG compounds, dung with beetles proved to emit less GHGs than did beetle-free dung, with the mix of the three most abundant species providing the highest reduction (-32%. As the mix of multiple species proved the most effective in reducing CO2-equivalents, the conservation of diverse assemblages of dung beetles emerges as a priority in agro-pastoral ecosystems.

  1. Microclimatic Divergence in a Mediterranean Canyon Affects Richness, Composition, and Body Size in Saproxylic Beetle Assemblages.

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    Jörn Buse

    Full Text Available Large valleys with opposing slopes may act as a model system with which the effects of strong climatic gradients on biodiversity can be evaluated. The advantage of such comparisons is that the impact of a change of climate can be studied on the same species pool without the need to consider regional differences. The aim of this study was to compare the assemblage of saproxylic beetles on such opposing slopes at Lower Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel (also known as "Evolution Canyon" with a 200-800% higher solar radiation on the south-facing (SFS compared to the north-facing slope (NFS. We tested specific hypotheses of species richness patterns, assemblage structure, and body size resulting from interslope differences in microclimate. Fifteen flight-interception traps per slope were distributed over three elevation levels ranging from 50 to 100 m a.s.l. Richness of saproxylic beetles was on average 34% higher on the SFS compared with the NFS, with no detected influence of elevation levels. Both assemblage structure and average body size were determined by slope aspect, with more small-bodied beetles found on the SFS. Both the increase in species richness and the higher prevalence of small species on the SFS reflect ecological rules present on larger spatial grain (species-energy hypothesis and community body size shift hypothesis, and both can be explained by the metabolic theory of ecology. This is encouraging for the complementary use of micro- and macroclimatic gradients to study impacts of climate warming on biodiversity.

  2. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  3. The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, A Y; Eggleton, P; Speight, M R; Hammond, P M; Chey, V K

    2000-12-01

    The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types (primary forest, logged forest, acacia plantation and oil palm plantation) in Sabah, Malaysia was investigated using three different methods based on habitat levels (Winkler sampling, flight-interception-trapping and mist-blowing). The overall diversity was extremely high, with 1711 species recorded from only 8028 individuals and 81 families (115 family and subfamily groups). Different degrees of environmental changes had varying effects on the beetle species richness and abundance, with oil palm plantation assemblage being most severely affected, followed by acacia plantation and then logged forest. A few species became numerically dominant in the oil palm plantation. In terms of beetle species composition, the acacia fauna showed much similarity with the logged forest fauna, and the oil palm fauna was very different from the rest. The effects of environmental variables (number of plant species, sapling and tree densities, amount of leaf litter, ground cover, canopy cover, soil pH and compaction) on the beetle assemblage were also investigated. Leaf litter correlated with species richness, abundance and composition of subterranean beetles. Plant species richness, tree and sapling densities correlated with species richness, abundance and composition of understorey beetles while ground cover correlated only with the species richness and abundance of these beetles. Canopy cover correlated only with arboreal beetles. In trophic structure, predators represented more than 40% of the species and individuals. Environmental changes affected the trophic structure with proportionally more herbivores (abundance) but fewer predators (species richness and abundance) in the oil palm plantation. Biodiversity, conservation and practical aspects of pest management were also highlighted in this study.

  4. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

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    Elin Soomets

    Full Text Available Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc. and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal

  5. Long-term variation in a central California pelagic forage assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Stephen; Field, John C.; Sakuma, Keith M.

    2015-06-01

    A continuous 23 year midwater trawl survey (1990-2012) of the epipelagic forage assemblage off the coast of central California (lat. 36°30‧-38°20‧ N) is described and analyzed. Twenty taxa occurred in ≥ 10% of the 2037 trawls that were completed at 40 distinct station locations. The dominant taxa sampled by the 9.5 mm mesh net included a suite of young-of-the-year (YOY) groundfish, including rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), two clupeoids (Engraulis mordax and Sardinops sagax), krill (Euphausiacea), cephalopods (Doryteuthis opalescens and Octopus sp.), and a variety of mesopelagic species, i.e., Diaphus theta, Tarltonbeania crenularis, "other" lanternfish (Myctophidae), deep-sea smelts (Bathylagidae), and sergestid shrimp. Annual abundance estimates of the 20 taxa were obtained from analysis of variance models, which included year and station as main effects. Principal components analysis of the abundance estimates revealed that 61% of assemblage variance was explained by the first three components. The first component revealed a strong contrast in the abundance of: (a) YOY groundfish, market squid (D. opalescens), and krill with (b) mesopelagics and clupeoids; the second component was associated with long-term trends in abundance. An evaluation of 10 different published oceanographic data sets and CTD data collected during the survey indicated that seawater properties encountered each year were significantly correlated with abundance patterns, as were annual sea-level anomalies obtained from an analysis of AVISO satellite information. A comparison of our findings with several other recent studies of biological communities occurring in the California Current revealed a consistent structuring of forage assemblages, which we conjecture is primarily attributable to large-scale advection patterns in the California Current ecosystem.

  6. Changes in habitat complexity negatively affect diverse gastropod assemblages in coralline algal turf.

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    Kelaher, B P

    2003-05-01

    The physical structure of a habitat generally has a strong influence on the diversity and abundance of associated organisms. I investigated the role of coralline algal turf structure in determining spatial variation of gastropod assemblages at different tidal heights of a rocky shore near Sydney, Australia. The structural characteristics of algal turf tested were frond density (or structural complexity) and frond length (the vertical scale over which structural complexity was measured). This definition of structural complexity assumes that complexity of the habitat increases with increasing frond density. While frond length was unrelated to gastropod community structure, I found significant correlations between density of fronds and multivariate and univariate measures of gastropod assemblages, indicating the importance of structural complexity. In contrast to previous studies, here there were negative relationships between the density of fronds and the richness and abundance of gastropods. Artificial habitat mimics were used to manipulate the density of fronds to test the hypothesis that increasing algal structural complexity decreases the richness and abundance of gastropods. As predicted, there were significantly more species of gastropods in loosely packed than in tightly packed turf at both low- and mid-shore levels. Despite large differences between gastropod assemblages at different tidal heights, the direction and magnitude of these negative effects were similar at low- and mid-shore levels and, therefore, relatively independent of local environmental conditions. These novel results extend our previous understanding of the ecological effects of habitat structure because they demonstrate possible limitations of commonly used definitions of structural complexity, as well as distinct upper thresholds in the relationship between structural complexity and faunal species richness.

  7. Zooplankton assemblages and biomass during a 4-period survey in a northern Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam-Hoai, T; Rougier, C

    2001-01-01

    The authors proposed to examine zooplankton biomass at three stations inside (T and Z) and outside (M) a coastal lagoon of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Station T represented the lagoon central area, and station Z was positioned in a shellfish farming sector, while the seaside station (M) served as a reference of marine environment. Analyses were designed to outline the net zooplankton assemblages (taxonomic structures and length distributions) in different environmental conditions, including the farming activity. A discriminant analysis of environmental variables determined that temperature, salinity and phytoplankton implied mainly in spatial pattern of the samples. An ordination of taxa biomasses showed two main factors which might contribute to the organisation of the zooplankton assemblages: the geographical position and the thermal period. The geographical position integrated the lagoon-sea water exchange under forcing parameters (habitat, tides and winds). The thermal period reflected both the populations development cycles and the environmental constraints (temperature, salinity, trophic resources). The resulting effects appeared in structured zooplankton assemblages in space and time. The number of 50 microns interval length classes and of taxa decreased from the seaside and the lagoon central area free of farming activity to the shallower farming zone. But the biomass-length distribution profiles did not closely follow such an expected opposition between opened and confined areas: more extended profiles were observed at station Z. Biomass dominant size classes concerned the range up to 300 microns. This size category appeared to collapse in terms of biomass from the seaside or central area of the lagoon towards the farming area, similarly to zooplankton global biomass fluctuations. Difference between biomass levels and between biomass structures suggested that net zooplankton partly acted as food competitors of macro-filtering organisms, and as

  8. Riparian forest buffers mitigate the effects of deforestation on fish assemblages in tropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorion, Christopher M; Kennedy, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Riparian forest buffers may play a critical role in moderating the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream ecosystems, but very few studies have examined the ecological effects of riparian buffers in the tropics. To test the hypothesis that riparian forest buffers can reduce the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream biota, we sampled fish assemblages in lowland headwater streams in southeastern Costa Rica representing three different treatments: (1) forested reference stream reaches, (2) stream reaches adjacent to pasture with a riparian forest buffer averaging at least 15 m in width on each bank, and (3) stream reaches adjacent to pasture without a riparian forest buffer. Land cover upstream from the study reaches was dominated by forest at all of the sites, allowing us to isolate the reach-scale effects of the three study treatments. Fish density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forest and forest buffer reaches, mostly due to an increase in herbivore-detritivores, but fish biomass did not differ among reach types. Fish species richness was also higher in pasture reaches than in forested reference reaches, while forest buffer reaches were intermediate. Overall, the taxonomic and trophic structure of fish assemblages in forest and forest buffer reaches was very similar, while assemblages in pasture reaches were quite distinct. These patterns were persistent across three sampling periods during our 15-month study. Differences in stream ecosystem conditions between pasture reaches and forested sites, including higher stream temperatures, reduced fruit and seed inputs, and a trend toward increased periphyton abundance, appeared to favor fish species normally found in larger streams and facilitate a native invasion process. Forest buffer reaches, in contrast, had stream temperatures and allochthonous inputs more similar to forested streams. Our results illustrate the importance of riparian areas to stream ecosystem integrity in the tropics

  9. Arthropod diversity and assemblage structure response to deforestation and desertification in the Sahel of western Senegal

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    Brandon J. Lingbeek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drylands are highly vulnerable to desertification and among the most endangered ecosystems. To understand how biodiversity responds to environmental degradation in these fragile ecosystems, we examined whether arthropod, beetle, spider and ant diversity and assemblage structure differed (1 between seasons, (2 among locations (3 between protected areas of tropical dry forest and adjacent communal lands suffering from desertification, as well as (4 how vegetation impacts assemblage structures. We established 12 plots spaced homogenously throughout each protected area and the adjacent communal land at three locations: Beersheba, Bandia and Ngazobil. Within each plot, we measured canopy closure, vegetation height, percent cover of bare ground, leaf litter, grasses and forbs and collected arthropods using pitfall traps during the 2014 dry (May and rainy (September seasons. We collected 123,705 arthropods representing 733 morphospecies, 10,849 beetles representing 216 morphospecies, 4969 spiders representing 91 morphospecies and 59,183 ants representing 45 morphospecies. Results showed greater arthropod and beetle diversities (P = 0.002–0.040 in the rainy season, no difference in diversity among locations for any taxonomic group and a difference (P ≤ 0.001 in diversity for all taxa between protected areas and communal lands. Assemblage structures of all taxa responded (P = 0.001 to vegetation characteristics, differed (P = 0.015–0.045 between seasons and, with a few exceptions, locations and fragments. Our results illustrate the importance of a multi-taxa approach in understanding biodiversity response to anthropogenic disturbances as well as the value of protected areas in preserving biodiversity of the Sahel.

  10. Invasive carnivores alter ecological function and enhance complementarity in scavenger assemblages on ocean beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marion B; Schlacher, Thomas A; Schoeman, David S; Weston, Michael A; Huijbers, Chantal M; Olds, Andrew D; Connolly, Rod M

    2015-10-01

    Species composition is expected to alter ecological function in assemblages if species traits differ strongly. Such effects are often large and persistent for nonnative carnivores invading islands. Alternatively, high similarity in traits within assemblages creates a degree of functional redundancy in ecosystems. Here we tested whether species turnover results in functional ecological equivalence or complementarity, and whether invasive carnivores on islands significantly alter such ecological function. The model system consisted of vertebrate scavengers (dominated by raptors) foraging on animal carcasses on ocean beaches on two Australian islands, one with and one without invasive red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Partitioning of scavenging events among species, carcass removal rates, and detection speeds were quantified using camera traps baited with fish carcasses at the dune-beach interface. Complete segregation of temporal foraging niches between mammals (nocturnal) and birds (diurnal) reflects complementarity in carrion utilization. Conversely, functional redundancy exists within the bird guild where several species of raptors dominate carrion removal in a broadly similar way. As predicted, effects of red foxes were large. They substantially changed the nature and rate of the scavenging process in the system: (1) foxes consumed over half (55%) of all carrion available at night, compared with negligible mammalian foraging at night on the fox-free island, and (2) significant shifts in the composition of the scavenger assemblages consuming beach-cast carrion are the consequence of fox invasion at one island. Arguably, in the absence of other mammalian apex predators, the addition of red foxes creates a new dimension of functional complementarity in beach food webs. However, this functional complementarity added by foxes is neither benign nor neutral, as marine carrion subsidies to coastal red fox populations are likely to facilitate their persistence as exotic

  11. Species composition, richness and nestedness of lizard assemblages from Restinga habitats along the brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Vrcibradic, D; Kiefer, M C; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A F; Hatano, F H; Galdino, C A B; Bergallo, H G; Van Sluys, M

    2014-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation is well known to adversely affect species living in the remaining, relatively isolated, habitat patches, especially for those having small range size and low density. This negative effect has been critical in coastal resting habitats. We analysed the lizard composition and richness of restinga habitats in 16 restinga habitats encompassing three Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia) and more than 1500km of the Brazilian coast in order to evaluate if the loss of lizard species following habitat reduction occur in a nested pattern or at random, using the "Nestedness Temperature Calculator" to analyse the distribution pattern of lizard species among the restingas studied. We also estimated the potential capacity that each restinga has to maintain lizard species. Eleven lizard species were recorded in the restingas, although not all species occurred in all areas. The restinga with the richest lizard fauna was Guriri (eight species) whereas the restinga with the lowest richness was Praia do Sul (located at Ilha Grande, a large coastal island). Among the restingas analysed, Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves, were the most hospitable for lizards. The matrix community temperature of the lizard assemblages was 20.49° (= P restingas exhibited a considerable nested structure. The degree in which an area is hospitable for different assemblages could be used to suggest those with greater value of conservation. We concluded that lizard assemblages in coastal restingas occur at a considerable level of ordination in restinga habitats and that some restinga areas such as Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves are quite important to preserve lizard diversity of restinga environments.

  12. Lithic assemblages of Azokh Cave (Nagorno Karabagh, Lesser Caucasus: Raw materials, technology and regional context

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    Lena Asryan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Azokh Cave is a Middle Pleistocene to Holocene site located in Nagorno Karabagh (Lesser Caucasus. The main entrance, Azokh 1, is a large cave that has two geological sequences (lower and upper with nine geo-archaeological units of which only the upper ones (Units I to V have a significant archaeological record.  The faunal remains and lithic artefacts in these units indicate aspects of human occupation, and exploitation of, and association with animals.     The lithic artefacts presented here were recovered from Units V, III and II during the 2002 – 2009 excavation seasons. The available chronological data indicates an age between 293 – 100 Ka for these units. The operational chain is incomplete and artefacts found in the cave are primarily end-products dominated by flake-tools. The assemblage of Unit V is composed primarily of simple, unretouched flakes with a minimal presence of retouched flakes and cores. The Unit II lithic assemblage includes a substantial Levallois component, although with fewer cores and retouched flakes. There are very few flake tools in Unit III. While it is still difficult to assign the Unit V assemblage to a techno-typological group or complex (i.e. Acheulean, Mousterian or other local techno-complexes such as the Kudarian, the Unit II assemblage is clearly associated with Mode 3 or the Mousterian techno-complex.Different local and non-local raw materials were exploited in all units for the production of lithic artefacts, although the range of raw materials is more varied in Unit II. Local chert, flint and basalt were used most commonly, probably due to their easy accessibility. Limestone, jasper and sandstone, from local and non-local sources, are present in small quantities in Units V and II. Obsidian is the only raw material that possibly originates from more distant sources. Flint and chert appear to have been preferentially exploited for flake tool production in all units, but the toolmakers show a

  13. The parasite assemblage in the spiral intestine of the shark Mustelus canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cislo, P R; Caira, J N

    1993-12-01

    The parasite assemblage in the 8 chambers of the spiral intestine of 49 specimens of the shark Mustelus canis collected from Long Island Sound and off the coast of Virginia was investigated. Assemblages within host individuals were composed of up to 3 of 4 species of cestodes: the trypanorhynch species Prochristianella tumidula and Lacistorhynchus tenuis and the hooked tetraphyllidean species Calliobothrium verticillatum and Calliobothrium lintoni. Each individual shark hosted 1-3 (mean = 2.17) tapeworm species and 1-166 (mean = 34.3) tapeworm individuals. The assemblage consisted of 2 core species, 1 secondary species, and 1 satellite species. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among the areas of the 8 intestinal chambers. ANOVAs of worm density among chambers revealed that each of the 4 species exhibited site specificity within the spiral intestine. Least significant difference analysis revealed that each of the species, except C. verticillatum, was usually found in the anterior 3 chambers. Calliobothrium verticillatum was more commonly found in the middle region of the organ, centered around chamber 4. Horn's information index indicated that L. tenuis and C. lintoni had the greatest amount of overlap within the spiral intestine and the congeners C. lintoni and C. verticillatum had the least amount of overlap. No evidence of interaction among the species in this assemblage was found. In cases where observations could be made, neither cestode total length nor location within the spiral intestine appeared to be affected by the presence of other individuals or species respectively. There was some evidence of underutilized space; the posteriormost chamber was vacant in all 49 sharks examined and 91.8% of sharks had at least 2 vacant chambers. Linear regression revealed no relationship between shark total length and either total number of worms or total number of individuals of each of the 4 species of cestodes. The chi-square test revealed

  14. Digital companion species and eating data: Implications for theorising digital data–human assemblages

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    Deborah Lupton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary is an attempt to begin to identify and think through some of the ways in which sociocultural theory may contribute to understandings of the relationship between humans and digital data. I develop an argument that rests largely on the work of two scholars in the field of science and technology studies: Donna Haraway and Annemarie Mol. Both authors emphasised materiality and multiple ontologies in their writing. I argue that these concepts have much to offer critical data studies. I employ the tropes of companion species, drawn from Haraway, and eating data, from Mol, and demonstrate how these may be employed to theorise digital data–human assemblages.

  15. Disease-induced assemblage of a plant-beneficial bacterial consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendsen, Roeland L.; Vismans, Gilles; Yu, Ke

    2018-01-01

    Disease suppressive soils typically develop after a disease outbreak due to the subsequent assembly of protective microbiota in the rhizosphere. The role of the plant immune system in the assemblage of a protective rhizosphere microbiome is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate...... in a second population of plants growing in the same soil. Together our results indicate that plants can adjust their root microbiome upon pathogen infection and specifically recruit a group of disease resistance-inducing and growth-promoting beneficial microbes, therewith potentially maximizing the chance...

  16. Maximum Likelihood Method for Predicting Environmental Conditions from Assemblage Composition: The R Package bio.infer

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    Lester L. Yuan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief introduction to the R package bio.infer, a set of scripts that facilitates the use of maximum likelihood (ML methods for predicting environmental conditions from assemblage composition. Environmental conditions can often be inferred from only biological data, and these inferences are useful when other sources of data are unavailable. ML prediction methods are statistically rigorous and applicable to a broader set of problems than more commonly used weighted averaging techniques. However, ML methods require a substantially greater investment of time to program algorithms and to perform computations. This package is designed to reduce the effort required to apply ML prediction methods.

  17. Variability of coastal suprabenthic assemblages from sandy beaches of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela

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    Ileana Ortega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The suprabenthos or hyperbenthos is the macrofaunal assemblage of small-sized organisms that interact for some time in the benthic boundary layer. Information about the taxonomic composition and role of suprabenthic species, especially in littoral zones, is scarce and scattered. This work attempts to contribute alleviate this problem. We analyze the temporal and spatial variations of suprabenthic assemblages in the swash-zone from four beaches of the littoral coast of Venezuela. For each beach, two sites were chosen, and special attention was given to water and sediment characteristics. 12 environmental variables were measured: Dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, pH, salinity, surface temperature, total, organic and inorganic suspended solids, total organic carbon, organic matter in sediment, grain size of sediment, and amount of dragged material of sample. All faunal samples were taken on a monthly basis during 2011; these were extracted using a manual suprabenthic sledge towed parallel to the shoreline. Samples were sorted and identified to their lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 24 141 specimens (mean abundance: 26.16±55.35ind./m² belonging to 21 taxonomic groups were identified. Analysis suggests that seasonality does not explain observed changes either in fauna or environmental variables. It was found that suprabenthic assemblages, total suprabenthos density, richness and environmental variables changed in a dissimilar fashion between months and beaches. The most frequent groups were amphipods and decapods; and at the species/categories level post-larval shrimp (Penaeidae, Grapsidae crab megalopae and Arenaeus cribarius megalopae were common. Dissimilarity between months in each beach was primarily explained by the abundance of amphipods, ctenophores, decapods and mysids. For particular months and selected beaches very high abundances of ctenophores were found. This group dominated the sample even though it is not

  18. Holocene Planktonic Foraminiferal Assemblage Shifts on the California Margin; Environmental Forcing of Medieval Chumash Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisler, J. A.; Hendy, I.

    2005-12-01

    The contribution of D. Kennett and J.P. Kennett to recent literature on native Chumash cultural evolution has linked societal changes between 500 and 1300 A.D. with a rapidly-changing environment. As large-amplitude fluctuations in surface water and climate conditions at the California Margin would have had severe implications for local flora and fauna, high resolution paleooceanographic records from ODP Site 893 should record these environmental changes. The planktonic foraminifera of Santa Barbara Basin are known to be sensitive to climate change over glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial time scales. Here we present a Holocene record of planktonic foraminiferal assemblage change that demonstrates this sensitivity continued through what is generally considered to be a warm stable climatic interval. Absolute numbers of planktonic foraminifera specimens decreased through the Holocene, from a peak of over 30,000 specimens/cm3 at 9 kyr BP to several thousand in the last millennia. Eurythermal, high nutrient species G. bulloides and G. quinqueloba show opposite abundance trends throughout deglaciation, with significant decreases in G. bulloides abundance during the Late Holocene while G. quinqueloba increases in abundance. Significant assemblage shifts occurring at 2 kyr BP are particularly pronounced in N. pachyderma dextral/sinistral ratios. Large fluctuations in the dextral/sinistral ratio occur during this interval, varying between 50 and 95%. The most recent decrease in the ratio occurs 800 yrs BP before returning to modern values at 500 yr BP. Assemblage data suggest more dramatic environmental change than indicated by planktonic oxygen isotope records. While N. pachyderma dextral/sinistral ratios generally follow oxygen isotopes throughout the Holocene, the records decouple at 2 kyr BP when the first substantial decrease in the ratio occurs. Salinity may, in part, explain this observation. ODP Site 893 is located at the confluence of the cool

  19. Compositional changes in spider (Araneae) assemblages along an urbanisation gradient near a Danish town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horváth, R.; Elek, Zoltán; Lövei, Gabor L

    2014-01-01

    Spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied over two years by pitfall trapping along an urbanisation gradient of forested habitats (rural forest - suburban forest fragment - urban forest fragment) in a Danish town, using the Globenet protocol. During the two years, we collected 4340 individuals of 90...... species, with money spiders (Linyphiidae) and wolf spiders (Lycosidae) being most numerous. One species, Ero aphana, was new to the Danish fauna. In 2004, 45-47 species were captured in the habitats in various stages of urbanisation, while in 2005 (with a smaller collection effort), 28 (urban) - 37 (rural...

  20. Lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat from southeastern Brazil: a niche overlap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winck, Gisele R; Hatano, Fabio; Vrcibradic, Davor; VAN Sluys, Monique; Rocha, Carlos F D

    2016-01-01

    Communities are structured by interactions of historical and ecological factors, which influence the use of different resources in time and space. We acquired data on time of activity, microhabitat use and diet of a lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat in a coastal area, southeastern Brazil (Restinga de Jurubatiba). We analyzed the data of niche overlap among species in these three axes (temporal, spatial and trophic) using null models. We found a significant overlap within the trophic niche, whereas the overlap for the other axes did not differ from the expected. Based on this result, we d