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Sample records for maaris nuutre raaja

  1. Characteristics and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from Maari, a traditional West African food condiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou

    2015-01-01

    light on the succession and pathogenic potential of B. cereus species in traditional West African food condiment and clarifies their phylogenetic relatedness to B. cereus biovar anthracis. Future implementation of GMP and HACCP and development of starter cultures for controlled Maari fermentations...

  2. Experimental estimates of the energy budget of hydrothermal eruptions; application to 2012 Upper Te Maari eruption, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Cronin, Shane J.; Breard, Eric C. P.; Lube, Gert; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-10-01

    Sudden hydrothermal eruptions occur in many volcanic settings and may include high-energy explosive phases. Ballistics launched by such events, together with ash plumes and pyroclastic density currents, generate deadly proximal hazards. The violence of hydrothermal eruptions (or explosive power) depends on the energy available within the driving-fluids (gas or liquid), which also influences the explosive mechanisms, volumes, durations, and products of these eruptions. Experimental studies in addition to analytical modeling were used here to elucidate the fragmentation mechanism and aspects of energy balance within hydrothermal eruptions. We present results from a detailed study of recent event that occurred on the 6th of August 2012 at Upper Te Maari within the Tongariro volcanic complex (New Zealand). The eruption was triggered by a landslide from this area, which set off a rapid stepwise decompression of the hydrothermal system. Explosive blasts were directed both westward and eastward of the collapsed area, with a vertical ash plume sourced from an adjacent existing crater. All explosions ejected blocks on ballistic trajectories, hundreds of which impacted New Zealand's most popular hiking trail and a mountain lodge, 1.4 km from the explosion locus. We have employed rocks representative of the eruption source area to perform rapid decompression experiments under controlled laboratory conditions that mimic hydrothermal explosions under controlled laboratory conditions. An experimental apparatus for 34 by 70 mm cylindrical samples was built to reduce the influence of large lithic enclaves (up to 30 mm in diameter) within the rock. The experiments were conducted in a temperature range of 250 °C-300 °C and applied pressure between 4 MPa and 6.5 MPa, which span the range of expected conditions below the Te Maari crater. Within this range we tested rapid decompression of pre-saturated samples from both liquid-dominated conditions and the vapor-dominated field

  3. Mass transfer processes in a post eruption hydrothermal system: Parameterisation of microgravity changes at Te Maari craters, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig A.; Currenti, Gilda; Hamling, Ian; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2018-05-01

    Fluid transfer and ground deformation at hydrothermal systems occur both as a precursor to, or as a result of, an eruption. Typically studies focus on pre-eruption changes to understand the likelihood of unrest leading to eruption; however, monitoring post-eruption changes is important for tracking the return of the system towards background activity. Here we describe processes occurring in a hydrothermal system following the 2012 eruption of Upper Te Maari crater on Mt Tongariro, New Zealand, from observations of microgravity change and deformation. Our aim is to assess the post-eruption recovery of the system, to provide a baseline for long-term monitoring. Residual microgravity anomalies of up to 92 ± 11 μGal per year are accompanied by up to 0.037 ± 0.01 m subsidence. We model microgravity changes using analytic solutions to determine the most likely geometry and source location. A multiobjective inversion tests whether the gravity change models are consistent with the observed deformation. We conclude that the source of subsidence is separate from the location of mass addition. From this unusual combination of observations, we develop a conceptual model of fluid transfer within a condensate layer, occurring in response to eruption-driven pressure changes. We find that depressurisation drives the evacuation of pore fluid, either exiting the system completely as vapour through newly created vents and fumaroles, or migrating to shallower levels where it accumulates in empty pore space, resulting in positive gravity changes. Evacuated pores then collapse, causing subsidence. In addition we find that significant mass addition occurs from influx of meteoric fluids through the fractured hydrothermal seal. Long-term combined microgravity and deformation monitoring will allow us to track the resealing and re-pressurisation of the hydrothermal system and assess what hazard it presents to thousands of hikers who annually traverse the volcano, within 2 km of the

  4. Duell diktaatoriga / Juri Hashtshevatski ; interv. Kelly Grossthal, Maari Ross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hashtshevatski, Juri

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas linastub esimene Eesti-Valgevene ühistöö "Kalinovski väljak", dokumentaalfilm Valgevene kuulsaima režissööri pikalt kestnud ja ohtlikust konfliktist diktaator Lukashenkaga. Poliitilisest olukorrast Valgevenes, president Aleksandr Lukashenkast

  5. Microorganisms associated with Maari, a Baobab seed fermented product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkouda, Charles; Thorsen, Line; Compaoré, Clarisse S.

    2010-01-01

    , Macrococcus, Leifsonia, Kurthia, Proteus, Acinetobacter and Globicatella, respectively. A putatively novel, previously undescribed Corynebacterium sp. was also found. E. faecium was the dominant LAB in all investigated retail samples except one sample dominated by Pediococcus acidilactici....

  6. Afganistan ootab sõpru Eestist / Maari Ross ; intervjueerinud Mari Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ross, Maari

    2010-01-01

    Jaan Tõnissoni Instituudi poolt 2009. a. algatatud projektist, mille eesmärgiks on tutvustada Afganistani Eestis ja luua kontakte kahe riigi koolide vahel. Lisa. Afganistanist endale sõpruskooli leidnud Eesti koolide nimestik

  7. Bacteriocin formation by dominant aerobic sporeformers isolated from traditional maari

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaboré, Donatien; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2012-01-01

    that the antimicrobial substances produced were heat stable, in-sensitive to catalase, sensitive to protease and trypsin but resistant to the proteolytic action of papain and proteinase K and equally active at pH values ranging from 3 to 11. Bacteriocin secretion started in late exponential growth phase and maximum...

  8. C-klaster: keeleoskuse ja osaluse mõõtmes lõimunud / Maaris Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Maaris, 1955-

    2013-01-01

    Uuringu käigus tehtud klasteranalüüsi põhjal hea eesti keele oskuse ja aktiivse osalusega, kuid nõrga kodanikuidentiteediga Eesti venekeelsest elanikkonnast moodustunud C-klastriga läbi viidud rühmaintervjuudel rajaneva analüüsi tulemustest

  9. Acid resistance, bile tolerance and antimicrobial properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maari is a fermented food condiment obtained by spontaneous fermentation of seeds from the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata). Nine dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, isolated from traditional maari fermentation were examined for their resistance to pH 2.5, their tolerance to 0.3% bile and their antimicrobial ...

  10. Genesis / Juta Kivimäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimäe, Juta, 1952-

    2003-01-01

    Poola skulptori Magdalena Schmidt-G̤ra installatsioonid "Genesis I, II" rahvusraamatukogu fuajees ja peanäitusesaalis, kus oli samal ajal eksponeeritud eesti nahakunstnike Luule Maari ja Ruuda Maarandi köitenäitus

  11. Estimates of excess medically attended acute respiratory infections in periods of seasonal and pandemic influenza in Germany from 2001/02 to 2010/11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias An der Heiden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of patients seeking health care is a central indicator that may serve several different purposes: (1 as a proxy for the impact on the burden of the primary care system; (2 as a starting point to estimate the number of persons ill with influenza; (3 as the denominator data for the calculation of case fatality rate and the proportion hospitalized (severity indicators; (4 for economic calculations. In addition, reliable estimates of burden of disease and on the health care system are essential to communicate the impact of influenza to health care professionals, public health professionals and to the public. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using German syndromic surveillance data, we have developed a novel approach to describe the seasonal variation of medically attended acute respiratory infections (MAARI and estimate the excess MAARI attributable to influenza. The weekly excess inside a period of influenza circulation is estimated as the difference between the actual MAARI and a MAARI-baseline, which is established using a cyclic regression model for counts. As a result, we estimated the highest ARI burden within the last 10 years for the influenza season 2004/05 with an excess of 7.5 million outpatient visits (CI95% 6.8-8.0. In contrast, the pandemic wave 2009 accounted for one third of this burden with an excess of 2.4 million (CI95% 1.9-2.8. Estimates can be produced for different age groups, different geographic regions in Germany and also in real time during the influenza waves.

  12. الظاهرة الدينية في نثر المعري (دراسة في ضوء النقد الثقافي

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد حليم حسن الكروي

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It was a religion (Religion a major impact in the lives of Maari has changed the course of his life took him from the front stage to the isolation stage and defend the validity of his religion, which he accused most of his works harnessed to defend his religion and his emphasis on the health of his faith, and since most of his works Petty wrote after returning from Baghdad we find them filled with religious spirit which recognizes in God and the prophets and the Baath and the Resurrection. They have been denuded to prove the opposite of what it was accused of bringing religion dominated the most of his works prose, even those that are in the spirit of science and knowledge, the plight of the plight of a great religion, especially in the social and political situation in which the Al-Ma'arri live

  13. Perils in distinguishing phreatic from phreatomagmatic ash; insights into the eruption mechanisms of the 6 August 2012 Mt. Tongariro eruption, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Natalia; Cronin, Shane J.; Németh, Károly; Brenna, Marco; Schipper, C. Ian; Breard, Eric; White, James D. L.; Procter, Jonathan; Stewart, Bob; Agustín-Flores, Javier; Moebis, Anja; Zernack, Anke; Kereszturi, Gábor; Lube, Gert; Auer, Andreas; Neall, Vince; Wallace, Clel

    2014-10-01

    The weak geophysical precursors of the 6 August 2012 Te Maari eruption of Mt. Tongariro and a lack of obvious juvenile components in its proximal ballistic deposits imply that the eruption was caused by the sudden decompression of a sealed, hot hydrothermal system. Strong magmatic signals in pre- and post-eruption gas emissions indicate that fresh magma had intruded to shallow levels shortly before this eruption. Here we examine the volcanic ash produced during the August eruption with the aim of determining whether juvenile magma was erupted or not. The widely applied criteria for identifying fresh juvenile pyroclasts provided inconclusive results. The Te Maari ash sorting and trend towards a unimodal grain-size distribution increase with distance along the dispersal axis. Proximal to intermediate sites showing polymodal grain-size distributions can be related to the re-fragmentation of different pre-existing lithologies, overlapped erupted pulses and transport mechanisms, and to particle aggregation. Between 69 and 100 vol.% of particles coarser than 3 ϕ and 45-75 vol.% of grains finer than 3 ϕ were sourced from the pre-existing, commonly hydrothermally altered, vent-area lavas and pyroclasts. Free crystals (pyroxene > plagioclase > magnetite > pyrite) make up 0-23 vol.% of particles coarser than 3 ϕ, and 22-41 vol.% of grains finer than 3 ϕ. Brown to black fragments of fresh glass are a small (1-15 vol.%), but notable, component. Under SEM, these blocky, glassy particles are poorly vesicular, and irregularly shaped, some with fluidal or bubble-wall surfaces, and others with fragmented stepped surfaces and fine adhering ash. In thin section, they contain variable amounts of microlites within an isotropic groundmass. The range in silica content of the microprobe-analysed glass is very wide (56-77 wt.%) and cannot be correlated to any specific particle textural type. These chemically and texturally diverse glassy fragments are identical to mechanically broken

  14. Integrating multidisciplinary science, modelling and impact data into evolving, syn-event volcanic hazard mapping and communication: A case study from the 2012 Tongariro eruption crisis, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Stewart, Carol; Wilson, Thomas M.; Procter, Jonathan N.; Scott, Bradley J.; Keys, Harry J.; Jolly, Gill E.; Wardman, Johnny B.; Cronin, Shane J.; McBride, Sara K.

    2014-10-01

    New Zealand's Tongariro National Park volcanoes produce hazardous eruptions every few years to decades. On 6 August 2012 the Te Maari vent of Tongariro Volcano erupted, producing a series of explosions and a fine ash of minor volume which was dispersed rapidly to the east. This manuscript presents a summary of the eruption impacts and the way these supported science communication during the crisis, particularly in terms of hazard map development. The most significant proximal impact was damage from pyroclastic surges and ballistics to the popular and economically-important Tongariro Alpine Crossing track. The only hazard to affect the medial impact zone was a few mms of ashfall with minor impacts. Field testing indicated that the Te Maari ash had extremely low resistivity when wetted, implying a very high potential to cause disruption to nationally-important power transmission networks via the mechanism of insulator flashover. This was not observed, presumably due to insufficient ash accumulation on insulators. Virtually no impacts from distal ashfall were reported. Post-event analysis of PM10 data demonstrates the additional value of regional air quality monitoring networks in quantifying population exposure to airborne respirable ash. While the eruption was minor, it generated a high level of public interest and a demand for information on volcanic hazards and impacts from emergency managers, the public, critical infrastructure managers, health officials, and the agriculture sector. Meeting this demand fully taxed available resources. We present here aspects of the New Zealand experience which may have wider applicability in moving towards improved integration of hazard impact information, mapping, and communication. These include wide use of a wiki technical clearinghouse and email listservs, a focus on multi-agency consistent messages, and a recently developed environment of collaboration and alignment of both research funding and technical science advice

  15. Seismo-acoustic evidence for an avalanche driven phreatic eruption through a beheaded hydrothermal system: An example from the 2012 Tongariro eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, A.D.; Jousset, P.; Lyons, J.J.; Carniel, R.; Fournier, R.; Fry, B.; Miller, C.

    2016-01-01

    The 6 August 2012 Te Maari eruption comprises a complex eruption sequence including multiple eruption pulses, a debris avalanche that propagated ~ 2 km from the vent, and the formation of a 500 m long, arcuate chasm, located ~ 300 m from the main eruption vent. The eruption included 6 distinct impulses that were coherent across a local infrasound network marking the eruption onset at 11:52:18 (all times UTC). An eruption energy release of ~ 3 × 1012 J was calculated using a body wave equation for radiated seismic energy. A similar calculation based on the infrasound record, shows that ~ 90% of the acoustic energy was released from three impulses at onset times 11:52:20 (~ 20% of total eruption energy), 11:52:27 (~ 50%), and 11:52:31 (~ 20%). These energy impulses may coincide with eyewitness accounts describing an initial eastward directed blast, followed by a westward directed blast, and a final vertical blast. Pre-eruption seismic activity includes numerous small unlocatable micro-earthquakes that began at 11:46:50. Two larger high frequency earthquakes were recorded at 11:49:06 and 11:49:21 followed directly by a third earthquake at 11:50:17. The first event was located within the scarp based on an arrival time location from good first P arrival times and probably represents the onset of the debris avalanche. The third event was a tornillo, characterised by a 0.8 Hz single frequency resonance, and has a resonator attenuation factor of Q ~ 40, consistent with a bubbly fluid filled resonator. This contrasts with a similar tornillo event occurring 2.5 weeks earlier having Q ~ 250–1000, consistent with a dusty gas charged resonator. We surmise from pre-eruption seismicity, and the observed attenuation change, that the debris avalanche resulted from the influx of fluids into the hydrothermal system, causing destabilisation and failure. The beheaded hydrothermal system may have then caused depressurisation frothing of the remaining gas charged system leading to the