WorldWideScience

Sample records for m87 globular clusters

  1. Hot Populations in M87 Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sohn, S T; Kundu, A; Landsman, W B; Burstein, D; Bohlin, R C; Frogel, J A; Rose, J A

    2005-01-01

    We have obtained HST/STIS far- and near-UV photometry of globular clusters in four fields in the gE galaxy M87. To a limit of m(FUV) = 25 we detect a total of 66 globular clusters (GCs) in common with the deep HST optical-band study of Kundu et al. (1999). Despite strong overlap in V- and I-band properties, the M87 GCs have UV/optical properties that are distinct from clusters in the Milky Way and in M31. M87 clusters, especially metal-poor ones, produce larger hot HB populations than do Milky Way analogues. Cluster mass is probably not a factor in these distinctions. The most metal-rich M87 GCs in our sample are near Z_sun and overlap the local E galaxy sample in estimated Mg_2 line indices. Nonetheless, the clusters produce much more UV light at a given Mg_2, being up to 1 mag bluer than any gE galaxy in (FUV-V) color. The M87 GCs do not appear to represent a transition between Milky Way-type clusters and E galaxies. The differences are in the correct sense if the clusters are significantly older than the E...

  2. Discovery of Remote Globular Cluster Satellites of M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Lea; Guo, Rachel; Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric W.; Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; NGVS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of several tens of globular clusters (GCs) in the outer regions of the giant elliptical M87, the brightest galaxy in the Virgo Cluster. These M87 GC satellites were discovered in the course of Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic follow up of GC candidates that were identified in the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS). Specifically, the primary targets of this Keck spectroscopic campaign were GC satellites of early-type dwarf (dE) galaxies. However, we found that our sample contained a subset of GCs for which M87 is the most likely host. This subset is consistent with having an r^-1 power-law surface density distribution and a radial velocity distribution both centered on M87. The remote M87 GC satellites span the radial range 140 to 900 kpc, out to about a third of the Virgo Cluster's virial radius (for comparison, M87's effective radius is only 8 kpc). These M87 GC satellites are probably former satellites of other Virgo Cluster galaxies that have subsequently been cannibalized by M87.This research was supported by the National Science Foundation and the UC Santa Cruz Science Internship Program.

  3. Multivariate analysis of the globular clusters in M87

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sukanta; Davoust, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    An objective classification of 147 globular clusters in the inner region of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 is carried out with the help of two methods of multivariate analysis. First independent component analysis is used to determine a set of independent variables that are linear combinations of various observed parameters (mostly Lick indices) of the globular clusters. Next K-means cluster analysis is applied on the independent components, to find the optimum number of homogeneous groups having an underlying structure. The properties of the four groups of globular clusters thus uncovered are used to explain the formation mechanism of the host galaxy. It is suggested that M87 formed in two successive phases. First a monolithic collapse, which gave rise to an inner group of metal-rich clusters with little systematic rotation and an outer group of metal-poor clusters in eccentric orbits. In a second phase, the galaxy accreted low-mass satellites in a dissipationless fashion, from the gas of which the two othe...

  4. Study of Remote Globular Cluster Satellites of M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Arushi; Shao, Andrew; Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    We present a sample of “orphan” globular clusters (GCs) with previously unknown parent galaxies, which we determine to be remote satellites of M87, a massive elliptical galaxy at the center of the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies. Because GCs were formed in the early universe along with their original parent galaxies, which were cannibalized by massive galaxies such as M87, they share similar age and chemical properties. In this study, we first confirm that M87 is the adoptive parent galaxy of our orphan GCs using photometric and spectroscopic data to analyze spatial and velocity distributions. Next, we increase the signal-to-noise ratio of our samples’ spectra through a process known as coaddition. We utilize spectroscopic absorption lines to determine the age and metallicity of our orphan GCs through comparison to stellar population synthesis models, which we then relate to the GCs’ original parent galaxies using a mass-metallicity relation. Our finding that remote GCs of M87 likely developed in galaxies with ~1010 solar masses implies that M87’s outer halo is formed of relatively massive galaxies, serving as important parameters for developing theories about the formation and evolution of massive galaxies.This research was funded in part by NASA/STScI and the National Science Foundation. Most of this work was carried out by high school students working under the auspices of the Science Internship Program at UC Santa Cruz.

  5. Dynamical Models of Elliptical Galaxies -- II. M87 and its Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Agnello, A; Romanowsky, A J; Brodie, J P

    2014-01-01

    We study the Globular Cluster (GC) system of the nearby elliptical galaxy M87 using the newly available dataset with accurate kinematics (Strader et al.2011). We find evidence for three distinct sub-populations of GCs in terms of colours, kinematics and radial profiles. We show that a decomposition into three populations (blue, intermediate and red GCs) is statistically preferred to one with two or four populations, and relate them to the stellar profile. We exploit the sub-populations to derive dynamical constraints on the mass and Dark Matter (DM) content of M87 out to $\\sim100$ kpc. We use a class of global mass-estimators (from Paper I), obtaining mass measurements at different locations. M87's DM fraction changes from $\\approx$0.2 at the starlight's effective radius (6 kpc) to $\\approx$0.95 at the distance probed by the most extended, blue GCs (135 kpc). We supplement this with \\textit{virial decompositions}, exploiting the dynamical model to produce a separation into multiple components. These yield the...

  6. Dynamical models of elliptical galaxies - II. M87 and its globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A.; Evans, N. W.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Brodie, J. P.

    2014-08-01

    We study the globular cluster (GC) system of the nearby elliptical galaxy M87 using the newly available data set with accurate kinematics provided by Strader et al. We find evidence for three distinct subpopulations of GCs in terms of colours, kinematics and radial profiles. A decomposition into three populations - blue, intermediate and red GCs - is statistically preferred to one with two or four populations. The existence of three components has been suggested before, but here we are able to identify them robustly and relate them to the stellar profile. We exploit the subpopulations to derive dynamical constraints on the mass and dark matter (DM) content of M87 out to ˜100 kpc. We deploy a class of global mass estimators, developed in Paper I, obtaining mass measurements at different locations. The DM fraction in M87 changes from ≈0.2 at the effective radius of the stellar light (0.02° or 6 kpc) to ≈0.95 at the distance probed by the most extended, blue GCs (0.47° or 135 kpc). We complete this analysis with virial decompositions, in which the dynamical model is used to produce velocity dispersions, which in turn are used to separate the GC populations. This ensures that the three subpopulations are simultaneously consistent with the same underlying mass profile. These yield the luminous mass as 5.5^{+1.5}_{-2.0} × 10^{11} M_{⊙} and the DM within 135 kpc as 8.0^{+1.0}_{-4.0} × 10^{12} M_{⊙}. The inner DM density behaves as ρ ˜ r-γ with γ ≈ 1.6. This is steeper than the cosmologically preferred cusp of ρ ˜ r-1 and may provide evidence of DM contraction. Finally, we combine the GC separation into three subpopulations with the Jeans equations, obtaining information on the orbital structure of the GC system. The centrally concentrated red GCs exhibit tangential anisotropy, consistent with the depletion of radial orbits by tidal shredding. The most extended blue GCs have an isotropic velocity-dispersion tensor in the central parts, which becomes

  7. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. VI. The Kinematics of Ultra-compact Dwarfs and Globular Clusters in M87

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Cote, Patrick; Liu, Chengze; Ferrarese, Laura; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Caldwell, Nelson; Gwyn, Stephen D J; Jordan, Andres; Lancon, Ariane; Li, Biao; Munoz, Roberto P; Puzia, Thomas H; Bekki, Kenji; Blakeslee, John; Boselli, Alessandro; Drinkwater, Michael J; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Emsellem, Eric; Firth, Peter; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    The origin of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs)--objects larger and more massive than typical globular clusters (GCs), but more compact than typical dwarf galaxies--has been hotly debated in the 15 years since their discovery. Even whether UCDs should be considered galactic in origin, or simply the most extreme GCs, is not yet settled. We present the dynamical properties of 97 spectroscopically confirmed UCDs (rh >~10 pc) and 911 GCs associated with central cD galaxy of the Virgo cluster, M87. Our UCDs, of which 89% have M_star > ~2X10^6 M_sun and 92% are as blue as the classic blue GCs, nearly triple the sample of previous confirmed Virgo UCDs, providing by far the best opportunity for studying the global dynamics of a UCD system. We found that (1) UCDs have a surface number density profile that is shallower than that of the blue GCs in the inner ~ 70 kpc and as steep as that of the red GCs at larger radii; (2) UCDs exhibit a significantly stronger rotation than the GCs, and the blue GCs seem to have a velocity fi...

  8. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. VI. THE KINEMATICS OF ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS AND GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Peng, Eric W.; Li, Biao [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Blakeslee, John P. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Program, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jordán, Andrés; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Lançon, Ariane [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bekki, Kenji [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Boselli, Alessandro [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Drinkwater, Michael J. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Duc, Pierre-Alain, E-mail: hongxin@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, CEA/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2015-03-20

    The origin of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs; r{sub h} ≳ 10 pc)—objects larger and more massive than typical globular clusters (GCs), but more compact than typical dwarf galaxies—has been hotly debated in the 15 years since their discovery. Even whether UCDs should be considered galactic in origin, or simply the most extreme star clusters, is not yet settled. We present the dynamical properties of 97 spectroscopically confirmed UCDs and 911 GCs associated with the central cD galaxy of the Virgo cluster, M87. Our UCDs, of which 89% have M {sub *} ≳ 2× 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} and 92% are as blue as the classic blue GCs, nearly triple the confirmed sample of Virgo UCDs, providing by far the best opportunity for studying global dynamics of a UCD system. We found that (1) UCDs have a surface number density profile that is shallower than that of blue GCs in the inner ∼70 kpc and as steep as that of red GCs at larger radii; (2) UCDs exhibit a significantly stronger rotation than GCs, and blue GCs seem to have a velocity field that is more consistent with that of the surrounding dwarf ellipticals than with that of UCDs; (3) UCDs have an orbital anisotropy profile that is tangentially biased at radii ≲40 kpc and radially biased farther out, whereas blue GCs become more tangentially biased at larger radii beyond ∼40 kpc; (4) GCs with M {sub *} ≳ 2 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} have rotational properties indistinguishable from the less massive ones, suggesting that it is the size, instead of mass, that differentiates UCDs from GCs as kinematically distinct populations. We conclude that most UCDs in M87 are not consistent with being merely the most luminous and extended examples of otherwise normal GCs. The radially biased orbital structure of UCDs at large radii is in general agreement with the 'tidally threshed dwarf galaxy' scenario.

  9. A globular cluster toward M87 with a radial velocity < – 1000 km s{sup –1}: the first hypervelocity cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Brodie, Jean P. [University of California Observatories, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Moore, Ben; Diemand, Jurg [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Martizzi, Davide, E-mail: caldwell@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We report the discovery of an object near M87 in the Virgo Cluster with an extraordinary blueshift of –1025 km s{sup –1}, offset from the systemic velocity by >2300 km s{sup –1}. Evaluation of photometric and spectroscopic data provides strong evidence that this object is a distant massive globular cluster, which we call HVGC-1 in analogy to Galactic hypervelocity stars. We consider but disfavor more exotic interpretations, such as a system of stars bound to a recoiling black hole. The odds of observing an outlier as extreme as HVGC-1 in a virialized distribution of intracluster objects are small; it appears more likely that the cluster was (or is being) ejected from Virgo following a three-body interaction. The nature of the interaction is unclear, and could involve either a subhalo or a binary supermassive black hole at the center of M87.

  10. The Color-Magnitude Relation for Metal-Poor Globular Clusters in M87: Confirmation From Deep HST/ACS Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Eric W; Blakeslee, John P; Mieske, Steffen; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Harris, William E; Madrid, Juan P; Meurer, Gerhardt R

    2009-01-01

    Metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) are our local link to the earliest epochs of star formation and galaxy building. Studies of extragalactic GC systems using deep, high-quality imaging have revealed a small but significant slope to the color-magnitude relation for metal-poor GCs in a number of galaxies. We present a study of the M87 GC system using deep, archival HST/ACS imaging with the F606W and F814W filters, in which we find a significant color-magnitude relation for the metal-poor GCs. The slope of this relation in the I vs. V-I color-magnitude diagram ($\\gamma_I=-0.024\\pm0.006$) is perfectly consistent with expectations based on previously published results using data from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. The relation is driven by the most luminous GCs, those with $M_I<-10$, and its significance is largest when fitting metal-poor GCs brighter than $M_I=-7.8$, a luminosity which is ~1 mag fainter than our fitted Gaussian mean for the luminosity function (LF) of blue, metal-poor GCs (~0.8 mag fainter than...

  11. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. V. modeling the dynamics of M87 with the made-to-measure method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ling; Long, R. J.; Mao, Shude [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Rd, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Peng, Eric W.; Li, Biao [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Chengze [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen [National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Durrell, Patrick [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, One University Plaza, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Emsellem, Eric [Université de Lyon 1, CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 av. Charles André, F-69230 Saint-Genis Laval, CNRS, UMR 5574, ENS de Lyon (France); Jordán, Andrés; Muñoz, Roberto; Puzia, Thomas [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Lançon, Ariane [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Mei, Simona, E-mail: lzhu@mpia-hd.mpg.de [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, 77 av. Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-09-01

    We study the dynamics of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 from the central to the outermost regions with the made-to-measure (M2M) method. We use a new catalog of 922 globular cluster line-of-sight velocities extending to a projected radius of 180 kpc (equivalent to 25 M87 effective radii), and SAURON integral field unit data within the central 2.4 kpc. There are 263 globular clusters, mainly located beyond 40 kpc, newly observed by the Next Generation Virgo Survey. For the M2M modeling, the gravitational potential is taken as a combination of a luminous matter potential with a constant stellar mass-to-light ratio and a dark matter potential modeled as a logarithmic potential. Our best-fit dynamical model returns a stellar mass-to-light ratio in the I band of M/L{sub I} = 6.0 ± 0.3 M{sub ⊙} L{sub ⊙}{sup −1} with a dark matter potential scale velocity of 591 ± 50 km s{sup –1} and scale radius of 42 ± 10 kpc. We determine the total mass of M87 within 180 kpc to be (1.5 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}. The mass within 40 kpc is smaller than previous estimates determined using globular cluster kinematics that did not extend beyond ∼45 kpc. With our new globular cluster velocities at much larger radii, we see that globular clusters around 40 kpc show an anomalously large velocity dispersion which affected previous results. The mass we derive is in good agreement with that inferred from ROSAT X-ray observation out to 180 kpc. Within 30 kpc our mass is also consistent with that inferred from Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations, while within 120 kpc it is about 20% smaller. The model velocity dispersion anisotropy β parameter for the globular clusters in M87 is small, varying from –0.2 at the center to 0.2 at ∼40 kpc, and gradually decreasing to zero at ∼120 kpc.

  12. Dissolution of Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgardt, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in galaxies, and understanding the details of their formation and evolution can bring valuable insight into the early history of galaxies. This review summarises the current knowledge about the dissolution of star clusters and discusses the implications of star cluster dissolution for the evolution of the mass function of star cluster systems in galaxies.

  13. White Dwarfs in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Möhler, S

    2008-01-01

    We review empirical and theoretical findings concerning white dwarfs in Galactic globular clusters. Since their detection is a critical issue we describe in detail the various efforts to find white dwarfs in globular clusters. We then outline the advantages of using cluster white dwarfs to investigate the formation and evolution of white dwarfs and concentrate on evolutionary channels that appear to be unique to globular clusters. We also discuss the usefulness of globular cluster white dwarfs to provide independent information on the distances and ages of globular clusters, information that is very important far beyond the immediate field of white dwarf research. Finally, we mention possible future avenues concerning globular cluster white dwarfs, like the study of strange quark matter or plasma neutrinos.

  14. Globular clusters with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancino, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Giuffrida, G.; Marinoni, S.

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of crowded fields in Gaia data will only be a reality in a few years from now. In particular, for globular clusters, only the end-of-mission data (public in 2022-2023) will have the necessary full crowding treatment and will reach sufficient quality for the faintest stars. As a consequence, the work on the deblending and decontamination pipelines is still ongoing. We describe the present status of the pipelines for different Gaia instruments, and we model the end-of-mission crowding errors on the basis of available information. We then apply the nominal post-launch Gaia performances, appropriately worsened by the estimated crowding errors, to a set of 18 simulated globular clusters with different concentration, distance, and field contamination. We conclude that there will be 103-104 stars with astrometric performances virtually untouched by crowding (contaminated by <1 mmag) in the majoritiy of clusters. The most limiting factor will be field crowding, not cluster crowding: the most contaminated clusters will only contain 10-100 clean stars. We also conclude that: (i) the systemic proper motions and parallaxes will be determined to 1% or better up to ≃15 kpc, and the nearby clusters will have radial velocities to a few km s-1 ; (ii) internal kinematics will be of unprecendented quality, cluster masses will be determined to ≃10% up to 15 kpc and beyond, and it will be possible to identify differences of a few km s-1 or less in the kinematics (if any) of cluster sub-populations up to 10 kpc and beyond; (iii) the brightest stars (V≃17 mag) will have space-quality, wide-field photometry (mmag errors), and all Gaia photometry will have 1-3% errors on the absolute photometric calibration.

  15. The Youngest Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Sara

    2014-01-01

    It is likely that all stars are born in clusters, but most clusters are not bound and disperse. None of the many protoclusters in our Galaxy are likely to develop into long-lived bound clusters. The Super Star Clusters (SSCs) seen in starburst galaxies are more massive and compact and have better chances of survival. The birth and early development of SSCs takes place deep in molecular clouds, and during this crucial stage the embedded clusters are invisible to optical or UV observations but are studied via the radio-infared supernebulae (RISN) they excite. We review observations of embedded clusters and identify RISN within 10 Mpc whose exciting clusters have a million solar masses or more in volumes of a few cubic parsecs and which are likely to not only survive as bound clusters, but to evolve into objects as massive and compact as Galactic globulars. These clusters are distinguished by very high star formation efficiency eta, at least a factor of 10 higher than the few percent seen in the Galaxy, probably...

  16. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew J.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  17. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing $10^4 - 10^6$ stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct $N$-body integrations and Fokker--Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  18. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. X. Properties of Ultra-Compact Dwarfs in the M87, M49 and M60 Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chengze; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordan, Andres; Mihos, J Christopher; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Munoz, Roberto P; Puzia, Thomas H; Lancon, Ariane; Gwyn, Stephen; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Blakeslee, John P; Boselli, Alessandro; Durrell, Patrick R; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Guhathakurta, Puragra; MacArthur, Lauren A; Mei, Simona; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Xu, Haiguang

    2015-01-01

    We use imaging from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) to present a comparative study of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies associated with three prominent Virgo sub-clusters: those centered on the massive, red-sequence galaxies M87, M49 and M60. We show how UCDs can be selected with high completeness using a combination of half-light radius and location in color-color diagrams ($u^*iK_s$ or $u^*gz$). Although the central galaxies in each of these sub-clusters have nearly identical luminosities and stellar masses, we find large differences in the sizes of their UCD populations, with M87 containing ~3.5 and 7.8 times more UCDs than M49 and M60, respectively. The relative abundance of UCDs in the three regions scales in proportion to sub-cluster mass, as traced by X-ray gas mass, total gravitating mass, number of globular clusters, and number of nearby galaxies. We find that the UCDs are predominantly blue in color, with ~85% of the UCDs having colors similar to blue GCs and stellar nuclei of dwarf...

  19. The inner Galactic globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters located towards the inner regions of the Milky Way have been historically neglected, mainly due to the difficulties caused by the presence of an elevated extinction by foreground dust, and high field star densities along the lines of sight where most of them lie. To overcome these difficulties we have developed a new method to map the differential extinction suffered by these clusters, which was successfully applied to a sample of moderately-extincted, luminous, extended, inner Galactic globular clusters observed in the optical, for which we have been able to determine more accurate physical parameters. For the most extincted inner Galactic globular clusters, near-infrared wavelengths provide a more suitable window for their study. The VVV survey, which is currently observing the central regions of the Milky Way at these wavelengths, will provide a comprehensive view, from the inner regions out to their tidal radii and beyond, of most of these globular clusters.

  20. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. X. PROPERTIES OF ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE M87, M49, AND M60 REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hong-Xin [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen; Blakeslee, John P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordán, Andrés; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Mihos, J. Christopher [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lançon, Ariane [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg and CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [CEA/IRFU/SAp, Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boselli, Alessandro [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Durrell, Patrick R., E-mail: czliu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, One University Plaza, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); and others

    2015-10-10

    We use imaging from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) to present a comparative study of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies associated with three prominent Virgo sub-clusters: those centered on the massive red-sequence galaxies M87, M49, and M60. We show how UCDs can be selected with high completeness using a combination of half-light radius and location in color–color diagrams (u*iK{sub s} or u*gz). Although the central galaxies in each of these sub-clusters have nearly identical luminosities and stellar masses, we find large differences in the sizes of their UCD populations, with M87 containing ∼3.5 and 7.8 times more UCDs than M49 and M60, respectively. The relative abundance of UCDs in the three regions scales in proportion to sub-cluster mass, as traced by X-ray gas mass, total gravitating mass, number of globular clusters (GCs), and number of nearby galaxies. We find that the UCDs are predominantly blue in color, with ∼85% of the UCDs having colors similar to blue GCs and stellar nuclei of dwarf galaxies. We present evidence that UCDs surrounding M87 and M49 may follow a morphological sequence ordered by the prominence of their outer, low surface brightness envelope, ultimately merging with the sequence of nucleated low-mass galaxies, and that envelope prominence correlates with distance from either galaxy. Our analysis provides evidence that tidal stripping of nucleated galaxies is an important process in the formation of UCDs.

  1. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  2. Dynamical Processes in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Stephen L W

    2014-01-01

    Globular clusters are among the most congested stellar systems in the Universe. Internal dynamical evolution drives them toward states of high central density, while simultaneously concentrating the most massive stars and binary systems in their cores. As a result, these clusters are expected to be sites of frequent close encounters and physical collisions between stars and binaries, making them efficient factories for the production of interesting and observable astrophysical exotica. I describe some elements of the competition among stellar dynamics, stellar evolution, and other processes that control globular cluster dynamics, with particular emphasis on pathways that may lead to the formation of blue stragglers.

  3. Globular clusters in the far-ultraviolet: evidence for He-enriched second populations in extragalactic globular clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Kundu, Arunav; Chael, Julia

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the integrated far-ultraviolet (FUV) emission from globular clusters. We present new FUV photometry of M87's clusters based on archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 F170W observations. We use these data to test the reliability of published photometry based on HST space telescope imaging spectrograph FUV-MAMA observations, which are now known to suffer from significant red-leak. We generally confirm these previous FUV detections, but suggest they may be somewhat fainter. We compare the FUV emission from bright (MV populations models. Metal-rich globular clusters show a large spread in FUV - V, with some clusters in M31, M81 and M87 being much bluer than standard predictions. This requires that some metal-rich clusters host a significant population of blue/extreme horizontal branch (HB) stars. These hot HB stars are not traditionally expected in metal-rich environments, but are a natural consequence of multiple populations in clusters - since the enriched population is observed to be He enhanced and will therefore produce bluer HB stars, even at high metallicity. We conclude that the observed FUV emission from metal-rich clusters in M31, M81 and M87 provides evidence that He-enhanced second populations, similar to those observed directly in the Milky Way, may be a ubiquitous feature of globular clusters in the local Universe. Future HST FUV photometry is required to both confirm our interpretation of these archival data and provide constraints on He-enriched second populations of stars in extragalactic globular clusters.

  4. Radio Emission from Globular Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Radio emission of globular clusters is studied by analyzing the VLA radio survey data of the NVSS and FIRST. We find that 13 clusters have radio sources within their half-mass radii of clusters. Sources detected previously in NGC 7078and NGC 6440 are identified. Pulsars in NGC 6121, NGC 6440 and NGC 7078cannot be detected because of the insufficient survey sensitivity and resolution.There may be a pulsar in the core of Terzan 1. The nature of the extended radio source near the core of NGC 6440 remains unclear. In the core of a globular cluster,there may be many neutron stars or an intermediate mass black hole, but this cannot be clarified with the current radio observations.

  5. Galaxy Clusters and Their Central Supermassive Black Holes: Case of M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churazov, Eugene; Sazonov, Sergey; Sunyaev, Rashid; Forman, William; Jones, Christine; Böhringer, Hans

    Observations suggest that AGN activity regulates the thermal state of the gas by injecting energy into the intra-cluster medium in the cores of relaxed clusters, where radiative cooling time is often as short as few 108 years. Bubbles of relativistic plasma are inflated by a supermassive black hole and rise buoyantly through the gaseous atmosphere, leading to a number of spectacular phenomena like expanding shocks, X-ray dim and radio bright cavities, X-ray dim and radio dim "ghost" cavities (aged version of "normal" cavities), filaments in the wakes of the rising bubbles formed by the entrained low entropy gas, etc. Simple estimates of the energetics involved (based on the estimates of the energy content of bubbles/cavities and their life-time) suggest that amount of mechanical energy supplied by AGNs is sufficient to offset gas cooling losses in objects vastly different in size and luminosity. This hints on some form of self-regulation controlling the AGN power as the gas cools or gets heated. One can build a toy model where accretion rate (and therefore the amount of energy provided by the AGN) is sensitive to the gas properties, in particular to its entropy, thus closing the feedback loop. How the mechanical energy, provided by the AGN, is dissipated depends on the ICM microphysics (e.g. magnetic fields, viscosity, conduction etc). However it is easy to imagine the situation when close to 100% of mechanical energy is eventually dissipated in the cluster core, regardless of the particular physical process involved. Comparison of the gravitational potential profiles of the elliptical galaxies derived from X-ray and optical data suggests that the combined contribution of cosmic rays, magnetic fields and micro-turbulence to the gas pressure is of order 10-30%. This in turn suggests that the dissipation time scale of the energy deposited by the AGN is a similar 10-30% fraction of the gas cooling time. The same process of AGN-ICM interaction, operating in nearby

  6. Globular clusters in the far-ultraviolet: evidence for He-enriched second populations in extra-galactic globular clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Peacock, Mark B; Kundu, Arunav; Chael, Julia

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the integrated far-ultraviolet (FUV) emission from globular clusters. We present new FUV photometry of M~87's clusters based on archival HST WFPC2 F170W observations. We use these data to test the reliability of published photometry based on HST STIS FUV-MAMA observations, which are now known to suffer from significant red-leak. We generally confirm these previous FUV detections, but suggest they may be somewhat fainter. We compare the FUV emission from bright ($M_{V} < -9.0$) clusters in the Milky Way, M~31, M~81 and M~87 to each other and to the predictions from stellar populations models. Metal-rich globular clusters show a large spread in FUV-V, with some clusters in M~31, M~81 and M~87 being much bluer than standard predictions. This requires that some metal-rich clusters host a significant population of blue/extreme horizontal branch (HB) stars. These hot HB stars are not traditionally expected in metal-rich environments, but are a natural consequence of multiple populations in cluster...

  7. Featured Image: Globular Cluster Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    This figure (click for the full view) shows the meridional galactic orbits of 12 globular clusters that orbit the Milky Way. The recent release of stellar parallax data from Gaia allowed a team of scientists at Dartmouth College to improve measurements of a number of galactic globular clusters very old clusters of stars that can either orbit within the galactic disk and bulge or more distantly in the galactic halo. In a recent publication led by Erin OMalley, the team presents their findings and combines their new measurements for the clusters with proper motions from past studies to calculate the orbits that these globulars take. These calculations show us whether the clusters reside in the galactic disk and bulge (as only NGC 104 does in the sample shown here, since its orbit is confined to 8 kpc radially and 4 kpc vertically of the galactic center), or if they are halo clusters. To learn more about the authors work, you can check out the paper below!CitationErin M. OMalley et al 2017 ApJ 838 162. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa6574

  8. Globular Clusters for Faint Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The origin of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) has posed a long-standing mystery for astronomers. New observations of several of these faint giants with the Hubble Space Telescope are now lending support to one theory.Faint-Galaxy MysteryHubble images of Dragonfly 44 (top) and DFX1 (bottom). The right panels show the data with greater contrast and extended objects masked. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]UDGs large, extremely faint spheroidal objects were first discovered in the Virgo galaxy cluster roughly three decades ago. Modern telescope capabilities have resulted in many more discoveries of similar faint galaxies in recent years, suggesting that they are a much more common phenomenon than we originally thought.Despite the many observations, UDGs still pose a number of unanswered questions. Chief among them: what are UDGs? Why are these objects the size of normal galaxies, yet so dim? There are two primary models that explain UDGs:UDGs were originally small galaxies, hence their low luminosity. Tidal interactions then puffed them up to the large size we observe today.UDGs are effectively failed galaxies. They formed the same way as normal galaxies of their large size, but something truncated their star formation early, preventing them from gaining the brightness that we would expect for galaxies of their size.Now a team of scientists led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) has made some intriguing observations with Hubble that lend weight to one of these models.Globulars observed in 16 Coma-cluster UDGs by Hubble. The top right panel shows the galaxy identifications. The top left panel shows the derived number of globular clusters in each galaxy. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]Globulars GaloreVan Dokkum and collaborators imaged two UDGs with Hubble: Dragonfly 44 and DFX1, both located in the Coma galaxy cluster. These faint galaxies are both smooth and elongated, with no obvious irregular features, spiral arms, star-forming regions, or other indications of tidal interactions

  9. Rotation and flattening of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, S. M.; Frenk, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for measuring globular cluster ellipticities and the results of such measurements are reviewed, and the processes that determine the shapes of globular clusters and the ways in which they change with time are discussed. The use of the virial tensor theorem to study the connection between the global rotation, velocity anisotropy, and the shape of a self-gravitating system is addressed, and the employment of N-body models to simulate the evolution of globular clusters with initially anisotropic velocity distributions is examined. The application of a simple evaporation model and Fokker-Planck integrations to study the two-body diffusion in globular clusters is reviewed.

  10. Some Remarks on Extragalactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, T

    2005-01-01

    I comment (in a review fashion) on a few selected topics in the field of extragalactic globular clusters with strong emphasis on recent work. The topics are: bimodality in the colour distribution of cluster systems, young massive clusters, and the brightest old clusters. Globular cluster research, perhaps more than ever, has lead to important (at least to astronomers) progress and problems in galaxy structure and formation.

  11. Planetary Nebulae and their parent stellar populations. Tracing the mass assembly of M87 and Intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Longobardi, Alessia; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2016-08-01

    The diffuse extended outer regions of galaxies are hard to study because they are faint, with typical surface brightness of 1% of the dark night sky. We can tackle this problem by using resolved star tracers which remain visible at large distances from the galaxy centers. This article describes the use of Planetary Nebulae as tracers and the calibration of their properties as indicators of the star formation history, mean age and metallicity of the parent stars in the Milky Way and Local Group galaxies. We then report on the results from a deep, extended, planetary nebulae survey in a 0.5 deg2 region centered on the brightest cluster galaxy NGC 4486 (M87) in the Virgo cluster core, carried out with SuprimeCam@Subaru and FLAMES-GIRAFFE@VLT. Two planetary nebulae populations are identified out to 150 kpc distance from the center of M87. One population is associated with the M87 halo and the second one with the intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core. They have different line-of-sight velocity and spatial distributions, as well as different planetary nebulae specific frequencies and luminosity functions. The intracluster planetary nebulae in the surveyed region correspond to a luminosity of four times the luminosity of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The M87 halo planetary nebulae trace an older, more metal-rich, parent stellar population. A substructure detected in the projected phase-space of the line-of-sight velocity vs. major axis distance for the M87 halo planetary nebulae provides evidence for the recent accretion event of a satellite galaxy with luminosity twice that of M33. The satellite stars were tidally stripped about 1 Gyr ago, and reached apocenter at a major axis distance of 60-90 kpc from the center of M87. The M87 halo is still growing significantly at the distances where the substructure is detected.

  12. The IMF of Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, G.; Paresce, F.

    1999-12-01

    Accurate luminosity functions (LF) for a dozen globular clusters have now been measured at or just beyond their half-light radius using HST. They span almost the entire cluster main sequence below 0.75 MO. All these clusters exhibit LF that rise continuously from an absolute I magnitude MI 6 to a peak at MI 8.5-9 and then drop with increasing MI. Transformation of the LF into mass functions (MF) by means of the most recent mass luminosity relations that are consistent with all presently available data on the physical properties of low mass, low metallicity stars shows that all the LF observed so far can be obtained from MF having the shape of a log-normal distribution with characteristic mass mc=0.33 +/- 0.03 MO and standard deviation sigma =1.81 +/- 0.19. In particular, the LF of the four clusters in the sample that extend well beyond the peak luminosity down to close to the Hydrogen burning limit (NGC6341, NGC6397, NGC6752, and NGC6809) can only be reproduced by such distributions and not by a single power-law in the 0.1 - 0.6 MO range. After correction for the effects of mass segregation, the variation of the ratio of the number of higher to lower mass stars with cluster mass or any simple orbital parameter or the expected time to disruption recently computed for these clusters shows no statistically significant trend over a range of this last parameter of more than a factor of 100. We conclude that the global MF of these clusters have not been measurably modified by evaporation and tidal interactions with the Galaxy and, thus, should reflect the initial distribution of stellar masses. Since the log-normal function that we find is also very similar to the one obtained independently for much younger clusters and to the form expected theoretically, the implication seems to be unavoidable that it represents the true stellar IMF for this type of stars in this mass range.

  13. Non-Recycled Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Ryan S; Lorimer, Duncan R; Mnatsakanov, Robert; Turk, Philip J; Ransom, Scott M

    2011-01-01

    We place limits on the population of non-recycled pulsars originating in globular clusters through Monte Carlo simulations and frequentist statistical techniques. We set upper limits on the birth rates of non-recycled cluster pulsars and predict how many may remain in the clusters, and how many may escape the cluster potentials and enter the field of the Galaxy.

  14. Globular Cluster X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Verbunt, F

    2004-01-01

    After a brief historical overview we discuss the luminous X-ray sources in globular clusters of our Galaxy. This is followed by an overview of the very luminous X-ray sources studied in globular clusters of 14 other galaxies, and a discussion of their formation and the relation to X-ray sources outside globular clusters. We describe the discovery and classification of low-luminosity X-ray sources, and end the review with some remarks on the formation and evolution of X-ray sources in globular clusters. Observational results are summarized in three tables. Comments are very welcome. Please send them to F.W.M.Verbunt@astro.uu.nl and lewin@mit.edu.

  15. All quiet in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrotka, A; Menou, K; Dobrotka, Andrej; Lasota, Jean-Pierre; Menou, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) should be present in large numbers in Globular Clusters (GCs). Numerous low-luminosity X-ray sources identified over the past few years as candidate CVs in GCs support this notion. Yet, very few "cataclysms," the characteristic feature of this class of objects in the field, have been observed in GCs. We address this discrepancy here, within the framework of the standard Disk Instability Model for CV outbursts. We argue that the paucity of outbursts in GCs is probably not a direct consequence of the donors' low metallicities. We present diagnostics based on outburst properties allowing tests of the hypothesis that rare cataclysms are entirely due to lower mass transfer rates in GCs relative to the field, and we argue against this explanation. Instead, we propose that a combination of low mass transfer rates (>~ 10^14-15 g/s) and moderately strong white dwarf magnetic moments (>~ 10^30 G cm^3) stabilize CV disks in GCs and thus prevent most of them from experiencing frequent outburst...

  16. Multiple populations in globular clusters. Lessons learned from the Milky Way globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Gratton, Raffaele; Bragaglia, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in studies of globular clusters has shown that they are not simple stellar populations, being rather made of multiple generations. Evidence stems both from photometry and spectroscopy. A new paradigm is then arising for the formation of massive star clusters, which includes several episodes of star formation. While this provides an explanation for several features of globular clusters, including the second parameter problem, it also opens new perspectives about the relation between globular clusters and the halo of our Galaxy, and by extension of all populations with a high specific frequency of globular clusters, such as, e.g., giant elliptical galaxies. We review progress in this area, focusing on the most recent studies. Several points remain to be properly understood, in particular those concerning the nature of the polluters producing the abundance pattern in the clusters and the typical timescale, the range of cluster masses where this phenomenon is active, and the relation between globu...

  17. Planetary Nebulae and their parent stellar populations. Tracing the mass assembly of M87 and Intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2015-01-01

    The diffuse extended outer regions of galaxies are hard to study because they are faint, with typical surface brightness of 1% of the dark night sky. We can tackle this problem by using resolved star tracers which remain visible at large distances from the galaxy centres. This article describes the use of Planetary Nebulae as tracers and the calibration of their properties as indicators of the star formation history, mean age and metallicity of the parent stars in the Milky Way and Local Group galaxies . We then report on the results from a deep, extended, planetary nebulae survey in a 0.5 sqdeg region centred on the brightest cluster galaxy NGC 4486 (M87) in the Virgo cluster core, carried out with SuprimeCam@Subaru and FLAMES-GIRAFFE@VLT. Two PN populations are identified out to 150 kpc distance from the centre of M87. One population is associated with the M87 halo and the second one with the intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core. They have different line-of-sight velocity and spatial distributions, ...

  18. Globular cluster system erosion and nucleus formation in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R

    1998-01-01

    The radial distribution of globular clusters in galaxies is always less peaked to the centre than the halo stars'. Extending previous work to a sample of HST globular cluster systems in ellipticals, we evaluate the number of clusters lost to the galactic centre as the integrals of the difference between the observed globular cluster system distribution and the underlying halo light profile. It results that the initial populations of globular clusters were from 25% to 50% richer than now. This significant number of missing globular clusters supports the hypothesis that a large quantity of globular cluster mass in form of globular clusters decayed and destroyed has been lost to the galactic centres, where plausibly contributed to formation and feeding of a mas sive object therein. It is relevant noting that the observed correlation between the core radius of the globular cluster system and the parent galaxy luminosity can be interpreted as a result of evolution.

  19. Globular Cluster System erosion in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyze data of 8 elliptical galaxies in order to study the difference between their globular cluster systems (GCSs) radial distributions and those of the galactic stellar component. In all the galaxies studied here the globular cluster system density profile is significantly flatter toward the galactic centre than that of stars. If this difference is interpreted as a depauperation of the initial GC population, the estimated number of missing globular clusters is significant, ranging from 21% to 71% of their initial population abundance in the eight galaxies examined. The corresponding mass lost to the central galactic region is 7x10^7-1.85x10^9 solar masses. All this mass carried toward central galactic regions have likely had an important feedback on the innermost galactic region, including its violent transient activity (AGN) and local massive black hole formation and growth.

  20. Chemical Abundances of Giants in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Raffaele G.; Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio; D'Orazi, Valentina; Lucatello, Sara

    A large fraction of stars form in clusters. According to a widespread paradigma, stellar clusters are prototypes of single stellar populations. According to this concept, they formed on a very short time scale, and all their stars share the same chemical composition. Recently it has been understood that massive stellar clusters (the globular clusters) rather host various stellar populations, characterized by different chemical composition: these stellar populations have also slightly different ages, stars of the second generations being formed from the ejecta of part of those of an earlier one. Furthermore, it is becoming clear that the efficiency of the process is quite low: many more stars formed within this process than currently present in the clusters. This implies that a significant, perhaps even dominant fraction of the ancient population of galaxies formed within the episodes that lead to formation the globular clusters.

  1. Destruction of the galactic globular cluster system

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, O Y; Gnedin, Oleg Y; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of the Galactic Globular Cluster System in considerably greater detail than has been done hitherto, finding that destruction rates are significantly larger than given by previous estimates. More than half of the present clusters (52%-58% for the OC galactic model, and 75%-86% for the BSS model) will be destroyed in the next Hubble time. For the evolution of individual clusters we use a Fokker-Planck code including two-body relaxation, tidal truncation of clusters, compressive gravitational shocks while clusters pass through the Galactic disk, and tidal shocks due to passage close to the bulge. Gravitational shocks are treated comprehensively, using a recent result by Kundic & Ostriker (1995) that the shock-induced relaxation term, driving an additional dispersion of energies, is generally more important than the usual energy shift term. We discuss some implications for a past history of the Globular Cluster System, and the initial distribution of the destruction time...

  2. Reconstructing Galaxy Histories from Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    West, M J; Marzke, R O; Jordan, A; West, Michael J.; Cote, Patrick; Marzke, Ronald O.; Jordan, Andres

    2004-01-01

    Nearly a century after the true nature of galaxies as distant "island universes" was established, their origin and evolution remain great unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. One of the most promising ways to investigate galaxy formation is to study the ubiquitous globular star clusters that surround most galaxies. Recent advances in our understanding of the globular cluster systems of the Milky Way and other galaxies point to a complex picture of galaxy genesis driven by cannibalism, collisions, bursts of star formation and other tumultuous events.

  3. Globular cluster x-ray sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, David

    2010-04-20

    Globular clusters and x-ray astronomy have a long and fruitful history. Uhuru and OSO-7 revealed highly luminous (> 10(36) ergs(-1)) x-ray sources in globular clusters, and Einstein and ROSAT revealed a larger population of low-luminosity (luminosity sources were low-mass x-ray binaries in outburst and that they were orders of magnitude more abundant per unit mass in globular clusters than in the rest of the galaxy. However, the low-luminosity sources proved difficult to classify. Many ideas were put forth--low-mass x-ray binaries in quiescence (qLMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), active main-sequence binaries (ABs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs)--but secure identifications were scarce. In ROSAT observations of 55 clusters, about 25 low-luminosity sources were found. Chandra has now observed over 80 Galactic globular clusters, and these observations have revealed over 1,500 x-ray sources. The superb angular resolution has allowed for many counterpart identifications, providing clues to the nature of this population. It is a heterogeneous mix of qLMXBs, CVs, ABs, and MSPs, and it has been shown that the qLMXBs and CVs are both, in part, overabundant like the luminous LMXBs. The number of x-ray sources in a cluster correlates very well with its encounter frequency. This points to dynamical formation scenarios for the x-ray sources and shows them to be excellent tracers of the complicated internal dynamics. The relation between the encounter frequency and the number of x-ray sources has been used to suggest that we have misunderstood the dynamical states of globular clusters.

  4. Globular cluster x-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, David

    2010-01-01

    Globular clusters and x-ray astronomy have a long and fruitful history. Uhuru and OSO-7 revealed highly luminous (> 1036 ergs-1) x-ray sources in globular clusters, and Einstein and ROSAT revealed a larger population of low-luminosity (luminosity sources were low-mass x-ray binaries in outburst and that they were orders of magnitude more abundant per unit mass in globular clusters than in the rest of the galaxy. However, the low-luminosity sources proved difficult to classify. Many ideas were put forth—low-mass x-ray binaries in quiescence (qLMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), active main-sequence binaries (ABs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs)—but secure identifications were scarce. In ROSAT observations of 55 clusters, about 25 low-luminosity sources were found. Chandra has now observed over 80 Galactic globular clusters, and these observations have revealed over 1,500 x-ray sources. The superb angular resolution has allowed for many counterpart identifications, providing clues to the nature of this population. It is a heterogeneous mix of qLMXBs, CVs, ABs, and MSPs, and it has been shown that the qLMXBs and CVs are both, in part, overabundant like the luminous LMXBs. The number of x-ray sources in a cluster correlates very well with its encounter frequency. This points to dynamical formation scenarios for the x-ray sources and shows them to be excellent tracers of the complicated internal dynamics. The relation between the encounter frequency and the number of x-ray sources has been used to suggest that we have misunderstood the dynamical states of globular clusters. PMID:20404204

  5. Modelling the Milky Way's globular cluster system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, James; Wong, Leong Khim

    2017-05-01

    We construct a model for the Galactic globular cluster system based on a realistic gravitational potential and a distribution function (DF) analytic in the action integrals. The DF comprises disc and halo components whose functional forms resemble those recently used to describe the stellar discs and stellar halo. We determine the posterior distribution of our model parameters using a Bayesian approach. This gives us an understanding of how well the globular cluster data constrain our model. The favoured parameter values of the disc and halo DFs are similar to values previously obtained from fits to the stellar disc and halo, although the cluster halo system shows clearer rotation than does the stellar halo. Our model reproduces the generic features of the globular cluster system, namely the density profile, the mean rotation velocity and the fraction of metal-rich clusters. However, the data indicate either incompatibility between catalogued cluster distances and current estimates of distance to the Galactic Centre, or failure to identify clusters behind the bulge. As the data for our Galaxy's components increase in volume and precision over the next few years, it will be rewarding to revisit the present analysis.

  6. Primordial black holes in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Steinn; Hernquist, Lars

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that significant numbers of medium-mass back holes (of order 10 solar masses) should form in globular clusters during the early stages of their evolution. Here we explore the dynamical and observational consequences of the presence of such a primordial black-hole population in a globular cluster. The holes initially segregate to the cluster cores, where they form binary and multiple black-hole systems. The subsequent dynamical evolution of the black-hole population ejects most of the holes on a relatively short timescale: a typical cluster will retain between zero and four black holes in its core, and possibly a few black holes in its halo. The presence of binary, triple, and quadruple black-hole systems in cluster cores will disrupt main-sequence and giant stellar binaries; this may account for the observed anomalies in the distribution of binaries in globular clusters. Furthermore, tidal interactions between a multiple black-hole system and a red giant star can remove much of the red giant's stellar envelope, which may explain the puzzling absence of larger red giants in the cores of some very dense clusters.

  7. Gravitational interactions between globular and open clusters: an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, R de la Fuente; Reilly, D

    2014-01-01

    Historically, it has been assumed that globular and open clusters never interact. However, recent evidence suggests that: globular clusters passing through the disk may be able to perturb giant molecular clouds (GMCs) triggering formation of open clusters and some old open clusters may be linked to accreted globulars. Here, we further explore the existence of possible dynamical connections between globular and open clusters, and realize that the most obvious link must be in the form of gravitational interactions. If open clusters are born out of GMCs, they have to move in similar orbits. If we accept that globulars can interact with GMCs, triggering star formation, it follows that globular and open clusters must also interact. Consistently, theoretical arguments as well as observational evidence, show that globular and open clusters certainly are interacting populations and their interactions are far more common than usually thought, especially for objects part of the bulge/disk. Monte Carlo calculations conf...

  8. Young Radio Pulsars in Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Boyles, Jason; Turk, Phil J; Mnatsakanov, Robert; Lynch, Ryan S; Ransom, Scott M; Freire, Paulo C; Belczynski, Khris

    2011-01-01

    Currently three isolated radio pulsars and one binary radio pulsar with no evidence of any previous recycling are known in 97 surveyed Galactic globular clusters. As pointed out by Lyne et al., the presence of these pulsars cannot be explained by core-collapse supernovae, as is commonly assumed for their counterparts in the Galactic disk. We apply a Bayesian analysis to the results from surveys for radio pulsars in globular clusters and find the number of potentially observable non-recycled radio pulsars present in all clusters to be -0.6. In this case, the potentially observable population of such young pulsars is 447^{+1420}_{-399} (the error bars give the 95% confidence interval) and their birth rate is 0.012^{+0.037}_{-0.010} pulsars per century. The mostly likely creation scenario to explain these pulsars is the electron capture supernova of a OMgNe white dwarf.

  9. VLT spectroscopy of NGC3115 globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kuntschner, H; Sharples, R M; Worthey, G; Fricke, K J; Kuntschner, Harald; Ziegler, Bodo L.; Worthey, Guy; Fricke, Klaus J.

    2002-01-01

    We present results derived from VLT-FORS2 spectra of 24 different globular clusters associated with the lenticular galaxy NGC3115. A subsample of 17 globular clusters have sufficiently high signal-to-noise to allow precision measurements of absorption line-strengths. Comparing these indices to new stellar population models by Thomas et al. we determine ages, metallicities and element abundance ratios. Our data are also compared with the Lick/IDS observations of Milky Way and M31 globular clusters. Unpublished higher order Balmer lines (HgammaA,F and HdeltaA,F) from the Lick/IDS observations are given in the Appendix. Our best age estimates show that the observed clusters which sample the bimodal colour distribution of NGC3115 are coeval within our observational errors (2-3 Gyr). Our best calibrated age/metallicity diagnostic diagram (Hbeta vs [MgFe]) indicates an absolute age of 11-12 Gyr. We confirm with our accurate line-strength measurements that the (V-I) colour is a good metallicity indicator within the ...

  10. Pulsating White Dwarfs in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, A.; Zabot, A.; Fraga, L.

    2012-09-01

    We present our current efforts to detect pulsating white dwarfs in globular clusters and analyze the future of this area when the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) and the Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) all become operational. Today we are able to detect pulsating white dwarfs in M 4, NGC 6397 and NGC 6752. When ELT comes on line we should be able to improve the quality of data for the nearby clusters and push the limit to at least 3 magnitudes further, up to NGC 6626, increasing the number of observable clusters from 3 to 20.

  11. The Globular cluster system of M31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleti, S.; Buzzoni, A.; Federici, L.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    I present here some results of the extensive revision work of M31 confirmed and candidate globular clusters. The Revised Bologna Catalog, RBC, www.bo.astro.it/M31 is currently the largest and most complete database available online. Two spectroscopic surveys are in progress to confirm RBC cluster candidates as well as newly identified candidates at large distances from the center of M31. I have also studied a subsample of bright and young (age < 2 Gyr) clusters in M31 that doesn't appear to have any counterpart in the Milky Way.

  12. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. VIII. The Spatial Distribution of Globular Clusters in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Durrell, Patrick R; Peng, Eric W; Blakeslee, John P; Ferrarese, Laura; Mihos, J Christopher; Puzia, Thomas H; Lançon, Ariane; Liu, Chengze; Zhang, Hongxin; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; McConnachie, Alan; Jordan, Andrés; Accetta, Katharine; Boissier, Samual; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Gwyn, Stephen; Mei, Simona; Taylor, James E

    2014-01-01

    We report on a large-scale study of the distribution of globular clusters (GCs) throughout the Virgo cluster, based on photometry from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey, a large imaging survey covering Virgo's primary subclusters to their virial radii. Using the g', (g'-i') color-magnitude diagram of unresolved and marginally-resolved sources, we constructed 2-D maps of the GC distribution. We present the clearest evidence to date showing the difference in concentration between red and blue GCs over the extent of the cluster, where the red (metal-rich) GCs are largely located around the massive early-type galaxies, whilst the blue (metal-poor) GCs have a more extended spatial distribution, with significant populations present beyond 83' (215 kpc) along the major axes of M49 and M87. The GC distribution around M87 and M49 shows remarkable agreement with the shape, ellipticity and boxiness of the diffuse light surrounding both galaxies. We find evidence for spatial enhancements of GCs surrounding M87 tha...

  13. VARIABLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 5024

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonova, M.; Stalin, C. S., E-mail: rita@iiap.res.in, E-mail: stalin@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India)

    2011-12-15

    We present the results of a commissioning campaign to observe Galactic globular clusters for the search of microlensing events. The central 10' Multiplication-Sign 10' region of the globular cluster NGC 5024 was monitored using the 2 m Himalayan Chandra Telescope in R-band for a period of about 8 hr on 2010 March 24. Light curves were obtained for nearly 10,000 stars using a modified Differential Image Analysis technique. We identified all known variables within our field of view and revised the periods and status of some previously reported short-period variables. We report about 70 new variable sources and present their equatorial coordinates, periods, light curves, and possible types. Out of these, 15 are SX Phe stars, 10 are W UMa-type stars, and 14 are probable RR Lyrae stars. Nine of the newly discovered SX Phe stars and one eclipsing binary belong to the blue straggler star population.

  14. Spectroscopy of Globular Clusters in M81

    CERN Document Server

    Schroder, L L; Kissler-Patig, M; Phillips, A C; Huchra, J P; Schroder, Linda L.; Brodie, Jean P.; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Phillips, John P. Huchra & Andrew C.

    2002-01-01

    We present moderate-resolution spectroscopy of globular clusters (GCs) around the Sa/Sb spiral galaxy M81 (NGC 3031). Sixteen candidate clusters were observed with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. All are confirmed as bona fide GCs, although one of the clusters appears to have been undergoing a transient event during our observations. In general, the M81 globular cluster system (GCS) is found to be very similar to the Milky Way (MW) and M31 systems, both chemically and kinematically. A kinematic analysis of the velocities of 44 M81 GCS, (the 16 presented here and 28 from previous work) strongly suggests that the red, metal-rich clusters are rotating in the same sense as the gas in the disk of M81. The blue, metal-poor clusters have halo-like kinematics, showing no evidence for rotation. The kinematics of clusters whose projected galactocentric radii lie between 4 and 8 kpc suggest that they are rotating much more than those which lie outside these bounds. We suggest that these ...

  15. Formation Mechanisms of IMBH in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Giersz, Mirek; Hypki, Arkadiusz; Askar, Abbas; Lützgendorf, Nora

    2016-01-01

    We very briefly discuss proposed in the literature possible scenarios for intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) formation in globular clusters. We also discuss the results of the MOCCA simulations of about 2000 models (BigSurvey) regarding the distribution of events connected with electromagnetic and gravitational radiations, namely: mass transfer on IMBH, collisions and mergers with IMBH and mergers with IMBH due to gravitational radiation. The rates of these events are very small, so their observation is very improbable.

  16. Globular Cluster Systems along the Hubble Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Edwin

    1996-07-01

    Globular Cluster Systems {GCSs} provide a powerful tool to differentiate between competing galaxy formation- and evolution scenarios. However, our current knowledge of GCS in spiral galaxies is based mainly on studies of the Galaxy and M31. Even though GCSs have been detected in other spiral galaxies, ground-based observations barely reach the peak of the Globular-Cluster luminosity function, and do not provide accurate colors. We propose a systematic study of the GCSs in 6 edge-on L* spiral galaxies beyond the Local Group, using WFPC2. These galaxies were carefully selected to meet several stringent criteria. With the new dithering techniques, it will be possible to resolve any faint background galaxies and obtain a clean sample of globular clusters for all galaxies in our sample. This will allow us to study the complete luminosity functions, {V-I} color distributions, and GCS richness for L* galaxies as a function of Hubble type {Sa, Sb, Sc}. These data will be used to study the relations between the galaxies' bulge and {thin/thick} disk properties and their GCSs. If, for example, GCS properties correlate with bulge properties, this will rule out any strong evolution along the Hubble Sequence towards earlier type spirals, from Sc to Sa, as has recently been proposed by Pfenniger et al. {1994}.

  17. Tidal stripping of globular clusters in a simulated galaxy cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Felipe; Muriel, Hernán; Abadi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Using a cosmological N-body numerical simulation of the formation of a galaxy cluster- sized halo, we analyze the temporal evolution of its globular cluster population. We follow the dynamical evolution of 38 galactic dark matter halos orbiting in a galaxy cluster that at redshift z=0 has a virial mass of 1.71 * 10 ^14 Msol h^-1. In order to mimic both "blue" and "red" populations of globular clusters, for each galactic halo we select two different sets of particles at high redshift (z ~ 1), constrained by the condition that, at redshift z=0, their average radial density profiles are similar to the observed profiles. As expected, the general galaxy cluster tidal field removes a significant fraction of the globular cluster populations to feed the intracluster population. On average, halos lost approximately 16% and 29% of their initial red and blue globular cluster populations, respectively. Our results suggest that these fractions strongly depend on the orbital trajectory of the galactic halo, specifically on...

  18. RR Lyrae in Sagittarius Dwarf Globular Clusters (Poster abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzl, B. J.; Gehrman, T. J.; Bell, E.; Salinas, R.; Smith, H. A.; Catelan, M.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Milky Way Galaxy was built up in part by the cannibalization of smaller dwarf galaxies. Some of them likely contained globular clusters. The Sagittarius dwarf galaxy provides a unique opportunity to study a system of globular clusters that originated outside the Milky Way. We have investigated the RR Lyrae populations in two Sagittarius globular clusters, Arp 2 and Terzan 8. The RR Lyrae are used to study the properties of the clusters and to compare this system to Milky Way globular clusters. We will discuss whether or not dwarf galaxies similar to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy could have played a role in the formation of the Milky Way Galaxy.

  19. Exotic populations in Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R

    2006-01-01

    Recent high-resolution observations of the central region of Galactic globular clusters have shown the presence of a large variety of exotic stellar objects whose formation and evolution may be strongly affected by dynamical interactions. In this paper I review the main properties of two classes of exotic objects: the so-called Blue Stragglers stars and the recently identified optical companions to Millisecond pulsar. Both these class of objects are invaluable tools to investigate the binary evolution in very dense environments and are powerful tracers of the dynamical history of the parent cluster.

  20. The Globular Cluster Systems around NGC 3311 and NGC 3309

    CERN Document Server

    Wehner, Elizabeth; Whitmore, Brad; Rothberg, Barry; Woodley, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    We present extensive new photometry in (g',i') of the large globular cluster (GC) system around NGC 3311, the central cD galaxy in the Hydra cluster. Our GMOS data cover a 5.5' field of view and reach a limiting magnitude i' = 26, about 0.5 magnitude fainter than the turnover point of the GC luminosity function. We find that NGC 3311 has a huge population of ~16, 000 GCs, closely similar to the prototypical high specific frequency Virgo giant M87. The color-magnitude distribution shows that the metal-poor blue GC sequence and the metal-richer red sequence are both present, with nearly equal numbers of clusters. Bimodal fits to the color distributions confirm that the blue sequence shows the same trend of progressively increasing metallicity with GC mass that has previously been found in many other large galaxies; the correlation we find corresponds to a scaling of GC metallicity with mass of Z ~ M^0.6 . By contrast, the red sequence shows no change of mean metallicity with mass, but it shows an upward extensi...

  1. High Energy Gamma-rays from Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sitarek, W B J

    2007-01-01

    It is expected that specific globular clusters can contain up to a hundred of millisecond pulsars. These pulsars can accelerate leptons at the shock waves originated in collisions of the pulsar winds and/or inside the pulsar magnetospheres. Energetic leptons diffuse gradually through the globular cluster comptonizing stellar and microwave background radiation. We calculate the GeV-TeV $\\gamma$-ray spectra for different models of injection of leptons and parameters of the globular clusters assuming reasonable, of the order of 1%, efficiency of energy conversion from the pulsar winds into the relativistic leptons. It is concluded that leptons accelerated in the globular cluster cores should produce well localized $\\gamma$-ray sources which are concentric with these globular clusters. The results are shown for four specific globular clusters (47 Tuc, Ter 5, M13, and M15), in which significant population of millisecond pulsars have been already discovered. We argue that the best candidates, which might be potenti...

  2. X-ray sources in globular clusters of other galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lewin, W H G; Lewin, Walter H.G.; Verbunt, Frank

    2005-01-01

    A large number of X-ray sources in globular clusters of galaxies other than the Milky Way has been found with Chandra. We discuss three issues relating to these sources. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of the sources in globular clusters of M31 is marginally compatible with the XLF of globular clusters of the Milky Way. The individual XLFs of a dozen elliptical galaxies, after correction for incompleteness, are compatible with one another and show no break; however, the XLF found by adding the individual XLFs of elliptical galaxies has a break at L_x about 5x10(38) ergs/s. For the moment there is no evidence for a difference between the XLFs of sources inside and outside globular clusters of elliptical galaxies. It is not (yet?) possible to decide which fraction of low-mass X-ray binaries in elliptical galaxies outside globular clusters have formed inside globular clusters.

  3. The Faint Globular Cluster in the Dwarf Galaxy Andromeda I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Nelson; Strader, Jay; Sand, David J.; Willman, Beth; Seth, Anil C.

    2017-09-01

    Observations of globular clusters in dwarf galaxies can be used to study a variety of topics, including the structure of dark matter halos and the history of vigorous star formation in low-mass galaxies. We report on the properties of the faint globular cluster (M V -3.4) in the M31 dwarf galaxy Andromeda I. This object adds to the growing population of low-luminosity Local Group galaxies that host single globular clusters.

  4. No energy equipartition in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, Michele; van der Marel, Roeland

    2013-11-01

    It is widely believed that globular clusters evolve over many two-body relaxation times towards a state of energy equipartition, so that velocity dispersion scales with stellar mass as σ ∝ m-η with η = 0.5. We show here that this is incorrect, using a suite of direct N-body simulations with a variety of realistic initial mass functions and initial conditions. No simulated system ever reaches a state close to equipartition. Near the centre, the luminous main-sequence stars reach a maximum ηmax ≈ 0.15 ± 0.03. At large times, all radial bins convergence on an asymptotic value η∞ ≈ 0.08 ± 0.02. The development of this `partial equipartition' is strikingly similar across our simulations, despite the range of different initial conditions employed. Compact remnants tend to have higher η than main-sequence stars (but still η hole (IMBH) decreases η, consistent with our previous findings of a quenching of mass segregation under these conditions. All these results can be understood as a consequence of the Spitzer instability for two-component systems, extended by Vishniac to a continuous mass spectrum. Mass segregation (the tendency of heavier stars to sink towards the core) has often been studied observationally, but energy equipartition has not. Due to the advent of high-quality proper motion data sets from the Hubble Space Telescope, it is now possible to measure η for real clusters. Detailed data-model comparisons open up a new observational window on globular cluster dynamics and evolution. A first comparison of our simulations to observations of Omega Cen yields good agreement, supporting the view that globular clusters are not generally in energy equipartition. Modelling techniques that assume equipartition by construction (e.g. multi-mass Michie-King models) are approximate at best.

  5. Lack of Energy Equipartition in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, Michele

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): It is widely believed that globular clusters evolve over many two-body relaxation times toward a state of energy equipartition, so that velocity dispersion scales with stellar mass as σ∝m^{-η} with η=0.5. I will show instead that this is incorrect, using a suite of direct N-body simulations with a variety of realistic initial mass functions and initial conditions. No simulated system ever reaches a state close to equipartition. Near the center, the luminous main-sequence stars reach a maximum η_{max 0.15±0.03. At large times, all radial bins convergence on an asymptotic value η_{∞ 0.08±0.02. The development of this ``partial equipartition'' is strikingly similar across simulations, despite the range of different initial conditions employed. Compact remnants tend to have higher η than main-sequence stars (but still ηhole (IMBH) decreases η, consistent with our previous findings of a quenching of mass segregation under these conditions. All these results can be understood as a consequence of the Spitzer instability for two-component systems, extended by Vishniac to a continuous mass spectrum. Mass segregation (the tendency of heavier stars to sink toward the core) has often been studied observationally, but energy equipartition has not. Due to the advent of high-quality proper motion datasets from the Hubble Space Telescope, it is now possible to measure η for real clusters. Detailed data-model comparisons open up a new observational window on globular cluster dynamics, structure, evolution, initial conditions, and possible IMBHs. A first comparison of my simulations to observations of Omega Cen yields good agreement, supporting the view that globular clusters are not generally in energy equipartition. Modeling techniques that assume equipartition by construction (e.g., multi-mass Michie-King models) are thus approximate at best.

  6. Lithium-Rich Giants in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N; Zhang, Andrew J; Hong, Jerry; Guo, Michelle; Guo, Rachel; Cohen, Judith G; Cunha, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron-Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 +/- 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 +/- 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 +/- 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propo...

  7. Cosmic Strings and the Origin of Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Alistair; Lin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that cosmic string loops are the seeds about which globular clusters accrete. Fixing the cosmic string tension by demanding that the peak in the distribution of masses of objects accreting onto string loops agrees with the peak in the observed mass distribution of globular clusters in our Milky Way galaxy, we then compute the expected number density and mass function of globular clusters, and compare with observations. Our hypothesis naturally explains why globular clusters are the oldest and most dense objects in a galaxy, and why they are found in the halo of the galaxy.

  8. Globular Clusters around Galaxies in Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, C D; Bolte, M; Ziegler, B L; Puzia, T

    2001-01-01

    We have obtained deep photometry of NGC 1199 (in the compact group HCG 22) and NGC 6868 (in the Telescopium loose group) with the Keck II and the VLT-I telescopes. Both galaxies are the optically brightest galaxy of their groups. NGC 1199 has two companion galaxies at a median projected distance of only 33 kpc and, based in its peculiar internal structure and large X-ray halo, NGC 6868 has been proposed to be a merger remnant. Our analysis of $B$ and $R$ images uncovered a population of globular clusters around both galaxies, with total (and local) specific frequency S_N = 3.6\\pm1.8 (3.4\\pm1.5) for NGC 1199 and S_N = 1.8\\pm1.1 (0.8\\pm0.4) for NGC 6868. The radial profile of the globulars of NGC 1199 follows the light distribution of the galaxy and can be fitted by a power--law and a ``core model'' with a very steep slope (\\alpha = 2.5\\pm0.3). In the case of NGC 6868, the profile of the globulars is well fitted by a power--law and a ``core model'' profile of slope 1.4\\pm0.3 and is shallower than the galaxy lig...

  9. Globular cluster systems of six shell galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sikkema, G; Carter, D; Valentijn, E A; Balcells, M

    2006-01-01

    Shells in Elliptical Galaxies are faint, sharp-edged features, believed to provide evidence of a recent ($\\sim 0.5 - 2 \\times 10^9$ years ago) merger event. We analyse the Globular Cluster (GC) systems of six shell elliptical galaxies, to examine the effects of mergers upon the GC formation history. We examine the colour distributions, and investigate differences between red and blue globular cluster populations. We present luminosity functions, spatial distributions and specific frequencies ($S_N$) at 50 kpc radius for our sample. We present V and I magnitudes for cluster candidates measured with the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Galaxy background light is modelled and removed, and magnitudes are measured in 8 pixel (0.4 arcsec) diameter apertures. Background contamination is removed using counts from HDFS. We find that the colour distributions for NGC 3923 and NGC 5982 have a bimodal form typical of bright ellipticals, with peaks near $V-I=0.92 \\pm 0.04$ and $V-I=1.18 \\pm 0.06$. In NGC 7626, we fin...

  10. Pulsars in Globular Clusters with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Hessels, J W T; Bailes, M; Bassa, C G; Freire, P C C; Lorimer, D R; Lynch, R; Ransom, S M; Stairs, I H

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters are highly efficient radio pulsar factories. These pulsars can be used as precision probes of the clusters' structure, gas content, magnetic field, and formation history; some of them are also highly interesting in their own right because they probe exotic stellar evolution scenarios as well as the physics of dense matter, accretion, and gravity. Deep searches with SKA1-MID and SKA1-LOW will plausibly double to triple the known population. Such searches will only require one to a few tied-array beams, and can be done during early commissioning of the telescope - before an all-sky pulsar survey using hundreds to thousands of tied-array beams is feasible. With SKA2 it will be possible to observe most of the active radio pulsars within a large fraction of the Galactic globular clusters, an estimated population of 600 - 3700 observable pulsars (those beamed towards us). This rivals the total population of millisecond pulsars that can be found in the Galactic field; fully characterizing it will p...

  11. UV Spectroscopic Indices of Galactic Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Hernández, J.; Chávez, M.; Bertone, E.; Buzzoni, A.; Bressan, A.

    2009-03-01

    We present the calculation of a set of 12 mid-ultraviolet (1900-3200 Å) spectroscopic indices for a sample of 15 galactic globular clusters (GGC) observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). We explore the dependence of the indices on age and metal abundance. We found that five indices (BL 2538, Fe II 2609, Mg II 2800, Mg I 2852 and Mg Wide) display a remarkably good correlation with [Fe/H]. With respect to age, only one index (BL 2740) shows a good correlation. Results from theoretical simple stellar populations well reproduce the global trends of indices vs. [Fe/H].

  12. Binaries in Globular Clusters Multiple Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucatello, Sara; Sollima, Antonio; Gratton, Raffaele; D'Orazi, Valentina; Vesperini, Enrico; Carretta, Eugenio; Bragaglia, Angela

    2015-08-01

    In spite of considerable theoretical and obsservational effort, the series of events that leads to the formation of Globular Clusters and their multiple populations is still unclear.One of the key matters is where the so-called second generation of stars form and its distribution at the time of its birth with respect to the first generation. Some of the latest modeling has suggested that second generation should form in a compact subsystem concentrated in the inner regions of the primordial, first generation cluster. In this scenario, loss of a large fraction of the cluster mass is expected, mostly comprised of first generation stars. This would account for the mass budget issue (one of the main problems in the self-enrichment scenario) and would imply a considerable contribution of the clusters to the formation of the Galactic Halo.Testing this prediction is hence of great importance, but not so immediate. Long-term, dynamical evolution of multiple-population clusters could blur considerably the signature of the initial different concentrations, leaving at present time some memory in the very central part (Vesperini et al. 2013), which, because of its high density, is generally not accessible to the multi-object high resolution spectrographs that yield the spectra that allow the chemical composition measurements necessary to tag the different populations.An alternative approach to test the prediction of the initial segregation of the second generations is that of determining their binary fractions. In fact, until the two populations are completely mixed, second generation stars will evolve in a denser environment where disruption will occur more rapidly, leading to a smaller binary incidence in such population (Vesperini et al 2011).I will present the results of our long-term radial velocity monitoring of 10 Galactic Globular clusters, discuss the derived binary fractions in the two populations and address the implications of our findings on our understanding of

  13. The next generation Virgo cluster survey. VIII. The spatial distribution of globular clusters in the Virgo cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrell, Patrick R.; Accetta, Katharine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; McConnachie, Alan; Gwyn, Stephen [Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hongxin [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Mihos, J. Christopher [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Puzia, Thomas H.; Jordán, Andrés [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Av. Vicu' a Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Lançon, Ariane [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Courteau, Stéphane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Duc, Pierre-Alain [AIM Paris Saclay, CNRS/INSU, CEA/Irfu, Université Paris Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Emsellem, Eric [Université de Lyon 1, CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 av. Charles André, F-69230 Saint-Genis Laval (France); CNRS, UMR 5574, ENS de Lyon (France); and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a large-scale study of the distribution of globular clusters (GCs) throughout the Virgo cluster, based on photometry from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a large imaging survey covering Virgo's primary subclusters (Virgo A = M87 and Virgo B = M49) out to their virial radii. Using the g{sub o}{sup ′}, (g' – i') {sub o} color-magnitude diagram of unresolved and marginally resolved sources within the NGVS, we have constructed two-dimensional maps of the (irregular) GC distribution over 100 deg{sup 2} to a depth of g{sub o}{sup ′} = 24. We present the clearest evidence to date showing the difference in concentration between red and blue GCs over the full extent of the cluster, where the red (more metal-rich) GCs are largely located around the massive early-type galaxies in Virgo, while the blue (metal-poor) GCs have a much more extended spatial distribution with significant populations still present beyond 83' (∼215 kpc) along the major axes of both M49 and M87. A comparison of our GC maps to the diffuse light in the outermost regions of M49 and M87 show remarkable agreement in the shape, ellipticity, and boxiness of both luminous systems. We also find evidence for spatial enhancements of GCs surrounding M87 that may be indicative of recent interactions or an ongoing merger history. We compare the GC map to that of the locations of Virgo galaxies and the X-ray intracluster gas, and find generally good agreement between these various baryonic structures. We calculate the Virgo cluster contains a total population of N {sub GC} = 67, 300 ± 14, 400, of which 35% are located in M87 and M49 alone. For the first time, we compute a cluster-wide specific frequency S {sub N,} {sub CL} = 2.8 ± 0.7, after correcting for Virgo's diffuse light. We also find a GC-to-baryonic mass fraction ε {sub b} = 5.7 ± 1.1 × 10{sup –4} and a GC-to-total cluster mass formation efficiency ε {sub t} = 2.9 ± 0.5 × 10{sup –5

  14. Modeling Formation of Globular Clusters: Beacons of Galactic Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, Oleg Y

    2010-01-01

    Modern hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation are able to predict accurately the rates and locations of the assembly of giant molecular clouds in early galaxies. These clouds could host star clusters with the masses and sizes of real globular clusters. I describe current state-of-the-art simulations aimed at understanding the origin of the cluster mass function and metallicity distribution. Metallicity bimodality of globular cluster systems appears to be a natural outcome of hierarchical formation and gradually declining fraction of cold gas in galaxies. Globular cluster formation was most prominent at redshifts z>3, when massive star clusters may have contributed as much as 20% of all galactic star formation.

  15. Detailed Chemical Abundances of Extragalactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, R A

    2005-01-01

    We outline a method to measure the detailed chemical composition of extragalactic (unresolved) globular clusters (GCs) from echelle spectra of their integrated light. Our goal is to use this method to measure abundance patterns of GCs in distant spiral and elliptical galaxies to constrain their formation histories. To develop this technique we have obtained a ``training set'' of integrated-light spectra of resolved GCs in the Milky Way and LMC by scanning across the clusters during exposures. Our training set also include spectra of individual stars in those GCs from which abundances can be obtained in the normal way to provide a check on our integrated-light results. We present here the preliminary integrated-light analysis of one GC in our training set, NGC 104 (47 Tuc), and outline some of the techniques utilized and problems encountered in that analysis.

  16. Lithium-rich Giants in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Zhang, Andrew J.; Hong, Jerry; Guo, Michelle; Guo, Rachel; Cohen, Judith G.; Cunha, Katia

    2016-03-01

    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron-Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. LITHIUM-RICH GIANTS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zhang, Andrew J. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States); Hong, Jerry [Palo Alto High School, 50 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94301 (United States); Guo, Michelle [Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Guo, Rachel [Irvington High School, 41800 Blacow Road, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, São Cristóvão Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-03-10

    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron–Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  18. Globular Clusters as Cradles of Life and Advanced Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Ray, Alak

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters are bound groups of about a million stars and stellar remnants. They are old, largely isolated, and very dense. We consider what each of these special features can mean for the development of life, the evolution of intelligent life, and the long-term survival of technological civilizations. We find that, if they house planets, globular clusters provide ideal environments for advanced civilizations that can survive over long times. We therefore propose methods to search for planets in globular clusters. If planets are found and if our arguments are correct, searches for intelligent life are most likely to succeed when directed toward globular clusters. Globular clusters may be the first places in which distant life is identified in our own or in external galaxies.

  19. Globular Clusters as Cradles of Life and Advanced Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Stefano, R

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters are ancient stellar populations with no star formation or core-collapse supernovae. Several lines of evidence suggest that globular clusters are rich in planets. If so, and if advanced civilizations can develop there, then the distances between these civilizations and other stars would be far smaller than typical distances between stars in the Galactic disk. The relative proximity would facilitate interstellar communication and travel. However, the very proximity that promotes interstellar travel also brings danger, since stellar interactions can destroy planetary systems. However, by modeling globular clusters and their stellar populations, we find that large regions of many globular clusters can be thought of as "sweet spots" where habitable-zone planetary orbits can be stable for long times. We also compute the ambient densities and fluxes in the regions within which habitable-zone planets can survive. Globular clusters are among the best targets for searches for extraterrestrial intellig...

  20. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  1. Most Massive Globular Cluster in Our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Far down in the southern sky, in the constellation of Centaurus, a diffuse spot of light can be perceived with the unaided eye. It may be unimpressive, but when seen through a telescope, it turns out to be a beautiful, dense cluster of innumerable stars [1]. Omega Centauri, as this object is called, is the brightest of its type in the sky. We refer to it as a "globular cluster", due to its symmetric form. It belongs to our Milky Way galaxy and astrophysical investigations have shown that it is located at a distance of about 16,500 light-years (1 light-year = 9,460,000,000,000 km). Nobody knows for sure how many individual stars it contains, but recent estimates run into the millions. Most of these stars are more than 10,000 million years old and it is generally agreed that Omega Centauri has a similar age. Measurements of its motion indicate that Omega Centauri plows through the Milky Way in an elongated orbit. It is not easy to understand how it has managed to keep its stars together during such an extended period. MEASURING STELLAR VELOCITIES IN OMEGA CENTAURI A group of astronomers [2] have recently carried through a major investigation of Omega Centauri. After many nights of observations at the ESO La Silla observatory, they now conclude that not only is this globular cluster the brightest, it is indeed by far the most massive known in the Milky Way. The very time-consuming observations were made during numerous observing sessions over a period of no less than 13 years (1981-1993), with the photoelectric spectrometer CORAVEL mounted on the 1.5-m Danish telescope at La Silla. The CORAVEL instrument (COrelation RAdial VELocities) was built in a joint effort between the Geneva (Switzerland) and Marseilles (France) observatories. It functions according to the cross-correlation technique, by means of which the spectrum of the observed star is compared with a "standard stellar spectrum" [3]. HOW HEAVY IS OMEGA CENTAURI? In the present study, a total of 1701

  2. Modeling the Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2012-10-01

    Blue stragglers {BS} have been extensively observed in Galactic globular clusters {GGC}. primarily with HST. Many theoretical studies have identified BS formation channels and it is understood that dynamics in GCs modifies formation and distribution of the BSs. Despite the wealth of observational data, comprehensive theoretical models including all relevant physical processes in dynamically evolving GCs do not exist. Our dynamical cluster modeling code, developed over the past decade, includes all relevant physical processes in a GC including two-body relaxation, strong scattering, physical collisions, and stellar-evolution {single and binary}. We can model GCs with realistic N and provide star-by-star models for GCs directly comparable with the observed data. This proposed study will create realistic GC models with initial conditions from a grid spanning a large range in the multidimensional parameter space including cluster mass, binary fraction, concentration, and Galactic position. Our numerical models combined with observational constraints from existing HST data will for the first time provide explanations for the observed trends in the BS populations in GGCs, the dominant formation channel for these BSs, typical dynamical ages of the BSs, and find detailed dynamical histories of the BSs in GGCs. These models will yield valuable insight on the correlations between the BS properties and a number of cluster dynamical properties {central density, binary fraction, and binary orbital properties} which will potentially help constrain a GC's past evolutionary history. As a bonus a large set of realistic theoretical GC models will be constructed.

  3. Globular Cluster Streams as Galactic High-Precision Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Küpper, A H W; Bonaca, A; Johnston, K V; Hogg, D W; Kroupa, P; Santiago, B X

    2015-01-01

    Tidal streams of globular clusters are ideal tracers of the Galactic gravitational potential. Compared to the few known, complex and diffuse dwarf-galaxy streams, they are kinematically cold, have thin morphologies and are abundant in the halo of the Milky Way. Their coldness and thinness in combination with potential epicyclic substructure in the vicinity of the stream progenitor turns them into high-precision scales. With the example of Palomar 5, we demonstrate how modeling of a globular cluster stream allows us to simultaneously measure the properties of the disrupting globular cluster, its orbital motion, and the gravitational potential of the Milky Way.

  4. Modeling the Tenuous Intracluster Medium in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Naiman, J; Ramirez-Ruiz, E

    2013-01-01

    We employ hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the underlying mechanism responsible for the low levels of gas and dust in globular clusters. Our models examine the competing effects of mass supply from the evolved stellar population and energy injection from the main sequence stellar members for globular clusters 47 Tucanae, M15, NGC 6440, and NGC 6752. Disregarding all other gas evacuation processes, we find that the energy output from the main sequence stellar population alone is capable of effectively clearing the evolved stellar ejecta and producing intracluster gas densities consistent with current observational constraints. This result distinguishes a viable ubiquitous gas and dust evacuation mechanism for globular clusters. In addition, we extend our analysis to probe the efficiency of pulsar wind feedback in globular clusters. The detection of intracluster ionized gas in cluster 47 Tucanae allows us to place particularly strict limits on pulsar wind thermalization efficiency, which must be extrem...

  5. Globular Clusters as Cradles of Life and Advanced Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, R.; Ray, A.

    2016-08-01

    Globular clusters are ancient stellar populations in compact dense ellipsoids. There is no star formation and there are no core-collapse supernovae, but several lines of evidence suggest that globular clusters are rich in planets. If so, and if advanced civilizations can develop there, then the distances between these civilizations and other stars would be far smaller than typical distances between stars in the Galactic disk, facilitating interstellar communication and travel. The potent combination of long-term stability and high stellar densities provides a globular cluster opportunity. Yet the very proximity that promotes interstellar travel also brings danger, as stellar interactions can destroy planetary systems. We find, however, that large portions of many globular clusters are “sweet spots,” where habitable-zone planetary orbits are stable for long times. Globular clusters in our own and other galaxies are, therefore, among the best targets for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). We use the Drake equation to compare the likelihood of advanced civilizations in globular clusters to that in the Galactic disk. We also consider free-floating planets, since wide-orbit planets can be ejected to travel through the cluster. Civilizations spawned in globular clusters may be able to establish self-sustaining outposts, reducing the probability that a single catastrophic event will destroy the civilization. Although individual civilizations may follow different evolutionary paths, or even be destroyed, the cluster may continue to host advanced civilizations once a small number have jumped across interstellar space. Civilizations residing in globular clusters could therefore, in a sense, be immortal.

  6. The Timing of Nine Globular Cluster Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Ryan S; Ransom, Scott M; Jacoby, Bryan A

    2011-01-01

    We have used the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to time nine previously known pulsars without published timing solutions in the globular clusters M62, NGC 6544, and NGC 6624. We have full timing solutions that measure the spin, astrometric, and (where applicable) binary parameters for six of these pulsars. The remaining three pulsars (reported here for the first time) were not detected enough to establish solutions. We also report our timing solutions for five pulsars with previously published solutions, and find good agreement with past authors, except for PSR J1701-3006B in M62. Gas in this system is probably responsible for the discrepancy in orbital parameters, and we have been able to measure a change in the orbital period over the course of our observations. Among the pulsars with new solutions we find several binary pulsars with very low mass companions (members of the so-called "black widow" class) and we are able to place constraints on the mass-to-light ratio in two clusters. We confirm that on...

  7. Analytical Solution for Stellar Density in Globular Clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. A. Sharaf; A. M. Sendi

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, four parameters analytical solution will be established for the stellar density function in globular clusters. The solution could be used for any arbitrary order of outward decrease of the cluster’s density.

  8. Normal Globular Cluster Systems in Massive Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Villegas, Daniela; Jordán, Andrés; Goudfrooij, Paul; Zwaan, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the globular cluster systems of 6 massive spiral galaxies, originally cataloged as low surface brightness galaxies but here shown to span a wide range of central surface brightness values, including two intermediate to low surface brightness galaxies. We used the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board HST to obtain photometry in the F475W and F775W bands and select sources with photometric and morphological properties consistent with those of globular clusters. A total of 206 candidates were identified in our target galaxies. From a direct comparison with the Galactic globular cluster system we derive specific frequency values for each galaxy that are in the expected range for late-type galaxies. We show that the globular cluster candidates in all galaxies have properties consistent with globular cluster systems of previously studied galaxies in terms of luminosity, sizes and color. We establish the presence of globular clusters in the two intermediate to low surface brightn...

  9. Dynamical evolution of globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzzio, J.C.

    1987-04-01

    The dynamical processes that affect globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies are analyzed. Two-body and impulsive approximations are utilized to study dynamical friction, drag force, tidal stripping, tidal radii, globular-cluster swapping, tidal accretion, and galactic cannibalism. The evolution of galaxies and the collision of galaxies are simulated numerically; the steps involved in the simulation are described. The simulated data are compared with observations. Consideration is given to the number of galaxies, halo extension, location of the galaxies, distribution of the missing mass, nonequilibrium initial conditions, mass dependence, massive central galaxies, globular-cluster distribution, and lost globular clusters. 116 references.

  10. Deep VLT search for globular clusters in NGC 5128 color-magnitude diagrams and globular cluster luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Rejkuba, M

    2001-01-01

    At the distance of NGC 5128 (3.6 \\pm 0.2 Mpc) it is possible to resolve globular clusters with high resolution imaging from the ground, thus allowing the globular cluster candidate selection primarily through their morphological properties. I report the discovery of 71 globular clusters in NGC 5128 on VLT UT1+FORS1 images, including the faintest members (Mv ~ -5) known to date in this galaxy as well as 5 previously known clusters. U- and V-band photometry has been measured for all the candidates and the luminosity function, spanning -10.1globular cluster luminosity functions in an elliptical galaxy determined so far. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics show that the difference between the globular cluster luminosity functions of NGC 5128 and the MW is not larger than the difference between the ones of M31 and the MW. The (U-V)o color histogram shows a bimodal distribution. For 23 globular clusters I obtained K-band images with SOFI at the...

  11. No Energy Equipartition in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Trenti, M

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that globular clusters evolve over many two-body relaxation times toward a state of energy equipartition, so that velocity dispersion scales with stellar mass as \\sigma m^{-\\eta} with \\eta = 0.5. We show that this is incorrect, using direct N-body simulations with a variety of realistic IMFs and initial conditions. No simulated system ever reaches a state close to equipartition. Near the center, the luminous main-sequence stars reach a maximum \\eta_{max} ~ 0.15 \\pm 0.03. At large times, all radial bins convergence on an asymptotic value \\eta_{\\infty} ~ 0.08 \\pm 0.02. The development of this "partial equipartition" is strikingly similar across our simulations, despite the range of initial conditions employed. Compact remnants tend to have higher \\eta than main-sequence stars (but still \\eta < 0.5), due to their steeper (evolved) mass function. The presence of an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) decreases \\eta, consistent with our previous findings of a quenching of mass segregation ...

  12. The Globular Cluster System of NGC 6822

    CERN Document Server

    Veljanoski, J; Mackey, A D; Huxor, A P; Hurley, J R; Bernard, E J; Cote, P; Irwin, M J; Martin, N F; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Flewelling, H; Kudritzki, R; Waters, C

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the globular cluster (GC) system of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. Our study is based on homogeneous optical and near-IR photometry, as well as long-slit spectroscopic observations which are used to determine new radial velocities for 6 GCs, two of which had no previous spectroscopic information. We construct optical-near IR colour-colour diagrams and through comparison to simple stellar population models infer that the GCs have old ages consistent with being 9 Gyr or older, while their metallicities are in the range between -1.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.4. We conduct a kinematic analysis of the GC population and find tentative evidence for weak net rotation of the GC system, in the same sense as that exhibited by the underlying spheroid. The most likely amplitude of rotation is ~10 km/s, approximately half the magnitude of the observed velocity dispersion. Finally, we use the GCs to estimate the dynamical mass of NGC 6822 within 11 kpc and we formally find ...

  13. ACS photometry of the globular cluster B514

    CERN Document Server

    Galleti, S; Bellazzini, M; Buzzoni, A; Pecci, F F

    2006-01-01

    We present deep F606W, F814W ACS photometry of the recently discovered globular cluster B514, the outermost known globular in the M31 galaxy. The cluster appears quite extended and member stars are unequivocally identified out to ~200 pc from the center. The Color Magnitude Diagram reveals a steep Red Giant Branch (RGB), and a Horizontal Branch (HB) extending blue ward of the instability strip, indicating that B514 is a classical old metal-poor globular cluster. The RGB locus and the position of the RGB Bump are both consistent with a metallicity [Fe/H] ~ -1.8, in excellent agreement with spectroscopic estimates. A preliminary estimate of the integrated absolute V magnitude (M_V< -9.1) suggests that B514 is among the brightest globulars of M31.

  14. THE TIMING OF NINE GLOBULAR CLUSTER PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Ryan S. [Physics Department, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Freire, Paulo C. C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ransom, Scott M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-4325 (United States); Jacoby, Bryan A., E-mail: rlynch@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: pfreire@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: sransom@nrao.edu, E-mail: bryan.jacoby@gmail.com [Aerospace Corporation, 15049 Conference Center Drive, Chantilly, VA 20151-3824 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We have used the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to time nine previously known pulsars without published timing solutions in the globular clusters (GCs) M62, NGC 6544, and NGC 6624. We have full timing solutions that measure the spin, astrometric, and (where applicable) binary parameters for six of these pulsars. The remaining three pulsars (reported here for the first time) were not detected enough to establish solutions. We also report our timing solutions for five pulsars with previously published solutions, and find good agreement with other authors, except for PSR J1701-3006B in M62. Gas in this system is probably responsible for the discrepancy in orbital parameters, and we have been able to measure a change in the orbital period over the course of our observations. Among the pulsars with new solutions we find several binary pulsars with very low mass companions (members of the so-called 'black widow' class) and we are able to place constraints on the mass-to-light ratio in two clusters. We confirm that one of the pulsars in NGC 6624 is indeed a member of the rare class of non-recycled pulsars found in GCs. We have also measured the orbital precession and Shapiro delay for a relativistic binary in NGC 6544. If we assume that the orbital precession can be described entirely by general relativity, which is likely, we are able to measure the total system mass (2.57190(73) M{sub Sun }) and companion mass (1.2064(20) M{sub Sun }), from which we derive the orbital inclination (sin i = 0.9956(14)) and the pulsar mass (1.3655(21) M{sub Sun }), the most precise such measurement ever obtained for a millisecond pulsar. The companion is the most massive known around a fully recycled pulsar.

  15. Globular cluster-massive black hole interactions in galactic centers

    CERN Document Server

    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R

    2016-01-01

    Many, if not all, galaxies host massive compact objects at their centers. They are present as singularities (super massive black holes) or high density star clusters (nuclear tar clusters). In some cases they coexist, and interact more or less strongly. In this short paper I will talk of the 'merger' globular cluster scenario, which has been shown in the past to be an explanation of the substantial mass accumulation in galactic centers. In particular, I will present the many astrophysical implications of such scenario pointing the attention on the mutual feedback of orbitally decaying globular clusters with massive and super massive black holes.

  16. Further definition of the mass-metallicity relation in globular cluster systems around brightest cluster galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cockcroft, R.; Harris, W.E.; Wehner, E.M.; Whitmore, B.C.; Rothberg, B.

    2009-01-01

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass–metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our c

  17. A search for RCB stars in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Boiardi, Scarlett-Rose; Davoust, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    There are only about 65 R Coronae Borealis stars known in our Galaxy, and none in globular clusters. As these stars are thought to result from the merger of two white dwarfs, one would expect the higher stellar density of globular clusters to favor their formation. We have searched for such stars in Galactic globular clusters, as their presence in a specific category of clusters might provide more clues as to their formation. We selected from the WISE all-Sky source catalog all the stars within the tidal radius of the 150 globular clusters within 50 kpc, which is the distance to which RCB stars are detectable by WISE. The total number of stars selected in this way was 635989. We then successively applied the eight selection criteria of Tisserand (2012) satisfied by RCB stars to the dereddened photometric WISE and 2MASS data. Only three stars satisfying the conditions were found in the field of three globular clusters. The star in the field of Liller 1 is most probably a protostar. For the two other candidates...

  18. A model for globular cluster extreme anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, F.; Ventura, P.

    2007-08-01

    In spite of the efforts made in recent years, there is still no comprehensive explanation for the chemical anomalies of globular cluster (GC) stars. Among these anomalies, the most striking is oxygen depletion, which reaches values down to [O/Fe] ~ -0.4 in most clusters, but in M13 it goes down to less than [O/Fe] ~ -1. In this work we suggest that the anomalies are due to the superposition of two different events, as follows. (i) Primordial self-enrichment; this is required to explain the oxygen depletion down to a minimum value [O/Fe] ~ -0.4. (ii) Extra mixing in a fraction of the stars already born with anomalous composition; these objects, starting with already low [O/Fe], will reduce the oxygen abundance down to the most extreme values. Contrary to other models that invoke extra mixing to explain the chemical anomalies, we suggest that this mixing is active only if there is a fraction of the stars in which the primordial composition is not only oxygen-depleted, but also extremely helium-rich (Y ~ 0.4), as found in a few GCs from their main-sequence multiplicity. We propose that the rotational evolution (and an associated extra mixing) of extremely helium-rich stars may be affected by the fact that they develop a very small or non-existent molecular weight barrier during the evolution. We show that extra mixing in these stars, having initial chemistry that has already been CNO processed, affects mainly the oxygen abundance, as well as (to a much smaller extent) the sodium abundance. The model also predicts a large fluorine depletion concomitant with the oxygen depletion, and a further enhancement of the surface helium abundance, which reaches values close to Y = 0.5 in the computed models. We stress that, in this tentative explanation, those stars that are primordially oxygen-depleted, but are not extremely helium-rich, do not suffer deep extra mixing.

  19. Shedding Light on Lithium Evolution: The Globular Cluster Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Korn, A J

    2012-01-01

    I shall review what has been learnt during 20 years of lithium observations in stars belonging to metal-poor globular clusters. The focus will be on little evolved main-sequence, turnoff-point (TOP) and subgiant-branch (SGB) stars expected to display Spite-plateau lithium abundances like those found in the majority of field stars of similar metallicities. But is the Spite plateau of globular clusters the same as those of field stars? What effect does, e.g., cluster-internal pollution have on lithium abundances in the now dominant second generation of stars? It will be shown that it is primarily our incomplete knowledge of the temperature scale of Population II stars which currently limits the diagnostic power of globular clusters as regards the stellar-surface evolution of lithium.

  20. Astronomers Ponder Lack of Planets in Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This videotape has seven segments, discussing and showing the evidence for the proposition that the galactic clusters do not have many planets. Specifically the segments show: (1) Dr. Ron Gilliland discussing the process of looking for "Hot Jupiters" (i.e., planets about the size of Jupiter, which are hotter than Jupiter) in the globular clusters, (2) a zoom into 47 Tucanae globular cluster, (3) an animation of a planet passing between the host star and the earth with a brightness graph, (4) the same animation as before without the graph, (5) Ron Gilliland of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) discussing possible interpretations of his findings in the 47 Tucanae globular cluster, (6) Ron Gilliland examining the images of 47 Tucanae, and (7) images of 47 Tucanae watching for variations in brightness.

  1. Two views of globular cluster stars in the Galactic halo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martell S.L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In [1] we reported the discovery in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II/SEGUE spectroscopic database of a small subset of halo red giants, 2.5%, with CN and CH band strengths indicative of globular-cluster-like carbon and nitrogen abundances. Because the formation of stars with unusual light-element abundances is thought to be restricted to high-density environments like globular clusters, this result has strong implications for both cluster formation processes and the assembly history of the Galactic halo. Here we discuss two efforts to expand upon that work.

  2. Intra Cluster Globular Clusters around NGC 1399 in Fornax?

    CERN Document Server

    Schuberth, Y; Bassino, L; Hilker, M

    2007-01-01

    We investigate whether the globular clusters (GCs) in the recently published sample of GCs in the Fornax cluster by Bergond and coworkers are indeed intra-cluster objects. We combine the catalogue of radial velocity measurements by Bergond et al. with our CTIO MOSAIC photometry in the Washington system and analyse the relation of metal-poor and metal-rich GCs with their host galaxies. The metal-rich GCs appear to be kinematically associated with their respective host galaxies. The vast majority of the metal-poor GCs found in between the galaxies of the Fornax cluster have velocities which are consistent with them being members of the very extended NGC 1399 GC system. We find that when the sample is restricted to the most accurate velocity measurements, the GC velocity dispersion profile can be described with a mass model derived for the NGC 1399 GC system within 80 kpc. We identify one ``vagrant'' GC whose radial velocity suggests that it is not bound to any galaxy unless its orbit has a very large apogalacti...

  3. Occurrence of potentially hazardous GRBs launched in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Domainko, Wilfried F

    2011-01-01

    Nearby, Galactic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may affect the terrestrial biota if their radiation is beamed towards the Earth. Compact stellar binary mergers are possible central engines of short GRBs and their rate could be boosted in globular clusters. Globular cluster typically follow well defined orbits around the galactic center. Therefore their position relative to the solar system can be calculated back in time. This fact is used to demonstrate that globular cluster - solar system encounters define possible points in time when a nearby GRB could have exploded. Additionally, potential terrestrial signatures in the geological record connected to such an event are discussed. Assuming rates of GRBs launched in globular cluster found from the redshift distribution of short burst and adopting the current globular cluster space-density around the solar system it is found that the expected minimal distance d_min for such a GRB in the last Gyr is in the range d_min ~ 1 - 3.5 kpc. From the average gamma-ray luminosit...

  4. Are Globular Clusters the Remnant Nuclei of Progenitor Disk Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Boeker, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    The globular cluster system of a typical spheroidal galaxy makes up about 0.25% of the total galaxy mass (McLaughlin 1999). This is roughly the same mass fraction as contained in the nuclear star clus- ter (or stellar nucleus) present in most nearby low-mass galaxies. Motivated by this "coincidence", this Letter discusses a scenario in which globular clusters of present-day galaxies are the surviving nuclei of the dwarf galaxies that - according to the hierarchical merging paradigm of galaxy forma- tion - constitute the "building blocks" of present-day massive galaxies. This scenario, which was first suggested by Freeman (1993), has become more attractive recently in the light of studies that demonstrate a complex star formation history in a number of massive globular clusters.

  5. Globular Cluster Systems in Brightest Cluster Galaxies. III: Beyond Bimodality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William E.; Ciccone, Stephanie M.; Eadie, Gwendolyn M.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Geisler, Douglas; Rothberg, Barry; Bailin, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    We present new deep photometry of the rich globular cluster (GC) systems around the Brightest Cluster Galaxies UGC 9799 (Abell 2052) and UGC 10143 (Abell 2147), obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS and WFC3 cameras. For comparison, we also present new reductions of similar HST/ACS data for the Coma supergiants NGC 4874 and 4889. All four of these galaxies have huge cluster populations (to the radial limits of our data, comprising from 12,000 to 23,000 clusters per galaxy). The metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) of the GCs can still be matched by a bimodal-Gaussian form where the metal-rich and metal-poor modes are separated by ≃ 0.8 dex, but the internal dispersions of each mode are so large that the total MDF becomes very broad and nearly continuous from [Fe/H] ≃ ‑2.4 to solar. There are, however, significant differences between galaxies in the relative numbers of metal-rich clusters, suggesting that they underwent significantly different histories of mergers with massive gas-rich halos. Last, the proportion of metal-poor GCs rises especially rapidly outside projected radii R≳ 4 {R}{eff}, suggesting the importance of accreted dwarf satellites in the outer halo. Comprehensive models for the formation of GCs as part of the hierarchical formation of their parent galaxies will be needed to trace the systematic change in structure of the MDF with galaxy mass, from the distinctly bimodal form in smaller galaxies up to the broad continuum that we see in the very largest systems.

  6. Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters: Observations, Statistics and Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Knigge, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores how we might use the observed {\\em statistics} of blue stragglers in globular clusters to shed light on their formation. This means we will touch on topics also discussed elsewhere in this book, such as the discovery and implications of bimodal radial distributions and the "double sequences" of blue stragglers that have recently been found in some clusters. However, we will focus particularly on the search for a "smoking gun" correlation between the number of blue stragglers in a given globular cluster and a physical cluster parameter that would point towards a particular formation channel. As we shall see, there is little evidence for an intrinsic correlation between blue straggler numbers and stellar collision rates, even in dense cluster cores. On the other hand, there is a clear correlation between blue straggler numbers and the total (core) mass of the cluster. This would seem to point towards a formation channel involving binaries, rather than dynamical encounters. However, the cor...

  7. Mock Observations of Blue Stragglers in Globular Cluster Models

    CERN Document Server

    Sills, Alison; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A

    2013-01-01

    We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters, and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will choose approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates the lifetime of collision products. Because our observationally-motivated s...

  8. Black hole binaries dynamically formed in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dawoo; Kim, Chunglee; Lee, Hyung Mok; Bae, Yeong-Bok; Belczynski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    We investigate properties of black hole (BH) binaries formed in globular clusters via dynamical processes, using directN-body simulations. We pay attention to effects of BH mass function on the total mass and mass ratio distributions of BH binaries ejected from clusters. First, we consider BH populations with two different masses in order to learn basic differences from models with single-mass BHs only. Secondly, we consider continuous BH mass functions adapted from recent studies on massive star evolution in a low metallicity environment, where globular clusters are formed. In this work, we consider only binaries that are formed by three-body processes and ignore stellar evolution and primordial binaries for simplicity. Our results imply that most BH binary mergers take place after they get ejected from the cluster. Also, mass ratios of dynamically formed binaries should be close to 1 or likely to be less than 2:1. Since the binary formation efficiency is larger for higher-mass BHs, it is likely that a BH mass function sampled by gravitational-wave observations would be weighed towards higher masses than the mass function of single BHs for a dynamically formed population. Applying conservative assumptions regarding globular cluster populations such as small BH mass fraction and no primordial binaries, the merger rate of BH binaries originated from globular clusters is estimated to be at least 6.5 yr-1 Gpc-3. Actual rate can be up to more than several times of our conservative estimate.

  9. Supra-galactic colour patterns in globular cluster systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Juan C.

    2017-07-01

    An analysis of globular cluster systems associated with galaxies included in the Virgo and Fornax Hubble Space Telescope-Advanced Camera Surveys reveals distinct (g - z) colour modulation patterns. These features appear on composite samples of globular clusters and, most evidently, in galaxies with absolute magnitudes Mg in the range from -20.2 to -19.2. These colour modulations are also detectable on some samples of globular clusters in the central galaxies NGC 1399 and NGC 4486 (and confirmed on data sets obtained with different instruments and photometric systems), as well as in other bright galaxies in these clusters. After discarding field contamination, photometric errors and statistical effects, we conclude that these supra-galactic colour patterns are real and reflect some previously unknown characteristic. These features suggest that the globular cluster formation process was not entirely stochastic but included a fraction of clusters that formed in a rather synchronized fashion over large spatial scales, and in a tentative time lapse of about 1.5 Gy at redshifts z between 2 and 4. We speculate that the putative mechanism leading to that synchronism may be associated with large scale feedback effects connected with violent star-forming events and/or with supermassive black holes.

  10. Spectroscopic evidence of Multiple Stellar Populations in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Carretta, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Galactic globular clusters are not simple stellar populations. And nothing is simple in their study, basically because we try to reconstruct chains of events that occurred at redshift z > 2-3 by observing these objects at z=0, after a Hubble time. Fortunately, spectroscopy offers a magnifying lens: differences of tens or hundreds of Myrs between stellar generations are translated into differences in abundances up to a full dex. I will review the complex pattern emerging by the combined efforts of different groups, focusing on the chemical signatures of multiple populations in globular clusters.

  11. Globular cluster content and evolutionary history of NGC147

    CERN Document Server

    Sharina, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic observations of eight globular cluster candidates in NGC147, a satellite dwarf elliptical galaxy of M31. Our goal is to make a complete inventory of the globular cluster system of this galaxy, determine the properties of their stellar populations, and compare these properties with those of systems of globular clusters in other dwarf galaxies. The candidates were identified on Canada-France-Hawaii telescope photographic plates. Medium resolution spectra were obtained with the SCORPIO spectrograph at the prime focus of the 6m telescope of the Russian Academy of Sciences. We were able to confirm the nature of all eight candidates, three of which (GC5, GC7, and GC10) are indeed globular clusters, and to estimate evolutionary parameters for the two brightest ones and for Hodge II. The bright clusters GC5 and GC7 appear to have metallicities ([Z/H]~ -1.5- -1.8) that are lower than the oldest stars in the galaxy. The fainter GC Hodge II has a metallicity [Z/H]=-1.1 dex, simila...

  12. The Blue Straggler Population of the Globular Cluster M5

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzoni, B; Ferraro, F R; Mancini, C; Beccari, G; Rood, R T; Mapelli, M; Sigurdsson, S

    2007-01-01

    By combining high-resolution HST and wide-field ground based observations, in ultraviolet and optical bands, we study the Blue Stragglers Star (BSS) population of the galactic globular cluster M5 (NGC 5904) from its very central regions up to its periphery. The BSS distribution is highly peaked in the cluster center, decreases at intermediate radii and rises again outward. Such a bimodal distribution is similar to those previously observed in other globular clusters (M3, 47Tucanae, NGC6752). As for these clusters, dynamical simulations suggest that, while the majority of BSS in M5 could be originated by stellar collisions, a significant fraction (20-40%) of BSS generated by mass transfer processes in primordial binaries is required to reproduce the observed radial distribution. A candidate BSS has been detected beyond the cluster tidal radius. If confirmed, this could represent an interesting case of an "evaporating" BSS.

  13. Hot and cold bubbles in M87

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, C R

    2003-01-01

    The X-ray data obtained with XMM-Newton is used to investigate the complex structure of the gas in the atmosphere of the Virgo cluster around M87. We construct a simple model for the temperature and density distribution. This model implies that the cumulative mass of the cluster gas is a power-law of its entropy index, $kT n^{-2/3}$, similar to the Hydra cluster. This supports the idea that such power-laws are a direct consequence of gas cooling in a gravitational potential. In the cluster atmosphere hot bubbles of gas injected by the AGN are rising buoyantly. We estimate the age of these structures from the synchrotron radio data and find that this `radiative age' is consistent with the estimated dynamical timescale. However, this requires a spatial separation of the relativistic particles from the magnetic field. The age estimates suggest an activity cycle of the AGN in M87 of roughly $10^8$ years. We show that the largest radio structures are consistent with being the remnants of buoyant bubbles injected b...

  14. Notes on counter-orbiting globular clusters in the Milky Way

    OpenAIRE

    Yankelevich, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    It is argued that Galactic globular clusters rotating retrograde may originate from prograde globular clusters that change their angular momenturm due to gravitational perturbations from the Magellanic Cloud galaxies. It is shown that those galactic globular clusters with orbits near the Lagrangiane point of the system "Milky Way - Maggellanic Clouds" can change the sign of their angular momentum in few Gyr time scale.

  15. Catalogue of variable stars in Milky Way globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Globular cluster variable stars have been studied for more than a century. In the early investigations, more than 90% of the known variables were of the RR Lyrae type. However, in the interim, technological advances have facilitated the discovery of other types of variables. As a result, although RR Lyrae stars still dominate, they now constitute less than 70% of the known variables.

  16. Possible systematic decreases in the age of globular clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Schramm, D. N. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Dearborn, D. S.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Truran, J. W. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The ages of globular clusters inferred from observations depends sensitively on assumptions like the initial helium abundance and the mass loss rate. A high helium abundance (e.g., Y\\approx0.28) or a mass loss rate of \\sim10^{-11}M_\\odot yr^{-1} near the main sequence turn-off region lowers the current age estimate from 14 Gyr to about 10--12 Gyr, significantly relaxing the constraints on the Hubble constant, allowing values as high as 60km/sec/Mpc for a universe with the critical density and 90km/sec/Mpc for a baryon-only universe. Possible mechanisms for the helium enhancement in globular clusters are discussed, as are arguments for an instability strip induced mass loss near the turn-off. Ages lower than 10 Gyr are not possible even with the operation of both of these mechanisms unless the initial helium abundance in globular clusters is >0.30, which would conflict with indirect measurements of helium abundances in globular clusters.

  17. Integrated spectral study of reddened globular clusters and candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, E.; Claria, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Bonatto, C.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents integrated spectra in the range 6700 - 9500 Angstroms for 20 Galactic globular clusters (and candidates) in the bulge and 5 others projected on the Galactic disk (|l|>30mbox {^{\\circ}}\\ and |b|Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), Argentina, and European Southern Observatory (ESO), Chile.

  18. A Dwarf Nova in the Globular Cluster M13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Servillat, M.; Webb, N.A.; Lewis, F.; Knigge, C.; van den Berg, M.C.; Dieball, A.; Grindlay, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Dwarf novae (DNe) in globular clusters (GCs) seem to be rare with only 13 detections in the 157 known Galactic GCs. We report the identification of a new DN in M13, the 14th DN identified in a GC to date. Using the 2 m Faulkes Telescope North, we conducted a search for stars in M13 that show variabi

  19. A Genuine Intermediate-Age Globular Cluster in M33

    CERN Document Server

    Chandar, R; Sarajedini, A; Goudfrooij, P; Chandar, Rupali; Puzia, Thomas H.; Sarajedini, Ata

    2006-01-01

    We present deep integrated-light spectroscopy of nine M33 globular clusters taken with the Hectospec instrument at the MMT Observatory. Based on our spectroscopy and previous deep color-magnitude diagrams obtained with HST/WFPC2, we present evidence for the presence of a genuine intermediate-age globular cluster in M33. The analysis of Lick line indices indicates that all globular clusters are metal-poor ([Z/H] <~ -1.0) and that cluster M33-C38 is about 5-8 Gyr younger than the rest of the sample M33 star clusters. We find no evidence for a population of blue horizontal branch stars in the CMD of M33-C38, which rules out the possibility of an artificially young spectroscopic age due to the presence of hot stars. We infer a total mass of 5-9 x 10^4 M_sol for M33-C38, which implies that M33-C38 has survived ~2-3 times longer than some dynamical evolution model predictions for star clusters in M33, although it is not yet clear to which dynamical component of M33 - thin disk, thick disk, halo - the cluster is ...

  20. Effects of the dissolution of low-concentration globular clusters on the evolution of globular cluster systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vesperini, E

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the role of dissolution of low-concentration clusters due to mass loss through stellar evolution on the evolution of the properties of globular cluster systems (GCSs) in elliptical galaxies. Our simulations show that, for an initial mass-concentration relationship based on that inferred from Galactic globular clusters, dissolution of low-concentration clusters leads to the disruption of a large number of clusters. A power-law initial globular cluster system mass function (GCMF) similar to that observed in young cluster systems in merging galaxies is transformed by this dissolution into a bell-shaped GCMF with a mean mass similar to that of old GCSs for all the galaxies investigated. Two-body relaxation and dynamical friction, which are also included in our simulations, subsequently lead to an additional significant evolution and disruption of the population of clusters. As shown previously, when these processes act on a bell-shaped GCMF with a mean mass similar to that of old GCS, they do not s...

  1. Forming Globular Cluster Systems in a Semi-analytic Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Beasley, Michael A.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Sharples, Ray M.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2002-01-01

    We apply the semi-analytical galaxy formation code of Cole et al. to investigate the formation of globular cluster (GC) systems in hierarchical clustering scenarios. The nature of the model allows us to investigate the properties of GC systems and their parent galaxies within a cosmological framework, over a wide dynamic range of mass and time resolution. Assuming GCs form during mergers of gaseous systems, the metal-rich peak of the classical 'bimodal' metallicity distribution of GCs natural...

  2. In search of massive single-population Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Caloi, V

    2011-01-01

    Most Globular Clusters so far examined host (at least) two stellar populations. This feature requires a two--step process, in which the nuclearly processed matter from a first generation (FG) of stars gives birth to a second generation (SG) bearing the fingerprint of a fully CNO-cycled matter. Since the present population of most globular clusters is made up largely of SG stars, a substantial fraction of the FG (>~90%) must be lost. Nevertheless, two types of clusters dominated by a simple stellar population (FG clusters) should exist: either clusters initially too small to be able to retain a cooling flow and form a SG (FG-only clusters), or massive clusters that could retain the CNO processed ejecta and form a SG, but were unable to lose a significant fraction of their FG (mainly-FG clusters). We attempt a classification of FG clusters, based on the morphology of their horizontal branches (HBs), as displayed in photomectric catalogues for 106 clusters. FG candidates are the clusters in which the HB can be r...

  3. A Survey for Planetary Nebulae in M31 Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jacoby, George H; De Marco, Orsola; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Herrmann, Kimberly A; Hwang, Ho Seong; Kaplan, Evan; Davies, James E

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of an [O III] 5007 spectroscopic survey for planetary nebulae (PNe) located within the star clusters of M31. By examining R ~ 5000 spectra taken with the WIYN+Hydra spectrograph, we identify 3 PN candidates in a sample of 274 likely globular clusters, 2 candidates in objects which may be globular clusters, and 5 candidates in a set of 85 younger systems. The possible PNe are all faint, between ~2.5 and ~6.8 mag down the PN luminosity function, and, partly as a consequence of our selection criteria, have high excitation, with [O III] 5007 to H-beta ratios ranging from 2 to ~12. We discuss the individual candidates, their likelihood of cluster membership, and the possibility that they were formed via binary interactions within the clusters. Our data are consistent with the suggestion that PN formation within globular clusters correlates with binary encounter frequency, though, due to the small numbers and large uncertainties in the candidate list, this study does not provide sufficient evi...

  4. The Relation Between the Globular Cluster Mass and Luminosity Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijssen, J M Diederik

    2009-01-01

    The relation between the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF, dN/dlogL) and globular cluster mass function (GCMF, dN/dlogM) is considered. Due to low-mass star depletion, dissolving GCs have mass-to-light (M/L) ratios that are lower than expected from their metallicities. This has been shown to lead to an M/L ratio that increases with GC mass and luminosity. We model the GCLF and GCMF and show that the power law slopes inherently differ (1.0 versus 0.7, respectively) when accounting for the variability of M/L. The observed GCLF is found to be consistent with a Schechter-type initial cluster mass function and a mass-dependent mass-loss rate.

  5. The Detailed Chemical Abundance Patterns of M31 Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Colucci, J E; Cohen, J

    2012-01-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances for $>$20 elements in $\\sim$30 globular clusters in M31. These results have been obtained using high resolution ($\\lambda/\\Delta\\lambda\\sim$24,000) spectra of their integrated light and analyzed using our original method. The globular clusters have galactocentric radii between 2.5 kpc and 117 kpc, and therefore provide abundance patterns for different phases of galaxy formation recorded in the inner and outer halo of M31. We find that the clusters in our survey have a range in metallicity of $-2.2$20 kpc have a small range in abundance of [Fe/H]$=-1.6 \\pm 0.10$. We also measure abundances of alpha, r- and s-process elements. These results constitute the first abundance pattern constraints for old populations in M31 that are comparable to those known for the Milky Way halo.

  6. Core-hydrogen-burning RSGs in the early globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szécsi, Dorottya; Mackey, Jonathan; Langer, Norbert

    The first stellar generation in galactic globular clusters contained massive low-metallicity stars (Charbonnel et al. 2014). We modelled the evolution of this massive stellar population and found that such stars with masses 100-600 M⊙ evolve into cool RSGs (Szécsi et al. 2015). These RSGs spend not only the core-He-burning phase but even the last few 105 years of the core-H-burning phase on the SG branch. Due to the presence of hot massive stars in the cluster at the same time, we show that the RSG wind is trapped into photoionization confined shells (Mackey et al. 2014). We simulated the shell formation around such RSGs and find them to become gravitationally unstable (Szécsi et al. 2016). We propose a scenario in which these shells are responsible for the formation of the second generation low-mass stars in globular clusters with anomalous surface abundances.

  7. Eccentric double white dwarfs as LISA sources in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Willems, B; Vecchio, A; Ivanova, N; Rasio, F A; Fregeau, J M; Belczynski, K

    2007-01-01

    We consider the formation of double white dwarfs (DWDs) through dynamical interactions in globular clusters. Such interactions can readily give rise to eccentric DWDs, in contrast to the exclusively circular population that is expected to form in the Galactic disk. We show that for a 5-year Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission and distances as far as the Large Magellanic Cloud, multiple harmonics from eccentric DWDs can be detected at a signal-to-noise ratio higher than 8 for at least a handful of eccentric DWDs, given their formation rate and typical merger lifetimes estimated from current cluster simulations. Consequently the association of eccentricity with stellar-mass LISA sources does not uniquely involve neutron stars, as is usually assumed. Due to the difficulty of detecting these systems with present and planned electromagnetic observatories, LISA could provide unique dynamical identifications of eccentric DWDs in globular clusters.

  8. Globular Clusters and the Mira Period-Luminosity Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Feast, M W; Menzies, J; Feast, Michael; Whitelock, Patricia; Menzies, John

    2002-01-01

    A globular cluster distance scale based on Hipparcos parallaxes of subdwarfs has been used to derive estimates of M_K for cluster Miras, including one in the SMC globular cluster NGC121. These lead to a zero-point of the Mira infrared period-luminosity relation, PL(K), in good agreement with that derived from Hipparcos parallaxes of nearby field Miras. The mean of these two estimates together with data on LMC Miras yields an LMC distance modulus of 18.60 +/- 0.10 in evident agreement with a metallicity corrected Cepheid modulus (18.59 +/- 0.10). The use of luminous AGB stars as extragalactic population indicators is also discussed.

  9. The Assembly History of Globular Cluster Star Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Carlberg, Raymond G

    2016-01-01

    The early accretion onto the Milky Way of satellite galaxies containing dense star clusters is a likely source of the halo globular clusters and the beginning of their associated stellar streams. The process of infall of a satellite with dynamical friction and subsequent merging is simulated with a simple evolving potential model. King model clusters are initiated within the satellite galaxy on circular orbits in a disk. Merging places the clusters on new orbits that substantially underfill their tidal radii, requiring that some internal relaxation of the clusters must be included to cause them to expand to their new tidal surface and start or continue to produce star streams. A toy model with a simplified Monte Carlo relaxation procedure gives the clusters star particles random velocity kicks at approximately the rate expected from collisional dynamics. The clusters expand and lose stars to evaporation leading to tidal streams that have local properties, including sub-halo gaps, as expected in a static halo....

  10. Kinematics of the Globular Cluster System of the Sombrero Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windschitl, Jessica L.; Rhode, K. L.; Bridges, T. J.; Zepf, S. E.; Gebhardt, K.; Freeman, K. C.

    2013-06-01

    Using spectra from the Hydra spectrograph on the 3.5m WIYN telescope and from the AAOmega spectrograph on the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope, we have measured heliocentric radial velocities for >50 globular clusters in the Sombrero Galaxy (M104). We combine these new measurements with those from previous studies to construct and analyze a total sample of >360 globular cluster velocities in M104. We use the line-of-sight velocity dispersion to determine the mass and mass-to-light ratio profiles for the galaxy using a spherical, isotropic Jeans mass model. In addition to the increased sample size, our data provide a significant expansion in radial coverage compared to previous spectroscopic studies. This allows us to reliably compute the mass profile of M104 out to ~43 kpc, nearly 14 kpc farther into the halo than previous work. We find that the mass-to-light ratio profile increases from the center to a value of ~20 at 43 kpc. We also look for the presence of rotation in the globular cluster system as a whole and within the red and blue subpopulations. Despite the large number of clusters and better radial sampling, we do not find strong evidence of rotation.

  11. Globular cluster ages and the formation of the galactic halo

    CERN Document Server

    Chaboyer, B; Sarajedini, A; Chaboyer, Brian; Sarajedini, Ata

    1995-01-01

    Main sequence turnoff magnitudes from the recent set of Yale isochrones (Chaboyer \\ea 1995) have been combined with a variety of relations for the absolute magnitude of RR Lyr stars (\\mvrr) to calibrate age as a function of the difference in magnitude between the main sequence turn-off and the horizontal branch (\\dv). A best estimate for the calibration of \\mvrr is derived from a survey of the current literature: \\mvrr = 0.20 \\feh + 0.98. This estimate, together with other calibrations (with slopes ranging from 0.15 to 0.30) has been used to derive \\dv ages for 43 Galactic globular clusters. Independent of the choice of \\mvrr, there is no strong evidence for an age-Galacto\\-centric distance relationship among the 43 globular clusters. However, an age-metallicity relation exists, with the metal-poor clusters being the oldest. A study of the age distribution reveals that an age range of 5 Gyr exists among the bulk of the globular clusters. In addition, about 10\\% of the sample are substantially younger, and inc...

  12. Heavy elements and chemical enrichment in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    James, G; Bonifacio, P; Carretta, E; Gratton, R G; Spite, F

    2004-01-01

    High resolution (R > 40 000) and high S/N spectra have been acquired with UVES on the VLT-Kueyen (Paranal Observatory, ESO Chile) for several main sequence turnoff stars (V ~ 17 mag) and subgiants at the base of the Red Giant Branch (V ~ 16 mag) in three globular clusters (NGC 6397, NGC 6752 and 47 Tuc/NGC 104) at different metallicities (respectively [Fe/H] = -2.0; -1.5; -0.7$). Spectra for a sample of 25 field halo subdwarves have also been taken with equal resolution, but higher S/N. These data have been used to determine the abundances of several neutron-capture elements in these three clusters: strontium, yttrium, barium and europium. This is the first abundance determination of these heavy elements for such unevolved stars in these three globular clusters. These values, together with the [Ba/Eu] and [Sr/Ba] abundance ratios, have been used to test the self-enrichment scenario. A comparison is done with field halo stars and other well known Galactic globular clusters in which heavy elements have already ...

  13. Radio sources near the core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, D

    1999-01-01

    We present ATCA radio images of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae made at 1.4and 1.7 GHz and provide an analysis of the radio sources detected within 5arcmin of the cluster centre. 11 sources are detected, most of which areclustered about the core of 47 Tuc. Both of the pulsars in 47 Tuc whosepositions are known can be identified with sources in the 1.4 GHz image. Thesource distribution has a characteristic radius of ~100 arcsec, larger than the23 arcsec radius of the cluster core. We compare source positions with thepositions of nine X-ray sources and find no correspondence.

  14. Dynamics of the Globular Cluster NGC 665 with WFPC2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ding; CHEN Li; WANG Jia-Ji

    2004-01-01

    @@ We have used the Hubble Space Telescope observations to measure proper motion of the globular cluster NGC6656 (M22) with respect to the background bulge stars and its internal velocity dispersion profile. Based on the proper motion of the cluster, its space velocity (II, (-) , W) = (184 ± 3, 209 ±14, 132 ± 15) km s- 1 and galactic orbit are also obtained. The central velocity dispersion in radial and tangential components of the internal motion of cluster stars is 16.99 km s-1. We derive the mass-to-light ratio M/ LV ~ 3.3 ± 0.2, which is relatively higher than the previous results.

  15. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Photometry of the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Richer, Harvey B.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Bolte, Michael; Bond, Howard E.; Hesser, James E.; Pryor, Carlton; Stetson, Peter B.

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the acquisition and processing of a large body of imaging data for three fields in the globular cluster M4 taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Analysis with the ALLFRAME package yielded the deepest photometry yet obtained for this cluster. The resulting data set for 4708 stars (positions and calibrated photometry in V, I, and, in two fields, U) spanning approximately six cluster core radii is presented. The scientific analysis is deferred to three companion papers, which investigate the significant white dwarf population discovered and the main-sequence population.

  16. The Evolution of the Globular Cluster System in a Triaxial Galaxy Can a Galactic Nucleus Form by Globular Cluster Capture?

    CERN Document Server

    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R

    1993-01-01

    Dynamical friction due to field stars and tidal disruption caused by a central nucleus are crucial in determining the evolution of the globular cluster system in an elliptical galaxy. In this paper I examine the possibility that some of galactic nuclei have been formed by frictionally decayied globular clusters moving in a triaxial potential. The initial rapid growth of the nucleus, due mainly to massive clusters on box orbits falling in a short time scale into the galactic centre, is found to be later slowed by tidal disruption induced by the nucleus itself on less massive clusters in the way described by Ostriker, Binney & Saha. The efficiency of dynamical friction is such to carry to the centre of the galaxy enough globular cluster mass available to form a compact nucleus, but the actual modes of its collisionless formation remains to be investigated. The mass of the resulting nucleus is determined by the mutual feedback of the two mentioned processes, together with the knowlegde of the initial spatial...

  17. In search of massive single-population globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloi, Vittoria; D'Antona, Francesca

    2011-10-01

    The vast majority of globular clusters so far examined shows the chemical signatures of hosting (at least) two stellar populations. According to recent ideas, this feature requires a two-step process, in which the nuclearly processed matter from a 'first generation' (FG) of stars gives birth to a 'second generation' (SG), bearing the fingerprint of a fully carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycled matter. Since, as observed, the present population of most globular clusters is made up largely of SG stars, a substantial fraction of the FG (≳90 per cent) must be lost. Nevertheless, two types of clusters dominated by a simple stellar population (FG clusters) should exist: clusters initially too small to be able to retain a cooling flow and form a second generation (FG-only clusters) and massive clusters that could retain the CNO-processed ejecta and form an SG, but were unable to lose a significant fraction of their FG (mainly-FG clusters). Identification of mainly-FG clusters may provide an estimate of the fraction of the initial mass involved in the formation of the SG. We attempt a first classification of FG clusters, based on the morphology of their horizontal branches (HBs), as displayed in the published catalogues of photometric data for 106 clusters. We select, as FG candidates, the clusters in which the HB can be reproduced by the evolution of an almost unique mass. We find that less than 20 per cent of clusters with [Fe/H] base the spectroscopic result that the SG is a dominant constituent of today's clusters, suggesting that its formation is an ingredient necessary for the survival of globular clusters during their dynamical evolution in the Galactic tidal field. In more detail we show that Pal 3 turns out to be a good example of FG-only cluster. Instead, HB simulations and space distribution of its components indicate that M53 is a 'mainly-FG' cluster that evolved in dynamic isolation and developed a small SG in its core thanks to its large mass. Mainly

  18. Massive binary stars and self-enrichment of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzard, R. G.; de Mink, S. E.; Pols, O. R.; Langer, N.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.

    ~Globular clusters contain many stars with surface abundance patterns indicating contributions from hydrogen burning products, as seen in the anti-correlated elemental abundances of e.g. sodium and oxygen, and magnesium and aluminium. Multiple generations of stars can explain this phenomenon, with the second generation forming from a mixture of pristine gas and ejecta from the first generation. We show that massive binary stars may be a source of much of the material that makes this second generation of stars. Mass transfer in binaries is often non-conservative and the ejected matter moves slowly enough that it can remain inside a globular cluster and remain available for subsequent star formation. Recent studies show that there are more short-period massive binaries than previously thought, hence also more stars that interact and eject nuclear-processed material.

  19. Massive Binary Stars and Self-Enrichment of Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Izzard, Robert G; Pols, Onno R; Langer, Norbert; Sana, Hugues; de Koter, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Globular clusters contain many stars with surface abundance patterns indicating contributions from hydrogen burning products, as seen in the anti-correlated elemental abundances of e.g. sodium and oxygen, and magnesium and aluminium. Multiple generations of stars can explain this phenomenon, with the second generation forming from a mixture of pristine gas and ejecta from the first generation. We show that massive binary stars may be a source of much of the material that makes this second generation of stars. Mass transfer in binaries is often non-conservative and the ejected matter moves slowly enough that it can remain inside a globular cluster and remain available for subsequent star formation. Recent studies show that there are more short-period massive binaries than previously thought, hence also more stars that interact and eject nuclear-processed material.

  20. Chemical abundances of blue straggler stars in Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lovisi, L

    2014-01-01

    By using the high resolution spectrograph FLAMES@VLT we performed the first systematic campaign devoted to measure chemical abundances of blue straggler stars (BSSs). These stars, whose existence is not predicted by the canonical stellar evolutionary theory, are likely the product of the interactions between stars in the dense environment of Globular Clusters. Two main scenarios for BSS formation (mass transfer in binary systems and stellar collisions) have been proposed and hydrodynamical simulations predict different chemical patterns in the two cases, in particular C and O depletion for mass transfer BSSs. In this contribution, the main results for BSS samples in 6 Globular Clusters and their interpretation in terms of BSS formation processes are discussed. For the first time, evidence of radiative levitation in the shallow envelopes of BSSs hotter than $\\sim$8000 K has been found. C and O depletion for some BSSs has been detected in 47 Tucanae, M30 and $\\omega$ Centauri thus suggesting a mass transfer ori...

  1. Fast rotating Blue Stragglers in the globular cluster M4

    CERN Document Server

    Lovisi, L; Ferraro, F R; Lucatello, S; Lanzoni, B; Dalessandro, E; Beccari, G; Rood, R T; Sills, A; Pecci, F Fusi; Gratton, R; Piotto, G

    2010-01-01

    We have used high resolution spectra obtained with the spectrograph FLAMES at the ESO Very Large Telescope to determine the kinematical properties and the abundance patterns of 20 blue straggler stars (BSSs) in the globular cluster M4. We found that ~ 40% of the measured BSSs are fast rotators (with rotational velocities > 50 km/s). This is the largest frequency of rapidly rotating BSSs ever detected in a globular cluster. In addition, at odds with what has been found in 47 Tucanae, no evidence of carbon and/or oxygen depletion has been revealed in the sample of 11 BSSs for which we were able to measure the abundances. This could be due either to low statistics, or to a different BSS formation process acting in M4.

  2. Core Hydrogen Burning Red Supergiants in the Young Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, Dorottya; Mackey, Jonathan; Langer, Norbert

    2015-08-01

    The first stellar generation in galactic globular clusters contained massive low metallicity stars. We modelled the evolution of this massive stellar population and found that such stars with masses 100-600 Msun evolve into red supergiants. These red supergiants are particularly interesting because they spend not only the helium burning phase but even the last few hundres tousands of years of the core hydrogen burning phase on the RSG branch. Due to the presence of hot massive stars at the same time, we show that the RSG wind is trapped into photoionization confined shells. We simulate the shell formation around such red supergiants and find them to become gravitationally unstable. We propose a scenario in which these shells are responsible for the formation of the second generation low mass stars in globular clusters with anomalous surface abundances.

  3. Catalogue of variable stars in Milky Way globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Christine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globular cluster variable stars have been studied for more than a century. In the early investigations, more than 90% of the known variables were of the RR Lyrae type. However, in the interim, technological advances have facilitated the discovery of other types of variables. As a result, although RR Lyrae stars still dominate, they now constitute less than 70% of the known variables.

  4. Evolution of redback radio pulsars in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Context. We study the evolution of close binary systems composed of a normal, intermediate mass star and a neutron star considering a chemical composition typical of that present in globular clusters (Z = 0.001). Aims: We look for similarities and differences with respect to solar composition donor stars, which we have extensively studied in the past. As a definite example, we perform an application on one of the redbacks located in a globular cluster. Methods: We performed a detailed grid of models in order to find systems that represent the so-called redback binary radio pulsar systems with donor star masses between 0.6 and 2.0 solar masses and orbital periods in the range 0.2-0.9 d. Results: We find that the evolution of these binary systems is rather similar to those corresponding to solar composition objects, allowing us to account for the occurrence of redbacks in globular clusters, as the main physical ingredient is the irradiation feedback. Redback systems are in the quasi-RLOF state, that is, almost filling their corresponding Roche lobe. During the irradiation cycle the system alternates between semi-detached and detached states. While detached the system appears as a binary millisecond pulsar, called a redback. Circumstellar material, as seen in redbacks, is left behind after the previous semi-detached phase. Conclusions: The evolution of binary radio pulsar systems considering irradiation successfully accounts for, and provides a way for, the occurrence of redback pulsars in low-metallicity environments such as globular clusters. This is the case despite possible effects of the low metal content of the donor star that could drive systems away from redback configuration.

  5. The first Δa observations of three globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunzen, E.; Iliev, I. Kh.; Pintado, O. I.; Baum, H.; Maitzen, H. M.; Netopil, M.; Önehag, A.; Zejda, M.; Fraga, L.

    2014-09-01

    Globular clusters are main astrophysical laboratories to test and modify evolutionary models. Thought to be rather homogeneous in their local elemental distribution of members, results suggest a wide variety of chemical peculiarities. Besides different main sequences, believed to be caused by different helium abundances, peculiarities of blue horizontal-branch stars and on the red giant branch were found. This whole zoo of peculiar objects has to be explained in the context of stellar formation and evolution. The tool of Δa photometry is employed in order to detect peculiar stars in the whole spectral range. This three filter narrow-band system measures the flux distribution in the region from 4900 to 5600 Å in order to find any peculiarities around 5200 Å. It is highly efficient to detect classical chemically peculiar stars of the upper main sequence, Be/Ae, shell and metal-weak objects in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds. We present Δa photometry of 2266 stars from 109 individual frames for three globular clusters (NGC 104, NGC 6205, and NGC 7099). A comparison with published abundances, for three horizontal-branch stars, only, yields an excellent agreement. According to the 3σ detection limit of each globular cluster, about 3 per cent of the stars lie in abnormal regions in the diagnostic diagrams. The first observations of three widely different aggregates give very promising results, which will serve as a solid basis for follow-up observations including photometric as well as spectroscopic studies.

  6. CNO enrichment by rotating AGB stars in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Decressin, T; Siess, L; Palacios, A; Meynet, G; Georgy, C

    2009-01-01

    AGB stars have long been held responsible for the important star-to-star variations in light elements observed in Galactic globular clusters. We analyse the main impacts of a first generation of rotating intermediate-mass stars on the chemical properties of second-generation globular cluster stars. The rotating models were computed without magnetic fields and without the effects of internal gravity waves. They account for the transports by meridional currents and turbulence. We computed the evolution of both standard and rotating stellar models with initial masses between 2.5 and 8 Msun within the metallicity range covered by Galactic globular clusters. During central He-burning, rotational mixing transports fresh CO-rich material from the core towards the hydrogen-burning shell, leading to the production of primary 14N. In stars more massive than M > 4 Msun, the convective envelope reaches this reservoir during the second dredge-up episode, resulting in a large increase in the total C+N+O content at the stel...

  7. Primordial Globular Clusters, X-Ray Binaries & Cosmological Reionisation

    CERN Document Server

    Power, C; Combet, C; Wilkinson, M I

    2009-01-01

    Globular clusters are dense stellar systems that have typical ages of ~13 billion years, implying that they formed at redshifts of z>~6. Massive stars in newly formed or primordial globular clusters could have played an important role during the epoch of cosmological reionisation (z>~6) as sources of energetic, neutral hydrogen ionising UV photons. We investigate whether or not these stars could have been as important in death as sources of energetic X-ray photons as they were during their main sequence lives. Most massive stars are expected to form in binaries, and an appreciable fraction of these (as much as ~30%) will evolve into X-ray luminous (L_X~10^38 erg/s) high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). These sources would have made a contribution to the X-ray background at z>~6. Using Monte Carlo models of a globular cluster, we estimate the total X-ray luminosity of a population of HMXBs. We compare and contrast this with the total UV luminosity of the massive stars during their main sequence lives. For reasonab...

  8. An updated survey of globular clusters in M31. II Newly discovered bright and remote clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Galleti, S; Federici, L; Buzzoni, A; Pecci, F Fusi

    2007-01-01

    We present the first results of a large spectroscopic survey of candidate globular clusters located in the extreme outskirts of the nearby M31 galaxy. We obtained low resolution spectra of 48 targets selected from the XSC of 2MASS, as in Galleti et al. (2005). The observed candidates have been robustly classified according to their radial velocity and by verifying their extended/point-source nature from ground-based optical images. Among the 48 observed candidates clusters we found 5 genuine remote globular clusters. One of them has been already identified independently by Mackey et al. (2007), their GC1; the other four are completely new discoveries: B516, B517, B518, B519. The newly discovered clusters lie at projected distance 40 kpc 40 kpc. At odds with the Milky Way, M31 appears to have a significant population of very bright globular clusters in its extreme outskirts.

  9. Variable stars in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6401

    CERN Document Server

    Tsapras, Y; Bramich, D M; Jaimes, R Figuera; Kains, N; Street, R; Hundertmark, M; Horne, K; Dominik, M; Snodgrass, C

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of variable stars in globular cluster NGC 6401. The cluster is only $5.3\\degr$ away from the Galactic centre and suffers from strong differential reddening. The photometric precision afforded us by difference image analysis resulted in improved sensitivity to variability in formerly inaccessible interior regions of the cluster. We find 23 RRab and 11 RRc stars within one cluster radius (2.4$\\arcmin$), for which we provide coordinates, finder-charts and time-series photometry. Through Fourier decomposition of the RR Lyrae star light curves we derive a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]$_{\\mathrm{UVES}} = -1.13 \\pm 0.06$ (${\\rm [Fe/H]}_{\\mathrm{ZW}} = -1.25 \\pm 0.06$), and a distance of $d\\approx 6.35 \\pm 0.81$ kpc. Using the RR Lyrae population, we also determine that NGC 6401 is an Oosterhoff type I cluster.

  10. The Colors of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy Globular Cluster Systems, Nuclei and Stellar Halos

    OpenAIRE

    Lotz, Jennifer M.; Miller, Bryan W.; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 F555W and F814W survey of 69 dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters and Leo Group. The $V-I$ colors of the dE globular clusters, nuclei, and underlying field star populations are used to trace the dE star-formation histories. We find that the dE globular cluster candidates are as blue as the metal-poor globular clusters of the Milky Way. The observed correlation of the dE globular cluster systems' $V-I$ color w...

  11. The gravitational waveforms of white dwarf collisions in globular clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loren-Aguilar, P; Garcia-Berro, E [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Politecnica Superior de Castelldefels, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. del Canal OlImpic, s/n, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Lobo, J A; Isern, J, E-mail: loren@fa.upc.ed [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    In the dense central regions of globular clusters close encounters of two white dwarfs are relatively frequent. The estimated frequency is one or more strong encounters per star in the lifetime of the cluster. Such encounters should be then potential sources of gravitational wave radiation. Thus, it is foreseeable that these collisions could be either individually detected by LISA or they could contribute significantly to the background noise of the detector. We compute the pattern of gravitational wave emission from these encounters for a sufficiently broad range of system parameters, namely the masses, the relative velocities and the distances of the two white dwarfs involved in the encounter.

  12. The Mass-to-Light Ratios of Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijssen, J M Diederik

    2009-01-01

    The observed mass-to-light (M/L) ratios of globular clusters (GCs) are on average ~20% lower than expected from Simple Stellar Population (SSP) models, which only account for the effects of stellar evolution. We study the M/L ratio evolution of a sample of 24 Galactic GCs using parameterised cluster models. The dynamical evolution of GCs is included by accounting for their dissolution and by using a detailed description of the evolution of the stellar mass function. The ejection of low-mass stars leads to a decrease of M/L, which is found to explain the discrepancy between the observations and SSP models.

  13. Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 4590 (M68

    CERN Document Server

    Sariya, Devesh Path; Yadav, R K S

    2013-01-01

    We present results of time series photometry to search for variable stars in the field of metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4590 (M68). Periods have been revised for 40 known variables and no significant changes were found. A considerable change in Blazhko effect for V25 has been detected. Among nine newly discovered variable candidates, 5 stars are of RRc Bailey type variables while 4 stars are unclassified. The variable stars V10, V21, V50 and V51 are found to be cluster members based on the radial velocity data taken from literature.

  14. Variable stars in the globular cluster NGC 4590 (M68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariya, Devesh P.; Lata, Sneh; Yadav, R. K. S.

    2014-02-01

    We present results of time series photometry to search for variable stars in the field of metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4590 (M68). Periods have been revised for 40 known variables and no significant changes were found. A considerable change in Blazhko effect for V25 has been detected. Among nine newly discovered variable candidates, 5 stars are of RRc Bailey type variables while 4 stars are unclassified. The variable stars V10, V21, V50 and V51 are found to be cluster members based on the radial velocity data taken from literature.

  15. Star Formation and Chemical Enrichment for Globular Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林清; 束成钢; 常瑞香; 赵君亮

    2001-01-01

    A model considering gas outflows due to supernova explosions is developed for the star formation and chemical enrichment for the globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way galaxy. Through Monte Carlo simulations, the observed global properties of GCs can be well reproduced, including the metallicity distribution, no-correlation between cluster masses and galactocentric distances, etc. The predicted mass function of the parent clouds for the observed GCs at present day can be well described as a power law with the index of-1.8, which is consistent with the current observations for the molecular clouds.

  16. New Constraints on a complex relation between globular cluster colors and environment

    CERN Document Server

    Powalka, Mathieu; Lançon, Ariane; Peng, Eric W; Schönebeck, Frederik; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Ángel, Simón; Blakeslee, John P; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Grebel, Eva K; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gwyn, S D J; Kuntschner, Harald; Lim, Sungsoon; Liu, Chengze; Lyubenova, Mariya; Mihos, J Christopher; Muñoz, Roberto P; Ordenes-Briceño, Yasna; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Spengler, Chelsea; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hongxin

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of high-quality photometry for globular clusters (GCs) in the Virgo cluster core region, based on data from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) pilot field, and in the Milky Way (MW) based on VLT/X-Shooter spectrophotometry. We find significant discrepancies in color-color diagrams between sub-samples from different environments, confirming that the environment has a strong influence on the integrated colors of GCs. GC color distributions along a single color are not sufficient to capture the differences we observe in color-color space. While the average photometric colors become bluer with increasing radial distance to the cD galaxy M87, we also find a relation between the environment and the slope and intercept of the color-color relations. A denser environment seems to produce a larger dynamic range in certain color indices. We argue that these results are not due solely to differential extinction, IMF variations, calibration uncertainties, or overall age/metallicity vari...

  17. Globular Clusters: DNA of Early-Type galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, J C; Faifer, F R; Castelli, A V Smith; Escudero, Carlos; González, N M; Sesto, L A

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores if the mean properties of Early-Type Galaxies (ETG) can be reconstructed from "genetic" information stored in their GCs (i.e., in their chemical abundances, spatial distributions and ages). This approach implies that the formation of each globular occurs in very massive stellar environments, as suggested by some models that aim at explaining the presence of multi-populations in these systems. The assumption that the relative number of globular clusters to diffuse stellar mass depends exponentially on chemical abundance, [Z/H], and the presence of two dominant GC sub-populations blue and red, allows the mapping of low metallicity halos and of higher metallicity (and more heterogeneous) bulges. In particular, the masses of the low-metallicity halos seem to scale up with dark matter mass through a constant. We also find a dependence of the globular cluster formation efficiency with the mean projected stellar mass density of the galaxies within their effective radii. The analysis is based on a...

  18. A spectroscopic study of the Globular Cluster NGC 4147

    CERN Document Server

    Villanova, Sandro; Bidin, Cristian Moni; Assmann, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    We present the abundance analysis for a sample of 18 red giant branch stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4147 based on medium and high resolution spectra. This is the first extensive spectroscopic study of this cluster. We derive abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y, Ba, and Eu. We find a metallicity of [Fe/H]=-1.84+-0.02 and an alpha-enhancement of +0.38+-0.05 (errors on the mean), typical of halo globular clusters in this metallicity regime. A significant spread is observed in the abundances of light elements C, N, O, Na, and Al. In particular we found a Na-O anti-correlation and Na-Al correlation. The cluster contains only 15% of stars that belong to the first generation (Na-poor and O-rich). This implies that it suffered a severe mass loss during its lifetime. Its [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] mean values agree better with the Galactic Halo trend than with the trend of extragalactic environments at the cluster metallicity. This possibly suggests that NGC 4147 is a genuine Galactic ...

  19. An AO-assisted Variability Study of Four Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, R.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Strader, J.; Hakala, P.; Catelan, M.; Peacock, M. B.; Simunovic, M.

    2016-09-01

    The image-subtraction technique applied to study variable stars in globular clusters represented a leap in the number of new detections, with the drawback that many of these new light curves could not be transformed to magnitudes due to severe crowding. In this paper, we present observations of four Galactic globular clusters, M 2 (NGC 7089), M 10 (NGC 6254), M 80 (NGC 6093), and NGC 1261, taken with the ground-layer adaptive optics module at the SOAR Telescope, SAM. We show that the higher image quality provided by SAM allows for the calibration of the light curves of the great majority of the variables near the cores of these clusters as well as the detection of new variables, even in clusters where image-subtraction searches were already conducted. We report the discovery of 15 new variables in M 2 (12 RR Lyrae stars and 3 SX Phe stars), 12 new variables in M 10 (11 SX Phe and 1 long-period variable), and 1 new W UMa-type variable in NGC 1261. No new detections are found in M 80, but previous uncertain detections are confirmed and the corresponding light curves are calibrated into magnitudes. Additionally, based on the number of detected variables and new Hubble Space Telescope/UVIS photometry, we revisit a previous suggestion that M 80 may be the globular cluster with the richest population of blue stragglers in our Galaxy. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  20. Structural Parameters for 10 Halo Globular Clusters in M33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present the properties of 10 halo globular clusters (GCs) with luminosities L ≃ 5-7 × 105 L⊙ in the Local Group galaxy M33 using images from the Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 in the F555W and F814W bands. We obtained the ellipticities, position angles, and surface brightness profiles for each GC. In general, the ellipticities of the M33 sample clusters are similar to those of the M31 clusters. The structural and dynamical parameters are derived by fitting the profiles to three different models combined with mass-to-light ratios (M/L values) from population-synthesis models. The structural parameters include core radii, concentration, half-light radii, and central surface brightness. The dynamical parameters include the integrated cluster mass, integrated binding energy, central surface mass density, and predicted line of sight velocity dispersion at the cluster center. The velocity dispersions of the four clusters predicted here agree well with the observed dispersions by Larsen et al. The results here showed that the majority of the sample halo GCs are better fitted by both the King model and the Wilson model than the Sérsic model. In general, the properties of the clusters in M33, M31, and the Milky Way fall in the same regions of parameter spaces. The tight correlations of cluster properties indicate a “fundamental plane” for clusters, which reflects some universal physical conditions and processes operating at the epoch of cluster formation.

  1. The Composition of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.; Rich, R. M.; Caldwell, N.; Mateo, M.; Bailey, J. I.; Crane, J. D.

    2017-03-01

    Observations of red giants in the Bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) mounted on the Nasmuth-East port of the Magellan-Clay 6.5-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory reveal a spread in metallicity. Members have been confirmed with radial velocity. NGC 6273 has at least two populations separated by 0.2-0.3 dex in [Fe/H]. The sodium and aluminum abundances are correlated while the magnesium and aluminum abundances are anti-correlated. The cluster also shows a rise in the abundance of the s-process element lanthanum with [Fe/H] similar to other massive clusters. The cluster contains a possible third population depleted in most elements by 0.3 dex.

  2. X-ray Binaries in Early Type Galaxies and the Globular Cluster Connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maccarone, T.J.; Kundu, A.; Zepf, S.E.; Puzia, T.H.; Tovmassian, G.; Sion, E.

    2004-01-01

    We summarize the key observations made in recent observations of X-ray sources in early-type galaxies. Typically about half of the X-ray binaries in early-type galaxies are in globular clusters, they are preferentially found in metal rich globular clusters, and there is no indication that cluster

  3. An AO-assisted variability study of four globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Salinas, R; Strader, J; Hakala, P; Catelan, M; Peacock, M; Simunovic, M

    2016-01-01

    The image subtraction technique applied to study variable stars in globular clusters represented a leap in the number of new detections, with the drawback that many of these new light curves could not be transformed to magnitudes due to the severe crowding. In this paper we present observations of four Galactic globular clusters, M 2 (NGC 7089), M 10 (NGC 6254), M 80 (NGC 6093) and NGC 1261, taken with the ground-layer adaptive optics module at the SOAR Telescope, SAM. We show that the higher image quality provided by SAM allows the calibration of the light curves of the great majority of the variables near the cores of these clusters as well as the detection of new variables even in clusters where image-subtraction searches were already conducted. We report the discovery of 15 new variables in M 2 (12 RR Lyrae stars and 3 SX Phe stars), 12 new variables in M 10 (11 SX Phe and one long-period variable) and one new W UMa-type variable in NGC 1261. No new detections are found in M 80, but previous uncertain det...

  4. X-ray Counterparts of Millisecond Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, W; Prinz, T

    2010-01-01

    We have systematically studied the X-ray emission properties of globular cluster millisecond pulsars in order to evaluate their spectral properties and luminosities in a uniform way. Cross-correlating the radio timing positions of the cluster pulsars with the high resolution Chandra images revealed 31 X-ray counterparts identified in nine different globular cluster systems, including those in 47 Tuc. Timing analysis has been performed for all sources corresponding to the temporal resolution available in the archival Chandra data. Making use of unpublished data on M28, M4 and NGC 6752 allowed us to obtain further constraints for the millisecond pulsar counterparts located in these clusters. Counting rate and energy flux upper limits were computed for those 36 pulsars for which no X-ray counterparts could be detected. Comparing the X-ray and radio pulse profiles of PSR J1821-2452 in M28 and the 47 Tuc pulsars PSR J0024-7204D,O,R indicated some correspondence between both wavebands. The X-ray efficiency of the g...

  5. White Dwarfs in Globular Clusters HST Observations of M4

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, H B; Ibata, R A; Pryor, C E; Bell, R A; Bolte, M; Bond, H E; Harris, W E; Hesser, J E; Holland, S; Ivanans, N; Mandushev, G I; Stetson, P B; Wood, M A; Richer, Harvey B.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Pryor, Carlton; Bell, Roger A.; Bolte, Michael; Bond, Howard E.; Harris, William E.; Hesser, James E.; Holland, Steve; Ivanans, Nicholas; Mandushev, Georgi; Stetson, Peter B.; Wood, Matt A.

    1997-01-01

    Using WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have isolated a sample of 258 white dwarfs (WDs) in the Galactic globular cluster M4. Fields at three radial distances from the cluster center were observed and sizeable WD populations were found in all three. The location of these WDs in the color-magnitude diagram, their mean mass of 0.51($ \\pm 0.03$)M$_{\\odot}$, and their luminosity function confirm basic tenets of stellar evolution theory and support the results from current WD cooling theory. The WDs are used to extend the cluster main-sequence mass function upward to stars that have already completed their nuclear evolution. The WD/red dwarf binary frequency in M4 is investigated and found to be at most a few percent of all the main-sequence stars. The most ancient WDs found are about 9 Gyr old, a level which is set solely by the photometric limits of our data. Even though this is less than the age of M4, we discuss how these cooling WDs can eventually be used to check the turnoff ages of globular clusters a...

  6. Analysis of Globular Cluster Photometry from 2MASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarajedini, Ata; Milliman, K.; Kirkpatrick, A.

    2007-12-01

    Using near-infrared color magnitude diagrams of over 30 Galactic globular clusters, we have measured the magnitude of the red giant branch (RGB) 'bump,' the level of the core-helium burning red clump, and the slope of the RGB. Our aim is to compare our values with those measured by other investigators for the same clusters as we all as to derive new relations between these quantities and cluster properties such as age and metallicity. We find a good correlation between our values and those in the literature albeit with significant scatter. This work will explore the reasons for this scatter and techniques to minimize its effects. This research was supported by an REU supplement to NSF CAREER grant AST00-94048.

  7. Intermediate-age globular clusters in four galaxy merger remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trancho, Gelys [Giant Magellan Telescope Organization, 251 South Lake Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Miller, Bryan W. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Schweizer, François [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Burdett, Daniel P. [The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Palamara, David, E-mail: gtrancho@gmto.org [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of combining Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry with ground-based K{sub s} -band photometry from the Gemini imagers NIRI and FLAMINGOS-I to study the globular cluster (GC) populations in four early-type galaxies that are candidate remnants of recent mergers (NGC 1700, NGC 2865, NGC 4382, and NGC 7727). These galaxies were chosen based on their blue colors and fine structure, such as shells and ripples that are indicative of past interactions. We fit the combined VIK{sub s} GC data with simple toy models of mixed cluster populations that contain three subpopulations of different age and metallicity. The fits, done via chi-squared mapping of the parameter space, yield clear evidence for the presence of intermediate-age clusters in each galaxy. We find that the ages of ∼1-2 Gyr for these GC subpopulations are consistent with the previously estimated merger ages for the host galaxies.

  8. Bimodal Galaxies and Bimodality in Globular Cluster Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, D A

    2005-01-01

    Various galaxy properties are not continuous over a large range in mass, but rather reveal a remarkable transition or `bimodality' at a stellar mass of 3 x 10^{10} Mo. These properties include colors, stellar populations, Xray emission and mass-to-light ratios. This behavior has been interpreted as the transition from hot to cold flows by Dekel & Birnboim (2005). Here we explore whether globular cluster (GC) systems also reveal a bimodal nature with regard to this critical mass scale. Globular clusters probe star formation at early epochs in the Universe and survive subsequent galaxy mergers and accretions. We use new data from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (Peng etal 2005), which provides a homogeneous sample of the GC systems around one hundred Virgo early-type galaxies covering a range of five hundred in galaxy mass. Their classification of the GC color distributions is taken to examine a key quantity -- the number of GCs per unit galaxy luminosity. Below the critical mass, this quantity (called the GC ...

  9. The formation of globular clusters through minihalo-minihalo mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Trenti, Michele; Jimenez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel scenario for the formation of Globular Clusters (GCs) based on the merger of two or more atomic cooling halos at high-redshift (z>6). The model naturally fulfills several key observational constraints on GCs that have emerged in the last decade. Specifically, absolute and relative ages, widespread presence of multiple stellar populations, spatial distribution around host galaxies, and correlations between galactocentric radius and metallicity. In our framework, the oldest globular clusters form the first generation stars as an intense burst in the center of a minihalo that grows above the threshold for hydrogen cooling (halo mass M_h~1e8 Msun) and undergoes a major merger within the cooling timescale (~150 Myr). Subsequent minor mergers and sustained gas infall bring new supply of pristine gas at the halo center, diluting AGB ejecta, and triggering additional bursts of star formation which form multiple generation of stars in the majority of the clusters. The DM halo around the GC is then s...

  10. Bayesian Analysis of Multiple Populations in Galactic Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Kaiser, Rachel A.; Sarajedini, Ata; von Hippel, Ted; Stenning, David; Piotto, Giampaolo; Milone, Antonino; van Dyk, David A.; Robinson, Elliot; Stein, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    We use GO 13297 Cycle 21 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations and archival GO 10775 Cycle 14 HST ACS Treasury observations of Galactic Globular Clusters to find and characterize multiple stellar populations. Determining how globular clusters are able to create and retain enriched material to produce several generations of stars is key to understanding how these objects formed and how they have affected the structural, kinematic, and chemical evolution of the Milky Way. We employ a sophisticated Bayesian technique with an adaptive MCMC algorithm to simultaneously fit the age, distance, absorption, and metallicity for each cluster. At the same time, we also fit unique helium values to two distinct populations of the cluster and determine the relative proportions of those populations. Our unique numerical approach allows objective and precise analysis of these complicated clusters, providing posterior distribution functions for each parameter of interest. We use these results to gain a better understanding of multiple populations in these clusters and their role in the history of the Milky Way.Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant numbers HST-GO-10775 and HST-GO-13297 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant NNX11AF34G issued through the Office of Space Science. This project was supported by the National Aeronautics & Space Administration through the University of Central Florida's NASA Florida Space Grant Consortium.

  11. A Proper Motions Study of the Globular Cluster NGC 3201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariya, Devesh P.; Jiang, Ing-Guey; Yadav, R. K. S.

    2017-03-01

    With a high value of heliocentric radial velocity, a retrograde orbit, and suspected to have an extragalactic origin, NGC 3201 is an interesting globular cluster for kinematical studies. Our purpose is to calculate the relative proper motions (PMs) and membership probability for the stars in the wide region of globular cluster NGC 3201. PM based membership probabilities are used to isolate the cluster sample from the field stars. The membership catalog will help address the question of chemical inhomogeneity in the cluster. Archive CCD data taken with a wide-field imager (WFI) mounted on the ESO 2.2 m telescope are reduced using the high-precision astrometric software developed by Anderson et al. for the WFI images. The epoch gap between the two observational runs is ∼14.3 years. To standardize the BVI photometry, Stetson’s secondary standard stars are used. The CCD data with an epoch gap of ∼14.3 years enables us to decontaminate the cluster stars from field stars efficiently. The median precision of PMs is better than ∼0.8 mas yr‑1 for stars having V< 18 mag that increases up to ∼1.5 mas yr‑1 for stars with 18< V< 20 mag. Kinematic membership probabilities are calculated using PMs for stars brighter than V∼ 20 mag. An electronic catalog of positions, relative PMs, BVI magnitudes, and membership probabilities in the ∼19.7 × 17 arcmin2 region of NGC 3201 is presented. We use our membership catalog to identify probable cluster members among the known variables and X-ray sources in the direction of NGC 3201. Based on observations with the MPG/ESO 2.2 m and ESO/VLT telescopes, located at La Silla and Paranal Observatory, Chile, under DDT programs 164.O-0561(F), 093.A-9028(A), and the archive material.

  12. Measuring consistent masses for 25 Milky Way globular clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmig, Brian; Seth, Anil; Ivans, Inese I.; Anderton, Tim; Gregersen, Dylan [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Utah, SLC, UT 84112 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present central velocity dispersions, masses, mass-to-light ratios (M/Ls ), and rotation strengths for 25 Galactic globular clusters (GCs). We derive radial velocities of 1951 stars in 12 GCs from single order spectra taken with Hectochelle on the MMT telescope. To this sample we add an analysis of available archival data of individual stars. For the full set of data we fit King models to derive consistent dynamical parameters for the clusters. We find good agreement between single-mass King models and the observed radial dispersion profiles. The large, uniform sample of dynamical masses we derive enables us to examine trends of M/L with cluster mass and metallicity. The overall values of M/L and the trends with mass and metallicity are consistent with existing measurements from a large sample of M31 clusters. This includes a clear trend of increasing M/L with cluster mass and lower than expected M/Ls for the metal-rich clusters. We find no clear trend of increasing rotation with increasing cluster metallicity suggested in previous work.

  13. The WAGGS project - I. The WiFeS Atlas of Galactic Globular cluster Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Christopher; Pastorello, Nicola; Bellstedt, Sabine; Alabi, Adebusola; Cerulo, Pierluigi; Chevalier, Leonie; Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Penny, Samantha; Foster, Caroline; McDermid, Richard M.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Villaume, Alexa

    2017-07-01

    We present the WiFeS Atlas of Galactic Globular cluster Spectra, a library of integrated spectra of Milky Way and Local Group globular clusters. We used the WiFeS integral field spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope to observe the central regions of 64 Milky Way globular clusters and 22 globular clusters hosted by the Milky Way's low-mass satellite galaxies. The spectra have wider wavelength coverage (3300-9050 Å) and higher spectral resolution (R = 6800) than existing spectral libraries of Milky Way globular clusters. By including Large and Small Magellanic Cloud star clusters, we extend the coverage of parameter space of existing libraries towards young and intermediate ages. While testing stellar population synthesis models and analysis techniques is the main aim of this library, the observations may also further our understanding of the stellar populations of Local Group globular clusters and make possible the direct comparison of extragalactic globular cluster integrated light observations with well-understood globular clusters in the Milky Way. The integrated spectra are publicly available via the project website.

  14. Inside the Bondi radius of M87

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, H R; McNamara, B R; Broderick, A E

    2015-01-01

    Chandra X-ray observations of the nearby brightest cluster galaxy M87 resolve the hot gas structure across the Bondi accretion radius of the central supermassive black hole, a measurement possible in only a handful of systems but complicated by the bright nucleus and jet emission. By stacking only short frame-time observations to limit pileup, and after subtracting the nuclear PSF, we analysed the X-ray gas properties within the Bondi radius at 0.12-0.22 kpc (1.5-2.8 arcsec), depending on the black hole mass. Within 2 kpc radius, we detect two significant temperature components, which are consistent with constant values of 2 keV and 0.9 keV down to 0.15 kpc radius. No evidence was found for the expected temperature increase within ~0.25 kpc due to the influence of the SMBH. Within the Bondi radius, the density profile is consistent with $\\rho\\propto r^{-1}$. The lack of a temperature increase inside the Bondi radius suggests that the hot gas structure is not dictated by the SMBH's potential and, together with...

  15. Heavy elements in Globular Clusters: the role of AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Straniero, Oscar; Piersanti, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of heavy elements in Globular Clusters reveal intriguing deviations from the standard paradigm of the early galactic nucleosynthesis. If the r-process contamination is a common feature of halo stars, s-process enhancements are found in a few Globular Clusters only. We show that the combined pollution of AGB stars with mass ranging between 3 to 6 M$_\\odot$ may account for most of the features of the s-process overabundance in M4 and M22. In these stars, the s process is a mixture of two different neutron-capture nucleosynthesis episodes. The first is due to the 13C(a,n)16O reaction and takes place during the interpulse periods. The second is due to the 22Ne(a,n)25Mg reaction and takes place in the convective zones generated by thermal pulses. The production of the heaviest s elements (from Ba to Pb) requires the first neutron burst, while the second produces large overabundances of light s (Sr, Y, Zr). The first mainly operates in the less-massive AGB stars, while the second dominates in th...

  16. The incidence of binaries in Globular Cluster stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Lucatello, S; Gratton, R; Vesperini, E; D'Orazi, V; Carretta, E; Bragaglia, A

    2015-01-01

    Binary fraction and orbital characteristics provide indications on the conditions of star formation, as they shed light on the environment they were born in. Multiple systems are more common in low density environments rather than in higher density ones. In the current debate about the formation of Globular Clusters and their multiple populations, studying the binary incidence in the populations they host offers a crucial piece of information on the environment of their birth and their subsequent dynamical evolution. Through a multi-year observational campaign using FLAMES at VLT, we monitored the radial velocity of 968 Red-Giant Branch stars located around the half-light radii in a sample of 10 Galactic Globular Clusters. We found a total of 21 radial velocity variables identified as {\\it bona fide} binary stars, for a binary fraction of 2.2%$\\pm$0.5%. When separating the sample into first generation and second generation stars, we find a binary fraction of 4.9%$\\pm$1.3% and 1.2%$\\pm$0.4% respectively. Throu...

  17. Are Some Milky Way Globular Clusters Hosted by Undiscovered Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Sand, David J

    2016-01-01

    The confirmation of a globular cluster (GC) in the recently discovered ultrafaint galaxy Eridanus II (Eri II) motivated us to examine the question posed in the title. After estimating the halo mass of Eri II using a published stellar mass - halo mass relation, the one GC in this galaxy supports extending the relationship between the number of GCs hosted by a galaxy and the galaxy's total mass about two orders of magnitude in stellar mass below the previous limit. For this empirically determined specific frequency of between 0.06 and 0.39 globular clusters per 10$^9$ $M_\\odot$ of total mass, the surviving Milky Way (MW) subhalos with masses smaller than $10^{10} M_\\odot$ could host as many as 5 to 31 GCs, broadly consistent with the actual population of outer halo MW GCs, although matching the radial distribution in detail remains a challenge. Using a subhalo mass function from published high resolution numerical simulations and a Poissonian model for populating those halos with the aforementioned empirically ...

  18. The formation of S0 galaxies: evidence from globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, J M; Bamford, S P; Bedregal, A G; Merrifield, M R

    2007-01-01

    We test the theory that lenticular (S0) galaxies form from spirals whose star formation has been shut down. We use the globular cluster specific frequency S_N, defined as the number of globular clusters normalised by the galaxy luminosity as a diagnostic. NTT/EMMI long-slit spectroscopic observations of 11 S0 galaxies at z < 0.006 are used to measure the absorption-line indices, Hdelta, Hgamma, Mgb, Fe5270 and Fe5335 within the central r_e/8. By inverting single-stellar population models, luminosity-weighted mean ages, metallicities and alpha-element abundance ratios are derived. We estimate the amount of fading a galaxy has undergone by comparing each galaxy's S_N with its deviation from the mean spiral S_N. Galaxies with higher S_N have older stellar populations. Moreover, we find that the zero-point and amount of fading is consistent with a scenario where lenticulars are formed by the quenching of star formation in spiral galaxies. Our data also rule out any formation method for S0s which creates a larg...

  19. Dynamical Formation of Close Binary Systems in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pooley, D; Anderson, S F; Baumgardt, H; Filippenko, A V; Gaensler, B M; Homer, L; Hut, P; Kaspi, V M; Margon, B; McMillan, S; Zwart, S P; Van der Klis, M; Verbunt, F

    2003-01-01

    We know from observations that globular clusters are very efficient catalysts in forming unusual short-period binary systems or their offspring, such as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs; neutron stars accreting matter from low-mass stellar companions), cataclysmic variables (CVs; white dwarfs accreting matter from stellar companions), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs; rotating neutron stars with spin periods of a few ms). Although there has been little direct evidence, the overabundance of these objects in globular clusters has been attributed by numerous authors to the high densities in the cores, which leads to an increase in the formation rate of exotic binary systems through close stellar encounters. Many such close binary systems emit X-radiation at low luminosities (L_x < 10^{34} erg/s) and are being found in large numbers through observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Here we present conclusive observational evidence for a link between the number of close binaries observed in X-rays in a globul...

  20. A new abundance scale for the globular cluster 47 Tuc

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We present chemical abundances for O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe in eight red giants and one turnoff star in the metal rich globular cluster 47 Tuc, based on spectroscopy with the MIKE high resolution spectrograph on the Magellan 6.5-m Clay telescope. A robust line by line differential abundance analysis technique, relative to the K-giant Arcturus, was used to reduce systematic errors from atmospheric and atomic parameters. Our derived mean LTE [Fe/H] of -0.76 +- 0.01 +- 0.04 dex (random and systematic error, respectively) is more metal poor by about 0.1 dex than recent literature results. The chemical element ratios in this nearby globular cluster most closely resemble those of the Galactic bulge, although there is a non-negligible overlap with the composition of thick-disk stars. We find that the [Al/Fe] and [Na/Fe] ratios coincide with the upper boundary of the trends seen in the bulge and thick disk. There is only a small intrinsic scatter in the majority of the abundance ratios, indicating that 47 Tuc...

  1. Multiple populations in Galactic globular clusters: a survey in the Strömgren system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso-García, J.; Catelan, M.; Amigo, P.;

    2013-01-01

    We are coming to believe that stellar populations in globular clusters are not as simple as they were once thought to be. A growing amount of photometric and spectroscopic evidence shows that globular clusters host at least two different stellar populations. In our contribution to these proceedin...

  2. A common colour-magnitude relation from giant elliptical galaxies to globular clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Castelli, A V Smith; Richtler, T; Faifer, F; Forte, J C; Cellone, S A

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the existence of a common colour-magnitude relation (CMR) of metal-poor globular clusters and early-type galaxies, i.e. giant ellipticals, normal ellipticals and lenticulars, dwarf ellipticals and lenticulars, and dwarf spheroidals. Such CMR would cover a range of ~ 14 mag, extending from the brightest galaxies, down to the globular clusters on the fainter side.

  3. Globular cluster interstellar media: ionized and ejected by white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation from white dwarfs can efficiently clear Galactic globular clusters (GCs) of their intracluster medium (ICM). This solves the problem of the missing ICM in clusters, which is otherwise expected to build up to easily observable quantities. To show this, we recreate the ionizing flux in 47 Tuc, following randomly generated stars through their asymptotic giant branch (AGB), post-AGB and white dwarf evolution. Each white dwarf can ionize all the material injected into the cluster by stellar winds for ˜3 Myr of its evolution: ˜40 such white dwarfs exist at any point. Every GC's ICM should be ionized. The neutral cloud in M15 should be caused by a temporary overdensity. A pressure-supported ICM will expand over the cluster's tidal radius, where it will be truncated, allowing Jeans escape. The modelled Jeans mass-loss rate approximates the total stellar mass-loss rate, allowing efficient clearing of ICM. Any cluster's ICM mass should equal the mass injected by its stars over the sound travel time between the cluster core and tidal radius. We predict ˜11.3 M⊙ of ICM within 47 Tuc, cleared over ˜4 Myr, compared to a dynamical time-scale of 4.3 Myr. We present a new mass hierarchy, discussing the transition between GCs dwarf galaxies.

  4. Blue Straggler Stars in the Unusual Globular Cluster NGC 6388

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, E; Ferraro, F R; Rood, R T; Milone, A; Piotto, G; Valenti, E

    2007-01-01

    We have used multi-band high resolution HST WFPC2 and ACS observations combined with wide field ground-based observations to study the blue straggler star (BSS) population in the galactic globular cluster NGC 6388. As in several other clusters we have studied, the BSS distribution is found to be bimodal: highly peaked in the cluster center, rapidly decreasing at intermediate radii, and rising again at larger radii. In other clusters the sparsely populated intermediate-radius region (or ``zone of avoidance'') corresponds well to that part of the cluster where dynamical friction would have caused the more massive BSS or their binary progenitors to settle to the cluster center. Instead, in NGC 6388, BSS still populate a region that should have been cleaned out by dynamical friction effects, thus suggesting that dynamical friction is somehow less efficient than expected. As by-product of these observations, the peculiar morphology of the horizontal branch (HB) is also confirmed. In particular, within the (very ex...

  5. The origin of the Milky Way globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Renaud, Florent; Gieles, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We present a cosmological zoom-in simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy used to explore the formation and evolution of star clusters. We investigate in particular the origin of the bimodality observed in the colour and metallicity of globular clusters, and the environmental evolution through cosmic times in the form of tidal tensors. Our results self-consistently confirm previous findings that the blue, metal-poor clusters form in satellite galaxies which are accreted onto the Milky Way, while the red, metal-rich clusters form mostly in situ or, to a lower extent in massive, self-enriched galaxies merging with the Milky Way. By monitoring the tidal fields these populations experience, we find that clusters formed in situ (generally centrally concentrated) feel significantly stronger tides than the accreted ones, both in the present-day, and when averaged over their entire life. Furthermore, we note that the tidal field experienced by Milky Way clusters is significantly weaker in the past than at present-day, ...

  6. SOAR Adaptive Optics Observations of the Globular Cluster NGC6496

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, Luciano; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We present high-quality BVRI photometric data in the field of globular cluster NGC 6496 obtained with the SOAR Telescope Adaptive Module (SAM). Our observations were collected as part of the ongoing SAM commissioning. The distance modulus and cluster color excess as found from the red clump is $\\mMv = 15.71 \\pm 0.02$\\,mag and $\\EVI = 0.28 \\pm 0.02$\\,mag. An age of $10.5 \\pm 0.5$\\,Gyr is determined from the difference in magnitude between the red clump and the subgiant branch. These parameters are in excellent agreement with the values derived from isochrone fitting. From the color-magnitude diagram we find a metallicity of $\\feh = -0.65$\\,dex and hence support a disk classification for NGC 6496. The complete $BVRI$ data set for NGC 6469 is made available in the electronic edition of the Journal.

  7. Soar adaptive optics observations of the globular cluster NGC 6496

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Luciano [Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kunder, Andrea; Tokovinin, Andrei, E-mail: lfraga@ctio.noao.edu, E-mail: lfraga@lna.br [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2013-06-01

    We present high-quality BVRI photometric data in the field of globular cluster NGC 6496 obtained with the SOAR Telescope Adaptive Module (SAM). Our observations were collected as part of the ongoing SAM commissioning. The distance modulus and cluster color excess as found from the red clump are (m – M) {sub V} = 15.71 ± 0.02 mag and E(V – I) = 0.28 ± 0.02 mag. An age of 10.5 ± 0.5 Gyr is determined from the difference in magnitude between the red clump and the subgiant branch. These parameters are in excellent agreement with the values derived from isochrone fitting. From the color-magnitude diagram we find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = –0.65 dex and hence support a disk classification for NGC 6496. The complete BVRI data set for NGC 6469 is made available in the electronic edition of the Journal.

  8. A DOUBLE MAIN SEQUENCE IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6397

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milone, A. P.; Aparicio, A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Marino, A. F. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Piotto, G. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, Padova I-35122 (Italy); Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3800 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Rich, R. M., E-mail: milone@iac.es, E-mail: aparicio@iac.es, E-mail: amarino@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE, E-mail: giampaolo.piotto@unipd.it, E-mail: jayander@stsci.edu, E-mail: bedin@stsci.edu, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    High-precision multi-band Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry reveals that the main sequence of the globular cluster NGC 6397 splits into two components, containing {approx}30% and {approx}70% of the stars. This double sequence is consistent with the idea that the cluster hosts two stellar populations: (1) a primordial population that has a composition similar to field stars, containing {approx}30% of the stars, and (2) a second generation with enhanced sodium and nitrogen, depleted carbon and oxygen, and a slightly enhanced helium abundance ({Delta}Y {approx} 0.01). We examine the color difference between the two sequences across a variety of color baselines and find that the second sequence is anomalously faint in m{sub F336W}. Theoretical isochrones indicate that this could be due to NH depletion.

  9. Forming Globular Cluster Systems in a Semi-analytic Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, M A; Forbes, D A; Sharples, R M; Frenk, C S; Beasley, Michael A.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Sharples, Ray M.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2002-01-01

    We apply the semi-analytical galaxy formation code of Cole et al. to investigate the formation of globular cluster (GC) systems in hierarchical clustering scenarios. The nature of the model allows us to investigate the properties of GC systems and their parent galaxies within a cosmological framework, over a wide dynamic range of mass and time resolution. Assuming GCs form during mergers of gaseous systems, the metal-rich peak of the classical 'bimodal' metallicity distribution of GCs naturally falls out of our model, where such merging occurs over a wide range of redshifts. The physical origin of old, metal-poor GCs (the metal-poor peak) is harder to understand, since their formation must be decoupled from the ongoing star formation in these systems at high redshift (z~5). Within the context of semi-analytic models in general, a possible solution lies in a cut-off in the GC formation efficiency at a characteristic local star formation rate.

  10. Evolution of Binary Stars in Multiple-Population Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jongsuk; Sollima, Antonio; McMillan, Stephen L W; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters has implications for all the aspects of the study of these stellar systems. In this paper, by means of N-body simulations, we study the evolution of binary stars in multiple-population clusters and explore the implications of the initial differences in the spatial distribution of different stellar populations for the evolution and survival of their binary stars. Our simulations show that initial differences between the spatial distribution of first-generation (FG) and second-generation (SG) stars can leave a fingerprint in the current properties of the binary population. SG binaries are disrupted more efficiently than those of the FG population resulting in a global SG binary fraction smaller than that of the FG. As for surviving binaries, dynamical evolution produces a difference between the SG and the FG binary binding energy distribution with the SG population characterized by a larger fraction of high binding energy (more bound) binaries. ...

  11. Constraints on mass loss of globular clusters in dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, S S; Brodie, J P

    2013-01-01

    The Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy is well known for its very high globular cluster specific frequency, SN=26. Furthermore, while the field star metallicity distribution peaks at [Fe/H]=-1, four of the five GCs have [Fe/H]<-2. Only about 5 percent of the field stars have such low metallicities. Hence, a very large fraction of about 1/5-1/4 of the most metal-poor stars belong to the four most metal-poor GCs. This implies that these clusters could, at most, have been a factor of 4-5 more massive initially. A second, even more extreme case may be the IKN dwarf galaxy where SN=124. Although metallicities are not accurately known, the GCs account for about 13 percent of the total V-band luminosity of IKN.

  12. Initial conditions for globular clusters and assembly of the old globular cluster population of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Marks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    By comparing N-body calculations that include primordial residual-gas expulsion with the observed properties of 20 Galactic globular clusters (GCs) for which the stellar mass function (MF) has been measured, we constrain the time-scale over which the gas of their embedded cluster counterparts must have been removed, the star formation efficiency the progenitor cloud must have had and the strength of the tidal-field the clusters must have formed in. The three parameters determine the expansion and mass-loss during residual-gas expulsion. After applying corrections for stellar and dynamical evolution we find birth cluster masses, sizes and densities for the GC sample and the same quantities for the progenitor gas clouds. The pre-cluster cloud core masses were between 10^5-10^7 M_sun and half-mass radii were typically below 1 pc and reach down to 0.2 pc. We show that the low-mass present day (PD) MF slope, initial half-mass radius and initial density of clusters correlates with cluster metallicity, unmasking met...

  13. The Frequency of Lithium-Rich Giants in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Zhang, Andrew J.; Hong, Jerry; Guo, Michelle; Guo, Rachel; Cohen, Judith G.; Cunha, Katia M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Although red giants destroy lithium, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron-Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  14. Multiwavelength photometry in the Globular Cluster M2

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B; Ferraro, F R; Schiavon, R; Rood, R T

    2009-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength photometric analysis of the globular cluster M2. The data-set has been obtained by combining high-resolution (HST/WFPC2 and ACS) and wide-field (GALEX) space observations and ground based (MEGACAM-CFHT, EMMI-NTT) images. The photometric sample covers the entire cluster extension from the very central regions up to the tidal radius and beyond. It allows an accurate determination of the cluster center of gravity and other structural parameters derived from the star count density profile. Moreover we study the BSS population and its radial distribution. A total of 123 BSS has been selected, and their radial distribution has been found to be bimodal (highly peaked in the center, decreasing at intermediate radii and rising outward), as already found in a number of other clusters. The radial position of the minimum of the BSS distribution is consistent with the radius of avoidance caused by the dynamical friction of massive objects over the cluster age. We also searched for gradients in...

  15. Globular cluster star classification: Application to M13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from recent determination of Fe, O, Na abundances on a restricted sample (N = 67 of halo and thick disk stars, a natural and well motivated selection criterion is defined for the classification globular cluster stars. An application is performed to M13 using a sample (N = 113 for which Fe, O, Na abundances have been recently inferred from observations. A comparison is made between the current and earlier M13 star classifications. Both O and Na empirical differential abundance distributions are determined for each class and for the whole sample (with the addition of Fe in the last case and compared with their theoretical counterparts due to cosmic scatter obeying a Gaussian distribution whose parameters are inferred from related subsamples. The occurrence of an agreement between the empirical and theoretical distributions is interpreted as absence of significant chemical evolution and vice versa. The procedure is repeated with regard to four additional classes depending on whether oxygen and sodium abundance is above (stage CE or below (stage AF a selected threshold. Both O and Na empirical differential abundance distributions, related to the whole sample, exhibit a linear fit for the AF and CE stage. Within the errors, the oxygen slope for the CE stage is equal and of opposite sign with respect to the sodium slope for AF stage, while the contrary holds when dealing with the oxygen slope for the AF stage with respect to the sodium slope for the CE stage. In the light of simple models of chemical evolution applied to M13, oxygen depletion appears to be mainly turned into sodium enrichment for [O/H]≥ -1.35 and [Na/H]≤ -1.45, while one or more largely preferred channels occur for [O/H] -1.45. In addition, the primordial to the current M13 mass ratio can be inferred from the true sodium yield in units of the sodium solar abundance. Though the above results are mainly qualitative due to large (-+1.5 dex uncertainties in abundance

  16. Globular clusters in the outer Galactic halo: new HST/ACS imaging of 6 globular clusters and the Galactic globular cluster age-metallicity relation

    CERN Document Server

    Dotter, Aaron; Anderson, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) derived from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys F606W,F814W photometry of 6 globular clusters (GCs) are presented. The six GCs form two loose groupings in Galactocentric distance (Rgc): IC 4499, NGC 6426, and Ruprecht 106 at ~15-20 kpc and NGC 7006, Palomar 15, and Pyxis at ~40 kpc. The CMDs allow the ages to be estimated from the main sequence turnoff in every case. In addition, the age of Palomar 5 (Rgc ~ 18 kpc) is estimated using archival HST Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 V,I photometry. The age analysis reveals the following: IC 4499, Ruprecht 106, and Pyxis are 1-2 Gyr younger than inner halo GCs with similar metallicities; NGC 7006 and Palomar 5 are marginally younger than their inner halo counterparts; NGC 6426 and Palomar 15, the two most metal-poor GCs in the sample, are coeval with all the other metal-poor GCs within the uncertainties. Combined with our previous efforts, the current sample provides strong evidence that the Galactic GC age-metall...

  17. An AKARI Search for Intracluster Dust of Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Matsunaga, N; Nakada, Y; Fukushi, H; Tanabé, T; Ita, Y; Izumiura, H; Matsuura, M; Ueta, T; Yamamura, I

    2008-01-01

    We report the observations of 12 globular clusters with the AKARI/FIS. Our goal is to search for emission from the cold dust within clusters. We detect diffuse emissions toward NGC 6402 and 2808, but the IRAS 100-micron maps show the presence of strong background radiation. They are likely emitted from the galactic cirrus, while we cannot rule out the possible association of a bump of emission with the cluster in the case of NGC 6402. We also detect 28 point-like sources mainly in the WIDE-S images (90 micron). At least several of them are not associated with the clusters but background galaxies based on some external catalogs. We present the SEDs by combining the near-and-mid infrared data obtained with the IRC if possible. The SEDs suggest that most of the point sources are background galaxies. We find one candidate of the intracluster dust which has no mid-infrared counterpart unlike the other point-like sources, although some features such as its point-like appearance should be explained before we conclud...

  18. Ultraviolet Imaging of the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connell, R W; Shah, R Y; Rood, R T; Landsman, W B; Bohlin, R C; Neff, S G; Roberts, M S; Smith, A M; Stecher, T P; Connell, Robert W. O'; Dorman, Ben; Shah, Ronak Y.; Rood, Robert T.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Neff, Susan G.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1997-01-01

    We have used the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope to obtain deep far-UV (1620 Angstrom), 40' diameter images of the prototypical metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tucanae. We find a population of about 20 hot (Teff > 9000 K) objects near or above the predicted UV luminosity of the hot horizontal branch (HB) and lying within two half-light radii of the cluster center. We believe these are normal hot HB or post-HB objects rather than interacting binaries or blue stragglers. IUE spectra of two are consistent with post-HB phases. These observations, and recent HST photometry of two other metal-rich clusters, demonstrate that populations with rich, cool HB's can nonetheless produce hot HB and post-HB stars. The cluster center also contains an unusual diffuse far-UV source which is more extended than its V-band light. It is possible that this is associated with an intracluster medium, for which there was earlier infrared and X-ray evidence, and is produced by C IV emission or scattered light from grains.

  19. Multiwavelength Modelling of the Globular Cluster Terzan 5

    CERN Document Server

    Buesching, I; Kopp, A; de Jager, O C; Clapson, A C

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse X-ray emission has recently been detected from the globular cluster (GC) Terzan 5, extending out to ~2.5' from the cluster centre. This emission may arise from synchrotron radiation (SR) by energetic leptons being injected into the cluster by the resident millisecond pulsar (MSP) population that interact with the cluster field. These leptons may also be reaccelerated in shocks created by collisions of pulsar winds, and may interact with bright starlight and cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, yielding gamma rays at very high energies (VHE) through the inverse Compton (IC) process. In the GeV range, Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a population of GCs, very plausibly including Terzan 5, their spectral properties and energetics being consistent with cumulative magnetospheric emission from a population of MSPs. H.E.S.S. has furthermore detected a VHE excess in the direction of Terzan 5. One may derive constraints on the number of MSPs, N_tot, and the radial profiles of the GC B-field,...

  20. A Chandra Study of the Galactic Globular Cluster Omega Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Haggard, Daryl; Davies, Melvyn B

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a ~70 ksec Chandra ACIS-I exposure of the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139). The ~17 amin x 17 amin field of view fully encompasses three core radii and almost twice the half-mass radius. We detect 180 sources to a limiting flux of ~4.3x10^-16 erg/cm^2/s (Lx = 1.2x10^30 erg/s at 4.9 kpc). After accounting for the number of active galactic nuclei and possible foreground stars, we estimate that 45-70 of the sources are cluster members. Four of the X-ray sources have previously been identified as compact accreting binaries in the cluster--three cataclysmic variables (CVs) and one quiescent neutron star. Correlating the Chandra positions with known variable stars yields eight matches, of which five are probable cluster members that are likely to be binary stars with active coronae. Extrapolating these optical identifications to the remaining unidentified X-ray source population, we estimate that 20-35 of the sources are CVs and a similar number are active binaries. This likely represents most ...

  1. On the Globular Cluster IMF below 1 Solar Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Paresce, F; Paresce, Francesco; Marchi, Guido De

    1999-01-01

    (Abridged) Accurate luminosity functions (LF) for a dozen globular clusters have now been measured at or just beyond their half-light radius using HST. They span almost the entire cluster main sequence below ~ 0.75 Msolar. All these clusters exhibit LF that rise continuously from an absolute I magnitude M_I ~ 6 to a peak at M_I ~ 8.5-9 and then drop with increasing M_I. Transformation of the LF into mass functions (MF) by means of the most recent mass luminosity relations that are consistent with all presently available data on the physical properties of low mass, low metallicity stars shows that all the LF observed so far can be obtained from MF having the shape of a log-normal distribution with characteristic mass m_c=0.33 +/- 0.03 Msolar and standard deviation sigma = 1.81 +/- 0.19. After correction for the effects of mass segregation, the variation of the ratio of the number of higher to lower mass stars with cluster mass or any simple orbital parameter or the expected time to disruption recently computed...

  2. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey XV. The Formation Efficiencies of Globular Clusters in Early-Type Galaxies: The Effects of Mass and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Eric W; Cote, Patrick; Takamiya, Marianne; West, Michael J; Blakeslee, John P; Chen, Chin-Wei; Ferrarese, Laura; Mei, Simona; Tonry, John L; West, Andrew A

    2008-01-01

    The fraction of stellar mass contained in globular clusters (GCs), also measured by number as the specific frequency, is a fundamental quantity that reflects both a galaxy's early star formation and its entire merging history. We present specific frequencies, luminosities, and mass fractions for the globular cluster systems of 100 early-type galaxies in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey, the largest homogeneous catalog of its kind. We find that 1) GC mass fractions can be high in both giants and dwarfs, but are universally low in galaxies with intermediate luminosities. 2) The behavior of specific frequency across galaxy mass is dominated by the blue GCs. 3) The GC fractions of low-mass galaxies exhibit a dependence on environment. Nearly all dwarf galaxies with high GC fractions are within 1 Mpc of the cD galaxy M87, presenting the first strong evidence that GC formation in dwarfs is biased toward dense environments. 4) GC formation in central dwarfs is biased because their stars form earliest and most intensely....

  3. Anisotropic Models for Globular Clusters, Galactic Bulges and Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, P H

    2013-01-01

    Spherical systems with a polytropic equation of state are of great interest in astrophysics. They are widely used to describe neutron stars, red giants, white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, main sequence stars, galactic halos and globular clusters of diverse sizes. In this paper we construct analytically a family of self-gravitating spherical models in the post-Newtonian approximation of general relativity. These models present interesting cusps in their density profiles which are appropriate for the modeling of galaxies and dark matter halos. The systems described here are anisotropic in the sense that their equiprobability surfaces in velocity space are non-spherical, leading to an overabundance of radial or circular orbits, depending on the parameters of the model in consideration. Among the family, we find the post-Newtonian generalization of the Plummer and Hernquist models. A close inspection of their equation of state reveals that these solutions interpolate smoothly between a polytropic sphere in the asymptoti...

  4. A one-dimensional toy model of globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fanelli, D; Ruffo, S; Fanelli, Duccio; Merafina, Marco; Ruffo, Stefano

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a one-dimensional toy model of globular clusters. The model is a version of the well-known gravitational sheets system, where we take additionally into account mass and energy loss by evaporation of stars at the boundaries. Numerical integration by the "exact" event-driven dynamics is performed, for initial uniform density and Gaussian random velocities. Two distinct quasi-stationary asymptotic regimes are attained, depending on the initial energy of the system. We guess the forms of the density and velocity profiles which fit numerical data extremely well and allow to perform an independent calculation of the self-consistent gravitational potential. Some power-laws for the asymptotic number of stars and for the collision times are suggested.

  5. Uncovering Multiple Populations in Globular Clusters with Washington Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Douglas; Cummings, Jeff; Villanova, Sandro; Carraro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Globular Clusters (GCs), long considered as ideal Simple Stellar Populations, are now known to harbor a wide variety of chemical inhomogeneities. Multiple populations (MP) are being found in a growing number of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) via both photometric and spectroscopic techniques. Indeed, it has been suggested that a GC is an object that possesses MP. A definitive investigation of MP in GCs will undoubtedly provide a profound improvement in our understanding of their formation and evolution.However, most studies employ either high resolution VLT spectroscopy, HST photometry or inefficient filters from the ground. A ground-based photometric system which is both efficient and effective would be especially excellent for uncovering MP. We demonstrate that the Washington system meets these goals. The Washington C filter, in addition to being specifically designed for the purpose of detecting MPs, is both much broader and redder than competing UV filters, making it far more efficient at detecting MPs and much less sensitive to reddening and extinction.Our analysis of the well-studied GC NGC 1851 shows indeed that the C filter is both very efficient and effective at detecting its previously discovered MPs in the RGB and SGB, using relatively little telescope time on only a 1-meter telescope. Remarkably, we have also detected an intrinsically broad MS best characterized by two distinct but heavily overlapping populations that cannot be explained by binaries, field stars, or photometric errors. Detailed analysis shows that the MS distribution is in very good agreement with that seen on the RGB. This is the first time MPs in a MS have been discovered from the ground, and just as strikingly, using only a 1-meter telescope. The Washington system thus proves to be a very powerful tool for investigating MPs, and holds particular promise for extragalactic objects where photons are limited.

  6. APOGEE Chemical Abundances of Globular Cluster Giants in the Inner Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavon, Ricardo P; Frinchaboy, Peter M; Zasowski, Gail; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Garcia-Hernandez, D A; Cohen, Roger E; Tang, Baitian; Villanova, Sandro; Geisler, Douglas; Beers, Timothy C; Fernandez-Trincado, J G; Perez, Ana E Garcia; Lucatello, Sara; Majewski, Steven R; Martell, Sarah L; O'Connell, Robert W; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Carrera, Ricardo; Lane, Richard R; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Munoz, Ricardo R; Nitschelm, Christian; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Schultheis, Matthias; Simmons, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    We report chemical abundances obtained by SDSS-III/APOGEE for giant stars in five globular clusters located within 2.2 kpc of the Galactic centre. We detect the presence of multiple stellar populations in four of those clusters (NGC 6553, NGC 6528, Terzan 5, and Palomar 6) and find strong evidence for their presence in NGC 6522. All clusters present a significant spread in the abundances of N, C, Na, and Al, with the usual correlations and anti-correlations between various abundances seen in other globular clusters. Our results provide important quantitative constraints on theoretical models for self-enrichment of globular clusters, by testing their predictions for the dependence of yields of elements such as Na, N, C, and Al on metallicity. They also confirm that, under the assumption that field N-rich stars originate from globular cluster destruction, they can be used as tracers of their parental systems in the high- metallicity regime.

  7. The state of globular clusters at birth - II. Primordial binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Giersz, Mirek; Marks, Michael; Webb, Jeremy J.; Hypki, Arkadiusz; Heinke, Craig O.; Kroupa, Pavel; Sills, Alison

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we constrain the properties of primordial binary populations in Galactic globular clusters. Using the MOCCA Monte Carlo code for cluster evolution, our simulations cover three decades in present-day total cluster mass. Our results are compared to the observations of Milone et al. using the photometric binary populations as proxies for the true underlying distributions, in order to test the hypothesis that the data are consistent with a universal initial binary fraction near unity and the binary orbital parameter distributions of Kroupa. With the exception of a few possible outliers, we find that the data are to first-order consistent with the universality hypothesis. Specifically, the present-day binary fractions inside the half-mass radius can be reproduced assuming either high initial binary fractions near unity with a dominant soft binary component as in the Kroupa distribution combined with high initial densities (104-106 M⊙ pc-3), or low initial binary fractions (˜5-10 per cent) with a dominant hard binary component combined with moderate initial densities near their present-day values (102-103 M⊙ pc-3). This apparent degeneracy can potentially be broken using the binary fractions outside the half-mass radius - only high initial binary fractions with a significant soft component combined with high initial densities can reproduce the observed anticorrelation between the binary fractions outside the half-mass radius and the total cluster mass. We further illustrate using the simulated present-day binary orbital parameter distributions and the technique first introduced in Leigh et al. that the relative fractions of hard and soft binaries can be used to further constrain both the initial cluster density and the initial mass-density relation. Our results favour an initial mass-density relation of the form r_h ∝ M_clus^{α } with α < 1/3, corresponding to an initial correlation between cluster mass and density.

  8. The SLUGGS Survey: Wide Field Imaging of the Globular Cluster System of NGC 4278

    CERN Document Server

    Usher, Christopher; Spitler, Lee R; Brodie, Jean P; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Strader, Jay; Woodley, Kristin A

    2013-01-01

    We use multi-pointing HST ACS and wide field Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging to study the globular cluster system of the L* elliptical galaxy NGC 4278. We have also obtained a handful of new globular cluster spectra with Keck/DEIMOS. We determine the globular cluster surface density profile and use it to calculate the total number of globular clusters, finding the system to be slightly more populous than average for galaxies of its luminosity. We find clear evidence for bimodality in the globular cluster colour distribution and for a colour-magnitude relation in the blue subpopulation (a 'blue tilt'). We also find negative radial colour gradients in both colour subpopulations of equal strength which are similar in strength to those reported in other galaxies. The sizes of NGC 4278's globular clusters decrease with redder colours and increase with galactocentric radius. The ratio of the sizes of blue to red globular clusters is independent of galactocentric radius demonstrating that internal effects are responsible...

  9. Globular Clusters at the Centre of the Fornax Cluster: Tracing Interactions Between Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bassino, L P; Faifer, F R; Forte, J C; Dirsch, B; Geisler, D; Schuberth, Y

    2006-01-01

    We present the combined results of two investigations: a large-scale study of the globular cluster system (GCS) around NGC 1399, the central galaxy of the Fornax cluster, and a study of the GCSs around NGC 1374, NGC 1379 and NGC 1387, three low-luminosity early-type galaxies located close to the centre of the same cluster. In both cases, the data consist of images from the wide-field MOSAIC Imager of the CTIO 4-m telescope, obtained with Washington C and Kron-Cousins R filters, which provide good metallicity resolution. The colour distributions and radial projected densities of the GCSs are analyzed. We focus on the properties of the GCSs that trace possible interaction processes between the galaxies, such as tidal stripping of globular clusters. For the blue globular clusters, we find tails between NGC 1399 and neighbouring galaxies in the azimuthal projected distribution, and the three low-luminosity galaxies show low specific frequencies and a low proportion of blue GCs.

  10. Disentangling multiple stellar populations in globular clusters using the Str\\"omgren system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso-García, J.; Catelan, M.; Amigo, P.

    2012-01-01

    clusters, both in our Galaxy and in others. We have started a series of observations of Galactic globular clusters using the Str\\"omgren photometric system in order to find the signatures of these multiple populations and establish their presence in a more complete sample of globular clusters in the Milky...... Way, and to study their radial distributions and extensions. We present here the first results of our survey....

  11. Dynamical Evolution of Globular Clusters in the Galaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武振宇; 束成钢; 陈文屏

    2003-01-01

    Given the initial conditions of spatial density distribution, velocity distribution and mass function, the dynamical evolution of globular clusters in the Milky Way is investigated in details by means of Monte Carlo simulations.Four dynamic mechanisms are considered: stellar evaporation, stellar evolution, tidal shocks due to both the disc and bulge, and dynamical friction. It is found that stellar evaporation dominates the evolution of low-mass clusters and all four are important for massive ones. For both the power-law and lognormal initial clusters mass functions, we can find the best-fitting models which can match the present-day observations with their main features of the mass function almost unchanged after evolution of several Gyr. This implies that it is not possible to determine the initial mass function only based on the observed mass function today. The dispersion of the modelled mass functions mainly depends on the potential wells of host galaxies with the almost constant peaks,which is consistent with current observations

  12. A novel look at energy equipartition in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchini, P; Norris, M A; Schinnerer, E; Varri, A L

    2016-01-01

    Two-body interactions play a major role in shaping the structural and dynamical properties of globular clusters (GCs) over their long-term evolution. In particular, GCs evolve toward a state of partial energy equipartition that induces a mass-dependence in their kinematics. By using a set of Monte Carlo cluster simulations evolved in quasi-isolation, we show that the stellar mass dependence of the velocity dispersion $\\sigma(m)$ can be described by an exponential function $\\sigma^2\\propto \\exp(-m/m_\\mathrm{eq})$, with the parameter $m_\\mathrm{eq}$ quantifying the degree of partial energy equipartition of the systems. This simple parametrization successfully captures the behaviour of the velocity dispersion at lower as well as higher stellar masses, that is, the regime where the system is expected to approach full equipartition. We find a tight correlation between the degree of equipartition reached by a GC and its dynamical state, indicating that clusters that are more than about 20 core relaxation times old,...

  13. The globular cluster system of NGC1316. III. Kinematic complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, Tom; Kumar, Brijesh; Bassino, Lilia P; Gomez, Matias; Dirsch, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The merger remnant NGC 1316 (Fornax A) is one of the most important objects regarding the investigation of merger-related processes. We use kinematical data of globular clusters (GCs) and the diffuse stellar light to investigate the global structure of NGC 1316 and to constrain the dark matter content. We perform multi-object-spectroscopy with VLT/FORS2 and MXU. Out of 562 slits, we extract radial velocities for 177 GCs. Moreover, we measure radial velocities of the integrated galaxy light, using slits with a sufficiently bright "sky". To these data, we add 20 cluster velocities from Goudfrooij et al. (2001). In an appendix, we identify new morphological features of NGC 1316 and its companion galaxy NGC 1317. The GC sample based on radial velocities confirms the colour peaks already found in our photometric study. The bright clusters, which probably have their origin in a 2 Gyr-old starburst and younger star formation events, avoid the systemic velocity. A Gaussian velocity distribution is found only for clus...

  14. Dynamical formation of cataclysmic variables in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jongsuk; Vesperini, Enrico; Belloni, Diogo; Giersz, Mirek

    2017-01-01

    The formation and evolution of X-ray sources in globular clusters is likely to be affected by the cluster internal dynamics and the stellar interactions in the cluster dense environment. Several observational studies have revealed a correlation between the number of X-ray sources and the stellar encounter rate, and provided evidence of the role of dynamics in the formation of X-ray binaries. We have performed a survey of Monte Carlo simulations aimed at exploring the connection between the dynamics and formation of cataclysmic variables (CVs) and the origin of the observed correlation between the number of these objects, Ncv, and the stellar encounter rate, Γ. The results of our simulations show a correlation between Ncv and Γ, as found in observational data, illustrate the essential role played by the dynamics, and shed light on the dynamical history behind this correlation. CVs in our simulations are more centrally concentrated than single stars with masses close to those of turn-off stars, although this trend is stronger for CVs formed from primordial binaries undergoing exchange encounters, which include a population of more massive CVs absent in the group of CVs formed from binaries not suffering any component exchange.

  15. Ruprecht 106: the first single population Globular Cluster?

    CERN Document Server

    Villanova, S; Carraro, G; Bidin, C Moni; Munoz, C

    2013-01-01

    All old Galactic Globular Clusters studied in detail to date host at least two generations of stars, where the second is formed from gas polluted by processed material produced by massive stars of the first. This process can happen if the initial mass of the cluster exceeds a threshold above which ejecta are retained and a second generation is formed. A determination of this mass-threshold is mandatory in order to understand how GCs form. We analyzed 9 RGB stars belonging to the cluster Ruprecht 106. Targets were observed with the UVES@VLT2 spectrograph. Spectra cover a wide range and allowed us to measure abundances for light (O,Na,Mg,Al), alpha (Si,Ca,Ti), iron-peak (Sc,V,Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn) and neutron-capture (Y,Zr,Ba,La,Ce,Pr,Nd,Sm,Eu,Dy,Pb) elements. Based on these abundances we show that Ruprecht 106 is the first convincing example of a single population GC (i.e. a true simple stellar population), although the sample is relatively small. This result is supported also by an independent photometric tes...

  16. The first stages of the evolution of Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    D'Antona, F; Caloi, V; Antona, Francesca D'; Ventura, Paolo; Caloi, Vittoria

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the inhomogeneities in the chemical composition of Globular Cluster (GC) stars appear due to primordial enrichment. The most studied model today claims that the ejecta of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars of high mass -those evolving during the first ~100Myr of the Clusters life- directly form a second generation of stars with abundance anomalies. In this talk, we review the status of the art with regard to this model, whose major problems are i) the modelling of the chemical anomalies is still not fully complete, and ii) it requires an IMF peculiarly enhanced in the intermediate mass stars. The model predicts enhanced helium abundance in the stars showing chemical anomalies, and the helium abundance distribution can be roughly derived from the morphology of the horizontal branch. Such distribution may possibly help to falsify the model for the first phases of evolution of GCs. As an illustration, we compare the results of the analysis of the HB morphology of some clusters.

  17. Dynamical Formation of Cataclysmic Variables in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jongsuk; Belloni, Diogo; Giersz, Mirek

    2016-01-01

    The formation and evolution of X-ray sources in globular clusters is likely to be affected by the cluster internal dynamics and the stellar interactions in the cluster dense environment.Several observational studies have revealed a correlation between the number of X-ray sources and the stellar encounter rate and provided evidence of the role of dynamics in the formation of X-ray binaries. We have performed a survey of Monte-Carlo simulations aimed at exploring the connection between the dynamics and formation of cataclysmic variables (CVs) and the origin of the observed correlation between the number of these objects, $N_{\\rm cv}$, and the stellar encounter rate, $\\Gamma$.The results of our simulations show a correlation between $N_{\\rm cv}$ and $\\Gamma$ as found in observational data, illustrate the essential role played by dynamics, and shed light on the dynamical history behind this correlation. CVs in our simulations are more centrally concentrated than single stars with masses close to those of turn-off...

  18. The interaction between supermassive black holes and globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Spera, Mario; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Almost all galaxies along the Hubble sequence host a compact massive object (CMO) in their center. The CMO can be either a supermassive black hole (SMBH) or a very dense stellar cluster, also known as nuclear star cluster (NSC). Generally, heavier galaxies (mass >~ 10^{11} solar masses) host a central SMBH while lighter show a central NSC. Intermediate mass hosts, instead, contain both a NSC and a SMBH. One possible formation mechanisms of a NSC relies on the dry-merger (migratory) scenario, in which globular clusters (GCs) decay toward the center of the host galaxy and merge. In this framework, the absence of NSCs in high-mass galaxies can be imputed to destruction of the infalling GCs by the intense tidal field of the central SMBH. In this work, we report preliminary results of N-body simulations performed using our high-resolution, direct, code HiGPUs, to investigate the effects of a central SMBH on a single GC orbiting around it. By varying either the mass of the SMBH and the mass of the host galaxy, we d...

  19. Globular cluster systems in low-luminosity early-type galaxies near the Fornax Cluster centre

    CERN Document Server

    Bassino, L P; Dirsch, B; Bassino, Lilia P.; Richtler, Tom; Dirsch, Boris

    2006-01-01

    We present a photometric study of the globular cluster systems of the Fornax cluster galaxies NGC 1374, NGC 1379, and NGC 1387. The data consists of images from the wide-field MOSAIC Imager of the CTIO 4-m telescope, obtained with Washington C and Kron-Cousins R filters. The images cover a field of 36 x 36 arcmin, corresponding to 200 x 200 kpc at the Fornax distance. Two of the galaxies, NGC 1374 and NGC 1379, are low-luminosity ellipticals while NGC 1387 is a low-luminosity lenticular. Their cluster systems are still embedded in the cluster system of NGC 1399. Therefore the use of a large field is crucial and some differences to previous work can be explained by this. The colour distributions of all globular cluster systems are bimodal. NGC 1387 presents a particularly distinct separation between red and blue clusters and an overproportionally large population of red clusters. The radial distribution is different for blue and red clusters, red clusters being more concentrated towards the respective galaxies...

  20. Ages of Globular Clusters from HIPPARCOS Parallaxes of Local Subdwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Raffaele G.; Fusi Pecci, Flavio; Carretta, Eugenio; Clementini, Gisella; Corsi, Carlo E.; Lattanzi, Mario

    1997-12-01

    We report here initial but strongly conclusive results for absolute ages of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs). This study is based on high-precision trigonometric parallaxes from the HIPPARCOS satellite coupled with accurate metal abundances ([Fe/H], [O/Fe], and [α/Fe]) from high-resolution spectroscopy for a sample of about thirty subdwarfs. Systematic effects due to star selection (Lutz-Kelker corrections to parallaxes) and the possible presence of undetected binaries in the sample of bona fide single stars are examined, and appropriate corrections are estimated. They are found to be small for our sample. The new data allow us to reliably define the absolute location of the main sequence (MS) as a function of metallicity. These results are then used to derive distances and ages for a carefully selected sample of nine globular clusters having metallicities determined from high-dispersion spectra of individual giants according to a procedure totally consistent with that used for the field subdwarfs. Very precise and homogeneous reddening values have also been independently determined for these clusters. Random errors for our distance moduli are +/-0.08 mag, and systematic errors are likely of the same order of magnitude. These very accurate distances allow us to derive ages with internal errors of ~12% (+/-1.5 Gyr). The main results are: 1. HIPPARCOS parallaxes are smaller than corresponding ground-based measurements, leading, in turn, to longer distance moduli (~0.2 mag) and younger ages (~2.8 Gyr). 2. The distance to NGC 6752 derived from our MS fitting is consistent with that determined using the white dwarf cooling sequence. 3. The relation between the zero-age HB (ZAHB) absolute magnitude and metallicity for the nine program clusters is MV(ZAHB)=(0.22+/-0.09)([Fe/H]+1.5)+(0.49+/-0.04) . This relation is fairly consistent with some of the most recent theoretical models. Within quoted errors, the slope is in agreement with that given by the Baade-Wesselink (BW

  1. New Breakthroughs in the Battle of the Bulge Using Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Bidin, C. M.; Cohen, R.; Chené, A.; Villanova, S.; Cummings, J.; Gormaz, A.; Minniti, D.; Alonso-García, J.; Hempel, M.; VVV Team

    2015-05-01

    We present some recent work undertaken mostly at the Universidad de Concepción using bulge globular clusters to better understand this important but poorly studied Galactic component, especially based on data from the VVV Survey. This includes discovering new bulge globulars, investigating dual HBs, and obtaining Ca triplet metallicities and velocities.

  2. A novel look at energy equipartition in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, P.; van de Ven, G.; Norris, M. A.; Schinnerer, E.; Varri, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Two-body interactions play a major role in shaping the structural and dynamical properties of globular clusters (GCs) over their long-term evolution. In particular, GCs evolve towards a state of partial energy equipartition that induces a mass dependence in their kinematics. By using a set of Monte Carlo cluster simulations evolved in quasi-isolation, we show that the stellar mass dependence of the velocity dispersion σ(m) can be described by an exponential function σ2 ∝ exp (-m/meq), with the parameter meq quantifying the degree of partial energy equipartition of the systems. This simple parametrization successfully captures the behaviour of the velocity dispersion at lower as well as higher stellar masses, that is, the regime where the system is expected to approach full equipartition. We find a tight correlation between the degree of equipartition reached by a GC and its dynamical state, indicating that clusters that are more than about 20 core relaxation times old, have reached a maximum degree of equipartition. This equipartition-dynamical state relation can be used as a tool to characterize the relaxation condition of a cluster with a kinematic measure of the meq parameter. Vice versa, the mass dependence of the kinematics can be predicted knowing the relaxation time solely on the basis of photometric measurements. Moreover, any deviations from this tight relation could be used as a probe of a peculiar dynamical history of a cluster. Finally, our novel approach is important for the interpretation of state-of-the-art Hubble Space Telescope proper motion data, for which the mass dependence of kinematics can now be measured, and for the application of modelling techniques which take into consideration multimass components and mass segregation.

  3. Characterization of the velocity anisotropy of accreted globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, P.; Sills, A.; Miholics, M.

    2017-10-01

    Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are believed to have formed in situ in the Galaxy as well as in dwarf galaxies later accreted on to the Milky Way. However, to date, there is no unambiguous signature to distinguish accreted GCs. Using specifically designed N-body simulations of GCs evolving in a variety of time-dependent tidal fields (describing the potential of a dwarf galaxy-Milky Way merger), we analyse the effects imprinted on the internal kinematics of an accreted GC. In particular, we look at the evolution of the velocity anisotropy. Our simulations show that at early phases, the velocity anisotropy is determined by the tidal field of the dwarf galaxy and subsequently the clusters will adapt to the new tidal environment, losing any signature of their original environment in a few relaxation times. At 10 Gyr, GCs exhibit a variety of velocity anisotropy profiles, namely, isotropic velocity distribution in the inner regions and either isotropy or radial/tangential anisotropy in the intermediate and outer regions. Independent of an accreted origin, the velocity anisotropy primarily depends on the strength of the tidal field cumulatively experienced by a cluster. Tangentially anisotropic clusters correspond to systems that have experienced stronger tidal fields and are characterized by higher tidal filling factor, r50/rj ≳ 0.17, higher mass-loss ≳ 60 per cent and relaxation times trel ≲ 109 Gyr. Interestingly, we demonstrate that the presence of tidal tails can significantly contaminate the measurements of velocity anisotropy when a cluster is observed in projection. Our characterization of the velocity anisotropy profiles in different tidal environments provides a theoretical benchmark for the interpretation of the unprecedented amount of three-dimensional kinematic data progressively available for Galactic GCs.

  4. Multiple populations in Galactic globular clusters: a survey in the Strömgren system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso-García, J.; Catelan, M.; Amigo, P.

    2013-01-01

    We are coming to believe that stellar populations in globular clusters are not as simple as they were once thought to be. A growing amount of photometric and spectroscopic evidence shows that globular clusters host at least two different stellar populations. In our contribution to these proceedings...... we present the first results of a survey we are conducting to look for the presence of multiple populations in a significant number of Galactic globular clusters, using the Strömgren system. We intend to photometrically separate these populations and characterize their radial distributions...

  5. M87 at metre wavelengths: the LOFAR picture

    CERN Document Server

    de Gasperin, F; Murgia, M; Merloni, A; Falcke, H; Beck, R; Beswick, R; Birzan, L; Bonafede, A; Bruggen, M; Brunetti, G; Chyzy, K; Conway, J; Croston, J H; Ensslin, T; Ferrari, C; Heald, G; Heidenreich, S; Jackson, N; Macario, G; McKean, J; Miley, G; Morganti, R; Offringa, A; Pizzo, R; Rafferty, D; Roettgering, H; Shulevski, A; Steinmetz, M; Tasse, C; van der Tol, S; van Driel, W; van Weeren, R J; van Zwieten, J E; Alexov, A; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, M; Bell, M; Bell, M R; Bentum, M; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Butcher, A; Ciardi, B; Dettmar, R J; Eisloeffel, J; Frieswijk, W; Gankema, H; Garrett, M; Gerbers, M; Griessmeier, J M; Gunst, A W; Hassall, T E; Hessels, J; Hoeft, M; Horneffer, A; Karastergiou, A; Koehler, J; Koopman, Y; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; Mevius, M; Mulcahy, D D; Munk, H; Nijboer, R; Kuniyoshi, M; Noordam, J; Paas, H; Pandey, M; Pandey, V N; Polatidis, A; Reich, W; Schoenmakers, A P; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Sobey, C; Stappers, B; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; van Bemmel, I; van Cappellen, W; van Duin, A P; van Haarlem, M; van Leeuwen, J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; White, S; Wise, M; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P

    2012-01-01

    M87 is a giant elliptical galaxy located in the centre of the Virgo cluster, which harbours a supermassive black hole of mass 6.4x10^9 M_sun, whose activity is responsible for the extended (80 kpc) radio lobes that surround the galaxy. The energy generated by matter falling onto the central black hole is ejected and transferred to the intra-cluster medium via a relativistic jet and morphologically complex systems of buoyant bubbles, which rise towards the edges of the extended halo. Here we present the first observations made with the new Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) of M87 at frequencies down to 20 MHz. Images of M87 were produced at low radio frequencies never explored before at these high spatial resolution and dynamic range. To disentangle different synchrotron models and place constraints on source magnetic field, age and energetics, we also performed a detailed spectral analysis of M87 extended radio-halo using these observations together with archival data. We do not find any sign of new extended emissi...

  6. The Event Horizon of M87

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Ramesh; Perlman, Eric S; Rieke, Marcia J; Doeleman, Sheperd S

    2015-01-01

    The 6 billion solar mass supermassive black hole at the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 powers a relativistic jet. Observations at millimeter wavelengths with the Event Horizon Telescope have localized the emission from the base of this jet to angular scales comparable to the putative black hole horizon. The jet might be powered directly by an accretion disk or by electromagnetic extraction of the rotational energy of the black hole. However, even the latter mechanism requires a confining thick accretion disk to maintain the required magnetic flux near the black hole. Therefore, regardless of the jet mechanism, the observed jet power in M87 implies a certain minimum mass accretion rate. If the central compact object in M87 were not a black hole but had a surface, this accretion would result in considerable thermal near-infrared and optical emission from the surface. Current flux limits on the nucleus of M87 strongly constrain any such surface emission. This rules out the presence of a surface and th...

  7. The Nuclear Spectrum of M87

    CERN Document Server

    Tsvetanov, Z I; Ford, H C; Kriss, G A; Dopita, M A; Dressel, L L; Harms, R J

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear spectrum of M87 covering the Ly_a-H_a wavelength range was obtained with the HST Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) trough a 0.21 arcsec aperture. Contrary to some previous claims, a single power law (F(nu)~nu^(-a)) can not reproduce the observed continuum shape and at least a broken power law is require for a good fit (a = 1.75 and 1.41 shortward and longward of the break at ~4500 A). We detect a set of broad (FWHM ~ 400 km/s) absorption lines arising in the gas associated with M87. These are only lines from neutral and very low ionization species blueshifted by ~150 km/s relative to the M87 systemic velocity, indicating a net gas outflow and turbulence. The excitation sensitive emission line ratios suggest that shocks may be the dominant energy supplier. The nuclear source in M87 is significantly variable. From the FOS target acquisition data, we have established that the flux from the optical nucleus varies by a factor ~2 on time scales of ~2.5 months and by as much as 25% over 3 weeks, and remain...

  8. On the Globular Cluster Initial Mass Function below 1 Msolar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paresce, Francesco; De Marchi, Guido

    2000-05-01

    Accurate luminosity functions (LFs) for a dozen globular clusters have now been measured at or just beyond their half-light radius using HST. They span almost the entire cluster main sequence (MS) below 0.75 Msolar. All these clusters exhibit LFs that rise continuously from an absolute I magnitude MI~=6 to a peak at MI~=8.5-9 and then drop with increasing MI. Transformation of the LFs into mass functions (MFs) by means of mass-luminosity (ML) relations that are consistent with all presently available data on the physical properties of low-mass, low-metallicity stars shows that all the LFs observed so far can be obtained from MFs having the shape of a lognormal distribution with characteristic mass mc=0.33+/-0.03 Msolar and standard deviation σ=0.34+/-0.04. In particular, the LFs of the four clusters in the sample that extend well beyond the peak luminosity down to close to the hydrogen-burning limit (NGC 6341, NGC 6397, NGC 6752, and NGC 6809) can only be reproduced by such distributions and not by a single power law in the 0.1-0.6 Msolar range. After correction for the effects of mass segregation, the variation of the ratio of the number of higher to lower mass stars with cluster mass or any simple orbital parameter or the expected time to disruption recently computed for these clusters shows no statistically significant trend over a range of this last parameter of more than a factor of ~100. We conclude that the global MFs of these clusters have not been measurably modified by evaporation and tidal interactions with the Galaxy and, thus, should reflect the initial distribution of stellar masses. Since the lognormal function that we find is also very similar to the one obtained independently for much younger clusters and to the form expected theoretically, the implication seems to be unavoidable that it represents the true stellar initial mass function for this type of star in this mass range. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope

  9. SOAR Adaptive Optics Observations of the Globular Cluster NGC 6496

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Luciano; Kunder, Andrea; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2013-06-01

    We present high-quality BVRI photometric data in the field of globular cluster NGC 6496 obtained with the SOAR Telescope Adaptive Module (SAM). Our observations were collected as part of the ongoing SAM commissioning. The distance modulus and cluster color excess as found from the red clump are (m - M) V = 15.71 ± 0.02 mag and E(V - I) = 0.28 ± 0.02 mag. An age of 10.5 ± 0.5 Gyr is determined from the difference in magnitude between the red clump and the subgiant branch. These parameters are in excellent agreement with the values derived from isochrone fitting. From the color-magnitude diagram we find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.65 dex and hence support a disk classification for NGC 6496. The complete BVRI data set for NGC 6469 is made available in the electronic edition of the Journal. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  10. Fluorine abundances and the puzzle of globular cluster chemical history

    CERN Document Server

    de Laverny, P

    2013-01-01

    The abundance of fluorine in a few Galactic globular clusters is known to strongly vary from star-to-star. These unexpected chemical properties are an additional confirmation of the chemical inhomogeneities already found in several GC, and probably caused by the first generations of stars formed in these systems. The aim of this article is to complement our understanding of the F-behaviour in GC stars and to look for new constraints on the formation histories of their multiple stellar populations. We have collected near-IR spectra of 15 RGB stars belonging to GC spanning a wide range of metallicity: 47 Tuc, M4, NGC6397 and M30. F, Na and Fe abundances have been estimated by spectral synthesis. No anticorrelation between F and Na abundances are found for the most metal-rich cluster of the sample (47 Tuc). In this GC, RGB stars indeed exhibit rather small differences in [F/Fe] unlike the larger ones found for the [Na/Fe] ratios. This reveals a rather inhomogeneous stellar system and a complex chemical evolution...

  11. A Massive Neutron Star in the Globular Cluster M5

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C; Berg, Maureen van den; Hessels, Jason W T

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of 18 years of Arecibo timing of two pulsars in the globular cluster NGC 5904 (M5), PSR B1516+02A and PSR B1516+02B. This has allowed the measurement of the proper motions of these pulsars and of the cluster. PSR B1516+02B is a 7.95-ms pulsar in a binary system with a ~0.2 solar-mass companion and an orbital period of 6.86 days. In deep HST images, no optical counterpart is detected at the position of the pulsar, implying the companion is either a white dwarf or a low-mass MS star. The eccentricity of the orbit (e = 0.14) has allowed a measurement of the rate of advance of periastron: 0.0136 +/ 0.0007 degrees per year. It is very likely that the periastron advance is due to the effects of general relativity; the total mass of the binary system is then 2.14 +/- 0.16 solar masses. The small measured mass function implies, in a statistical sense, that a very large fraction of this total mass is contained in the pulsar: 1.94 +0.17/-0.19 solar masses (1 sigma$); there is a 5 % probability tha...

  12. Mining SDSS in search of Multiple Populations in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lardo, C; Pancino, E; Carretta, E; Bragaglia, A; Dalessandro, E

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported the detection of an anomalous color spread along the red giant branch (RGB) of some globular clusters (GC) that appears only when color indices including a near ultraviolet band (such as Johnson U or Stromgren u) are considered. This anomalous spread in color indexes such as U-B or c_{y} has been shown to correlate with variations in the abundances of light elements such as C, N, O, Na, etc., which, in turn, are generally believed to be associated with subsequent star formation episodes that occurred in the earliest few 10^{8} yr of the cluster's life. Here we use publicly available u, g, r Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry to search for anomalous u-g spreads in the RGBs of nine Galactic GCs. In seven of them (M 2, M 3, M 5, M 13, M 15, M 92 and M 53), we find evidence of a statistically significant spread in the u-g color, not seen in g-r and not accounted for by observational effects. In the case of M 5, we demonstrate that the observed u-g color spread correlates with...

  13. Globular clusters indicate ultra diffuse galaxies are dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of archival {\\it HST/ACS} imaging in the F475W ($g_{475}$), F606W ($V_{606}$) and F814W ($I_{814}$) bands of the globular cluster (GC) system of a large (3.4 kpc effective radius) ultra-diffuse galaxy (DF17) believed located in the Coma Cluster of galaxies. We detect 11 GCs down to the 5$\\sigma$ completeness limit of the imaging ($I_{814}=$27 mag). Correcting for background and our detection limits yields a total population of GCs in this galaxy of $32\\pm6$ and a $V$-band specific frequency, $S_N=33\\pm6$. Based on comparisons to the GC systems of Local galaxies, we show that both the absolute number and the colors of the GC system of DF17 are consistent with the GC system of a dark-matter dominated dwarf galaxy with virial mass $\\sim1.0\\times10^{11}$~\\msun and a dark-to-stellar mass ratio, $M_{vir} / M_{ star}\\sim 1300$. Based on the stellar mass-growth of the Milky Way, we show that DF17 cannot be understood as a failed Milky Way-like system, but is more similar to quenched Large Magel...

  14. The state of globular clusters at birth II: primordial binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Nathan W C; Marks, Michael; Webb, Jeremy J; Hypki, Arkadiusz; Heinke, Craig O; Kroupa, Pavel; Sills, Alison

    2014-01-01

    (abridged) In this paper, we constrain the properties of primordial binary populations in Galactic globular clusters using the MOCCA Monte Carlo code for cluster evolution. Our results are compared to the observations of Milone et al. (2012) using the photometric binary populations as proxies for the true underlying distributions, in order to test the hypothesis that the data are consistent with an universal initial binary fraction near unity and the binary orbital parameter distributions of Kroupa (1995). With the exception of a few possible outliers, we find that the data are to first-order consistent with the universality hypothesis. Specifically, the present-day binary fractions inside the half-mass radius r$_{\\rm h}$ can be reproduced assuming either high initial binary fractions near unity with a dominant soft binary component as in the Kroupa distribution combined with high initial densities (10$^4$-10$^6$ M$_{\\odot}$ pc$^{-3}$), or low initial binary fractions ($\\sim$ 5-10%) with a dominant hard binar...

  15. The Ancient Globular Clusters Were Much More Massive At Birth

    CERN Document Server

    Conroy, Charlie

    2011-01-01

    All globular clusters (GCs) studied to date show evidence for internal variation in their light element abundances. These variations have been interpreted as evidence for multiple star formation episodes within GCs, with secondary episodes fueled, at least in part, by the ejecta of AGB stars from a first generation of stars. A major puzzle emerging from this otherwise plausible scenario is that the fraction of stars associated with the second episode of star formation is observed to be much larger than expected for a standard IMF. The present work investigates this tension by modeling the observed anti-correlation between [Na/Fe] and [O/Fe] for 20 Galactic GCs. A strong correlation is found between the fraction of current GC stellar mass comprised of pure AGB ejecta, f_p, and GC mass. This fraction varies from 0.20 at low masses (10^4.5 Msun) to 0.45 at high masses (10^6.5 Msun). The fraction of mass associated with pure AGB ejecta is directly related to the total mass of the cluster at birth; the ratio betwe...

  16. A model for the Globular Cluster extreme anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    D'Antona, F

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the efforts made in the latest years, still there is no comprehensive explanation for the chemical anomalies of globular cluster stars. Among these, the most striking is oxygen depletion, which reaches values down to [O/Fe]~-0.4 in most clusters, but in M13 it goes down to less than [O/Fe]~ - 1. In this work we suggest that the anomalies are due to the super position of two different events: 1) PRIMORDIAL SELF-ENRICHMENT: this is asked to explain the oxygen depletion down to a minimum value [O/Fe]~ -0.4; 2) EXTRA MIXING IN A FRACTION OF THE STARS ALREADY BORN WITH ANOMALOUS COMPOSITION: these objects, starting with already low [O/Fe], will reduce the oxygen abundance down to the most extreme values. Contrary to other models that invoke extra mixing to explain the chemical anomalies, we suggest that it is active only if there is a fraction of the stars in which the primordial composition is not only oxygen depleted, but also extremely helium rich (Y~ 0.4), as found in a few GCs from their main sequ...

  17. A Search for Eclipsing Binaries in Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Von Braun, K

    2003-01-01

    We report on the discovery and analysis of short-period (0.1 days $< P <$ 5 days), photometrically varying binary stars around and below the main-sequence turnoff of the globular clusters (GCs) NGC 3201, M10, & M12. These eclipsing binaries (EBs) may be used to determine directly the distances to GCs and constrain the Population II stellar main-sequence masses. During our search for binaries, we discovered the signature of differential reddening across the cluster fields which was especially strong for NGC 3201 and M10. We correct for this differential reddening by calculating average $E_{V-I}$ values for stars in small subregions of the field with respect to a fiducial region, which significantly improves the appearance of the GC color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The reddening zero point to be added to the differential value is determined by isochrone fitting. The results of our differential dereddening are presented in the form of high-resolution extinction maps. Our search for EBs returned 14 vari...

  18. Formation of globular clusters induced by external ultraviolet radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Kenji; Kitayama, Tetsu

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel scenario for globular cluster (GC) formation, where the ultraviolet (UV) background radiation effectively works so as to produce compact star clusters. Here, we explore the formation of GCs in UV radiation fields. For this purpose, we calculate baryon and dark matter (DM) dynamics in spherical symmetry, incorporating the self-shielding effects by solving the radiative transfer of UV radiation. In addition, we prescribe the star formation in cooled gas components and pursue the dynamics of formed stars. As a result, we find that the evolution of subgalactic objects in UV background radiation are separated into three types, that is, (1) prompt star formation, where less massive clouds ~10^{5-8} M_sun are promptly self-shielded and undergo star formation, (2) delayed star formation, where photoionized massive clouds >10^8 M_sun collapse despite high thermal pressure and are eventually self-shielded to form stars in a delayed fashion, and (3) supersonic infall, where photoionized less massive c...

  19. A catalogue of helium abundance indicators from globular cluster photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandquist, Eric L.

    2000-04-01

    We present a survey of helium abundance indicators derived from a comprehensive study of globular cluster photometry in the literature. For each of the three indicators used, we conduct a thorough error analysis, and identify systematic errors in the computational procedures. For the population ratio RNHBNRGB, we find that there is no evidence of a trend with metallicity, although there appears to be real scatter in the values derived. Although this indicator is the one best able to provide useful absolute helium abundances, the mean value is Y~0.20, indicating the probable presence of additional systematic error. For the magnitude difference from the horizontal branch to the main sequence Δ and the RR Lyrae mass-luminosity exponent A, it is only possible to determine relative helium abundances reliably. This is due to continuing uncertainties in the absolute metallicity scale for Δ, and uncertainty in the RR Lyrae temperature scale for A. Both indicators imply that the helium abundance is approximately constant as a function of [Fe/H]. According to the A indicator, both Oosterhoff I and II group clusters have constant values independent of [Fe/H] and horizontal branch type. In addition, the two groups have slopes dlog/d[Fe/H] that are consistent with each other, but significantly smaller than the slope for the combined sample.

  20. Globular Cluster Mass Loss in the Context of Multiple Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Bastian, Nate

    2015-01-01

    Many scenarios for the origin of the chemical anomalies observed in globular clusters (GCs; i.e., multiple populations) require that GCs were much more massive at birth, up to $10-100\\times$, than they are presently. This is invoked in order to have enough material processed through first generation stars in order to form the observed numbers of enriched stars (inferred to be second generation stars in these models). If such mass loss was due to tidal stripping, gas expulsion, or tidal interaction with the birth environment, there should be clear correlations between the fraction of enriched stars and other cluster properties, whereas the observations show a remarkably uniform enriched fraction of $0.68\\pm0.07$ (from 33 observed GCs). If interpreted in the heavy mass loss paradigm, this means that all GCs lost the same fraction of their initial mass (between $95-98$\\%), regardless of their mass, metallicity, location at birth or subsequent migration, or epoch of formation. This is incompatible with prediction...

  1. Mid-infrared PL relations for Globular Cluster RR Lyrae

    CERN Document Server

    Dambis, A K; Zabolotskikh, M V

    2014-01-01

    The period - metallicity - WISE W1- and W2-band luminosity relations are derived for RR Lyrae stars based on WISE epoch photometry for 360 and 275 stars in 15 and 9 Galactic globular clusters, respectively. Our final relations have the form = gamma(W1) - (2.381 +/- 0.097) log PF + (0.096 +/- 0.021)[Fe/H] and = gamma(W2)-(2.269 +/- 0.127)log PF + (0.108 +/- 0.021)[Fe/H], where [Fe/H] values are on the scale of Carretta et al. (2009). We obtained two appreciably discrepant estimates for the zero points gamma(W1) and gamma(W2) of both relations: one based on a statistical-parallax analysis -- gamma(W1) = -0.829 +/- 0.093 and gamma(W2)=-0.776 +/- 0.093 and another, significantly brighter one, based on HST FGS trigonometric parallaxes -- gamma(W1, HST) =-1.150 +/- 0.077 and gamma(W2, HST) =-1.105 +/- 0.077. The period-metallicity-luminosity relations in the two bands yield highly consistent distance moduli for the calibrator clusters and the distance moduli computed using the W1- and W2-band relations with the H...

  2. Deep WIYN Imaging of the Globular Cluster System of the Lenticular Galaxy NGC 3607

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Derrick; Rhode, Katherine L.; Jorgenson, Regina

    2017-01-01

    Globular clusters serve as relics of a galaxy’s past history, because they are thought to be among the first objects to form in a galaxy. Measuring the properties of the globular cluster population of a galaxy — in particular the total number, spatial distribution, and color distribution of the clusters — can provide important clues about the formation and evolution of that galaxy. Here we present results from the analysis of the globular cluster population of NGC 3607, an S0 galaxy with M_V = -21.9 that is ~23 Mpc away and is the brightest member of the Leo II group. We used images from the Minimosaic camera on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope with total exposure times of 6300, 6000, and 5400 seconds in the B, V, and R filters, respectively, to image the globular cluster system of NGC 3607 well past its apparent radial extent of 6.3’ (41 kpc). Point-source globular clusters are selected with three-filter photometry to help eliminate foreground stars and background galaxies. The excellent seeing in our WIYN images (0.6” to 0.9”) also helped reduce contamination in the globular cluster candidate sample. Artificial star tests yielded 50% completeness levels of B = 25.4, V=25.2, and R=24.1 and we observed approximately 41% of the galaxy’s Globular Cluster Luminosity Function. We estimate the total number of globular clusters in NGC 3607 is 1000+/-50, which translates to specific frequency values of S_N = 1.7+/-0.3 and T = 2.6+/-0.3 for this galaxy’s luminosity and stellar mass. This research was supported in part by NSF REU grant AST-1358980 and the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  3. Discovery of VHE gamma-ray emission from the direction of the globular cluster Terzan 5

    CERN Document Server

    Domainko, W; Brun, F; Eger, P; Jamrozy, M; Dyrda, M; Komin, N; Schwanke, U

    2011-01-01

    Globular clusters are old stellar systems which exhibit very-high stellar densities in their cores. The globular cluster Terzan 5 is characterized by a high stellar encounter rate and hosts the largest detected population of millisecond pulsars. It also features bright GeV gamma-ray emission and extended X-ray radiation. However, no globular clusters have been detected in very-high-energy gamma rays (VHE, E> 100 GeV) so far. In order to investigate this possibility Terzan 5 has been observed with the H.E.S.S. telescope array in this energy band. The discovery of a source of VHE gamma rays from the direction of this globular cluster will be reported. The results of the VHE analysis and a multi-wavelength view of Terzan 5 will be presented in this contribution. No counterpart or model can fully explain the observed morphology of the detected VHE gamma-ray source.

  4. Multiple Stellar Populations and Their Evolution in Globular Clusters: A Nucleosynthesis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, C.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a review of the characteristics of the multiple stellar populations observed in globular clusters, and of their possible origin. The current theoretical issues and the many open questions are discussed.

  5. PROBING THE LINK BETWEEN DYNAMICS AND STELLAR EVOLUTION: BLUE STRAGGLER STARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Ferraro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we review the main observational properties of Blue Straggler Stars (BSS in Galactic Globular Clusters. A flower of results on the BSS frequency, radial distribution, and chemical composition are presented and discussed.

  6. Multiple stellar populations and their evolution in globular clusters: A nucleosynthesis perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonnel, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the characteristics of the multiple stellar populations observed in globular clusters, and of their possible origin. The current theoretical issues and the many open questions are discussed.

  7. Globular Clusters and Spur Clusters in NGC 4921, the Brightest Spiral Galaxy in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2016-01-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in Coma. Also we find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3x10^5 M_odot. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions (LF) of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70<(V-I)<1.05) in the halo are estimated to be V(max) =27.11+-0.09 mag and I(max)=26.21+-0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max)=26.25+-0.03 mag. Adopting M_I (max) = -8.56+-0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies, 91+-4 Mpc. Combining this and the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, ...

  8. THE DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF STELLAR BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Rodriguez, Carl; Rasio, Frederic A.; Umbreit, Stefan, E-mail: m.morscher@u.northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Our current understanding of the stellar initial mass function and massive star evolution suggests that young globular clusters (GCs) may have formed hundreds to thousands of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), the remnants of stars with initial masses from ∼20-100 M {sub ☉}. Birth kicks from supernova explosions may eject some BHs from their birth clusters, but most should be retained. Using a Monte Carlo method we investigate the long-term dynamical evolution of GCs containing large numbers of stellar BHs. We describe numerical results for 42 models, covering a broad range of realistic initial conditions, including up to 1.6 × 10{sup 6} stars. In almost all models we find that significant numbers of BHs (up to ∼10{sup 3}) are retained all the way to the present. This is in contrast to previous theoretical expectations that most BHs should be ejected dynamically within a few gigayears The main reason for this difference is that core collapse driven by BHs (through the Spitzer {sup m}ass segregation instability{sup )} is easily reverted through three-body processes, and involves only a small number of the most massive BHs, while lower-mass BHs remain well-mixed with ordinary stars far from the central cusp. Thus the rapid segregation of stellar BHs does not lead to a long-term physical separation of most BHs into a dynamically decoupled inner core, as often assumed previously. Combined with the recent detections of several BH X-ray binary candidates in Galactic GCs, our results suggest that stellar BHs could still be present in large numbers in many GCs today, and that they may play a significant role in shaping the long-term dynamical evolution and the present-day dynamical structure of many clusters.

  9. Bayesian analysis of two stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters- III. Analysis of 30 clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Stenning, D. C.; Sarajedini, A.; von Hippel, T.; van Dyk, D. A.; Robinson, E.; Stein, N.; Jefferys, W. H.

    2016-12-01

    We use Cycle 21 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations and HST archival ACS Treasury observations of 30 Galactic globular clusters to characterize two distinct stellar populations. A sophisticated Bayesian technique is employed to simultaneously sample the joint posterior distribution of age, distance, and extinction for each cluster, as well as unique helium values for two populations within each cluster and the relative proportion of those populations. We find the helium differences among the two populations in the clusters fall in the range of ˜0.04 to 0.11. Because adequate models varying in carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are not presently available, we view these spreads as upper limits and present them with statistical rather than observational uncertainties. Evidence supports previous studies suggesting an increase in helium content concurrent with increasing mass of the cluster and we also find that the proportion of the first population of stars increases with mass as well. Our results are examined in the context of proposed globular cluster formation scenarios. Additionally, we leverage our Bayesian technique to shed light on the inconsistencies between the theoretical models and the observed data.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Metallicity estimates of M31 globular clusters (Galleti+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleti, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Federici, L.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    2010-04-01

    New empirical relations of [Fe/H] as a function of [MgFe] and Mg2 indices are based on the well-studied galactic globular clusters, complemented with theoretical model predictions for -0.2<=[Fe/H]<=+0.5. Lick indices for M31 clusters from various literature sources (225 clusters) and from new observations by our team (71 clusters) have been transformed into the Trager et al. (2000AJ....119.1645T) system, yielding new metallicity estimates for 245 globular clusters of M31. (3 data files).

  11. On the Temperature Structure of M87

    CERN Document Server

    Molendi, S

    2002-01-01

    We revisit the XMM-Newton observation of M87 focusing our attention on the temperature structure. We find that spectra for most regions of M87 can be adequately fit by single temperature models. Only in a few regions, which are cospatial with the E and SW radio arms, we find evidence of a second temperature. The cooler component (kT ~ 0.8-1 keV) fills a small volume compared to the hotter component (kT ~ 1.6-2.5 keV), it is confined to the radio arms rather than being associated with the potential well of the central cD and is probably structured in blobs with typical sizes smaller than a few 100 pc. Thermal conduction must be suppressed for the cool blobs to survive in the hotter ambient gas. Since the cool gas is observed only in those regions of M87 where we have evidence of radio halos our results favor models in which magnetic fields play a role in suppressing heat conduction. The entropy of the cool blobs is in general smaller than that of the hot phase gas thus cool blobs cannot originate from adiabati...

  12. Bayesian Analysis of Two Stellar Populations in Galactic Globular Clusters III: Analysis of 30 Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner-Kaiser, R; Sarajedini, A; von Hippel, T; van Dyk, D A; Robinson, E; Stein, N; Jefferys, W H

    2016-01-01

    We use Cycle 21 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations and HST archival ACS Treasury observations of 30 Galactic Globular Clusters to characterize two distinct stellar populations. A sophisticated Bayesian technique is employed to simultaneously sample the joint posterior distribution of age, distance, and extinction for each cluster, as well as unique helium values for two populations within each cluster and the relative proportion of those populations. We find the helium differences among the two populations in the clusters fall in the range of ~0.04 to 0.11. Because adequate models varying in CNO are not presently available, we view these spreads as upper limits and present them with statistical rather than observational uncertainties. Evidence supports previous studies suggesting an increase in helium content concurrent with increasing mass of the cluster and also find that the proportion of the first population of stars increases with mass as well. Our results are examined in the context of proposed g...

  13. Globular Cluster Population of Hickson Compact Group 22a and 90c

    CERN Document Server

    Barkhouse, W A; Bothun, G D; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; West, Michael J.; Bothun, Gregory D.

    2001-01-01

    We present the first measurement of the globular cluster populations of galaxies in Hickson compact groups, in order to investigate the effect of these high density environments on the formation and evolution of globular cluster systems. Based on V and R band images that we obtained of HCG 22a and HCG 90c with the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), we find a total globular cluster population of $1590\\pm 854$ for HCG 22a and $2136\\pm 718$ for 90c. The specific frequency for HCG 22a was found to be $S_{N}=1.9\\pm 1.0$ and $S_{N}= 3.4\\pm 1.1$ for HCG 90c. A power-law fit to the globular cluster radial profile of HCG 22a yields $\\sigma\\sim R^{-2.01\\pm 0.30}$ and for HCG 90c we found $\\sigma \\sim R^{-1.20\\pm0.16}$. A comparison of the globular cluster radial profiles with the surface brightness of the parent galaxy shows that the globular cluster systems are at least as extended as the halo light. The measured values for the specific frequency are consistent with a scenario in which the host galaxies were in a low...

  14. The Chemical Properties of Milky Way and M31 Globular Clusters: II. Stellar Population Model Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, M A; Strader, J; Forbes, D A; Proctor, R N; Barmby, P; Huchra, J P; Beasley, Michael A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Strader, Jay; Forbes, Duncan A.; Proctor, Robert N.; Barmby, Pauline; Huchra, John P.

    2004-01-01

    We derive ages, metallicities and [alpha/Fe] ratios from the integrated spectra of 23 globular clusters in M31, by employing multivariate fits to two stellar population models. In parallel we analyze spectra of 21 Galactic globular clusters in order to facilitate a differential analysis. We find that the M31 globular clusters separate into three distinct components in age and metallicity. We identify an old, metal-poor group (7 clusters), an old, metal-rich group (10 clusters) and an intermediate age (3-6 Gyr), intermediate-metallicity ([Z/H]~-1) group (6 clusters). This third group is not identified in the Galactic globular cluster sample. The majority of globular clusters in both samples appear to be enhanced in alpha-elements, the degree of enhancement being model-dependent. The intermediate age GCs appear to be the most enhanced, with [alpha/Fe]~0.4. These clusters are clearly depressed in CN with respect to the models and the bulk of the M31 and Milky Way sample. Compared to the bulge of M31, M32 and NGC...

  15. The X-ray globular cluster NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaino, G

    1976-01-01

    A BV photometric investigation of the Southern Globular Cluster NGC 1851, was carried out using the 1 m telescope of Cerro La Silla (ESO) for the photoelectric work and the 1 m telescope of Cerro Las Campanas (CARSO) for the photographic work. Nineteen stars were observed photoelectrically, the limiting magnitude being V=16.18. Using this sequence, 156 stars were measured photographically. The derived apparent distance modulus is (m-M)/sub app/=15/sup m/.50. The reddening is E(B-V)=0/sup m/.10. The true distance modulus is (m-M) /sub 0/=15/sup m/.20. The distance is 11 kpc from the sun, 6 kpc from the galactic plane and 17 kpc from the galactic centre. The main features of the colour-magnitude diagram are: a well defined horizontal branch abundant in red stars and deficient in blue stars, a rich subgiant and asymptotic branch and a moderately populated red giant branch of medium steepness rising to Delta V=2/sup m/.5 at (B-V) /sub 0/=1.4. At the distance of 11 kpc the maximum observed luminosity of the X-ray ...

  16. The first Delta a observations of three globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Paunzen, E; Pintado, O I; Baum, H; Maitzen, H M; Netopil, M; Oenehag, A; Zejda, M; Fraga, L

    2014-01-01

    Globular clusters are main astrophysical laboratories to test and modify evolutionary models. Thought to be rather homogeneous in their local elemental Distribution of members, results suggest a wide variety of chemical peculiarities. Besides different main sequences, believed to be caused by different helium abundances, peculiarities of blue horizontal-branch stars and on the red giant branch were found. This whole zoo of peculiar objects has to be explained in the context of stellar formation and evolution. The tool of Delta a photometry is employed in order to detect peculiar stars in the whole spectral range. This three filter narrow band system measures the flux distribution in the region from 4900 to 5600A in order to find any peculiarities around 5200A. It is highly efficient to detect classical chemically peculiar stars of the upper main sequence, Be/Ae, shell and metal-weak objects in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds. We present Delta a photometry of 2266 stars from 109 individual frames for three...

  17. New SX Phe variables in the globular cluster NGC288

    CERN Document Server

    Martinazzi, E; Costa, J E S; Pieres, A; Bonatto, C; Bica, E; Fraga, L

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new variable stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 288, found by means of time-series CCD photometry. We classified the new variables as SX Phoenicis due to their characteristic fundamental mode periods (1.02 +- 0.01 and 0.69 +- 0.01 hours), and refine the period estimates for other six known variables. SX Phe stars are known to follow a well-defined Period-Luminosity (P-L) relation and, thus, can be used for determining distances; they are more numerous than RR Lyraes in NGC~288. We obtain the P-L relation for the fundamental mode M_V = (-2.59 +- 0.18) log P_0(d) + (-0.34 +- 0.24) and for the first-overtone mode M_V = (-2.59 +- 0.18) log P_1(d) + (0.50 +- 0.25). Multi-chromatic isochrone fits to our UBV color-magnitude diagrams, based on the Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Database, provide = -1.3 +- 0.1, E(B-V) = 0.02 +- 0.01 and absolute distance modulus (m-M)0 = 14.72 +- 0.01 for NGC 288.

  18. New SX Phe variables in the globular cluster NGC 288

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinazzi, E.; Kepler, S. O.; Costa, J. E. S.; Pieres, A.; Bonatto, C.; Bica, E.; Fraga, L.

    2015-03-01

    We report the discovery of two new variable stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 288, found by means of time series CCD photometry. We classified the new variables as SX Phoenicis (SX Phe) due to their characteristic fundamental mode periods (1.02 ± 0.01 and 0.69 ± 0.01 h), and refine the period estimates for other six known variables. SX Phe stars are known to follow a well-defined period-luminosity (P-L) relation and, thus, can be used for determining distances; they are more numerous than RR Lyraes in NGC 288. We obtain the P-L relation for the fundamental mode MV = (-2.59 ± 0.18) log P0(d) + (-0.34 ± 0.24) and for the first-overtone mode MV = (-2.59 ± 0.18) log P1(d) + (0.50 ± 0.25). Multichromatic isochrone fits to our UBV colour-magnitude diagrams, based on the Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Database, provide = -1.3 ± 0.1, E(B - V) = 0.02 ± 0.01 and absolute distance modulus (m - M)0 = 14.72 ± 0.01 for NGC 288.

  19. Mergers and ejections of black holes in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Aarseth, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    We report on results of fully consistent N-body simulations of globular cluster models with N = 100 000 members containing neutron stars and black holes. Using the improved `algorithmic regularization' method of Hellstrom and Mikkola for compact subsystems, the new code NBODY7 enables for the first time general relativistic coalescence to be achieved for post-Newtonian terms and realistic parameters. Following an early stage of mass segregation, a few black holes form a small dense core which usually leads to the formation of one dominant binary. The subsequent evolution by dynamical shrinkage involves the competing processes of ejection and mergers by radiation energy loss. Unless the binary is ejected, long-lived triple systems often exhibit Kozai cycles with extremely high inner eccentricity (e > 0.999) which may terminate in coalescence at a few Schwarzschild radii. A characteristic feature is that ordinary stars as well as black holes and even BH binaries are ejected with high velocities. On the basis of...

  20. KINEMATICS OF OUTER HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veljanoski, J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Bernard, E. J.; Penarrubia, J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Mackey, A. D. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Huxor, A. P. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fur Astronomie der Universitat Heidelberg, Monchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cote, P. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7 (Canada); Tanvir, N. R.; McConnachie, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F. [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Fardal, M. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, LGRT 619-E, 710 N. Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Lewis, G. F. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-05-10

    We present the first kinematic analysis of the far outer halo globular cluster (GC) population in the Local Group galaxy M31. Our sample contains 53 objects with projected radii of {approx}20-130 kpc, 44 of which have no previous spectroscopic information. GCs with projected radii {approx}> 30 kpc are found to exhibit net rotation around the minor axis of M31, in the same sense as the inner GCs, albeit with a smaller amplitude of 79 {+-} 19 km s{sup -1}. The rotation-corrected velocity dispersion of the full halo GC sample is 106 {+-} 12 km s{sup -1}, which we observe to decrease with increasing projected radius. We find compelling evidence for kinematic coherence among GCs that project on top of halo substructure, including a clear signature of infall for GCs lying along the northwest stream. Using the tracer mass estimator, we estimate the dynamical mass of M31 within 200 kpc to be M{sub M31} = (1.2-1.5) {+-} 0.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. This value is highly dependent on the chosen model and assumptions within.

  1. The DRAGON simulations: globular cluster evolution with a million stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Long; Aarseth, Sverre; Giersz, Mirek; Askar, Abbas; Berczik, Peter; Naab, Thorsten; Schadow, Riko; Kouwenhoven, M B N

    2016-01-01

    Introducing the DRAGON simulation project, we present direct $N$-body simulations of four massive globular clusters (GCs) with $10^6$ stars and 5$\\%$ primordial binaries at a high level of accuracy and realism. The GC evolution is computed with NBODY6++GPU and follows the dynamical and stellar evolution of individual stars and binaries, kicks of neutron stars and black holes, and the effect of a tidal field. We investigate the evolution of the luminous (stellar) and dark (faint stars and stellar remnants) GC components and create mock observations of the simulations (i.e. photometry, color-magnitude diagrams, surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles). By connecting internal processes to observable features we highlight the formation of a long-lived 'dark' nuclear subsystem made of black holes (BHs), which results in a two-component structure. The inner core is dominated by the BH subsystem and experiences a core collapse phase within the first Gyr. It can be detected in the stellar (luminous) line-...

  2. Kinematic Decoupling of Globular Clusters with Extended Horizontal-Branch

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Wook; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I

    2007-01-01

    About 25% of the Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) exhibit unusually extended color distribution of stars in the horizontal-branch (HB) phase. This phenomenon is now best understood as due to the presence of helium enhanced second generation subpopulations, which has raised a possibility that these peculiar GCs might have a unique origin. Here we show that these GCs with extended HB are clearly distinct from other normal GCs in kinematics and mass. The GCs with extended HB are more massive than normal GCs, and are dominated by random motion with no correlation between kinematics and metallicity. Surprisingly, however, when they are excluded, most normal GCs in the inner halo show clear signs of dissipational collapse that apparently led to the formation of the disk. Normal GCs in the outer halo share their kinematic properties with the extended HB GCs, which is consistent with the accretion origin. Our result further suggests heterogeneous origins of GCs, and we anticipate this to be a starting point for more...

  3. The Pulsar Population in Globular Clusters and in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I review some of the basic properties of the pulsar population in globular clusters (GCs) and compare it with the the Galactic disk population. The neutron stars (NSs) in GCs were likely formed - and appear to continue forming - in highly symmetric supernovae (SNe), likely from accretion-induced collapse (AIC). I review the many pulsar finds and discuss some particularly well populated GCs and why they are so. I then discuss some particularly interesting objects, like millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with eccentric orbits, which were heavily perturbed by passing stars. Some of these systems, like NGC 1851A and NGC 6544B, are almost certainly the result of exchange interactions, i.e., they are witnesses to the very same processes that created the large population of MSPs in the first place. I also review briefly the problem posed by the presence of young pulsars in GCs (with a special emphasis on a sub-class of young pulsars, the super-energetic MSPs), which suggest continuing formation of NSs in low-...

  4. The Stellar Populations of Nuclei, Globular Clusters, and Stars in dE Galaxies in Virgo and Fornax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield Miller, Bryan; Hyazinth Puzia, Thomas; Hilker, Michael; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Kissler-Patig, Markus

    2015-08-01

    We present ages and metallicities for globular clusters, nuclei, and underlying stars in nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxies (dE,N) in the Virgo and Fornax Cluster based on Lick/IDS index measurements and SSP models. Gemini/GMOS spectroscopy shows that the globular clusters are mostly old and metal-poor, very similar to the globular clusters in the Milky Way halo. The nuclei and underlying stars tend to be more metal-rich than the globular clusters and have a wide range of ages. The [α/Fe] ratios for both the globular clusters and nuclei range between 0.0 and 0.3. Formation scenarios for globular clusters and nuclei will be discussed.

  5. Tidal tails around globular clusters: are they good tracers of cluster orbits?

    CERN Document Server

    Matteo, P D; Miocchi, P; Montuori, M

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, observational studies have shown the existence of tidal streams in the outer part of many galactic globular clusters. The most striking examples of clusters with well defined tidal tails are represented by Palomar 5 and NGC 5466 (both observed in the framework of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey), which show structures elongated for 4 kpc and 1 kpc in length, respectively. Unfortunately, most of the observational studies about globular clusters (GCs) do not cover such a large field of the sky as the SDSS does. In this framework, by mean of a parallel, adaptive tree-code, we performed detailed N-body simulations of GCs moving in a realistic three-components (bulge, disk and halo) Milky Way potential, in order to clarify whether and to what extent tails in the clusters outer regions (few tidal radii) are tracers of the local orbits and, also, if some kind of correlation exists among the cluster orbital phase and the orientation of such streams.

  6. On the disruption of pulsar and X-ray binaries in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Verbunt, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The stellar encounter rate Gamma has been shown to be strongly correlated with the number of X-ray binaries in clusters and also to the number of radio pulsars. However, the pulsar populations in different clusters show remarkably different characteristics: in some GCs the population is dominated by binary systems, in others by single pulsars and exotic systems that result from exchange encounters. In this paper, we describe a second dynamical parameter for globular clusters, the encounter rate for a single binary, gamma. We find that this parameter provides a good characterization of the differences between the pulsar populations of different globular clusters. The higher gamma is for any particular globular cluster the more isolated pulsars and products of exchange interactions are observed. Furthermore, we also find that slow and "young" pulsars are found almost exclusively in clusters with a high gamma; this suggests that these kinds of objects are formed by the disruption of X-ray binaries, thus halting ...

  7. Globular Clusters Indicate That Ultra-diffuse Galaxies Are Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    We present an analysis of archival HST/ACS imaging in the F475W (g 475), F606W (V 606), and F814W (I 814) bands of the globular cluster (GC) system of a large (3.4 kpc effective radius) ultra-diffuse galaxy (DF17) believed to be located in the Coma Cluster of galaxies. We detect 11 GCs down to the 5σ completeness limit of the imaging (I 814 = 27 mag). Correcting for background and our detection limits yields a total population of GCs in this galaxy of 27 ± 5 and a V-band specific frequency S N = 28 ± 5. Based on comparisons to the GC systems of local galaxies, we show that both the absolute number and the colors of the GC system of DF17 are consistent with the GC system of a dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy with virial mass ˜9.0 × 1010 M ⊙ and a dark-to-stellar mass ratio M vir/M star ˜ 1000. Based on the stellar mass growth of the Milky Way, we show that DF17 cannot be understood as a failed Milky-Way-like system, but is more similar to quenched Large-Magellanic-Cloud-like systems. We find that the mean color of the GC population, g 475-I 814 = 0.91 ± 0.05 mag, coincides with the peak of the color distribution of intracluster GCs and is also similar to those of the blue GCs in the outer regions of massive galaxies. We suggest that both the intracluster GC population in Coma and the blue peak in the GC populations of massive galaxies may be fed—at least in part—by the disrupted equivalents of systems such as DF17.

  8. The DRAGON simulations: globular cluster evolution with a million stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Spurzem, Rainer; Aarseth, Sverre; Giersz, Mirek; Askar, Abbas; Berczik, Peter; Naab, Thorsten; Schadow, Riko; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.

    2016-05-01

    Introducing the DRAGON simulation project, we present direct N-body simulations of four massive globular clusters (GCs) with 106 stars and 5 per cent primordial binaries at a high level of accuracy and realism. The GC evolution is computed with NBODY6++GPU and follows the dynamical and stellar evolution of individual stars and binaries, kicks of neutron stars and black holes (BHs), and the effect of a tidal field. We investigate the evolution of the luminous (stellar) and dark (faint stars and stellar remnants) GC components and create mock observations of the simulations (i.e. photometry, colour-magnitude diagrams, surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles). By connecting internal processes to observable features, we highlight the formation of a long-lived `dark' nuclear subsystem made of BHs, which results in a two-component structure. The inner core is dominated by the BH subsystem and experiences a core-collapse phase within the first Gyr. It can be detected in the stellar (luminous) line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles. The outer extended core - commonly observed in the (luminous) surface brightness profiles - shows no collapse features and is continuously expanding. We demonstrate how a King model fit to observed clusters might help identify the presence of post core-collapse BH subsystems. For global observables like core and half-mass radii, the direct simulations agree well with Monte Carlo models. Variations in the initial mass function can result in significantly different GC properties (e.g. density distributions) driven by varying amounts of early mass-loss and the number of forming BHs.

  9. An updated survey of globular clusters in M 31. II. Newly discovered bright and remote clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleti, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Federici, L.; Buzzoni, A.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    2007-08-01

    Aims:We present the first results of a large spectroscopic survey of candidate globular clusters located in the extreme outskirts of the nearby M 31 galaxy. The survey is aimed at ascertaining the nature of the selected candidates to increase the sample of confirmed M 31 clusters lying more that 2° away from the center of the galaxy. Methods: We obtained low resolution spectra (λ/Δλ ≃ 800-1300) of 48 targets selected from the Extended Source Catalogue of 2MASS, as in Galleti et al. (2005, A&A, 436, 535). The observed candidates have been robustly classified according to their radial velocity and by verifying their extended/point-source nature from ground-based optical images. We have also obtained a spectrum and a radial velocity estimate for the remote M 31 globular discovered by Martin et al. (2006b, MNRAS, 371, 1983). Results: Among the 48 observed candidates clusters we found: 35 background galaxies, 8 foreground Galactic stars, and 5 genuine remote globular clusters. One of them has been already identified independently by Mackey et al. (2007, ApJ, 655, L85), their GC1; the other four are completely new discoveries: B516, B517, B518, B519. The newly discovered clusters lie at projected distance 40 kpc ≲ R_p≲ 100 kpc from the center of M 31, and have absolute integrated magnitude -9.5 ≲ MV ≲ -7.5. For all the observed clusters we have measured the strongest Lick indices and we have obtained spectroscopic metallicity estimates. Mackey-GC1, Martin-GC1, B517 and B518 have spectra typical of old and metal poor globular clusters ([Fe/H] ≲ -1.3); B519 appears old but quite metal-rich ([Fe/H]~≃ -0.5); B516 presents very strong Balmer absorption lines: if this is indeed a cluster it should have a relatively young age (likely < 2 Gyr). Conclusions: The present analysis nearly doubles the number of M 31 globulars at R_p≥ 40 kpc. At odds with the Milky Way, M 31 appears to have a significant population of very bright globular clusters in its extreme

  10. Mass evaporation rate of globular clusters in a strong tidal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Juan P.; Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Hurley, Jarrod R.; Giersz, Mirek

    2017-09-01

    The mass evaporation rate of globular clusters evolving in a strong Galactic tidal field is derived through the analysis of large, multimass N-body simulations. For comparison, we also study the same evaporation rates using mocca Monte Carlo models for globular cluster evolution. Our results show that the mass evaporation rate is a dynamical value, that is, far from a constant single number found in earlier analytical work and commonly used in the literature. Moreover, the evaporation rate derived with these simulations is higher than values previously published. These models also show that the value of the mass evaporation rate depends on the strength of the tidal field. We give an analytical estimate of the mass evaporation rate as a function of time and galactocentric distance ξ(RGC, t). Upon extrapolating this formula to smaller RGC values, our results provide tentative evidence for a very high ξ value at small RGC. Our results suggest that the corresponding mass-loss in the inner Galactic potential could be high and it should be accounted for when star clusters pass within it. This has direct relevance to nuclear cluster formation/growth via the infall of globular clusters through dynamical friction. As an illustrative example, we estimate how the evaporation rate increases for an ∼105 M⊙ globular cluster that decays through dynamical friction into the Galactic Centre. We discuss the findings of this work in relation to the formation of nuclear star clusters by inspiralling globular clusters.

  11. Bayesian Analysis and Characterization of Multiple Populations in Galactic Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Kaiser, Rachel A.; Stenning, David; Sarajedini, Ata; von Hippel, Ted; van Dyk, David A.; Robinson, Elliot; Stein, Nathan; Jefferys, William H.; BASE-9, HST UVIS Globular Cluster Treasury Program

    2017-01-01

    Globular clusters have long been important tools to unlock the early history of galaxies. Thus, it is crucial we understand the formation and characteristics of the globular clusters (GCs) themselves. Historically, GCs were thought to be simple and largely homogeneous populations, formed via collapse of a single molecular cloud. However, this classical view has been overwhelmingly invalidated by recent work. It is now clear that the vast majority of globular clusters in our Galaxy host two or more chemically distinct populations of stars, with variations in helium and light elements at discrete abundance levels. No coherent story has arisen that is able to fully explain the formation of multiple populations in globular clusters nor the mechanisms that drive stochastic variations from cluster to cluster.We use Cycle 21 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations and HST archival ACS Treasury observations of 30 Galactic Globular Clusters to characterize two distinct stellar populations. A sophisticated Bayesian technique is employed to simultaneously sample the joint posterior distribution of age, distance, and extinction for each cluster, as well as unique helium values for two populations within each cluster and the relative proportion of those populations. We find the helium differences among the two populations in the clusters fall in the range of 0.04 to 0.11. Because adequate models varying in CNO are not presently available, we view these spreads as upper limits and present them with statistical rather than observational uncertainties. Evidence supports previous studies suggesting an increase in helium content concurrent with increasing mass of the cluster. We also find that the proportion of the first population of stars increases with mass. Our results are examined in the context of proposed globular cluster formation scenarios.

  12. Hunting for Optical Companions to Binary Msps in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    Here we present a proposal which exploits the re-newed potential of HST after the Service Mission 4 for probing the population of binary Millisecond Pulsars {MSPs} in Globular Clusters. In particular we intend to: {1} extend the search for optical counterparts in Terzan 5, by pushing the performance of the WFC3 IR channel to sample the entire MS extension down to M=0.1 Mo; {2} perform a deep multi-band search of MSP companions with the WFC3, in 3 clusters {namely NGC6440, M28 and M5}, where recent radio observations have found particularly interesting objects; {3} derive an accurate radial velocity {with STIS} of the puzzling optical companion COM6266B recently discovered by our group, to firmly assess its cluster membership.This program is the result of a large collaboration among the three major groups {lead by Freire, Ransom and Possenti} which are performing extensive MSP search in GCs in the radio bands, and our group which has a large experience in performing accurate stellar photometry in crowded environments. This collaboration has produced a number of outstanding discoveries. In fact, three of the 6 optical counterparts to binary MSP companions known to date in GCs have been discovered by our group. The observations here proposed would easily double/triple the existing sample of known MSP companions, allowing the first meaningful approach to the study of the formation, evolution and recycling process of pulsar in GCs. Moreover, since most of binary MSPs in GCs are thought to form via stellar interactions in the high density core regions, the determination of the nature of the companion and the incidence of this collisionally induced population has a significant impact on our knowledge of the cluster dynamics. Even more interesting, the study of the optical companions to NSs in GCs allows one to derive tighter constraints {than those obtainable for NS binaries in the Galactic field} on the system properties. This has, in turn, an intrisic importance for

  13. Are Young Massive Star Clusters in the Local Universe Analogous to Globular Clusters Progenitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, Corinne

    2015-08-01

    Several models do compete to reproduce the present-day characteristics of globular clusters (GC) and to explain the origin of the multiple stellar populations these systems are hosting.In parallel, independent clues on GC early evolution may be derived from observations of young massive clusters (YMC) in the Local Group.But are these two populations of clusters related? In this talk, we discuss how and if GC and YMC data can be reconciled.We revisit in particular the impact of massive stars on the early evolution of massive star clusters, as well as the question of early gas expulsion.We propose several tests to probe whether the YMC we are observing today can be considered as the analogues of GC progenitors.

  14. Wide-Field Survey of Globular Clusters in M31. II. Kinematics of the Globular Cluster System

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Geisler, Doug; Sarajedini, Ata; Harris, William E

    2007-01-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of the globular cluster(GC) system in M31. Using the photometric and spectroscopic database of 504 GCs, we have investigated the kinematics of the M31 GC system. We find that the all GC system shows strong rotation, with rotation amplitude of v_rot~190km/s, and that a weak rotation persists even for the outermost samples at |Y|>5kpc. The rotation-corrected velocity dispersion for the GC system is estimated to be sigma_{p,r}~130km/s, and it increases from sigma_{p,r}~120km/s at |Y|5kpc. These results are very similar to those for the metal-poor GCs. This shows that there is a dynamically hot halo in M31 that is rotating but primarily pressure-supported. We have identified 50 "friendless" GCs, and they appear to rotate around the major axis of M31. For the subsamples of metal-poor and metal-rich GCs, we have found that the metal-rich GCs are more centrally concentrated than the metal-poor GCs, and both subsamples show strong rotation. For the subsamples of bright and faint GCs, i...

  15. Cluster AgeS Experiment (CASE): Deficiency of observed dwarf novae in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrukowicz, P; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A; Thompson, I B; Pych, W; Krzeminski, W; Mazur, B

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a search for dwarf novae (DNe) in globular clusters (GCs). It is based on the largest available homogeneous sample of observations, in terms of the time span, number of observations and number of clusters. It includes 16 Galactic GCs and yielded two new certain DNe: M55-CV1 and M22-CV2. All previously known systems located in our fields were recovered, too. We surveyed M4, M5, M10, M12, M22, M30, M55, NGC 288, NGC 362, NGC 2808, NGC 3201, NGC 4372, NGC 6362, NGC 6752, omega Cen (NGC 5139) and 47 Tuc (NGC 104). The discovery of two DNe, namely M55-CV1 and M22-CV2, was already reported by Kaluzny et al. (2005) and Pietrukowicz et al. (2005), respectively. In the remaining 14 GCs we found no certain new DNe. Our result raises the total number of known DNe in the Galactic globular clusters to 12 DNe, distributed among 7 clusters. Our survey recovered all three already known erupting cataclysmic variables (CVs) located in our fields, namely M5-V101, M22-CV1, and V4 in the foreground of M3...

  16. Large-scale study of the NGC 1399 globular cluster system in Fornax

    CERN Document Server

    Bassino, L P; Forte, J C; Dirsch, B; Richtler, T; Geisler, D; Schuberth, Y

    2006-01-01

    We present a Washington C and Kron-Cousins R photometric study of the globular cluster system of NGC 1399, the central galaxy of the Fornax cluster. A large areal coverage of 1 square degree around NGC 1399 is achieved with three adjoining fields of the MOSAIC II Imager at the CTIO 4-m telescope. Working on such a large field, we can perform the first indicative determination of the total size of the NGC 1399 globular cluster system. The estimated angular extent, measured from the NGC 1399 centre and up to a limiting radius where the areal density of blue globular clusters falls to 30 per cent of the background level, is 45 +/- 5 arcmin, which corresponds to 220 - 275 kpc at the Fornax distance. The bimodal colour distribution of this globular cluster system, as well as the different radial distribution of blue and red clusters, up to these large distances from the parent galaxy, are confirmed. The azimuthal globular cluster distribution exhibits asymmetries that might be understood in terms of tidal strippin...

  17. Understanding the central kinematics of globular clusters with simulated integrated-light IFU observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchini, Paolo; van de Ven, Glenn; Schinnerer, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The detection of intermediate mass black holes in the centres of globular clusters is highly controversial, as complementary observational methods often deliver significantly different results. In order to understand these discrepancies, we develop a procedure to simulate integral field unit (IFU) observations of globular clusters: Simulating IFU Star Cluster Observations (SISCO). The input of our software are realistic dynamical models of globular clusters that are then converted in a spectral data cube. We apply SISCO to Monte Carlo cluster simulations from Downing et al. (2010), with a realistic number of stars and concentrations. Using independent realisations of a given simulation we are able to quantify the stochasticity intrinsic to the problem of observing a partially resolved stellar population with integrated-light spectroscopy. We show that the luminosity-weighted IFU observations can be strongly biased by the presence of a few bright stars that introduce a scatter in the velocity dispersion measur...

  18. Synthetic and observed photometric indices for globular clusters in the galaxy and M31

    CERN Document Server

    Covino, S; Malagnini, M L; Buzzoni, A

    1994-01-01

    Buzzoni's (1989) grid of synthetic spectral energy distributions, representative of old stellar populations, was used to derive colours in different photometric systems, and to compare the theoretical predictions with the observational data referring to about 120 globular clusters in the Galaxy and to 159 objects of the globular cluster system of M31. Synthetic and observed indices display an overall agreement in the composite planes of two-colour diagrams, thus in agreement with the standard evolutionary scenario leading, for globular clusters, to old stellar populations consistent with an age of 15 Gyr and a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF). The two main parameters modulating the cluster colour distributions are, as known, metallicity and horizontal branch morphology, while IMF slope and mass loss rate from stars in the red-giant branch and asymptotic-giant branch evolutionary stages produce only minor, although not negligible, effects on the integrated colours. The M31 and Galactic cluster populations ...

  19. Collisions of Free Floating Planets with Evolved Stars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, N; Fregeau, J M; Soker, Noam; Rappaport, Saul; Fregeau, John

    2001-01-01

    We estimate the rate of collisions between stars and free-floating planets (FFPs) in globular clusters, in particular the collision of FFPs with red giant branch (RGB) stars. Recent dynamical simulations imply that the density of such objects could exceed million per cubic parsec near the cores of rich globular clusters. We show that in these clusters 5-10 per cents of all RGB stars near the core would suffer a collision with a FFP, and that such a collision can spin up the RGB star's envelope by an order of magnitude. In turn, the higher rotation rates may lead to enhanced mass-loss rates on the RGB, which could result in bluer horizontal branch (HB) stars. Hence, it is plausible that the presence of a large population of FFPs in a globular cluster can influence the distribution of stars on the HB of that cluster to a detectable degree.

  20. Bright Stars and Metallicity Spread in the Globular Cluster omega Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Sergio; Covino, Stefano; Carraro, Giovanni

    The globular cluster omega Centauri (NGC~5139) is the most massive and brightest cluster in our Galaxy. It has also a moderately high mass to light ratio (3.6) and an anomalous flattening (0.83) for a globular cluster. This cluster is also very interesting because it is one of a few examples of globular clusters with a measurable spread in the metal abundance (see Da Costa & Willumsen 1981, Norris et al. 1996, and Suntzeff and Kraft 1996 and references therein) and then it offers a unique, big sample of nearby stars having all the same distance and reddening but showing different metallicity (and age ?) effects. A recent paper by Norris et al. (1997) shows also an interesting correlation between kinematics and metal abundance.

  1. Bright Stars and Metallicity Spread in the Globular Cluster Omega Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Ortolani, S; Carraro, G; Ortolani, Sergio; Covino, Stefano; Carraro, Giovanni

    1998-01-01

    The globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) is the most massive and brightest cluster in our Galaxy. It has also a moderately high mass to light ratio (3.6) and an anomalous flattening (0.83) for a globular cluster. This cluster is also very interesting because it is one of a few examples of globular clusters with a measurable spread in the metal abundance (see Da Costa & Willumsen 1981, Norris et al. 1996, and Suntzeff and Kraft 1996 and references therein) and then it offers a unique, big sample of nearby stars having all the same distance and reddening but showing different metallicity (and age ?) effects. A recent paper by Norris et al. (1997) shows also an interesting correlation between kinematics and metal abundance.

  2. Spitzer Microlensing Program as a Probe for Globular Cluster Planets. Analysis of OGLE-2015-BLG-0448

    CERN Document Server

    Poleski, Radosław; Christie, Grant W; Udalski, Andrzej; Gould, Andrew; Bachelet, Etienne; Skottfelt, Jesper; Novati, Sebastiano Calchi; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Ulaczyk, K; Pietrukowicz, P; Kozłowski, Szymon; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Pawlak, M; Beichman, C; Bryden, G; Carey, S; Fausnaugh, M; Gaudi, B S; Henderson, C B; Pogge, R W; Shvartzvald, Y; Wibking, B; Yee, J C; Beatty, T G; Eastman, J D; Drummond, J; Friedmann, M; Henderson, M; Johnson, J A; Kaspi, S; Maoz, D; McCormick, J; McCrady, N; Natusch, T; Ngan, H; Porritt, I; Relles, H M; Sliski, D H; Tan, T -G; Wittenmyer, R A; Wright, J T; Street, R A; Tsapras, Y; Bramich, D M; Horne, K; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Menzies, J; Jaimes, R Figuera; Wambsganss, J; Schmidt, R; Cassan, A; Ranc, C; Mao, S; Bozza, V; Dominik, M; Hundertmark, M P G; Jørgensen, U G; Andersen, M I; Burgdorf, M J; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Evans, D F; Gu, S -H; Hinse, T C; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Kuffmeier, M; Mancini, L; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Rasmussen, R T; Southworth, G Scarpetta J; Surdej, J; Unda-Sanzana, E; Verma, P; von Essen, C; Wang, Y -B; Wertz, O

    2015-01-01

    The microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-0448 was observed by Spitzer and lay within the tidal radius of the globular cluster NGC 6558. The event had moderate magnification and was intensively observed, hence it had the potential to probe the distribution of planets in globular clusters. We measure the proper motion of NGC 6558 ($\\mu_{\\rm cl}$(N,E) = (+0.36+-0.10, +1.42+-0.10) mas/yr) as well as the source and show that the lens is not a cluster member. Even though this particular event does not probe the distribution of planets in globular clusters, other potential cluster lens events can be verified using our methodology. Additionally, we find that microlens parallax measured using OGLE photometry is consistent with the value found based on the light curve displacement between Earth and Spitzer.

  3. Globular Clusters as Tracers of Stellar Bimodality in Elliptical Galaxies: The Case of NGC 1399

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, J C; Geisler, D; Forte, Juan C.; Faifer, Favio; Geisler, Doug

    2004-01-01

    Globular cluster systems (GCS) frequently show a bi-modal distribution of the cluster integrated colours. This work explores the arguments to support the idea that the same feature is shared by the diffuse stellar population of the galaxy they are associated with. In the particular case of NGC 1399 the results show that the galaxy brightness profile and colour gradient as well as the behaviour of the cumulative globular cluster specific frequency, are compatible with the presence of two dominant stellar populations, associated with the so called "blue" and "red" globular cluster families. These globular families are characterized by different intrinsic specific frequencies (defined in terms of each stellar population): Sn=3.3 +/- 0.3 in the case of the red globulars and Sn=14.3 +/- 2.5 for the blue ones. We stress that this result is not necessarily conflicting with recent works that point out a clear difference between the metallicity distribution of (resolved) halo stars and globulars when comparing their n...

  4. The "quiescent" black hole in M87

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C S; Fabian, A C; Hwang, U; Canizares, C R

    1996-01-01

    It is believed that most giant elliptical galaxies possess nuclear black holes with masses in excess of $10^8\\Msun$. Bondi accretion from the interstellar medium might then be expected to produce quasar-like luminosities from the nuclei of even quiescent elliptical galaxies. It is a puzzle that such luminosities are not observed. Motivated by this problem, Fabian & Rees have recently suggested that the final stages of accretion in these objects occurs in an advection-dominated mode with a correspondingly small radiative efficiency. Despite possessing a long-known active nucleus and dynamical evidence for a black hole, the low radiative and kinetic luminosities of the core of M87 provide the best illustration of this problem. We examine an advection-dominated model for the nucleus of M87 and show that accretion at the Bondi rate is compatible with the best known estimates for the core flux from radio through to X-ray wavelengths. The success of this model prompts us to propose that FR-I radio galaxies and ...

  5. Globular cluster formation with multiple stellar populations from hierarchical star cluster complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Most old globular clusters (GCs) in the Galaxy are observed to have internal chemical abundance spreads in light elements. We discuss a new GC formation scenario based on hierarchical star formation within fractal molecular clouds. In the new scenario, a cluster of bound and unbound star clusters (`star cluster complex', SCC) that have a power-law cluster mass function with a slope (β) of 2 is first formed from a massive gas clump developed in a dwarf galaxy. Such cluster complexes and β = 2 are observed and expected from hierarchical star formation. The most massive star cluster (`main cluster'), which is the progenitor of a GC, can accrete gas ejected from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars initially in the cluster and other low-mass clusters before the clusters are tidally stripped or destroyed to become field stars in the dwarf. The SCC is initially embedded in a giant gas hole created by numerous supernovae of the SCC so that cold gas outside the hole can be accreted onto the main cluster later. New stars formed from the accreted gas have chemical abundances that are different from those of the original SCC. Using hydrodynamical simulations of GC formation based on this scenario, we show that the main cluster with the initial mass as large as [2 - 5] × 105M⊙ can accrete more than 105M⊙ gas from AGB stars of the SCC. We suggest that merging of hierarchical star cluster complexes can play key roles in stellar halo formation around GCs and self-enrichment processes in the early phase of GC formation.

  6. Two stellar-mass black holes in the globular cluster M22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J; Miller-Jones, James C A; Seth, Anil C

    2012-10-04

    Hundreds of stellar-mass black holes probably form in a typical globular star cluster, with all but one predicted to be ejected through dynamical interactions. Some observational support for this idea is provided by the lack of X-ray-emitting binary stars comprising one black hole and one other star ('black-hole/X-ray binaries') in Milky Way globular clusters, even though many neutron-star/X-ray binaries are known. Although a few black holes have been seen in globular clusters around other galaxies, the masses of these cannot be determined, and some may be intermediate-mass black holes that form through exotic mechanisms. Here we report the presence of two flat-spectrum radio sources in the Milky Way globular cluster M22, and we argue that these objects are black holes of stellar mass (each ∼10-20 times more massive than the Sun) that are accreting matter. We find a high ratio of radio-to-X-ray flux for these black holes, consistent with the larger predicted masses of black holes in globular clusters compared to those outside. The identification of two black holes in one cluster shows that ejection of black holes is not as efficient as predicted by most models, and we argue that M22 may contain a total population of ∼5-100 black holes. The large core radius of M22 could arise from heating produced by the black holes.

  7. Variable stars in the VVV globular clusters. I. 2MASS-GC02 and Terzan10

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-García, Javier; Catelan, Márcio; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Gran, Felipe; Amigo, Pía; Leyton, Paul; Minniti, Dante

    2014-01-01

    The VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is opening a new window to study the inner Galactic globular clusters using their variable stars. These globular clusters have been neglected in the past due to the difficulties caused by the presence of an elevated extinction and high field stellar densities in their lines of sight. However, the discovery and study of any present variables in these clusters, especially RRLyrae stars, can help to greatly improve the accuracy of their physical parameters. It can also help to shed some light on the interrogations brought by the intriguing Oosterhoff dichotomy in the Galactic globular cluster system. In a series of papers we plan to explore the variable stars in the globular clusters falling inside the field of the VVV survey. In this first paper we search and study the variables present in two highly-reddened, moderately metal-poor, faint, inner Galactic globular clusters: 2MASS-GC02 and Terzan10. We report the discovery of sizable populations of RR ...

  8. FORS2/VLT survey of Milky Way globular clusters. II. Fe and Mg abundances of 51 Milky Way globular clusters on a homogeneous scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, B.; Barbuy, B.; Saviane, I.; Held, E. V.; Da Costa, G. S.; Ortolani, S.; Gullieuszik, M.; Vásquez, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Globular clusters trace the formation and evolution of the Milky Way and surrounding galaxies, and outline their chemical enrichment history. To accomplish these tasks it is important to have large samples of clusters with homogeneous data and analysis to derive kinematics, chemical abundances, ages and locations. Aims: We obtain homogeneous metallicities and α-element enhancement for 51 Galactic bulge, disc, and halo globular clusters that are among the most distant and/or highly reddened in the Galaxy's globular cluster system. We also provide membership selection based on stellar radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. The implications of our results are discussed. Methods: We observed R ~ 2000 spectra in the wavelength interval 456-586 nm for over 800 red giant stars in 51 Galactic globular clusters. We applied full spectrum fitting with the code ETOILE together with libraries of observed and synthetic spectra. We compared the mean abundances of all clusters with previous work and with field stars. We used the relation between mean metallicity and horizontal branch morphology defined by all clusters to select outliers for discussion. Results: [Fe/H], [Mg/Fe], and [α/Fe] were derived in a consistent way for almost one-third of all Galactic globular clusters. We find our metallicities are comparable to those derived from high-resolution data to within σ = 0.08 dex over the interval -2.5< [Fe/H] < 0.0. Furthermore, a comparison of previous metallicity scales with our values yields σ< 0.16 dex. We also find that the distribution of [Mg/Fe] and [α/Fe] with [Fe/H] for the 51 clusters follows the general trend exhibited by field stars. It is the first time that the following clusters have been included in a large sample of homogeneous stellar spectroscopic observations and metallicity derivation: BH 176, Djorg 2, Pal 10, NGC 6426, Lynga 7, and Terzan 8. In particular, only photometric metallicities were available previously for the first three

  9. Modeling the Formation of Globular Cluster Systems in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Globular cluster (GC) systems are some of the oldest and most unique building blocks of galaxies. The mass and chemical composition of GCs preserve the fossil record of the early stages of formation of their host galaxies. The observed distribution of GC colors within massive early-type galaxies in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) reveals a multi-modal shape, which likely corresponds to a multi-modal metallicity distribution. In this paper, we present a simple model for the formation and dynamical disruption of globular clusters that aims to match the ACSVCS data. We test the hypothesis that GCs are formed during major mergers of gas-rich galaxies and inherit the metallicity of their hosts. To trace merger events, we use halo merger trees extracted from a large cosmological N-body simulation. We select 20 halos in the mass range 2*10^{12}-7*10^{13} M_sun and match them to 18 Virgo galaxies with K-band luminosity between 3*10^{10} and 3*10^{11}L_sun. To set the Iron abundances, we use an empirical galaxy ...

  10. GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND SPUR CLUSTERS IN NGC 4921, THE BRIGHTEST SPIRAL GALAXY IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung, E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: isjang@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in the Coma cluster. We also find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70 < (V − I) ≤ 1.05) in the halo are estimated V(max) = 27.11 ± 0.09 mag and I(max) = 26.21 ± 0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max) = 26.25 ± 0.03 mag. Adopting M{sub I} (max) = −8.56 ± 0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies to be 91 ± 4 Mpc. Combining this with the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H{sub 0} = 77.9 ± 3.6 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}. We estimate the GC specific frequency of NGC 4921 to be S{sub N} = 1.29 ± 0.25, close to the values for early-type galaxies. This indicates that NGC 4921 is in the transition phase to S0s.

  11. The Identification of Blue Horizontal Branch Stars in the Integrated Spectra of Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavon, R P; Courteau, S; MacArthur, L

    2004-01-01

    A major uncertainty in the spectroscopic dating of extragalactic globular clusters concerns the degenerate effect that age and horizontal branch morphology have on the strength of Balmer lines. In this Letter we show that the ratio between the equivalent widths of Hdelta and Hbeta is far more sensitive to horizontal branch morphology than to age, thus making it possible to break the degeneracy. We show that it is possible to distinguish intermediate-age globular clusters from those whose Balmer lines are strengthened by the presence of blue horizontal branch stars, purely on the basis of the clusters' integrated spectra. The degeneracy between age and horizontal branch morphology can be lifted with Hbeta and Hdelta line strengths from spectra with S/N >= 30 per Angstrom, which is typical of current studies of integrated spectroscopy of extragalactic globular clusters.

  12. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A

    2015-07-31

    The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments.

  13. A NEW DISTANT MILKY WAY GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN THE PAN-STARRS1 3π SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Sesar, Branimir; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schlafly, Edward F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Denneau, Larry; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Sweeney, William E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Price, Paul A., E-mail: benjamin.laevens@astro.unistra.fr [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    We present a new satellite in the outer halo of the Galaxy, the first Milky Way satellite found in the stacked photometric catalog of the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1) Survey. From follow-up photometry obtained with WFI on the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope, we argue that the object, located at a heliocentric distance of 145 ± 17 kpc, is the most distant Milky Way globular cluster yet known. With a total magnitude of M{sub V} = –4.3 ± 0.2 and a half-light radius of 20 ± 2 pc, it shares the properties of extended globular clusters found in the outer halo of our Galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy. The discovery of this distant cluster shows that the full spatial extent of the Milky Way globular cluster system has not yet been fully explored.

  14. A new distant Milky Way globular cluster in the Pan-STARRS1 3{\\pi} survey

    CERN Document Server

    Laevens, Benjamin P M; Sesar, Branimir; Bernard, Edouard J; Rix, Hans-Walter; Slater, Colin T; Bell, Eric F; Ferguson, Annette M N; Schlafly, Edward F; Burgett, William S; Chambers, Kenneth C; Denneau, Larry; Draper, Peter W; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A; Metcalfe, Nigel; Morgan, Jeffrey S; Price, Paul A; Sweeney, William E; Tonry, John L; Wainscoat, Richard J; Waters, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We present a new satellite in the outer halo of the Galaxy, the first Milky Way satellite found in the stacked photometric catalog of the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1) Survey. From follow-up photometry obtained with WFI on the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope, we argue that the object, located at a heliocentric distance of 145+/-17 kpc, is the most distant Milky Way globular cluster yet known. With a total magnitude of M_V=-4.3+/-0.2 and a half-light radius of 20+/-2 pc, it shares the properties of extended globular clusters found in the outer halo of our Galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy. The discovery of this distant cluster shows that the full spatial extent of the Milky Way globular cluster system has not yet been fully explored.

  15. Age Estimates of Universe: from Globular Clusters to Cosmological Models and Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Fatima, Hira; Rahman, Syed Faisal Ur

    2016-01-01

    We performed the photometric analysis of M2 and M92 globular clusters in g and r bands of SLOAN photometric system. We transformed these g and r bands into BV bands of Johnson-Cousins photometric system and built the color magnitude diagram (CMD). We estimated the age, and metallicity of both the clusters, by fitting Padova isochrones of different age and metallicities onto the CMD. We studied Einstein and de Sitter model, bench mark model, the cosmological parameters by WMAP and Planck surveys. Finally, we compared estimated age of globular clusters to the ages from the cosmological models and cosmological parameters values of WMAP and Planck surveys.

  16. A history of the gamma-ray burst flux at the Earth from Galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Domainko, W; Feng, F

    2013-01-01

    Nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are likely to have represented a significant threat to life on the Earth. Recent observations suggest that a significant source of such bursts is compact binary mergers in globular clusters. This link between globular clusters and GRBs offers the possibility to find time intervals in the past with higher probabilities of a nearby burst, by tracing globular cluster orbits back in time. Here we show that the expected flux from such bursts is not flat over the past 550 Myr but rather exhibits three broad peaks, at 70, 180 and 340 Myr ago. The main source for nearby GRBs for all three time intervals is the globular cluster 47 Tuc, a consequence of its large mass and high stellar encounter rate, as well as the fact that it is one of the globular clusters which comes quite close to the Sun. Mass extinction events indeed coincide with all three time intervals found in this study, although a chance coincidence is quite likely. Nevertheless, the identified time intervals can be used as a...

  17. The Gamma-Ray Pulsar Population of Globular Clusters: Implications for the GeV Excess

    CERN Document Server

    Hooper, Dan

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the GeV excess, observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, might originate from a population of millisecond pulsars that formed in globular clusters. With this in mind, we employ the publicly available Fermi data to study the gamma-ray emission from 157 globular clusters, identifying a statistically significant signal from 25 of these sources (ten of which are not found in existing gamma-ray catalogs). We combine these observations with the predicted pulsar formation rate based on the stellar encounter rate of each globular cluster to constrain the gamma-ray luminosity function of millisecond pulsars in the Milky Way's globular cluster system. We find that this pulsar population exhibits a luminosity function that is quite similar to those millisecond pulsars observed in the field of the Milky Way (i.e. the thick disk). After pulsars are expelled from a globular cluster, however, they continue to lose rotational kinetic energy and become less luminous, causing their l...

  18. Estimating the parameters of globular cluster M 30 (NGC 7099) from time-series photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kains, N.; Bramich, D.M.; Arellano Ferro, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of 26 nights of V and I time-series observations from 2011 and 2012 of the globular cluster M 30 (NGC 7099). We used our data to search for variable stars in this cluster and refine the periods of known variables; we then used our variable star light curves to derive...

  19. Distances, Ages, and Epoch of Formation of Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, Eugenio; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Clementini, Gisella; Fusi Pecci, Flavio

    2000-04-01

    We review the results on distances and absolute ages of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) obtained after the release of the Hipparcos catalog. Several methods aimed at the definition of the Population II local distance scale are discussed, and their results compared, exploiting new results for RR Lyraes in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We find that the so-called short distance and long distance scales may be reconciled whether or not a consistent reddening scale is adopted for Cepheids and RR Lyrae variables in the LMC. Emphasis is given in the paper to the discussion of distances and ages of GCs derived using Hipparcos parallaxes of local subdwarfs. We find that the selection criteria adopted to choose the local subdwarfs, as well as the size of the corrections applied to existing systematic biases, are the main culprit for the differences found among the various independent studies that first used Hipparcos parallaxes and the subdwarf fitting technique. We also caution that the absolute age of M92 (usually considered one of the oldest clusters) still remains uncertain due to the lack of subdwarfs of comparable metallicity with accurate parallaxes. Distances and ages for the nine clusters discussed in a previous paper by Gratton et al. are rederived using an enlarged sample of local subdwarfs, which includes about 90% of the metal-poor dwarfs with accurate parallaxes (Δπ/πzero-age horizontal branch (ZAHB) absolute magnitude and metallicity for the nine program clusters turns out to be MV(ZAHB)=(0.18+/-0.09)([Fe/H]+1.5)+(0.53+/-0.12) Thanks to Hipparcos the major contribution to the total error budget associated with the subdwarf fitting technique has been moved from parallaxes to photometric calibrations, reddening, and metallicity scale. This total uncertainty still amounts to about +/-0.12 mag. We then compare the corresponding (true) LMC distance modulus μLMC=18.64+/-0.12 mag with other existing determinations. We conclude that at present the best

  20. New cluster members and halo stars of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Navin, Colin A; Zucker, Daniel B

    2015-01-01

    NGC 1851 is an intriguing Galactic globular cluster, with multiple stellar evolutionary sequences, light and heavy element abundance variations and indications of a surrounding stellar halo. We present the first results of a spectroscopic study of red giant stars within and outside of the tidal radius of this cluster. Our results identify nine probable new cluster members (inside the tidal radius) with heliocentric radial velocities consistent with that of NGC 1851. We also identify, based on their radial velocities, four probable extratidal cluster halo stars at distances up to ~3.1 times the tidal radius, which are supportive of previous findings that NGC 1851 is surrounded by an extended stellar halo. Proper motions were available for 12 of these 13 stars and all are consistent with that of NGC 1851. Apart from the cluster members and cluster halo stars, our observed radial velocity distribution agrees with the expected distribution from a Besancon disk/N-body stellar halo Milky Way model generated by the ...

  1. A Color-Magnitude Diagram for a Globular Cluster In the Giant Elliptical Galaxy NGC 5128

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, G L H; Harris, W E

    1998-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has been used to obtain WFPC2 (V,I) photometry for a large sample of stars in the outer halo of the giant elliptical NGC 5128 (d = 4 Mpc). The globular cluster N5128-C44, at the center of the Planetary Camera field, is well enough resolved to permit the construction of a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for it which covers the brightest two magnitudes of the giant branch. The CMD is consistent with that of a normal old, moderately low-metallicity ([Fe/H] = -1.30 globular cluster, distinctly more metal-poor than most of the field halo stars at the same projected location (which average [Fe/H] ~ -0.5). This is the most distant globular cluster in which direct color-magnitude photometry has been achieved to date, and the first one belonging to a giant E galaxy.

  2. Constraints on the neutrino magnetic dipole moment: The tip-RGB luminosity of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceo-Díaz, S.; Schröder, K.-P.; Zuber, K.; Jack, D.

    2015-10-01

    In this work we compared the predictions about the tip-RGB bolometric luminosity of low-mass stars in stellar models built with the Cambridge-STARS code for stellar evolution, with the evidence provided by the observational data of 25 globular clusters from the largest homogeneous database in the NIR. We found that 12 well populated globular clusters (headed up by omega Centauri, the largest globular cluster in the galaxy) suggest mu_{nu}≤ 2.2× 10(-12}mu_{B) , while the uncertainties of both the stellar models and the observations require the more robust constraint mu_{nu}≤ 2.6× 10(-12}mu_{B) . Finally, using synthetic spectra constructed with the PHOENIX code for stellar atmospheres, we qualitatively estimated the effect on the brightness of specific NIR-bands.

  3. Numerical wave optics and the lensing of gravitational waves by globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Moylan, Andrew J; Scott, Susan M; Searle, Antony C; Bicknell, G V

    2008-01-01

    We consider the possible effects of gravitational lensing by globular clusters on gravitational waves from asymmetric neutron stars in our galaxy. In the lensing of gravitational waves, the long wavelength, compared with the usual case of optical lensing, can lead to the geometrical optics approximation being invalid, in which case a wave optical solution is necessary. In general, wave optical solutions can only be obtained numerically. We describe a computational method that is particularly well suited to numerical wave optics. This method enables us to compare the properties of several lens models for globular clusters without ever calling upon the geometrical optics approximation, though that approximation would sometimes have been valid. Finally, we estimate the probability that lensing by a globular cluster will significantly affect the detection, by ground-based laser interferometer detectors such as LIGO, of gravitational waves from an asymmetric neutron star in our galaxy, finding that the probability...

  4. Searching for Dark Matter Annihilation in M87

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Sheetal; Rüger, Michael; Summa, Alexander; Mannheim, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies, such as the Virgo cluster, host enormous quantities of dark matter, making them prime targets for efforts in indirect dark matter detection via potential radiative signatures from annihilation of dark matter particles and subsequent radiative losses of annihilation products. However, a careful study of ubiquitous astrophysical backgrounds is mandatory to single out potential evidence for dark matter annihilation. Here, we construct a multiwavelength spectral energy distribution for the central radio galaxy in the Virgo cluster, M87, using a state-of-the-art numerical Synchrotron Self Compton approach. Fitting recent Chandra, Fermi-LAT and Cherenkov observations, we probe different dark matter annihilation scenarios including a full treatment of the inverse Compton losses from electrons and positrons produced in the annihilation. It is shown that such a template can substantially improve upon existing dark matter detection limits.

  5. LIGHTCURVES OF HST-1 IN M87

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento de nudos en jets astrofísicos es comúnmente interpretado como ondas de choque moviéndose a lo largo de éstos. Observaciones multifrecuencia del nudo HST-1 en extensos periodos de tiempo producen complicadas curvas de luz, las cuales son difíciles de modelar con codigos hidrodinámicos estándar. En este trabajo reproducimos estas curvas de luz, usando el enfoque semi-analítico dado en Mendoza et al. (2009, desarrollado para reproducir curvas de luz de superficies de trabajo moviéndose a lo largo de jets relativistas. En particular usamos este enfoque para reproducir las exóticas características observadas en las curvas de luz del nudo HST-1 en M87. Mostramos que los complicados ajustes de las curvas de luz se reproducen con gran precisión en todas la longitudes de onda, cuando se considera que estas superficies de trabajo son generadas por oscilaciones periódicas en la velocidad del flujo y masa inyectada en la base del jet.

  6. Ellipticity-age relation for globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 1. Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenk, C.S.; Fall, S.M. (Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy)

    1982-05-01

    The ellipticities of 52 globular clusters in the LMC and 93 in the Galaxy have been estimated by the eye-measurement of their images on Sky Survey enlargements. These were checked against star counts in 12 clusters of the LMC sample, using a procedure developed for this purpose, and against star counts in 19 clusters of the galactic sample, using determinations reported by Kholopov. The results from the eye and count methods are in excellent agreement and a comparison of the two samples shows that the globular clusters in the LMC are significantly flatter than those in the Galaxy. As a means of investigating evolutionary effects, UBV photometry has been used to arrange the LMC clusters in a sequence of relative ages that is equivalent to the one devised by Searle, Wilkinson and Bagnuolo. The results show that young clusters are flatter on average than old clusters and that the shapes of the oldest clusters in the LMC are similar to those of galactic globular clusters. The dependence of ellipticity on age may be due to changes in the shapes of the clusters, changes in the condition of their formation or some combination of both effects.

  7. On the relation between globular cluster specific frequency and galaxy type

    CERN Document Server

    Kavelaars, J J

    1998-01-01

    The universality of the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF) contrasts the variation seen in the specific frequency ($S_N$). The variation in $S_N$ has been shown to follow a linear relation with $L_X$ for brightest cluster galaxies (Blakeslee, J. 1997, Harris, W.E. et al. 1998). Further, the variation of $S_N$ with galactic radius within individual giant ellipticals is seen to be a constant fraction of the gas density (McLaughlin 1998). There are now a number of galaxies for which direct mass estimates based on the radial velocities of the globular clusters are available. By comparing the mass of galaxies determined in this way with the number of clusters within these galaxies we show that the fraction of mass which is converted into globular clusters is constant independent of galaxy type or environment. This implies that the process of globular cluster formation is not influenced by the host galaxy and supports the notion of the universal GCLF.

  8. Space Velocities of Southern Globular Clusters VI. Nine Clusters in the Inner Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I; Korchagin, Vladimir I; van Altena, William F; Lopez, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) We have measured the absolute proper motions of nine low-latitude, inner Galaxy globular clusters, namely NGC 6273 (M 19), NGC 6284, NGC 6287, NGC 6293, NGC 6333 (M 9), NGC 6342, NGC 6356, NGC 6388 and NGC 6441. These are the first determinations ever made for these clusters. The proper motions are on the ICRS via Hipparcos. The proper-motion errors range between 0.4 and 0.9 mas/yr, and are dominated by the number of measurable cluster members in these regions which are very crowded by the bulge/bar and the thick disk. This samle contains five metal poor ([Fe/H < -1.0) and four metal rich clusters; seven clusters are located within 4 kpc from the Galactic center, while the remaining two, namely NGC 6356 and NGC 6284 are in the background of the bulge at 7.5 kpc from the Galactic center. By combining proper motions with radial velocities and distances from the literature we derive 3D velocities. In a number of cases, distance uncertainties make the kinematical classification ambiguous. The two me...

  9. Back to the Future: Estimating Initial Globular Cluster Masses from their Present Day Stellar Mass Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Jeremy J

    2015-01-01

    We use N-body simulations to model the 12 Gyr evolution of a suite of star clusters with identical initial stellar mass functions over a range of initial cluster masses, sizes, and orbits. Our models reproduce the distribution of present-day global stellar mass functions that is observed in the Milky Way globular cluster population. We find that the slope of a star cluster's stellar mass function is strongly correlated with the fraction of mass that the cluster has lost, independent of the cluster's initial mass, and nearly independent of its orbit and initial size. Thus, the mass function - initial mass relation can be used to determine a Galactic cluster's initial total stellar mass, if the initial stellar mass function is known. We apply the mass function - initial mass relation presented here to determine the initial stellar masses of 33 Galactic globular clusters, assuming an universal Kroupa initial mass function. Our study suggests that globular clusters had initial masses that were on average a factor...

  10. The mass distribution of the Fornax dSph: constraints from its globular cluster distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David R.; Dehnen, Walter; Read, Justin I.; Wilkinson, Mark I.

    2012-10-01

    Uniquely among the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, Fornax hosts globular clusters. It remains a puzzle as to why dynamical friction has not yet dragged any of Fornax's five globular clusters to the centre, and also why there is no evidence that any similar star cluster has been in the past (for Fornax or any other tidally undisrupted dSph). We set up a suite of 2800 N-body simulations that sample the full range of globular cluster orbits and mass models consistent with all existing observational constraints for Fornax. In agreement with previous work, we find that if Fornax has a large dark matter core, then its globular clusters remain close to their currently observed locations for long times. Furthermore, we find previously unreported behaviour for clusters that start inside the core region. These are pushed out of the core and gain orbital energy, a process we call 'dynamical buoyancy'. Thus, a cored mass distribution in Fornax will naturally lead to a shell-like globular cluster distribution near the core radius, independent of the initial conditions. By contrast, cold dark matter-type cusped mass distributions lead to the rapid infall of at least one cluster within Δt = 1-2 Gyr, except when picking unlikely initial conditions for the cluster orbits (˜2 per cent probability), and almost all clusters within Δt = 10 Gyr. Alternatively, if Fornax has only a weakly cusped mass distribution, then dynamical friction is much reduced. While over Δt = 10 Gyr this still leads to the infall of one to four clusters from their present orbits, the infall of any cluster within Δt = 1-2 Gyr is much less likely (with probability 0-70 per cent, depending on Δt and the strength of the cusp). Such a solution to the timing problem requires (in addition to a shallow dark matter cusp) that in the past the globular clusters were somewhat further from Fornax than today; they most likely did not form within Fornax, but were accreted.

  11. Evidence for Two Phases of Galaxy Formation from Radial Trends in the Globular Cluster System of NGC 1407

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Duncan; Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron; Brodie, Jean; Foster, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Here we present the colours of individual globular clusters (GCs) around the massive elliptical galaxy NGC 1407 out to a projected galactocentric radius of 140 kpc or 17 galaxy effective radii (R$_e$). Such data are a proxy for the halo metallicity. We find steep, and similar, metallicity gradients of ~ -0.4 dex per dex for both the blue (metal-poor) and red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations within 5-8.5 R_e (40-70 kpc). At larger radii the mean GC colours (metallicity) are constant. A similar behaviour is seen in a wide-field study of M87's GC system, and in our own Galaxy. We interpret these radial metallicity trends to indicate an inner region formed by early in-situ dissipative processes and an outer halo formed by ongoing accretion of low mass galaxies and their GCs. These results provide observational support for the model of galaxy formation whereby massive galaxies form inside-out in two phases. We have also searched the literature for other massive early-type galaxies with reported GC metallicity gradie...

  12. An updated survey of globular clusters in M 31. I. Classification and radial velocity for 76 candidate clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleti, S.; Federici, L.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    2006-09-01

    Aims.We present the first results of a large spectroscopic survey of globular clusters and candidate globular clusters in the nearby M 31 galaxy. The survey is aimed at the classification of known candidate M 31 clusters and at the study of their kinematic properties. Methods: .We obtained low-resolution spectroscopy (λ/Δλ ≃ 800-1300) for 133 targets, including 76 yet-to-be-confirmed candidate clusters (i.e. with no previous spectroscopic information), 55 already-confirmed genuine M 31 clusters, and 2 uncertain candidates. Our observations allowed a reliable estimate of the target radial velocity, within a typical accuracy of ~± 20 km s-1. The observed candidates have been robustly classified according to their radial velocity and shape parameters that allowed us to confidently discriminate between point sources and extended objects even from low-spatial-resolution imagery. Results: .In our set of 76 candidate clusters we found: 42 newly-confirmed bona-fide M 31 clusters, 12 background galaxies, 17 foreground Galactic stars, 2 Hii regions belonging to M 31 and 3 unclassified (possibly M 31 clusters or foreground stars) objects. The classification of a few other candidates not included in our survey has been also reassessed on various observational bases. All the sources of radial velocity estimates for M 31 known globular clusters available in the literature have been compared and checked, and a homogeneous general list has been obtained for 349 confirmed clusters with radial velocity. Conclusions: .Our results suggest that a significant number of genuine clusters (≳100) is still hidden among the plethora of known candidates proposed by various authors. Hence our knowledge of the globular cluster system of the M 31 galaxy is still far from complete even in terms of simple membership.

  13. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Detailed Abundances in the Metal-poor Globular Cluster NGC 4372

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, I San; Geisler, D; Villanova, S; Kacharov, N; Koch, A; Carraro, G; Tautvaišiene, G; Vallenari, A; Alfaro, E J; Bensby, T; Flaccomio, E; Francois, P; Korn, A J; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Smiljanic, R; Bergemann, M; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Heiter, U; Hourihane, A; Jofré, P; Lardo, C; de Laverny, P; Masseron, T; Morbidelli, L; Sbordone, L; Sousa, S G; Worley, C C; Zaggia, S

    2015-01-01

    We present the abundance analysis for a sample of 7 red giant branch stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4372 based on UVES spectra acquired as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey. This is the first extensive study of this cluster from high resolution spectroscopy. We derive abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Fe, Cr, Ni, Y, Ba, and La. We find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.19 $\\pm$ 0.03 and find no evidence for a metallicity spread. This metallicity makes NGC 4372 one of the most metal-poor galactic globular clusters. We also find an {\\alpha}-enhancement typical of halo globular clusters at this metallicity. Significant spreads are observed in the abundances of light elements. In particular we find a Na-O anti-correlation. Abundances of O are relatively high compared with other globular clusters. This could indicate that NGC 4372 was formed in an environment with high O for its metallicity. A Mg-Al spread is also present which spans a range of more than 0.5 dex in Al abundances. Na is correlated wit...

  14. Modelling the average spectrum expected from a population of gamma-ray globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Venter, C

    2015-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars occur abundantly in globular clusters. They are expected to be responsible for several spectral components in the radio through gamma-ray waveband (e.g., involving synchrotron and inverse Compton emission), as have been seen by Radio Telescope Effelsberg, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Fermi Large Area Telescope, and the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in the case of Terzan 5 (with fewer spectral components seen for other globular clusters). H.E.S.S. has recently performed a stacking analysis involving 15 non-detected globular clusters and obtained quite constraining average flux upper limits above 230 GeV. We present a model that assumes millisecond pulsars as sources of relativistic particles and predicts multi-wavelength emission from globular clusters. We apply this model to the population of clusters mentioned above to predict the average spectrum and compare this to the H.E.S.S. upper limits. Such comparison allows us to test whether the model is viable, leading to possible co...

  15. UV Properties of Galactic Globular Clusters with GALEX I. The Color-Magnitude Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavon, Ricardo P; Sohn, Sangmo T; Rood, Robert T; O'Connell, Robert W; Ferraro, Francesco R; Lanzoni, Barbara; Beccari, Giacomo; Rey, Soo-Chang; Rhee, Jaehyon; Rich, R Michael; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Young-Wook

    2012-01-01

    We present GALEX data for 44 Galactic globular clusters obtained during 3 GALEX observing cycles between 2004 and 2008. This is the largest homogeneous data set on the UV photometric properties of Galactic globular clusters ever collected. The sample selection and photometric analysis are discussed, and color-magnitude diagrams are presented. The blue and intermediate-blue horizontal branch is the dominant feature of the UV color-magnitude diagrams of old Galactic globular clusters. Our sample is large enough to display the remarkable variety of horizontal branch shapes found in old stellar populations. Other stellar types that are obviously detected are blue stragglers and post core-He burning stars. The main features of UV color-magnitude diagrams of Galactic globular clusters are briefly discussed. We establish the locus of post-core He burning stars in the UV color-magnitude diagram and present a catalog of candidate AGB-manqu \\'e, post early-AGB, and post-AGB stars within our cluster sample.

  16. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Kinematics of seven Galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lardo, C; Bellazzini, M; Bragaglia, A; Donati, P; Gilmore, G; Randich, S; Feltzing, S; Jeffries, R D; Vallenari, A; Alfaro, E J; Prieto, C Allende; Flaccomio, E; Koposov, S E; Recio-Blanco, A; Bergemann, M; Carraro, G; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Hourihane, A; Jofre, P; de Laverny, P; Marconi, G; Masseron, T; Morbidelli, L; Sacco, G G; Worley, C C

    2014-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO survey is a large public spectroscopic survey aimed at investigating the origin and formation history of our Galaxy by collecting spectroscopy of representative samples (about 10^5 Milky Way stars) of all Galactic stellar populations, in the field and in clusters. The survey uses globular clusters as intra- and inter-survey calibrators, deriving stellar atmospheric parameters and abundances of a significant number of stars in clusters, along with radial velocity determinations. We used precise radial velocities of a large number of stars in seven globular clusters (NGC 1851, NGC 2808, NGC 4372, NGC 4833, NGC 5927, NGC 6752, and NGC 7078) to validate pipeline results and to preliminarily investigate the cluster internal kinematics. Radial velocity measurements were extracted from FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra processed by the survey pipeline as part of the second internal data release of data products to ESO. We complemented our sample with ESO archival data obtained with different instrument configurati...

  17. Formation of globular clusters induced by external ultraviolet radiation II: Three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Makito; Hasegawa, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of the formation of globular clusters under ultraviolet (UV) background radiation. One-dimensional spherical symmetric radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations by Hasegawa et al. have demonstrated that the collapse of low-mass (10^6-10^7 solar masses) gas clouds exposed to intense UV radiation can lead to the formation of compact star clusters like globular clusters (GCs) if gas clouds contract with supersonic infall velocities. However, three-dimensional effects, such as the anisotropy of background radiation and the inhomogeneity in gas clouds, have not been studied so far. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional RHD simulations in a semi-cosmological context, and reconsider the formation of compact star clusters in strong UV radiation fields. As a result, we find that although anisotropic radiation fields bring an elongated shadow of neutral gas, almost spherical compact star clusters can be procreated from a "supersonic infall" cloud, since photo-dissociating radiation supp...

  18. A peculiar HI cloud near the distant globular cluster Pal 4

    CERN Document Server

    van Loon, Jacco Th; Putman, Mary; Peek, Joshua E G; Gibson, Steven J; Douglas, Kevin A; Korpela, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    We present 21-cm observations of four Galactic globular clusters, as part of the on-going GALFA-HI Survey at Arecibo. We discovered a peculiar HI cloud in the vicinity of the distant (109 kpc) cluster Pal 4, and discuss its properties and likelihood of association with the cluster. We conclude that an association of the HI cloud and Pal 4 is possible, but that a chance coincidence between Pal 4 and a nearby compact high-velocity cloud cannot be ruled out altogether. New, more stringent upper limits were derived for the other three clusters: M 3, NGC 5466, and Pal 13. We briefly discuss the fate of globular cluster gas and the interaction of compact clouds with the Galactic Halo gas.

  19. Supernovae and their expanding blast waves during the early evolution of Galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Cassisi, Santi

    2015-01-01

    Our arguments deal with the early evolution of Galactic globular clusters and show why only a few of the supernovae products were retained within globular clusters and only in the most massive cases ($M \\ge 10^6$ Msol), while less massive clusters were not contaminated at all by supernovae. Here we show that supernova blast waves evolving in a steep density gradient undergo blowout and end up discharging their energy and metals into the medium surrounding the clusters. This inhibits the dispersal and the contamination of the gas left over from a first stellar generation. Only the ejecta from well centered supernovae, that evolve into a high density medium available for a second stellar generation in the most massive clusters would be retained. These are likely to mix their products with the remaining gas, leading in these cases eventually to an Fe contaminated second stellar generation.

  20. SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR EXPANDING BLAST WAVES DURING THE EARLY EVOLUTION OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Cassisi, Santi, E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cmt@iac.es, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.it [INAF—Astronomical Observatory of Collurania, via M. Maggini, I-64100 Teramo (Italy)

    2015-11-20

    Our arguments deal with the early evolution of Galactic globular clusters and show why only a few of the supernovae (SNe) products were retained within globular clusters and only in the most massive cases (M ≥ 10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}), while less massive clusters were not contaminated at all by SNe. Here, we show that SN blast waves evolving in a steep density gradient undergo blowout and end up discharging their energy and metals into the medium surrounding the clusters. This inhibits the dispersal and the contamination of the gas left over from a first stellar generation. Only the ejecta from well-centered SNe that evolve into a high-density medium available for a second stellar generation (2SG) in the most massive clusters would be retained. These are likely to mix their products with the remaining gas, eventually leading in these cases to an Fe-contaminated 2SG.

  1. Monte Carlo Simulations of Globular Cluster Evolution. III. Primordial Binary Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fregeau, J M; Joshi, K J; Rasio, F A

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamical evolution of globular clusters using our 2D Monte Carlo code with the inclusion of primordial binary interactions for equal-mass stars. We use approximate analytical cross sections for energy generation from binary-binary and binary-single interactions. After a brief period of slight contraction or expansion of the core over the first few relaxation times, all clusters enter a much longer phase of stable "binary burning" lasting many tens of relaxation times. The structural parameters of our models during this phase match well those of most observed globular clusters. At the end of this phase, clusters that have survived tidal disruption undergo deep core collapse, followed by gravothermal oscillations. Our results clearly show that the presence of even a small fraction of binaries in a cluster is sufficient to support the core against collapse significantly beyond the normal core collapse time predicted without the presence of binaries. For tidally truncated systems, collapse is easily...

  2. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. XII. The Luminosity Function of Globular Clusters in Early Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jordan, A; Côté, P; Ferrarese, L; Peng, E W; Mei, S; Villegas, D; Merritt, D; Tonry, J L; West, M J; Jordan, Andres; Laughlin, Dean E. Mc; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Peng, Eric W.; Mei, Simona; Villegas, Daniela; Merritt, David; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the luminosity function of the globular clusters (GCs) belonging to the early-type galaxies observed in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. We have obtained estimates for a Gaussian representation of the GC luminosity function (GCLF) for 89 galaxies. We have also fit the GCLFs with an "evolved Schechter function", which is meant to reflect the preferential depletion of low-mass GCs, primarily by evaporation due to two-body relaxation, from an initial Schechter mass function similar to that of young massive clusters. We find a significant trend of the GCLF dispersion with galaxy luminosity, in the sense that smaller galaxies have narrower GCLFs. We show that this narrowing of the GCLF in a Gaussian description is driven by a steepening of the GC mass function above the turnover mass, as one moves to smaller host galaxies. We argue that this behavior at the high-mass end of the GC mass function is most likely a consequence of systematic variations of the initial cluster mass function. The GCLF turnover mas...

  3. Globular Cluster Systems in Brightest Cluster Galaxies: A Near-Universal Luminosity Function?

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, William E; Gnedin, Oleg Y; O'Halloran, Heather; Blakeslee, John P; Whitmore, Bradley C; Cote, Patrick; Geisler, Douglas; Peng, Eric W; Bailin, Jeremy; Rothberg, Barry; Cockcroft, Robert; DeGraaff, Regina Barber

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results from our HST Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) survey of seven central supergiant cluster galaxies and their globular cluster (GC) systems. We measure a total of 48000 GCs in all seven galaxies, representing the largest single GC database. We find that a log-normal shape accurately matches the observed luminosity function (LF) of the GCs down to the GCLF turnover point, which is near our photometric limit. In addition, the LF has a virtually identical shape in all seven galaxies. Our data underscore the similarity in the formation mechanism of massive star clusters in diverse galactic environments. At the highest luminosities (log L > 10^7 L_Sun) we find small numbers of "superluminous" objects in five of the galaxies; their luminosity and color ranges are at least partly consistent with those of UCDs (Ultra-Compact Dwarfs). Lastly, we find preliminary evidence that in the outer halo (R > 20 kpc), the LF turnover point shows a weak dependence on projected distance, scaling as L_0 ~ R...

  4. The mass and radius evolution of globular clusters in tidal fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gieles, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We present a simple theory for the evolution of initially compact clusters in a tidal field. The fundamental ingredient of the model is that a cluster conducts a constant fraction of its own energy through the half-mass radius by two-body interactions every half-mass relaxation time. This energy is produced in a self-regulative way in the core by an (unspecified) energy source. We find that the half-mass radius increases during the first part (roughly half) of the evolution and decreases in the second half, while the escape rate is constant and set by the tidal field. We present evolutionary tracks and isochrones for clusters in terms of cluster half-mass density, cluster mass and galacto-centric radius. We find substantial agreement between model isochrones and Milky Way globular cluster parameters, which suggests that there is a balance between the flow of energy and the central energy production for almost all globular clusters. We also find that the majority of the globular clusters are still expanding to...

  5. Dark matter inner slope and concentration in galaxies: from the Fornax dwarf to M87

    CERN Document Server

    Mamon, G A; Romanowsky, A J; Wojtak, R

    2014-01-01

    We apply two new state-of-the-art methods that model the distribution of observed tracers in projected phase space to lift the mass / velocity anisotropy (VA) degeneracy and deduce constraints on the mass profiles of galaxies, as well as their VA. We first show how a distribution function based method applied to the satellite kinematics of otherwise isolated SDSS galaxies shows convincing observational evidence of age matching: red galaxies have more concentrated dark matter (DM) halos than blue galaxies of the same stellar or halo mass. Then, applying the MAMPOSSt technique to M87 (traced by its red and blue globular clusters) we find that very cuspy DM is favored, unless we release priors on DM concentration or stellar mass (leading to unconstrained slope). For the Fornax dwarf spheroidal (traced by its metal-rich and metal-poor stars), the inner DM slope is unconstrained, with weak evidence for a core if the stellar mass is fixed. This highlights how priors are crucial for DM modeling. Finally, we find tha...

  6. X-ray sources and their optical counterparts in the globular cluster M 22

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, N A; Gendre, B; Barret, D; Lasota, J P; Rizzi, L

    2004-01-01

    Using XMM-Newton EPIC imaging data, we have detected 50 low-luminosity X-ray sources in the field of view of M 22, where 5 +/- 3 of these sources are likely to be related to the cluster. Using differential optical photometry, we have identified probable counterparts to those sources belonging to the cluster. Using X-ray spectroscopic and timing studies, supported by the optical colours, we propose that the most central X-ray sources in the cluster are cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, active binaries and a blue straggler. We also identify a cluster of galaxies behind this globular cluster.

  7. A class of spherical, truncated, anisotropic models for application to globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vita, Ruggero; Bertin, Giuseppe; Zocchi, Alice

    2016-05-01

    Recently, a class of non-truncated, radially anisotropic models (the so-called f(ν)-models), originally constructed in the context of violent relaxation and modelling of elliptical galaxies, has been found to possess interesting qualities in relation to observed and simulated globular clusters. In view of new applications to globular clusters, we improve this class of models along two directions. To make them more suitable for the description of small stellar systems hosted by galaxies, we introduce a "tidal" truncation by means of a procedure that guarantees full continuity of the distribution function. The new fT(ν)-models are shown to provide a better fit to the observed photometric and spectroscopic profiles for a sample of 13 globular clusters studied earlier by means of non-truncated models; interestingly, the best-fit models also perform better with respect to the radial-orbit instability. Then, we design a flexible but simple two-component family of truncated models to study the separate issues of mass segregation and multiple populations. We do not aim at a fully realistic description of globular clusters to compete with the description currently obtained by means of dedicated simulations. The goal here is to try to identify the simplest models, that is, those with the smallest number of free parameters, but still have the capacity to provide a reasonable description for clusters that are evidently beyond the reach of one-component models. With this tool, we aim at identifying the key factors that characterize mass segregation or the presence of multiple populations. To reduce the relevant parameter space, we formulate a few physical arguments based on recent observations and simulations. A first application to two well-studied globular clusters is briefly described and discussed.

  8. An empirical Bayesian analysis applied to the globular cluster pulsar population

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, P J

    2013-01-01

    We describe an empirical Bayesian approach to determine the most likely size of an astronomical population of sources of which only a small subset are observed above some limiting flux density threshold. The method is most naturally applied to astronomical source populations at a common distance (e.g.,stellar populations in globular clusters), and can be applied even to populations where a survey detects no objects. The model allows for the inclusion of physical parameters of the stellar population and the detection process. As an example, we apply this method to the current sample of radio pulsars in Galactic globular clusters. Using the sample of flux density limits on pulsar surveys in 94 globular clusters published by Boyles et al., we examine a large number of population models with different dependencies. We find that models which include the globular cluster two-body encounter rate, $\\Gamma$, are strongly favoured over models in which this is not a factor. The optimal model is one in which the mean num...

  9. FUV and Optical Spectroscopy of Hot Post-AGB Stars in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William V.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this program was to determine the atmospheric parameters (effective temperature and surface gravity) and abundances of the hot, post-AGB (PAGB) stars in globular clusters observed with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) on the Astro-l and 2 missions.

  10. Identification of Globular Cluster Stars in RAVE data I: Application to Stellar Parameter Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Anguiano, B; Scholz, R -D; Grebel, E K; Seabroke, G; Kunder, A; Binney, J; McMillan, P J; Zwitter, T; Wyse, R F G; Kordopatis, G; Bienaymé, O; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Boeche, C; Freeman, K C; Gibson, B K; Gilmore, G; Munari, U; Navarro, J; Parker, Q; Reid, W; Siebert, A; Siviero, A; Steinmetz, M; Watson, F

    2015-01-01

    We present the identification of potential members of nearby Galactic globular clusters using radial velocities from the RAdial Velocity Experiment Data Release 4 (RAVE-DR4) survey database. Our identifications are based on three globular clusters -- NGC 3201, NGC 5139 ($\\omega$ Cen) and NGC 362 -- all of which are shown to have |RV|>100 km/s. The identification of globular cluster stars in RAVE DR4 data offers a unique opportunity to test the precision and accuracy of the stellar parameters determined with the currently available Stellar Parameter Pipelines (SPPs) used in the survey, as globular clusters are ideal testbeds for the validation of stellar atmospheric parameters, abundances, distances and ages. For both NGC 3201 and $\\omega$ Cen, there is compelling evidence for numerous members (> 10) in the RAVE database; in the case of NGC 362 the evidence is more ambiguous, and there may be significant foreground and/or background contamination in our kinematically-selected sample. A comparison of the RAVE-d...

  11. Early disc accretion as the origin of abundance anomalies in globular clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastian, N.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.; de Mink, S.E.; Longmore, S.N.; Goodwin, S.P.; Gieles, M.

    2013-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs), once thought to be well approximated as simple stellar populations (i.e. all stars having the same age and chemical abundance), are now known to host a variety of anomalies, such as multiple discrete (or spreads in) populations in colour-magnitude diagrams and abundance

  12. Bayesian Analysis of Two Stellar Populations in Galactic Globular Clusters. I. Statistical and Computational Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenning, D. C.; Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Robinson, E.; van Dyk, D. A.; von Hippel, T.; Sarajedini, A.; Stein, N.

    2016-07-01

    We develop a Bayesian model for globular clusters composed of multiple stellar populations, extending earlier statistical models for open clusters composed of simple (single) stellar populations. Specifically, we model globular clusters with two populations that differ in helium abundance. Our model assumes a hierarchical structuring of the parameters in which physical properties—age, metallicity, helium abundance, distance, absorption, and initial mass—are common to (i) the cluster as a whole or to (ii) individual populations within a cluster, or are unique to (iii) individual stars. An adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is devised for model fitting that greatly improves convergence relative to its precursor non-adaptive MCMC algorithm. Our model and computational tools are incorporated into an open-source software suite known as BASE-9. We use numerical studies to demonstrate that our method can recover parameters of two-population clusters, and also show how model misspecification can potentially be identified. As a proof of concept, we analyze the two stellar populations of globular cluster NGC 5272 using our model and methods. (BASE-9 is available from GitHub: https://github.com/argiopetech/base/releases).

  13. The Extended Spatial Distribution of Globular Clusters in the Core of the Fornax Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrusco, R.; Cantiello, M.; Paolillo, M.; Pota, V.; Napolitano, N. R.; Limatola, L.; Spavone, M.; Grado, A.; Iodice, E.; Capaccioli, M.; Peletier, R.; Longo, G.; Hilker, M.; Mieske, S.; Grebel, E. K.; Lisker, T.; Wittmann, C.; van de Ven, G.; Schipani, P.; Fabbiano, G.

    2016-03-01

    We report the discovery of a complex extended density enhancement in the Globular Clusters (GCs) in the central ˜ 0.5{(^\\circ )}2 (˜ 0.06 Mpc2) of the Fornax cluster, corresponding to ˜ 50% of the area within 1 core radius. This overdensity connects the GC system of NGC 1399 to most of those of neighboring galaxies within ˜ 0\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_fdg;6 (˜ 210 kpc) along the W-E direction. The asymmetric density structure suggests that the galaxies in the core of the Fornax cluster experienced a lively history of interactions that have left a clear imprint on the spatial distribution of GCs. The extended central dominant structure is more prominent in the distribution of blue GCs, while red GCs show density enhancements that are more centrally concentrated on the host galaxies. We propose that the relatively small-scale density structures in the red GCs are caused by galaxy-galaxy interactions, while the extensive spatial distribution of blue GCs is due to stripping of GCs from the halos of core massive galaxies by the Fornax gravitational potential. Our investigations are based on density maps of candidate GCs extracted from the multi-band VLT Survey Telescope (VST) survey of Fornax (FDS), identified in a three-dimensional color space and further selected based on their g-band magnitude and morphology.

  14. Monte Carlo Simulations of Star Clusters - V. The globular cluster M4

    CERN Document Server

    Giersz, Mirek

    2008-01-01

    We describe Monte Carlo models for the dynamical evolution of the nearby globular cluster M4. The code includes treatments of two-body relaxation, three- and four-body interactions involving primordial binaries and those formed dynamically, the Galactic tide, and the internal evolution of both single and binary stars. We arrive at a set of initial parameters for the cluster which, after 12Gyr of evolution, gives a model with a satisfactory match to the surface brightness profile, the velocity dispersion profile, and the luminosity function in two fields. We describe in particular the evolution of the core, and find that M4 (which has a classic King profile) is actually a post-collapse cluster, its core radius being sustained by binary burning. We also consider the distribution of its binaries, including those which would be observed as photometric binaries and as radial-velocity binaries. We also consider the populations of white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes and blue stragglers, though not all channels ...

  15. The effect of unresolved binaries on globular cluster proper-motion dispersion profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchini, P; van de Ven, G; Schinnerer, E; Bellini, A; van der Marel, R P; Watkins, L L; Anderson, J

    2016-01-01

    High-precision kinematic studies of globular clusters require an accurate knowledge of all possible sources of contamination. Amongst other sources, binary stars can introduce systematic biases in the kinematics. Using a set of Monte Carlo cluster simulations with different concentrations and binary fractions, we investigate the effect of unresolved binaries on proper-motion dispersion profiles, treating the simulations like HST proper-motion samples. Since globular clusters evolve towards a state of partial energy equipartition, more massive stars lose energy and decrease their velocity dispersion. As a consequence, on average, binaries have a lower velocity dispersion, since they are more massive kinematic tracers. We show that, in the case of clusters with high binary fraction (initial binary fraction of 50%) and high concentration (i.e., closer to energy equipartition), unresolved binaries introduce a color-dependent bias in the velocity dispersion of main-sequence stars of the order of 0.1-0.3 km s$^{-1}...

  16. Comparing Mid-Infrared Globular Cluster Colors With Population Synthesis Models

    CERN Document Server

    Barmby, P

    2012-01-01

    Several population synthesis models now predict integrated colors of simple stellar populations in the mid-infrared bands. To date, the models have not been extensively tested in this wavelength range. In a comparison of the predictions of several recent population synthesis models, the integrated colors are found to cover approximately the same range but to disagree in detail, for example on the effects of metallicity. To test against observational data, globular clusters are used as the closest objects to idealized groups of stars with a single age and single metallicity. Using recent mass estimates, we have compiled a sample of massive, old globular clusters in M31 which contain enough stars to guard against the stochastic effects of small-number statistics, and measured their integrated colors in the Spitzer/IRAC bands. Comparison of the cluster photometry in the IRAC bands with the model predictions shows that the models reproduce the cluster colors reasonably well, except for a small (not statistically ...

  17. Evolution of Compact Binary Populations in Globular Clusters: A Boltzmann Study. II. Introducing Stochasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Ghosh, Pranab

    2008-06-01

    We continue the exploration that we began in Paper I of using the Boltzmann scheme to study the evolution of compact binary populations of globular clusters, introducing in this paper our method of handling the stochasticity inherent in the dynamical processes of binary formation, destruction, and hardening in globular clusters. We describe these stochastic processes as "Wiener processes," whereupon the Boltzmann equation becomes a stochastic partial differential equation, the solution of which involves the use of "Itō calculus" (this use being the first, to our knowledge, in this subject), in addition to ordinary calculus. As in Paper I, we focus on the evolution of (1) the number of X-ray binaries NXB in globular clusters and (2) the orbital period distribution of these binaries. We show that, although the details of the fluctuations in the above quantities differ from one "realization" to another of the stochastic processes, the general trends follow those found in the continuous-limit study of Paper I, and the average result over many such realizations is very close to the continuous-limit result. We investigate the dependence of NXB found by these calculations on two essential globular cluster properties, namely, the star-star and star-binary encounter rate parameters Γ and γ, for which we coined the name "Verbunt parameters" in Paper I. We compare our computed results with those from Chandra observations of Galactic globular clusters, showing that the expected scalings of NXB with the Verbunt parameters are in good agreement with those observed. We indicate additional features that can be incorporated into the scheme in the future, as well as how more elaborate problems can be tackled.

  18. A new X-ray transient in the globular cluster Terzan 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Heinke, C. O.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Pooley, D.

    2012-07-01

    As part of our program (PI: Altamirano) using Swift/XRT to monitor several globular clusters to detect transient behavior of X-ray binaries in those clusters, we obtained a 1.2 ksec observation of Terzan 5 on 6 July 2012. During this observation, we detect a clear excess of photons which was not present during previous Swift observations (i.e., 26 June 2012, 30 June 2012).

  19. HST/ACS colour-magnitude diagrams of M31 globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Perina, Sibilla; Bellazzini, Michele; Cacciari, Carla; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Galleti, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of increasing the sample of M31 clusters for which a colour magnitude diagram is available, we searched the HST archive for ACS images containing objects included in the Revised Bologna Catalogue of M31 globular clusters. Sixty-three such objects were found. We used the ACS images to confirm or revise their classification and we obtained useful CMDs for 11 old globular clusters and 6 luminous young clusters. We obtained simultaneous estimates of the distance, reddening, and metallicity of old clusters by comparing their observed field-decontaminated CMDs with a grid of template clusters of the Milky Way. We estimated the age of the young clusters by fitting with theoretical isochrones. For the old clusters, we found metallicities in the range -0.410 Gyr. All six candidate young clusters are found to have ages <1Gyr. With the present work the total number of M31 GCs with reliable optical CMD increases from 35 to 44 for the old clusters, and from 7 to 11 for the young ones. The old clusters show...

  20. Diamonds on the Hat: Globular Clusters in The Sombrero Galaxy (M104)

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, W E; Forbes, D A; Bailin, J

    2009-01-01

    Images from the HST ACS are used to carry out a new photometric study of the globular clusters (GCs) in M104, the Sombrero galaxy. The primary focus of our study is the characteristic distribution function of linear sizes (SDF) of the GCs. We measure the effective radii for 652 clusters with PSF-convolved King and Wilson dynamical model fits. The SDF is remarkably similar to those measured for other large galaxies of all types, adding strong support to the view that it is a "universal" feature of globular cluster systems. We develop a more general interpretation of the size distribution function for globular clusters, proposing that the shape of the SDF that we see today for GCs is strongly influenced by the early rapid mass loss during their star forming stage, coupled with stochastic differences from cluster to cluster in the star formation efficiency (SFE) and their initial sizes. We find that the observed SDF shape can be accurately predicted by a simple model in which the protocluster clouds had characte...

  1. No Evidence for Multiple Stellar Populations in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster E 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Ricardo; Strader, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M˜ 1.4× {10}4 {M}⊙ ) globular cluster E3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue cyanogen (CN) absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multistellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  2. No evidence for multiple stellar populations in the low-mass Galactic globular cluster E 3

    CERN Document Server

    Salinas, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M~1.4 x 10^4 M_sun) globular cluster E 3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue CN absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multi stellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E 3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found.

  3. Chandra Observation of the Globular Cluster NGC 6440 and a Comparison with Other Recent Results

    CERN Document Server

    Pooley, D; Verbunt, F; Homer, L; Margon, B; Gaensler, B M; Kaspi, V M; Miller, J M; Fox, D W; Van der Klis, M; Pooley, David; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Verbunt, Frank; Homer, Lee; Margon, Bruce; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Miller, Jon M.; Fox, Derek W.; Klis, Michiel van der

    2001-01-01

    As part of our campaign to determine the nature of the various source populations of the low-luminosity globular cluster X-ray sources, we have obtained a Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-S3 image of the globular cluster NGC 6440. We detect 24 sources to a limiting luminosity of ~2 times 10^31 erg/s (0.5-2.5keV) inside the cluster's half-mass radius, all of which lie within ~2 core radii of the cluster center. We also find excess emission in and around the core which could be due to unresolved point sources. Based upon X-ray luminosities and colors, we conclude that there are 4-5 likely quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries and that most of the other sources are cataclysmic variables. We compare these results to Chandra results from other globular clusters and find the X-ray luminosity functions differ among the clusters.

  4. ACS Photometry of the Remote M31 Globular Cluster B514

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleti, S.; Federici, L.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Pecci, F. Fusi

    2006-10-01

    We present deep F606W, F814W ACS photometry of the recently discovered globular cluster B514, the outermost known globular in the M31 galaxy. The cluster appears quite extended, and member stars are unequivocally identified out to ~200 pc from the center. The color-magnitude diagram reveals a steep red giant branch (RGB), and a horizontal branch extending blueward of the instability strip, indicating that B514 is a classical old metal-poor globular cluster. The RGB locus and the position of the RGB bump are both consistent with a metallicity [Fe/H]~-1.8, in excellent agreement with spectroscopic estimates. A preliminary estimate of the integrated absolute V magnitude (MV<~-9.1) suggests that B514 is among the brightest globulars of M31. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. Explaining the Color Distributions of Globular Cluster Systems in Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, S J; Lee, Y W; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Yi, Sukyoung Ken

    2006-01-01

    The colors of globular clusters in most of large elliptical galaxies are bimodal. This is generally taken as evidence for the presence of two cluster subpopulations that have different geneses. Here we find however that, due to the non-linear nature of the metallicity-to-color transformation, a coeval group of old clusters with a unimodal metallicity spread can exhibit color bimodality. The models of cluster colors indicate that the horizontal-branch stars are the main drivers behind the empirical non-linearity. We show that the scenario gives remarkably simple and cohesive explanations for all the key observations, and could simplify theories of elliptical galaxy formation.

  6. MOCCA code for star cluster simulations - V. Initial globular cluster conditions influence on blue stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypki, Arkadiusz; Giersz, Mirek

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the properties of blue straggler (BS) populations based on MOCCA simulations covering a range of initial globular cluster conditions. We broadly separate the BSs created in our simulations into two distinct types corresponding to their formation mechanism, namely evolutionary BSs formed from binary evolution and dynamical BSs formed from collisions or mergers induced by direct dynamical interactions between stars and binaries. We find that the dominant type of BS strongly depends on the initial semi-major axis distribution. With mostly compact binaries, the number of evolutionary BSs dominates. Conversely, with mostly wide binaries, dynamical BSs dominate. Higher cluster concentrations increase the contribution from dynamical BSs without affecting the numbers of evolutionary BSs, which are thus mostly descended from primordial binaries. We further consider the ratio between the number of BSs in binaries and as single stars (RB/S). Models that prefer compact and wide binaries begin with, respectively, high and low values of the ratio RB/S before converging to a nearly universal value ∼ 0.4. Finally, the initial eccentricity distribution has little to no influence on BS formation.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulations of Star Clusters - VII. The globular cluster 47 Tuc

    CERN Document Server

    Giersz, Mirek

    2010-01-01

    We describe Monte Carlo models for the dynamical evolution of the massive globular cluster 47 Tuc (NGC 104). The code includes treatments of two-body relaxation, most kinds of three- and four-body interactions involving primordial binaries and those formed dynamically, the Galactic tide, and the internal evolution of both single and binary stars. We arrive at a set of initial parameters for the cluster which, after 12Gyr of evolution, gives a model with a fairly satisfactory match to surface brightness and density profiles, the velocity dispersion profile, the luminosity function in two fields, and the acceleration of pulsars. Our models appear to require a relatively steep initial mass function for stars above about turnoff, with an index of about 2.8 (where the Salpeter mass function has an index of 2.35), and a relatively flat initial mass function (index about 0.4) for the lower main sequence. According to the model, the current mass is estimated at 0.9 million solar masses, of which about 34% consists of...

  8. G2C2 - IV: A novel approach to study the radial distributions of multiple populations in Galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbeke, Joachim; De Rijcke, Sven; Baes, Maarten; West, Michael; Alonso-García, Javier; Kunder, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We use the HB morphology of 48 Galactic GCs to study the radial distributions of the different stellar populations known to exist in globular clusters. Assuming that the (extremely) blue HB stars correspond to stars enriched in Helium and light elements, we compare the radial distributions of stars selected according to colour on the HB to trace the distribution of the secondary stellar populations in globular clusters. Unlike other cases, our data show that the populations are well mixed in 80% of the cases studied. This provides some constraints on the mechanisms proposed to pollute the interstellar medium in young globular clusters.

  9. Spectroscopic Study of the Globular Clusters in M31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Kim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemos realizado un nuevo reconocimiento sistem tico de c mulos globulares (CG en un area de 3 3 centrada en M31. Usando datos fotom tricos obtenidos con las observaciones del telescopio 0.9-m de KPNO con los filtros CMT1 Washington, y datos espectrosc picos obtenidos de las observaciones del telescopio 3.5-m de KPNO/WIYN con el espetr grafo de multifibras Hydra, hemos confirmado 544 CGs previamente conocidos y encontrado m s de 600 CGs nuevos y candidatos. M s de cien candidatos se creen que son CGs genuinos. Presentamos la distribuci n de metalicidad de los conocidos previamente y de los CGs nuevos en M31, lo cual muestra un mejor ajuste a tres componentes comparados con los ajustes a dos componentes

  10. Neutrino and axion bounds from the globular cluster M5 (NGC 5904).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaux, N; Catelan, M; Stetson, P B; Raffelt, G G; Redondo, J; Valcarce, A A R; Weiss, A

    2013-12-06

    The red-giant branch (RGB) in globular clusters is extended to larger brightness if the degenerate helium core loses too much energy in "dark channels." Based on a large set of archival observations, we provide high-precision photometry for the Galactic globular cluster M5 (NGC 5904), allowing for a detailed comparison between the observed tip of the RGB with predictions based on contemporary stellar evolution theory. In particular, we derive 95% confidence limits of g(ae)axion-electron coupling and μ(ν)<4.5×10(-12)μ(B) (Bohr magneton μ(B)=e/2m(e)) on a neutrino dipole moment, based on a detailed analysis of statistical and systematic uncertainties. The cluster distance is the single largest source of uncertainty and can be improved in the future.

  11. Two distinct sequences of blue straggler stars in the globular cluster M30

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B; Sills, A; Rood, R T; Pecci, F Fusi; Karakas, A I; Miocchi, P; Bovinelli, S; 10.1038/nature08607

    2010-01-01

    Stars in globular clusters are generally believed to have all formed at the same time, early in the Galaxy's history. 'Blue stragglers' are stars massive enough that they should have evolved into white dwarfs long ago. Two possible mechanisms have been proposed for their formation: mass transfer between binary companions and stellar mergers resulting from direct collisions between two stars. Recently, the binary explanation was claimed to be dominant. Here we report that there are two distinct parallel sequences of blue stragglers in M30. This globular cluster is thought to have undergone 'core collapse', during which both the collision rate and the mass transfer activity in binary systems would have been enhanced. We suggest that the two observed sequences arise from the cluster core collapse, with the bluer population arising from direct stellar collisions and the redder one arising from the evolution of close binaries that are probably still experiencing an active phase of mass transfer.

  12. Fluorine variations in the globular cluster NGC 6656 (M22): implications for internal enrichment timescales

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Lugaro, Maria; Gratton, Raffaele G; Angelou, George; Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio; Alves-Brito, Alan; Ivans, Inese I; Masseron, Thomas; Mucciarelli, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    Observed chemical (anti)correlations in proton-capture elements among globular cluster stars are presently recognised as the signature of self-enrichment from now extinct, previous generations of stars. This defines the multiple population scenario. Since fluorine is also affected by proton captures, determining its abundance in globular clusters provides new and complementary clues regarding the nature of these previous generations, and supplies strong observational constraints to the chemical enrichment timescales. In this paper we present our results on near-infrared CRIRES spectroscopic observations of six cool giant stars in NGC 6656 (M22): the main objective is to derive the F content and its internal variation in this peculiar cluster, which exhibits significant changes in both light and heavy element abundances. We detected F variations across our sample beyond the measurement uncertainties and found that the F abundances are positively correlated with O and anticorrelated with Na, as expected accordi...

  13. Erosion of Globular Cluster Systems: The Influence of Radial Anisotropy, Central Black Holes and Dynamical Friction

    CERN Document Server

    Brockamp, Michael; Thies, Ingo; Baumgardt, Holger; Kroupa, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    We present the adaptable MUESLI code for investigating dynamics and erosion processes of globular clusters (GCs) in galaxies. MUESLI follows the orbits of individual clusters and applies internal and external dissolution processes to them. Orbit integration is based on the self-consistent field method in combination with a time-transformed leapfrog scheme, allowing us to handle velocity-dependent forces like triaxial dynamical friction. In a first application, the erosion of globular cluster systems (GCSs) in elliptical galaxies is investigated. Observations show that massive ellipticals have rich, radially extended GCSs, while some compact dwarf ellipticals contain no GCs at all. For several representative examples, spanning the full mass scale of observed elliptical galaxies, we quantify the influence of radial anisotropy, galactic density profiles, SMBHs, and dynamical friction on the GC erosion rate. We find that GC number density profiles are centrally flattened in less than a Hubble time, naturally expl...

  14. The ages of Galactic globular clusters in the context of self-enrichment

    CERN Document Server

    Decressin, T; Kroupa, P; Meynet, G; Charbonnel, C

    2008-01-01

    A significant fraction of stars in globular clusters (about 70%-85%) exhibit peculiar chemical patterns with strong abundance variations in light elements along with constant abundances in heavy elements. These abundance anomalies can be created in the H-burning core of a first generation of fast rotating massive stars and the corresponding elements are convoyed to the stellar surface thanks to rotational induced mixing. If the rotation of the stars is fast enough this matter is ejected at low velocity through a mechanical wind at the equator. It then pollutes the ISM from which a second generation of chemically anomalous stars can be formed. The proportion of anomalous to normal star observed today depends on at least two quantities : (1) the number of polluter stars; (2) the dynamical history of the cluster which may lose during its lifetime first and second generation stars in different proportions. Here we estimate these proportions based on dynamical models for globular clusters. When internal dynamical ...

  15. Variable stars in the Fornax dSph Galaxy. I. The Globular Cluster Fornax 4

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, C; Catelan, M; Held, E V; Poretti, E; Gullieuszik, M; Maio, M; Rest, A; De Lee, N; Smith, H A; Pritzl, B J

    2007-01-01

    Variable stars have been identified for the first time in Fornax 4, the globular cluster located near the center of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. By applying the image subtraction technique to B,V time series photometry obtained with the MagIC camera of the 6.5-m Magellan/Clay telescope and with the wide field imager of the 4-m Blanco/CTIO telescope, we detected 27 RR Lyrae stars (22 fundamental mode, 3 first overtone, and 2 double-mode pulsators) in a 2.4'x2.4' area centered on Fornax 4. The average and minimum periods of the ab-type RR Lyrae stars, = 0.594 d and P(ab,min)=0.5191 d, respectively, as well as the revised position of the cluster in the horizontal branch type--metallicity plane, all consistently point to an Oosterhoff-intermediate status for the cluster, unlike what is seen for the vast majority of Galactic globular clusters, but in agreement with previous indications for the other globular clusters in Fornax. The average apparent magnitude of the RR Lyrae stars located within 30 arcsec fr...

  16. MUSE crowded field 3D spectroscopy of over 12 000 stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397. I. The first comprehensive HRD of a globular cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husser, Tim-Oliver; Kamann, Sebastian; Dreizler, Stefan; Wendt, Martin; Wulff, Nina; Bacon, Roland; Wisotzki, Lutz; Brinchmann, Jarle; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Roth, Martin M.; Monreal-Ibero, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We demonstrate the high multiplex advantage of crowded field 3D spectroscopy with the new integral field spectrograph MUSE by means of a spectroscopic analysis of more than 12 000 individual stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397. Methods: The stars are deblended with a point spread function fitting technique, using a photometric reference catalogue from HST as prior, including relative positions and brightnesses. This catalogue is also used for a first analysis of the extracted spectra, followed by an automatic in-depth analysis via a full-spectrum fitting method based on a large grid of PHOENIX spectra. Results: We analysed the largest sample so far available for a single globular cluster of 18 932 spectra from 12 307 stars in NGC 6397. We derived a mean radial velocity of vrad = 17.84 ± 0.07 km s-1 and a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.120 ± 0.002, with the latter seemingly varying with temperature for stars on the red giant branch (RGB). We determine Teff and [Fe/H] from the spectra, and log g from HST photometry. This is the first very comprehensive Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) for a globular cluster based on the analysis of several thousands of stellar spectra, ranging from the main sequence to the tip of the RGB. Furthermore, two interesting objects were identified; one is a post-AGB star and the other is a possible millisecond-pulsar companion. Data products are available at http://muse-vlt.eu/scienceBased on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programme ID 60.A-9100(C)).

  17. A populous intermediate-age open cluster and evidence of an embedded cluster among the FSR globular cluster candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Bica, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    We study the nature of the globular cluster (GC) candidates FSR 1603 and FSR 1755 selected from the catalogue of \\citet{FSRcat}. Their properties are investigated with 2MASS field-star decontaminated photometry, which is used to build colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), and stellar radial density profiles (RDPs). FSR 1603 has the open cluster (OC) Ruprecht 101 as optical counterpart, and we show it to be a massive intermediate age cluster (IAC). Relevant parameters of FSR 1603 are the age $\\approx1$ Gyr, distance from the Sun $\\ds\\approx2.7$ kpc, Galactocentric distance $\\dgc\\approx6.4$ kpc, core radius $\\rc\\approx1.1$ pc, mass function slope $\\chi\\approx1.8$, observed stellar mass (for stars with mass in the range $\\rm 1.27 \\ms\\leq m\\leq2.03 \\ms$) $\\mObs\\approx500 \\ms$, and a total (extrapolated to $\\rm m=0.08 \\ms$) stellar mass $\\mTot\\approx2300 \\ms$. FSR 1755, on the other hand, is not a populous cluster. It may be a sparse young cluster embedded in the H II region Sh2-3, subject to an absorption $\\aV\\approx...

  18. Dynamics of the NGC 4636 globular cluster system. An extremely dark matter dominated galaxy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuberth, Y.; Richtler, T.; Dirsch, B.; Hilker, M.; Larsen, S. S.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Mebold, U.

    2006-11-01

    Context: .We present the first dynamical study of the globular cluster system of NGC 4636. It is the southernmost giant elliptical galaxy of the Virgo cluster and is claimed to be extremely dark matter dominated, according to X-ray observations. Aims: .Globular clusters are used as dynamical tracers to investigate, by stellar dynamical means, the dark matter content of this galaxy. Methods: .Several hundred medium resolution spectra were acquired at the VLT with FORS 2/MXU. We obtained velocities for 174 globular clusters in the radial range 0.90 arcmin Jeans-models. Results: .We find some indication of a rotation of the red (metal-rich) clusters about the minor axis. Out to a radius of 30 kpc, we find a roughly constant projected velocity dispersion for the blue clusters of σ ≈ 200~km s-1. The red clusters are found to have a distinctly different behavior: at a radius of about 3', the velocity dispersion drops by ~50~km s-1 to about 170~km s-1, which then remains constant out to a radius of 7'. The cause might be the steepening of the number density profile at ~3' observed for the red clusters. Using only the blue clusters as dynamical tracers, we perform Jeans-analyses for different assumptions of the orbital anisotropy. Enforcing the model dark halos to be of the NFW type, we determine their structural parameters. Depending on the anisotropy and the adopted M/L-values, we find that the dark matter fraction within one effective radius can vary between 20% and 50%, with most a probable range between 20% and 30%. The ambiguity of the velocity dispersion in the outermost bin is a main source of uncertainty. A comparison with cosmological N-body simulations reveals no striking disagreement. Conclusions: .Although the dark halo mass still cannot be strongly constrained, NGC 4636 does not seem to be extremely dark matter dominated. The derived circular velocities are also consistent with Modified Newtonian Dynamics.

  19. The ACS survey of globular clusters. XIII. Photometric calibration in comparison with Stetson standards

    CERN Document Server

    Hempel, Maren; Anderson, Jay; Aparicio, Antonio; Bedin, Luigi R; Chaboyer, Brian; Majewski, Steven R; Marín-Franch, Antonio; Milone, Antonino; Paust, Nathaniel E Q; Piotto, Giampaolo; Reid, I Neill; Rosenberg, Alfred; Siegel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study we compare the photometric data of 34 Milky Way globular clusters, observed within the ACS Treasury Program (PI: Ata Sarajedini) with the corresponding ground-based data, provided by the Photometric Standard Field Catalogs of Stetson (2000, 2005). We focus on the transformation between the HST/ACS F606W to V-band and F814W to I-band only. The goal is to assess the validity of the filter transformation equations by Sirianni et al.(2005) with respect to their dependence on metallicity, Horizontal Branch morphology, mass and integrated (V-I) colour of the various globular clusters. Such a dependence is expected due to the fact that the transformation equations are based on the observations of only one globular cluster, i.e., NGC 2419. Surprisingly, the correlation between offset and metallicity is found to be weak, with a low level significance. The correlation between offset and Horizontal Branch structure, as well as total cluster mass is still weaker. Based on the available data we do not find t...

  20. No sign (yet) of intergalactic globular clusters in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Dougal; Leaman, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    We present Gemini/GMOS imaging of twelve candidate intergalactic globular clusters (IGCs) in the Local Group, identified in a recent survey of the SDSS footprint by di Tullio Zinn & Zinn (2015). Our image quality is sufficiently high, at $\\sim 0.4^{\\prime\\prime} - 0.7^{\\prime\\prime}$, that we are able to unambiguously classify all twelve targets as distant galaxies. To reinforce this conclusion we use GMOS images of globular clusters in the M31 halo, taken under very similar conditions, to show that any genuine clusters in the putative IGC sample would be straightforward to distinguish. Based on the stated sensitivity of the di Tullio Zinn & Zinn (2015) search algorithm, we conclude that there cannot be a significant number of IGCs with $M_V \\le -6$ lying unseen in the SDSS area if their properties mirror those of globular clusters in the outskirts of M31 -- even a population of $4$ would have only a $\\approx 1\\%$ chance of non-detection.

  1. No sign (yet) of intergalactic globular clusters in the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, A. D.; Beasley, M. A.; Leaman, R.

    2016-07-01

    We present Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) imaging of 12 candidate intergalactic globular clusters (IGCs) in the Local Group, identified in a recent survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint by di Tullio Zinn & Zinn. Our image quality is sufficiently high, at ˜0.4-0.7 arcsec, that we are able to unambiguously classify all 12 targets as distant galaxies. To reinforce this conclusion we use GMOS images of globular clusters in the M31 halo, taken under very similar conditions, to show that any genuine clusters in the putative IGC sample would be straightforward to distinguish. Based on the stated sensitivity of the di Tullio Zinn & Zinn search algorithm, we conclude that there cannot be a significant number of IGCs with MV ≤ -6 lying unseen in the SDSS area if their properties mirror those of globular clusters in the outskirts of M31 - even a population of 4 would have only a ≈1 per cent chance of non-detection.

  2. Faint X-ray Sources in the Globular Cluster Terzan 5

    CERN Document Server

    Heinke, C O; Cohn, H N; Lugger, P M; Grindlay, J E; Pooley, D; Lewin, W H G

    2006-01-01

    We report our analysis of a Chandra X-ray observation of the rich globular cluster Terzan 5, in which we detect 50 sources to a limiting 1.0-6 keV X-ray luminosity of 3*10^{31} ergs/s within the half-mass radius of the cluster. Thirty-three of these have L_X>10^{32} ergs/s, the largest number yet seen in any globular cluster. In addition to the quiescent low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB, identified by Wijnands et al.), another 12 relatively soft sources may be quiescent LMXBs. We compare the X-ray colors of the harder sources in Terzan 5 to the Galactic Center sources studied by Muno and collaborators, and find the Galactic Center sources to have harder X-ray colors, indicating a possible difference in the populations. We cannot clearly identify a metallicity dependence in the production of low-luminosity X-ray binaries in Galactic globular clusters, but a metallicity dependence of the form suggested by Jordan et al. for extragalactic LMXBs is consistent with our data.

  3. A Comparison of Copper Abundances in Globular Cluster and Halo Field Giant Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Simmerer, J; Ivans, I I; Kraft, R P; Shetrone, M D; Smith, V V; Simmerer, Jennifer; Sneden, Christopher; Ivans, Inese I.; Kraft, Robert P.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Smith, Verne V.

    2003-01-01

    We derive [Cu/Fe] for 117 giant stars in ten globular clusters (M3, M4, M5, M10, M13, M15, M71, NGC 7006, NCG 288, and NGC 362) and find that globular cluster Cu abundances appear to follow [Cu/Fe] trends found in the field. This result is interesting in light of recent work which indicates that the globular cluster Omega Centauri shows no trend in [Cu/Fe] with [Fe/H] over the abundance range -2.0 <[Fe/H]< -0.8. Of particular interest are the two clusters M4 and M5. While at a similar metallicity ([Fe/H] ~- 1.2), they differ greatly in some elemental abundances: M4 is largely overabundant in Si, Ba, and La compared to M5. We find that it is also overabundant in Cu with respect to M5, though this overabundance is in accord with [Cu/Fe] ratios found in the field.

  4. Testing the COBE/IRAS All-Sky Reddening Map Using the Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, K Z

    1998-01-01

    We live in a dusty Universe, and correcting for the dust extinction and reddening affects almost all aspects of the optical astronomy. Recently Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis published an all-sky reddening map based on the COBE/DIRBE and IRAS/ISSA infrared sky surveys. Their map is intended to supersede the older Burstein & Heiles reddening estimates. In this paper I test this new reddening map by comparing the reddening values for a sample of 110 $|b|>5\\deg$ Galactic globular clusters selected from compilation of Harris. I find a good agreement for globular clusters with galactic latitude $|b|>20\\deg$ and fair overall agreement for globular clusters with $20>|b|>5\\deg$, but with several significant deviations. I discuss four individual clusters with largest deviations, NGC 6144, Terzan 3, NGC 6355 and IC 1276, in order to investigate the reasons for these large deviations. It seems that the new reddening map overestimates the reddening in some large extinction regions. However, with its high spatial re...

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Updated catalog of variable stars in globular clusters (Clement+ 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, C. M.

    2017-02-01

    This Catalogue is an update to Helen Sawyer Hogg's Third Catalogue on Variable Stars in Globular Clusters (1973, David Dunlap Observatory Publications, Volume 3, Number 6: 1973PDDO....3....6S; see Cat V/97; see also Clement+, 2001AJ....122.2587C). This catalogue is based on the individual cluster files downloaded on http://www.astro.utoronto.ca/~cclement/cat/listngc.html on the 01-Feb-2017. Later updates are indicated in clusters.dat; column "Update". (7 data files).

  6. EFFECTS OF HELIUM ENRICHMENT IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. R. Valcarce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente, el entendimiento de cúmulos globulares (CGs ha cambiado drásticamente debido a la mejora de las observaciones, tanto espectroscópicas como fotométricas, las cuales han revelado que no todos los CGs deben ser considerados poblaciones estelares simples. Mientras estudios espectroscópicos han mostrado diferentes grados de variación en elementos livianos en todos los CGs observados (e.g. anticorrelación entre O-Na, Carretta et al. 2009, estudios fotométricos han mostrado separaciones en algunas fases de los diagramas color-magnitud (DCM, donde la triple secuencia principal de NGC 2808 ha sido atribuida a diferencias en la abundancia de helio (AY, Piotto et al. 2007, el cual no puede ser medido con bastante precisión en CGs. En esta contribución mostramos los otros efectos que se deberían observar en DCM de CGs si AY es real.

  7. Chemical tagging in the SDSS-III/APOGEE survey: new identifications of halo stars with globular cluster origins

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, Sarah; Lucatello, Sara; Schiavon, Ricardo; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Hernandez, Anibal Garcia; Beers, Tim; Nidever, David

    2016-01-01

    We present new identifications of five red giant stars in the Galactic halo with chemical abundance patterns that indicate they originally formed in globular clusters. Using data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) Survey available through Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 (DR12), we first identify likely halo giants, and then search those for the well-known chemical tags associated with globular clusters, specifically enrichment in nitrogen and aluminum. We find that 2% of the halo giants in our sample have this chemical signature, in agreement with previous results. Following the interpretation in our previous work on this topic, this would imply that at least 13% of halo stars originally formed in globular clusters. Recent developments in the theoretical understanding of globular cluster formation raise questions about that interpretation, and we concede the possibility that these migrants represent a small fraction of the halo field. There are roughly as many st...

  8. Young Massive Clusters: Their Population Properties, Formation and Evolution, and Their Relation to the Ancient Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, N.

    2016-11-01

    This review summarises the main properties of Young Massive Clusters (YMCs), including their population properties, particularly focusing on extragalactic cluster samples. We discuss potential biases and caveats that can affect the construction of cluster samples and how incompleteness effects can result in erroneous conclusions regarding the long term survival of clusters. In addition to the luminosity, mass and age distributions of the clusters, we discuss the size distribution and profile evolution of the clusters. We also briefly discuss the stellar populations within YMCs. The final part of the review focusses on the connections between YMCs and the ancient globular clusters, whether or not they are related objects and how we can use what we know about YMC formation and evolution to understand how GCs formed in the early universe and how they relate to galaxy formation/evolution.

  9. Young Massive Clusters: Their Population Properties, Formation and Evolution, and Their Relation to the Ancient Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bastian, Nate

    2016-01-01

    This review summarises the main properties of Young Massive Clusters (YMCs), including their population properties, particularly focusing on extragalactic cluster samples. We discuss potential biases and caveats that can affect the construction of cluster samples and how incompleteness effects can result in erroneous conclusions regarding the long term survival of clusters. In addition to the luminosity, mass and age distributions of the clusters, we discuss the size distribution and profile evolution of the clusters. We also briefly discuss the stellar populations within YMCs. The final part of the review focusses on the connections between YMCs and the ancient globular clusters, whether or not they are related objects and how we can use what we know about YMC formation and evolution to understand how GCs formed in the early universe and how they relate to galaxy formation/evolution.

  10. A Gemini/GMOS Study of Intermediate Luminosity Early-Type Virgo Cluster Galaxies. I. Globular Cluster and Stellar Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Biao; Zhang, Hong-xin; Blakeslee, John P; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordán, Andrés; Liu, Chengze; Mei, Simona; Puzia, Thomas H; Takamiya, Marianne; Trancho, Gelys; West, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of the globular cluster systems and diffuse stellar light of four intermediate luminosity (sub-$L^{\\ast}$) early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster based on Gemini/GMOS data. Our galaxy sample is fainter ($-23.8globular clusters reaches 8--$12R_e$. We find that the kinematics in these outer regions are all different despite the fact that these four galaxies have similar photometric properties, and are uniformly classified as "fast rotators" from their stellar kinematics within $1R_e$. The globular cluster systems exhibit a wide range of kinematic morphology. The rotation axis and amplitude can change between the inner and outer regions, including a case of counter-rotation. This difference shows the importance of wide-field kinematic studies, and shows that stellar and GC...

  11. Variable stars in the globular cluster NGC 2419

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, C; Federici, L; Clementini, G; Fabrizio, L D; Baldacci, L; Maio, M; Marconi, M; Musella, I; Stetson, P B

    2005-01-01

    We have used DOLORES at the TNG to obtain B,V time series photometry of NGC 2419, one of the most distant and bright clusters in the Galactic halo. These data will be used to study its variable star population in order to check whether the cluster could be the relic of an extragalactic system accreted by the Milky Way. Using the Image Subtraction technique (Alard 2000) we have identified about 300 candidate variables, many of which are in the cluster central regions. Several of the variables appear to be RR Lyrae stars, but we detected variability also around the tip of the red giant branch, and in other regions of the colour-magnitude diagram. To improve the light curve sampling and to resolve variables in the cluster inner regions, the TNG data were combined with HST archive data. Preliminary results are presented on the light curves from the combined data set.

  12. Massive binaries and the enrichment of the interstellar medium in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Izzard, R G

    2009-01-01

    Abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster stars indicate pollution with material processed by hydrogen burning. Two main sources have been suggested: asymptotic giant branch stars and massive stars rotating near the break-up limit. We discuss the potential of massive binaries as an interesting alternative source of processed material. We discuss observational evidence for mass shedding from interacting binaries. In contrast to the fast, radiatively driven winds of massive stars, this material is typically ejected with low velocity. We expect that it remains inside the potential well of a globular cluster and becomes available for the formation or pollution of a second generation of stars. We estimate that the amount of processed low-velocity material that can be ejected by massive binaries is larger than the contribution of two previously suggested sources combined.

  13. On the metallicity distribution of the peculiar globular cluster M22

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jae-Woo

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, we showed that the peculiar globular cluster (GC) M22 contains two distinct stellar populations, namely the Ca-w and Ca-s groups with different physical properties, having different chemical compositions, spatial distributions and kinematics. We proposed that M22 is most likely formed via a merger of two GCs with heterogeneous metallicities in a dwarf galaxy environment and accreted later to our Galaxy. In their recent study, Mucciarelli et al. claimed that M22 is a normal mono-metallic globular cluster without any perceptible metallicity spread among the two groups of stars, which challenges our results and those of others. We devise new strategies for the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis of red giant branch (RGB) stars in GCs and show there exists a spread in the iron abundance distribution in M22.

  14. Globular Cluster Systems and the Missing Satellite Problem Implications for Cold Dark Matter Models

    CERN Document Server

    Côté, P; Marzke, R O; Cote, Patrick; West, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the metallicity distributions of globular clusters belonging to 28 early-type galaxies in the survey of Kundu & Whitmore (2001). A Monte Carlo algorithm which simulates the chemical evolution of galaxies that grow hierarchically via dissipationless mergers is used to determine the most probable protogalactic mass function for each galaxy. Contrary to the claims of Kundu & Whitmore, we find that the observed metallicity distributions are in close agreement with the predictions of such hierarchical formation models. The mass spectrum of protogalactic fragments for the galaxies in our sample has a power-law behavior, with an exponent of roughly -2. This spectrum is indistinguishable from the mass spectrum of dark matter halos predicted by cold dark matter models for structure formation. We argue that these protogalactic fragments, the likely sites of globular cluster formation in the early universe, are the disrupted remains of the "missing" satellite galaxies predicted by cold dark matter mod...

  15. Evidence for multiple populations in the massive globular cluster NGC 2419 from deep uVI LBT photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Beccari, G; Lardo, C; Bragaglia, A; Carretta, E; Dalessandro, E; Mucciarelli, A; Pancino, E

    2013-01-01

    We present accurate wide-field uVI photometry of the remote and massive Galactic globular cluster NGC 2419, aimed at searching for the u-V color spread along the Red Giant Branch (RGB) that is generally interpreted as the photometric signature of the presence of multiple populations in globular clusters. Focusing on the RGB stars in the magnitude range 19.80.0 lie preferentially on the blue side.

  16. MUSE crowded field 3D spectroscopy of over 12,000 stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397 - I. The first spectroscopic HRD of a globular cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Husser, Tim-Oliver; Dreizler, Stefan; Wendt, Martin; Wulff, Nina; Bacon, Roland; Wisotzki, Lutz; Brinchmann, Jarle; Weilbacher, Peter M; Roth, Martin M; Monreal-Ibero, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We demonstrate the high multiplex advantage of crowded field 3D spectroscopy using the new integral field spectrograph MUSE by means of a spectroscopic analysis of more than 12,000 individual stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397. Methods. The stars are deblended with a PSF fitting technique, using a photometric reference catalogue from HST as prior, including relative positions and brightnesses. This catalogue is also used for a first analysis of the extracted spectra, followed by an automatic in-depth analysis using a full-spectrum fitting method based on a large grid of PHOENIX spectra. Results. With 18,932 spectra from 12,307 stars in NGC 6397 we have analysed the largest sample so far available for a single globular cluster. We derived a mean radial velocity of vrad=17.84+-0.07 km/s and a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]=-2.120+-0.002, with the latter seemingly varying with temperature for stars on the RGB. We determine T_eff and [Fe/H] from the spectra, and log g from HST photometry. This is the first ...

  17. Dynamics of the NGC 4636 Globular Cluster System - An extremely dark matter dominated galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Schuberth, Y; Hilker, M; Kissler-Patig, M; Larsen, S S; Mebold, U; Richtler, T

    2006-01-01

    We present the first dynamical study of the globular cluster system of NGC 4636. This giant elliptical galaxy is claimed to be extremely dark matter dominated, according to X-ray observations. Using the VLT with FORS2/MXU, we obtained velocities for 174 globular clusters. The clusters have projected galactocentric distances in the range 4 to 70 kpc, the overwhelming majority lie within 30 kpc. We find some indication for a rotation of the red (metal-rich) clusters about the minor axis. Out to a radius of 30 kpc, we find a roughly constant projected velocity dispersion for the blue clusters of ~200 km/s. The red clusters exhibit a distinctly different behavior: at a radius of about 13 kpc, the velocity dispersion drops by ~50 km/s to about 170 km/s which then remains constant out to a radius of 30 kpc. Using only the blue clusters as dynamical tracers, we perform Jeans-analyses for different assumptions of the orbital anisotropy. Depending on the anisotropy and the adopted M/L-values, we find that the dark mat...

  18. MOCCA-SURVEY Database - I. Coalescing binary black holes originating from globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Abbas; Szkudlarek, Magdalena; Gondek-Rosińska, Dorota; Giersz, Mirek; Bulik, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    In this first of a series of papers, we utilize results for around 2000 star cluster models simulated using the MOCCA code for star cluster evolution (Survey Database I) to determine the astrophysical properties and local merger rate densities for coalescing binary black holes (BBHs) originating from globular clusters (GCs). We extracted information for all coalescing BBHs that escape the cluster models and subsequently merge within a Hubble time along with BBHs that are retained in our GC models and merge inside the cluster via gravitational wave emission. By obtaining results from a substantial number of realistic star cluster models that cover different initial parameters, we have an extremely large statistical sample of BBHs with stellar mass and massive stellar BH (≲100 M⊙) components that merge within a Hubble time. Using these data, we estimate local merger rate densities for these BBHs originating from GCs to be at least 5.4 Gpc-3 yr-1.

  19. MOCCA-SURVEY Database I: Coalescing Binary Black Holes Originating From Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Askar, Abbas; Gondek-Rosińska, Dorota; Giersz, Mirek; Bulik, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    In this first of a series of papers, we utilize results for around two thousand star cluster models simulated using the MOCCA code for star cluster evolution (Survey Database I) to determine the astrophysical properties and local merger rate densities for coalescing binary black holes (BBHs) originating from globular clusters (GCs). We extracted information for all coalescing BBHs that escape the cluster models and subsequently merge within a Hubble time along with BBHs that are retained in our GC models and merge inside the cluster via gravitational wave (GW) emission. By obtaining results from a substantial number of realistic star cluster models that cover different initial parameters, we have an extremely large statistical sample of BBHs with stellar mass and massive stellar BH ($\\lesssim 100M_{\\odot}$) components that merge within a Hubble time. Using this data, we estimate local merger rate densities for these BBHs originating from GCs to be at least 5.4 ${\\rm Gpc}^{-3}\\,{\\rm yr}^{-1}$

  20. Constraining white-dwarf kicks in globular clusters : IV. Retarding Core Collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Heyl, Jeremy S

    2009-01-01

    Observations of white dwarfs in the globular clusters NGC 6397 and Omega Centauri indicate that these stars may get a velocity kick during their time as giants. This velocity kick could originate naturally if the mass loss while on the asymptotic giant branch is slightly asymmetric. The kicks may be large enough to dramatically change the radial distribution of young white dwarfs, giving them larger energies than other stars in the cluster. As these energetic white dwarfs travel through the cluster they can impart their excess energy on the other stars in the cluster. A Monte-Carlo simualtion of the white-dwarfs kicks combined with estimate of the phase-space diffusion of the white dwarfs reveals that as the white dwarfs equilibrate, they lose most of their energy in the central region of the cluster. They could possibly mimic the effect of binaries, puffing up the cluster and delaying core collapse.

  1. A 20 cm Search for Pulsars in Globular Clusters with Arecibo and the GBT

    CERN Document Server

    Hessels, J W T; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lorimer, D R; Ransom, S M; Stairs, I H; Backer, Donald C.; Freire, Paulo C.C.; Hessels, Jason W.T.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Ransom, Scott M.; Stairs, Ingrid H.

    2004-01-01

    We are conducting deep searches for radio pulsations at L-band (~ 20cm) towards more than 30 globular clusters using the 305m Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico and the 100m Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia. With roughly three quarters of our search data analyzed, we have discovered 12 new millisecond pulsars, 11 of which are in binary systems, and at least three of which eclipse. We have timing solutions for several of these systems.

  2. Uncovering Multiple Populations with Washington Photometry: I. The Globular Cluster NGC 1851

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Jeffrey D.; Geisler, D; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of multiple populations (MPs) in globular clusters (GCs) has become a forefront area of research in astronomy. Multiple red giant branches (RGBs), subgiant branches (SGBs), and even main sequences (MSs) have now been observed photometrically in many GCs. UV photometry has been crucial in discovering and analyzing these MPs, but the Johnson U and the Stromgren and Sloan u filters that have generally been used are relatively inefficient and very sensitive to reddening and atmospher...

  3. Potassium: a new actor on the globular cluster chemical evolution stage. The case of NGC 2808

    CERN Document Server

    Mucciarelli, A; Merle, T; Plez, B; Dalessandro, E; Ibata, R

    2015-01-01

    We derive [K/Fe] abundance ratios for 119 stars in the globular cluster NGC 2808, all of them having O, Na, Mg and Al abundances homogeneously measured in previous works. We detect an intrinsic star-to-star spread in the Potassium abundance. Moreover [K/Fe] abundance ratios display statistically significant correlations with [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe], and anti-correlations with [O/Fe] and [Mg/Fe]. All the four Mg deficient stars ([Mg/Fe]<0.0) discovered so far in NGC 2808 are enriched in K by ~0.3 dex with respect to those with normal [Mg/Fe]. NGC 2808 is the second globular cluster, after NGC 2419, where a clear Mg-K anti-correlation is detected, albeit of weaker amplitude. The simultaneous correlation/anti-correlation of [K/Fe] with all the light elements usually involved in the chemical anomalies observed in globular cluster stars, strongly support the idea that these abundance patterns are due to the same self-enrichment mechanism that produces Na-O and Mg-Al anti-correlations. This finding suggests that det...

  4. The primordial and evolutionary abundance variations in globular-cluster stars: a problem with two unknowns

    CERN Document Server

    Denissenkov, Pavel; Hartwick, David; Herwig, Falk; Weiss, Achim; Paxton, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Abundances of the proton-capture elements and their isotopes in globular-cluster stars correlate with each other in such a manner as if their variations were produced in high-temperature hydrogen burning at the same time in the past. In addition to these primordial abundance variations, the RGB stars in globular clusters, like their field counterparts, show the evolutionary variations of the C and N abundances and 12C/13C isotopic ratio. The latter are caused by extra mixing operating in the RGB star's radiative zone that separates the H-burning shell from the bottom of its convective envelope. We demonstrate that among the potential sources of the primordial abundance variations in globular-cluster stars proposed so far, such as the hot-bottom burning in massive AGB stars and H burning in the convective cores of supermassive and fast-rotating massive MS stars, only the supermassive MS stars with M > 10,000 Msun can explain all the abundance correlations without any fine-tuning of free parameters. We use our ...

  5. The SLUGGS survey: Globular cluster stellar population trends from weak absorption lines in stacked spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Usher, Christopher; Brodie, Jean P; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Strader, Jay; Conroy, Charlie; Foster, Caroline; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Arnold, Jacob A

    2014-01-01

    As part of the SLUGGS survey, we stack 1137 Keck DEIMOS spectra of globular clusters from 10 galaxies to study their stellar populations in detail. The stacked spectra have median signal to noise ratios of $\\sim 90$ \\AA$^{-1}$. Besides the calcium triplet, we study weaker sodium, magnesium, titanium and iron lines as well as the H$\\alpha$ and higher order Paschen hydrogen lines. In general, the stacked spectra are consistent with old ages and a Milky Way-like initial mass function. However, we see different metal line index strengths at fixed colour and magnitude, and differences in the calcium triplet--colour relation from galaxy to galaxy. We interpret this as strong evidence for variations in the globular cluster colour--metallicity relation between galaxies. Two possible explanations for the colour--metallicity relation variations are that the average ages of globular clusters vary from galaxy to galaxy or that the average abundances of light elements (i.e. He, C, N and O) differ between galaxies. Stackin...

  6. An updated survey of globular clusters in M 31. I. Classification and radial velocity for 76 candidate clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Galleti, S; Bellazzini, M; Buzzoni, A; Pecci, F F

    2006-01-01

    Aims - We present the first results of a large spectroscopic survey of globular clusters and candidate globular clusters in the nearby M~31 galaxy. The survey is aimed at the classification of known candidate M~31 clusters and at the study of their kinematic properties. Methods - We obtained low-resolution spectroscopy (lambda/Dlambda~800-1300) for 133 targets, including 76 yet-to-confirm candidate clusters (i.e. with no previous spectroscopic information), 55 already-confirmed genuine M31 clusters, and 2 uncertain candidates. Our observations allowed a reliable estimate of the target radial velocity, within a typical accuracy of ~+-20km/s. The observed candidates have been robustly classified according to their radial velocity and shape parameters that allowed us to confidently discriminate between point sources and extended objects even from low-spatial-resolution imagery. Results - In our set of 76 candidates clusters we found: 42 newly-confirmed bona-fide M~31 clusters, 12 background galaxies, 17 foregrou...

  7. Intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters: observations and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Gebhardt, Karl; Baumgardt, Holger; Kruijssen, Diederik; Noyola, Eva; Neumayer, Nadine; de Zeeuw, Tim; Feldmeier, Anja; van der Helm, Edwin; Pelupessy, Inti; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2015-01-01

    The study of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is a young and promising field of research. Formed by runaway collisions of massive stars in young and dense stellar clusters, intermediate-mass black holes could still be present in the centers of globular clusters, today. Our group investigated the presence of intermediate-mass black holes for a sample of 10 Galactic globular clusters. We measured the inner kinematic profiles with integral-field spectroscopy and determined masses or upper limits of central black holes in each cluster. In combination with literature data we further studied the positions of our results on known black-hole scaling relations (such as M_bh - sigma) and found a similar but flatter correlation for IMBHs. Applying cluster evolution codes, the change in the slope could be explained with the stellar mass loss occurring in clusters in a tidal field over its life time. Furthermore, we present results from several numerical simulations on the topic of IMBHs and integral field units (IFU...

  8. Exploring Anticorrelations and Light Element Variations in Northern Globular Clusters Observed by the APOGEE Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Meszaros, Szabolcs; Shetrone, Matthew; Lucatello, Sara; Troup, Nicholas W; Bovy, Jo; Cunha, Katia; Garcia-Hernandez, Domingo A; Overbeek, Jamie C; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Beers, Timothy C; Frinchaboy, Peter M; Perez, Ana E Garcia; Hearty, Fred R; Holtzman, Jon; Majewski, Steven R; Nidever, David L; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Schneider, Donald P; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Smith, Verne V; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the light-element behavior of red giant stars in Northern globular clusters (GCs) observed by the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). We derive abundances of nine elements (Fe, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Ti) for 428 red giant stars in 10 globular clusters. The intrinsic abundance range relative to measurement errors is examined, and the well-known C-N and Mg-Al anticorrelations are explored using an extreme-deconvolution code for the first time in a consistent way. We find that Mg and Al drive the population membership in most clusters, except in M107 and M71, the two most metal-rich clusters in our study, where the grouping is most sensitive to N. We also find a diversity in the abundance distributions, with some clusters exhibiting clear abundance bimodalities (for example M3 and M53) while others show extended distributions. The spread of Al abundances increases significantly as cluster average metallicity decreases as previously found by other works, ...

  9. X-ray Sources and their Optical Counterparts in the Globular Cluster M4

    CERN Document Server

    Bassa, C; Homer, L; Verbunt, F; Gaensler, B M; Lewin, W H G; Anderson, S F; Margon, B; Kaspi, V M; Van der Klis, M; Bassa, Cees; Pooley, David; Homer, Lee; Verbunt, Frank; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Anderson, Scott F.; Margon, Bruce; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Klis, Michiel van der

    2004-01-01

    We report on the Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-S3 imaging observation of the Galactic globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121). We detect 12 X-ray sources inside the core and 19 more within the cluster half-mass radius. The limiting luminosity of this observation is Lx~10e29 erg/sec for sources associated with the cluster, the deepest X-ray observation of a globular cluster to date. We identify 6 X-ray sources with known objects and use ROSAT observations to show that the brightest X-ray source is variable. Archival data from the Hubble Space Telescope allow us to identify optical counterparts to 16 X-ray sources. Based on the X-ray and optical properties of the identifications and the information from the literature, we classify two (possibly three) sources as cataclysmic variables, one X-ray source as a millisecond pulsar and 12 sources as chromospherically active binaries. Comparison of M4 with 47 Tuc and NGC 6397 suggests a scaling of the number of active binaries in these clusters with the cluster (core) mass.

  10. Identification of Globular Cluster Stars in RAVE data II: Extended tidal debris around NGC 3201

    CERN Document Server

    Anguiano, B; Freeman, K; Da Costa, G S; Zwitter, T; Quillen, A C; Zucker, D B; Navarro, J F; Kunder, A; Siebert, A; Wyse, R F G; Grebel, E K; Kordopatis, G; Gibson, B K; Seabroke, G; Sharma, S; Wojno, J; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Parker, Q A; Steinmetz, M; Boeche, C; Gilmore, G; Bienayme, O; Reid, W; Watson, F

    2016-01-01

    We report the identification of extended tidal debris potentially associated with the globular cluster NGC 3201, using the RAVE catalogue. We find the debris stars are located at a distance range of 1-7 kpc based on the forthcoming RAVE distance estimates. The derived space velocities and integrals of motion show interesting connections to NGC 3201, modulo uncertainties in the proper motions. Three stars, which are among the 4 most likely candidates for NGC 3201 tidal debris, are separated by 80 degrees on the sky yet are well matched by the 12 Gyr, [Fe/H] = -1.5 isochrone appropriate for the cluster. This is the first time tidal debris around this cluster has been reported over such a large spatial extent, with implications for the cluster$'$s origin and dynamical evolution.

  11. A Proper-Motion Study of Two Fields, in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ivan

    1999-07-01

    We propose, using only 5 orbits of HST time, to carry out high-precision astrometry in two fields in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae in order to {1} measure the relative proper motions in the radial and tangential directions, for many thousands of main-sequence stars and white dwarfs, and determine the anisotropy of stellar motions as a function of stellar mass; {2} strengthen our current determination of the distance of the cluster, which depends on comparing proper motions with radial velocities; {3} extend the luminosity function of the cluster 3-4 magnitudes fainter, reaching well below 0.1>m_odot; {4} measure the rotation of the cluster in the plane of the sky; {5} measure the absolute proper motion of the cluster; and {6} possibly measure the proper motion of the Small Magellanic Cloud.

  12. The gravitational wave emission from white dwarf interactions in globular clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loren-Aguilar, P; Garcia-Berro, E [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Politecnica Superior de Castelldefels, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. del Canal OlImpic, s/n, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Lobo, J A; Isern, J, E-mail: loren@fa.upc.ed [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    In the dense central regions of globular clusters close encounters of two white dwarfs are relatively frequent. The estimated frequency is one or more strong encounters per star in the lifetime of the cluster. Such encounters should be then potential sources of gravitational wave radiation. Thus, it is foreseeable that these collisions could be either individually detected by LISA or they could contribute significantly to the background noise of the detector. We compute the pattern of gravitational wave emission from these encounters for a sufficiently broad range of system parameters, namely the masses, the relative velocities and the distances of the two white dwarfs involved in the encounter.

  13. Observing Globular Cluster RR Lyraes with the BYU West Mountain Observator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Elizabeth; Joner, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    We have utilized the 0.9-meter telescope of the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory to secure data on six northern hemisphere globular clusters. Here we present observations of RR Lyrae stars located in these clusters, including light curves. We compare light curves produced using both DAOPHOT and ISIS software packages. Light curve fitting is done with FITLC. We acknowledge continued support from the Brigham Young University College of Physical and Mathematical sciences for operation of the West Mountain Observatory. Some of the observations included in this presentation were secured within the term of NSF grant AST-0618209.

  14. A Panchromatic Study of the Globular Cluster NGC 1904. I: The Blue Straggler Population

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzoni, B.; Sanna, N.; Ferraro, F. R.; Valenti, E; Beccari, G.; Schiavon, R. P.; Rood, R. T.; Mapelli, M; Sigurdsson, S.; 797-807,

    2007-01-01

    By combining high-resolution (HST-WFPC2) and wide-field ground based (2.2m ESO-WFI) and space (GALEX) observations, we have collected a multi-wavelength photometric data base (ranging from the far UV to the near infrared) of the galactic globular cluster NGC1904 (M79). The sample covers the entire cluster extension, from the very central regions up to the tidal radius. In the present paper such a data set is used to study the BSS population and its radial distribution. A total number of 39 br...

  15. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. IV. Intergalactic Globular Clusters and the Massive Globular Cluster System at the Core of the Coma Galaxy Cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Eric W.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hammer, Derek; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Bridges, Terry; Chiboucas, Kristin; del Burgo, Carlos; Graham, Alister W.; Guzmán, Rafael; Hudson, Michael J.; Matković, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Phillipps, Steven; Sharples, Ray; Smith, Russell J.; Tully, Brent; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    2011-01-01

    Intracluster stellar populations are a natural result of tidal interactions in galaxy clusters. Measuring these populations is difficult, but important for understanding the assembly of the most massive galaxies. The Coma cluster of galaxies is one of the nearest truly massive galaxy clusters and is

  16. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : IV. Intergalactic Globular Clusters and the Massive Globular Cluster System at the Core of the Coma Galaxy Cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Eric W.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hammer, Derek; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Bridges, Terry; Chiboucas, Kristin; del Burgo, Carlos; Graham, Alister W.; Guzman, Rafael; Hudson, Michael J.; Matkovic, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Phillipps, Steven; Sharples, Ray; Smith, Russell J.; Tully, Brent; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2011-01-01

    Intracluster stellar populations are a natural result of tidal interactions in galaxy clusters. Measuring these populations is difficult, but important for understanding the assembly of the most massive galaxies. The Coma cluster of galaxies is one of the nearest truly massive galaxy clusters and is

  17. A Spectroscopic Analysis of the Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 6273 (M19)

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Christian I; Pilachowski, Catherine A; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I; Crane, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    A combined effort utilizing spectroscopy and photometry has revealed the existence of a new globular cluster class. These "anomalous" clusters, which we refer to as "iron-complex" clusters, are differentiated from normal clusters by exhibiting large (>0.10 dex) intrinsic metallicity dispersions, complex sub-giant branches, and correlated [Fe/H] and s-process enhancements. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, we have measured radial velocities and chemical abundances for red giant branch stars in the massive, but scarcely studied, globular cluster NGC 6273. The velocities and abundances were determined using high resolution (R~27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay 6.5m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that NGC 6273 has an average heliocentric radial velocity of +144.49 km s^-1 (sigma=9.64 km s^-1) and an extended metallicity distribution ([Fe/H]=-1.80 to -1.30) composed of at least two distinct stellar popul...

  18. Sodium content as a predictor of the advanced evolution of globular cluster stars

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Simon W; Yong, David; Constantino, Thomas N; Lattanzio, John C; Stancliffe, Richard J; Angelou, George C; Boer, Elizabeth C Wylie-de; Grundahl, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase is the final stage of nuclear burning for low-mass stars. Although Milky Way globular clusters are now known to harbour (at least) two generations of stars they still provide relatively homogeneous samples of stars that are used to constrain stellar evolution theory. It is predicted by stellar models that the majority of cluster stars with masses around the current turn-off mass (that is, the mass of the stars that are currently leaving the main sequence phase) will evolve through the AGB phase. Here we report that all of the second-generation stars in the globular cluster NGC 6752 -- 70 per cent of the cluster population -- fail to reach the AGB phase. Through spectroscopic abundance measurements, we found that every AGB star in our sample has a low sodium abundance, indicating that they are exclusively first-generation stars. This implies that many clusters cannot reliably be used for star counts to test stellar evolution timescales if the AGB population is included. ...

  19. Mg isotope ratios in giant stars of the globular clusters M 13 and M 71

    CERN Document Server

    Yong, D; Lambert, D L; Yong, David; Aoki, Wako; Lambert, David L.

    2006-01-01

    We present Mg isotope ratios in 4 red giants of the globular cluster M 13 and 1 red giant of the globular cluster M 71 based on spectra obtained with HDS on the Subaru Telescope. We confirm earlier results by Shetrone that for M 13, the ratio varies from (25+26)Mg/24Mg = 1 in stars with the highest Al abundance to (25+26)Mg/24Mg = 0.2 in stars with the lowest Al abundance. However, we separate the contributions of all three isotopes and find a spread in the ratio 24Mg:25Mg:26Mg with values ranging from 48:13:39 to 78:11:11. As in NGC 6752, we find a positive correlation between 26Mg and Al, an anticorrelation between 24Mg and Al, and no correlation between 25Mg and Al. In M 71, our one star has a ratio 70:13:17. For both clusters, the lowest ratios of 25Mg/24Mg and 26Mg/24Mg exceed those observed in field stars at the same metallicity, a result also found in NGC 6752. The contribution of 25Mg to the total Mg abundance is constant within a given cluster and between clusters with 25Mg/(24+25+26)Mg = 0.13. For M...

  20. Properties of the Young Milky Way Globular Cluster Whiting 1 from Near-Infrared Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Valcheva, A T; Lalova, A D; Nedialkov, P L; Ivanov, V D; Carraro, G

    2014-01-01

    Whiting 1 is a member of the fast-growing group of young globular clusters in the Milky Way halo. Preliminary estimates of its fundamental parameters have been provided using optical photometry and low resolution spectroscopy. In an attempt to strengthen our knowledge of Whiting 1, in this study we employ a complementary approach. Isochrone fitting method was applied on the Near-Infrared Color-Magnitude Diagram and yields an age t=5.7$\\pm$0.3 Gyr, metallicity $z$=0.006$\\pm$0.001 ([Fe/H]=$-$0.5$\\pm$0.1) and distance modulus $(m-M)_0$=17.48$\\pm$0.10. Our results confirm that Whiting 1 is a young and moderately metal-rich globular cluster. It is one of the youngest from the Sgr dSph. We fitted an Elson, Fall and Freeman (EFF) profile to the near-infrared number counts, and measured cluster core radius $r_c$=9.1${\\prime\\prime}$$\\pm$3.9${\\prime\\prime}$. Two probable eclipsing variables in the cluster were found from multi-epoch $V$ band photometry. Finally, an unknown galaxy cluster was identified on our $K$ vs. $...

  1. Sodium content as a predictor of the advanced evolution of globular cluster stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Simon W; D'Orazi, Valentina; Yong, David; Constantino, Thomas N; Lattanzio, John C; Stancliffe, Richard J; Angelou, George C; Wylie-de Boer, Elizabeth C; Grundahl, Frank

    2013-06-13

    The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase is the final stage of nuclear burning for low-mass stars. Although Milky Way globular clusters are now known to harbour (at least) two generations of stars, they still provide relatively homogeneous samples of stars that are used to constrain stellar evolution theory. It is predicted by stellar models that the majority of cluster stars with masses around the current turn-off mass (that is, the mass of the stars that are currently leaving the main sequence phase) will evolve through the AGB phase. Here we report that all of the second-generation stars in the globular cluster NGC 6752--70 per cent of the cluster population--fail to reach the AGB phase. Through spectroscopic abundance measurements, we found that every AGB star in our sample has a low sodium abundance, indicating that they are exclusively first-generation stars. This implies that many clusters cannot reliably be used for star counts to test stellar evolution timescales if the AGB population is included. We have no clear explanation for this observation.

  2. Explaining the mysterious age gap of globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Bekki, K; Beasley, M A; Forbes, D A; Chiba, M; Costa, G S D

    2004-01-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has a unique cluster formation history in that nearly all of its globular clusters were formed either $\\sim$ 13 Gyr ago or less than $\\sim$ 3 Gyr ago. It is not clear what physical mechanism is responsible for the most recent cluster formation episode and thus the mysterious age gap between the LMC clusters. We first present results of gas dynamical N-body simulations of the evolution of the LMC in the context of its Galactic orbit and interactions with the SMC, paying special attention to the effect of tidal forces. We find that the first close encounter between the LMC and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) about 4 Gyr ago was the beginning of a period of strong tidal interaction which likely induced dramatic gas cloud collisions, leading to an enhancement of the formation of globular clusters which has been sustained by strong tidal interactions to the present day. The tidal interaction results in the formation of a barred, elliptical, thick disk in the LMC. The model also pr...

  3. Spectroscopic confirmation of the low-latitude object FSR 1716 as an old globular cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; Kunder, Andrea; Wojno, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    Star clusters are invaluable tracers of the Galactic components and the discovery and characterization of low-mass stellar systems can be used to appraise their prevailing disruption mechanisms and time scales. However, owing to significant foreground contamination, high extinction, and still uncharted interfaces of the underlying Milky Way components, objects at low Galactic latitudes are notoriously difficult to characterize. Here, we present the first spectroscopic campaign to identify the chemodynamical properties of the low-latitude star cluster FSR 1716. While its photometric age and distance are far from settled, the presence of RR Lyrae variables indicates a rather old cluster variety. Using medium-resolution (R 10 600) calcium triplet (CaT) spectroscopy obtained with the wide-field, multi-fiber AAOmega instrument, we identified six member candidates with a mean velocity of -30 km s-1 and a velocity dispersion of 2.5 ± 0.9 km s-1. The latter value implies a dynamic mass of 1.3 × 104M⊙, typical of a low-mass globular cluster. Combined with our derived CaT metallicity of -1.38 ± 0.20 dex, this object is finally confirmed as an old, metal-poor globular cluster.

  4. Image-Subtraction Photometry of Variable Stars in the Field of the Globular Cluster NGC 6934

    CERN Document Server

    Kaluzny, J; Stanek, K Z

    2001-01-01

    (Abriged) We present CCD BVI photometry of 85 variable stars from the field of the globular cluster NGC 6934. The photometry was obtained with the image subtraction package ISIS. 35 variables are new identifications: 24 RRab stars, 5 RRc stars, 2 eclipsing binaries of W UMa-type, one SX Phe star, and 3 variables of other types. Both detected contact binaries are foreground stars. The SX Phe variable belongs most likely to the group of cluster blue stragglers. Large number of newly found RR Lyr variables in this cluster, as well as in other clusters recently observed by us, indicates that total RR Lyr population identified up to date in nearby galactic globular clusters is significantly (>30%) incomplete. Fourier decomposition of the light curves of RRc variables was used to estimate the basic properties of these stars: M=0.63 M_odot, log(L/L_odot)=1.72, T_eff=7300 and Y=0.27. Using RRab variables we obtain: M_V=0.81, [Fe/H]=-1.53 and T_eff=6450. From the B-V color at minimum light of the RRab variables we obt...

  5. The Variable Star Population of the Globular Cluster B514 in the Andromeda Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Clementini, Gisella; Federici, Luciana; Cacciari, Carla; Merighi, Roberto; Smith, Horace A; Catelan, Marcio; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Marconi, Marcella; Kinemuchi, Karen; Pritzl, Barton J

    2009-01-01

    A rich harvest of RR Lyrae stars has been identified for the first time in B514, a metal-poor ([Fe/H] = 1.95 +/- 0.10 dex) globular cluster of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and Advanced Camera for Surveys time-series observations. We have detected and derived periods for 89 RR Lyrae stars (82 fundamental-mode -RRab- and 7 first-overtone -RRc- pulsators, respectively) among 161 candidate variables identified in the cluster. The average period of the RR Lyrae variables ( = 0.58 days and = 0.35 days, for RRab and RRc pulsators, respectively) and the position in the period-amplitude diagram both suggest that B514 is likely an Oosterhoff type I cluster. This appears to be in disagreement with the general behaviour of the metal-poor globular clusters in the Milky Way, which show instead Oosterhoff type II pulsation properties. The average apparent magnitude of the RR Lyrae stars sets the mean level of the cluster horizontal branch at = 25.18 +/- 0.02 (si...

  6. The SLUGGS Survey: Globular cluster system kinematics and substructure in NGC 4365

    CERN Document Server

    Blom, Christina; Brodie, Jean P; Foster, Caroline; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Spitler, Lee R; Strader, Jay

    2012-01-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of the globular cluster (GC) system of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4365 and find several distinct kinematic substructures. This analysis is carried out using radial velocities for 269 GCs, obtained with the DEIMOS instrument on the Keck II telescope as part of the SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies Survey (SLUGGS). We find that each of the three (formerly identified) GC colour subpopulations reveal distinct rotation properties. The rotation of the green GC subpopulation is consistent with the bulk of NGC 4365's stellar light, which `rolls' about the photometric major axis. The blue and red GC subpopulations show `normal' rotation about the minor axis. We also find that the red GC subpopulation is rotationally dominated beyond 2.5 arcmin (~17 kpc) and that the root mean squared velocity of the green subpopulation declines sharply with radius suggesting a possible bias towards radial orbits relative to the other GC subpopulations. Additionally, we find a population ...

  7. The horizontal branch morphology of M31 globular clusters. Extreme second parameter effect in outer halo clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Perina, S; Buzzoni, A; Cacciari, C; Federici, L; Pecci, F Fusi; Galleti, S

    2012-01-01

    We use deep, high quality colour magnitude diagrams obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope to compute a simplified version of the Mironov index [SMI; B/(B+R)] to parametrize the horizontal branch (HB) morphology for 23 globular clusters in the M31 galaxy (Sample-A), all located in the outer halo at projected distances between 10 kpc and 100 kpc. This allows us to compare them with their Galactic counterparts, for which we estimated the SMI exactly in the same way, in the SMI vs. [Fe/H] plane. We find that the majority of the considered M31 clusters lie in a significantly different locus, in this plane, with respect to Galactic clusters lying at any distance from the center of the Milky Way. In particular they have redder HB morphologies at a given metallicity, or, in other words, clusters with the same SMI value are ~0.4 dex more metal rich in the Milky Way than in M31. We discuss the possible origin of this difference and we conclude that the most likely explanation is that many globular clusters in the ou...

  8. HST luminosity functions of the globular clusters M10, M22, and M55. A comparison with other clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotto, G.; Zoccali, M.

    1999-05-01

    From a combination of deep Hubble Space Telescope V and I images with groundbased images in the same bands, we have obtained color-magnitude diagrams of M10, M22, and M55, extending from just above the hydrogen burning limit to the tip of the red giant branch, down to the white dwarf cooling sequence. We have used the color-magnitude arrays to extract main sequence luminosity functions (LFs) from the turnoff to m ~ 0.13m_sun. The LFs of M10 is significantly steeper than that for the other two clusters. The difference cannot be due to a difference in metallicity. A comparison with the LFs from Piotto et al. (1997), shows a large spread in the LF slopes. This spread is also present in the local mass functions (MFs) obtained from the observed LFs using different theoretical mass-luminosity relations. The dispersion in the MF slopes remains also after removing the mass segregation effects by using multimass King-Michie models. The globular cluster MF slopes are also flatter than the MF slope of the field stars and of the Galactic clusters in the same mass interval. We interpret the MF slope dispersion and the MF flatness as an evidence of dynamical evolution which makes the present day globular cluster stellar MFs different from the initial MFs. The slopes of the present day MFs exclude that the low mass star can be dynamically relevant for the Galactic globular clusters. Based on HST observations retrieved from the ESO ST-ECF Archive, and on observations made at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, and at the JKT telescope at La Palma, Islas Canarias.

  9. Pre-collapse evolution of galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushige, T; Toshiyuki Fukushige; Douglas C Heggie

    1994-01-01

    Abstract: This paper is concerned with collisionless aspects of the early evolution of model star clusters. The effects of mass loss through stellar evolution and of a steady tidal field are modelled using N-body simulations. Our results (which depend on the assumed initial structure and the mass spectrum) agree qualitatively with those of Chernoff \\& Weinberg (1990), who used a Fokker-Planck model with a spherically symmetric tidal cutoff. For those systems which are disrupted, the lifetime to disruption generally exceeds that found by Chernoff \\& Weinberg, sometimes by as much as an order of magnitude. Because we do not model collisional effects correctly we cannot establish the fate of the survivors. In terms of theoretical interpretation, we find that tidal disruption must be understood as a loss of {\\sl equilibrium}, and not a loss of {\\sl stability}, as is sometimes stated.

  10. Nonlinear Color-Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. III. On the Discrepancy in Metallicity between Globular Cluster Systems and their Parent Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Blakeslee, John P; Peng, Eric W; Sohn, Sangmo T; Cho, Jaeil; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Kim, Sooyoung; Lee, Young-Wook

    2011-01-01

    One of the conundrums in extragalactic astronomy is the discrepancy in observed metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) between the two prime stellar components of early-type galaxies-globular clusters (GCs) and halo field stars. This is generally taken as evidence of highly decoupled evolutionary histories between GC systems and their parent galaxies. Here we show, however, that new developments in linking the observed GC colors to their intrinsic metallicities suggest nonlinear color-to-metallicity conversions, which translate observed color distributions into strongly-peaked, unimodal MDFs with broad metal-poor tails. Remarkably, the inferred GC MDFs are similar to the MDFs of resolved field stars in nearby elliptical galaxies and those produced by chemical evolution models of galaxies. The GC MDF shape, characterized by a sharp peak with a metal-poor tail, indicates a virtually continuous chemical enrichment with a relatively short timescale. The characteristic shape emerges across three orders of magni...

  11. The non-segregated population of blue straggler stars in the remote globular cluster Palomar 14

    CERN Document Server

    Beccari, Giacomo; Ferraro, Francesco R; Lanzoni, Barbara; Bellazzini, Michele; De Marchi, Guido; Valls-Gabaud, David; Rood, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    We used deep wide-field observations obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to study the blue straggler star (BSS) population in the innermost five arcminutes of the remote Galactic globular cluster Palomar 14. The BSS radial distribution is found to be consistent with that of the normal cluster stars, showing no evidence of central segregation. Palomar 14 is the third system in the Galaxy (in addition to OmegaCentauri and NGC 2419) showing a population of BSS not centrally segregated. This is the most direct evidence that in Palomar 14 two-body relaxation has not fully established energy equipartition yet, even in the central regions (in agreement with the estimated half-mass relaxation time, which is significantly larger than the cluster age). These observational facts have important implications for the interpretation of the shape of the mass function and the existence of the tidal tails recently discovered in this cluster.

  12. UIT Detection of Hot Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC362

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, B; O'Connell, R W; Landsman, W B; Rood, R T; Bohlin, R C; Neff, S G; Roberts, M S; Smith, A M; Stecher, T P; Dorman, Ben; Shah, Ronak Y.; Connell, Robert W. O'; Landsman, Wayne B.; Rood, Robert T.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Neff, Susan G.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1997-01-01

    We used the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope during the March 1995 Astro-2 mission to obtain a deep far-UV image of the globular cluster NGC 362, which was formerly thought to have an almost entirely red horizontal branch (HB). 84 hot (T_eff > 8500 K) stars were detected within a radius of 8'.25 of the cluster center. Of these, 43 have FUV magnitudes consistent with HB stars in NGC 362, and at least 34 are cluster members. The number of cluster members is made uncertain by background contamination from blue stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). There are six candidate supra-HB stars which have probably evolved from the HB. We discuss the implications of these results for the production of hot blue stars in stellar populations.

  13. Lithium abundances in globular cluster giants: NGC 1904, NGC 2808, and NGC 362

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazi, V; Angelou, G C; Bragaglia, A; Carretta, E; Lattanzio, J C; Lucatello, S; Momany, Y; Sollima, A; Beccari, G

    2015-01-01

    The presence of multiple populations in globular clusters has been well established thanks to high-resolution spectroscopy. It is widely accepted that distinct populations are a consequence of different stellar generations: intra-cluster pollution episodes are required to produce the peculiar chemistry observed in almost all clusters. Unfortunately, the progenitors responsible have left an ambiguous signature and their nature remains unresolved. To constrain the candidate polluters, we have measured lithium and aluminium abundances in more than 180 giants across three systems: NGC~1904, NGC~2808, and NGC~362. The present investigation along with our previous analysis of M12 and M5 affords us the largest database of simultaneous determinations of Li and Al abundances. Our results indicate that Li production has occurred in each of the three clusters. In NGC~362 we detected an M12-like behaviour, with first and second-generation stars sharing very similar Li abundances favouring a progenitor that is able to pro...

  14. Near-Infrared Photometry of Globular Clusters Towards the Galactic Bulge: Observations and Photometric Metallicity Indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Roger E; Mauro, Francesco; Bonatto, Charles; Geisler, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    We present wide field JHKs photometry of 16 Galactic globular clusters located towards the Galactic bulge, calibrated on the 2MASS photometric system. Differential reddening corrections and statistical field star decontamination are employed for all of these clusters before fitting fiducial sequences to the cluster red giant branches (RGBs). Observed values and uncertainties are reported for several photometric features, including the magnitude of the RGB bump, tip, the horizontal branch (HB) and the slope of the upper RGB. The latest spectroscopically determined chemical abundances are used to build distance- and reddening-independent relations between observed photometric features and cluster metallicity, optimizing the sample size and metallicity baseline of these relations by supplementing our sample with results from the literature. We find that the magnitude different between the HB and the RGB bump can be used to predict metallicities, in terms of both iron abundance [Fe/H] and global metallicity [M/H]...

  15. High Cadence Photometric Survey of Four Southern Hemisphere Milky Way Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas Kyle; Albrow, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Milky Way galaxy is surrounded by some 200 compact Globular Cluster (GCs) of stars, containing up to a million stars each. At 13 billion years of age, these globular clusters are almost as old as the universe itself and were born when the first generations of stars and galaxies formed. GCs are dynamical test beds for investigating and proving theories of stellar evolution. A key parameter to understanding the evolution of GCs is the binary fraction of stars contained within a GC. Binary stars are thought to be a controlling factor in globular cluster evolution and provide a unique tool to determine crucial information about a variety of stellar characteristics such as mass, radius and luminosity. In addition to containing binary stars, GCs also harbor a wide variety of variable stars such as RR Lyrae stars and other stellar exotica, such as blue stragglers, cataclysmic variables, and low-mass X-ray binaries. Recently, a potential new class of rapidly pulsating star, hydrogen-rich subdwarf (sdO) pulsators, has been discovered in the Omega Centauri GC. At present, these Hydrogen sdO pulsators have not been detected in any other GC or among the general field star population.This talk will discuss the use of Difference Imaging Algorithms (DIAs) applied to time-series photometry data from the 10m Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) to investigate short period low amplitude variable stars in the GCs: NGC 1904, NGC 2808, NGC 4833 and NGC 5139. We will present results of• Searching for new discoveries in pulsating stars, cataclysmic variables (a white dwarf star accreting material from its companion), BY Draconis stars (rapidly rotating dwarf stars spun up by a binary companion) and contact binary stars (rapidly rotating binaries that are beginning to coalesce)• Comparison analysis of variables across clusters in relation to cluster Main Sequence regions• Determining the fraction of binary stars in the identified GCsSpecific scientific questions that are

  16. The Bizarre Chemical Inventory of NGC 2419, An Extreme Outer Halo Globular Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Judith G

    2012-01-01

    We present new Keck/HIRES observations of six red giants in the globular cluster NGC 2419. Although the cluster is among the most distant and most luminous in the Milky Way, it was considered chemically ordinary until very recently. Our previous work showed that the near-infrared Ca II triplet line strength varied more than expected for a chemically homogeneous cluster, and that at least one star had unusual abundances of Mg and K. Here, we confirm that NGC 2419 harbors a population of stars, comprising about one third of its mass, that is depleted in Mg by a factor of 8 and enhanced in K by a factor of 6 with respect to the Mg-normal population. Although the majority, Mg-normal population appears to have a chemical abundance pattern indistinguishable from ordinary, inner halo globular clusters, the Mg-poor population exhibits dispersions of several elements. The abundances of K and Sc are strongly anti-correlated with Mg, and some other elements (Si and Ca among others) are weakly anti-correlated with Mg. Th...

  17. Chemical Compositions of Red Giant Stars in Old Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, J A; Stetson, P B; Ivans, Inese I.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Stetson, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    We have observed ten red giant stars in four old Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters with the high-resolution spectrograph MIKE on the Magellan Landon Clay 6.5-m telescope. The stars in our sample have up to 20 elemental abundance determinations for the alpha-, iron-peak, and neutron-capture element groups. We have also derived abundances for the light odd-Z elements Na and Al. We find NGC 2005 and NGC 2019 to be more metal-rich than previous estimates from the Ca II triplet, and we derive [Fe/H] values closer to those obtained from the slope of the red giant branch. However, we confirm previous determinations for Hodge 11 and NGC 1898 to within 0.2 dex. The LMC cluster [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] ratios are comparable to the values observed in old Galactic globular cluster stars, as are the abundances [Y/Fe], [Ba/Fe], and [Eu/Fe]. The LMC clusters do not share the low-Y behavior observed in some dwarf spheroidal galaxies. [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [V/Fe] in the LMC, however, are significantly lower than what is see...

  18. NGC6362: the least massive globular cluster with chemically distinct multiple populations

    CERN Document Server

    Mucciarelli, A; Massari, D; Bellazzini, M; Ferraro, F R; Lanzoni, B; Lardo, C; Salaris, M; Cassisi, S

    2016-01-01

    We present the first measure of Fe and Na abundances in NGC 6362, a low-mass globular cluster where first and second generation stars are fully spatially mixed. A total of 160 member stars (along the red giant branch and the red horizontal branch) have been observed with the multi-object spectrograph FLAMES at the Very Large Telescope. We find that the cluster has an iron abundance of [Fe/H]=--1.09$\\pm$0.01 dex, without evidence of intrinsic dispersion. On the other hand, the [Na/Fe] distribution turns out to be intrinsically broad and bimodal. The Na-poor and Na-rich stars populate, respectively, the bluest and the reddest red giant branches detected in the color-magnitude diagrams including the U filter. The red giant branch is composed of a mixture of first and second generation stars in a similar proportion, while almost all the red horizontal branch stars belong to the first cluster generation. Until now, NGC 6362 is the least massive globular cluster where both the photometric and spectroscopic signatur...

  19. ROSAT HRI X-ray Observations of the Open Globular Cluster NGC 288

    CERN Document Server

    Sarazin, C L; Rood, R T; Ferraro, F R; Paltrinieri, B; Sarazin, Craig L.; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Rood, Robert T.; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Paltrinieri, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    A ROSAT HRI X-ray image was obtained of the open globular cluster NGC288, which is located near the South Galactic Pole. This is the first deep X-ray image of this system. We detect a Low Luminosity Globular Cluster X-ray source (LLGCX) RXJ005245.0-263449 with an X-ray luminosity of (5.5+-1.4)x10^32 ergs/s (0.1-2.0 keV), which is located very close to the cluster center. There is evidence for X-ray variability on a time scale of <~1 day. The presence of this LLGCX in such an open cluster suggests that dense stellar systems with high interaction rates are not needed to form LLGCXs. HST images will be used to attempt to identify RXJ005245.0-263449. We also searched for diffuse X-ray emission from NGC 288. Upper limits on the X-ray luminosities are L_X^h < 9.5x10^32 ergs/s (0.52-2.02 keV) and L_X^s < 9.3x10^32 ergs/s (0.11-0.41 keV). These imply upper limits to the diffuse X-ray to optical light ratios in NGC 288 which are lower than the values observed for X-ray faint early-type galaxies. This indicate...

  20. Another Non-segregated Blue Straggler Population in a Globular Cluster: the Case of NGC 2419

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, E; Ferraro, F R; Vespe, F; Bellazzini, M; Rood, R T

    2008-01-01

    We have used a combination of ACS-HST high-resolution and wide-field SUBARU data in order to study the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) population over the entire extension of the remote Galactic globular cluster NGC 2419. The BSS population presented here is among the largest ever observed in any stellar system, with more than 230 BSS in the brightest portion of the sequence. The radial distribution of the selected BSS is essentially the same as that of the other cluster stars. In this sense the BSS radial distribution is similar to that of omega Centauri and unlike that of all Galactic globular clusters studied to date, which have highly centrally segregated distributions and, in most cases, a pronounced upturn in the external regions. As in the case of omega Centauri, this evidence indicates that NGC 2419 is not yet relaxed even in the central regions. This observational fact is in agreement with estimated half-mass relaxation time, which is of the order of the cluster age.

  1. The stellar population of NGC5634. A globular cluster in the Sagittarius dSph Stream?

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, M; Ibata, R; Bellazzini, Michele; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Ibata, Rodrigo

    2002-01-01

    We present the first (V,V-I) Color -- Magnitude Diagram (CMD) for the poorly studied globular cluster NGC 5634. The CMD shows a steep Red Giant Branch (RGB) and a predominantly blue Horizontal Branch (HB): both these characteristics suggest a low metal content for this cluster. From the position of the RGB in the CMD we estimate [Fe/H] = -1.94 +/- 0.10 and E(B-V)=0.06 +/- 0.01. The CMD presented here reaches V\\simeq 23, allowing us to obtain the first measure of the Main Sequence Turn-Off (TO) V_{TO}= 21.22 +/- 0.15 for this cluster. By combining this figure with the apparent luminosity of the Zero Age HB (ZAHB), V_{ZAHB}=17.90 +/- 0.10 we obtain Delta V^{HB}_{TO}=3.32 +/- 0.16, a value which is fully compatible with that derived for the bulk of Galactic globulars. We also derive a true distance modulus of (m-M)_0 = 17.17 +/- 0.12 corresponding to a distance of ~ 27.2 kpc. Most interestingly, the cluster is shown to have position and radial velocity fully compatible with the orbit of the Sgr dwarf spheroidal ...

  2. The Metal-rich Globular Cluster NGC6553 Observations with WFPC2, STIS, and NICMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Beaulieu, S F; Elson, R A W; Johnson, R A; Santiago, B; Sigurdsson, S; Tanvir, N R; Beaulieu, Sylvie F.; Gilmore, Gerard; Elson, Rebecca A.W.; Johnson, Rachel A.; Santiago, Basilio; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Tanvir, Nial

    2001-01-01

    We present a HST study of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC6553 using WFPC2, NICMOS and STIS. Our primary motivation is to calibrate the STIS broad-band LP magnitude against $V_{555}$ and $I_{814}$ magnitudes for stars of known metallicity and absolute (visual) magnitude, for application to our study of LMC globular clusters. NGC6553 has been shown in earlier studies to have a very unusual colour-magnitude diagram, so we also use our data to investigate the reddening, distance, luminosity function and structure of this cluster. We deduce a higher metallicity and smaller distance modulus than did some previous studies, but emphasise that very large patchy extinction on small angular scales prohibits accurate determination of the parameters of this cluster. The horizontal branch of NGC6553 in ($V,V-I$) is tilted at an angle close to that of the reddening vector. We show that extinction does not, however, explain the tilt, which is presumably a metallicity effect. The colour-magnitude diagram shows an apparent...

  3. A spectroscopic study of the globular cluster M28 (NGC 6626)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.; Mauro, F.; Munoz, C.; Monaco, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the abundance analysis for a sample of 17 red giant branch stars in the metal-poor globular cluster M28 based on high-resolution spectra. This is the first extensive spectroscopic study of this cluster. We derive abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, and Eu. We find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.29 ± 0.01 and an α-enhancement of +0.34 ± 0.01 (errors on the mean), typical of halo globular clusters in this metallicity regime. A large spread is observed in the abundances of light elements O, Na, and Al. Mg also shows an anti-correlation with Al with a significance of 3σ. The cluster shows a Na-O anti-correlation and a Na-Al correlation. This correlation is not linear but `segmented' and that the stars are not distributed continuously, but form at least three well-separated sub-populations. In this aspect, M28 resembles NGC 2808 that was found to host at least five sub-populations. The presence of a Mg-Al anti-correlation favour massive AGB stars as the main polluters responsible for the multiple-population phenomenon.

  4. A broad perspective on multiple abundance populations in the globular cluster NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Jeffrey D; Navin, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the multiple stellar populations of the globular cluster NGC 1851. We used lower resolution spectra of giant stars to measure CN, CH, and calcium H & K spectral indices, and determine elemental abundances for carbon and nitrogen. The CN and CH indices were used to confirm that there are four populations of stars in the cluster. The primordial population of stars, with the lowest CN, was found to be generally chemically distinct in elemental abundances from the second generation populations. As expected, [N/Fe] increases with increasing CN strength, but the only other element that correlated with CN was barium. The two largest populations of stars were found to have the same rate of carbon astration as the stars ascend the giant branch. We were also able to confirm that four previously identified extratidal stars are chemically associated with the cluster. This work shows the benefit of considering the chemistry of globular clusters with both high- and low-resolution spectra.

  5. A broad perspective on multiple abundance populations in the globular cluster NGC 1851

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jeffrey D.; Martell, Sarah L.; Navin, Colin A.

    2017-02-01

    We present an analysis of the multiple stellar populations of the globular cluster NGC 1851. We used lower resolution spectra of giant stars to measure CN, CH, and calcium H & K spectral indices, and determine elemental abundances for carbon and nitrogen. The CN and CH indices were used to confirm that there are four populations of stars in the cluster. The primordial population of stars, with the lowest CN, was found to be generally chemically distinct in elemental abundances from the second-generation populations. As expected, [N/Fe] increases with increasing CN strength, but the only other element that correlated with CN was barium. The two largest populations of stars were found to have the same rate of carbon astration as the stars that ascend the giant branch. We were also able to confirm that four previously identified extratidal stars are chemically associated with the cluster. This work shows the benefit of considering the chemistry of globular clusters with both high- and low-resolution spectra.

  6. A spectroscopic study of the Globular Cluster M28 (NGC~6626)

    CERN Document Server

    Villanova, S; Mauro, F; Munoz, C; Monaco, L

    2016-01-01

    We present the abundance analysis for a sample of 17 red giant branch stars in the metal-poor globular cluster M28 based on high resolution spectra. This is the first extensive spectroscopic study of this cluster. We derive abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, and Eu. We find a metallicity of [Fe/H]=-1.29+-0.01 and an alpha-enhancement of +0.34+-0.01 (errors on the mean), typical of Halo Globular Clusters in this metallicity regime. A large spread is observed in the abundances of light elements O, Na, and Al. Mg also shows an anticorrelation with Al with a significance of 3 sigma. The cluster shows a Na-O anticorrelation and a Na-Al correlation. This correlation is not linear but "segmented" and that the stars are not distributed continuously, but form at least 3 well separated sub-populations. In this aspect M28 resembles NGC~2808 that was found to host at least 5 sub-populations. The presence of a Mg-Al anticorrelation favor massive AGB stars as the main...

  7. A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and ~100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra Diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Danieli, Shany; Merritt, Allison; Mowla, Lamiya; Romanowsky, Aaron; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-01-01

    Recently a population of large, very low surface brightness, spheroidal galaxies was identified in the Coma cluster. The apparent survival of these Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) in a rich cluster suggests that they have very high masses. Here we present the stellar kinematics of Dragonfly 44, one of the largest Coma UDGs, using a 33.5 hr integration with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope. We find a velocity dispersion of 47 km/s, which implies a dynamical mass of M_dyn=0.7x10^10 M_sun within its deprojected half-light radius of r_1/2=4.6 kpc. The mass-to-light ratio is M/L=48 M_sun/L_sun, and the dark matter fraction is 98 percent within the half-light radius. The high mass of Dragonfly 44 is accompanied by a large globular cluster population. From deep Gemini imaging taken in 0.4" seeing we infer that Dragonfly 44 has 94 globular clusters, similar to the counts for other galaxies in this mass range. Our results add to other recent evidence that many UDGs are "failed" galaxies, with the sizes, dark matter conte...

  8. A Chandra X-ray observation of the globular cluster Terzan 1

    CERN Document Server

    Cackett, E M; Heinke, C O; Pooley, D; Lewin, W H G; Grindlay, J E; Edmonds, P D; Jonker, P G; Miller, J M

    2005-01-01

    We present a 19 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of the globular cluster Terzan 1. Fourteen sources are detected within 1.4 arcmin of the cluster center with 2 of these sources predicted to be not associated with the cluster (background AGN or foreground objects). The neutron star X-ray transient, X1732-304, has previously been observed in outburst within this globular cluster with the outburst seen to last for at least 12 years. Here we find 4 sources that are consistent with the ROSAT position for this transient, but none of the sources are fully consistent with the position of a radio source detected with the VLA that is likely associated with the transient. The most likely candidate for the quiescent counterpart of the transient has a relatively soft spectrum and an unabsorbed 0.5-10 keV luminosity of 2.6E32 ergs/s, quite typical of other quiescent neutron stars. Assuming standard core cooling, from the quiescent flux of this source we predict long (>400 yr) quiescent episodes to allow the neutron star to co...

  9. A Catalog of Helium Abundance Indicators from Globular Cluster Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sandquist, E L

    1999-01-01

    For each of the three indicators used, we have conducted a thorough error analysis, and identified systematic errors in the computational procedures. For the population ratio R = N_HB / N_RGB, we find that there is no evidence of a trend with metallicity, although there appears to be real scatter in the values derived. Although this indicator is the one best able to provide useful absolute helium abundances, the mean value is Y approximately 0.20, indicating the probable presence of additional systematic error. For the magnitude difference from the horizontal branch to the main sequence Delta and the RR Lyrae mass-luminosity exponent A, it is only possible to reliably determine relative helium abundances. This is due to continuing uncertainties in the absolute metallicity scale for Delta, and uncertainty in the RR Lyrae temperature scale for A. Both indicators imply that the helium abundance is approximately constant as a function of [Fe/H]. According to the A indicator, both Oosterhoff I and II group cluster...

  10. Variable stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 2808

    CERN Document Server

    Kunder, Andrea; Catelan, Marcio; Walker, Alistair R; Amigo, Pia

    2012-01-01

    The first calibrated broadband BVI time-series photometry is presented for the variable stars in NGC 2808, with observations spanning a range of twenty-eight years. We have also redetermined the variability types and periods for the variable stars identified previously by Corwin et al, revising the number of probable fundamental-mode RR Lyrae variables (RR0) to 11 and the number of first-overtone variables (RR1) to five. Our observations were insufficient to discern the nature of the previously identified RR1 star, V24, and the tentatively identified RR1 star, V13. These two variables are \\sim0.8 mag brighter than the RR Lyrae variables, appear to have somewhat erratic period and/or luminosity changes, and lie inside the RR Lyrae instability strip. Curiously, all but one of the RR Lyrae stars studied in this relatively metal-rich cluster exhibit the Blazhko phenomenon, an effect thought to occur with higher frequency in metal-poor environments. The mean periods of the RR0 and RR1 variables are _RR0=0.56 pm 0....

  11. High resolution spectroscopic analysis of seven giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6723

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Zoccali, M.; Vásquez, S.; Ripepi, V.; Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Globular clusters associated with the Galactic bulge are important tracers of stellar populations in the inner Galaxy. High resolution analysis of stars in these clusters allows us to characterize them in terms of kinematics, metallicity, and individual abundances, and to compare these fingerprints with those characterizing field populations. Aims: We present iron and element ratios for seven red giant stars in the globular cluster NGC 6723, based on high resolution spectroscopy. Methods: High resolution spectra (R ~ 48 000) of seven K giants belonging to NGC 6723 were obtained with the FEROS spectrograph at the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope. Photospheric parameters were derived from ~130 Fe i and Fe ii transitions. Abundance ratios were obtained from line-to-line spectrum synthesis calculations on clean selected features. Results: An intermediate metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.98 ± 0.08 dex and a heliocentric radial velocity of vhel = -96.6 ± 1.3 km s-1 were found for NGC 6723. Alpha-element abundances present enhancements of [O/Fe] = 0.29 ± 0.18 dex, [Mg/Fe] = 0.23 ± 0.10 dex, [Si/Fe] = 0.36 ± 0.05 dex, and [Ca/Fe] = 0.30 ± 0.07 dex. Similar overabundance is found for the iron-peak Ti with [Ti/Fe] = 0.24 ± 0.09 dex. Odd-Z elements Na and Al present abundances of [Na/Fe] = 0.00 ± 0.21 dex and [Al/Fe] = 0.31 ± 0.21 dex, respectively. Finally, the s-element Ba is also enhanced by [Ba/Fe] = 0.22 ± 0.21 dex. Conclusions: The enhancement levels of NGC 6723 are comparable to those of other metal-intermediate bulge globular clusters. In turn, these enhancement levels are compatible with the abundance profiles displayed by bulge field stars at that metallicity. This hints at a possible similar chemical evolution with globular clusters and the metal-poor of the bulge going through an early prompt chemical enrichment.

  12. Time-Series Photometry of Globular Clusters: M62 (NGC 6266), the Most RR Lyrae-Rich Globular Cluster in the Galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, R; Smith, H A; Pritzl, B J; Borissova, J; Kuehn, C A

    2010-01-01

    We present new time-series CCD photometry, in the B and V bands, for the moderately metal-rich ([Fe/H] ~ -1.3) Galactic globular cluster (GC) M62 (NGC 6266). The present dataset is the largest obtained so far for this cluster, and consists of 168 images per filter, obtained with the Warsaw 1.3m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) and the 1.3m telescope of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), in two separate runs over the time span of three months. The procedure adopted to detect the variable stars was the optimal image subtraction method (ISIS v2.2), as implemented by Alard. The photometry was performed using both ISIS and DAOPHOT/ALLFRAME. We have identified 245 variable stars in the cluster fields that have been analyzed so far, of which 179 are new discoveries. Of these variables, 133 are fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars (RRab), 76 are first overtone (RRc) pulsators, 4 are type II Cepheids, 25 are long-period variables (LPV), 1 is an eclipsing binary, and 6 are not yet well classi...

  13. Deep ACS Imaging in the Globular Cluster NGC 6397: The Cluster Color Magnitude Diagram and Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, Harvey B; Hurley, Jarrod; Anderson, Jay; King, Ivan; Davis, Saul; Fahlman, Gregory G; Hansen, Brad M S; Kalirai, Jason; Paust, Nathaniel; Rich, R Michael; Shara, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    We present the CMD from deep HST imaging in the globular cluster NGC 6397. The ACS was used for 126 orbits to image a single field in two colors (F814W, F606W) 5 arcmin SE of the cluster center. The field observed overlaps that of archival WFPC2 data from 1994 and 1997 which were used to proper motion (PM) clean the data. Applying the PM corrections produces a remarkably clean CMD which reveals a number of features never seen before in a globular cluster CMD. In our field, the main sequence stars appeared to terminate close to the location in the CMD of the hydrogen-burning limit predicted by two independent sets of stellar evolution models. The faintest observed main sequence stars are about a magnitude fainter than the least luminous metal-poor field halo stars known, suggesting that the lowest luminosity halo stars still await discovery. At the bright end the data extend beyond the main sequence turnoff to well up the giant branch. A populous white dwarf cooling sequence is also seen in the cluster CMD. Th...

  14. The impact of galaxy harassment on the globular cluster systems of early-type cluster dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Rory; Fellhauer, Michael; Puzia, Thomas H; Aguerri, J A L; Farias, Juan-Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of globular cluster systems (GCSs) around galaxies are often used to assess the total enclosed mass, and even to constrain the dark matter distribution. The globular cluster system of a galaxy is typically assumed to be in dynamical equilibrium within the potential of the host galaxy. However cluster galaxies are subjected to a rapidly evolving and, at times, violently destructive tidal field. We investigate the impact of the harassment on the dynamics of GCs surrounding early type cluster dwarfs, using numerical simulations. We find that the dynamical behaviour of the GCS is strongly influenced by the fraction of bound dark matter f_{DM} remaining in the galaxy. Only when f_{DM} falls to ~15%, do stars and GCs begin to be stripped. Still the observed GC velocity dispersion can be used to measure the true enclosed mass to within a factor of 2, even when f_{DM} falls as low as ~3%. This is possible partly because unbound GCs quickly separate from the galaxy body. However even the distribution of {...

  15. A new catalog of homogenised absorption line indices for Milky Way globular clusters from high-resolution integrated spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hak-Sub; Sharples, Ray M; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Beasley, Michael A; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2016-01-01

    We perform integrated spectroscopy of 24 Galactic globular clusters. Spectra are observed from one core radius for each cluster with a high wavelength resolution of ~2.0 A FWHM. In combination with two existing data sets from Puzia et al. (2002) and Schiavon et al. (2005), we construct a large database of Lick spectral indices for a total of 53 Galactic globular clusters with a wide range of metallicities, -2.4 < [Fe/H] < 0.1, and various horizontal-branch morphologies. The empirical index-to-metallicity conversion relationships are provided for the 20 Lick indices for the use of deriving metallicities for remote, unresolved stellar systems.

  16. Novae from isolated white dwarfs as a source of helium for second generation stars in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Maccarone, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    We explore the possible contribution of classical and recurrent novae from isolated white dwarfs accreting from the intracluster medium to the abundances of "second generation" globular cluster stellar populations. We show that under reasonable assumptions the helium abundances of clusters can be enhanced substantially by these novae and argue that novae should be considered as an important, and perhaps even dominant channel in the evolution of the intracluster medium. We also discuss a possible test for whether helium enhancement really is the cause of the multiple main sequences in globular clusters that is independent of the positions of stars in the color-magnitude diagram.

  17. A SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6273 (M19)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Pilachowski, Catherine A. [Astronomy Department, Indiana University Bloomington, Swain West 319, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States); Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I. III [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Crane, Jeffrey D., E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: ncaldwell@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: catyp@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: mmateo@umich.edu, E-mail: baileyji@umich.edu, E-mail: crane@obs.carnegiescience.edu [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    A combined effort utilizing spectroscopy and photometry has revealed the existence of a new globular cluster class. These “anomalous” clusters, which we refer to as “iron-complex” clusters, are differentiated from normal clusters by exhibiting large (≳0.10 dex) intrinsic metallicity dispersions, complex sub-giant branches, and correlated [Fe/H] and s-process enhancements. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, we have measured radial velocities and chemical abundances for red giant branch stars in the massive, but scarcely studied, globular cluster NGC 6273. The velocities and abundances were determined using high resolution (R ∼ 27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan–Clay 6.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that NGC 6273 has an average heliocentric radial velocity of +144.49 km s{sup −1} (σ = 9.64 km s{sup −1}) and an extended metallicity distribution ([Fe/H] = −1.80 to −1.30) composed of at least two distinct stellar populations. Although the two dominant populations have similar [Na/Fe], [Al/Fe], and [α/Fe] abundance patterns, the more metal-rich stars exhibit significant [La/Fe] enhancements. The [La/Eu] data indicate that the increase in [La/Fe] is due to almost pure s-process enrichment. A third more metal-rich population with low [X/Fe] ratios may also be present. Therefore, NGC 6273 joins clusters such as ω Centauri, M2, M22, and NGC 5286 as a new class of iron-complex clusters exhibiting complicated star formation histories.

  18. The horizontal branch morphology of M 31 globular clusters. Extreme second parameter effect in outer halo clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perina, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Cacciari, C.; Federici, L.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Galleti, S.

    2012-10-01

    We use deep, high quality color magnitude diagrams obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope to compute a simplified version of the Mironov index (SMI; B/(B+R)) to parametrize the horizontal branch (HB) morphology for 23 globular clusters in the M 31 galaxy (Sample A), all located in the outer halo at projected distances between 10 kpc and 100 kpc. This allows us to compare them with their Galactic counterparts, for which we estimated the SMI exactly in the same way, in the SMI vs. [Fe/H] plane. We find that the majority of the considered M 31 clusters lie in a significantly different locus, in this plane, with respect to Galactic clusters lying at any distance from the center of the Milky Way. In particular they have redder HB morphologies at a given metallicity, or, in other words, clusters with the same SMI value are ≈ 0.4 dex more metal rich in the Milky Way than in M 31. We discuss the possible origin of this difference and we conclude that the most likely explanation is that many globular clusters in the outer halo of M 31 formed ≈1-2 Gyr later than their counterparts in the outer halo of the Milky Way, while differences in the cluster-to-cluster distribution of He abundance of individual stars may also play a role. The analysis of another sample of 25 bright M 31 clusters (eighteen of them with MV ≤ -9.0, Sample B), whose SMI estimates are much more uncertain as they are computed on shallow color magnitude diagrams, suggests that extended blue HB tails can be relatively frequent among the most massive M 31 globular clusters, possibly hinting at the presence of multiple populations. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive, which is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF/ESA) and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC/NRC/CSA). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for

  19. Bayesian Mass Estimates of the Milky Way: Inferring the Mass Profile from Globular Cluster Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Gwendolyn; Harris, William E.; Springford, Aaron; Widrow, Larry

    2017-01-01

    The mass and cumulative mass profile of the Milky Way's dark matter halo is a fundamental property of the Galaxy, and yet these quantities remain poorly constrained and span almost two orders of magnitude in the literature. There are a variety of methods to measure the mass of the Milky Way, and a common way to constrain the mass uses kinematic information of satellite objects (e.g. globular clusters) orbiting the Galaxy. One reason precise estimates of the mass and mass profile remain elusive is that the kinematic data of the globular clusters are incomplete; for some both line-of-sight and proper motion measurements are available (i.e. complete data), and for others there are only line-of-sight velocities (i.e. incomplete data). Furthermore, some proper motion measurements suffer from large measurement uncertainties, and these uncertainties can be difficult to take into account because they propagate in complicated ways. Past methods have dealt with incomplete data by using either only the line-of-sight measurements (and throwing away the proper motions), or only using the complete data. In either case, valuable information is not included in the analysis. During my PhD research, I have been developing a coherent hierarchical Bayesian method to estimate the mass and mass profile of the Galaxy that 1) includes both complete and incomplete kinematic data simultaneously in the analysis, and 2) includes measurement uncertainties in a meaningful way. In this presentation, I will introduce our approach in a way that is accessible and clear, and will also present our estimates of the Milky Way's total mass and mass profile using all available kinematic data from the globular cluster population of the Galaxy.

  20. Tides, Rotation Or Anisotropy? Self-consistent Nonspherical Models For Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varri, Anna L.; Bertin, G.

    2011-01-01

    Spherical models of quasi-relaxed stellar systems provide a successful zeroth-order description of globular clusters. Yet, the great progress made in recent years in the acquisition of detailed information of the structure of these stellar systems calls for a renewed effort on the side of modeling. In particular, more general analytical models would allow to address the long-standing issue of the physical origin of the deviations from spherical symmetry of the globular clusters, that now can be properly measured. In fact, it remains to be established which is the cause of the observed flattening, among external tides, internal rotation, and pressure anisotropy. In this paper we focus on the first two physical ingredients. We start by briefly describing a recently studied family of triaxial models that incorporate in a self-consistent way the tidal effects of the host galaxy, as a collisionless analogue of the Roche problem (Varri & Bertin ApJ 2009). We then present two new families of axisymmetric models in which the deviations from spherical symmetry are induced by the presence of internal rotation. The first one is an extension of the well-known family of King models to the case of axisymmetric equilibria flattened by solid-body rotation. The second family is characterized by differential rotation, designed to be rigid in the center and to vanish in the outer parts, where the imposed truncation in phase space becomes effective. For possible application to globular clusters, models of interest should be those, in both families, characterized by low values of the rotation strength parameter and quasi-spherical shape. For general interest in stellar dynamics, we show that, for high values of that parameter, the differentially rotating models may exhibit unexpected morphologies, even with a toroidal core.

  1. The Abundance of Lithium in an AGB Star in the Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272)

    CERN Document Server

    Givens, R A

    2016-01-01

    A survey of red giants in the globular cluster M3 with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope indicated a prominent Li I 6707 $\\AA$ feature in the red giant vZ 1050. Follow-up spectroscopy with the ARC 3.5-m telescope confirmed this observation and yielded a derived abundance of A(Li)$_{NLTE}$ = 1.6 $\\pm$ 0.05. In addition, the high oxygen and low sodium abundances measured from the same spectrum suggest that vZ 1050 is a first generation cluster star. The location vZ 1050 above the horizontal branch and blueward of the red giant branch in the cluster's color-magnitude diagram places vZ 1050 on M3's asymptotic giant branch. The likely source for the enhanced lithium abundance is the Cameron-Fowler mechanism operating in vZ 1050 itself.

  2. Tidal Tails around the Outer Halo Globular Clusters Eridanus and Palomar 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeong, G. C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Mackey, Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.

    2017-05-01

    We report the discovery of tidal tails around the two outer halo globular clusters, Eridanus and Palomar 15, based on gi-band images obtained with DECam at the CTIO 4 m Blanco Telescope. The tidal tails are among the most remote stellar streams currently known in the Milky Way halo. Cluster members have been determined from the color-magnitude diagrams and used to establish the radial density profiles, which show, in both cases, a strong departure in the outer regions from the best-fit King profile. Spatial density maps reveal tidal tails stretching out on opposite sides of both clusters, extending over a length of ˜760 pc for Eridanus and ˜1160 pc for Palomar 15. The great circle projected from the Palomar 15 tidal tails encompasses the Galactic Center, while that for Eridanus passes close to four dwarf satellite galaxies, one of which (Sculptor) is at a comparable distance to that of Eridanus.

  3. Stellar Models of Multiple Populations in Globular Clusters. I. The Main Sequence of NGC 6752

    CERN Document Server

    Dotter, Aaron; Conroy, Charlie; Milone, A P; Marino, A F; Yong, David

    2014-01-01

    We present stellar atmosphere and evolution models of main sequence stars in two stellar populations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752. These populations represent the two extremes of light-element abundance variations in the cluster. NGC 6752 is a benchmark cluster in the study of multiple stellar populations because of the rich array of spectroscopic abundances and panchromatic Hubble Space Telescope photometry. The spectroscopic abundances are used to compute stellar atmosphere and evolution models. The synthetic spectra for the two populations show significant differences in the ultraviolet and, for the coolest temperatures, in the near-infrared. The stellar evolution models exhibit insignificant differences in the H-R diagram except on the lower main sequence. The appearance of multiple sequences in the colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of NGC 6752 is almost exclusively due to spectral effects caused by the abundance variations. The models reproduce the observed splitting and/or broadening of sequ...

  4. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Masses, Merger Rates, and the Impact of Stellar Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Rasio, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    Expanding upon our previous work (Rodriguez et al., 2015), we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N-body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ...

  5. Searching for IMBHs in Galactic globular clusters through radial velocities of individual stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzoni, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    I present an overview of our ongoing project aimed at building a new generation of velocity dispersion profiles ad rotation curves for a representative sample of Galactic globular clusters, from the the radial velocity of hundreds of individual stars distributed at different distances from the cluster center. The innermost portion of the profiles will be used to constrain the possible presence of intermediate-mass black holes. The adopted methodology consists of combining spectroscopic observations acquired with three different instruments at the ESO-VLT: the adaptive-optics assisted, integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph SINFONI for the innermost and highly crowded cluster cores, the multi-IFU spectrograph KMOS for the intermediate regions, and the multi-fiber instrument FLAMES/GIRAFFE-MEDUSA for the outskirts. The case of NGC 6388, representing the pilot project that motivated the entire program, is described in some details.

  6. MCAO near-IR photometry of the Globular Cluster NGC 6388: MAD observations in crowded fields

    CERN Document Server

    Moretti, A; Arcidiacono, C; Milone, A P; Ragazzoni, R; Falomo, R; Farinato, J; Bedin, L R; Anderson, J; Sarajedini, A; Baruffolo, A; Diolaiti, E; Lombini, M; Brast, R; Donaldson, R; Kolb, J; Marchetti, E; Tordo, S

    2008-01-01

    Deep photometry of crowded fields, such as Galactic Globular Clusters, is severely limited by the actual resolution of ground-based telescopes. On the other hand, the Hubble Space Telescope does not provide the near-infrared (NIR) filters needed to allow large color baselines. In this work we aim at demonstrating how ground based observations can reach the required resolution when using Multi-Conjugated Adaptive Optic (MCAO) devices in the NIR, such as the experimental infrared camera (MAD) available on the VLT. This is particularly important since these corrections are planned to be available on all ground--based telescopes in the near future. We do this by combining the infrared photometry obtained by MAD/VLT with ACS/HST optical photometry of our scientific target, the bulge globular cluster NGC 6388, in which we imaged two fields. In particular, we constructed color-magnitude diagrams with an extremely wide color baseline in order to investigate the presence of multiple stellar populations in this cluster...

  7. Spatially resolved spectroscopy of the globular cluster RZ 2109 and the nature of its black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Peacock, Mark B; Kundu, Arunav; Maccarone, Thomas J; Rhode, Katherine L; Salzer, John J; Waters, Christopher Z; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Stern, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We present optical HST/STIS spectroscopy of RZ 2109, a globular cluster in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4472. This globular cluster is notable for hosting an ultraluminous X-ray source as well as associated strong and broad [OIII] 4959, 5007 emission. We show that the HST/STIS spectroscopy spatially resolves the [OIII] emission in RZ 2109. While we are unable to make a precise determination of the morphology of the emission line nebula, the best fitting models all require that the [OIII] 5007 emission has a half light radius in the range 3-7 pc. The extended nature of the [OIII] 5007 emission is inconsistent with published models that invoke an intermediate mass black hole origin. It is also inconsistent with the ionization of ejecta from a nova in the cluster. The spatial scale of the nebula could be produced via the photoionization of a strong wind driven from a stellar mass black hole accreting at roughly its Eddington rate.

  8. Are there any first-generation stars in globular clusters today?

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonnel, Corinne; Krause, Martin; Primas, Francesca; Wang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Several models compete to explain the abundance properties of stellar populations in globular clusters. One of the main constraints is the present-day ratio of first- and second-generation stars that are currently identified based on their sodium content. We propose an alternative interpretation of the observed sodium distribution, and suggest that stars with low sodium abundance that are counted as members of the first stellar generation could actually be second-generation stars. We compute the number ratio of second-generation stars along the Na distribution following the fast rotating massive star model using the same constraints from the well-documented case of NGC 6752 as in our previous developments. We reproduce the typical percentage of low-sodium stars usually classified as first-generation stars by invoking only secondary star formation from material ejected by massive stars and mixed with original globular cluster material in proportions that account for the Li-Na anti-correlation in this cluster. ...

  9. Massive binaries as the source of abundance anomalies in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Izzard, R G

    2009-01-01

    Abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster stars indicate pollution with material processed by hydrogen burning. Two main sources have been suggested: asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars rotating near the break-up limit (spin stars). We propose massive binaries as an alternative source. We compute the evolution of a 20 Msun star in a close binary and find that it sheds about 10 Msun. The ejecta are enriched in He, N, Na, and Al and depleted in C and O, similar to the abundance patterns observed in gobular cluster stars. In contrast to the fast, radiatively driven winds of massive stars, this material is typically ejected with low velocity. We expect that it remains inside the potential well of a globular cluster and becomes available for the formation or pollution of a second generation of stars. We estimate that the amount of processed low-velocity material ejected by massive binaries is greater than the contribution of AGB stars and spin stars combined, assuming that the majority of ...

  10. Revisiting the bound on axion-photon coupling from globular clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Adrian; Domínguez, Inma; Giannotti, Maurizio; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Straniero, Oscar

    2014-11-07

    We derive a strong bound on the axion-photon coupling g(aγ) from the analysis of a sample of 39 Galactic Globular Clusters. As recognized long ago, the R parameter, i.e., the number ratio of stars in horizontal over red giant branch of old stellar clusters, would be reduced by the axion production from photon conversions occurring in stellar cores. In this regard, we have compared the measured R with state-of-the-art stellar models obtained under different assumptions for g(aγ). We show that the estimated value of g(aγ) substantially depends on the adopted He mass fraction Y, an effect often neglected in previous investigations. Taking as a benchmark for our study the most recent determinations of the He abundance in H ii regions with O/H in the same range of the Galactic Globular Clusters, we obtain an upper bound g(aγ)axion-photon coupling in a wide mass range.

  11. GeMS MCAO observations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808: the absolute age

    CERN Document Server

    Massari, Davide; McConnachie, A; Bono, G; Dall'Ora, M; Ferraro, I; Iannicola, G; Stetson, P B; Turri, P; Tolstoy, E

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters are the oldest stellar systems in the Milky Way and probe the early epoch of the Galaxy formation. However, the uncertainties on their absolute age are still too large to soundly constrain how the Galactic structures have assembled. The aim of this work is to obtain an accurate estimate of the absolute age of the globular cluster NGC 2808 using deep IR data obtained with the multi conjugate adaptive optics system operating at the Gemini South telescope (GeMS). This exquisite photometry, combined with that obtained in V and I bands with HST, allowed us the detection of the faint Main Sequence Knee feature in NGC 2808 colour magnitude diagram. The difference between this point and the main sequence turn off is a good age estimator and provides ages with unprecedented accuracy. We found that NGC 2808 has an age of t=10.9\\pm0.7 (intrinsic) \\pm0.45 (metallicity term) Gyr. A possible contamination by He-enhanced population could make the cluster up to 0.25 Gyr older. Although this age estimate agr...

  12. Detailed Chemical Abundances of Four Stars in the Unusual Globular Cluster, Palomar 1

    CERN Document Server

    Sakari, Charli M; Irwin, Mike; Aoki, Wako; Arimoto, Nobuo; Dotter, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical abundances for twenty one elements are presented for four red giants in the anomalous outer halo globular cluster Palomar 1 ($R_{\\rm{GC}} = 17.2$ kpc, $Z=3.6$ kpc) using high-resolution (R=36000) spectra from the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) on the Subaru Telescope. Pal 1 has long been considered unusual because of its low surface brightness, sparse red giant branch, young age, and its possible association with two extragalactic streams of stars---this paper shows that its chemistry further confirms its unusual nature. The mean metallicity of the four stars, $[\\rm{Fe/H}] = -0.60 \\pm 0.01$, is high for a globular cluster so far from the Galactic center, but is low for a typical open cluster. The [$\\alpha$/Fe] ratios, though in agreement with the Galactic stars within the $1\\sigma$ errors, agree best with the lower values in dwarf galaxies. No signs of the Na/O anticorrelation are detected in Pal 1, though Na appears to be marginally high in all four stars. Pal 1's neutron capture elemen...

  13. Rubidium and lead abundances in giant stars of the globular clusters M 13 and NGC 6752

    CERN Document Server

    Yong, D; Lambert, D L; Paulson, D B; Yong, David; Aoki, Wako; Lambert, David L.; Paulson, Diane B.

    2006-01-01

    We present measurements of the neutron-capture elements Rb and Pb in five giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 6752 and Pb measurements in four giants of the globular cluster M 13. The abundances were derived by comparing synthetic spectra with high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra obtained using HDS on the Subaru telescope and MIKE on the Magellan telescope. The program stars span the range of the O-Al abundance variation. In NGC 6752, the mean abundances are [Rb/Fe] = -0.17 +/- 0.06 (sigma = 0.14), [Rb/Zr] = -0.12 +/- 0.06 (sigma = 0.13), and [Pb/Fe] = -0.17 +/- 0.04 (sigma = 0.08). In M 13 the mean abundance is [Pb/Fe] = -0.28 +/- 0.03 (sigma = 0.06). Within the measurement uncertainties, we find no evidence for a star-to-star variation for either Rb or Pb within these clusters. None of the abundance ratios [Rb/Fe], [Rb/Zr], or [Pb/Fe] are correlated with the Al abundance. NGC 6752 may have slightly lower abundances of [Rb/Fe] and [Rb/Zr] compared to the small sample of field stars at the ...

  14. Binary Frequencies in a Sample of Globular Clusters. I. Methodology and Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Binary stars are thought to be a controlling factor in globular cluster evolution, since they can heat the environmental stars by converting their binding energy to kinetic energy during dynamical interactions. Through such interaction, the binaries determine the time until core collapse. To test predictions of this model, we have determined binary fractions for 35 clusters. Here we present our methodology with a representative globular cluster NGC 4590. We use HST archival ACS data in the F606W and F814W bands and apply PSF-fitting photometry to obtain high quality color-magnitude diagrams. We formulate the star superposition effect as a Poisson probability distribution function, with parameters optimized through Monte-Carlo simulations. A model-independent binary fraction of (6.2 +- 0.3)% is obtained by counting stars that extend to the red side of the residual color distribution after accounting for the photometric errors and the star superposition effect. A model-dependent binary fraction is obtained by c...

  15. Stripping of a planetary nebula from the globular cluster M22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Kazimier J.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Harrington, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    High-spatial resolution imaging in the O III lambda 5007 line of a planetary nebula (PN) in the globular cluster M22 reveals a strongly asymmetric (half-moon shaped) nebular morphology. We confirm that this peculiar morphology is caused by the distortion of stellar ejecta by the ram pressure of the ambient interstellar medium (ISM) through which the cluster is moving with a high velocity of 200 km/s. Emission knots visible in the leading (upstream) nebular section confirm theoretical expectations that the shell should have been fragmented by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Stripping of the PN from M22 by the ambient ISM is the first direct evidence for removal of gas from globular clusters. M22 is at a favorable location for the ram-pressure stripping to be effective, only 400 pc below the Galactic plane, well within a 2 kpc thick layer of ionized gas enveloping the plane. Ionized (or possibly neutral) gas in this layer, with a hydrogen density of about 0.1 cu/cm, is responsible for the observed interaction.

  16. High-resolution CCD spectra of stars in globular clusters. I - Oxygen in M13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leep, E. M.; Wallerstein, G.; Oke, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    High-resolution (0.3 A) CCD spectra obtained at the 200 in. coude spectrograph have been analyzed for the abundances of O, Sc, Fe, and La in four stars in the globular cluster M13. Fe/H abundance is found to be = -1.6, as found by many other observers of this cluster. For three stars O/Fe abundance is found to be = +0.3 + or - 0.1, which is similar to O/Fe ratios in other globular clusters and metal-poor field stars. For star II-67, no oxygen line is visible at 6300 A and O/Fe abundance is found to be not greater than -0.4 (for a high carbon content) and not greater than -0.7 (for a low carbon content). The latter is more likely to be correct. Two possible explanations of the oxygen deficiency in II-67 are discussed: primordial deficiency, and CNO cycling at or above a temperature of 25,000,000 K.

  17. Revisited fluorine abundances in the globular cluster M22 (NGC 6656)

    CERN Document Server

    de Laverny, P

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine is a fairly good tracer of formation histories of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters as already revealed by several studies. Large variations in fluorine abundance in red giant stars of the globular cluster M22 have been recently reported by two different groups. Futhermore, one of these studies claims that the abundance of fluorine is anti-correlated with sodium abundances in this cluster, leading to strong conclusions on the chemical history of M22. To validate this important finding, we re-examine the F abundance determinations of some of the previously studied stars. We have thus reanalysed some high-resolution VLT/CRIRES spectra of RGB stars found in M22 in order to re-estimate their fluorine abundance from the spectral synthesis of the HF line at 2.336microns. Unlike what has been previously estimated, we show that only upper limits or doubtful fluorine abundances with large uncertainties in M22 RGB stars can be derived. This is probably caused by an incorrect identification of c...

  18. HST Observations of Globular Clusters in M31.I Surface Photometry of 13 Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Pecci, F F; Bendinelli, O; B`onoli, F; Cacciari, C; Djorgovski, S G; Federici, L; Ferraro, F R; Parmeggiani, G; Weir, N; Zavatti, F

    1994-01-01

    We present the initial results of a study of globular clusters in M31, using the Faint Object Camera (FOC) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The sample of objects consists of 13 clusters spanning a range of properties. Three inde- pendent image deconvolution techniques were used in order to compensate for the optical problems of the HST, leading to mutually fully consistent results. We present detailed tests and comparisons to determine the reliability and limits of these deconvolution methods, and conclude that high-quality surface photome- try of M31 globulars is possible with the HST data. Surface brightness profiles have been extracted, and core radii, half-light radii, and central surface brightness values have been measured for all of the clusters in the sample. Their comparison with the values derived from ground-based observations indi- cates the later to be systematically and strongly biased by the seeing effects, as it may be expected. A comparison of the structural parameters with those of the G...

  19. Galactic globular clusters as a test for very-low-mass stellar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassisi, S.; Castellani, V.; Ciarcelluti, P.; Piotto, G.; Zoccali, M.

    2000-07-01

    We make use of the `Next Generation' model atmospheres of Allard et al. and Hauschildt, Allard & Baron to compute theoretical models for low- and very-low-mass stars for selected metallicities in the range Z=0.0002 to 0.002. On this basis, we present theoretical predictions covering the sequence of H-burning stars as observed in Galactic globulars from the faint end of the main sequence up to, and beyond, the cluster turn-off. The role played by the new model atmospheres is discussed, showing that present models appear in excellent agreement with models by Baraffe et al. as computed on a quite similar physical basis. One finds that the theoretical mass-luminosity relations based on this updated set of models are in good agreement with the empirical data provided by Henry & McCarthy. Comparison with HST observation discloses that the location on the colour-magnitude diagram of the lower main sequence in Galactic globular clusters appears again in good agreement with the predicted sensitive dependence of these sequences on the cluster metallicity.

  20. Hubble space telescope observations of white dwarfs in the globular cluster M4

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, H B; Ibata, R A; Stetson, P B; Bell, R A; Bolte, M; Bond, H E; Harris, W E; Hesser, J E; Mandushev, G I; Pryor, C E; Richer, Harvey B; Fahlman, Gregory G; Ibata, Rodrigo A; Stetson, Peter B; Bell, Roger A; Bolte, Michael; Bond, Howard E; Harris, William E; Hesser, James E; Mandushev, Georgi; Pryor, Carlton

    1995-01-01

    With the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have discovered in M4 (NGC 6121, C 1620-264) the first extensive sequence of cooling white dwarfs seen in a globular cluster. Adopting a distance modulus of (m-M)_V = 12.65 and a reddening of E(B-V) = 0.37, we show that the sequence, which extends over 9 < M_U < 13, is comprised of white dwarfs of mass \\sim 0.5 M_{\\odot}. The total mass loss from the present turnoff to the white dwarf sequence is 0.31 M_{\\odot} and the intrinsic dispersion in the mean mass appears to be < 0.05 M_{\\odot}. Both the location of the white dwarf cooling sequence in the cluster color-magnitude diagram and the cumulative luminosity function attest to the basic correctness and completeness of the physics in theoretical models for the upper three magnitudes of the observed white dwarf cooling sequence. To test the theory in globular clusters at cooling ages beyond \\sim 3 \\times 10^8 years will require deeper and more complete data.

  1. High resolution spectroscopic analysis of seven giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6723

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas-Arriagada, A; Vásquez, S; Ripepi, V; Musella, I; Marconi, M; Grado, A; Limatola, L

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters associated with the Galactic bulge are important tracers of stellar populations in the inner Galaxy. High resolution analysis of stars in these clusters allows us to characterize them in terms of kinematics, metallicity, and individual abundances, and to compare these fingerprints with those characterizing field populations. We present iron and element ratios for seven red giant stars in the globular cluster NGC~6723, based on high resolution spectroscopy. High resolution spectra ($R\\sim48~000$) of seven K giants belonging to NGC 6723 were obtained with the FEROS spectrograph at the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope. Photospheric parameters were derived from $\\sim130$ FeI and FeII transitions. Abundance ratios were obtained from line-to-line spectrum synthesis calculations on clean selected features. An intermediate metallicity of [Fe/H]$=-0.98\\pm0.08$ dex and a heliocentric radial velocity of $v_{hel}=-96.6\\pm1.3~km s^{-1}$ were found for NGC 6723. Alpha-element abundances present enhancements of $[O/...

  2. Globular clusters and their contribution to the formation of the Galactic halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, Eugenio

    2016-08-01

    This is a ``biased'' review because I will show recent evidence on the contribution of globular clusters (GCs) to the halo of our Galaxy seen through the lens of the new paradigm of multiple populations in GCs. I will show a few examples where the chemistry of multiple populations helps to answer hot questions including whether and how much GCs did contribute to the halo population, if we have evidence of the GCs-halo link, what are the strengths and weak points concerning this contribution.

  3. Cataclysmic variables in Globular clusters: First results on the analysis of the MOCCA simulations database

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, Diogo; Askar, Abbas; Hypki, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    In this first investigation of the MOCCA database with respect to cataclysmic variables, we found that for models with Kroupa initial distributions, considering the standard value of the efficiency of the common-envelope phase adopted in BSE, no single cataclysmic variable was formed only via binary stellar evolution, i. e., in order to form them, strong dynamical interactions have to take place. Our results also indicate that the population of cataclysmic variables in globular clusters are, mainly, in the last stage of their evolution and observational selection effects can change drastically the expected number and properties of observed cataclysmic variables.

  4. Near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the low Galactic latitude globular cluster 2MASS-GC03

    CERN Document Server

    Carballo-Bello, Julio A; Borissova, J; Smith, L C; Kurtev, R; Lucas, P W; Bidin, Ch Moni; Alonso-Garcia, J; Minniti, D; Palma, T; Dekany, I; Medina, N; Moyano, M; Villanueva, V; Kuhn, M A

    2016-01-01

    We present deep near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the globular cluster 2MASS-GC03 projected in the Galactic disk using MMIRS on the Clay telescope (Las Campanas Observatory) and VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea survey (VVV) data. Most probable cluster member candidates were identified from near-infrared photometry. Out of ten candidates that were followed-up spectroscopically, five have properties of cluster members, from which we calculate = -0.9 +- 0.2 and a radial velocity of v_r > = -78 +- 12km/s. A distance of 10.8kpc is estimated from 3 likely RRLyrae members. Given that the cluster is currently at a distance of 4.2kpc from the Galactic center, the cluster's long survival time of an estimated 11.3 +- 1.2Gyr strengthens the case for its globular-cluster nature. The cluster has a hint of elongation in the direction of the Galactic center.

  5. Searching for globular cluster-like abundance patterns in young massive clusters - II. Results from the Antennae galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardo, C.; Cabrera-Ziri, I.; Davies, B.; Bastian, N.

    2017-06-01

    The presence of multiple populations (MPs) with distinctive light element abundances is a widespread phenomenon in clusters older than 6 Gyr. Clusters with masses, luminosities, and sizes comparable to those of ancient globulars are still forming today. None the less, the presence of light element variations has been poorly investigated in such young systems, even if the knowledge of the age at which this phenomenon develops is crucial for theoretical models on MPs. We use J-band integrated spectra of three young (7-40 Myr) clusters in NGC 4038 to look for Al variations indicative of MPs. Assuming that the large majority (≥70 per cent) of stars are characterized by high Al content - as observed in Galactic clusters with comparable mass; we find that none of the studied clusters show significant Al variations. Small Al spreads have been measured in all the six young clusters observed in the near-infrared. While it is unlikely that young clusters only show low Al whereas old ones display different levels of Al variations; this suggests the possibility that MPs are not present at such young ages at least among the high-mass stellar component. Alternatively, the fraction of stars with field-like chemistry could be extremely large, mimicking low Al abundances in the integrated spectrum. Finally, since the near-infrared stellar continuum of young clusters is almost entirely due to luminous red supergiants, we can also speculate that MPs only manifest themselves in low-mass stars due to some evolutionary mechanism.

  6. VLT photometry in the Antlia Cluster: the giant ellipticals NGC 3258 and NGC 3268 and their globular cluster systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bassino, Lilia P; Dirsch, Boris

    2008-01-01

    We present a deep VLT photometry in the regions surrounding the two dominant galaxies of the Antlia cluster, the giant ellipticals NGC 3258 and NGC 3268. We construct the luminosity functions of their globular cluster systems (GCSs) and determine their distances through the turn-over magnitudes. These distances are in good agreement with those obtained by the SBF method. There is some, but not conclusive, evidence that the distance to NGC 3268 is larger by several Mpc. The GCSs colour distributions are bimodal but the brightest globular clusters (GCs) show a unimodal distribution with an intermediate colour peak. The radial distributions of both GCSs are well fitted by de Vaucouleurs laws up to 5 arcmin. Red GCs present a steeper radial density profile than the blue GCs, and follow closely the galaxies' brightness profiles. Total GC populations are estimated to be about 6000+/-150 GCs in NGC 3258 and 4750+/-150 GCs in NGC 3268. We discuss the possible existence of GCs in a field located between the two giant ...

  7. Limits on intermediate-mass black holes in six Galactic globular clusters with integral-field spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Gebhardt, Karl; Baumgardt, Holger; Noyola, Eva; de Zeeuw, P Tim; Neumayer, Nadine; Jalali, Behrang; Feldmeier, Anja

    2012-01-01

    The formation of supermassive black holes at high redshift still remains a puzzle to astronomers. Their growth becomes reasonable only when starting from a massive seed black hole with mass of the order of 10^2 - 10^5 M_SUN. Intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) are therefore an important field of research. Especially the possibility of finding them in the centers of globular clusters has recently drawn attention. The search for IMBHs in the centers of globular clusters could therefore shed light on the process of black-hole formation and cluster evolution. We are investigating six galactic globular clusters for the presence of an IMBH at their centers. Based on their kinematic and photometric properties, we selected the globular clusters NGC 1851, NGC 1904 (M79), NGC 5694, NGC 5824, NGC 6093 (M80) and NGC 6266 (M62). We use integral field spectroscopy in order to obtain the central velocity-dispersion profile of each cluster. We compute the cluster photometric center and the surface brightness profile using ...

  8. The VMC Survey. XI. Radial Stellar Population Gradients in the Galactic Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai; Rubele, Stefano; Wang, Chuchu; Bekki, Kenji; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L; Clementini, Gisella; Emerson, Jim; For, Bi-Qing; Girardi, Leo; Groenewegen, Martin A T; Guandalini, Roald; Gullieuszik, Marco; Marconi, Marcella; Piatti, Andrés E; Ripepi, Vincenzo; van Loon, Jacco Th

    2014-01-01

    We present a deep near-infrared color--magnitude diagram of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae, obtained with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) as part of the VISTA near-infrared Y, J, K_s survey of the Magellanic System (VMC). The cluster stars comprising both the subgiant and red-giant branches exhibit apparent, continuous variations in color--magnitude space as a function of radius. Subgiant-branch stars at larger radii are systematically brighter than their counterparts closer to the cluster core; similarly, red-giant-branch stars in the cluster's periphery are bluer than their more centrally located cousins. The observations can very well be described by adopting an age spread of ~0.5 Gyr as well as radial gradients in both the cluster's helium abundance (Y) and metallicity (Z), which change gradually from Y = 0.28, Z = 0.005 in the cluster core to Y = 0.25, Z = 0.003 in its periphery. We conclude that the cluster's inner regions host a significant fraction of second-g...

  9. The VMC survey. XI. Radial stellar population gradients in the galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Deng, Licai [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Rubele, Stefano; Girardi, Leo; Gullieuszik, Marco [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Wang, Chuchu [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Bekki, Kenji; For, Bi-Qing [ICRAR M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Cioni, Maria-Rosa L. [Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Clementini, Gisella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Emerson, Jim [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, Martin A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Ukkel (Belgium); Guandalini, Roald [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D 2401, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Piatti, Andrés E. [Observatorio Astrońomico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: joshuali@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-20

    We present a deep near-infrared color-magnitude diagram of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae, obtained with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) as part of the VISTA near-infrared Y, J, K{sub s} survey of the Magellanic System (VMC). The cluster stars comprising both the subgiant and red giant branches exhibit apparent, continuous variations in color-magnitude space as a function of radius. Subgiant branch stars at larger radii are systematically brighter than their counterparts closer to the cluster core; similarly, red-giant-branch stars in the cluster's periphery are bluer than their more centrally located cousins. The observations can very well be described by adopting an age spread of ∼0.5 Gyr as well as radial gradients in both the cluster's helium abundance (Y) and metallicity (Z), which change gradually from (Y = 0.28, Z = 0.005) in the cluster core to (Y = 0.25, Z = 0.003) in its periphery. We conclude that the cluster's inner regions host a significant fraction of second-generation stars, which decreases with increasing radius; the stellar population in the 47 Tuc periphery is well approximated by a simple stellar population.

  10. Testing lowered isothermal models with direct N-body simulations of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Alice; Gieles, Mark; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Varri, Anna Lisa

    2016-10-01

    Several self-consistent models have been proposed, aiming at describing the phase-space distribution of stars in globular clusters. This study explores the ability of the recently proposed LIMEPY models to reproduce the dynamical properties of direct N-body models of a cluster in a tidal field, during its entire evolution. These dynamical models include prescriptions for the truncation and the degree of radially biased anisotropy contained in the system, allowing us to explore the interplay between the role of anisotropy and tides in various stages of the life of star clusters. We show that the amount of anisotropy in an initially tidally underfilling cluster increases in the pre-collapse phase, and then decreases with time, due to the effect of the external tidal field on its spatial truncation. This is reflected in the correspondent model parameters, and the best-fitting models reproduce the main properties of the cluster at all stages of its evolution, except for the phases immediately preceding and following core collapse. We also notice that the best-fitting LIMEPY models are significantly different from isotropic King models, especially in the first part of the evolution of the cluster. Our results put limits on the amount of radial anisotropy that can be expected for clusters evolving in a tidal field, which is important to understand other factors that could give rise to similar observational signatures, such as the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole.

  11. DDO216-A1: a central globular cluster in a low-luminosity transition type galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Andrew A; Skillman, Evan D; Williams, Benjamin F; Dolphin, Andrew E; Johnson, L Clifton; McConnachie, Alan W; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Dalcanton, Julianne; Governato, Fabio; Madau, Piero; Shen, Sijing; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We confirm that the object DDO216-A1 is a substantial globular cluster at the center of Local Group galaxy DDO216 (the Pegasus dwarf irregular), using Hubble Space Telescope ACS imaging. By fitting isochrones, we find the cluster metallicity to be -1.6 +/-0.2, for reddening E(B-V) = 0.16 +/-0.02; the best-fit age is 12.3 +/-0.8 Gyr. There are ~30 RR Lyrae variables in the cluster; the magnitude of the fundamental mode pulsators gives a distance modulus of 24.77 +/-0.08 - identical to the host galaxy. The ratio of overtone to fundamental mode variables and their mean periods make DDO216-A1 an Oosterhoff Type I cluster. We find an I-band central surface brightness 20.85 +/-0.17 F814W mag per square arcsecond, half-light radius of 3.1 arcsec (13.4 pc), and absolute magnitude M814 = -7.90 +/-0.16 (approximately 10^5 solar masses). King models fit to the cluster give the core radius and concentration index, r_c = 2.1" +/-0.9" and c = 1.24 +/-0.39. The cluster is an "extended" cluster somewhat typical of some dwarf...

  12. Space Velocities of Southern Globular Clusters. V. A Low Galactic Latitude Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Casetti-Dinescu, D I; Herrera, D; Van Altena, W F; López, C E; Castillo, D J

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motions of globular clusters NGC 2808, 3201, 4372, 4833, 5927 and 5986. The proper motions are on the Hipparcos system and they are the first determinations ever made for these low Galactic latitude clusters. The proper motion uncertainties range from 0.3 to 0.5 mas/yr. The inferred orbits indicate that 1) the single metal rich cluster in our sample, NGC 5927, dynamically belongs to the thick disk, 2) the remaining metal poor clusters have rather low-energy orbits of high eccentricity; among these, there appear to be two "pairs" of dynamically associated clusters, 3) the most energetic cluster in our sample, NGC 3201 is on a highly retrograde orbit -- which had already been surmised from its radial velocity alone -- with an apocentric distance of 22 kpc, and 4) none of the metal poor clusters appear to be associated with the recently detected SDSS streams, or with the Monoceros structure. These are the first results of the Southern Proper-Motion Program (SPM) where the sec...

  13. The state of globular clusters at birth: emergence from the gas-embedded phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Nathan; Giersz, Mirek; Webb, Jeremy J.; Hypki, Arkadiusz; De Marchi, Guido; Kroupa, Pavel; Sills, Alison

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the origin of the observed correlation between the cluster concentration c and present-day mass function slope α reported by De Marchi, Paresce & Pulone. This relation can either be reproduced from universal initial conditions combined with some dynamical mechanism(s) that alter(s) the cluster structure and mass function over time, or it must arise early on in the cluster lifetime, such as during the gas-embedded phase of cluster formation. Using a combination of Monte Carlo and N-body models for globular cluster evolution performed with the MOCCA and NBODY6 codes, respectively, we explore a number of dynamical mechanisms that could affect the observed relation. For the range of initial conditions considered here, our results are consistent with a universal initial binary fraction ≈10 per cent (which does not, however, preclude 100 per cent) and a universal initial stellar mass function resembling the standard Kroupa distribution. Most of the dispersion observed in the c-α relation can be attributed to two-body relaxation and Galactic tides. However, dynamical processes alone could not have reproduced the dispersion in concentration, and we require at least some correlation between the initial concentration and the total cluster mass. We argue that the origin of this trend could be connected to the gas-embedded phase of cluster evolution.

  14. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. VIII. Preliminary Public Catalog Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Piotto, G.; Bedin, L. R.; van der Marel, R. P.; Milone, A. P.; Brown, T. M.; Cool, A. M.; King, I. R.; Sarajedini, A.; Granata, V.; Cassisi, S.; Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D.

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters (GO-13297) has been specifically designed to complement the existing F606W and F814W observations of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Globular Cluster Survey (GO-10775) by observing the most accessible 47 of the previous survey’s 65 clusters in three WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. The new survey also adds super-solar metallicity open cluster NGC 6791 to increase the metallicity diversity. The combined survey provides a homogeneous 5-band data set that can be used to pursue a broad range of scientific investigations. In particular, the chosen UV filters allow the identification of multiple stellar populations by targeting the regions of the spectrum that are sensitive to abundance variations in C, N, and O. In order to provide the community with uniform preliminary catalogs, we have devised an automated procedure that performs high-quality photometry on the new UV observations (along with similar observations of seven other programs in the archive). This procedure finds and measures the potential sources on each individual exposure using library point-spread functions and cross-correlates these observations with the original ACS-Survey catalog. The catalog of 57 clusters we publish here will be useful to identify stars in the different stellar populations, in particular for spectroscopic follow-up. Eventually, we will construct a more sophisticated catalog and artificial-star tests based on an optimal reduction of the UV survey data, but the catalogs presented here give the community the chance to make early use of this HST Treasury survey.

  15. Intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters: observations and simulations - Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Gebhardt, Karl; Baumgardt, Holger; Kruijssen, Diederik; Noyola, Eva; Neumayer, Nadine; de Zeeuw, Tim; Feldmeier-Krause, Anja; van der Helm, Edwin; Pelupessy, Inti; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2017-03-01

    The study of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is a young and promising field of research. If IMBH exist, they could explain the rapid growth of supermassive black holes by acting as seeds in the early stage of galaxy formation. Formed by runaway collisions of massive stars in young and dense stellar clusters, intermediate-mass black holes could still be present in the centers of globular clusters, today. We measured the inner kinematic profiles with integral-field spectroscopy for 10 Galactic globular cluster and determined masses or upper limits of central black holes. In combination with literature data we further studied the positions of our results on known black-hole scaling relations (such as M • - σ) and found a similar but flatter correlation for IMBHs. Applying cluster evolution codes, the change in the slope could be explained with the stellar mass loss occurring in clusters in a tidal field over its life time. Furthermore, we present results from several numerical simulations on the topic of IMBHs and integral field units (IFUs). N-body simulations were used to simulate IFU data cubes. For the specific case of NGC 6388 we simulated two different IFU techniques and found that velocity dispersion measurements from individual velocities are strongly biased towards lower values due to blends of neighbouring stars and background light. In addition, we use the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment (AMUSE) to combine gravitational physics, stellar evolution and hydrodynamics to simulate the accretion of stellar winds onto a black hole. We find that the S-stars need to provide very strong winds in order to explain the accretion rate in the galactic center.

  16. Globular Cluster Abundances and What They Can Tell Us About Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Judith G

    2009-01-01

    We review the properties of globular clusters which make them useful for studying the Galactic halo, Galactic chemical evolution, and the early stages of the formation of the Milky Way. We review the evidence that GCs have a chemical inventory similar to those of halo field stars. We discuss the abundance ratios for dSph galaxies and show that it is possible to have formed at least part the Galactic halo field stellar population by dissolving globular clusters and/or accreting dSph galaxies but only if this occurred at an early stage in the formation of the Galaxy. We review the constraints on halo formation timescales deduced from the low Mg isotopic ratios in metal-poor halo field dwarfs which indicate that AGB stars did not have time to contribute significantly, while M71 contains two populations, one without and also one with a substantial AGB contribution. We review the limited evidence for GCs with a second population showing additional contributions from SNII, currently confined to Omega Cen, M54, and ...

  17. Globular Cluster Populations: Results Including S$^4$G Late-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Aravena, Manuel; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, Albert; Comerón, Sébastien; Courtois, Helene M; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Elmegreen, Debra M; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gadotti, Dimitri A; Hinz, Joannah L; Ho, Luis C; Holwerda, Benne; Kim, Taehyun; Knapen, Johan H; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Salo, Heikki; Sheth, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Using 3.6 and 4.5$\\mu$m images of 73 late-type, edge-on galaxies from the S$^4$G survey, we compare the richness of the globular cluster populations of these galaxies to those of early type galaxies that we measured previously. In general, the galaxies presented here fill in the distribution for galaxies with lower stellar mass, M$_*$, specifically $\\log({\\rm M}_*/{\\rm M}_\\odot) < 10$, overlap the results for early-type galaxies of similar masses, and, by doing so, strengthen the case for a dependence of the number of globular clusters per $10^9\\ {\\rm M}_\\odot$ of galaxy stellar mass, T$_{\\rm N}$, on M$_*$. For $8.5 < \\log ({\\rm M}_*/{\\rm M}_\\odot) < 10.5$ we find the relationship can be satisfactorily described as T$_{\\rm N} = ({\\rm M}_*/10^{6.7})^{-0.56}$ when M$_*$ is expressed in solar masses. The functional form of the relationship is only weakly constrained and extrapolation outside this range is not advised. Our late-type galaxies, in contrast to our early-types, do not show the tendency for l...

  18. Chandra X-ray Observations of 12 Millisecond Pulsars in the Globular Cluster M28

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Servillat, Mathieu; Heinke, Craig O; Grindlay, Jonathan E; Stairs, Ingrid H; Ransom, Scott M; Freire, Paulo C C; Bégin, Steve; Becker, Werner

    2011-01-01

    We present a Chandra X-ray Observatory investigation of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in the globular cluster M28 (NGC 6626). In what is one of the deepest X-ray observations of a globular cluster, we firmly detect seven and possibly detect two of the twelve known M28 pulsars. With the exception of PSRs B1821-24 and J1824-2452H, the detected pulsars have relatively soft spectra, with X-ray luminosities 10^30-31 ergs s^-1 (0.3-8 keV),similar to most "recycled" pulsars in 47 Tucanae and the field of the Galaxy, implying thermal emission from the pulsar magnetic polar caps. We present the most detailed X-ray spectrum to date of the energetic PSR B1821-24. It is well described by a purely non-thermal spectrum with spectral photon index 1.23 and luminosity 1.4x10^33Theta(D/5.5 kpc)^2 ergs s^-1 (0.3-8 keV), where Theta is the fraction of the sky covered by the X-ray emission beam(s). We find no evidence for the previously reported line emission feature around 3.3 keV, most likely as a consequence of improvements i...

  19. The slowest spinning X-ray pulsar in an extragalactic globular cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Zolotukhin, Ivan; Sartore, Nicola; Chilingarian, Igor; Webb, Natalie A

    2016-01-01

    Neutron stars are thought to be born rapidly rotating and then exhibit a phase of a rotation-powered pulsations as they slow down to 1-10 s periods. The significant population of millisecond pulsars observed in our Galaxy is explained by the recycling concept: during an epoch of accretion from a donor star in a binary system, the neutron star is spun up to millisecond periods. However, only a few pulsars are observed during this recycling process, with relatively high rotational frequencies. Here we report the detection of an X-ray pulsar with $P_{\\rm spin} = 1.20$ s in the globular cluster B091D in the Andromeda galaxy, the slowest pulsar ever found in a globular cluster. This bright (up-to 30% of the Eddington luminosity), high spin-up rate pulsar, persistent over the 12 years of observations, must have started accreting less than 1 Myr ago and has not yet had time to accelerate to hundreds of Hz. The neutron star in this unique wide binary with an orbital period $P_{\\rm orb} = 30.5$ h in a 12 Gyr old, meta...

  20. Globular cluster systems as tracers of the evolutionary history in NGC 3258 and NGC 3268

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Juan Pablo; Bassino, Lilia P.; Gómez, Matías

    2017-09-01

    We present a new photometric study of NGC 3258 and NGC 3268 globular cluster systems (GCSs), using images in filters B, C, V, R, I and z΄, obtained from four different telescopes. The wide spatial coverage allows us to estimate the whole extension of both GCSs more precisely than in previous works, and new values for the richness of GC subpopulations. We find differences in the azimuthal distribution between blue (metal-poor) and red (metal-rich) globular clusters (GCs), and confirm that radial profiles flatten towards the centre of the galaxies. In both cases we detected a radial gradient in the colour peak of blue GCs which might be related to the construction of the GCSs. We analyse the similarities and differences in both GCSs, in the context of the possible evolutionary histories of the host galaxies. We also obtain photometric metallicities for a large number of GC candidates around NGC 3258, by applying multicolour-metallicity relations. These results confirm the bimodal metallicity distribution.

  1. CN and CH Abundance Analysis in a Sample of Eight Galactic Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Jason P.; Lee, Y.; Beers, T. C.; Martell, S. L.; An, D.; Sivarani, T.

    2011-01-01

    Galactic globular clusters exhibit star-to-star variations in their light element abundances that are not predicted by formation and evolution models involving single stellar generations. Recently it has been suggested that internal pollution from early supernovae and AGB winds may have played important roles in forming a second generation of enriched stars. We present updated results of a CN and CH abundance analysis of stars from the base to the tip of the red giant branch, and in some cases down onto the main sequence, for eight globular clusters with available photometric and spectroscopic data from SDSS-I and SDSS-II/SEGUE. These results include a discussion of the radial distribution of CN enrichment and how this may impact the current paradigm. Funding for SDSS-I and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS Web Site is http://www.sdss.org/. This work was supported in part by grants PHY 02-16783 and PHY 08-22648: Physics Frontiers Center/Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), awarded by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  2. The realm of the Galactic globular clusters and the mass of their primordial clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Cassisi, Santi; Silich, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    By adopting the empirical constraints related to the estimates of Helium enhancement ($\\Delta Y$), present mass ratio between first and second stellar generations ($M_{1G}/M_{2G}$) and the actual mass of Galactic globular clusters ($M_{GC}$), we envisage a possible scenario for the formation of these stellar systems. Our approach allows for the possible loss of stars through evaporation or tidal interactions and different star formation efficiencies. In our approach the star formation efficiency of the first generation ($\\epsilon_{1G}$) is the central factor that links the stellar generations as it not only defines both the mass in stars of the first generation and the remaining mass available for further star formation, but it also fixes the amount of matter required to contaminate the second stellar generation. In this way, $\\epsilon_{1G}$ is fully defined by the He enhancement between successive generations in a GC. We also show that globular clusters fit well within a $\\Delta Y$ {\\it vs} $M_{1G}/M_{2G}$ d...

  3. The effect of intermediate mass close binaries on the chemical evolution of Globular Clusters II

    CERN Document Server

    Mennekens, N; De Greve, J P

    2013-01-01

    The chemical processes during the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) evolution of intermediate mass single stars predict most of the observations of the different populations in Globular Clusters although some important issues still need to be further clarified. In particular, to reproduce the observed anticorrelations of Na-O and Al-Mg, chemically enriched gas lost during the AGB phase of intermediate mass single stars must be mixed with matter with a pristine chemical composition. The source of this matter is still a matter of debate. Furthermore, observations reveal that a significant fraction of the intermediate mass and massive stars are born as components of close binaries. We will investigate the effects of binaries on the chemical evolution of Globular Clusters and on the origin of matter with a pristine chemical composition that is needed for the single star AGB scenario to work. We use a population synthesis code that accounts for binary physics in order to estimate the amount and the composition of the ...

  4. Ghosts of Milky Way's past: the globular cluster ESO 37-1 (E 3)

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, R de la Fuente; Bidin, C Moni; Ortolani, S; Carraro, G

    2015-01-01

    Context. In the Milky Way, most globular clusters are highly conspicuous objects that were found centuries ago. However, a few dozen of them are faint, sparsely populated systems identified largely during the second half of the past century. One of the faintest is ESO 37-1 (E 3) and as such it remains poorly studied, with no spectroscopic observations published so far, although it was discovered in 1976. Aims. We investigate the globular cluster E 3 in an attempt to better constrain its fundamental parameters. Spectroscopy of stars in the field of E 3 is shown here for the first time. Methods. Deep, precise VI CCD photometry of E 3 down to V=26 mag is presented and analyzed. Low resolution, medium signal-to-noise ratio spectra of 9 candidate members are studied to derive radial velocity and metallicity. Proper motions from the UCAC4 catalogue are used to explore the kinematics of the bright members of E 3. Results. Isochrone fitting indicates that E 3 is probably very old, with an age of about 13 Gyr; its dis...

  5. Yields of AGB and SAGB models with chemistry of low- and high-metallicity Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, P; Carini, R; D'Antona, F

    2013-01-01

    We present yields from stars of mass in the range MoGlobular Clusters. The yields are based on full evolutionary computations, following the evolution of the stars from the pre-Main Sequence through the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase, until the external envelope is lost. Independently of metallicity, stars with M<3Mo are dominated by Third Dredge-Up, thus ejecting into their surroundings gas enriched in carbon and nitrogen. Conversely, Hot Bottom Burning is the main responsible for the modification of the surface chemistry of more massive stars, whose mass exceeds 3Mo: their gas shows traces of proton-capture nucleosynthesis. The extent of Hot Bottom Burning turns out to be strongly dependent on metallicity. In this paper we analyze the consequences of this fact. These results can be used to understand the role played by intermediate mass stars in the self-enrichment scenario of globular clusters: the resu...

  6. Discovery of another peculiar radial distribution of Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters: The case of 47 Tuc

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Rood, R T; Bellazzini, M; Sills, A; Sabbi, E; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Beccari, Giacomo; Rood, Robert T.; Bellazzini, Michele; Sills, Alison; Sabbi, Elena

    2004-01-01

    We have used high resolution WFPC2-HST and wide field ground-based observations to construct a catalog of blue straggler stars (BSS) in the globular cluster 47 Tuc spanning the entire radial extent of the cluster. The BSS distribution is highly peaked in the cluster center, rapidly decreases at intermediate radii, and finally rises again at larger radii. The observed distribution closely resembles that discovered in M3 by Ferraro et al (1993,1997). To date, complete BSS surveys covering the full radial extent (HST in the center and wide field CCD ground based observations of the exterior) have been performed for only these two clusters. Both show a bimodal radial distribution, despite their different dynamical properties. BSS surveys covering the full spatial extent of more globular clusters are clearly required to determine how common bimodality is and what its consequence is for theories of BSS formation and cluster dynamics.

  7. The Tidal Tails of Globular Cluster Palomar 5 Based on Neural Networks Method

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, H; Ma, J; Zhou, X

    2009-01-01

    The Sixth Data Release (DR6) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) provides more photometric regions, new features and more accurate data around globular cluster Palomar 5. A new method, Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN), is used to estimate the probability of cluster member to detect its tidal tails. Cluster and field stars, used for training the networks, are extracted over a $40\\times20$ deg$^2$ field by color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The best BPNNs with two hidden layers and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) training algorithm are determined by the chosen cluster and field samples. The membership probabilities of stars in the whole field are obtained with the BPNNs, and contour maps of the probability distribution show that a tail extends $5.42\\dg$ to the north of the cluster and a tail extends $3.77\\dg$ to the south. The whole tails are similar to those detected by \\citet{od03}, but no longer debris of the cluster is found to the northeast of the sky. The radial density profiles are investigated both alon...

  8. Formation of globular clusters induced by external ultraviolet radiation - II. Three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makito; Umemura, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    We explore the possibility of the formation of globular clusters (GCs) under ultraviolet (UV) background radiation. One-dimensional spherical symmetric radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations by Hasegawa et al. have demonstrated that the collapse of low-mass (106-7 M⊙) gas clouds exposed to intense UV radiation can lead to the formation of compact star clusters like GCs if gas clouds contract with supersonic infall velocities. However, three-dimensional effects, such as the anisotropy of background radiation and the inhomogeneity in gas clouds, have not been studied so far. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional RHD simulations in a semicosmological context, and reconsider the formation of compact star clusters in strong UV radiation fields. As a result, we find that although anisotropic radiation fields bring an elongated shadow of neutral gas, almost spherical compact star clusters can be procreated from a `supersonic infall' cloud, since photodissociating radiation suppresses the formation of hydrogen molecules in the shadowed regions and the regions are compressed by UV heated ambient gas. The properties of resultant star clusters match those of GCs. On the other hand, in weak UV radiation fields, dark-matter-dominated star clusters with low stellar density form due to the self-shielding effect as well as the positive feedback by ionizing photons. Thus, we conclude that the `supersonic infall' under a strong UV background is a potential mechanism to form GCs.

  9. The small Blue Straggler star population in the dense Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 6752

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, E; Sills, A; Rood, & R T

    2004-01-01

    We have used high resolution WFPC2-HST and wide field ground-based observations to construct a catalog of blue straggler stars (BSS) which spans the entire radial extent of the globular cluster NGC 6752. The BSS sample is the most extensive ever obtained for this cluster. Though NGC 6752 is a high density cluster with a large binary population, we found that its BSS content is surprisingly low: the specific number of BSS is among the lowest ever measured in a cluster. The BSS distribution is highly peaked in the cluster center, shows a rapid decrease at intermediate radii, and finally rises again at larger distances. This distribution closely resembles those observed in M3 and 47Tuc by Ferraro et al. (1993), Ferraro et al. (2003c). To date, BSS surveys covering the central regions with HST and the outer regions with wide field CCD ground-based observations have been performed for only these three clusters. Despite the different dynamical properties, a bimodal radial distribution has been found in each. A deta...

  10. A stellar-mass black hole population in the globular cluster NGC 6101?

    CERN Document Server

    Peuten, Miklos; Gieles, Mark; Gualandris, Alessia; Henault-Brunet, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Dalessandro et al. observed a similar distribution for blue straggler stars and main-sequence turn-off stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6101, and interpreted this feature as an indication that this cluster is not mass-segregated. Using direct N-body simulations, we find that a significant amount of mass segregation is expected for a cluster with the mass, radius and age of NGC 6101. Therefore, the absence of mass segregation cannot be explained by the argument that the cluster is not yet dynamically evolved. By varying the retention fraction of stellar-mass black holes, we show that segregation is not observable in clusters with a high black hole retention fraction (>50% after supernova kicks and >50% after dynamical evolution). Yet all model clusters have the same amount of mass segregation in terms of the decline of the mean mass of stars and remnants with distance to the centre. We also discuss how kinematics can be used to further constrain the presence of a stellar-mass black hole population an...

  11. Blood ties: the real nature of the LMC binary globular clusters NGC 2136 and NGC 2137

    CERN Document Server

    Mucciarelli, A; Ferraro, F R; Bellazzini, M; Lanzoni, B

    2012-01-01

    We have used a sample of high-resolution spectra obtained with the multi-fiber facility FLAMES at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory, to derive the kinematical and chemical properties of the two young Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters NGC 2136 and NGC 2137. These two clusters represent a typical example of LMC cluster pair suspected to be bound in a binary system: indeed the cluster centers of gravity have an angular separation of less than 1.4 arcmin in the sky. The spectral analysis of seven giants in NGC 2136 and four in NGC 2137 reveals that the two clusters share very similar systemic radial velocities, namely Vrad=271.5\\pm0.4 km/s (sigma=1.0 km/s) and Vrad=270.6\\pm0.5 km/s (sigma=0.9 km/s) for NGC 2136 and NGC 2137, respectively, and they have also indistinguishable abundance patterns. The iron content is [Fe/H]=-0.40\\pm0.01 dex (sigma=0.03 dex) for NGC 2136 and -0.39\\pm0.01 dex (sigma=0.01 dex) for NGC 2137, while the [alpha/Fe] ratios are roughly solar in both cluster...

  12. Form of the galactic globular cluster system and the distance to the Galactic Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenk, C.S. (Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy); White, S.D.M. (California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Dept. of Astronomy)

    1982-01-01

    New quantitative methods are developed for analysing the structure of the galactic globular cluster system. Samples limited in galactic latitude which can be assumed complete are chosen, and the distance independent information contained in the positions of clusters on the sky, and the information contained in the apparent three-dimensional distribution, are considered separately. The cluster system is slightly flattened and there is no significant evidence for any variation in flattening as a function of metallicity. Its density is well described over the range 0.2 < r/Rsub(Sun) < 5 by a Hubble law, rho varies as r/sup -3/, or by a de Vaucouleurs law with rsub(e)/Rsub(Sun) = 0.50. Distance modulus errors of order one magnitude are required to explain the deviation of the apparent distribution of metal-rich clusters from axial symmetry. In addition a systematic difference in distance scale of about 0.5 magnitudes is necessary to reconcile the centroid of this distribution with that of the metal-poor clusters. This shift is in the same sense and of about the size predicted by theoretical pulsation models of RR Lyrae stars. If the standard distance scale is adopted for metal-poor clusters, the estimated distance from the Sun to the Galactic Centre is Rsub(Sun) = 6.8 +- 0.8 kpc.

  13. The puzzling assembly of the Milky Way halo – contributions from dwarf Spheroidals and globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While recent sky surveys have uncovered large numbers of ever fainter Milky Way satellites, their classification as star clusters, low-luminosity galaxies, or tidal overdensities remains often unclear. Likewise, their contributions to the build-up of the halo is yet debated. In this contribution we will discuss the current knowledge of the stellar populations and chemo-dynamics in these puzzling satellites, with a particular focus on dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the globular clusters in the outer Galactic halo. Also the question of whether some of the outermost halo objects are dynamically associated with the (Milky Way halo at all is addressed in terms of proper measurements in the remote Leo I and II dwarf galaxies.

  14. The Abundance of Lithium in an ABG Star in the Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, R. A.; Pilachowski, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    A survey of red giants in the globular cluster M3 with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope indicated a prominent Li i 6707 Å feature in the red giant vZ 1050. Followup spectroscopy with the ARC 3.5 m telescope confirmed this observation and yielded a derived abundance of A(Li)NLTE = 1.6 ± 0.05. In addition, the high oxygen and low sodium abundances measured from the same spectrum suggest that vZ 1050 is a first generation cluster star. The location of vZ 1050 above the horizontal branch and blueward of the red giant branch in the cluster’s color-magnitude diagram places vZ 1050 on M3's asymptotic giant branch. The likely source for the enhanced lithium abundance is the Cameron-Fowler mechanism operating in vZ 1050 itself.

  15. Binary interactions as a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Dengkai; Li, Lifang

    2014-01-01

    Observations revealed the presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. We present a scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the abundance anomalous stars observed in GCs are the merged stars and the accretor stars produced by binary interactions, which are rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation and are more massive than normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. We find that due to their own evolution, these rapidly rotating stars have different surface abundances, effective temperatures and luminosities from normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. The stellar population with binaries can reproduce two important observational evidences of multiple stellar populations, the Na-O anticorrelation and the multiple sequences in HR diagram. Thi...

  16. ISOCAM observations of Galactic Globular Clusters mass loss along the Red Giant Branch

    CERN Document Server

    Origlia, L; Pecci, F F; Rood, R T; Origlia, Livia; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Rood, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Deep images in the 10 micron spectral region have been obtained for five massive Galactic globular clusters, NGC 104 (=47 Tuc), NGC 362, NGC 5139 (omega Cen), NGC 6388, NGC 7078 (=M15) and NGC 6715 (=M54) in the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal using ISOCAM in 1997. A significant sample of bright giants have an ISOCAM counterpart but only < 20% of these have a strong mid-IR excess indicative of dusty circumstellar envelopes. From a combined physical and statistical analysis we derive mass loss rates and frequency. We find that i) significant mass loss occurs only at the very end of the Red Giant Branch evolutionary stage and is episodic, ii) the modulation timescales must be greater than a few decades and less than a million years, and iii) mass loss occurrence does not show a crucial dependence on the cluster metallicity.

  17. AKARI observations of circumstellar dust in the globular clusters NGC104 and NGC362

    CERN Document Server

    Ita, Yoshifusa; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Matsuura, Mikako; Onaka, Takashi; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Kim, Woojung; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Youichi; Usui, Fumihiko; Oyabu, Shinki; Sakon, Itsuki; Takagi, Toshinobu; Uemizu, Kazunori; Ueno, Munetaka; Watarai, Hidenori

    2007-01-01

    We report preliminary results of AKARI observations of two globular clusters, NGC104 and NGC362. Imaging data covering areas of about 10x10 arcmin^2 centered on the two clusters have been obtained with InfraRed Camera (IRC) at 2.4, 3.2, 4.1, 7.0, 9.0, 11.0, 15.0, 18.0 and 24.0 mu. We used F11/F2 and F24/F7 flux ratios as diagnostics of circumstellar dust emission. Dust emissions are mainly detected from variable stars obviously on the asymptotic giant branch, but some variable stars that reside below the tip of the first-ascending giant branch also show dust emissions. We found eight red sources with F24/F7 ratio greater than unity in NGC362. Six out of the eight have no 2MASS counterparts. However, we found no such source in NGC104.

  18. COSMIC-LAB: Unexpected Results from High-resolution Spectra of AGB Stars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenna, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at clarifying one of the least studied phases of stellar evolution: the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Recent results obtained for Galactic globular clusters (GCs) suggest that the AGB stage may contain crucial information about the evolutionary history of exotic stars (Beccari et al. 2006) and multiple-populations (Campbell et al. 2013) in the parent cluster. The thesis presents the analysis of a large sample of high-resolution spectra of AGB stars in four Galactic GCs, acquired at the Very Large Telescope (ESO) and the 2.2 meter telescope (MPG). The obtained results provide evidence of a previously unknown physical mechanism affecting the neutral species of some chemical elements in the atmosphere of most AGB stars: because of it, the abundances derived from neutral lines are systematically underestimated, while those measured from ionized lines remain unaffected. Such a behaviour exactly corresponds to what expected in the case of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) conditions i...

  19. A comparison between the stellar and dynamical masses of six globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sollima, A; Lee, J -W

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the structure and kinematics of six Galactic globular clusters. By comparing the results of the most extensive photometric and kinematical surveys available to date with suited dynamical models, we determine the stellar and dynamical masses of these stellar systems taking into account for the effect of mass segregation, anisotropy and unresolved binaries. We show that the stellar masses of these clusters are on average smaller than those predicted by canonical integrated stellar evolution models because of the shallower slope of their mass functions. The derived stellar masses are found to be also systematically smaller than the dynamical masses by ~40%, although the presence of systematics affecting our estimates cannot be excluded. If confirmed, this evidence can be linked to an increased fraction of retained dark remnants or to the presence of a modest amount of dark matter.

  20. WHERE ARE MOST OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN TODAY’S UNIVERSE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, William E., E-mail: harris@physics.mcmaster.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    The total number of globular clusters (GCs) in a galaxy rises continuously with the galaxy luminosity L, while the relative number of galaxies decreases with L following the Schechter function. The product of these two very nonlinear functions gives the relative number of GCs contained by all galaxies at a given L. It is shown that GCs, in this universal sense, are most commonly found in galaxies within a narrow range around L{sub ⋆}. In addition, blue (metal-poor) GCs outnumber the red (metal-richer) ones globally by 4 to 1 when all galaxies are added, pointing to the conclusion that the earliest stages of galaxy formation were especially favorable to forming massive, dense star clusters.