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Sample records for m551 metals melting

  1. Melting of Transition Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M; Japel, S; Boehler, R

    2005-04-11

    We review the transition melting studies carried out at Mainz, and describe a recently developed model used to explain that the relatively low melting slopes are due to the partially filled d-bands, and the persistence of the pressure induced s-d transition. The basic tenets of the model have now been reconfirmed by new measurements for Cu and Ni. The measurements show that Cu which has a filled 3d-band, has a melt slope that is about 2.5 greater than its neighbor Ni. In the case of Mo, the apparent discrepancy of DAC melting measurements with shock melting can be explained by accounting for the change in melt slope due to the bcc-cp transition observed in the shock studies. The Fe melt curve is revisited. The possible relevance of the Jahn-Teller effect and recently observed transition metal melts with Icosahedral Short-Range Order (ISRO) is discussed.

  2. Surface-Induced Melting of Metal Nanoclusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Quan-Wen; ZHU Ru-Zeng; WEI Jiu-An; WEN Yu-Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ We investigate the size effect on melting of metal nanoclusters by molecular dynamics simulation and thermodynamic theory based on Kofman's melt model. By the minimization of the free energy of metal nanoclusters with respect to the thickness of the surface liquid layer, it has been found that the nanoclusters of the same metal have the same premelting temperature Tpre = T0 - T0(γsv -γlv -γst)/(ρLξ) (T0 is the melting point of bulk metal, γsv the solid-vapour interfacial free energy, γlv the liquid-vapour interfacial free energy, γsl the solid-liquid interfacial free energy, ρ the density of metal, L the latent heat of bulk metal, and ξ the characteristic length of surface-interface interaction) to be independent of the size of nanoclusters, so that the characteristic length ξ ofa metal can be obtained easily by Tpre, which can be obtained by experiments or molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The premelting temperature Tpre of Cu is obtained by MD simulations, then ξ is obtained.The melting point Tcm is further predicted by free energy analysis and is in good agreement with the result of our MD simulations. We also predict the maximum premelting-liquid width of Cu nanoclusters with various sizes and the critical size, below which there is no premelting.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF THE METAL MELTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Timoshpolskij

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear mathematical model of calculation of temperature fields in the process of metal melting is formulated and solved using the method of equivalent source taking into account nonlinearity of thermophysical properties of material and variable terms of heat exchange.

  4. Processing metallic glasses by selective laser melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Pauly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic glasses and their descendants, the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs, can be regarded as frozen liquids with a high resistance to crystallization. The lack of a conventional structure turns them into a material exhibiting near-theoretical strength, low Young's modulus and large elasticity. These unique mechanical properties can be only obtained when the metallic melts are rapidly cooled to bypass the nucleation and growth of crystals. Most of the commonly known and used processing routes, such as casting, melt spinning or gas atomization, have intrinsic limitations regarding the complexity and dimensions of the geometries. Here, it is shown that selective laser melting (SLM, which is usually used to process conventional metallic alloys and polymers, can be applied to implement complex geometries and components from an Fe-base metallic glass. This approach is in principle viable for a large variety of metallic alloys and paves the way for the novel synthesis of materials and the development of parts with advanced functional and structural properties without limitations in size and intricacy.

  5. Melting Point Of Metals In Relation Io Electron Charge Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boczkal G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of spatial criterion of the electron charge concentration is applied to determine the metal melting point. Based on the model proposed for bcc metals, a model for hcp metals and general form for others has been developed. To calculate the melting point, only structural data and atomic number are required. The obtained results show good consistency with the experimental data for metals with atomic number Z < 70.

  6. Melting of bcc Transition Metals and Icosahedral Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M; Boehler, R; Japel, S

    2006-05-26

    In contrast to polyvalent metals, transition metals have low melting slopes(dT/dP) that are due to partially filled d-bands that allow for a lowering of liquid phase energy through s-d electron transfer and the formation of local structures. In the case of bcc transition metals we show the apparent discrepancy of DAC melting measurements with shock melting of Mo can be understood by reexamining the shock data for V and Ta and introducing the presence of an icosahedral short range order (ISRO) melt phase.

  7. Charged Water Droplets can Melt Metallic Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Eric; Rosenberg, Ethan; Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    A water drop, when immersed in an insulating fluid, acquires charge when it contacts an energized electrode. Provided the electric field is strong enough, the drop will move away to the opposite electrode, acquire the opposite charge, and repeat the process, effectively 'bouncing' back and forth between the electrodes. A key implicit assumption, dating back to Maxwell, has been that the electrode remains unaltered by the charging process. Here we demonstrate that the electrode is physically deformed during each charge transfer event with an individual water droplet or other conducting object. We used optical, electron, and atomic force microscopy to characterize a variety of different metallic electrodes before and after drops were electrically bounced on them. Although the electrodes appear unchanged to the naked eye, the microscopy reveals that each charge transfer event yielded a crater approximately 1 micron wide and 50 nm deep, with the exact dimensions proportional to the applied field strength. We present evidence that the craters are formed by localized melting of the electrodes via Joule heating in the metal and concurrent dielectric breakdown of the surrounding fluid, suggesting that the electrode locally achieves temperatures exceeding 3400°C. Present address: Dept. Materials Sci. Engineering, MIT.

  8. RHEOLOGY FEATURE OF SIMPLE METAL MELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.J. Sun; H.R. Geng; Y.S. Shen; X.Y. Teng; Z.X. Yang

    2007-01-01

    The rheology feature of Sb, Bi melt and alloys was studied using coaxial cylinder high-temperature viscometer. The results showed that the curve of torsion-rotational speed for Sb melt presents a linear relation in all measured temperature ranges, whereas for the Bi melt, the curve presents obvious non-Newtonian feature within the low temperature range and at relative high shear stress. The rheology feature of Sb80Bi20 and Sb20Bi80, alloy melts was well correlated with that of Sb and Bi, respectively. It is considered that the rheology behavior of Sb melt plays a crucial role in Sb80Bi20, alloy and that of Bi melt plays a crucial role in Sb20Bi80 alloy.

  9. Nanoparticle-induced unusual melting and solidification behaviours of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Chen, Lianyi; Cao, Chezheng; Li, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    Effective control of melting and solidification behaviours of materials is significant for numerous applications. It has been a long-standing challenge to increase the melted zone (MZ) depth while shrinking the heat-affected zone (HAZ) size during local melting and solidification of materials. In this paper, nanoparticle-induced unusual melting and solidification behaviours of metals are reported that effectively solve this long-time dilemma. By introduction of Al2O3 nanoparticles, the MZ depth of Ni is increased by 68%, while the corresponding HAZ size is decreased by 67% in laser melting at a pulse energy of 0.18 mJ. The addition of SiC nanoparticles shows similar results. The discovery of the unusual melting and solidification of materials that contain nanoparticles will not only have impacts on existing melting and solidification manufacturing processes, such as laser welding and additive manufacturing, but also on other applications such as pharmaceutical processing and energy storage.

  10. Molecular dynamical simulations of melting behaviors of metal clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyar Hamid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The melting behaviors of metal clusters are studied in a wide range by molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated results show that there are fluctuations in the heat capacity curves of some metal clusters due to the strong structural competition; For the 13-, 55- and 147-atom clusters, variations of the melting points with atomic number are almost the same; It is found that for different metal clusters the dynamical stabilities of the octahedral structures can be inferred in general by a criterion proposed earlier by F. Baletto et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 116 3856 (2002] for the statically stable structures.

  11. Melting Metal on a Playing Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Many of us are familiar with the demonstration of boiling water in a paper cup held over a candle or a Bunsen burner; the ignition temperature of paper is above the temperature of 100°C at which water boils under standard conditions. A more dramatic demonstration is melting tin held in a playing card. This illustration is from Tissandier's book on…

  12. Mechanisms of acoustic processing of a metal melt containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, O.; Vorozhtsov, S.; Dubkova, Ya.; Stepkina, M.

    2016-11-01

    Wave processing with the frequencies from subsound (vibration) to ultrasound is used to produce nanopowder-modified composite alloys. This work considers mechanisms of such processing of metal melts, which lead to deagglomeration and wettability of particles of a metal melt and to the destruction of growing crystals during solidification. The main dependences for the threshold of the turbulence and cavitation were obtained. Resonance phenomena that contribute to positive changes in the melt are discussed. Possible mechanisms of the destruction of growing crystals and agglomerates of particles at the high-frequency processing of the melt are considered, including the destruction of agglomerates in the front of an acoustic wave and the destruction of crystals by oscillating solid particles.

  13. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety.

  14. Nucleation and undercooling of metal melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of thermodynamic and dynamic factors on nucleation process have been integrated in a theoretical formula representing the dependence of undercooling on parameters concerned. Moreover, a method to determine the kind and amount of the most effective catalyst in an undercooled melt has been acquired. The results show that the undercooling increases with the decreasing surface area of the most effective catalyst and the increasing cooling rate as the kind of the most effective catalyst is constant. It increases to a maximum value when the ratio of the surface area of catalyst (SvV) to the cooling rate of melt (Rc) decreases to a critical value. The maximum undecooling not only depends on the ratio of non-dimensional factor of activation energy for an atom to diffuse (φ) to non-dimensional factor of driving force for nucleus to form (ψ), but also depends on the contact angle of the most effective catalyst; the smaller the ratio of φ to ψ, the higher the maximum undercooling, but it does not exceed the value of 2/3 melting point; the smaller the contact angle of the most effective catalyst, the lower the maximum undercooling, and the smaller the requisite value of SvV/Rc for the maximum undercooling also.

  15. Nucleation and undercooling of metal melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    坚增运; 常芳娥; 马卫红; 严文; 杨根仓; 周尧和

    2000-01-01

    The effects of thermodynamic and dynamic factors on nucleation process have been integrated in a theoretical formula representing the dependence of undercooling on parameters concerned. Moreover, a method to determine the kind and amount of the most effective catalyst in an undercooled melt has been acquired. The results show that the undercooling increases with the decreasing surface area of the most effective catalyst and the increasing cooling rate as the kind of the most effective catalyst is constant. It increases to a maximum value when the ratio of the surface area of catalyst ( Sv V) to the cooling rate of melt ( Rc) decreases to a critical value. The maximum undecooling not only depends on the ratio of non-dimensional factor of activation energy for an atom to diffuse (φ) to non-dimensional factor of driving force for nucleus to form (ψ), but also depends on the contact angle of the most effective catalyst; the smaller the ratio of φ to ψ, the higher the maximum undercooling, but it does not

  16. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  17. Obtaining Multiple Metals Through Electron Beam Melting of Refractory Metal Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutova, Katia; Vassileva, Vania

    Investigations and results on the refining of tungsten scrap applying electron beam melting (EBM) in vacuum are presented and discussed. In this work EB melting experiments were performed in single or double-melt operations with different power inputs and refining times for tungsten purification and recovery of multiple metals (including refractory and other metals such as Mo, Nb, Cu, Zn, etc.), which are alloyed elements or impurities with high concentrations in the initial materials. Evaluations for extraction of some valuable metals, generated in the condensate at their removal from the liquid metal during the refining process are provided. Efficient technological regimes for e-beam melting and refining that enable the simultaneous production of pure metal ingots and condensates that can be used directly or can be used for subsequent extraction of expensive and valuable metals are presented.

  18. Liquid Metal Engineering by Application of Intensive Melt Shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayesh; Zuo, Yubo; Fan, Zhongyun

    In all casting processes, liquid metal treatment is an essential step in order to produce high quality cast products. A new liquid metal treatment technology has been developed which comprises of a rotor/stator set-up that delivers high shear rate to the liquid melt. It generates macro-flow in a volume of melt for distributive mixing and intensive shearing for dispersive mixing. The high shear device exhibits significantly enhanced kinetics for phase transformations, uniform dispersion, distribution and size reduction of solid particles and gas bubbles, improved homogenisation of chemical composition and temperature fields and also forced wetting of usually difficult-to-wet solid particles in the liquid metal. Hence, it can benefit various casting processes to produce high quality cast products with refined microstructure and enhanced mechanical properties. Here, we report an overview on the application of the new high shear technology to the processing of light metal alloys.

  19. APPLICABILITY OF THE MASS ACTION LAW IN COMBINATION WITH THE COEXISTENCE THEORY OF METALLIC MELTS INVOLVING COMPOUND TO BINARY METALLIC MELTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Based on the atomicity and molecularity as well as the consistency of thermodynamicproperties and activities of metallic melts with their structures, the coexistence the-ory of metallic melts structure involving compound has been suggested. According tothis theory, the calculating models of mass action concentrations for different binarymetallic melts have been formulated. The calculated mass action concentrations agreewell with corresponding measured activities, which confirms that the suggested theorycan reflect the structural characteristics of metallic melts involving compound and thatthe mass action law is widely applicable to this kind of metallic melts.

  20. Mathematical Viscosity Models for Ternary Metallic and Silicate Melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yuan-kun; MENG Xian-min; GUO Han-jie

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical viscosity models for metallic melts were discussed. The experimental data of Ag-Au-Cu systems were used to verify the models based on Chou's general geometric thermodynamic model and the calculated results are consistent with the reported experimental data. A new model predicting the viscosity of multi-component silicate melts was established. The CaO-MnO-SiO2, CaO-FeO-SiO2 and FeO-MnO-SiO2 silicate slag systems were used to verify the model.

  1. Pressure dependence of the melting temperature of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Herbert; Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John

    1989-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of the experimental data for the pressure dependence of the melting temperature of metals is presented. The method combines Lindemann's law, the Debye model, and a first-order equation of state with the experimental observation that the Grueneisen parameter divided by the volume is constant. It is observed that, based on these assumptions, in the absence of phase transitions, plots of the logarithm of the normalized melting temperature versus the logarithm of the normalized pressure are straight lines. It is found that the normalized-melting--temperature versus normalized-pressure curves accurately satisfy the linear relationship for Al, Ag, Au, Cs, Cu, K, Na, Pt, and Rb. In addition, this technique provides a sensitive tool for detecting phase transitions.

  2. Melt-quenched glasses of metal-organic frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, T.D.; Yue, Yuanzheng; Li, P.

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline solids dominate the field of metal−organic frameworks (MOFs), with access to the liquid and glass states of matter usually prohibited by relatively low temperatures of thermal decomposition. In this work, we give due consideration to framework chemistry and topology to expand the phen......Crystalline solids dominate the field of metal−organic frameworks (MOFs), with access to the liquid and glass states of matter usually prohibited by relatively low temperatures of thermal decomposition. In this work, we give due consideration to framework chemistry and topology to expand...... the phenomenon of the melting of 3D MOFs, linking crystal chemistry to framework melting temperature and kinetic fragility of the glass-forming liquids. Here we show that melting temperatures can be lowered by altering the chemistry of the crystalline MOF state, which provides a route to facilitate the melting...... of other MOFs. The glasses formed upon vitrification are chemically and structurally distinct from the three other existing categories of melt-quenched glasses (inorganic nonmetallic, organic, and metallic), and retain the basic metal−ligand connectivity of crystalline MOFs, which connects their mechanical...

  3. Novel method of polymer/low-melting-point metal alloy/light metal fiber composite fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of polymer/low-melting-point metal alloy (LMA/light metal fiber composite fabrication is proposed to solve problems of polymer/metal composites. The first step is mixing light metal particles with LMA at a temperature above the melting point of the LMA. The second step is cold extrusion of the LMA/light metal particles to fabricate LMA/light metal fibers. Thus, the LMA/light metal fibers with a density of ~4.5 g/cm3 were obtained. The last step is compounding a polymer with the LMA/light metal fibers at the processing temperature of the polymer above the melting points of the LMA. The effects of the length and the cross-sectional shape of light metal fiber on the morphology of the LMA/light metal fibers in the polymer matrix were studied, as were electrical conductivities and mechanical properties of the composites. As the length and/or the cross-sectional aspect ratio of the fibers was increased, the domains of LMA/light metal fibers formed more networks so that the electrical conductivity increased, and specific surface area of the domains increased so that notched Izod impact strength was improved. Thus, the polymer/LMA/light metal fiber composites were fabricated without degrading processability even at 60 vol% loading and the electrical conductivities over 103 S/cm were achieved.

  4. Effect of peritectics on thermodynamic properties of homogeneous binary metallic melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鉴

    2001-01-01

    After formulation of the calculating models of mass action concentrations for metallic melts Cu-Al, Ni-Al and Cu-Sn, it is found that in spite of their lower stability than that of compounds with congruent melting point, peritectics are popular structural units in metallic melts, neglecting their presence will make it impossible to study the thermodynamic properties of metallic melts with results which both obey the law of mass action and agree well with practice.

  5. Melt-Quenched Hybrid Glasses from Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Haizheng; Bennett, Thomas D; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2017-05-01

    While glasses formed by quenching the molten states of inorganic non-metallic, organic, and metallic species are known, those containing both inorganic and organic moieties are far less prevalent. Network materials consisting of inorganic nodes linked by organic ligands do however exist in the crystalline or amorphous domain. This large family of open framework compounds, called metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or coordination polymers, has been investigated intensively in the past two decades for a variety of applications, almost all of which stem from their high internal surface areas and chemical versatility. Recently, a selection of MOFs has been demonstrated to undergo melting and vitrification upon cooling. Here, these recent discoveries and the connections between the fields of MOF chemistry and glass science are summarized. Possible advantages and applications for MOF glasses produced by utilizing the tunable chemistry of the crystalline state are also highlighted. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Observation of melting conditions in selective laser melting of metals (SLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombansen, U.; Abels, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Process observation in 3D printing of metals currently is one of the central challenges. Many companies strive to employ this additive manufacturing process in their production chains in order to gain competitive advantages through added flexibility in product design and embedded features. The new degrees of freedom are accompanied with the challenge to manufacture every detail of the product to the predefined specifications. Products with filigree internal structures for example require a perfect build to deliver the performance that was designed into these structures. Melting conditions determine properties such as grain structure and density of the finished part before it is sent to post processing steps. Monitoring of such melting conditions is still a challenge where the use of photodiodes, pyrometry and camera systems contribute to an overall picture that might identify errors or deviations during the build process. Additional considerations must be made to decide if these sensors are applied coaxially or from a lateral perspective. Furthermore, setting parameters of focal plane array (FPA) sensors are discussed and events that are seen in the machine vision image are compared against the pyrometry data. The resume of the experiments suggests the application of multiple sensors to the selective laser melting process (SLM) as they jointly contribute to an identification of events. These events need to be understood in order to establish cause effect relationships in the future.

  7. Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-11-01

    The study examines current and emerging melting technologies and discusses their technical barriers to scale-up issues and research needed to advance these technologies, improving melting efficiency, lowering metal transfer heat loss, and reducing scrap.

  8. Mathematical Modeling of the Melting Rate of Metallic Particles in the Electric Arc Furnace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    González, O. J. P; Ramírez-Argáez, Marco A; Conejo, A. N

    2010-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics model coupled to a lagrangian model of melting/solidifying particles has been developed to describe the melting kinetics of metallic particles in an industrial Electric Arc Furnace (EAF...

  9. A demonstration of chill block melt spinning of metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Robert B.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most exciting adventures in materials in recent times has been the discovery of amorphous metals and the pursuit of methods of manufacturing various alloys into various shapes which are amorphous. Some of these alloys possess electrical properties which are extremely beneficial, whereas others offer different benefits such as corrosion resistence and no solidification shrinkage anomalies. There are a number of techniques for producing such amorphous shapes, but one of the earliest systems used is referred to as chill block melt spinning. The object of this demonstration is to show the simplicity of the process. The equipment and procedures are described.

  10. Optimization method for electron beam melting and refining of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Veliko; Vutova, Katia

    2014-03-01

    Pure metals and special alloys obtained by electron beam melting and refining (EBMR) in vacuum, using electron beams as a heating source, have a lot of applications in nuclear and airspace industries, electronics, medicine, etc. An analytical optimization problem for the EBMR process based on mathematical heat model is proposed. The used criterion is integral functional minimization of a partial derivative of the temperature in the metal sample. The investigated technological parameters are the electron beam power, beam radius, the metal casting velocity, etc. The optimization problem is discretized using a non-stationary heat model and corresponding adapted Pismen-Rekford numerical scheme, developed by us and multidimensional trapezional rule. Thus a discrete optimization problem is built where the criterion is a function of technological process parameters. The discrete optimization problem is heuristically solved by cluster optimization method. Corresponding software for the optimization task is developed. The proposed optimization scheme can be applied for quality improvement of the pure metals (Ta, Ti, Cu, etc.) produced by the modern and ecological-friendly EBMR process.

  11. Producing Magnesium Metallic Glass By Disintegrated Melt Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, M.; Gupta, M.; Jarfors, A. E. W.; Tan, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are new class of engineering materials that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the under cooled liquid state. The development of bulk metallic glasses of thickness 1cm or less has opened new doors for fundamental studies of both liquid state and glass transition previously not feasible in metallic materials. Moreover, bulk metallic glasses exhibit superior hardness, strength, specific strength, and elastic strain limit, along with good corrosion and wear resistance. Thus they are potential candidates in various sports, structural, engineering and medical applications. Among several BMGs investigated, magnesium-based BMGs have attracted considerable attention because of their low density and superior mechanical properties. The major drawback of this magnesium based BMGs is poor ductility. This can be overcome by the addition of ductile particles/reinforcement to the matrix. In this study, a new technique named disintegrated melt deposition technique was used to synthesize magnesium based BMGs. Rods of different sizes are cast using the current method. Mechanical characterization studies revealed that the amorphous rods produced by the current technique showed superior mechanical properties.

  12. Selective Laser Melting of Metal Powder Of Steel 3161

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelov, V. G.; Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.; Tomilina, T. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this article the results of experimental study of the structure and mechanical properties of materials obtained by selective laser melting (SLM), metal powder steel 316L was carried out. Before the process of cultivation of samples as the input control, the morphology of the surface of the powder particles was studied and particle size analysis was carried out. Also, 3D X-ray quality control of the grown samples was carried out in order to detect hidden defects, their qualitative and quantitative assessment. To determine the strength characteristics of the samples synthesized by the SLM method, static tensile tests were conducted. To determine the stress X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out in the material samples.

  13. Melt layer erosion of metallic armour targets during off-normal events in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylev, B.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-12-01

    Melt layer erosion by melt motion is the dominating erosion mechanism for metallic armours under high heat loads. A 1-D fluid dynamics simulation model for calculation of melt motion was developed and validated against experimental results for tungsten from the e-beam facility JEBIS and beryllium from the e-beam facility JUDITH. The driving force in each case is the gradient of the surface tension. Due to the high velocity which develops in the Be melt considerable droplet splashing occurs.

  14. High-temperature corrosion of metals in the salt and metallic melts containing rare earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, V. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Zhilyakov, A. Yu.; Belikov, S. V.; Volkovich, V. A.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.

    2016-09-01

    A complex of independent methods was employed to study the corrosion resistance of molybdenum, zirconium, tantalum and tungsten in chloride, chloride-fluoride and fluoride-oxide melts based on LiCl, CaCl2, NaCl- KCl, LiF, and containing rare earths. Tests were conducted for 30 h at 750-1050 °C. The metals showed excellent corrosion resistance in fused chlorides (the corrosion rates were below 0.0005 g/(m2 h). Despite the presence of chemically active fluoride ions in the chloride-fluoride melts, the metals studied also showed very low corrosion rates, except molybdenum, for which the rate of corrosion was 0,8 g/(m2 h). The corrosion resistance of tantalum was considerably reduced in the fluoride-oxide melts; the corrosion rate was over 1 g/(m2 h) corresponding to the 8-th grade of stability and placing tantalum to the group of "low stability" materials.

  15. Numerical simulation on rapid melting and nonequilibrium solidification of pure metals and binary alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠希东; 陈国良; 杨院生; 胡壮麒

    2002-01-01

    A heat and mass transfer modelling containing phase transformation dynamics is made for pure metals and binary alloys under pulsed laser processing. The nonequilibrium effects of processing parameters and physical properties are evaluated on the melting and solidification of pure metals (Al, Cu, Fe and Ni) and Al-Cu alloys. It is shown that the energy intensity of laser beam and physical properties of metals and the solute concentration of alloys have important effect on the interface temperature, melting and solidification velocity, melting depth and non-equilibrium partition coefficient. This situation is resulted from the interaction of heat transfer, redistribution of solute, solute trapping and growth kinetics.

  16. Low-melting elemental metal or fusible alloy encapsulated polymerization initiator for delayed initiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, Robert E.

    2017-08-15

    An encapsulated composition for polymerization includes an initiator composition for initiating a polymerization reaction, and a capsule prepared from an elemental metal or fusible alloy having a melting temperature from about 20.degree. C. to about 200.degree. C. A fluid for polymerization includes the encapsulated composition and a monomer. When the capsule melts or breaks open, the initiator is released.

  17. Electron Beam Melting and Refining of Metals: Computational Modeling and Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katia Vutova; Veliko Donchev

    2013-01-01

    ..., instrument engineering, electronics, etc. A time-dependent 3D axis-symmetrical heat model for simulation of thermal transfer in metal ingots solidified in a water-cooled crucible at electron beam melting and refining (EBMR) is developed...

  18. Thermodynamic properties and mixing thermodynamic parameters of two-phase metallic melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the calculating model of metallic melts involving eutectic, the calculating equations of mixing thermodynamic parameters for two phase metallic melts have been formulated in the light of those equations of homogeneous solutions. Irrespective as to whether the activity deviation relative to Raoultian behavior is positive or negative, or the deviation is symmetrical or unsymmetrical, the evaluated results not only agree well with experimental values, but also strictly obey the mass action law. This testifies that these equations can authentically reflect the structural reality and mixing thermodynamic characteristics of two-phase metallic melts. The calculating equations of mixing thermodynamic parameters for the model of two phase metallic melts offer two practical criteria (activity and mixing thermodynamic parameters) and one theoretical criterion (the mass action law).

  19. Study on the melting process of phase change materials in metal foams using lattice Boltzmann method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal lattice Boltzmann model is developed for the melting process of phase change material (PCM) embedded in open-cell metal foams. Natural convection in the melt PCM is considered. Under the condition of local thermal non-equilibrium between the metal matrix and PCM, two evolution equations of temperature distribution function are pre-sented through selecting an equilibrium distribution function and a nonlinear source term properly. The enthalpy-based method is employed to copy with phase change problem. Melting process in a cavity of the metal foams is simulated using the present model. The melting front locations and the temperature distributions in the metal foams filled with PCM are obtained by the lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of the porosity and pore size on the melting are also investigated and discussed. The re-sults indicate that the effects of foam porosity play important roles in the overall heat transfer. For the lower porosity foams, the melting rate is comparatively greater than the higher porosity foams, due to greater heat conduction from metal foam with high heat conductivity. The foam pore size has a limited effect on the melting rate due to two counteracting effects between conduction and convection heat transfer.

  20. Melting curves of metals by ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakov, Dmitry; Levashov, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    In this work we used several ab initio approaches to reproduce melting curves and discussed their abilities, advantages and drawbacks. We used quasiharmonic appoximation and Lindemann criterion to build melting curves in wide region of pressures. This approach allows to calculate the total free energy of electrons and phonons, so it is possible to obtain all thermodynamic properties in the crystalline state. We also used quantum molecular dynamics simulations to investigate melting at various pressures. We explored the size-effect of the heat until it melts (HUM) method in detail. Special attention was paid to resolve the boundaries of the melting region on density. All calculations were performed for aluminum, copper and gold. Results were in good agreement with available experimental data. Also we studied the influence of electronic temperature on melting curves. It turned out that the melting temperature increased with the rise of electron temperature at normal density and had non-monotonic behavior at higher densities. This work is supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Project No. 3.522.2014/K).

  1. Liquid-Liquid Structure Transition in Metallic Melts: Experimental Evidence by Viscosity Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-Qing; WU Yu-Qin; BIAN Xiu-Fang

    2007-01-01

    Temperature dependence of viscosity for more than ten kinds of metallic melts is analysed based on viscosity measurements. An obvious turning point is observed on the Arrhenius curves. Since viscosity is one of the physical properties sensitive to structure, its discontinuous change with temperature reveals the possible liquidliquid structure transition in the metallic melts. Furthermore, an integrated liquid structure transition diagram of the Sn-Bi system is presented. The universality of liquid-liquid structure transition is also discussed simply.

  2. THERMODYNAMICS AND NANOSTRUCTURAL MECHANISMS OF PROCESSES OF MELTING AND CRYSTALLIZATION OF METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Stetsenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melting and crystallization of metals are equilibrium thermodynamic processes. As the main structural units of dendrites serve construction nanocrystals which are formed of elementary nanocrystals. The main mechanisms of processes of melting and crystallization of metals are disintegration of dendrites on nanocrystals and formation of dendrites from nanocrystals. On process of crystallization and morphology of dendrites the great influence is exerted by the hardening speed, surface-active elements and the dissolved gases.

  3. Melt layer behavior of metal targets irradiatead by powerful plasma streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, A. N.; Byrka, O. V.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Garkusha, I. E.; Makhlaj, V. A.; Solyakov, D. G.; Tereshin, V. I.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-12-01

    In this paper melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high-heat loads is studied. Experiments with steel, copper, aluminum and titanium samples were carried out in two plasma accelerator devices with different time durations of the heat load. The surfaces of the resolidified melt layers show a considerable roughness with microcraters and ridge like relief on the surface. For each material the mass loss was determined. Melt layer erosion by melt motion was clearly identified. However it is masked by boiling, bubble expansion and bubble collapse and by formation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The experimental results can be used for validation of numerical codes which model melt layer erosion of metallic armour materials in off-normal events, in tokamaks.

  4. Origins of ultralow velocity zones through slab-derived metallic melt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiachao; Li, Jie; Hrubiak, Rostislav; Smith, Jesse S

    2016-05-17

    Understanding the ultralow velocity zones (ULVZs) places constraints on the chemical composition and thermal structure of deep Earth and provides critical information on the dynamics of large-scale mantle convection, but their origin has remained enigmatic for decades. Recent studies suggest that metallic iron and carbon are produced in subducted slabs when they sink beyond a depth of 250 km. Here we show that the eutectic melting curve of the iron-carbon system crosses the current geotherm near Earth's core-mantle boundary, suggesting that dense metallic melt may form in the lowermost mantle. If concentrated into isolated patches, such melt could produce the seismically observed density and velocity features of ULVZs. Depending on the wetting behavior of the metallic melt, the resultant ULVZs may be short-lived domains that are replenished or regenerated through subduction, or long-lasting regions containing both metallic and silicate melts. Slab-derived metallic melt may produce another type of ULVZ that escapes core sequestration by reacting with the mantle to form iron-rich postbridgmanite or ferropericlase. The hypotheses connect peculiar features near Earth's core-mantle boundary to subduction of the oceanic lithosphere through the deep carbon cycle.

  5. Energy model for the Zr-based metallic glass alloy melt with clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An energy model for the melt of bulk metallic glass (BMG) with clusters was estab- lished, the Gibbs free energy and interfacial energy for the Zr-Al-Ni ternary alloy melt with Zr2Ni clusters were calculated, and the effects of the clusters on the Gibbs free energy, interfacial energy and nucleation rate were analyzed. The results showed that the existence of the clusters in the Zr-Al-Ni ternary alloy melt enables the Gibbs free energy to decrease in the composition range where bulk metallic glass forms easily, makes the interfacial energy increase and changes the distribu- tion of the interfacial energy with the alloy composition. Because of the clusters in the melt, the Gibbs free energy of the Zr66Al8Ni26 alloy melt decreases about 0.3-1 kJ/mol and the interfacial energy between the melt and crystal nucleus increases about 0.016 J/m2. The nucleation rate of the undercooled Zr66Al8Ni26 alloy melt de- creases evidently under the influence of the clusters on Gibbs free energy and the interfacial energy, and the maximum of the nucleation rate in the melt with the Zr2Ni clusters is only about 107 mol1s1.

  6. Energy model for the Zr-based metallic glass alloy melt with clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YuanSheng; LI HuiQiang; TONG WenHui

    2007-01-01

    An energy model for the melt of bulk metallic glass (BMG) with clusters was established, the Gibbs free energy and interfacial energy for the Zr-Al-Ni ternary alloy melt with Zr2Ni clusters were calculated, and the effects of the clusters on the Gibbs free energy, interfacial energy and nucleation rate were analyzed. The results showed that the existence of the clusters in the Zr-Al-Ni ternary alloy melt enables the Gibbs free energy to decrease in the composition range where bulk metallic glass forms easily, makes the interfacial energy increase and changes the distribution of the interfacial energy with the alloy composition. Because of the clusters in the melt, the Gibbs free energy of the Zr66Al8Ni26 alloy melt decreases about 0.3-1 kJ/mol and the interfacial energy between the melt and crystal nucleus increases about 0.016 J/m2. The nucleation rate of the undercooled Zr66Al8Ni26 alloy melt decreases evidently under the influence of the clusters on Gibbs free energy and the interfacial energy, and the maximum of the nucleation rate in the melt with the Zr2Ni clusters is only about 107 mol-1·s-1.

  7. Sound absorption of metallic sound absorbers fabricated via the selective laser melting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Wei; Chung, Kuo-Chun; Kam, Tai-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The sound absorption capability of metallic sound absorbers fabricated using the additive manufacturing (selective laser melting) method is investigated via both the experimental and theoretical approaches. The metallic sound absorption structures composed of periodic cubic cells were made of laser-melted Ti6Al4 V powder. The acoustic impedance equations with different frequency-independent and frequency-dependent end corrections factors are employed to calculate the theoretical sound absorption coefficients of the metallic sound absorption structures. The calculated sound absorption coefficients are in close agreement with the experimental results for the frequencies ranging from 2 to 13 kHz.

  8. Free energy changes on freezing and melting ductile metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynden-Bell, R.M.; Duijneveldt, J.S. van; Frenkel, D.

    1993-01-01

    The variation in Landau free energy while melting platinum was investigated at a number of temperatures using computer simulation with a model potential. The technique used was to apply a biasing potential in a Monte Carlo simulation with umbrella sampling. From the Landau free energy curves one can

  9. Thermodynamic Properties and Mixing Thermodynamic Parameter of Binary Metallic Melt Involving Compound Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian

    2005-01-01

    Based on the coexistence theory of metallic melts involving compound formation,the theoretical cal culation equations of mixing thermodynamic parameters are established by giving up some empirical parameters in the associated solution model.For Fe-Al,Mn-Al and Ni-Al,the calculated results agree well with the experimental values,testifying that these equations can exactly embody mixing thermodynamic characteristics of these melts.

  10. Size Dependence of the Melting Temperature of Metallic Films: Two Possible Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Samsonov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The size dependence was investigated of the melting temperature Tm of metallic films (tin and copper on different substrate (amorphous carbon, another infusible metal, i.e. the dependence of Tm on the film thickness h. It was found that the effect of interfacial boundary can result in the growth of Tm for thin metallic films on the carbon substrate in comparison with the corresponding bulk value. For the metal 1 / metal 2 system the size dependence of Tm seems to be less pronounced and Tm decreases with decreasing thickness h.

  11. Depth Profiling of Melting and Metallization in Si(111) and Si(001) Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnella, R.; Ali, M.; Abbas, M.; D'Amico, F.; Principi, E.; di Cicco, A.

    2011-10-01

    An original approach for measuring the depth profile of melting and metallization of the Si(111) and Si(001) surfaces is proposed and applied. The different probing depths of the Auger electron and electron energy loss (EELS) spectroscopies are exploited to study the number of molten and metallic layers within 5-30 Å from the surface up to about 1650 K. Melting is limited to 3 atomic layers in Si(001) in the range 1400-1650 K while the number of molten layers grows much faster (5 layers at about 1500 K) in Si(111) as also indicated by the L3-edge shift observed by EELS. The relationship between melting and metallization is briefly discussed.

  12. Selective laser melting of metal micropowders with short-pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałpuski, B.

    2016-09-01

    Selective laser melting is a unique additive technique which can manufacture solid metal objects but it require expensive, high power lasers. The primary aim of this work was to check is it possible to carry out this process by using lower power and high energy pulse laser. The secondary goal was to examine the influence of main technological parameters of selective laser melting on the quality and the thickness of produced layer. The requirements of metal powder, which allowed to obtain a layer with microthickness, were developed.

  13. Solid-solid phase transitions via melting in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogatscher, S.; Leutenegger, D.; Schawe, J. E. K.; Uggowitzer, P. J.; Löffler, J. F.

    2016-04-01

    Observing solid-solid phase transitions in-situ with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution is a great challenge, and is often only possible via computer simulations or in model systems. Recently, a study of polymeric colloidal particles, where the particles mimic atoms, revealed an intermediate liquid state in the transition from one solid to another. While not yet observed there, this finding suggests that such phenomena may also occur in metals and alloys. Here we present experimental evidence for a solid-solid transition via the formation of a metastable liquid in a `real' atomic system. We observe this transition in a bulk glass-forming metallic system in-situ using fast differential scanning calorimetry. We investigate the corresponding transformation kinetics and discuss the underlying thermodynamics. The mechanism is likely to be a feature of many metallic glasses and metals in general, and may provide further insight into phase transition theory.

  14. Application of Ceramic Bond Coating for Reusable Melting Crucible of Metallic Fuel Slugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Song, Hoon; Ko, Young-Mo; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ki-Won [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Metal fuel slugs of the driver fuel assembly have been fabricated by injection casting of the fuel alloys under a vacuum state or an inert atmosphere. Traditionally, metal fuel such as a U-Zr alloy system for SFR has been melted in slurry-coated graphite crucibles and cast in slurry-coated quartz tube molds to prevent melt/material interactions. Reactive coatings and porous coatings can be a source of melt contaminations, and fuel losses, respectively. Ceramic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiC, and TaC coating materials showed no penetration in the protective layer after a melt dipping test. However, the ceramic coating materials showed separations in the coating interface between the substrate and coating layer, or between the coating layer and fuel melt after the dipping test. All plasma-spray coated methods maintained a sound coating state after a dipping test with U-10wt.%Zr melt. A single coating Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}(150) layer and double coating layer of TaC(50)-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}(100), showed a sound state or little penetration in the protective layer after a dipping test with U-10wt.%Zr-5wt.%RE melt. Injection casting experiments of U-10wt.%Zr and U-10wt.%Zr-5wt.%RE fuel slugs have been performed to investigate the feasibility of a reusable crucible of the metal fuel slugs. U–10wt.%Zr and U–10wt.%Zr–5wt.%RE fuel slugs have been soundly fabricated without significant interactions of the graphite crucibles. Thus, the ceramic plasma-spray coatings are thought to be promising candidate coating methods for a reusable graphite crucible to fabricate metal fuel slugs.

  15. Non-Equilibrium Solidification of Undercooled Metallic Melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter M. Herlach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available If a liquid is undercooled below its equilibrium melting temperature an excess Gibbs free energy is created. This gives access to solidification of metastable solids under non-equilibrium conditions. In the present work, techniques of containerless processing are applied. Electromagnetic and electrostatic levitation enable to freely suspend a liquid drop of a few millimeters in diameter. Heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is completely avoided leading to large undercoolings. The freely suspended drop is accessible for direct observation of rapid solidification under conditions far away from equilibrium by applying proper diagnostic means. Nucleation of metastable crystalline phases is monitored by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation during non-equilibrium solidification. While nucleation preselects the crystallographic phase, subsequent crystal growth controls the microstructure evolution. Metastable microstructures are obtained from deeply undercooled melts as supersaturated solid solutions, disordered superlattice structures of intermetallics. Nucleation and crystal growth take place by heat and mass transport. Comparative experiments in reduced gravity allow for investigations on how forced convection can be used to alter the transport processes and design materials by using undercooling and convection as process parameters.

  16. Examination of nanosecond laser melting thresholds in refractory metals by shear wave acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, A.; Muminov, B.; Rakhymzhanov, A.; Mynbayev, N.; Utegulov, Z. N.

    2017-07-01

    Nanosecond laser pulse-induced melting thresholds in refractory (Nb, Mo, Ta and W) metals are measured using detected laser-generated acoustic shear waves. Obtained melting threshold values were found to be scaled with corresponding melting point temperatures of investigated materials displaying dissimilar shearing behavior. The experiments were conducted with motorized control of the incident laser pulse energies with small and uniform energy increments to reach high measurement accuracy and real-time monitoring of the epicentral acoustic waveforms from the opposite side of irradiated sample plates. Measured results were found to be in good agreement with numerical finite element model solving coupled elastodynamic and thermal conduction governing equations on structured quadrilateral mesh. Solid-melt phase transition was handled by means of apparent heat capacity method. The onset of melting was attributed to vanished shear modulus and rapid radial molten pool propagation within laser-heated metal leading to preferential generation of transverse acoustic waves from sources surrounding the molten mass resulting in the delay of shear wave transit times. Developed laser-based technique aims for applications involving remote examination of rapid melting processes of materials present in harsh environment (e.g. spent nuclear fuels) with high spatio-temporal resolution.

  17. Research of the possibility of using an electrical discharge machining metal powder in selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, A. A.; Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.; Smelov, V. G.; Dmitriev, V. N.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the research of a Ni-20Cr-10Fe-3Ti (heat-resistant) alloy metal powder conducted for use in a selective laser melting technology. This metal powder is the slime after electric discharge machining. The technology of cleaning and melting the powder discussed in this article. As a control input of the powder, immediately before 3D printing, dimensional analysis, surface morphology and the internal structure of the powder particles after the treatment were examined using optical and electron microscopes. The powder granules are round, oval, of different diameters with non-metallic inclusions. The internal structure of the particles is solid with no apparent defects. The content of the required diameter of the total volume of test powder granules was 15%. X-ray fluorescence analysis of the powder materials carried out. The possibility of powder melting was investigated in the selective laser melting machine ‘SLM 280HL’. A selection of the melting modes based on the physical properties of the Ni-20Cr-10Fe-3Ti alloy, data obtained from similar studies and a mathematical model of the process. Conclusions on the further investigation of the possibility of using electric discharge machining slime were made.

  18. Noble metal nanoclusters and nanoparticles precede mineral formation in magmatic sulphide melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Hassan M; Ballhaus, Chris; Fonseca, Raúl O C; Wirth, Richard; Nagel, Thorsten; Tredoux, Marian

    2013-01-01

    In low temperature aqueous solutions, it has long been recognized by in situ experiments that many minerals are preceded by crystalline nanometre-sized particles and non-crystalline nanophases. For magmatic systems, nanometre-sized precursors have not yet been demonstrated to exist, although the suggestion has been around for some time. Here we demonstrate by high temperature quench experiments that platinum and arsenic self-organize to nanoparticles, well before the melt has reached a Pt-As concentration at which discrete Pt arsenide minerals become stable phases. If all highly siderophile elements associate to nanophases in undersaturated melts, the distribution of the noble metals between silicate, sulphide and metal melts will be controlled by the surface properties of nano-associations, more so than by the chemical properties of the elements.

  19. Rheology in Processing of in Situ Composites of Polypropylene and Low Melting Poing Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The low melting point metallic tin powder or alloy of tin and lead was blended with polypropylene. A kind of in situ composite has been prepared.The variations of torque were studied when the composites were mixed in Haake torque rheogeniometer. By way of capillary extrusion, effects upon rheology of the in situ composites of the low melting point metals (LMPM) and coupling agent for their different variety and content,were investigated. From flow curves, the results indicate that in situ composites mixed with the LMPM are a kind of pseudoplastic fluid. If the LMPM were melted,the higher the content of the LMPM, the lower apparent viscosity of composites.Meanwhile,when the coupling agent is added into composites,the viscosity of composite will go up first and drop then. This shows that the LMPM have a promoter flow action on the polypropylene.

  20. Interaction between tungsten monocarbide and an iron-based metallic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumanov, I. V.; Anikeev, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    A technique and results of investigation of compacted tungsten carbide substrates by scanning microscopy are reported. Samples are prepared in the course of studies of the wettability of tungsten carbide substrates with the iron melt, which are performed in accordance with the sessile drop method using two different heating strategies, namely, contact and noncontact heating of metal.

  1. Laser melt injection of ceramic particles in metals : Processing, microstructure and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelík, V.; De Hosson, J.Th.M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the possibilities of the laser melt injection (LMI) methodology to enhance the surface of light-weighted metals by adding hard ceramic particles in the top layer, with the aim to enhance the wear resistance and to increase the hardness. In par

  2. Fabrication of WCp/NiBSi metal matrix composite by electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Hui, E-mail: penghui@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University (BUAA), No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Material and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials & Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Chang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University (BUAA), No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Guo, Hongbo, E-mail: guo.hongbo@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University (BUAA), No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Material and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials & Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Yuan, Yuan [Zhuzhou Seed Cemented Carbide Technology Co. Ltd, No. 1099 Xiangda Road, Zhuzhou, Hunan 412000 (China); Gong, Shengkai; Xu, Huibin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University (BUAA), No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Material and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials & Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-06-01

    A blend of NiBSi and WC powders was used as raw material for fabricating a metal matrix composite (MMC) by electron beam melting (EBM). Dense and crack-free microstructure was produced with evenly distributed WC reinforcements. Mechanical properties, including macro- and micro-hardness, flexural strength, impact toughness and compressive strength, were investigated.

  3. Heat transfer enhancement of PCM melting in 2D horizontal elliptical tube using metallic porous matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourabian, Mahmoud; Farhadi, Mousa; Rabienataj Darzi, Ahmad Ali

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the melting process of ice as a phase-change material (PCM) saturated with a nickel-steel porous matrix inside a horizontal elliptical tube is investigated. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the PCM, it is motivated to augment the heat transfer performance of the system simultaneously by finding an optimum value of the aspect ratio and impregnating a metallic porous matrix into the base PCM. The lattice Boltzmann method with a double distribution function formulated based on the enthalpy method, is applied at the representative elementary volume scale under the local thermal equilibrium assumption between the PCM and porous matrix in the composite. While reducing or increasing the aspect ratio of the circular tubes leads to the expedited melting, the 90° inclination of each elliptical tube in the case of the pure PCM melting does not affect the melting rate. With the reduction in the porosity, the effective thermal conductivity and melting rate in all tubes promoted. Although the natural convection is fully suppressed due to the significant flow blockage in the porous structure, the melting rates are generally increased in all cases.

  4. Heat transfer enhancement of PCM melting in 2D horizontal elliptical tube using metallic porous matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourabian, Mahmoud; Farhadi, Mousa; Rabienataj Darzi, Ahmad Ali

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the melting process of ice as a phase-change material (PCM) saturated with a nickel-steel porous matrix inside a horizontal elliptical tube is investigated. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the PCM, it is motivated to augment the heat transfer performance of the system simultaneously by finding an optimum value of the aspect ratio and impregnating a metallic porous matrix into the base PCM. The lattice Boltzmann method with a double distribution function formulated based on the enthalpy method, is applied at the representative elementary volume scale under the local thermal equilibrium assumption between the PCM and porous matrix in the composite. While reducing or increasing the aspect ratio of the circular tubes leads to the expedited melting, the 90° inclination of each elliptical tube in the case of the pure PCM melting does not affect the melting rate. With the reduction in the porosity, the effective thermal conductivity and melting rate in all tubes promoted. Although the natural convection is fully suppressed due to the significant flow blockage in the porous structure, the melting rates are generally increased in all cases.

  5. Impact of melt treatment on semi-solid metal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafisi, Sahrooz [Center for University Research on Aluminum, CURAL, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Quebec, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada)]. E-mail: snafisi@ampr-institute.com; Ghomashchi, Reza [Center for University Research on Aluminum, CURAL, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Quebec, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada)]. E-mail: reza.ghomashchi@ampr-institute.com

    2007-06-14

    The concurrent presence of liquid and primary solid particles is the principal requirement for semisolid metal (SSM) processing. It is proposed that in addition to the temperature sensitivity of the solid fraction and the SSM temperature process window, partitioning of the solidification range is also essential. The solidification range of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys is divided into two distinct temperature intervals of {alpha}-Al primary particles formation and eutectic and post-eutectic reactions zone. The primary particles are formed in three steps of {alpha}-Al nucleation, dendrite to rosette/globular transformation and coarsening of the primary {alpha}-Al particles over the entire solidification range. Furthermore the effects of inoculation and modification on these temperature intervals are discussed and elaborated for hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys.

  6. Application of annexation principle to the study of thermodynamic properties of Ag-Bi-In metallic melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the measured activities, the phase diagrams and the annexation principle, the calculating models of mass action concentrations for Ag-Bi and Ag-Bi-In melts have been formulated. The calculated results agree with practice and obey the mass action law,showing that the models formulated can reflect the structural characteristics of both melts. Meanwhile, it confirms that annexation principle is applicable to the Ag-Bi-In metallic melts. The melts involving eutectic which give rise to phase separation, and in which activities exhibit positive deviation from Raoult's law is the basic cause of melts transforming from homogeneous to heterogeneous ones.

  7. Laser Driven Compression to Investigate Shock-Induced Melting of Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut de Rességuier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available High pressure shock compression induces a large temperature increase due to the dissipation within the shock front. Hence, a solid sample subjected to intense shock loading can melt, partially or fully, either on compression or upon release from the shocked state. In particular, such melting is expected to be associated with specific damage and fragmentation processes following shock propagation. In this paper, we show that laser driven shock experiments can provide a procedure to investigate high pressure melting of metals at high strain rates, which is an issue of key interest for various engineering applications as well as for geophysics. After a short description of experimental and analytical tools, we briefly review some former results reported for tin, then we present more recent observations for aluminum and iron.

  8. Utilizing Rice Husk Briquettes in Firing Crucible Furnace for Low Temperature Melting Metals in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Musa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternative fuels for firing crucible furnace for low temperature melting metals has become mandatory, as a result of the pollution problem associated with the use of fossil fuels, the expense of electricity and also deforestation as a result of the use of charcoal. An agricultural waste, rice husk, in briquette form was used as an alternative fuel to fire crucible furnace to melt lead, zinc and aluminium. Results showed that lead and zinc melted and reached their pouring temperatures of 3840C and 5300C in 70 minutes and 75 minutes respectively. Aluminium was raised to a maximum temperature of 5200C in 75 and 100 minutes.The average concentration of the pollutants (CO, SO2and NOX were found to be below the tolerance limit and that of TSP (Total Suspended Particulates was found to be within the tolerance limit stipulated by Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA in Nigeria.

  9. On the glass transition of the one-component metallic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the conditions for one-component metallic melts vitrification by quenching from a liquid state were formulated. It is shown that the tendency to the glass formation drastically increases with the temperature of melting. The maximum glass layer thickness and the associated cooling rates along with the vitrification temperatures was determined for Al, Cu, and Ni melts deposited on the Cu substrate. The results are in agreement with the available experimental data. Based on analytical solution of the impinging droplet solidification, the numerical value of the early-introduced asymptotic Ω criterion, which separates equilibrium and non-equilibrium phase transitions, was determined. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental values of the thickness of the splats shows that Ω criterion indeed predicts a priori a scenario of solidification.

  10. Vitrification of MSWI Fly Ash by Thermal Plasma Melting and Fate of Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪国华; 赵鹏; 江贻满; 孟月东

    2012-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash with high basicity (about 1.68) was vitrified in a thermal plasma melting furnace system. Through the thermal plasma treatment, the vitrified product (slag) with amorphous dark glassy structure was obtained, and the leachability of hazardous metals in slag was significantly reduced. Meanwhile, it was found that the cooling rate affects significantly the immobility of heavy metals in slag. The mass distribution of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, As, Hg) was investigated in residual products (slag, secondary residues and flue gas), in order to analyze the behavior of heavy metals in thermal plasma atmosphere. Heavy metal species with low boiling points accounting for the major fraction of their input-mass were adsorbed in secondary residues by pollution abatement devices, while those with high boiling points tended to be encapsulated in slag.

  11. Liquid Phase 3D Printing for Quickly Manufacturing Metal Objects with Low Melting Point Alloy Ink

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Conventional 3D printings are generally time-consuming and printable metal inks are rather limited. From an alternative way, we proposed a liquid phase 3D printing for quickly making metal objects. Through introducing metal alloys whose melting point is slightly above room temperature as printing inks, several representative structures spanning from one, two and three dimension to more complex patterns were demonstrated to be quickly fabricated. Compared with the air cooling in a conventional 3D printing, the liquid-phase-manufacturing offers a much higher cooling rate and thus significantly improves the speed in fabricating metal objects. This unique strategy also efficiently prevents the liquid metal inks from air oxidation which is hard to avoid otherwise in an ordinary 3D printing. Several key physical factors (like properties of the cooling fluid, injection speed and needle diameter, types and properties of the printing ink, etc.) were disclosed which would evidently affect the printing quality. In addit...

  12. Study of the fluence dependent interplay between laser induced material removal mechanisms in metals: Vaporization, melt displacement and melt ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishburn, J.M. [Centre for Lasers and Applications, Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney 2109 (Australia); Withford, M.J. [Centre for Lasers and Applications, Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney 2109 (Australia)]. E-mail: withford@ics.mq.edu.au; Coutts, D.W. [Centre for Lasers and Applications, Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney 2109 (Australia); Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Piper, J.A. [Centre for Lasers and Applications, Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney 2109 (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    Three quantitative methods, namely profilometry, high speed imaging and recoil momentum measurements using a ballistic pendulum, are used to determine the interplay of vaporization, melt displacement and melt ejection on nanosecond laser induced material removal. At low to moderate fluences (<7 J cm{sup -2}) material removal occurs via vaporization and melt displacement in aluminium. At high fluences (>7 J cm{sup -2}), material removal occurs predominantly via the explosive ejection of liquid droplets from the melt pool.

  13. Study of the fluence dependent interplay between laser induced material removal mechanisms in metals: Vaporization, melt displacement and melt ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, J. M.; Withford, M. J.; Coutts, D. W.; Piper, J. A.

    2006-05-01

    Three quantitative methods, namely profilometry, high speed imaging and recoil momentum measurements using a ballistic pendulum, are used to determine the interplay of vaporization, melt displacement and melt ejection on nanosecond laser induced material removal. At low to moderate fluences (7 J cm -2), material removal occurs predominantly via the explosive ejection of liquid droplets from the melt pool.

  14. Decontamination of metals by melt refinings/slagging: An annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, R.E. [ed.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1993-07-01

    As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--500 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development.

  15. Pulsed laser generation of ultrasound in a metal plate between the melting and ablation thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Every, A. G., E-mail: arthur.every@wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, PO Wits 2050 (South Africa); Utegulov, Z. N., E-mail: zhutegulov@nu.edu.kz [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Veres, I. A., E-mail: istvan.veres@recendt.at [RECENDT Research Center for Non Destructive Testing GmbH, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-03-31

    The generation of ultrasound in a metal plate exposed to nanosecond pulsed laser heating, sufficient to cause melting but not ablation, is treated. Consideration is given to the spatial and temporal profiles of the laser pulse, penetration of the laser beam into the sample, the evolution of the melt pool, and thermal conduction in the melt and surrounding solid. The excitation of the ultrasound takes place over a few nanoseconds, and occurs predominantly within the thermal diffusion length of a micron or so beneath the surface. Because of this, the output of the thermal simulations can be represented as axially symmetric transient radial and normal surface force distributions. The epicentral displacement response at the opposite surface to these forces is obtained by two methods, the one based on the elastodynamic Green’s functions for plate geometry determined by the Cagniard generalized ray method, and the other using a finite element numerical method. The two approaches are in very close agreement. Numerical simulations are reported of the epicentral displacement response of a 3.12mm thick tungsten plate irradiated with a 4 ns pulsed laser beam with Gaussian spatial profile, at intensities below and above the melt threshold. Comparison is made between results obtained using available temperature dependent thermophysical data, and room temperature materials constants except near the melting point.

  16. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging: First year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, R.E. [ed.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1994-03-01

    As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult. The problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technologies for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of pilot scale melting demonstrations (100-500 lbs) to be conducted at selected commercial facilities. This program will identify methods that can be used to recycle stainless steel RSM which will be used to fabricate high and low level waste canisters for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility. This report summarizes the results of an extensive literature review and the first year`s progress on slag design, small-scale melt refining of surrogate-containing stainless steel (presently only a three month effort), and pilot-scale preparation of surrogate master ingots.

  17. Numerical Modeling of Melting Process of Thin Metal Films Subjected to the Short Laser Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin metal film subjected to a short-pulse laser heating is considered. The parabolic two-temperature model describing the temporal and spatial evolution of the lattice and electrons temperatures is discussed and the melting process of thin layer is taken into account. At the stage of numerical computations the finite difference method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  18. Application of Annexation Principle in Investigation of Thermodynamic Property of Ternary Metallic Melt Fe-Cr-Ni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the phase diagrams,the measured activities and the principle of annexation, a calculation model for mass action concentrations of Fe-Cr-Ni melts, has been formulated. The calculated results not only agree well with measured values, but also obey the law of mass action. It showed that the model can reflect the structural reality of given melts and the principle of annexation is applicable to the ternary metallic melts.

  19. Direct determination of metastable phase diagram by synchrotron radiation experiments on undercooled metallic melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notthoff, C; Feuerbacher, B; Franz, H; Herlach, D M; Holland-Moritz, D

    2001-02-05

    The phase selection process during the crystallization of undercooled metallic melts is studied in situ by combining the electromagnetic levitation technique with energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of synchrotron radiation. The crystallization of metastable bcc phase in binary Ni-V alloys was identified. A metastable phase diagram of Ni-V alloy is constructed, which shows the primarily solidifying phase as a function of composition and undercooling. The analysis within nucleation theory emphasizes the important role of metal oxide as a heterogeneous nucleation site controlling the phase selection.

  20. Fission product release phenomena during core melt accidents in metal fueled heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, P G; Hyder, M L; Monson, P R; Randolph, H W [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA); Hagrman, D L [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA); McClure, P R; Leonard, M T [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

    1990-01-01

    The phenomena that determine fission product release rates from a core melting accident in a metal-fueled, heavy water reactor are described in this paper. This information is obtained from the analysis of the current metal fuel experimental data base and from the results of analytical calculations. Experimental programs in place at the Savannah River Site are described that will provide information to resolve uncertainties in the data base. The results of the experiments will be incorporated into new severe accident computer codes recently developed for this reactor design. 47 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Transport of metals and sulphur in magmas by flotation of sulphide melt on vapour bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, J. E.; Brenan, J. M.; Godel, B.; Barnes, S. J.; Gaillard, F.

    2015-03-01

    Emissions of sulphur and metals from magmas in Earth’s shallow crust can have global impacts on human society. Sulphur-bearing gases emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions affect climate, and metals and sulphur can accumulate in the crust above a magma reservoir to form giant copper and gold ore deposits, as well as massive sulphur anomalies. The volumes of sulphur and metals that accumulate in the crust over time exceed the amounts that could have been derived from an isolated magma reservoir. They are instead thought to come from injections of multiple new batches of vapour- and sulphide-saturated magmas into the existing reservoirs. However, the mechanism for the selective upward transfer of sulphur and metals is poorly understood because their main carrier phase, sulphide melt, is dense and is assumed to settle to the bottoms of magma reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments as well as gas-speciation and mass-balance models to show that droplets of sulphide melt can attach to vapour bubbles to form compound drops that float. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism for the upward mobility of sulphide liquids to the shallow crust. Our work provides a mechanism for the atmospheric release of large amounts of sulphur, and contradicts the widely held assumption that dense sulphide liquids rich in sulphur, copper and gold will remain sequestered in the deep crust.

  2. The spatiotemporal pattern of FeNi metal melt solidification in space and the mechanism of its crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李肇辉; 谢先德; 张大同

    1995-01-01

    The microstructure study of the shock-remelt-recrystallized metal in the Yanzhuang chondrite has revealed that the tetra-concentric-ring growth structure is the fundamental spatiotemporal pattern of the FeNi melt solidification in space in the state far from the thermodynamic equilibriun. The rapid growth and interaction of tetra-concentric-ring growth structures led to the formation of octahedral FeNi metal dentrites. The tetra-concentric-ring growth of FeNi metal may be a fundamental way by which octahedrite is formed from recrystaltization of FeNi metal melt under microgravity conditions.

  3. Heat Balance Determination for a Gas-Fired Furnace for Melting Non-Ferrous Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Ighodalo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A heat balance is usually carried out to determine the energy inflow and outflow for a thermal system and thus determine the overall system performance. The heat balance for a gas-fired furnace for melting non-ferrous metals has been determined. 50 kg of Aluminium charge was melted in the furnace and the in-furnace, walls, roof and exhaust gas temperatures were measured. Experimental measurements taken from the furnace operation were fed as input to a MATLAB program which was developed based on heat balance equations. The output from the program show that about 10% of the heat energy is lost through the walls and roof while 64% is lost through the exhaust gas. The thermal efficiency and melting efficiency determined for the furnace are 36.39 and 54.6%, respectively. The low energy loss through the walls and roof is due to use of appropriate wall thickness. The highest energy loss is through the exhaust, hence, the incorporation of a recuperator to make use of exhaust gas waste heat to preheat the combustion air or the metal charge or both, will further enhance furnace efficiency.

  4. Determination of work functions near melting points of refractory metals by using a direct-current arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, W. A.; Chapman, G. B., II

    1972-01-01

    Effective work functions of refractory metals at temperatures near their melting points were determined by using a direct-current arc. A metal wire connected as the cathode was melted by striking an arc discharge in an argon atmosphere. A melted sphere was formed with a definite emitting area which was calculated from the sphere diameter measured after terminating the arc. Effective work functions were calculated from the Richardson-Dushman equation by using this emission area. The procedure is experimentally advantageous because surface cleanliness of the specimen is not critical, high vacuum is not required, and the anode-cathode spacing is not critical.

  5. Formation of Splats from Suspension Particles with Solid Inclusions Finely Dispersed in a Melted Metal Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonenko, O. P.

    2012-12-01

    A theoretical model has been developed to describe the splats formation from composite particles of several tens of micrometers in size whose liquid metal binder contains a high volume concentration of ultra-fine refractory solid inclusions uniformly distributed in the binder. A theoretical solution was derived, enabling evaluation of splat thickness and diameter, and also the contact temperature at the particle-substrate interface, under complete control of key physical parameters (KPPs) of the spray process (impact velocity, temperature, and size of the particle, and substrate temperature) versus the concentration of solid inclusions suspended in the metal-binder melt. Using the solution obtained, the calculations performed demonstrate the possibility of formulating adequate requirements on the KPPs of particle-substrate interaction providing a deposition of ceramic-metal coatings with predictable splat thickness and degree of particle flattening on the substrate, and also with desired contact temperature during the formation of the first coating monolayer.

  6. Supersaturating silicon with transition metals by ion implantation and pulsed laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recht, Daniel; Aziz, Michael J. [Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Smith, Matthew J.; Gradečak, Silvija [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Williams, James S. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Sullivan, Joseph T.; Winkler, Mark T.; Buonassisi, Tonio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mathews, Jay; Warrender, Jeffrey M. [Benet Laboratories, U.S. Army ARDEC, Watervliet, New York 12189 (United States)

    2013-09-28

    We investigate the possibility of creating an intermediate band semiconductor by supersaturating Si with a range of transition metals (Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pd, Pt, W, and Zn) using ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting (PLM). Structural characterization shows evidence of either surface segregation or cellular breakdown in all transition metals investigated, preventing the formation of high supersaturations. However, concentration-depth profiling reveals that regions of Si supersaturated with Au and Zn are formed below the regions of cellular breakdown. Fits to the concentration-depth profile are used to estimate the diffusive speeds, v{sub D,} of Au and Zn, and put lower bounds on v{sub D} of the other metals ranging from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 4} m/s. Knowledge of v{sub D} is used to tailor the irradiation conditions and synthesize single-crystal Si supersaturated with 10{sup 19} Au/cm{sup 3} without cellular breakdown. Values of v{sub D} are compared to those for other elements in Si. Two independent thermophysical properties, the solute diffusivity at the melting temperature, D{sub s}(T{sub m}), and the equilibrium partition coefficient, k{sub e}, are shown to simultaneously affect v{sub D}. We demonstrate a correlation between v{sub D} and the ratio D{sub s}(T{sub m})/k{sub e}{sup 0.67}, which is exhibited for Group III, IV, and V solutes but not for the transition metals investigated. Nevertheless, comparison with experimental results suggests that D{sub s}(T{sub m})/k{sub e}{sup 0.67} might serve as a metric for evaluating the potential to supersaturate Si with transition metals by PLM.

  7. Pt, Au, Pd and Ru Partitioning Between Mineral and Silicate Melts: The Role of Metal Nanonuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavergne, V.; Charon, E.; Jones, J.; Agranier, A.; Campbell, A.

    2012-01-01

    The partition coefficients of Pt and other Pt Group Elements (PGE) between metal and silicate D(sub Metal-Silicate) and also between silicate minerals and silicate melts D(sub Metal-Silicate) are among the most challenging coefficients to obtain precisely. The PGE are highly siderophile elements (HSE) with D(sub Metal-Silicate) >10(exp 3) due to the fact that their concentrations in silicates are very low (ppb to ppt range). Therefore, the analytical difficulty is increased by the possible presence of HSE-rich-nuggets in reduced silicate melts during experiments). These tiny HSE nuggets complicate the interpretation of measured HSE concentrations. If the HSE micro-nuggets are just sample artifacts, then their contributions should be removed before calculations of the final concentration. On the other hand, if they are produced during the quench, then they should be included in the analysis. We still don't understand the mechanism of nugget formation well. Are they formed during the quench by precipitation from precursor species dissolved homogeneously in the melts, or are they precipitated in situ at high temperature due to oversaturation? As these elements are important tracers of early planetary processes such as core formation, it is important to take up this analytical and experimental challenge. In the case of the Earth for example, chondritic relative abundances of the HSE in some mantle xenoliths have led to the concept of the "late veneer" as a source of volatiles (such as water) and siderophiles in the silicate Earth. Silicate crystal/liquid fractionation is responsible for most, if not all, the HSE variation in the martian meteorite suites (SNC) and Pt is the element least affected by these fractionations. Therefore, in terms of reconstructing mantle HSE abundances for Mars, Pt becomes a very important player. In the present study, we have performed high temperature experiments under various redox conditions in order to determine the abundances of Pt, Au

  8. Models to estimate viscosities of ternary metallic melts and their comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王习东; 李文超

    2003-01-01

    Three models, based on Chou's general geometric thermodynamic model, to predict the viscosity of ternary metallic melts have been established. The calculation equations of the model have been deduced. The experimental viscosity data of Ag-Au-Cu systems were used to verify the models and the calculation results with the models are consistent with the reported experimental data. The advantages, requirement and applicability of the models have been analyzed and compared. The models have also been utilized to predict the viscosity of Ag-Sn-Cu system. The viscosity of the system was experimentally measured and the results are consistent with the calculated value of the models.

  9. Thermodynamic properties and mixing thermodynamic parameters of binary homogeneous metallic melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    After the investigation on the thermodynamic properties and mixing thermodynamic parameters of binary ho-mogeneous metallic melts involving compound, peritectic as well as solid solution, it was found that the equations of mix-ing free energy ΔGm and excess free energy ΔGxs of them can be expressed by the following equations:ΔGm = ∑x[∑NiΔGiθ + RT(∑ Nj ln Nj+∑Ni lnNi)] and ΔGxs = ΔGm-RT(alna+blnb), respectively.

  10. Integral equation for the interfacial tension of liquid metal in contact with ionic melt

    CERN Document Server

    Kobelev, O A; Kobelev, Oleg A.; Kobelev, Alexandr V.

    2004-01-01

    The closed integral equations for the interfacial tension as a function of external polarization at the liquid metal - ionic melt interface are derived. The version of Popel'-Pavlov isotherm is applied to the analysis of electrocapillary curves (ecc), i.e. the dependences of interfacial tension on electrode potential. The interaction between adsorbed particles is taken into account within 'two exchange parameters' approximation. The type of the distribution of electric potential in the double electric layer (del) is assumed to be like 'in series connected capacitors'. The methods of solution are proposed for the analysis of the experimental ecc's.

  11. DSC study on the undercooling of droplet solidification of metal melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Wanbing; GAO Yulai; ZHAI Qijie; XU Kuangdi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of cooling rate on the undercooling of droplet solidification of metal melt has been investigated by employing the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. The effect of cooling rate on the undercooling as well as its change tendency is analyzed theoretically. It is shown that the undercooling degree increases whereas the change rate of undercooling decreases with increasing cooling rate. Moreover, the change tendency approaches zero when the cooling rate exceedingly increased, indicating that an extremum of undercooling exists with increasing cooling rate.

  12. The kinetics of nitrogen dissolution in levitation and arc-melted Fe-C-Mn filler metals

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gruszczyk

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of melting method on the kinetics of nitrogen absorption by Fe-C-Mn filler metals has been analysed. The industrial heats of the Fe-C-Mn (SpG1) type welding filler metals were selected for own researches.Design/methodology/approach: The research of the nitrogen absorption kinetics was carried out in the levitation and TIG arc-melting conditions in the Ar+N2 atmosphere. The conditions of experiments were made possibly close to those existing in a molten metal drop in the...

  13. Laser-Ablation ICP-MS Analyses of Meteoritic Metal Grains in Lunar Impact-Melt Breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2003-01-01

    Lunar impact-melt breccias contain metal grains from the meteorites that formed the breccias. Because the breccias contain clastic material that may derive from older breccias, metal grains from earlier impacts may be present, too. The large subset of moderately mafic (8 - 12% FeO), KREEP-rich ("LKFM") melt breccias is particularly important because: (1) these are the melt breccias most likely to have been produced in basin-forming impacts, (2) it is from these breccias that many of the approx. 3.9 Gyr ages that are so common in lunar samples derive, (3) the breccias contain large proportions of FeNi metal, more than 1% in some types of Apollo 16 breccias, and (4) the metal potentially provides information about the impactors causing the apparent cataclysm at 3.9 Gyr.

  14. Laser-Ablation ICP-MS Analyses of Meteoritic Metal Grains in Lunar Impact-Melt Breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2003-01-01

    Lunar impact-melt breccias contain metal grains from the meteorites that formed the breccias. Because the breccias contain clastic material that may derive from older breccias, metal grains from earlier impacts may be present, too. The large subset of moderately mafic (8 - 12% FeO), KREEP-rich ("LKFM") melt breccias is particularly important because: (1) these are the melt breccias most likely to have been produced in basin-forming impacts, (2) it is from these breccias that many of the approx. 3.9 Gyr ages that are so common in lunar samples derive, (3) the breccias contain large proportions of FeNi metal, more than 1% in some types of Apollo 16 breccias, and (4) the metal potentially provides information about the impactors causing the apparent cataclysm at 3.9 Gyr.

  15. Local melting to design strong and plastically deformable bulk metallic glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yue-Sheng; Han, Xiao-Liang; Song, Kai-Kai; Tian, Yu-Hao; Peng, Chuan-Xiao; Wang, Li; Sun, Bao-An; Wang, Gang; Kaban, Ivan; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Recently, CuZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites reinforced by the TRIP (transformation-induced plasticity) effect have been explored in attempt to accomplish an optimal of trade-off between strength and ductility. However, the design of such BMG composites with advanced mechanical properties still remains a big challenge for materials engineering. In this work, we proposed a technique of instantaneously and locally arc-melting BMG plate to artificially induce the precipitation of B2 crystals in the glassy matrix and then to tune mechanical properties. Through adjusting local melting process parameters (i.e. input powers, local melting positions, and distances between the electrode and amorphous plate), the size, volume fraction, and distribution of B2 crystals were well tailored and the corresponding formation mechanism was clearly clarified. The resultant BMG composites exhibit large compressive plasticity and high strength together with obvious work-hardening ability. This compelling approach could be of great significance for the steady development of metastable CuZr-based alloys with excellent mechanical properties.

  16. Molecular dynamics of liquid alkaline-earth metals near the melting point

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Baria; A R Jani

    2010-10-01

    Results of the studies of the properties like binding energy, the pair distribution function (), the structure factor (), specific heat at constant volume, velocity autocorrelation function (VACF), radial distribution function, self-diffusion coefficient and coordination number of alkaline-earth metals (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) near melting point using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique using a pseudopotential proposed by us are presented in this article. Good agreement with the experiment is achieved for the binding energy, pair distribution function and structure factor, and these results compare favourably with the results obtained by other such calculations, showing the transferability of the pseudopotential used from solid to liquid environment in the case of alkaline-earth metals.

  17. Experimental study of dynamic fragmentation of shockloaded metals below and above melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rességuier T.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The breakout and reflection of a strong shock-wave upon the free surface of a metallic sample may lead to ejecta production of many types. Spall fracture is due to tensile stresses which result from the interaction of the incident and the reflected release waves. When the sample remains in solid state, one or several layers of finite thickness, called spalls, can be created and ejected. When melting is initiated during shock-wave propagation, tensile stresses are generated in a liquid medium and lead to the creation of an expanding cloud of liquid debris. This phenomenon, sometimes referred to as microspalling, consists in a dynamic fragmentation process in the melted material. The present paper is devoted to the experimental investigation of the transition from spall fracture in solid state to the micro-spalling process in molten metals. This study, realized on tin and on iron, involves different shock generators (gas gun, pulsed laser… and diagnostics (velocimetry, high-speed optical shadowgraphy, fragments recovery.

  18. Thermodynamic aspects of oxidation of metallic impurities and steel surfaces in heavy liquid metal melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lavrova

    2017-03-01

    It is shown that the composition and stability of the iron-based oxide system in molten liquid heavy metals is determined by the temperature and oxygen partial pressure in the related external environment. A change in any of these parameters changes the oxide phase composition with the oxygen fraction increase or decrease.

  19. Calculating the melting curves by the thermodynamic data matching method: Platinum-group refractory metals (Ru, Os, and Ir)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyamina, E. Yu.; Zitserman, V. Yu.; Fokin, L. R.

    2017-01-01

    A technique for reconstructing thermal properties, including the melting curve, of refractory metals based on the use of experimental data on caloric properties available up to the melting point and some regularities of the Debye-Grüneisen theory has been proposed. The calculation result is the consistent system of high-temperature thermal data, including the thermal expansion coefficient, solid-phase density, and volume jump upon melting. This technique was tried-out on refractory platinum-group metals based on experimental data on the enthalpy of the metals and confirmed by consistency with a thermodynamic calculation using shock-wave experiments and results obtained by the quantum molecular dynamics method.

  20. Effect of component substitution on the atomic dynamics in glass-forming binary metallic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, B.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Yang, F.; Voigtmann, Th.; Evenson, Z.; Hansen, T. C.; Meyer, A.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the substitution of early transition metals (Zr, Hf, and Nb) in Ni-based binary glass-forming metallic melts and the impact on structural and dynamical properties by using a combination of neutron scattering, electrostatic levitation (ESL), and isotopic substitution. The self-diffusion coefficients measured by quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) identify a sluggish diffusion as well as an increased activation energy by almost a factor of 2 for Hf35Ni65 compared to Zr36Ni64 . This finding can be explained by the locally higher packing density of Hf atoms in Hf35Ni65 compared to Zr atoms in Zr36Ni64 , which has been derived from interatomic distances by analyzing the measured partial structure factors. Furthermore, QENS measurements of liquid Hf35Ni65 prepared with 60Ni , which has a vanishing incoherent scattering cross section, have demonstrated that self-diffusion of Hf is slowed down compared to the concentration weighted self-diffusion of Hf and Ni. This implies a dynamical decoupling between larger Hf and smaller Ni atoms, which can be related to a saturation effect of unequal atomic nearest-neighbor pairs, that was observed recently for Ni-rich compositions in Zr-Ni metallic melts. In order to establish a structure-dynamics relation, measured partial structure factors have been used as an input for mode-coupling theory (MCT) of the glass transition to calculate self-diffusion coefficients for the different atomic components. Remarkably, MCT can reproduce the increased activation energy for Hf35Ni65 as well as the dynamical decoupling between Hf and Ni atoms.

  1. Experimental evidence for thermal generation of interstitials in a metallic crystal near the melting temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, E. V.; Mitrofanov, Yu P.; Konchakov, R. A.; Vinogradov, A. Yu; Kobelev, N. P.; Khonik, V. A.

    2016-06-01

    The only intrinsic point defects of simple crystalline metals known from solid state physics are vacancies and interstitials. It is widely believed that while vacancies play a major role in crystal properties and their concentration reaches relatively big values near the melting temperature T m, interstitials essentially do not occur in thermodynamic equilibrium and their influence on properties is minor. Here, taking aluminum single crystals as an example, we present compelling experimental evidence for rapid thermoactivated growth of interstitial concentration upon approaching T m. Using high precision measurements of the shear modulus we found a diaelastic effect of up to -1.5% near T m. It is argued that this effect is mostly due to the generation of dumbbell (split) interstitials. The interstitial concentration c i rapidly increases upon approaching T m and becomes only 2-3 times smaller than that of vacancies just below T m. The reason for this c i -increase is conditioned by a decrease of the Gibbs free energy with temperature, which in turn originates from the high formation entropy of dumbbell interstitials and a decrease of their formation enthalpy at high c i . Special molecular dynamic simulation confirmed all basic aspects of the proposed interpretation. The results obtained (i) demonstrate the significance of interstitial concentration near T m that could lead to the revaluation of vacancy concentration at high temperatures, (ii) suggest that dumbbell interstitials play a major role in the melting mechanism of monatomic metallic crystals and (iii) support a new avenue for in-depth understanding of glassy metals.

  2. Numerical analysis of the effects of non-conventional laser beam geometries during laser melting of metallic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Shakeel; Li, Lin; Sheikh, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Laser melting is an important industrial activity encountered in a variety of laser manufacturing processes, e.g. selective laser melting, welding, brazing, soldering, glazing, surface alloying, cladding etc. The majority of these processes are carried out by using either circular or rectangular beams. At present, the melt pool characteristics such as melt pool geometry, thermal gradients and cooling rate are controlled by the variation of laser power, spot size or scanning speed. However, the variations in these parameters are often limited by other processing conditions. Although different laser beam modes and intensity distributions have been studied to improve the process, no other laser beam geometries have been investigated. The effect of laser beam geometry on the laser melting process has received very little attention. This paper presents an investigation of the effects of different beam geometries including circular, rectangular and diamond shapes on laser melting of metallic materials. The finite volume method has been used to simulate the transient effects of a moving beam for laser melting of mild steel (EN-43A) taking into account Marangoni and buoyancy convection. The temperature distribution, melt pool geometry, fluid flow velocities and heating/cooling rates have been calculated. Some of the results have been compared with the experimental data.

  3. Solid-assisted melt disintegration (SAMD), a novel technique for metal powder production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhlaghi, F. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) ], E-Mail: fakhlagh@ut.ac.ir; Esfandiari, H. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    A new process termed 'solid-assisted melt disintegration (SAMD)' has been developed for the preparation of aluminum alloy powder particles. The method consists of introducing and mixing a specified amount of as-received alumina particles (in the range of +700 to 500 {mu}m) in A356 aluminum melt at the temperature of 715 deg. C. Melt disintegration occurs in 10 min by kinetic energy transfer from a rotating impeller (450 rpm) to the metal via the solid atomizing medium (alumina particles). The resulting mixture of aluminum droplets and alumina particles was cooled in air and screened through 300 {mu}m sieve to separate alumina from solidified aluminum powder particles. A356 aluminum alloy was also gas atomized by using a free-fall atomizer operating by nitrogen gas at the pressure of 1.1 MPa and the sub-300 {mu}m of the produced powder was used as a base of comparison. The SAMD produced powders of diameter above 53 {mu}m were mostly spherical while powders less than 53 {mu}m showed various elongated shapes. No evidence was found for satelliting of small particles on to large ones or agglomerated particles. While gas atomized particles in the +53 {mu}m sieve size range showed some signs of porosity, the SAMD particles were dense and did not show any signs of internal porosity in any of the sieve fractions investigated. Comparison of the microstructure of the SAMD and gas-atomized powders revealed that for the same size powder of A356 alloy, the former exhibited a coarser microstructure as a result of a slower cooling rate.

  4. Fundamentals of Melt infiltration for the Preparation of Supported Metal Catalysts.The Case of Co/SiO2 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenhuisen, T.M.; den Breejen, J.P.; Verdoes, D.; de Jongh, P.E.; de Jong, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    We explored melt infiltration of mesoporous silica supports to prepare supported metal catalysts with high loadings and controllable particle sizes. Melting of Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O in the presence of silica supports was studied in situ with differential scanning calorimetry. The melting point depression o

  5. Improving the fatigue performance of porous metallic biomaterials produced by Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooreweder, Brecht; Apers, Yanni; Lietaert, Karel; Kruth, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides new insights into the fatigue properties of porous metallic biomaterials produced by additive manufacturing. Cylindrical porous samples with diamond unit cells were produced from Ti6Al4V powder using Selective Laser Melting (SLM). After measuring all morphological and quasi-static properties, compression-compression fatigue tests were performed to determine fatigue strength and to identify important fatigue influencing factors. In a next step, post-SLM treatments were used to improve the fatigue life of these biomaterials by changing the microstructure and by reducing stress concentrators and surface roughness. In particular, the influence of stress relieving, hot isostatic pressing and chemical etching was studied. Analytical and numerical techniques were developed to calculate the maximum local tensile stress in the struts as function of the strut diameter and load. With this method, the variability in the relative density between all samples was taken into account. The local stress in the struts was then used to quantify the exact influence of the applied post-SLM treatments on the fatigue life. A significant improvement of the fatigue life was achieved. Also, the post-SLM treatments, procedures and calculation methods can be applied to different types of porous metallic structures and hence this paper provides useful tools for improving fatigue performance of metallic biomaterials.

  6. Electron Beam Melting and Refining of Metals: Computational Modeling and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veliko Donchev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Computational modeling offers an opportunity for a better understanding and investigation of thermal transfer mechanisms. It can be used for the optimization of the electron beam melting process and for obtaining new materials with improved characteristics that have many applications in the power industry, medicine, instrument engineering, electronics, etc. A time-dependent 3D axis-symmetrical heat model for simulation of thermal transfer in metal ingots solidified in a water-cooled crucible at electron beam melting and refining (EBMR is developed. The model predicts the change in the temperature field in the casting ingot during the interaction of the beam with the material. A modified Pismen-Rekford numerical scheme to discretize the analytical model is developed. These equation systems, describing the thermal processes and main characteristics of the developed numerical method, are presented. In order to optimize the technological regimes, different criteria for better refinement and obtaining dendrite crystal structures are proposed. Analytical problems of mathematical optimization are formulated, discretized and heuristically solved by cluster methods. Using important for the practice simulation results, suggestions can be made for EBMR technology optimization. The proposed tool is important and useful for studying, control, optimization of EBMR process parameters and improving of the quality of the newly produced materials.

  7. A round robin study for laser beam melting in metal powder bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With its ability to fabricate fully dense three-dimensional structures by selectively melting micro-sized metal powder, the additive manufacturing process of laser beam melting (LBM is considered by many to be a significant technology that is complementary to the conventional forming and subtractive manufacturing processes. However, even with its ability to fabricate structures with characteristics comparable to conventional fabrication, the LBM process often lacks the consistency and degree of repeatability essential for its industrial acceptance for certain end-product applications. Inconsistency in the characteristics of structures is often related to a combination of variations in system technology, process, and user influence. In order to understand fully the potential and limitations of the LBM process, the paper discusses the design, methodology, and results of a round robin test conducted within the Collaborative Working Group (CWG lasers in production at the International Academy of Production Engineering (CIRP. Observed mechanical characteristics for samples from each of the participants are presented. The experiments are designed to obtain data related to mechanical characteristics for different build orientations and processing conditions in addition to the inherent system technology variations. The paper further discusses the observed process phenomena and their association with the induced mechanical characteristics.

  8. Electron Beam Melting and Refining of Metals: Computational Modeling and Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutova, Katia; Donchev, Veliko

    2013-10-18

    Computational modeling offers an opportunity for a better understanding and investigation of thermal transfer mechanisms. It can be used for the optimization of the electron beam melting process and for obtaining new materials with improved characteristics that have many applications in the power industry, medicine, instrument engineering, electronics, etc. A time-dependent 3D axis-symmetrical heat model for simulation of thermal transfer in metal ingots solidified in a water-cooled crucible at electron beam melting and refining (EBMR) is developed. The model predicts the change in the temperature field in the casting ingot during the interaction of the beam with the material. A modified Pismen-Rekford numerical scheme to discretize the analytical model is developed. These equation systems, describing the thermal processes and main characteristics of the developed numerical method, are presented. In order to optimize the technological regimes, different criteria for better refinement and obtaining dendrite crystal structures are proposed. Analytical problems of mathematical optimization are formulated, discretized and heuristically solved by cluster methods. Using important for the practice simulation results, suggestions can be made for EBMR technology optimization. The proposed tool is important and useful for studying, control, optimization of EBMR process parameters and improving of the quality of the newly produced materials.

  9. Synergistically improved thermal conductivity of polyamide-6 with low melting temperature metal and graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Jia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low melting temperature metal (LMTM-tin (Sn was introduced into polyamide-6 (PA6 and PA6/graphite composites respectively to improve the thermal conductivity of PA6 by melt processing (extruding and injection molding. After introducing Sn, the thermal conductivity of PA6/Sn was nearly constant because of the serious agglomeration of Sn. However, when 20 wt% (5.4 vol% of Sn was added into PA6 containing 50 wt% (33.3 vol% of graphite, the thermal conductivity of the composite was dramatically increased to 5.364 versus 1.852 W·(m·K–1 for the PA6/graphite composite, which suggests that the incorporation of graphite and Sn have a significant synergistic effect on the thermal conductivity improvement of PA6. What is more, the electrical conductivity of the composite increased nearly 8 orders of magnitudes after introducing both graphite and Sn. Characterization of microstructure and energy dispersive spectrum analysis (EDS indicates that the dispersion of Sn in PA6/graphite/Sn was much more uniform than that of PA6/Sn composite. According to Differential Scanning Calorimetry measurement and EDS, the uniform dispersion of Sn in PA6/graphite/Sn and the high thermal conductivity of PA6/graphite/Sn are speculated to be related with the electron transfer between graphite and Sn, which makes Sn distribute evenly around the graphite layers.

  10. Microstructural Evolution of the Interface Between Pure Titanium and Low Melting Point Zr-Ti-Ni(Cu) Filler Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongmyoung; Sun, Juhyun; Kang, Donghan; Shin, Seungyoung; Hong, Juhwa

    2014-12-01

    Low melting point Zr-based filler metals with melting point depressants (MPDs) such as Cu and Ni elements are used for titanium brazing. However, the phase transition of the filler metals in the titanium joint needs to be explained, since the main element of Zr in the filler metals differs from that of the parent titanium alloys. In addition, since the MPDs easily form brittle intermetallics, that deteriorate joint properties, the phase evolution they cause needs to be studied. Zr-based filler metals having Cu content from 0 to 12 at. pct and Ni content from 12 to 24 at. pct with a melting temperature range of 1062 K to 1082 K (789 °C to 809 °C) were wetting-tested on a titanium plate to investigate the phase transformation and evolution at the interface between the titanium plate and the filler metals. In the interface, the alloys system with Zr, Zr2Ni, and (Ti,Zr)2Ni phases was easily changed to a Ti-based alloy system with Ti, Ti2Ni, and (Ti,Zr)2Ni phases, by the local melting of parent titanium. The dissolution depths of the parent metal were increased with increasing Ni content in the filler metals because Ni has a faster diffusion rate than Cu. Instead, slow diffusion of Cu into titanium substrate leads to the accumulation of Cu at the molten zone of the interface, which could form undesirable Ti x Cu y intermetallics. This study confirmed that Zr-based filler metals are compatible with the parent titanium metal with the minimum content of MPDs.

  11. JYPB2.0-A new composition adjustment processing system of metal melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wenchao; Wang Zhongce; Wang Huanbin

    2008-01-01

    The new system contains all the independent variables, setting the ultimate objective function groups,installing the complete operating program chain and establishing the accurate mathematical model. The new system produces the ultimate objective function group--Optimum Proportion Scheme through the processing of the eleven operating main programs such as Optimization Program, etc. and revising of three operating auxiliary programs such as Elimination Program, etc. which is locked by the intermediary objective function group. The setting of the complete database system provides the full-service for the customers' smelting production. It is generally applicable for all the varieties of alloys and raw matedals. Its customized features can fulfill the actual needs of users. These are the advantages of the new composition adjustment processing system of metal melting--JYPB2.0.

  12. Structure and property of metal melt Ⅲ—Relationship between kinematic viscosity and size of atomic clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    POPEL; P; S; KONSTANTINOVA; N; Yu

    2010-01-01

    The method of crucible rotating oscillation damping was employed to measure the kinematic viscosity of aluminum melt,and the curve of viscosity v versus temperature T from 935 to 1383 K was obtained.Besides,based on the calculation model of the evolution behavior of atomic clusters in liquid structure,the curve of atomic clusters size d versus temperature was obtained,and the calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental values.By analyzing experimental data,it was found that both the viscosity and the size of atomic clusters of aluminum melt are monodrome functions of temperature,and the relation between v(T) and d(T) is a linear function,i.e.,v = v 0 + K·d(T).This relation indirectly verifies the calculation model of the structural information of metal melt,which is of great significance for studying the relation between melt microstructure and macro-physical properties.

  13. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Innovative Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diran Apelian

    2012-08-15

    Semi-solid metal (SSM) processing has emerged as an attractive method for near-net-shape manufacturing due to the distinct advantages it holds over conventional near-net-shape forming technologies. These advantages include lower cycle time, increased die life, reduced porosity, reduced solidification shrinkage, improved mechanical properties, etc. SSM processing techniques can not only produce the complex dimensional details (e.g. thin-walled sections) associated with conventional high-pressure die castings, but also can produce high integrity castings currently attainable only with squeeze and low-pressure permanent mold casting processes. There are two primary semi-solid processing routes, (a) thixocasting and (b) rheocasting. In the thixocasting route, one starts from a non-dendritic solid precursor material that is specially prepared by a primary aluminum manufacturer, using continuous casting methods. Upon reheating this material into the mushy (a.k.a. "two-phase") zone, a thixotropic slurry is formed, which becomes the feed for the casting operation. In the rheocasting route (a.k.a. "slurry-on-demand" or "SoD"), one starts from the liquid state, and the thixotropic slurry is formed directly from the melt via careful thermal management of the system; the slurry is subsequently fed into the die cavity. Of these two routes, rheocasting is favored in that there is no premium added to the billet cost, and the scrap recycling issues are alleviated. The CRP (Trade Marked) is a process where the molten metal flows through a reactor prior to casting. The role of the reactor is to ensure that copious nucleation takes place and that the nuclei are well distributed throughout the system prior to entering the casting cavity. The CRP (Trade Marked) has been successfully applied in hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloys (i.e., 390 alloy) where two liquids of equal or different compositions and temperatures are mixed in the reactor and creating a SSM slurry. The process has been mostly

  14. Efficiencies of metal separation and recovery in ash-melting of municipal solid waste under non-oxidative atmospheres with different reducing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2016-01-15

    Ash-melting of municipal solid waste produces molten metal that contains Fe and Cu, and melting furnace fly ash (MFA) that contains Pb and Zn. To recover the metal from the fly ash, Pb and Zn are extracted from the ash by water or enriched in the ash by washing out salts; this separation depends on their leachability. In this study, we investigated the effects of the reducing ability of the atmosphere on the efficiencies of metal separation during melting and metal recovery in water treatment. Different feedstocks (incineration residues) were melted under N2 or CO + N2 atmospheres. In some of the feedstock materials, volatilization of metallic Cu into MFA was promoted under the atmosphere with greater reducing ability (CO + N2). This increased volatilization inhibited the metal separation in the ash-melting process. Moreover, the higher reducing ability inhibited the formation of water-soluble lead chlorides and decreased the efficiency of metal recovery from the MFA because of the water leaching of the lead compounds. The reducing ability of the atmosphere is difficult to control uniformly in actual ash-melting plants, and we investigated appropriate melting conditions under which the effect of the reducing ability was minimized to promote metal separation and recovery. This minimization was achieved by melting incineration fly ash without additives with Cl gas treatment at 1400 °C.

  15. A Back Look on the Binary Phase Diagrams of Metals from the Mass Action Law and the Coexistence Theory of Metallic Melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According to the mass action law and the coexistence theory of metallic melts, the mass action concentrations of Cu-Mg, Bi-Tl and Ni-Al melts involving compound formation have been calculated. The calculated results show that, except the ultimate case of pure element, when two elements are present in the melts, all structural units (atoms and molecules) without exception will be present in the melts, i.e., their concentrations may change from great to small, but they will not vanish into nothing, and only under such conditions, the calculated results both agree with practice and obey the law of mass action. In view of that over considerable wide composition range, the activities of both elements of the three solid binary alloys mentioned above have been measured, this seems in contradiction with the present relevant phase diagrams, in which the structural units are determined by composition range, so the latter needs further investigation and consideration.

  16. Modeling of surface melting and resolidification for pure metals and binary alloys: Effect of non-equilibrium kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.X.; Matthys, E.F. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Environmental Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A one-dimensional model including non-equilibrium phenomena was developed for surface melting and resolidification of both pure metals and binary alloys substrates. Non-equilibrium kinetics from crystal growth theory are introduced in the model to treat both non-equilibrium melting and resolidification. The modelled problem involves a moving boundary with both heat and solute diffusions and is solved by an implicit control volume integral method with solid/liquid interface immobilization by coordinate transformation. For illustration of the model applicability, the authors have analyzed laser surface melting of pure metals (Al, Cu, Ni, Ti) and dilute Al-Cu alloys, and some typical results are presented. The computation results show large solid overheating and melt undercooling which result from the high heat flux and the slow kinetics. The melt undercooling is maintained during most of the resolidification process and so is the high solidification rate. Complex interface velocity variations during the earlier stages of resolidification were obtained and result from interactions between various physical mechanisms. A strong effect of the solute on the interface velocity was also predicted.

  17. Structure and property of metal melt Ⅱ—Evolution of atomic clusters in the not high temperature range above liquidus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the theory of micro-inhomogeneity of liquid metal,a calculation model is established for the quantitative description of the structural information of metal melts.Only by thermophysical property parameters and basic structural parameters of solid metal,can this model produce the main information of melt structure,including the relative concentration of active atoms,size of atomic clusters and number of short-range order atoms.Based on this model,the main structural information of Al and Ni melts in the not high range above the liquidus is calculated,with results in good agreement with experimental values.Besides,analyzed is the influence of superheating temperature and atomic number on the melt structural information of the first (IA) and second main group (IIA) elements.With temperature increasing,melt structural information regularly changes for both IA and IIA elements.With the atomic number increasing,melt structural information of IA elements changes regularly,for the crystal structures of the IA elements are all of bcc lattice type.However,no notable regular change of melt structural information for IIA elements has been found,mainly because the lattice type of IIA elements is of hcp-fcc-bcc transition.The present work presents an effective way for better understanding metal melt structure and for forecasting the change of the physical property of metal melts.

  18. Geometry of the melting interface in cylindrical metal rods under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicolas R.; Steinberg, Ted A.

    2007-05-01

    The melting interface geometries present within cylindrical iron rods in microgravity are examined. Melting samples are quenched in microgravity by immersion in a water bath. Samples are sectioned on multiple planes and photo microscopy analysis is used to determine the shape of the melting interface on each plane. Images from multiple cross-sections are assembled to produce a three-dimensional representation of the melting interface present in microgravity. Iron rods are shown to have an asymmetric, convex melting interface in microgravity, with a significantly different (increased) heat transfer area compared to the planar normal-gravity case. The change in surface area of the melting interface between normal gravity and microgravity is shown to provide excellent agreement with the observed change in melting rate, as predicted by simple one-dimensional heat transfer analysis. To cite this article: N.R. Ward, T.A. Steinberg, C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).

  19. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS

    2014-03-31

    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

  20. Bioactive Ti metal analogous to human cancellous bone: Fabrication by selective laser melting and chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Deepak K; Fukuda, A; Matsushita, T; Takemoto, M; Fujibayashi, S; Sasaki, K; Nishida, N; Nakamura, T; Kokubo, T

    2011-03-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a useful technique for preparing three-dimensional porous bodies with complicated internal structures directly from titanium (Ti) powders without any intermediate processing steps, with the products being expected to be useful as a bone substitute. In this study the necessary SLM processing conditions to obtain a dense product, such as the laser power, scanning speed, and hatching pattern, were investigated using a Ti powder of less than 45 μm particle size. The results show that a fully dense plate thinner than 1.8 mm was obtained when the laser power to scanning speed ratio was greater than 0.5 and the hatch spacing was less than the laser diameter, with a 30 μm thick powder layer. Porous Ti metals with structures analogous to human cancellous bone were fabricated and the compressive strength measured. The compressive strength was in the range 35-120 MPa when the porosity was in the range 75-55%. Porous Ti metals fabricated by SLM were heat-treated at 1300 °C for 1h in an argon gas atmosphere to smooth the surface. Such prepared specimens were subjected to NaOH, HCl, and heat treatment to provide bioactivity. Field emission scanning electron micrographs showed that fine networks of titanium oxide were formed over the whole surface of the porous body. These treated porous bodies formed bone-like apatite on their surfaces in a simulated body fluid within 3 days. In vivo studies showed that new bone penetrated into the pores and directly bonded to the walls within 12 weeks after implantation into the femur of Japanese white rabbits. The percentage bone affinity indices of the chemical- and heat-treated porous bodies were significantly higher than that of untreated implants.

  1. Melting of transition metals at high pressure and the influence of liquid frustration. I. The late metals Cu, Ni and Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M; Boehler, R; Errandonea, D

    2007-03-15

    This report focuses on the role that frustration, or preferred liquid local causes ordering, plays in the melting of transition metals. Specifically, Cu, Ni and Fe. It is proposed that for liquids of metals with partially filled d-bands (Ni and Fe) frustration caused by Peierls/Jahn-Teller distortion and pressure-induced s-d electron promotion provides a mechanism for creating and enhancing the stability of local structures. At the most elementary level, liquid structures are essentially impurities that lower the freezing point. In the case of transition metals with partially filled d-bands, the application of pressure induces s-d electron promotion increases the concentration of local structures. This leads to melting slopes for Ni and Fe that are considerably lower than measured for Cu, and lower than for theoretical predictions employing models in which liquid structures are neglected.

  2. Vibration-Induced Property Change in the Melting and Solidifying Process of Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yonggang; Ding, Liquan; Ye, Hongfei; Chen, Zhen

    2017-04-01

    Tuning material properties in the 3-D printing process of metallic parts is a challenging task of current interests. Much research has been conducted to understand the effects of controlling parameters such as the particle geometry (size and shape), heating, and cooling ways on the outcome of the printing process. However, nothing has been done to explore the system vibration effect. This letter reports our findings on the vibration-induced property change in the melting and solidifying process of silver nanoparticles with the use of molecular dynamics simulation. We find that the increase of system vibration magnitude would increase the number fraction of disordered atoms, which in turn changes the nanostructure of solidified products. For a given system vibration magnitude, the number fraction of disordered atoms reaches the maximum around the system natural frequency so that the stiffness of solidified products becomes the minimum. Since this trend is not affected by the system size, the above findings reveal a feasible path toward the real-time tuning of material properties for advancing additive manufacturing.

  3. Correlation vs. Causation: The Effects of Ultrasonic Melt Treatment on Cast Metal Grain Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Ferguson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in ultrasonic treatment of liquid metal has waxed and waned for nearly 80 years. A review of several experiments representative of ultrasonic cavitation treatment of Al and Mg alloys shows that the theoretical mechanisms thought to be responsible for grain refinement are (1 cavitation-induced increase in melting temperature predicted by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and (2 cavitation-induced wetting of otherwise unwetted insoluble particles. Neither of these theoretical mechanisms can be directly confirmed by experiment, and though they remain speculative, the available literature generally assumes that one or the other or both mechanisms are active. However, grain size is known to depend on temperature of the liquid, temperature of the mold, and cooling rate of the entire system. From the reviewed experiments, it is difficult to isolate temperature and cooling rate effects on grain size from the theoretical effects. Ultrasonic treatments of Al-A356 were carried out to isolate such effects, and though it was found that ultrasound produced significant grain refinement, the treatments also significantly chilled the liquid and thereby reduced the pouring temperature. The grain sizes attained closely correlated with pouring temperature suggesting that ultrasonic grain refinement is predominantly a result of heat removal by the horn and ultrasonic stirring.

  4. Finite element analysis of laser irradiated metal heating and melting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowdari, Dharani; Majumdar, Pradip

    2010-09-01

    Laser technology has shown fast growth due to its demands in material processing and manufacturing. Laser material processing includes various applications like cutting, welding, drilling, cladding and surface treatment. In laser surface treatment, the material properties at the surface are altered through surface alloying and transformation hardening. In this study, an enthalpy-based computational model is developed for analyzing laser heating and melting of metals. The solution to the problem is obtained by using a finite element method and validated by comparing the results with that given by an analytical solution to a limiting case problem. A solution algorithm and a computational code are developed to estimate the temperature distribution, solid-liquid interface location and shape and size of the molten pool. The computational model is validated by comparing results with a limiting case analytical model. The study is conducted to analyze the heating rate, the heat affected zone, and the shape and size of the molten pool using a Gaussian laser beam.

  5. Microstructures and properties of low-melting-point Al-Cu-Si filler metals prepared by different technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zehua; Feng Hua; Jiang Shaoqun; Zhou Zehua

    2010-01-01

    The Al25Cu6. 5Si0. 09RE (RE = La and Ce) and Al25Cu10.5Si2Ni filler metals were prepared by common metal mold casting, copper plate chilling and rapid solidification, respectively. The microstructures and properties of these filler metals were studied. The results show that the as-casting and the corresponding rapid solidification filler metals have the same phases but their microstructures are different. The microstructure of rapid solidification filler metals consults of an a-Al solid solution, the 6 (Al2Cu) intermetallic compound and an Al-Cu-Si eutectk phase. Compared with the as-casting filler metal, the melting temperature ranges (△T) of the corresponding copper plate chilling and rapid solidification filler metals decrease and their wettabilities are improved because of the grain refinement and the improvement of composition uniformity. The wetting area of Al25Cu6.5Si0.09RE rapid solidification filler metal doubles that of the corresponding as-casting filler metal. It is hopeful that the properties of Al-Cu-Si filler metals will be improved by changing preparation technology.

  6. Structure and property of metal melt Ⅰ:The number of residual bonds after solid-liquid phase changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of metal solid-liquid phase change and the theory of liquid metal’s micro-inhomogeneity,a physical model is established between latent heats of fusion and vaporization and the numbers of residual bonds and short-range ordered atoms at the melting point inside a metal melt.Meanwhile,the mathematical derivation and proof are also offered.This model produces the numbers of residual bonds and short-range ordered atoms after the solid-liquid phase change only by using basic parameters and thermophysical properties of the crystal structure.Therefore,it presents a more effective way to analyze the melt’s structural information.By using this model,this study calculates the numbers of residual bonds and short-range ordered atoms in Al and Ni melts.The calculated results are consistent with the experimental results.Simultaneously,this study discusses the atomic number’s influence on the numbers of residual bonds and short-range ordered atoms in the melts within the first(ⅠA) and second main group(ⅡA) elements.

  7. Comparison of Residual Stresses in Inconel 718 Simple Parts Made by Electron Beam Melting and Direct Laser Metal Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochalski-Kolbus, L. M.; Payzant, E. A.; Cornwell, P. A.; Watkins, T. R.; Babu, S. S.; Dehoff, R. R.; Lorenz, M.; Ovchinnikova, O.; Duty, C.

    2015-03-01

    Residual stress profiles were mapped using neutron diffraction in two simple prism builds of Inconel 718: one fabricated with electron beam melting (EBM) and the other with direct laser metal sintering. Spatially indexed stress-free cubes were obtained by electrical discharge machining (EDM) equivalent prisms of similar shape. The (311) interplanar spacings from the EDM sectioned sample were compared to the interplanar spacings calculated to fulfill stress and moment balance. We have shown that applying stress and moment balance is a necessary supplement to the measurements for the stress-free cubes with respect to accurate stress calculations in additively manufactured components. In addition, our work has shown that residual stresses in electron beam melted parts are much smaller than that of direct laser metal sintered parts most likely due to the powder preheating step in the EBM process.

  8. Petrogenesis and metal budget of Pelagatos volcano in the Chichinautzin monogenetic field, Mexico: A Melt Inclusion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, J.; Mercer, C. N.; Kent, A. J.; Guilbaud, M.

    2013-12-01

    Melt inclusions are now widely used to quantify pre-eruptive volatile contents and to track the compositional evolution of magma. In recent years, the use of melt inclusions has also increased markedly for research in economic geology. Melt inclusions are becoming a powerful tool to track metal contents in ore-forming magmatic reservoirs and metals like Ag, Cu, Li, Mo, Sn, Pb, W, Zn are now commonly included in trace element analyses. Investigating metal reservoirs in currently active volcanic systems provides insight into the conditions that favor mineralization in ore-forming deposits compared to barren systems. In this work, we present volatiles (H2O, CO2, S, Cl) and major and trace element contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusion from 4 samples spanning the entire eruption of Pelagatos scoria cone. Pelagatos is a small and young (less than 14 000 years B.P.) monogenetic volcano within the Sierra Chichinautzin volcanic field located in the central portion of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (south-east of Mexico City). The melt inclusions are basaltic andesite to andesite in composition, with 1.84 - 6.02 wt% MgO, 51.95 - 59.21 wt% SiO2 and 0.64 - 1.55 wt% K2O. The H2O varies from 0.5 to 4.3 wt% whereas CO2 varies from below detection up to 976 ppm. Sulfur contents vary from 35 to 1451 ppm, showing a decrease with increasing MgO content suggesting that S is being lost with progressive differentiation, but since S concentrations do not correlate with any other gas phase (H2O, CO2, Cl) we hypothesize that it partitioned into an immiscible fluid or mineral phase. On the other hand, Cl contents are broadly constant (900 to 1267 ppm), and shows no correlation with MgO or K2O. All analyzed metals (Ag, Cu, Li, Mo, Sn, Pb, W, Zn ) behave incompatibly showing a positive correlation with La. Cu (18 to 82 ppm), Pb (2 to 8 ppm) Zn (30 to 107 ppm) and Mo correlate positively together indicating that fractional crystallization concentrates these elements. These results provide

  9. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging. An annotated bibliography: Update on stainless steel and steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worchester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A. [Montana Tech of the Univ., of Montana (United States); Mizia, R.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The following presentation is an update to a previous annotation, i.e., WINCO-1138. The literature search and annotated review covers all metals used in the nuclear industries but the emphasis of this update is directed toward work performed on mild steels. As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste problems, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co (LITCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small wide melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--2,000 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste and Pit 9/RWMC boxes. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development. The program plan will be jointly developed by Montana Tech and LITCO.

  10. Electrochemical characterization of melt spun AB{sub 5} alloys for metal hydride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brateng, Randi

    2003-05-01

    This thesis is part of a larger research project where two metal hydride forming AB{sub 5} type alloys have been investigated. A slightly non-stoichiometric alloy with mischmetal on A-site and nickel, cobalt, manganese and aluminium on B-site has been characterized. The composition of this material, which will be referred to as Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5.15}, is close to the normal battery composition. The other alloy characterized is LaNi{sub 5} based, where nickel is partly substituted with tin. This material will later be referred to as La(NiSn){sub 5}. These materials were produced by melt spinning to vary the cooling rate during solidification. The main purpose of the study has been to characterize the electrochemical properties related to battery performance. The production as well as the metallurgical and structural characterization of the materials were performed in another part of the project. For Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5.15} the unit cell volume was dependent on the cooling rate before heat treatment, while the unit cell volume was almost independent of the cooling rate for La(NiSn){sub 5}. For both alloy compositions, the electrochemical properties seemed to change with varying cooling rate. The desorption equilibrium potential, the discharge capacity when discharging at a low current and the deterioration rate were found to be reduced with decreasing unit cell volume and increased with increasing unit cell volume, before heat treatment of Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5.15}. The self discharge rate was observed to be inversely proportional to the unit cell volume for this material. For not heat treated La(NiSn){sub 5}, produced at different cooling rates, the desorption equilibrium potential decreased when the self discharge rate and the discharge capacity increased after cycling for 300 cycles. The deterioration rate decreased when the desorption equilibrium potential was reduced for La(NiSn){sub 5}. The electrochemical parameters both before and after heat treatment of La

  11. A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ELECTRON BEAM MELTING ON COMPOUNDS AND METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was made of the effect of the electron beam melting process on B, B-C alloys, B-Si alloys, TaC, TiC, ZrB2, Hf, W, Co, V, and Be. In addition...was reduced by the electron beam melting process. By the addition of deoxidants, the interstitial contents of Mo and Be were reduced. Improvement in

  12. Electron-Beam Atomic Spectroscopy for In Situ Measurements of Melt Composition for Refractory Metals: Analysis of Fundamental Physics and Plasma Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Paul Joseph; Apelian, Diran

    2015-04-01

    Electron-beam (EB) melting is used for the processing of refractory metals, such as Ta, Nb, Mo, and W. These metals have high value and are critical to many industries, including the semiconductor, aerospace, and nuclear industries. EB melting can also purify secondary feedstock, enabling the recovery and recycling of these materials. Currently, there is no method for measuring melt composition in situ during EB melting. Optical emission spectroscopy of the plasma generated by EB impact with vapor above the melt, a technique here termed electron-beam atomic spectroscopy, can be used to measure melt composition in situ, allowing for analysis of melt dynamics, facilitating improvement of EB melting processes and aiding recycling and recovery of these critical and high-value metals. This paper reviews the physics of the plasma generation by EB impact by characterizing the densities and energies of electrons, ions, and neutrals, and describing the interactions between them. Then several plasma models are introduced and their suitability to this application analyzed. Lastly, a potential method for calibration-free composition measurement is described and the challenges for implementation addressed.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW - Texturing by cooling a metallic melt in a magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Tournier and Eric Beaugnon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing in a magnetic field leads to the texturing of materials along an easy-magnetization axis when a minimum anisotropy energy exists at the processing temperature; the magnetic field can be applied to a particle assembly embedded into a liquid, or to a solid at a high diffusion temperature close to the melting temperature or between the liquidus and the solidus temperatures in a region of partial melting. It has been shown in many experiments that texturing is easy to achieve in congruent and noncongruent compounds by applying the field above the melting temperature Tm or above the liquidus temperature of alloys. Texturing from a melt is successful when the overheating temperature is just a few degrees above Tm and fails when the processing time above Tm is too long or when the overheating temperature is too high; these observations indicate the presence of unmelted crystals above Tm with a size depending on these two variables that act as growth nuclei. A recent model that predicts the existence of unmelted crystals above the melting temperature is used to calculate their radius in a bismuth melt.

  14. Using the Star CCM+ software system for modeling the thermal state and natural convection in the melt metal layer during severe accidents in VVER reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetov, N. A.; Loktionov, V. D.; Sidorov, A. S.

    2015-09-01

    The possibility of using the Star CCM+ software system for analyzing the thermal state of the melt pool metal layer generated as a result of melt stratification during a severe accident in pressure-vessel nuclear reactors is considered. In order to verify and substantiate the possibility of using this software system for modeling the natural convection processes in the melt at high values of the Rayleigh number, test problems were solved. The obtained results were found to be in good agreement with the known solutions and with the experimental data. The behavior of the melt metal layer was subjected to a parametric analysis for different melt heating conditions, the results of which showed that certain parameters have a determining influence on the so-called focusing effect and on the specific features of current in this layer.

  15. Size dependence of the melting temperature of metallic nanoclusters from the viewpoint of the thermodynamic theory of similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, V. M.; Vasilyev, S. A.; Bembel, A. G.

    2016-08-01

    The generalized Thomson formula T m = T m (∞) (1-δ) R for the melting point of small objects T m has been analyzed from the viewpoint of the thermodynamic theory of similarity, where R is the radius of the particle and T m (∞) is the melting point of the corresponding large crystal. According to this formula, the parameter δ corresponds to the value of the radius of the T m ( R -1) particle obtained by the linear extrapolation of the dependence to the melting point of the particle equal to 0 K. It has been shown that δ = αδ0, where α is the factor of the asphericity of the particle (shape factor). In turn, the redefined characteristic length δ0 is expressed through the interphase tension σ sl at the boundary of the crystal with its own melt, the specific volume of the solid phase v s and the macroscopic value of the heat of fusion λ∞:δ0 = 2σ sl v s /λ∞. If we go from the reduced radius of the particle R/δ to the redefined reduced radius R/ r 1 or R/ d, where r 1 is the radius of the first coordination shell and d ≈ r 1 is the effective atomic diameter, then the simplex δ/ r 1 or δ/ d will play the role of the characteristic criterion of thermodynamic similarity. At a given value of α, this role will be played by the simplex Estimates of the parameters δ0 and δ0/ d have been carried out for ten metals with different lattice types. It has been shown that the values of the characteristic length δ0 are close to 1 nm and that the simplex δ0/ d is close to unity. In turn, the calculated values of the parameter δ agree on the order of magnitude with existing experimental data.

  16. Study of carbon and silicon loss through oxidation in cast iron base metal using rotary furnace for melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Olanrewaju OMOLE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The projection of loss of carbon and silicon through oxidation is uncertain phenomenon depending on the furnace used for melting, which affect the carbon equivalent value (CEV of cast iron produced. CEV enhances the fluidity of molten metal as well as having great effects on the mechanical properties of cast products. Study on the way elemental loss takes place during melting with rotary furnace will give idea of approach to minimize the loss. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study the magnitude of the elemental loss with rotary furnace and means to minimize the loss. 60kg of grey cast iron scrap was charged into rotary furnace of 100kg capacity after preheating the furnace for 40 minutes. Graphite and ferrosilicon was added to the charge in order to obtain a theoretical composition of not less than 4.0% carbon and 2.0% silicon. Charges in the furnace were heated to obtain molten metal which was tapped at 1400°C. Tapping was done for casting at three different times. The castings solidified in sand mould and allowed to cool to room temperature in the mould. Castings were denoted as sample 1, 2 and 3. Final compositions of each casting were analyzed with optical light emission spectrometer. Sample 1 has 2.95% carbon and 1.82% silicon. Sample 2 has 2.88% carbon and 1.70% silicon and sample 3 has 2.75% carbon and 1.63% silicon.

  17. Metal matrix-metal nanoparticle composites with tunable melting temperature and high thermal conductivity for phase-change thermal storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minglu; Ma, Yuanyu; Wu, Hsinwei; Wang, Robert Y

    2015-02-24

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) are of broad interest for thermal storage and management applications. For energy-dense storage with fast thermal charging/discharging rates, a PCM should have a suitable melting temperature, large enthalpy of fusion, and high thermal conductivity. To simultaneously accomplish these traits, we custom design nanocomposites consisting of phase-change Bi nanoparticles embedded in an Ag matrix. We precisely control nanoparticle size, shape, and volume fraction in the composite by separating the nanoparticle synthesis and nanocomposite formation steps. We demonstrate a 50-100% thermal energy density improvement relative to common organic PCMs with equivalent volume fraction. We also tune the melting temperature from 236-252 °C by varying nanoparticle diameter from 8.1-14.9 nm. Importantly, the silver matrix successfully prevents nanoparticle coalescence, and no melting changes are observed during 100 melt-freeze cycles. The nanocomposite's Ag matrix also leads to very high thermal conductivities. For example, the thermal conductivity of a composite with a 10% volume fraction of 13 nm Bi nanoparticles is 128 ± 23 W/m-K, which is several orders of magnitude higher than typical thermal storage materials. We complement these measurements with calculations using a modified effective medium approximation for nanoscale thermal transport. These calculations predict that the thermal conductivity of composites with 13 nm Bi nanoparticles varies from 142 to 47 W/m-K as the nanoparticle volume fraction changes from 10 to 35%. Larger nanoparticle diameters and/or smaller nanoparticle volume fractions lead to larger thermal conductivities.

  18. Application of the annexation principle to the study of thermodynamic properties of ternary metallic melts In-Pb-Ag and In-Bi-Sb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the phase diagrams, measured activities and the annexation principle, the calculating models of mass action concentrations for In-Pb-Ag and In-Bi-Sb ternary metallic melts have been formulated. The results of calculation both agree with practice, and obey the law of mass action, showing that the models formulated can reflect the structural reality of the corresponding melts and the annexation principle is applicable to the them.

  19. Comparative analysis of the possibility of applying low-melting metals with the capillary-porous system in tokamak conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyublinski, I. E., E-mail: lyublinski@yandex.ru; Vertkov, A. V., E-mail: avertkov@yandex.ru; Semenov, V. V., E-mail: darkfenix2006@mail.ru [OAO Krasnaya Zvezda (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The use of capillary-porous systems (CPSs) with liquid Li, Ga, and Sn is considered as an alternative for solving the problem of creating plasma-facing elements (PFEs) of the fusion neutron source (FNS) and the DEMO-type reactor. The main advantages of CPSs with liquid metal compared with hard materials are their stability with respect to the degradation of properties in tokamak conditions and capability of surface self-restoration. The evaluation of applicability of liquid metals is performed on the basis of the analysis of their physical and chemical properties, the interaction with the tokamak plasma, and constructive and process features of in-vessel elements with CPSs implementing the application of these metals in a tokamak. It is shown that the upper limit of the PFE working temperature for all low-melting metals under consideration lies in the range of 550–600°Ð¡. The decisive factor for PFEs with Li is the limitation on the admissible atomic flux into plasma, while for those with Ga and Sn it is the corrosion resistance of construction materials. The upper limit of thermal loads in the steady-state operating mode for the considered promising PFE design with the use of Li, Ga, and Sn is close to 18–20 MW/m{sup 2}. It is seen from the analysis that the use of metals with a low equilibrium vapor pressure of (Ga, Sn) gives no gain in extension of the region of admissible working temperatures of PFEs. However, with respect to the totality of properties, the possibility of implementing the self-restoration and stabilization effect of the liquid surface, the influence on the plasma discharge parameters, and the ability to protect the PFE surface in conditions of plasma perturbations and disruption, lithium is the most attractive liquid metal to create CPS-based PFEs for the tokamak.

  20. Comparative analysis of the possibility of applying low-melting metals with the capillary-porous system in tokamak conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyublinski, I. E.; Vertkov, A. V.; Semenov, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    The use of capillary-porous systems (CPSs) with liquid Li, Ga, and Sn is considered as an alternative for solving the problem of creating plasma-facing elements (PFEs) of the fusion neutron source (FNS) and the DEMO-type reactor. The main advantages of CPSs with liquid metal compared with hard materials are their stability with respect to the degradation of properties in tokamak conditions and capability of surface self-restoration. The evaluation of applicability of liquid metals is performed on the basis of the analysis of their physical and chemical properties, the interaction with the tokamak plasma, and constructive and process features of in-vessel elements with CPSs implementing the application of these metals in a tokamak. It is shown that the upper limit of the PFE working temperature for all low-melting metals under consideration lies in the range of 550-600°C. The decisive factor for PFEs with Li is the limitation on the admissible atomic flux into plasma, while for those with Ga and Sn it is the corrosion resistance of construction materials. The upper limit of thermal loads in the steady-state operating mode for the considered promising PFE design with the use of Li, Ga, and Sn is close to 18-20 MW/m2. It is seen from the analysis that the use of metals with a low equilibrium vapor pressure of (Ga, Sn) gives no gain in extension of the region of admissible working temperatures of PFEs. However, with respect to the totality of properties, the possibility of implementing the self-restoration and stabilization effect of the liquid surface, the influence on the plasma discharge parameters, and the ability to protect the PFE surface in conditions of plasma perturbations and disruption, lithium is the most attractive liquid metal to create CPS-based PFEs for the tokamak.

  1. A novel coping metal material CoCrCu alloy fabricated by selective laser melting with antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ling [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Memarzadeh, Kaveh [Institute of Dentistry, Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Newark Street, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Zhang, Shuyuan; Sun, Ziqing; Yang, Chunguang [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Ren, Guogang [University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Allaker, Robert P., E-mail: r.p.allaker@qmul.ac.uk [Institute of Dentistry, Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Newark Street, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Yang, Ke, E-mail: kyang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel coping metal CoCrCu alloy using a selective laser melting (SLM) technique with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and to investigate its microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Methods: Novel CoCrCu alloy was fabricated using SLM from a mixture of commercial CoCr based alloy and elemental Cu powders. SLM CoCr without Cu served as control. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using standard antimicrobial tests, and antibiofilm properties were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscope. Cu distribution and microstructure were determined using scanning electron microscope, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by potential dynamic polarization and biocompatibility measured using an MTT assay. Results: SLM CoCrCu alloys were found to be bactericidal and able to inhibit biofilm formation. Other factors such as microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility were similar to those of SLM CoCr alloys. Significance: The addition of appropriate amounts of Cu not only maintains normal beneficial properties of CoCr based alloys, but also provides SLM CoCrCu alloys with excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm capabilities. This material has the potential to be used as a coping metal for dental applications. - Highlights: • Novel CoCrCu alloys were fabricated by using selective laser melting (SLM). • SLM CoCrCu alloys showed satisfied antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities. • SLM CoCrCu alloys have no cytotoxic effect on normal cells. • Other properties of SLM CoCrCu alloys were similar to SLM CoCr alloys. • SLM CoCrCu alloys have the potential to be used as coping metals.

  2. Viscosity Characteristic in Metallic Melts with Medium/Short-Range Order Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Xiu-Fang; ZHANG Jing-Xiang; JIA Yu-Bo; SUN Min-Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Viscosities and liquid structure of alloys Cu75Al25, Cu87Sn13 and Al-12.5%Si and pure metals Cu and Sn are investigated by using torsional oscillation viscometry and high temperature x-ray diffractometry.

  3. Theory of a continuous stripe melting transition in a two-dimensional metal: a possible application to cuprate superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mross, David F; Senthil, T

    2012-06-29

    We construct a theory of continuous stripe melting quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional metals and the associated Fermi surface reconstruction. Such phase transitions are strongly coupled but yet theoretically tractable in situations where the stripe ordering is destroyed by proliferating doubled dislocations of the charge stripe order. The resulting non-Landau quantum critical point has strong stripe fluctuations which we show decouple dynamically from the Fermi surface even though static stripe ordering reconstructs the Fermi surface. We discuss connections to various stripe phenomena in the cuprates. We point out several puzzling aspects of old experimental results [G. Aeppli et al., Science 278, 1432 (1997)] on singular stripe fluctuations in the cuprates, and provide a possible explanation within our theory. These results may thus have been the first observation of non-Landau quantum criticality in an experiment.

  4. Development of Melting Crucible Materials of Metallic Fuel Slug for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Lee, C. T.; Oh, S. J.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, C. B.; Ko, Y. M.; Woo, W. M

    2010-01-15

    The fabrication process of metallic fuel for SFR(sodium fast reactor) of Generation-IV candidate reactors is composed of the fabrication of fuel pin, fuel rod, and fuel assembly. The key technology of the fabrication process for SFR can be referred to the fabrication technology of fuel pin. As SFR fuel contains MA(minor actinide) elements proceeding the recycling of actinide elements, it is so important to extinguish MA during irradiation in SFR, included in nuclear fuel through collection of volatile MA elements during fabrication of fuel pin. Hence, it is an imminent circumstance to develop the fabrication process of fuel pin. This report is an state-of art report related to the characteristics of irradiation performance for U-Zr-Pu metallic fuel, and the apparatus and the technology of conventional injection casting process. In addition, to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional injection casting and the U-Zr-Pu fuel, new fabrication technologies such as the gravity casting process, the casting of fuel pin to metal-barrier mold, the fabrication of particulate metallic fuel utilizing centrifugal atomization is surveyed and summarized. The development of new U-10Mo-X metallic fuel as nuclear fuel having a single phase in the temperature range between 550 and 950 .deg. C, reducing the re-distribution of the fuel elements and improving the compatibility between fuel and cladding, is also surveyed and summarized.

  5. Crack initiation and propagation behavior of WC particles reinforced Fe-based metal matrix composite produced by laser melting deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiandong; Li, Liqun; Tao, Wang

    2016-08-01

    It is generally believed that cracks in metal matrix composites (MMC) parts manufacturing are crucial to the reliable material properties, especially for the reinforcement particles with high volume fraction. In this paper, WC particles (WCp) reinforced Fe-based metal matrix composites (WCp/Fe) were manufactured by laser melting deposition (LMD) technology to investigate the characteristics of cracks formation. The section morphology of composites were analyzed by optical microscope (OM), and microstructure of WCp, matrix and interface were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in order to study the crack initiation and propagation behavior under different laser process conditions. The temperature of materials during the laser melting deposition was detected by the infrared thermometer. The results showed that the cracks often appeared after five layers laser deposition in this experiment. The cracks crossed through WC particles rather than the interface, so the strength of interface obtained by the LMD was relatively large. When the thermal stress induced by high temperature gradient during LMD and the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between WC and matrix was larger than yield strength of WC, the cracks would initiate inside WC particle. Cracks mostly propagated along the eutectic phases whose brittleness was very large. The obtained thin interface was beneficial to transmitting the stress from particle to matrix. The influence of volume fraction of particles, laser power and scanning speed on cracks were investigated. This paper investigated the influence of WC particles size on cracks systematically, and the smallest size of cracked WC in different laser processing parameters was also researched.

  6. Anodic dissolution of irradiated metallic fuels in LiCl-KCl melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T.; Kato, T.; Rodrigues, A.; Ougier, M.; Iizuka, M.; Koyama, T.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2014-09-01

    Electrorefining is the main step in pyro-process of spent nuclear fuels, where actinides are recovered and separated from fission products. In the present study, electrorefining of irradiated metallic fuels called METAPHIX-1 (U-19 wt%Pu-10 wt%Zr alloy irradiated at PHENIX reactor, approximate maximum burn-up 2.5 at%) was performed. A major focus was on minimization of Zr co-dissolution from spent metallic fuels to reduce the burden to the pyro-process. Based on the ICP-MS analysis results and the SEM-EDX observations, the anodic dissolution behavior of the irradiated metallic fuels and the mass balances of actinides and fission products during the electrorefining were evaluated.

  7. Anodic dissolution of irradiated metallic fuels in LiCl–KCl melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, T., E-mail: m-tsuyo@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komaeshi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Kato, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komaeshi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Rodrigues, A.; Ougier, M. [Joint Research Center–Institute for Transuranium Elements (JRC–ITU), P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Iizuka, M.; Koyama, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komaeshi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Glatz, J.-P. [Joint Research Center–Institute for Transuranium Elements (JRC–ITU), P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Electrorefining is the main step in pyro-process of spent nuclear fuels, where actinides are recovered and separated from fission products. In the present study, electrorefining of irradiated metallic fuels called METAPHIX-1 (U–19 wt%Pu–10 wt%Zr alloy irradiated at PHENIX reactor, approximate maximum burn-up 2.5 at%) was performed. A major focus was on minimization of Zr co-dissolution from spent metallic fuels to reduce the burden to the pyro-process. Based on the ICP-MS analysis results and the SEM–EDX observations, the anodic dissolution behavior of the irradiated metallic fuels and the mass balances of actinides and fission products during the electrorefining were evaluated.

  8. Experimental Study of Residual Stresses in Metal Parts Obtained by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasov, C. E.; Safronov, V. A.; Kotoban, D. V.; Gusarov, A. V.

    High local temperature gradients occur at additive manufacturing by selective laser melting of powder. This gives rise to undesirable residual stresses, deformations, and cracks. To understand how to control the formation of the residual stresses, a reliable method is necessary for measuring their distribution in the fabricated part. It is proposed to cut the part into thin plates and to reconstruct the residual stresses from the measured deformation of the plates. This method is tested on beams with square cross-section built from stainless steel. The beams were cut by electrical discharge machining and chemically etched. The obtained stress profile in vertical transversal direction slightly increases from the top to the bottom of the beam. This dependency is confirmed by numerical modeling. The measured stress profile agrees with the known results by other authors.

  9. [The characteristics of a low-melting-point alloy (Lipowitz's metal) for use in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, A; Belletti, S

    1991-11-01

    Lipowitz's metal is widely employed in radiotherapy to create shielding blocks and compensators for X- and gamma-rays. Its effect in modifying radiation beams cannot be evaluated in a simple manner: therefore, in our opinion, an experimental approach to the problem is the most suitable one. Attenuation for Lipowitz's metal and lead was measured in some different geometrical setups, for a 5 MV linac and a 60Co unit. Transmitted fraction vs attenuator thickness curves were obtained. The influence of attenuators on depth-dose curves in a phantom was also evaluated: the results confirm the need to use data obtained in conditions as close as possible to the operative ones, in treatment planning as well as in studying and realizing calculation models.

  10. Interaction of Fe-Al-Cr-C with the melt of an alkali metal carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, E. V.

    2015-08-01

    The interaction of an Fe-Al-Cr-C (29.5 wt % Fe, 29.35 wt % Cr, 2.56 wt % C, 38.59 wt % Al) alloy with the melt of a lithium, sodium, or potassium carbonate containing 1-5 wt % addition to a salt phase is studied by gravimetry and measuring the corrosion potential and anode polarization curves in the temperature range 500-600°C. As passivators, the substances that decrease the corrosion losses due to hardening and thickening of an oxide film (lithium, sodium, potassium hydroxides) are used. As corrosion stimulators (activators), sodium chloride, fluoride, and sulfate are used. The coalloying of iron with chromium and aluminum results in high corrosion resistance against both frontal (continuous) and local (pitting, intercrystalline) corrosion as a result of formation of chemically resistant and high-adhesion oxide layers with their participation. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals gamma aluminum oxide, spinel (alumochromite) traces, and lithium aluminate at the surface.

  11. Slip of polymer melts over micro/nano-patterned metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Konaganti, Vinod Kumar; Moradi, Sona; Doufas, Antonios K; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G

    2016-12-06

    The slip behavior of high-density polyethylenes (HDPEs) is studied over surfaces of different topology and surface energy. Laser ablation has been used to micro/nano-pattern the surface of dies in order to examine the effect of surface roughness on slip. In addition, fluoroalkyl silane-based coatings on smooth and patterned substrates were used to understand the effect of surface energy on slip. Surface roughness and surface energy effects were incorporated into the double reptation slip model (Ebrahimi et al., J. Rheol., 2015, 59, 885-901) in order to predict the slip velocity of studied polymers on different substrates. It was found that for dies with rough surfaces, polymer melt penetrates into the cavities of the substrate (depending on the depth and the distance between the asperities), thus decreasing wall slip. On the other hand, silanization of the surface increases the slip velocity of polymers in the case of smooth die, although it has a negligible effect on rough dies. Interestingly, the slip velocity of the studied polymers on various substrates of different degrees of roughness and surface energy, were brought into a mastercurve by modifying the double reptation slip velocity model.

  12. Thermodynamic properties and mixing thermodynamic parameters of Ba-Al, Mg-Al, Sr-Al and Cu-Al metallic melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鉴

    2004-01-01

    Application of equations of mixing thermodynamic parameters formulated on the basis of the coexistence theory of metallic melts in Ba-Al, Mg-Al, Sr-A1 and Cu-Al melts leads to fruitful results that not only the evaluated mass action concentrations agree well with the measured activities, but also the calculated mixing thermodynamic parameters are quite coincident with the experimental values. Moreover, the calculated mass action concentrations strictly obey the mass action law. The evaluated mixing thermodynamic parameters have very fine regularity: the mixing free energy is composed of standard free formation energies of all compounds and chemical potentials of all structural units at equilibrium; the mixing enthalpy consists of standard formation enthalpies of all compounds; the mixing entropy is composed of standard entropies of all compounds and configuration entropies of all structural units at equilibrium. As the equations of mixing thermodynamic parameters formulated are widely applicable to metallic melts involving compound formation, they can be used as the second practical criterion to determine whether thermodynamic models of metallic melts are correctly formulated.

  13. A Tale of Two Melt Rocks: Equilibration and Metal/Sulfide-Silicate Segregation in the L7 Chondrites PAT 91501 and LEW 88663

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R. P.

    1993-07-01

    Type 7 ordinary chondrites have experienced temperatures near or beyond those necessary for partial melting. Two recently collected Antarctic specimens, PAT91501 (PAT) and LEW88663 (LEW), have been tentatively identified as L7 chondrites based on mineral and oxygen isotope compositions [1,2]. The petrology and mineralogy of these meteorites suggests that they have undergone significant metal/sulfide-silicate segregation, with implications for meteorite parent bodies. PAT consists of an equigranular contact-framework of nearly euhedral olivine grains, with interstitial spaces filled by plagioclase, pyroxenes, and several minor phases. Ortho- and clinopyroxene occur in an exsolution relationship. Olivine and pyroxene are highly equilibrated, varying PAT using the methods of [3] are self-consistent at about 1180 degrees C. In thin section, PAT contains only traces of metal, as tiny isolated blebs in sulfide grains; large (>1 cm) globular sulfide inclusions are seen in hand-sample [1], but are not present in the section examined. LEW was originally classified as an achondrite with olivine and pyroxene compositions similar to those in L chondrites [2]. Metal is absent in LEW, although the specimen is small and heavily rusted, making it impossible to gauge the original metal content. Olivine grains are commonly rounded in shape and seldom in contact with more than a few other grains. LEW olivine and pyroxene are also highly equilibrated. Veins of Ni-bearing metal oxides and sulfides are common. Both low- and high-Ca pyroxene occur as discrete grains, orthopyroxene often poikilitically enclosing olivine. Pyroxene equilibration temperatures for LEW are more variable than those for PAT and consistently lower, with an average around 900 degrees C. The various textural and compositional characteristics of PAT and LEW suggest they have experienced partial melting to varying degrees. Both visually resemble charges from experimental melting of ordinary chondrites [4-6]. The

  14. Electron spin resonance study of electron localization and dynamics in metal-molten salt solutions: comparison of M-MX and Ln-LnX sub 3 melts (M alkali metal, Ln = rare earth metal, X = halogen)

    CERN Document Server

    Terakado, O; Freyland, W

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra in liquid K-KCl and M-(NaCl/KCl) sub e sub u sub t mixtures at different concentrations in salt-rich melts approaching the metal-nonmetal transition region. In both systems F-centre-like characteristics are found. Strongly exchange narrowed signals clearly indicate that fast electron exchange occurs on the picosecond timescale. In contrast, the ESR spectra of a (NdCl sub 2)(NdCl sub 3)-(LiCl/KCl) sub e sub u sub t melt are characterized by a large line width of the order of 10 sup 2 mT which decreases with increasing temperature. In this case, the g-factor and correlation time are consistent with the model of intervalence charge transfer, which is supported by recent conductivity and optical measurements. The different transport mechanisms will be discussed.

  15. Laser-beam modulation to improve efficiency of selecting laser melting for metal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunkova, A.; Peretyagin, P.; Vladimirov, Yuri; Volosova, M.; Torrecillas, R.; Fedorov, S. V.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays additive manufacturing becomes more and more popular. It depends on the results of last achievements in developing of the new constructions for modern machine tools. One of the most developed AM technology is SLM or SLS. About twenty years ago the technology of rapid prototyping started to grow up from building prototypes and developed to real functional item production. Especially this becomes more important in producing medical implants in the full accordance with individual digital 3D-model from metallic powder as Ti6Al4V or CoCr. The additive technology gives the possibility to reduce additional steps in implants production process as work preparation process, forwarding a work piece from one shop to another one, post treatment etc. This approach is very topical to production of tooth, knee and coxal implants. This idea is realized in the commercial SLM machines as EOS M280, SLM Solutions 125HL (Germany), Phenix systems PXS/PXM Dental (France) (fig. 1).

  16. Characterization of an Aluminum Alloy Hemispherical Shell Fabricated via Direct Metal Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holesinger, T. G.; Carpenter, J. S.; Lienert, T. J.; Patterson, B. M.; Papin, P. A.; Swenson, H.; Cordes, N. L.

    2016-03-01

    The ability of additive manufacturing to directly fabricate complex shapes provides characterization challenges for part qualification. The orientation of the microstructures produced by these processes will change relative to the surface normal of a complex part. In this work, the microscopy and x-ray tomography of an AlSi10Mg alloy hemispherical shell fabricated using powder bed metal additive manufacturing are used to illustrate some of these challenges. The shell was manufactured using an EOS M280 system in combination with EOS-specified powder and process parameters. The layer-by-layer process of building the shell with the powder bed additive manufacturing approach results in a position-dependent microstructure that continuously changes its orientation relative to the shell surface normal. X-ray tomography was utilized to examine the position-dependent size and distribution of porosity and surface roughness in the 98.6% dense part. Optical and electron microscopy were used to identify global and local position-dependent structures, grain morphologies, chemistry, and precipitate sizes and distributions. The rapid solidification processes within the fusion zone (FZ) after the laser transit results in a small dendrite size. Cell spacings taken from the structure in the middle of the FZ were used with published relationships to estimate a cooling rate of ~9 × 105 K/s. Uniformly-distributed, nanoscale Si precipitates were found within the primary α-Al grains. A thin, distinct boundary layer containing larger α-Al grains and extended regions of the nanocrystalline divorced eutectic material surrounds the FZ. Subtle differences in the composition between the latter layer and the interior of the FZ were noted with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) spectral imaging.

  17. Experimental observations on noble metal nanonuggets and Fe-Ti oxides, and the transport of platinum group elements in silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenburg, Michael; Mavrogenes, John A.

    2016-11-01

    Platinum group element (PGE) nanonuggets are a nuisance in experimental studies designed to measure solubility or partitioning of noble metals in silicate melts. Instead of treating nanonuggets as experimental artifacts, we studied their behaviour motivated by recent discoveries of PGE nanonuggets in a variety of natural settings. We used an experimental setup consisting of AgPd, Pt or AuPd capsules and Fe(-Ti) oxide-saturated hydrous peralkaline silicate melts to maximise nanonugget production. TABS (Te, As, Bi, Sb, Sn) commonly occur in PGM (platinum group minerals), prompting addition of Bi to our experiments to investigate its properties as well. Three-dimensional optical examination by 100× objective and immersion oil reveals variable colour which correlates with nanonugget size and shape due to plasmon resonance effects. We observe two textural types: (1) intermediate-sized nanonuggets dispersed in the glass and adhering to oxides, and (2) abundant fine nanonuggets dispersed in the glass with coarse euhedral crystals in contact with oxides. Slow cooling removes dispersed nanonuggets and greatly coarsens existing oxide-associated metal crystals. Nanonugget-free halos are commonly observed around oxide grains. All metal phases are composed of major (Ag, Pd) and trace (Pt, Ir, Au) capsule material. Our results show reduction processes, imposed by growing oxides, causing local metal saturation in the oxide rich zones with preferential nucleation on smaller oxide grains. The redox gradient then blocks additional metals from diffusing into oxide rich zones, forming halos. As the entire experimental charge is reduced throughout the run, nanonuggets form in the distal glass. Bismuth contents of metal phases do not depend on Bi2O3 amounts dissolved in the melt. Further PGM crystallisation consumes nanonuggets as feedstock. We conclude that the appearance of metallic PGE phases happens in two stages: first as nanonuggets and then as larger PGM. Once formed

  18. Classification of functional d-metal/graphene interfaces according to a sorption mechanism and the resistance to thermoactivated disordering and melting. MD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polukhin, V. A.; Kurbanova, E. D.; Galashev, A. E.

    2014-08-01

    The thermally activated formation of a two-dimensional ring-cluster phase in the zone of contact of a transition metal (Ni, Pd, Cu) with graphene and its disordering and melting upon heating in the temperature range 850-3900 K are studied by molecular dynamics simulation with a correctly parameterized multiparticle potential. The diffusion mobilities in the interface plane and in the perpendicular direction are comprehensively analyzed with allowance for the character of interparticle interactions and a sorption mechanism, which are considered as the main factors that determine the thermal stability of the interface phase and the specific features of the order-disorder transition (which is an analog of melting in two-dimensional systems).

  19. The limited depth range of a metallic-Fe-bearing layer in the lower mantle and its implications for partial melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, J.; Karato, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    Partial melting in (most of) the lower mantle occurs only by the presence of volatile elements such as hydrogen (and/or carbon). The experimental studies by [Kawamoto, 2004] showed that partial melting is possible even at temperature of 1673 K in the shallow lower mantle if there is sufficient water. However, if metallic Fe is present in the lower mantle as suggested by [Frost et al., 2004]). most of hydrogen will be dissolved in metallic Fe, and thus melting will be prevented, making it difficult to explain a seismic velocity drop in the shallow lower mantle [Schmandt et al., 2014]. In this study we conducted high pressure experiments using the Rotational Drickamer Apparatus (RDA), on bridgmanite (Mg,Fe)SiO3 + (Mg,Fe)O mixture at pressure up to 23-29 GPa and temperature of about 2000-2200K. Using the advantage of the new RDA cell design which provide a larger pressure gradient (~6 GPa across the sample), we report experimental observations showing that metallic Fe is formed only in the low pressure conditions, 24-26.5 GPa (corresponding to the depth range of 660-730 km), leaving the shallow lower mantle minerals "dry". Our results are also consistent with the published results by [Irifune et al., 2010; Sinmyo and Hirose, 2013] where they did not find any metallic Fe above 27 GPa. Therefore we conclude that metallic Fe is present only in the narrow depth range in the lower mantle. In such a case partial melt would be impossible and only occur at depth greater than 730 km. Our results explain why a velocity drop is observed at ~730 km not at 660 km [Schmandt et al., 2014]. The present results also have important implications for other geochemical issues including the behaviors of siderohpile elements during core formation. Frost, D. J., et al., (2004), Nature, 428, 409-412. Irifune, T., et al., (2010), Science, 327, 193-195. Kawamoto, T. (2004), Physics of Earth and Planetary Interiors, 143/144, 387-395. Schmandt, B., et al., (2014), Science, 344(6189), 1265

  20. Predictive modeling, simulation, and optimization of laser processing techniques: UV nanosecond-pulsed laser micromachining of polymers and selective laser melting of powder metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales Escobar, Luis Ernesto

    One of the most frequently evolving areas of research is the utilization of lasers for micro-manufacturing and additive manufacturing purposes. The use of laser beam as a tool for manufacturing arises from the need for flexible and rapid manufacturing at a low-to-mid cost. Laser micro-machining provides an advantage over mechanical micro-machining due to the faster production times of large batch sizes and the high costs associated with specific tools. Laser based additive manufacturing enables processing of powder metals for direct and rapid fabrication of products. Therefore, laser processing can be viewed as a fast, flexible, and cost-effective approach compared to traditional manufacturing processes. Two types of laser processing techniques are studied: laser ablation of polymers for micro-channel fabrication and selective laser melting of metal powders. Initially, a feasibility study for laser-based micro-channel fabrication of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) via experimentation is presented. In particular, the effectiveness of utilizing a nanosecond-pulsed laser as the energy source for laser ablation is studied. The results are analyzed statistically and a relationship between process parameters and micro-channel dimensions is established. Additionally, a process model is introduced for predicting channel depth. Model outputs are compared and analyzed to experimental results. The second part of this research focuses on a physics-based FEM approach for predicting the temperature profile and melt pool geometry in selective laser melting (SLM) of metal powders. Temperature profiles are calculated for a moving laser heat source to understand the temperature rise due to heating during SLM. Based on the predicted temperature distributions, melt pool geometry, i.e. the locations at which melting of the powder material occurs, is determined. Simulation results are compared against data obtained from experimental Inconel 625 test coupons fabricated at the National

  1. Study of the stability of electrode metal melting and transfer in the process of consumable electrode welding powered by supplies with differing dynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraev, Y. N.; Chinakhov, D. A.; Il'yashchenko, D. P.; Kiselev, A. S.; Gardiner, A. S.; Raev, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    In the paper we present the results of the study of the power supply characteristics effect upon the stability of electrode metal melting and transfer into the weld pool in the process of consumable electrode welding. It was shown that application of inverter type welding power supplies of the new generation results in changing the characteristics of the heat and mass transfer which has a decisive impact upon the heat content of the weld pool, reduction of residual stresses in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The authors also substantiate the tendency to the reduction of the structural constituents in the area of the permanent joint.

  2. Nanophase modification of the superficial layer of cast iron during the interaction of the melt with a carbide-forming metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovcharenko, V. E.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Xu, Yunhua; Zhong, Lisheng; Zhao, Nana

    2016-11-01

    In the present publication, we report on the results of a study of the structural-phase state of the superficial layer of cast iron formed as a result of an interaction of cast-iron melt with a plate of carbide-forming Ta metal. It is found that, as a result of the interaction, in the superficial layer of cast iron there forms a cermet-type heterophase structure with nanocrystalline carbide phase. The influence of the formed heterophase structure on the physical properties of the superficial layer of cast iron is demonstrated.

  3. Influence of oxide and alloy formation on the Electrochemistry of Ti deposition from the NaCl-KCl-NaF-K-2 TiF6 melt reduced by metallic Ti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barner, Jens H. Von; Precht Noyé, Pernille; Barhoun, A

    2005-01-01

    The redox reactions in KCl-NaCl-NaF-K2TiF6 melts reduced by titanium metal have been studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiommetry. At platinum and nickel electrodes waves due to alloy formation were seen preceding the Ti(III) --> Ti metal deposition wave. The presence of oxide species...

  4. DIFFUSIVELY ALLOYED COMPOUNDS MADE OF METAL DISCARD WITH A REDUCED MELTING TEMPERATURE FOR OBTAINING WEAR RESISTANT COATINGS USING INDUCTION HARD-FACING TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Shcherbakou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of obtaining diffusion doped alloys made from metal scrap is reviewed in the article. The influence of short term preprocessing at high temperature on structure formation by concentrated energy sources within the further induction deposit is reviewed. A mechanism of a contact eutectic melting in diffusion doped alloys at short term high temperature treatment is described and suggested in this work. It was shown that such kind of processing of diffusion doped alloys is a perspective way of treatment when using induction hard-facing technologies for obtaining wear resistant coatings. A resource and energy saving technology was developed for obtaining wear resistant coatings based on diffusion doped alloys from metal scrap treated using induction hard-facing process.

  5. Application of the Melting Electrodes in Metal Halide Lamps%熔融电极在金卤灯中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱惠冲; 周文华

    2012-01-01

    对石英和陶瓷金卤灯电极放电端部预先进行熔融处理,可以使其晶相结构更加致密、均匀,达到耐轰击的效果。通过试验验证。熔融电极达到了大幅提升金卤灯光通维持率和寿命、减轻金卤灯配套电感镇流器产生频闪等效果。%Melting the discharge end of electrode could make the crystal structure of electrode used for metal lamp more compact and homogeneous thereby enhance the bombardment resistance. Test demonstration shows could not only improve the lumen maintenance and lifetime of metal halide lamp greatly, but also reduce the effect during the operation with magnetic ballasts. halide that it strobe

  6. Influence of clusters in melt on the subsequent glass-formation and crystallization of Fe-Si-B metallic glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoxiong Zhou; Bangshao Dong; Rui Xiang; Guangqiang Zhang; Jingyu Qin; Xiufang Bian

    2015-01-01

    The liquid structure of seven representative Fe–Si–B alloys has been investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation focusing on the role of clusters in terms of glass-forming ability (GFA) and crystallization. It is demonstrated that the type of primary phase precipitated from amorphous state under heat treatment is determined by the relative fraction and role of various clusters in melt. The alloy melt shows higher stability and resultantly larger GFA when there is no dominant cluster or several clusters coexist, which explains the different GFAs and crystallization processes at various ratios of Si and B in the Fe–Si–B system. The close correlation among clusters, crystalline phase and GFA is also studied.

  7. Influence of clusters in melt on the subsequent glass-formation and crystallization of Fe–Si–B metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxiong Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The liquid structure of seven representative Fe–Si–B alloys has been investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation focusing on the role of clusters in terms of glass-forming ability (GFA and crystallization. It is demonstrated that the type of primary phase precipitated from amorphous state under heat treatment is determined by the relative fraction and role of various clusters in melt. The alloy melt shows higher stability and resultantly larger GFA when there is no dominant cluster or several clusters coexist, which explains the different GFAs and crystallization processes at various ratios of Si and B in the Fe–Si–B system. The close correlation among clusters, crystalline phase and GFA is also studied.

  8. Temperature-Induced Liquid-Liquid Transition in Metallic Melts: A Brief Review on the New Physical Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Qiu Zu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of liquid structures and properties remains an open problem for many fundamental and applied fields. It is well known that there is no other defined phase line above liquidus (TL in phase diagrams of ordinary alloys. However, via resorts of internal friction, electric resistivity, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, solidification, etc., the results of our research on lots of single- and multiple-component melts show a novel physical image: temperature induced liquid-liquid structure transition (TI-LLST can occur above TL. Moreover, the solidification behaviors and structures out of the melts that experienced TI-LLST are distinct from those out of the melts before TI-LLST. In this paper, some typical examples of TI-LLST and characteristic aspects of the TI-LLST are briefly reviewed, in which the main contents are limited in our own achievements, although other groups have also observed similar phenomena using different methods. In the sense of phenomenology, TI-LLST reported here is quite different from other recognized liquid transitions, i.e., there are only a few convincing cases of liquid P, Si, C, H2O, Al2O3-Y2O3, etc. in which the transition occurs, either induced by pressure or at a supercooled state and near liquidus.

  9. Melting of sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Nava, J A; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K

    2002-01-01

    Thermal stability properties and the melting-like transition of Na_n, n=13-147, clusters are studied through microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. The metallic bonding in the sodium clusters is mimicked by a many-body Gupta potential based on the second moment approximation of a tight-binding Hamiltonian. The characteristics of the solid-to-liquid transition in the sodium clusters are analyzed by calculating physical quantities like caloric curves, heat capacities, and root-mean-square bond length fluctuations using simulation times of several nanoseconds. Distinct melting mechanisms are obtained for the sodium clusters in the size range investigated. The calculated melting temperatures show an irregular variation with the cluster size, in qualitative agreement with recent experimental results. However, the calculated melting point for the Na_55 cluster is about 40 % lower than the experimental value.

  10. HIGHLY REFRACTORY CRUCIBLES OF STABILIZED ZIRCONIA FOR INDUCTION MELTING OF THE PLATINUM GROUP METALS, FABRICATED BY VIBROCASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Primachenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the studies at PJSC « UKRNIIO them. A.S.Berezhnogo» the technology and commercial production of crucibles from stabilized zirconia for the smelting of platinum group metals are develop

  11. Composite lithium metal anode by melt infusion of lithium into a 3D conducting scaffold with lithiophilic coating

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Zheng; Lin, Dingchang; Zhao, Jie; Lu, Zhenda; Liu, Yayuan; Liu, Chong; Lu, Yingying; Wang, Haotian; Yan, Kai; Tao, Xinyong; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This research paper presents a novel strategy for the fabrication of metal–scaffold composite materials. Particularly, molten lithium metal is infused into a surface-modified three-dimensional matrix with a “lithiophilic” coating. The resulting lithium–scaffold composite was used as battery anodes and exhibited superior performance compared with bare lithium metal anodes. Whereas the emphasis of this study is on lithium anodes, our present work opens up a direction for realization of other me...

  12. Open-cellular metal implant design and fabrication for biomechanical compatibility with bone using electron beam melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L E

    2017-02-27

    Implant history extends more than 4000 years in antiquity, with biocompatible alloy implants extending over only 70 years. Over the past several decades, total hip and knee replacements of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloys have exhibited post implantation life spans extending over 15 years; limited by infection, loosening, stress-shielding-related bone resorption and other mechanical failures. With the advent of additive manufacturing technologies, such as electron beam melting (EBM) over the past decade, personalized, patient-specific; porous (open-cellular) implant components can be manufactured, and the integration of chemical, biological and mechanical methods is able to optimize strategies for improving long-term clinical outcomes. This review outlines these strategies, which include enhanced osseointegration and vascularization prospects, and provides some evidence for, and examples of, clinical trials representative of millions of implant surgeries world-wide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Technology development for thin strip metal casting, Phase 2: Final technical report. [Melt spinning or planar flow casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.S.

    1988-03-07

    The Phase II program has been conducted by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric Corporation and Armco, Inc., with the objective of providing a suitably sized experimental planar flow casting machine, and using it to perform casting trials to address the above technical uncertainties for cast thicknesses and speeds representative of industrial production, and with sufficient duration to diminish thermal transient effects. A nominally 7 ft. diameter water-cooled copper wheel planar flow casting system has been designed, fabricated and installed in a dedicated 15,000 sq. ft. foundry facility are Armco Inc., Middletown, Ohio. This system is capable of casting 3 in. wide strip and operating at surface speeds up to 25 ft/sec. Additionally, the facility also contains a 16 in. diameter water-cooled wheel with interchangeable casting substrates of different materials. This small wheel facility has been adapted to utilize the melt overflow process for casting of 3 in. wide strip. These casting facilities are supported by a 500 lb. induction melting furnace and necessary liquid steel handling equipment. Adequate techniques have been developed for transportation and filtering of liquid steel without undue temperature loss. Good control of the planar flow casting process was not achieved during this program, however given such control and the adoption of clean steel practices, the inference is that the process will be capable of producing strip which is readily cold-rollable in the as-cast condition. After cold rolling and annealing, such material should have useful mechanical properties. 8 refs., 112 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Size-dependent melting temperature,melting entropy and melting enthalpy of metallic nanoparticles with ball shape%球形金属纳米颗粒熔化温度、熔化熵及熔化焓的尺寸效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍开拓; 陈晓明

    2014-01-01

    根据结合能的键能模型,研究了球形金属纳米颗粒熔化相关热力学量的尺寸效应。在该模型中引入3个因子:晶体致密度k因子(晶胞中原子总体积与晶胞体积的比值);β因子(晶体中表面原子与内部原子结合能的比值)和qs因子(晶面被表面原子占据的比值)。在考虑上述因子后,通过模型预测具有自由表面球形金属纳米颗粒的熔化温度、熔解熵、熔解焓等热力学量的尺寸依赖性,并将所得结果与相关实验数据、分子动力学模拟结果、液滴模型以及前人提出的模型进行了比较。结果显示,对于Au和Al纳米粒子熔化温度的尺寸效应,该模型相比之前的模型更接近实验结果,与Ag和Cu纳米粒子熔化熵与熔化焓的分子动力学结果吻合较好。%Size-dependent melting thermodynamic quantities of metallic nanoparticles with ball shape are studied theoretically based on bond energy model.Three factors are introduced in the present model. The k factor,i.e.,efficiency of space filling of crystal lattice (the ratio between the volume of the atoms in a crystal cell and that of the crystal cell).Theβfactor (the ratio between the cohesive energy of sur-face atom and interior atom of a crystal).The qs factor (the packing fraction on a surface crystalline plane).With considering these factors,the melting temerature,melting entropy and melting enthalpy of free standing metallic nahoparticles with ball shape are predicated by the present model.The obtained model is also compared with the reported experimental data ,molecular dynamics simulation results and the liquid drop model and the model by Qi.For the size effect on melting temperature of Au and Al nan-oparticles,the results show that the present model is more close to the experimental data compared with the model by Qi.Compared with the molecular dynamics simulation results,it is show that such model can successfully predict the size

  15. Si isotope fractionation between Si-poor metal and silicate melt at pressure-temperature conditions relevant to metal segregation in small planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempl, J.; Vroon, P. Z.; Zinngrebe, E.; van Westrenen, W.

    2013-04-01

    Experimental investigations of Si isotope fractionation between Si-bearing metal alloy and silicate phases have to date been limited to high pressure (1-7 GPa) and high temperature (1800-2200 °C) conditions at highly reducing conditions, to optimize applicability of results to early core formation processes in the Earth. Here, we assess the extent and mechanism of Si isotopic fractionation at conditions relevant to metal segregation in small (km-scale) planetary bodies, using samples obtained from an industrial-scale blast furnace of Tata Steel (IJmuiden, the Netherlands). During the low-pressure, high-temperature process of steelmaking inhomogeneous blast furnace burden consisting of pre- and untreated iron ore, iron silicates and coke is reduced to oxygen fugacities near the C-CO buffer, resulting in the segregation of a metal phase containing only ∼0.3 wt% Si. Seven sample sets, each comprising a metal alloy and a silicate slag, were taken during tapping of the blast furnace at tapping temperatures between 1400 °C and 1600 °C. We find large isotopic mass fractionation between metal and silicate, with Δ30Sisilicate-metal varying between 0.7‰ and 1.6‰, values that are as high as previously obtained in high-pressure, highly reduced experiments. A model for metal-silicate Si isotope fractionation in blast furnaces can explain both the sense and magnitude of fractionation, if the presence of SiO-bearing vapour is explicitly taken into account. Our data indicate that significant Si isotope fractionation can occur between metal and silicate at low-pressure, high-temperature and only mildly reducing conditions for which Si solubility in molten Fe-rich metal is low. This suggests an important role for SiO at low confining pressures. Our data can be applied to models of aubrite meteorite formation through high-temperature differentiation of an enstatite chondrite parent body. Our calculations suggest a far larger degree of rehomogenisation during differentiation

  16. Dimensional accuracy of internal cooling channel made by selective laser melting (SLM And direct metal laser sintering (DMLS processes in fabrication of internally cooled cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani S. A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting(SLM and direct metal laser sintering(DMLS are preferred additive manufacturing processes in producing complex physical products directly from CAD computer data, nowadays. The advancement of additive manufacturing promotes the design of internally cooled cutting tool for effectively used in removing generated heat in metal machining. Despite the utilisation of SLM and DMLS in a fabrication of internally cooled cutting tool, the level of accuracy of the parts produced remains uncertain. This paper aims at comparing the dimensional accuracy of SLM and DMLS in machining internally cooled cutting tool with a special focus on geometrical dimensions such as hole diameter. The surface roughness produced by the two processes are measured with contact perthometer. To achieve the objectives, geometrical dimensions of identical tool holders for internally cooled cutting tools fabricated by SLM and DMLS have been determined by using digital vernier calliper and various magnification of a portable microscope. In the current study, comparing internally cooled cutting tools made of SLM and DMLS showed that generally the higher degree of accuracy could be obtained with DMLS process. However, the observed differences in surface roughness between SLM and DMLS in this study were not significant. The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that the additive manufacturing processes selected for fabricating the tool holders for internally cooled cutting tool in this research are capable of producing the desired internal channel shape of internally cooled cutting tool.

  17. Microscopic insight into the origin of enhanced glass-forming ability of metallic melts on micro-alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. J.; Chathoth, S. M., E-mail: smavilac@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Podlesnyak, A. [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Mamontov, E. [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Wang, W. H. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-09-28

    Extensive efforts have been made to develop metallic-glasses with large casting diameter. Such efforts were hindered by the poor understanding of glass formation mechanisms and the origin of the glass-forming ability (GFA) in metallic glass-forming systems. In this work, we have investigated relaxation dynamics of a model bulk glass-forming alloy system that shows the enhanced at first and then diminished GFA on increasing the percentage of micro-alloying. The micro-alloying did not have any significant impact on the thermodynamic properties. The GFA increasing on micro-alloying in this system cannot be explained by the present theoretical knowledge. Our results indicate that atomic caging is the primary factor that influences the GFA. The composition dependence of the atomic caging time or residence time is found to be well correlated with GFA of the system.

  18. An experimental and computational study of size-dependent contact-angle of dewetted metal nanodroplets below its melting temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Bruno P.; Yeratapally, Saikumar R.; Kacher, Josh; Ferreira, Placid M.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-11-01

    Decorating 1D nanostructures (e.g., wires and tubes) with metal nanoparticles serves as a hierarchical approach to integrate the functionalities of metal oxides, semiconductors, and metals. This paper examines a simple and low-temperature approach to self-assembling gold nanoparticles (Au-np)—a common catalytic material—onto silicon nanowires (SiNWs). A conformal ultra-thin film (i.e., contact angle. Using transmission electron microscopy imaging, it is found that annealing temperature profile has a strong effect on the particle size. Additionally, the contact angle is found to be dependent on particle size and temperature even below the eutectic temperature of the Au-Si alloy. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate potential explanations for such experimental observation. In this temperature regime, the simulations reveal the formation of an amorphous phase at the interface between the catalyst and SiNW that is sensitive to temperature. This amorphous layer increases the adhesion energy at the interface and explains the contact angle dependence on temperature.

  19. Phase interaction in the metal-oxide melts-gas system the modeling of structure, properties and processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boronenkov, V; Leontiev, L

    2012-01-01

    This monograph describes mathematical models that enable prediction of phase compositions for various technological processes, as developed on the base of a complex physico-chemical analysis of reaction. It studies thermodynamics and kinetics of specific stages of complex pyrometallurgical processes involving boron, carbon, sulfur, tungsten, phosphorus, and many more, as well as their exposure to all sorts of factors. First and foremost, this enables to optimize processes and technologies at the stage of design, while traditional empirical means of development of new technologies are basically incapable of providing an optimal solution. Simulation results of metals and alloys production, welding and coating technologies allow obtaining materials with pre-given composition, structure and properties in a cost-saving and conscious manner. Moreover, a so-called "inverse problem", i.e., selecting source materials which would ensure the required results, cannot be solved by any other means.

  20. MELTED BUTTER TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Melted butter is made from dairy butter by rendering the fat phase. It has specific taste and aroma, high-calorie content and good assimilability. Defects of butter which appeared during the storage causes by the development of microbiological processes or by the chemical oxidation. On the development of these processes influence quality and composition of fresh butter, its physical structure, content of the increased amount of gas phase and content of heavy metals, storage conditions. Microbiological spoilage of butter occurs generally due to damage of plasma which is good environment for the development of microorganisms. Defects of microbiological origin include: unclean, sour, moldy, yeasty, cheesy, bitter taste. Defects of test and smell chemical origin are formed due to hydrolytic digestion of lipids. It's prevailed at long storage of butter in the conditions of freezing temperatures. It's picked out the following main processes of spoiling: souring, acidifying and sallowness. Often these processes take place simultaneously.It has been investigated melted butter with lactated additive. The latter improves the microbiological and toxicological safety, prolongs the storage condition of the products. Technological efficiency of the additives is achieved by a multilayer products formation from the inactive bound water, preventing microorganisms growth and by the barrier layer with lactate inhibiting hydrolytic reactions. Oil samples were obtained with the batch-type butter maker application, then they were melted and after that lactated additive were supplemented. It has been studied organoleptic and physico-chemical indices of the melted butter samples. The fatty-acid composition of melted butter were studied. Comparative analysis of fatty-acid composition of cow's milk fat and produced melted butter has shown their similarity. Also in the last sample there is increased weight fraction of linoleic and linolenic acids. The obtained

  1. Melt pool dynamics during selective electron beam melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharowsky, T.; Osmanlic, F.; Singer, R. F.; Körner, C.

    2014-03-01

    Electron beam melting is a promising additive manufacturing technique for metal parts. Nevertheless, the process is still poorly understood making further investigations indispensable to allow a prediction of the part's quality. To improve the understanding of the process especially the beam powder interaction, process observation at the relevant time scale is necessary. Due to the difficult accessibility of the building area, the high temperatures, radiation and the very high scanning speeds during the melting process the observation requires an augmented effort in the observation equipment. A high speed camera in combination with an illumination laser, band pass filter and mirror system is suitable for the observation of the electron beam melting process. The equipment allows to observe the melting process with a high spatial and temporal resolution. In this paper the adjustment of the equipment and results of the lifetime and the oscillation frequencies of the melt pool for a simple geometry are presented.

  2. The influence of alkaline earth metal equilibria on the rheological, melting and textural properties of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Darren R; McSweeney, Paul L H

    2013-11-01

    The total calcium content of cheese, along with changes in the equilibrium between soluble and casein (CN)-bound calcium during ripening can have a major impact on its rheological, functional and textural properties; however, little is known about the effect of other alkaline earth metals. NaCl was partially substituted with MgCl2 or SrCl2 (8·7 and 11·4 g/kg curd, respectively) at the salting stage of cheesemaking to study their effects on cheese. Three cheeses were produced: Mg supplemented (+Mg), Sr supplemented (+Sr) and a control Cheddar cheese. Ca, Mg and Sr contents of cheese and expressible serum obtained therefrom were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Addition of Mg2+ or Sr2+ had no effect on % moisture, protein, fat and extent of proteolysis. A proportion of the added Mg2+ and Sr2+ became CN-bound. The level of CN-bound Mg was higher in the +Mg cheese than the control throughout ripening. The level of CN-bound Ca and Mg decreased during ripening in all cheeses, as did % CN-bound Sr in the +Sr cheese. The presence of Sr2+ increased % CN-bound Ca and Mg at a number of ripening times. Adding Mg2+ had no effect on % CN-bound Ca. The +Sr cheese exhibited a higher G' at 70 °C and a lower LTmax than the control and +Mg cheeses throughout ripening. The +Sr cheese had significantly lower meltability compared with the control and +Mg cheeses after 2 months of ripening. Hardness values of the +Sr cheese were higher at week 2 than the +Mg and control cheeses. Addition of Mg2+ did not influence the physical properties of cheese. Supplementing cheese with Sr appeared to have effects analogous to those previously reported for increasing Ca content. Sr2+ may form and/or modify nanocluster crosslinks causing an increase in the strength of the para-casein matrix.

  3. Retrograde Melting and Internal Liquid Gettering in Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudelson, Steve; Newman, Bonna K.; Bernardis, Sarah; Fenning, David P.; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Lai, Barry; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2011-07-01

    Retrograde melting (melting upon cooling) is observed in silicon doped with 3d transition metals, via synchrotron-based temperature-dependent X-ray microprobe measurements. Liquid metal-silicon droplets formed via retrograde melting act as efficient sinks for metal impurities dissolved within the silicon matrix. Cooling results in decomposition of the homogeneous liquid phase into solid multiple-metal alloy precipitates. These phenomena represent a novel pathway for engineering impurities in semiconductor-based systems.

  4. Pavement Snow Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The design of pavement snow melting systems is presented based on criteria established by ASHRAE. The heating requirements depends on rate of snow fall, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Piping materials are either metal or plastic, however, due to corrosion problems, cross-linked polyethylene pipe is now generally used instead of iron. Geothermal energy is supplied to systems through the use of heat pipes, directly from circulating pipes, through a heat exchanger or by allowing water to flow directly over the pavement, by using solar thermal storage. Examples of systems in New Jersey, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland and Oregon are presented. Key words: pavement snow melting, geothermal heating, heat pipes, solar storage, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Klamath Falls.

  5. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  6. A comparative study of the structure and crystallization of bulk metallic amorphous rod Pr60Ni30Al10 and melt-spun metallic amorphous ribbon Al87Ni10Pr3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qing-Ge; Li Jian-Guo; Zhou Jian-Kun

    2006-01-01

    Pr-based bulk metallic amorphous (BM1 rods (Pr60Ni30Al10) and Al-based amorphous ribbons (Al87Ni10Pr3)have been prepared by using copper mould casting and single roller melt-spun techniques, respectively. Thermal parameters deduced from differential scanning calorimeter (DS3 indicate that the glass-forming ability (GF1 of Pr60Nia0Al10 BMA rod is far higher than that of Al87Ni10Pr3 ribbon. A comparative study about the differences in structure between the two kinds of glass-forming alloys, superheated viscosity and crystallization are also made. Compared with the amorphous alloy Al87Ni10Pr3, the BMA alloy Pr60Ni30Al10 shows high thermal stability and large viscosity, small diffusivity at the same superheated temperatures. The results of x-Ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) show the pronounced difference in structure between the two amorphous alloys.Together with crystallization results, the main structure compositions of the amorphous samples are confirmed. It seems that the higher the GFA, the more topological type clusters in the Pr-Ni-Al amorphous alloys, the GFAs of the present glass-forming alloys are closely related to their structures.

  7. Contact interaction of the Bi12GeO20, Bi12SiO20, and Bi4Ge3O12 melts with noble metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, V. M.; Podkopaev, O. I.; Denisova, L. T.; Kuchumova, O. V.; Istomin, S. A.; Pastukhov, E. A.

    2014-02-01

    The sessile drop method is used to study the contact interaction of Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, and Ir with the Bi2O3-GeO2 and Bi2O3-SiO2 melts. These melts spread over Ag and Pd and, in some cases, over Au and Pt at a rather high speed and form equilibrium contact angles on Ir.

  8. Hydrogen storage alloys rapidly solidified by the melt-spinning method and their characteristics as metal hydride electrodes. [LaNiAl; LaNiCoAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, R. (Mitsubishi Kasei Corp., Research Center, Yokohama (Japan)); Miyamura, H. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan)); Sakai, T. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan)); Kuriyama, N. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan)); Ishikawa, H. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan)); Uehara, I. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-02-23

    Rapidly solidified LaNi[sub 5]-based hydrogen storage alloys were prepared by a melt-spinning method. The prepared melt-spun alloy ribbon had very fine crystal grain of below 10 [mu]m. The hydrogen absorption behavior and electrode properties of the alloys were greatly improved. Heat treatment at 400 C which did not cause enlargement of the grain further improved these properties. (orig.)

  9. Shock-induced melting and rapid solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellis, W.J.; Gourdin, W.H.; Maple, M.B.

    1987-08-01

    Model calculations are presented to estimate that approx.50 GPa is required to completely shock melt metal powders with quenching at rates up to 10/sup 8/ K/s. Experiments are discussed for powders of a Cu-Zr alloy compacted in the usual way at 16 GPa and melted by shocking to 60 GPa. 12 refs.

  10. Fabrication of TiC-Reinforced Composites by Vacuum Arc Melting: TiC Mode of Reprecipitation in Different Molten Metals and Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantzalis, A. E.; Arni, Z.; Tsirka, K.; Evangelou, A.; Lekatou, A.; Dracopoulos, V.

    2016-08-01

    TiC crystals were developed and grown through a melt dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism, in different alloy matrices (pure Fe, 316L, Fe-22 at.%Al, Ni-25at.%Al, and pure Co) through the use of Vacuum Arc Melting (VAM) process. The TiC surfaces exhibit a characteristic faceted mode of growth which is explained in terms of classic nucleation and crystal growth theories and is related with the well-known Jackson factor of crystal growth. Different morphologies of the finally solidified TiC grains are observed (dendritic, radially grown, isolated blocky crystals, particle clusters), the establishment of which may be most likely related with solidification progress, cooling rate, and melt compositional considerations. An initial, rough and qualitative phase identification shows a variety of compounds, and the attempts to define specific phase crystallographic-orientational relationships led to rather random results.

  11. Purification of Niobium by Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, M.; Mirji, K. V.; Prasad, V. V. Satya; Baligidad, R. G.; Gokhale, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Pure niobium metal, produced by alumino-thermic reduction of niobium oxide, contains various impurities which need to be reduced to acceptable levels to obtain aerospace grade purity. In the present work, an attempt has been made to refine niobium metals by electron beam drip melting technique to achieve purity confirming to the ASTM standard. Input power to the electron gun and melt rate were varied to observe their combined effect on extend of refining and loss of niobium. Electron beam (EB) melting is shown to reduce alkali metals, trace elements and interstitial impurities well below the specified limits. The reduction in the impurities during EB melting is attributed to evaporation and degassing due to the combined effect of high vacuum and high melt surface temperature. The % removal of interstitial impurities is essentially a function of melt rate and input power. As the melt rate decreases or input power increases, the impurity levels in the solidified niobium ingot decrease. The EB refining process is also accompanied by considerable amount of niobium loss, which is attributed to evaporation of pure niobium and niobium sub-oxide. Like other impurities, Nb loss increases with decreasing melt rate or increase in input power.

  12. Research of upper surface roughness of metal parts fabricated by selective laser melting%选区激光熔化成型金属零件上表面粗糙度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘睿诚; 杨永强; 王迪

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide the theory basis to improve the surface quality , the main factors affecting the upper surface roughness of metal parts fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) were studied.By studying the single track melting, the upper surface roughness of SLM parts was analyzed from the view of melting track lapping .The metal parts were fabricated by using the self-developed fabrication equipment Dimetal-280 and the measure roughness parameters were compared with the theoretical value.The theoretical value of arithmetical mean deviation of the profile Ra was 3.21μm and the theoretical value of ten-point height of irregulartlies Rz was 12.79μm.The actual value was Ra =7.36μm and Rz =40.01μm.After electrochemical polishing, the surface roughness was reduced to Ra =2.34μm and Rz =10.86μm.The results prove that upper surface roughness of the metal part was influenced by melting track width , scanning space and layer thickness altogether.The reason of the discrepancy between theoretical value and actual value was some defects such as instability in melting track, spheroidization on the surface and dust adhesiveness .The quality of surface roughness was greatly improved after electrochemical polishing .The metal parts processed by selective laser melting could obtain satisfied surface roughness in this experiment .The results provide guidance to surface research and industrial application in the future.%  为了改善成型件表面质量,从微观上研究了决定选区激光熔化成型金属零件的上表面粗糙度的主要因素,通过研究单熔道成型,从熔道搭接的角度理论分析了成型件的上表面粗糙度,基于自主研发的成型设备Dimet-al-280加工实体零件进行了实际测量对比,获得表面粗糙度的轮廓算术平均偏差Ra 的理论值为3.21μm,微观不平度十点高度Rz 的理论值为12.79μm,其实测值Ra =7.36μm,Rz =40.01μm;进行喷砂和电解抛光处理后,

  13. Study on Selective Laser Melting Process of Fe-Ni Metal Powder%Fe-Ni系金属粉末选区激光熔化成型工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 白培康; 李玉新; 李鹏

    2013-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) technique can be used to form a metallurgical compact entity by laser beam melting metal powder. The compactness is the pursuit of the goal of selective laser melting, also is the basis of fabricating parts. The samples of Fe-Ni metal material were prepared by SLM technique, choosing iron nickel alloy powder, under different technological parameters, laser power, scanning speed, spread powder thickness, single channel scan, multilayer single channel scan and so on. By scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and compactness testing, the microstructure and density of the samples prepared under different process parameters were contrasted. On the basis of experiment, the optimized parameters are determined and the compact block is eventually fabricated. The density ratio reaches 80%, which is in high level.%选区激光熔化(SLM)技术可用于金属粉末快速制作冶金实体,成型件致密性是SLM工艺研究的重点,也是制备金属制件的基本要求.选用铁镍系金属粉末,在不同的激光功率、扫描速度和铺粉厚度等工艺参数条件下,采用单道扫描和多层单道扫描等方式进行实验,并利用扫描电镜对不同工艺所制备的试样进行微观形貌研究和致密性分析,确定了优化的工艺参数匹配并制备出块体试样,致密度达80%以上.

  14. Evaluation of Melt Behavior with initial Melt Velocity under SFR Severe Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Hyo; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In the current Korean sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) program, early dispersion of the molten metallic fuel within a subchannel is suggested as one of the inherent safety strategies for the initiating phase of hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA). The safety strategy provides negative reactivity driven by the melt dispersal, so it could reduce the possibility of the recriticality event under a severe triple or more fault scenario for SFR. Since the behavior of the melt dispersion is unpredictable, it depends on the accident condition, particularly core region. While the voided coolant channel region is usually developed in the inner core, the unvoided coolant channel region is formed in the outer core. It is important to confirm the fuel dispersion with the core region, but there are not sufficient existing studies for them. From the existing studies, the coolant vapor pressure is considered as one of driving force to move the melt towards outside of the core. There is a complexity of the phenomena during intermixing of the melt with the coolant after the horizontal melt injections. It is too difficult to understand the several combined mechanisms related to the melt dispersion and the fragmentation. Thus, it could be worthwhile to study the horizontal melt injections at lower temperature as a preliminary study in order to identify the melt dispersion phenomena. For this reason, it is required to clarify whether the coolant vapor pressure is the driving force of the melt dispersion with the core region. The specific conditions to be well dispersed for the molten metallic fuel were discussed in the experiments with the simulant materials. The each melt behavior was compared to evaluate the melt dispersion under the coolant void condition and the boiling condition. As the results, the following results are remarked: 1. The upward melt dispersion did not occur for a given melt and coolant temperature in the nonboiling range. Over current range of conditions

  15. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Melting Efficiency in Die Casting Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam

    2012-12-15

    This project addressed multiple aspects of the aluminum melting and handling in die casting operations, with the objective of increasing the energy efficiency while improving the quality of the molten metal. The efficiency of melting has always played an important role in the profitability of aluminum die casting operations. Consequently, die casters need to make careful choices in selecting and operating melting equipment and procedures. The capital cost of new melting equipment with higher efficiency can sometimes be recovered relatively fast when it replaces old melting equipment with lower efficiency. Upgrades designed to improve energy efficiency of existing equipment may be well justified. Energy efficiency is however not the only factor in optimizing melting operations. Melt losses and metal quality are also very important. Selection of melting equipment has to take into consideration the specific conditions at the die casting shop such as availability of floor space, average quantity of metal used as well as the ability to supply more metal during peaks in demand. In all these cases, it is essential to make informed decisions based on the best available data.

  16. Combined atomistic-continuum model for simulation of laser interaction with metals: application in the calculation of melting thresholds in Ni targets of varying thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, D. S.; Zhigilei, L. V.

    The threshold laser fluence for the onset of surface melting is calculated for Ni films of different thicknesses and for a bulk Ni target using a combined atomistic-continuum computational model. The model combines the classical molecular dynamics (MD) method for simulation of non-equilibrium processes of lattice superheating and fast phase transformations with a continuum description of the laser excitation and subsequent relaxation of the conduction band electrons based on the two-temperature model (TTM). In the hybrid TTM-MD method, MD substitutes the TTM equation for the lattice temperature, and the diffusion equation for the electron temperature is solved simultaneously with MD integration of the equations of motion of atoms. The dependence of the threshold fluence on the film thickness predicted in TTM-MD simulations qualitatively agrees with TTM calculations, while the values of the thresholds for thick films and bulk targets are 10% higher in TTM-MD. The quantitative differences between the predictions of TTM and TTM-MD demonstrate that the kinetics of laser melting as well as the energy partitioning between the thermal energy of atomic vibrations and energy of the collective atomic motion driven by the relaxation of the laser-induced pressure should be taken into account in interpretation of experimental results on surface melting.

  17. 选区激光熔化成型过程中熔线形貌的优化%Optimization of Molten Metal Line Morphology in Selective Laser Melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟辉; 杨永强

    2012-01-01

    针对选区激光熔化成型过程中可能影响熔线形貌的因素,研究了熔融金属表面张力、成型过程中飞溅物及扫描速度等激光加工参数对熔线形貌的影响,获得了熔线形貌的优化成型工艺,并最终以此工艺成功成型了一个金属零件.分析表明,该零件尺寸精度达±0.1 mm,表面粗糙度达Ra30 μm,表面平整,熔线搭接均匀,熔线堆垒效果理想.%Aimed at the possible effecting factors on the shape and morphology of molten metal line during selective laser melting (SLM), the effects of surface tension of molten metal, splashing objects in molding process and laser processing parameters (such as scanning speed, layer thickness) on the shape and morphology of molten metal line were studied, and thus a optimization process for the morphology of molten metal line was obtained. A metal part was built successfully by the process. The analyzing shows that the dimensional accuracy of the part is up to ±0.1 mm and the surface roughness up to Ra30 μrn, with smooth surface, even metal lines overlapping and satisfactory fuse stackable results.

  18. SURFACE MELTING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Veit, S.; Albert, D; Mergen, R.

    1987-01-01

    The wear properties of aluminium base alloys are relatively poor. Laser surface melting and alloying has proved successful in many alloy systems as a means of significantly improving the surface properties. The present work describes experiments designed to establish the scope of laser treatment of aluminium alloys. Aluminium does not absorb CO2 laser light as well as other metals which necessitated first a general study of absorption caotings. Aluminium alloys offer fewer opportunities than ...

  19. Effect of tungsten metal particle sizes on the solubility of molten alloy melt: Experimental observation of Gibbs-Thomson effect in nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. H.; Das, J.; Sordelet, D. J.; Eckert, J.; Hurd, A. J.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the effect of tungsten particle sizes on the thermal stability and reactivity of uniformly dispersed W particles in molten Hf-based alloy melt at elevated temperature (1673 K). The solubility of particles less than 100 nm in radius is significantly enhanced. In case of fine W particles with 20 nm diameter, their solubility increases remarkably around 700% compared to that of coarse micrometer-scale particles. The mechanisms and kinetics of this dynamic growth of particle are discussed as well as techniques developed to obtain frozen microstructure of particle-reinforced composites by rapid solidification.

  20. Experimental investigation of inhomogeneities, nanoscopic phase separation, and magnetism in arc melted Fe-Cu metals with equal atomic ratio of the constituents

    KAUST Repository

    Hassnain Jaffari, G.

    2015-12-16

    Composition gradient and phase separation at the nanoscale have been investigated for arc-melted and solidified with equiatomic Fe-Cu. Diffraction studies revealed that Fe and Cu exhibited phase separation with no trace of any mixing. Microscopy studies revealed that immiscible Fe-Cu form dense bulk nanocomposite. The spatial distribution of Fe and Cu showed existence of two distinct regions, i.e., Fe-rich and Cu-rich regions. Fe-rich regions have Cu precipitates of various sizes and different shapes, with Fe forming meshes or channels greater than 100 nm in size. On the other hand, the matrix of Cu-rich regions formed strips with fine strands of nanosized Fe. Macromagnetic response of the system showed ferromagnetic behavior with a magnetic moment being equal to about 2.13 μB/Fe atom and a bulk like negligible value of coercivity over the temperature range of 5–300 K. Anisotropy constant has been calculated from various laws of approach to saturation, and its value is extracted to be equal to 1350 J/m3. Inhomogeneous strain within the Cu and Fe crystallites has been calculated for the (unannealed) sample solidified after arc-melting. Annealed sample also exhibited local inhomogeneity with removal of inhomogeneous strain and no appreciable change in magnetic character. However, for the annealed sample phase separated Fe exhibited homogenous strain.

  1. Selective laser melting of an Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 6}Y{sub 4.5}Co{sub 2}La{sub 1.5} metallic glass: Processing, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.P., E-mail: xiaopeng.li@uwa.edu.au [The University of Western Australia, School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Kang, C.W.; Huang, H. [The University of Queensland, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, Brisbane, Qld. 4072 (Australia); Zhang, L.C. [Edith Cowan University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia); Sercombe, T.B. [The University of Western Australia, School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    In this study, single line scans at different laser powers were carried out using selective laser meting (SLM) equipment on a pre-fabricated porous Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 6}Y{sub 4.5}Co{sub 2}La{sub 1.5} metallic glass (MG) preform. The densification, microstructural evolution, phase transformation and mechanical properties of the scan tracks were systematically investigated. It was found that the morphology of the scan track was influenced by the energy distribution of the laser beam and the heat transfer competition between convection and conduction in the melt pool. Due to the Gaussian distribution of laser energy and heat transfer process, different regions of the scan track experienced different thermal histories, resulting in a gradient microstructure and mechanical properties. Higher laser powers caused higher thermal stresses, which led to the formation of cracks; while low power reduced the strength of the laser track, also inducing cracking. The thermal fluctuation at high laser power produced an inhomogeneous chemical distribution which gave rise to severe crystallization of the MG, despite the high cooling rate. The crystallization occurred both within the heat affected zone (HAZ) and at the edge of melt pool. However, by choosing an appropriate laser power crack-free scan tracks could be produced with no crystallization. This work provides the necessary fundamental understanding that will lead to the fabrication of large-size, crack-free MG with high density, controllable microstructure and mechanical properties using SLM.

  2. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PI’s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  3. The Safety Inspection of Steel Wire Rope Electric Block for Hoisting and Conveying Melt Metal%吊运熔融金属的钢丝绳电动葫芦的安全检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜广强

    2011-01-01

    吊运熔融金属的钢丝绳电动葫芦安全事故苗头险象丛生,安全检验的要求和内容散见于相关法规、规范和标准,由于颁布实施时间和执行效力的不同,且存在一定的差异,给检验判定尺度的准确掌握增加了不小的难度.作者通过研究关于吊运熔融金属起重机的法规、规范和标准,结合工厂实际使用的该类电动葫芦安全现状以及相关检验经验,对吊运熔融金属的钢丝绳电动葫芦安全检验项目的设置、内容与要求、结论判定等方面提出了自己的理解,供相关单位和人员参考.%With investigation on rule of law, technical specifications and standards of crane to hoist and convey melt metal, combined with the status que of safety and corresponding inspection experiences with such crane practical service in foundries, the sectors such as setting, content and requirement, conclusion judgement on the items of safety inspection for steel wire rope electric block of hoisting and conveying melt metal have been expressed with own point of view for reference to corresponding units and personnel.

  4. Preparation of three-dimensional nanoporous Si using dealloying by metallic melt and application as a lithium-ion rechargeable battery negative electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takeshi; Yamada, Junpei; Kato, Hidemi

    2016-02-01

    Silicon is a promising material for negative electrode in Li-ion batteries because of high gravimetric capacity. A Si nanomaterial that can accommodate volume expansion accompanied by lithiation is needed for practical application in Li-ion batteries. We prepare three-dimensional nanoporous interconnected silicon material with controlled pore and ligament sizes by dealloying using an Mg-Si precursor and Bi melt. The Mg atoms in the precursor selectively dissolve into Bi, and the remaining Si atoms self-organize into a nanoporous structure with characteristic length ranging from several ten to hundred nanometer. The Li-ion battery electrodes made from nanoporous silicon exhibit higher capacities, increased cycle lives, and improved rate performances compared with those made from commercial Si nanoparticles. Measurements on the electrical resistivity and electrode thickness change by lithiation/delithiation suggest that the superior performance of nanoporous Si electrode originates from the following: (1) The nanoporous Si has much lower electrical resistivity compared with that of the nanoparticle Si owing to the n-type dopant incorporated during dealloying. (2) The nanoporous Si-based electrode has higher porosity owing to the presence of intra-particle pores, which can accommodate Si expansion up to higher levels of lithiation.

  5. Skew photonic Doppler velocimetry to investigate the expansion of a cloud of droplets created by micro-spalling of laser shock-melted metal foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loison, D.; Resseguier, T. de; Dragon, A. [Institut P' , UPR 3346, CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, ISAE-ENSMA - 1, av Clement Ader, 86961 Futuroscope (France); Mercier, P.; Benier, J.; Deloison, G.; Lescoute, E.; Sollier, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF - 91297 Arpajon (France)

    2012-12-01

    Dynamic fragmentation in the liquid state after shock-induced melting, usually referred to as micro-spallation, is an issue of great interest for both basic and applied sciences. Recent efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the resulting ejecta, which consist in a cloud of fine molten droplets. Major difficulties arise from the loss of free surface reflectivity at shock breakout and from the wide distribution of particle velocities within this cloud. We present laser shock experiments on tin and aluminium, to pressures ranging from about 70 to 160 GPa, with complementary diagnostics including a photonic Doppler velocimeter set at a small tilt angle from the normal to the free surface, which enables probing the whole cloud of ejecta. The records are roughly consistent with a one-dimensional theoretical description accounting for laser shock loading, wave propagation, phase transformations, and fragmentation. The main discrepancies between measured and calculated velocity profiles are discussed in terms of edge effects evidenced by transverse shadowgraphy.

  6. Electro-deposition metallic tungsten coatings in a Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}-WO{sub 3} melt on copper based alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.H., E-mail: dreamerhong77@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Y.C.; Liu, Q.Z.; Li, X.L.; Jiang, F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tungsten coating (>1 mm) was obtained by electro-deposition method in molten salt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different thickness tungsten coatings were obtained by using different durations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good performance of coating was obtained when pulse parameters were modulated. - Abstract: The tungsten coating was prepared by electro-deposition technique on copper alloy substrate in a Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}-WO{sub 3} melt. The coating's surface and cross-section morphologies as well as its impurities were investigated by XPS, SEM and line analysis. Various plating durations were investigated in order to obtain an optimal coating's thickness. The results demonstrated that the electro-deposited coating was compact, voidless, crackless and free from impurities. The tungsten coating's maximum Vickers hardness was measured to be 520 HV. The tungsten coating's minimum oxygen content was determined to be 0.018 wt%. Its maximum thickness was measured to be 1043.67 {mu}m when the duration of electrolysis was set to 100 h. The result of this study has demonstrated the feasibility of having thicker tungsten coatings on copper alloy substrates. These electrodeposited tungsten coatings can be potentially implemented as reliable armour for the medium heat flux plasma facing component (PFC).

  7. Lessons learnt from FARO/TERMOS corium melt quenching experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magallon, D.; Huhtiniemi, I.; Hohmann, H. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Center

    1998-01-01

    The influence of melt quantity, melt composition, water depth and initial pressure on quenching is assessed on the basis of seven tests performed in various conditions in the TERMOS vessel of the FARO facility at JRC-Ispra. Tests involved UO{sub 2}-based melt quantities in the range 18-176 kg at a temperature of approximately 3000 K poured into saturated water. The results suggest that erosion of the melt jet column is an efficient contributor to the amount of break-up, and thus quenching, for large pours of corium melt. The presence of Zr metal in the melt induced a much more efficient quenching than in a similar test with no Zr metal, attributed to the oxidation of the Zr. Significant amounts of H{sub 2} were produced also in tests with pure oxidic melts (e.g. about 300 g for 157 kg melt). In the tests at 5.0 and 2.0 MPa good mixing with significant melt break-up and quenching was obtained during the penetration in the water. At 0.5 MPa, good penetration of the melt into the water could still be achieved, but a jump in the vessel pressurisation occurred when the melt contacted the bottom and part (5 kg) of the debris was re-ejected from the water. (author)

  8. The Gao-Guenie impact melt breccia—Sampling a rapidly cooled impact melt dike on an H chondrite asteroid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Martin; Kring, David A.; Swindle, Timothy D.; Bond, Jade C.; Moore, Carleton B.

    2016-06-01

    The Gao-Guenie H5 chondrite that fell on Burkina Faso (March 1960) has portions that were impact-melted on an H chondrite asteroid at ~300 Ma and, through later impact events in space, sent into an Earth-crossing orbit. This article presents a petrographic and electron microprobe analysis of a representative sample of the Gao-Guenie impact melt breccia consisting of a chondritic clast domain, quenched melt in contact with chondritic clasts, and an igneous-textured impact melt domain. Olivine is predominantly Fo80-82. The clast domain contains low-Ca pyroxene. Impact melt-grown pyroxene is commonly zoned from low-Ca pyroxene in cores to pigeonite and augite in rims. Metal-troilite orbs in the impact melt domain measure up to ~2 mm across. The cores of metal orbs in the impact melt domain contain ~7.9 wt% of Ni and are typically surrounded by taenite and Ni-rich troilite. The metallography of metal-troilite droplets suggest a stage I cooling rate of order 10 °C s-1 for the superheated impact melt. The subsolidus stage II cooling rate for the impact melt breccia could not be determined directly, but was presumably fast. An analogy between the Ni rim gradients in metal of the Gao-Guenie impact melt breccia and the impact-melted H6 chondrite Orvinio suggests similar cooling rates, probably on the order of ~5000-40,000 °C yr-1. A simple model of conductive heat transfer shows that the Gao-Guenie impact melt breccia may have formed in a melt injection dike ~0.5-5 m in width, generated during a sizeable impact event on the H chondrite parent asteroid.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of conduction melting of phase change materials in metal foams%格子Boltzmann方法模拟泡沫金属内相变材料热传导融化传热过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杲东彦; 陈振乾

    2011-01-01

    基于局部热非平衡条件下泡沫金属内热传导融化相变传热的非线性双温度方程,在表征单元尺度上构建双温度分布函数格子Boltzmann模型,其中相交非线性源项处理采用焓法迭代求解.数值模拟了金属骨架与相变材料的温度分布情况,重点分析了孔径、金属骨架与填充材料热传导比和Stefan数等对局部热非平衡效应的影响.模拟结果表明,孔径越大、金属骨架与填充材料热传导比越大,局部热非平衡效应越明显;相变过程的存在,加大了局部热非平衡效应,并且Stefan数越低局部热非平衡效应则越大.%A lattice Boltzmann model under local thermal non-equilibrium conditions based on double temperature equations is developed for simulation of melting governed by heat conduction of phase change materials in metal foams. Nonlinear phase change aspects are tackled by an enthalpy based method. The numerical simulation results show the non-equilibrium effect can not be neglected when the porous metal foam is with low porosity density, when the thermal conduction difference between the fluid and the porous metal foam is significant, and when the Stefan number of phase change material is relative small.

  10. 选区激光熔化钴铬合金金-瓷结合强度初探%Metal-ceramic bond strength of Co-Cr alloy processed by selective laser melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 刘洋; 孙荣; 战德松; 王彦岩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To eveluate the metal-ceramic bond strength of a selective laser melting Co-Cr alloy.Methods Twelve Co-Cr metal bars were prepared according to the ISO 9693 standard with Vita porcelain fused onto the centre of each bar.Then the sample bars were devided into two groups of six each.The control group was made by traditional cast process(cast group),and the experimental group was processed by selective laser melting (SLM) technology (SLM group).Metal-ceramic bonding strength and fracture mode were assessed using three-point bending test.Fracture mode analysis was determined by scanning electronic microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy.Student's t-test was used to analyze the data in SPSS 13.0.Results The metal-ceramic bond strength value of the cast group was (33.45 ±2.34) MPa,and that of the SLM group was (31.62 ± 2.34) MPa (t =0.79,P > 0.05).A mixed fracture mode on the debonding interface of all specimens was observed,while little porcelain was reserved.Conclusions The metal-ceramic system processed by SLM exhibited a bonding strength that satisfies the requirement of clinical application.%目的 采用三点弯曲法评价选区激光熔化钴铬合金金-瓷结合强度,以期为修复临床提供参考.方法 依据ISO 9693标准,分别用铸造法(铸造组)和选区激光熔化法(选区激光熔化组)制作钴铬合金试件,每组6个,试件中间区域熔附瓷粉.三点弯曲法测试金-瓷结合强度,采用SPSS 13.0软件进行t检验,分析两组金-瓷结合强度差异;扫描电镜和能谱仪进行金-瓷结合界面分析.结果 铸造组和选区激光熔化组金-瓷结合强度分别为(33.45 ±2.34)和(31.62 ±2.34) MPa,两组差异无统计学意义(t =0.79,P>0.05).两组试件断裂类型均为混合断裂,仅微量瓷残余.结论 选区激光熔化钴铬合金修复体可满足临床对金-瓷结合强度的要求.

  11. Heat storage system adapted for incongruently melting heat storage materials and congruently melting heat storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, J.L.

    1980-12-30

    A heat storage article adapted for prevention of stratification of incongruently melting heat storage materials, such as eutectic salts, and adapted for use with congruently melting heat storage materials, such as paraffins. The article is comprised of a concrete stone composition, a certain portion of which is comprised of metallic heat transfer materials in order to increase heat transfer through the concrete structure. The concrete structure has an internal cavity which is filled with either the eutectic salt material or the paraffin material.

  12. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Elevated Temperature Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) Alloy and Its Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, David C. [Eck Industreis, Inc.; Gegal, Gerald A.

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this project was to provide a production capable cast aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy with an operating temperature capability of 250-300°C. Important industrial sectors as well as the military now seek lightweight aluminum alloy castings that can operate in temperature ranges of 250-300°C. Current needs in this temperature range are being satisfied by the use of titanium alloy castings. These have the desired strength properties but the end components are heavier and significantly more costly. Also, the energy requirements for production of titanium alloy castings are significantly higher than those required for production of aluminum alloys and aluminum alloy castings.

  13. Comparison of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of A356/SiC Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Two Different Melting Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Prakash Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A356/SiC metal matrix composites with different weight percent of SiC particles were fabricated by two different techniques such as mechanical stir casting and electromagnetic stir casting. The results of macrostructure, microstructure, and XRD study revealed uniform distribution, grain refinement, and low porosity in electromagnetic stir casing samples. The mechanical results showed that the addition of SiC particles led to the improvement in tensile strength, hardness, toughness, and fatigue life. It indicates that type of fabrication process and percentage of reinforcement are the effective factors influencing the mechanical properties. It is observed that when percentage of reinforcement increases in electromagnetic stir casting, best mechanical properties are obtained.

  14. Hot-Melt Adhesive Attachment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. L.; Frizzell, A. W.; Little, B. D.; Progar, D. J.; Coultrip, R. H.; Couch, R. H.; Stein, B. A.; Buckley, J. D.; St. Clair, T. L.; Gleason, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Adhesive system is as effective on Earth as in space. Fiberglass cloth mounted in head assembly. When adhesive reaches melt temperature head is attached to metals composites, ceramics, and other materials. Once attached, head cooled rapidly for quick stick. Used to tether tools or attach temporary scaffolding to walls, buildings, or beams.

  15. Single scan vector prediction in selective laser melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, W.W.; Bruins, R.; Terpstra, L.; Huls, R.A.; Geijselaers, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In selective laser melting (SLM) products are built by melting layers of metal powder successively. Optimal process parameters are usually obtained by scanning single vectors and subsequently determining which settings lead to a good compromise between product density and build speed. This paper pro

  16. 金属零件选区激光熔化直接成型技术研究进展%Research Progress of Direct Manufacturing of Metal Parts by Selective Laser Melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永强; 王迪; 吴伟辉

    2011-01-01

    随着快速成型技术的进步,其研究热点转变到快速直接制造会属功能零件方面,应用范围也拓展到航空航天、医疗、汽车、模具等领域.针对选区激光熔化(SLM)技术更适合精密小批量金属零件的快速制造等特点,结合华南理工大学在该技术方面的研究进展,研究讨论了成型材料、成型工艺与过程控制、应用及其影响因素等,并对SLM技术现状、存在问题和发展趋势进行了分析.%With the development of rapid prototyping (RP) technology, the research interests change to direct manufacturing of metal parts with functions.The application fields of RP are expanded to the areas of aerospace,medical, motor vehicle, mould, etc.According to the characteristics of selective laser melting (SLM) applicable for rapid manufacturing of fine-structured and small-lot metal parts, powder materials, process, control, applications and affect factors are studied and discussed by combining the research work of the author's group.The status-in-art,problems and developing prospect of SLM technology are also discussed.

  17. Elastic and failure response of imperfect three-dimensional metallic lattices: the role of geometric defects induced by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Kamm, Paul; García-Moreno, Francisco; Banhart, John; Pasini, Damiano

    2017-10-01

    This paper examines three-dimensional metallic lattices with regular octet and rhombicuboctahedron units fabricated with geometric imperfections via Selective Laser Sintering. We use X-ray computed tomography to capture morphology, location, and distribution of process-induced defects with the aim of studying their role in the elastic response, damage initiation, and failure evolution under quasi-static compression. Testing results from in-situ compression tomography show that each lattice exhibits a distinct failure mechanism that is governed not only by cell topology but also by geometric defects induced by additive manufacturing. Extracted from X-ray tomography images, the statistical distributions of three sets of defects, namely strut waviness, strut thickness variation, and strut oversizing, are used to develop numerical models of statistically representative lattices with imperfect geometry. Elastic and failure responses are predicted within 10% agreement from the experimental data. In addition, a computational study is presented to shed light into the relationship between the amplitude of selected defects and the reduction of elastic properties compared to their nominal values. The evolution of failure mechanisms is also explained with respect to strut oversizing, a parameter that can critically cause failure mode transitions that are not visible in defect-free lattices.

  18. Dynamic compression experiments and first-principles simulations on liquid deuterium above the melt boundary to investigate the insulator-to-metal transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, T. R.; Knudson, M. D.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Lemke, R. W.; Cochrane, K. R.; Savage, M. E.; Bliss, D. E.; Becker, A.; Redmer, R.

    2015-03-01

    Important phenomena at high pressure, for example in planetary science, occur at conditions that cannot be reached in shock impact experiments. Different techniques have therefore been developed at Sandia's Z-machine. One new approach is shock-ramp loading. The accelerator delivers a two-step current pulse that accelerates the electrode, creating a well-defined shock, and subsequently produces ramp compression from the shocked state. The technique makes it possible to achieve cool (1000-2000 K), high pressure (above 300 GPa), high compression states (10-15 fold) in hydrogen, thus allowing experimental access to the region of phase space where hydrogen is predicted to undergo a first-order phase transition from an insulating molecular liquid to a conducting atomic fluid. Knowing the behavior of hydrogen under these conditions is of pivotal importance to understanding the physics of giant planets. We will survey theoretical predictions for the liquid-liquid insulator-to-metal transition in hydrogen and present the results of experiments on Z. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Ceramic to metal seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Gary S. (Albuquerque, NM); Wilcox, Paul D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1976-01-01

    Providing a high strength, hermetic ceramic to metal seal by essentially heating a wire-like metal gasket and a ceramic member, which have been chemically cleaned, while simultaneously deforming from about 50 to 95 percent the metal gasket against the ceramic member at a temperature of about 30 to 75 percent of the melting temperature of the metal gasket.

  20. Method to decrease loss of aluminum and magnesium melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryn, John N.; Pellin, Michael J.; Calaway, Jr., Wallis F.; Moore, Jerry F.; Krumdick, Gregory K.

    2002-01-01

    A method to minimize oxidation of metal during melting processes is provided, the method comprising placing solid phase metal into a furnace environ-ment, transforming the solid-phase metal into molten metal phase having a molten metal surface, and creating a barrier between the surface and the environment. Also provided is a method for isolating the surface of molten metal from its environment, the method comprising confining the molten metal to a controlled atmos-phere, and imposing a floating substrate between the surface and the atmosphere.

  1. Signatures of nonthermal melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Zier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intense ultrashort laser pulses can melt crystals in less than a picosecond but, in spite of over thirty years of active research, for many materials it is not known to what extent thermal and nonthermal microscopic processes cause this ultrafast phenomenon. Here, we perform ab-initio molecular-dynamics simulations of silicon on a laser-excited potential-energy surface, exclusively revealing nonthermal signatures of laser-induced melting. From our simulated atomic trajectories, we compute the decay of five structure factors and the time-dependent structure function. We demonstrate how these quantities provide criteria to distinguish predominantly nonthermal from thermal melting.

  2. Impact-induced melting during accretion of the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    de Vries, Jellie; Melosh, H Jay; Jacobson, Seth A; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Rubie, David C

    2016-01-01

    Because of the high energies involved, giant impacts that occur during planetary accretion cause large degrees of melting. The depth of melting in the target body after each collision determines the pressure and temperature conditions of metal-silicate equilibration and thus geochemical fractionation that results from core-mantle differentiation. The accretional collisions involved in forming the terrestrial planets of the inner Solar System have been calculated by previous studies using N-body accretion simulations. Here we use the output from such simulations to determine the volumes of melt produced and thus the pressure and temperature conditions of metal-silicate equilibration, after each impact, as Earth-like planets accrete. For these calculations a parametrised melting model is used that takes impact velocity, impact angle and the respective masses of the impacting bodies into account. The evolution of metal-silicate equilibration pressures (as defined by evolving magma ocean depths) during Earth's ac...

  3. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  4. 激光烧结工艺参数对Fe-16%Ni合金致密度的影响%Effect of process parameters on density of Fe-16%Ni metal part formed by selective laser melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白培康; 李玉新; 刘斌

    2011-01-01

    采用激光烧结成形技术研究了不同工艺参数对Fe-16%Ni金属粉末选区激光烧结成型件微观结构和致密性的影响.结果表明,随着脉冲宽度、扫描速度和铺粉厚度的增加,烧结后试样的密度先增加然后减少,随着扫描间距的增加,烧结后试样的密度减小.当脉冲宽度0.7 ms,扫描速度1000mm/min,铺粉厚度0.15 mm,扫描间距0.15 mm时,烧结成型件成型质量较好.%Effect of process parameters on density and microstructure of sintered part of Fe-16% Ni metal powder fabricated by selective laser melting was studied. The results show the density of the sintered part firstly increases and then decreases with increasing of the scanning speed, laser pulse width, powder layer thickness and the density decreases with increasing of the scanning interval. Moreover, the sintered parts with the good forming quality are obtained when the laser pulse width, scanning speed, the powder layer thickness and the scanning interval are O.7 ms,1000 mm/min,0.15 mm and 0.15 mm,respectively.

  5. Force induced DNA melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K [Center for Condensed Matter Theory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-12 (India)], E-mail: santosh@physics.iisc.ernet.in, E-mail: maiti@physics.iisc.ernet.in

    2009-01-21

    When pulled along the axis, double-strand DNA undergoes a large conformational change and elongates by roughly twice its initial contour length at a pulling force of about 70 pN. The transition to this highly overstretched form of DNA is very cooperative. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA axis (unzipping), double-strand DNA can also be separated into two single-stranded DNA, this being a fundamental process in DNA replication. We study the DNA overstretching and unzipping transition using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and argue that the conformational changes of double-strand DNA associated with either of the above mentioned processes can be viewed as force induced DNA melting. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting abruptly/smoothly above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force f{sub m}, at which DNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the DNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base pairs. The fraction of Watson-Crick base pair hydrogen bond breaking as a function of force does not show smooth and continuous behavior and consists of plateaus followed by sharp jumps.

  6. Insignificant influence of the matrix on the melting of incoherently embedded tin and zinc nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L. M.; Hou, H. F.; Yao, C. Y.; Wang, L. W.

    2017-01-01

    For studying the melting point depression of metals, isolated metallic nanoparticles embedded in a matrix are usually prepared by mechanical milling. Al is the main available matrix material. In this work, to explore possible alternative matrices for further investigation of melting, mechanically milled metal-nonmetal systems are developed, namely Sn-LiF, Zn-LiF and Zn-Al2O3. The outcome indicates that different matrices do not have a significantly different influence on the melting of Sn and Zn. Theoretical analyses of both the thermodynamics and kinetics of surface-induced melting may support this experimental finding.

  7. Homoleptic rare earth dipyridylamides [Ln2(N(NC5H4)2)6], Ln = Ce, Nd, Sm, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Sc: metal oxidation by the amine melt and in 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline with the focus of different metal activation by amalgams, liquid ammonia, and microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus; Quitmann, Catharina C

    2006-03-20

    Homoleptic dimeric dipyridylamide complexes of the rare earth elements are obtained by solvent-free oxidation reactions of the metals with melts of 2,2'-dipyridylamine. As the thermal stabilities of the ligand as well as the amide complexes are limiting factors in these high-temperature syntheses, several different metal activation procedures have been investigated: the formation of Ln amalgams and dissolution of the metals in liquid ammonia as well as coupling to microwaves. For comparison with a solvent that shows low solubility of the metals and products, reactions in 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were also carried out. For all lanthanides and group 3 metals used homoleptic dimers of the formula [Ln(2)(Dpa)(6)], Ln = Ce (1), Nd (2), Sm (3), Ho (4), Er (5), Tm (6), Yb (7), and Sc (8) and Dpa- = (C5H4N)2N-, were obtained, all containing trivalent rare earth ions with a distorted square antiprismatic nitrogen coordination. Due to the large differences in the ionic radii of the metal ions, two different structure types are found that crystallize in the space groups P2(1)/c and P2(1)/n with the border of the two types being between Tm and Yb. The orientations of two 1,3/1,3-double chelating and linking dipyridylamide ligands (Dpa(-) = (C(5)H(4)N)(2)N(-)) result in different overall orientations of the dimers and thus two structure types. All compounds were identified by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Mid-IR, far IR, and Raman spectroscopy, microanalyses, and simultaneous DTA/TG as well as mass spectrometry regarding their thermal behavior were also carried out to characterize the products. Crystal data for the two types follow. Ce (1): P2(1)/n; T = 170(2) K; a = 1063.0(1), b = 1536.0(1), c = 1652.0(2) pm; beta = 101.60(1) degrees ; V = 2642.2(3) x 10(6) pm(3); R(1) for F(o) > 4sigma(F(o)) = 0.046, wR(2) = 0.120. Sc (8): P2(1)/c; T = 170(2) K; a = 1073.0(1), b = 1506.2(2), c = 1619.8(2) pm; beta = 103.16(9) degrees ; V = 2548.9(5) x 10(6) pm(3); R(1) for F(o) > 4sigma

  8. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Mechanical Properties (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-21

    Metal additive manufacturing processes Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), EOS Selective laser melting...6Al-4V AM tensile properties. Abbreviations: DMD, direct metal deposition; DMLS, direct metal laser sintering ; EBM, electron beam melting; HT, heat...100:1405–13 56. Khaing MW, Fuh JYH, Lu L. 2001. Direct metal laser sintering for rapid tooling: processing and characterisation of EOS parts. J.

  9. Heating and melting mechanism of stainless steelmaking dust pellet in liquid slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG ji; TANG Mo-tang; PENG Bing; YU Di; J.A.KOZINSKl; TANG Chao-bo

    2007-01-01

    The heating and melting mechanisms of the pellets immersed in liquid slag were investigated. and the effect of the pellet heating and the melting conditions were studied. The results show that the dust component in the pellet is melted from the surface and no metallic elements are melted before the dust component, the time for the pellet completely melted is reduced as the iron powder content increases since the metallic iron has high thermal conductivity. These are four stages of heating and melting of pellet in liquid slag, they are the growth and melt of solid slag shell, penetration of liquid slag, dissolving of dust component and melring of reduced metals.The lifetime of the solid slag shell is in the range of 7-16 s and increasing the pre-heating temperature of the pellet and the slag temperature can shorten the slag shell liretime. The time for the dust component in the pellet to be melted completely is in the range of 20-45 s and increasing the pre-heating temperature, especially in the range of 600-800 ℃.can obviously reduce the melting time. A higher slag temperature can also improvethe pellet melting and the melting time is reduced by l0-15 s when the slag temperature is increased from 1 450 to 1 550 ℃.The pellet with higher content of iron powder is beneficial to the melting by improving the heat conductivity.

  10. Impact melting of the largest known enstatite meteorite: Al Haggounia 001, a fossil EL chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2016-09-01

    Al Haggounia 001 and paired specimens (including Northwest Africa [NWA] 2828 and 7401) are part of a vesicular, incompletely melted, EL chondrite impact melt rock with a mass of ~3 metric tons. The meteorite exhibits numerous shock effects including (1) development of undulose to weak mosaic extinction in low-Ca pyroxene; (2) dispersion of metal-sulfide blebs within silicates causing "darkening"; (3) incomplete impact melting wherein some relict chondrules survived; (4) vaporization of troilite, resulting in S2 bubbles that infused the melt; (5) formation of immiscible silicate and metal-sulfide melts; (6) shock-induced transportation of the metal-sulfide melt to distances >10 cm (7) partial resorption of relict chondrules and coarse silicate grains by the surrounding silicate melt; (8) crystallization of enstatite in the matrix and as overgrowths on relict silicate grains and relict chondrules; (9) crystallization of plagioclase from the melt; and (10) quenching of the vesicular silicate melt. The vesicular samples lost almost all of their metal during the shock event and were less susceptible to terrestrial weathering; in contrast, the samples in which the metal melt accumulated became severely weathered. Literature data indicate the meteorite fell ~23,000 yr ago; numerous secondary phases formed during weathering. Both impact melting and weathering altered the meteorite's bulk chemical composition: e.g., impact melting and loss of a metal-sulfide melt from NWA 2828 is responsible for bulk depletions in common siderophile elements and in Mn (from alabandite); weathering of oldhamite caused depletions in many rare earth elements; the growth of secondary phases caused enrichments in alkalis, Ga, As, Se, and Au.

  11. A Study on Melt-able metal Core Process for Permanent Mould Casting of Ti3Al-based Alloy%可熔金属芯在金属型铸造Ti3Al基合金中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢华生; 杨洪涛; 赵军; 王君卿

    2001-01-01

    本文通过对空心可熔金属芯制造工艺及表面处理工艺的研究,成功地实现了Ti3Al基合金铸件的金属型铸造。研究结果表明:(1)利用金属型及可熔性金属芯可以铸出合格的Ti3Al基合金铸件;(2)该技术的重点在于可熔性金属芯的应用,可熔性金属芯既要能使合金液圆满充型,又要在充型结束后熔化以减少收缩阻力;(3)金属芯上的涂层是保证合金成分稳定与圆满充型的关键。%Based on an experimental study of the melt-able core and itssurface treatment technique, the castings with intermetallic compound Ti3Al-based alloy have been successfully cast in the permanent mold. The result shows that first, the Ti3Al castings can be manufactured by permanent mold casting; second, key of the technology is the use of a melt-able core which should not only bear pressure of the mold filling metal melt, but also could reduce the resistance of the core to metal contraction by the core being molten; and finally, the coating of the core is also one of the key technology for ensuring the alloy melt being successfully filled and against its composition being changed.

  12. GLASS MELTING PHENOMENA, THEIR ORDERING AND MELTING SPACE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  13. The fluidity and molding ability of glass-forming Zr-based alloy melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fluidity and filling ability of glass-forming Zr-based alloy melt in copper mould were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The major factors which affected the flowing behavior of the metallic melt in the mold were determined,which provides the foundation for overcoming the contradiction between the filling and formation of amorphous alloy during the rapid cooling process of the metallic melts. The casting factors to prepare a metallic ring were discussed and selected. As a result,a Zr-based bulk metallic glass ring was prepared successfully.

  14. Two-stage melting of Au-Pd nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Rosales, Sergio J; Fernandez-Navarro, Carlos; Pérez-Tijerina, Eduardo; Montejano-Carrizales, Juan Martín; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2006-07-06

    Several series of molecular dynamics runs were performed to simulate the melting transition of bimetallic cuboctahedral nanoparticles of gold-palladium at different relative concentrations to study their structural properties before, in, and after the transition. The simulations were made in the canonical ensemble, each series covering a range of temperatures from 300 to 980 K, using the Rafii-Tabar version of the Sutton and Chen interatomic potential for metallic alloys. We found that the melting transition temperature has a strong dependence on the relative concentrations of the atomic species. We also found that, previous to the melting transition, the outer layer of the nanoparticle gets disordered in what can be thought as a premelting stage, where Au atoms near the surface migrate to the surface and remain there after the particle melts as a whole. The melting of the surface below Tm is consistent with studies of the interaction of a TEM electron beam with Au and Au-Pd nanoparticles.

  15. A multi-component evaporation model for beam melting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Alexander; Forster, Vera E.; Körner, Carolin

    2017-02-01

    In additive manufacturing using laser or electron beam melting technologies, evaporation losses and changes in chemical composition are known issues when processing alloys with volatile elements. In this paper, a recently described numerical model based on a two-dimensional free surface lattice Boltzmann method is further developed to incorporate the effects of multi-component evaporation. The model takes into account the local melt pool composition during heating and fusion of metal powder. For validation, the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is melted by selective electron beam melting and analysed using mass loss measurements and high-resolution microprobe imaging. Numerically determined evaporation losses and spatial distributions of aluminium compare well with experimental data. Predictions of the melt pool formation in bulk samples provide insight into the competition between the loss of volatile alloying elements from the irradiated surface and their advective redistribution within the molten region.

  16. Modeling of velocity field for vacuum induction melting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bo; JIANG Zhi-guo; LIU Kui; LI Yi-yi

    2005-01-01

    The numerical simulation for the recirculating flow of melting of an electromagnetically stirred alloy in a cylindrical induction furnace crucible was presented. Inductive currents and electromagnetic body forces in the alloy under three different solenoid frequencies and three different melting powers were calculated, and then the forces were adopted in the fluid flow equations to simulate the flow of the alloy and the behavior of the free surface. The relationship between the height of the electromagnetic stirring meniscus, melting power, and solenoid frequency was derived based on the law of mass conservation. The results show that the inductive currents and the electromagnetic forces vary with the frequency, melting power, and the physical properties of metal. The velocity and the height of the meniscus increase with the increase of the melting power and the decrease of the solenoid frequency.

  17. Characteristics of element distributions in an MSW ash melting treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekito, T; Dote, Y; Onoue, K; Sakanakura, H; Nakamura, K

    2014-09-01

    Thermal treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a common practice in waste volume reduction and resource recovery. For the utilization of molten slag for construction materials and metal recovery, it is important to understand the behavior of heavy metals in the melting process. In this study, the correlation between the contents of elements in feed materials and MSW molten slag and their distributions in the ash melting process, including metal residues, are investigated. The hazardous metal contents in the molten slag were significantly related to the contents of metals in the feed materials. Therefore, the separation of products containing these metals in waste materials could be an effective means of producing environmentally safe molten slag with a low hazardous metals content. The distribution ratios of elements in the ash melting process were also determined. The elements Zn and Pb were found to have a distribution ratio of over 60% in fly ash from the melting furnace and the contents of these metals were also high; therefore, Zn and Pb could be potential target metals for recycling from fly ash from the melting furnace. Meanwhile, Cu, Ni, Mo, Sn, and Sb were found to have distribution ratios of over 60% in the metal residue. Therefore, metal residue could be a good resource for these metals, as the contents of Cu, Ni, Mo, Sn, and Sb in metal residue are higher than those in other output materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Viscosity Measurement for Tellurium Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bochuan; Li, Chao; Ban, Heng; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2006-01-01

    The viscosity of high temperature Te melt was measured using a new technique in which a rotating magnetic field was applied to the melt sealed in a suspended ampoule, and the torque exerted by rotating melt flow on the ampoule wall was measured. Governing equations for the coupled melt flow and ampoule torsional oscillation were solved, and the viscosity was extracted from the experimental data by numerical fitting. The computational result showed good agreement with experimental data. The melt velocity transient initiated by the rotating magnetic field reached a stable condition quickly, allowing the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the melt to be determined in a short period.

  19. Thermoacoustic Streaming and Ultrasonic Processing of Low Melting Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic levitation allows the processing of low melting materials both in 1 G as well as in microgravity. The free suspension of the melts also facilitates undercooling, permitting the measurements of the physical properties of the metastable liquids.

  20. Research on low emission MSW gasification and melting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Gang; NI Mingjiang; CHI Yong; JIN Yuqi; ZHANG Jiaquan; MIAO Qi; CEN Kefa

    2007-01-01

    In order to eliminate secondary pollution caused by municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration,a MSW gasification and melting process is proposed.The process is expected to reduce the emission of pollutants,especially heavy-metals and dioxins.In this paper,the combustible components of MSW and simulated MSW were gasified in a lab-scale fluidized bed at 400℃-700℃ when the excess air ratio (ER) was between 0.2 and 0.8.The experimental results indicated that the MSW could be gasified effectively in a fluidized bed at approximately 600℃-700℃ when excess air ratio was 0.2-0.4.The melting characteristics of two typical fly ash samples from MSW incinerators were investigated.The results indicated that fly ash of pure MSW incineration could be melted at approximately 1,300℃ and that of MSW and coal co-combustion could be melted at approximately 1,400℃.When temperature was over 1,100℃,more than 99.9% of the dioxins could be decomposed and most of the heavy-metals could be solidified in the slag.Based on the above experiments,two feasible MSW gasification and melting processes were proposed for low calorific value MSW:(1) sieved MSW gasification and melting system,which was based on an idea of multi-recycle;(2) gasification and melting scheme of MSW adding coal as assistant fuel.

  1. Thermodynamics of Oligonucleotide Duplex Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gosche, Sherrie; Edwards, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Melting temperatures of oligonucleotides are useful for a number of molecular biology applications, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although melting temperatures are often calculated with simplistic empirical equations, application of thermodynamics provides more accurate melting temperatures and an opportunity for students to apply…

  2. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  3. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find th

  4. Carbon Solubility and Mass Action Concentrations of Fe-Cr-C Melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An empirical equation of carbon solubility in Fe-Cr-C melts is regressed based on the experimental data from references. A calculating model of mass action concentrations for these melts is formulated on the basis of the coexistence theory of metallic melts involving compound formation, the phase diagram of Cr-C system as well as thermodynamic data of Fe-Cr-C melts. According to the model, the standard Gibbs free energies of formation of CrC and Cr3C2 are obtained. Satisfactory agreement between the calculated and measured values shows that the model can reflect the structural characteristics of Fe-Cr-C melts.

  5. Reinterpretation of reduction potential measurements done by linear sweep voltammetry in silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, R. O.; Haskin, L. A.; Keedy, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    The equilibrium concentrations of Ni between silicate melt and Pt were determined experimentally as a function of oxygen fugacity. The results demonstrate that metallic species derived in linear sweep voltammetry experiments in silicate melts are diffusing into Pt electrodes and not into the melt, as was concluded by previoius studies. This requires reinterpretation of previous linear sweep voltammetry results and recalculation and correction of reported reduction potentials. This paper reports these corrected reduction potentials. Also reported are the activity coefficients for Ni in synthetic basalt and diopsidic melts and for Co in diopsidic melt.

  6. Electron beam melting of advanced materials and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahale, Tushar Ramkrishna

    Layered manufacturing has for long been used for the fabrication of non-functional parts using polymer-based processes. Developments in laser beam and electron beam welding technologies and their adoption to layered manufacturing has made it possible to fabricate high-density functional parts in metal irrespective of the level of complexity. The Electron Beam Melting (EBM) process by Arcam AB is one such layered manufacturing process that utilizes a focused electron beam to process metal powder, layer by layer, in a vacuum environment. Research conducted as part of this body of work looks into the development of both bulk materials in the form of metal alloys and ceramic metal-matrix composites as well as the development of tunable mechanical & thermal metamaterials. Simulation models to approximate electron beam melting were suggested using commercial finite element analysis packages. A framework was developed based on the finite difference method to simulate layered manufacturing using Arcam AB's electron beam melting process. The outputs from the simulation data could be used to better understand the local melting, grain evolution, composition and internal stresses within freeform-fabricated metal parts.

  7. Melting of Pre-Reduced Chromite Pellet Bearing Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-ping; XUE Zheng-liang; LI Zheng-bang; ZHANG Jia-wen; YANG Hai-sen; ZHOU Yu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    As the raw material for hot metal containing chromium from 20% to 40%, carbon-beared chromite pellets made from three kinds of typical chromite were reduced at 1 300 ℃ for 30 min and then kept at 1 550-1 600℃ for 10 min. The effect of Cr2 O3/FeO mass ratio in pellets on chromium content in hot metal and the yield of chromium were investigated. The results indicated that the highest chromium content is in hot metal produced from South African UG2 ore, but slag volume produced with Indian chromite is the smallest. The yield of chromium is only 60% to 75%, due to short melting time, high melting point and large surface tension of the slag with high Al2 O3 and MgO content, which influences the separation between metal and slag.

  8. Modeling the melting temperature of nanoscaled bimetallic alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Zhu, Tian-Shu

    2016-06-22

    The effect of size, composition and dimension on the melting temperature of nanoscaled bimetallic alloys was investigated by considering the interatomic interaction. The established thermodynamics model without any arbitrarily adjustable parameters can be used to predict the melting temperature of nanoscaled bimetallic alloys. It is found that, the melting temperature and interatomic interaction of nanoscaled bimetallic alloys decrease with the decrease in size and the increasing composition of the lower surface energy metal. Moreover, for the nanoscaled bimetallic alloys with the same size and composition, the dependence of the melting temperature on the dimension can be sequenced as follows: nanoparticles > nanowires > thin films. The accuracy of the developed model is verified by the recent experimental and computer simulation results.

  9. Predicted reentrant melting of dense hydrogen at ultra-high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hua Y.; Wu, Q.

    2016-11-01

    The phase diagram of hydrogen is one of the most important challenges in high-pressure physics and astrophysics. Especially, the melting of dense hydrogen is complicated by dimer dissociation, metallization and nuclear quantum effect of protons, which together lead to a cold melting of dense hydrogen when above 500 GPa. Nonetheless, the variation of the melting curve at higher pressures is virtually uncharted. Here we report that using ab initio molecular dynamics and path integral simulations based on density functional theory, a new atomic phase is discovered, which gives an uplifting melting curve of dense hydrogen when beyond 2 TPa, and results in a reentrant solid-liquid transition before entering the Wigner crystalline phase of protons. The findings greatly extend the phase diagram of dense hydrogen, and put metallic hydrogen into the group of alkali metals, with its melting curve closely resembling those of lithium and sodium.

  10. Predicted reentrant melting of dense hydrogen at ultra-high pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Hua Y

    2016-01-01

    The phase diagram of hydrogen is one of the most important challenges in high-pressure physics and astrophysics. Especially, the melting of dense hydrogen is complicated by dimer dissociation, metallization and nuclear quantum effect of protons, which together lead to a cold melting of dense hydrogen when above 500 GPa. Nonetheless, the variation of the melting curve at higher pressures is virtually uncharted. Here we report that using ab initio molecular dynamics and path integral simulations based on density functional theory, a new atomic phase is discovered, which gives an uplifting melting curve of dense hydrogen when beyond 2 TPa, and results in a reentrant solid-liquid transition before entering the Wigner crystalline phase of protons. The findings greatly extend the phase diagram of dense hydrogen, and put metallic hydrogen into the group of alkali metals, with its melting curve closely resembling those of lithium and sodium.

  11. Analysis of melt ejection during long pulsed laser drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting-Zhong, Zhang; Zhi-Chao, Jia; Hai-Chao, Cui; De-Hua, Zhu; Xiao-Wu, Ni; Jian, Lu

    2016-05-01

    In pulsed laser drilling, melt ejection greatly influences the keyhole shape and its quality as well, but its mechanism has not been well understood. In this paper, numerical simulation and experimental investigations based on 304 stainless steel and aluminum targets are performed to study the effects of material parameters on melt ejection. The numerical method is employed to predict the temperatures, velocity fields in the solid, liquid, and vapour front, and melt pool dynamics of targets as well. The experimental methods include the shadow-graphic technique, weight method, and optical microscope imaging, which are applied to real-time observations of melt ejection phenomena, measurements of collected melt and changes of target mass, observations of surface morphology and the cross-section of the keyhole, respectively. Numerical and experimental results show that the metallic material with high thermal diffusivity like aluminum is prone to have a thick liquid zone and a large quantity of melt ejection. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, the liquid zone is used to illustrate the relations between melt ejection and material thermal diffusivity for the first time. The research result in this paper is useful for manufacturing optimization and quality control in laser-material interaction. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. KYLX_0341) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405147).

  12. Melt processed multiphase ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, Jake, E-mail: jake.amoroso@srs.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Marra, James C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Tang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lin, Ye; Chen, Fanglin [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Su, Dong [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brinkman, Kyle S. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We explored the feasibility of melt processing multiphase titanate-based ceramics. • Melt processing produced phases obtained by alternative processing methods. • Phases incorporated multiple lanthanides and transition metals. • Processing in reducing atmosphere suppressed un-desirable Cs–Mo coupling. • Cr partitions to and stabilizes the hollandite phase, which promotes Cs retention. - Abstract: Ceramic waste forms are promising hosts for nuclear waste immobilization as they have the potential for increased durability and waste loading compared with conventional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics are generally processed using hot pressing, spark plasma sintering, and conventional solid-state reaction, however such methods can be prohibitively expensive or impractical at production scales. Recently, melt processing has been investigated as an alternative to solid-state sintering methods. Given that melter technology is currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries, the technology readiness of melt processing appears to be advantageous over sintering methods. This work reports the development of candidate multi-phase ceramic compositions processed from a melt. Cr additions, developed to promote the formation and stability of a Cs containing hollandite phase were successfully incorporated into melt processed multi-phase ceramics. Control of the reduction–oxidation (Redox) conditions suppressed undesirable Cs–Mo containing phases, and additions of Al and Fe reduced the melting temperature.

  13. Manufacturing of implants by selective laser melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorin Cosmin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, digitizing and automation have gained an important place in fabrication of medical parts. Rapid Prototyping could be very suitable for medical applications due to their complex geometry, low volume and strong individualization. The presented study investigates the possibility to produce medical or dental parts by Selective Laser Melting (SLM. The SLM process is optimized and fully characterized for different biocompatible metal alloys, such as: TiAl6V4 and CoCrMo. The potential of SLM as medical manufacturing technique is proved by a developed procedure to fabricate frameworks for complex dental prostheses.

  14. Melting of Ice under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegler, E; Sharma, M; Gygi, F; Galli, G

    2008-07-31

    The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10 to 50 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 to 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above {approx}45 GPa there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve due to the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid, prior to melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid.

  15. Characterization of Niobium Platings Obtained from NaCl-KCl Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillesberg, Bo; Barner, Jens H. Von; Bjerrum, Niels

    1998-01-01

    oxidation of metallic niobium with NiCl2. The initial valency of niobium was found to 3 when a NaCl-KCl melt was applied as solvent. The deposits were characterised by X-ray analy-sis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with EDX analysis. From both NaCl-KCl and LiCl-KCl melts dense and coherent...

  16. Equilibrium between (Li,Na,K,Mg)-carbonate melt, gaseous CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, P.F. van

    1967-01-01

    Considerable amounts of MgCO3 may appear in alkali metal carbonate melts in contact with MgO and carbon dioxide gas. The equilibrium between dissolved MgCO3, MgO and carbon dioxide gas has been studied. The results satisfactorily obey thermodynamic theory based upon a melt mode

  17. MULTIPLE MELTING IN NYLON 1010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Shuren; CHEN Taoyung

    1983-01-01

    Multiple melting behavior of nylon 1010 has been investigated by using DSC instrument. Effects of partial scanning, partial scanning and annealing, heating rate, cooling rate and stepwise annealing on the melting curve were studied. Experimental results indicate that the sample undergoes a process of continuous melting and recrystallization during DSC scanning. Nylon 1010 contains a distribution of crystallites of different degrees of perfection which is strongly dependent on its previous thermal history. From the structural reorganization point of view, the origin of double and multiple peaks of the melting curve is explained.

  18. Strength analysis and modeling of cellular lattice structures manufactured using selective laser melting for tooling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Loft Højbjerre, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is rapidly developing and gaining popularity for direct metal fabrication systems like selective laser melting (SLM). The technology has shown significant improvement for high-quality fabrication of lightweight design-efficient structures such as conformal cooling channels...

  19. Preparation of diffusion coatings in ion-electron melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anfinogenov; A.; I.; Chebykin; V.; V.; Chernov; Ya.; B.

    2005-01-01

    A procedure of Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, and Mo (Me) transfer onto iron substrate in ionic-electronic melts LiCl-Li, CaCl2-Ca, and BaCl2-Ba was elaborated and the transport processes were studied. The saturated vapor pressure of these ionic-electronic melts is as low as enabled working at atmosphere pressure in an inert media up to 1000 ℃.Armco iron was used as a substrate because it practically does not interact with lithium, calcium, and barium. The metals-diffusants were put into the melts in the form of a powder. The complete saturation of the melts with lithium, calcium, and barium was ensured by a preceding contact of a molten salt with an excess of Li, Ca, or Ba before loading of iron.The reactions take place despite the metals and iron were separated from each other by the molten salt. The quantity of the metals transfered was determined by the change in mass before and after experiments, by microprobe analysis, and x-raying of the iron surface layer. The experiments were carried out at 900, 950 and 1000℃ during 5, 10, 15 and 20 hours.At the first stage of the process the formation of the ionic-electronic melt occurs. For example, dissolution of calcium in the case of the system CaCl2-Ca is mainly proceeded in the form of one-valent cations: Ca + Ca2+()Ca+. As soon as the metal-diffusance is immersed into the melt, its dissolution in the form of negative ions takes place: Me + Ca+() Me-+ Ca2+. In the vicinity of the iron substrate the last equilibrium will shift to the left generating a solid solution or intermetallide. The thickness of the diffusion layer rises as the temperature and saturation time increase. The obtained coverings were 20-60 (m thick,and their surface layer contained 15%-80% (mass fraction) of the metal-diffusance.Both the composition of the melt and the procedure of the coverings preparation in ionic-electronic melts have been patented (Patent RU2058422, 1996, pr. 30.09.93).

  20. Beyond the Melting Pot Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elijah

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the 1963 book, "Beyond the Melting Pot," which suggested that eventually the problem of different ethnicities in the U.S. would be resolved and society would become one melting pot. Examines how changes in immigration and economic structures have affected the issue, noting the devastating effect of the dominant culture's…

  1. `Technology for Advanced Treatment of High Melting Point Metal-Based Material,` local research and development of important technology for fiscal 1997. Development of materials creation technology for high efficiency power generator components; 1997 nendo juyo chiiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. `Koyuten kinzokukei buzai no kodo kako gijutsu` (kokoritsu hatsuden`yo buzai sosei gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Efforts are made for the creation of high melting point metal-base materials to replace the currently-used Ni-base superalloys for the turbine to withstand higher operating temperatures. The main efforts made in fiscal 1997 are outlined. As in fiscal 1996, Nb-base solution alloys, in which solution reinforcement elements such as Mo and W are alloyed, are manufactured by button arc melting and tested for mechanical properties and texture/characteristics. In the designing and evaluation for a strongest Nb-base composite material, Nb-base composite materials are manufactured by use of particle dispersion-strengthening attained by addition of intermetallic compounds or elements to contribute to the formation of oxides, carbides, or nitrides. Nb-base composite materials may also be manufactured by use of eutectic-strengthening attained by utilizing crystallization in the process of coagulation. The resultant Nb-base composite materials are evaluated for their dynamic characteristics at high temperatures. In the development and evaluation of technologies for creating Nb-base materials for high-temperature components, larger specimens as heavy as several kg are tested in line with small specimens for basic studies, and the results are utilized for alloy designing for high-temperature materials. 50 refs., 97 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-07-28

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or "pseudotachylytes." It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics.

  3. Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2015-07-01

    We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re ˜2 ×104- 3 ×105 and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.

  4. Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2015-07-24

    We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re∼2×104–3×105 and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.

  5. Application of direct laser melting to restore damaged steel dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jeong Hwan; Joo, Byeong Don; Mun, Sung Min; Sung, Min Young; Moon, Young Hoon

    2011-02-01

    Direct laser melting (DLM) technology can be applied to restore damaged steel dies. To understand the effects of DLM process parameters such as the laser power and scan rate, a series of experiments was conducted to determine the optimal operating parameters. To investigate the laser melting characteristics, the depth/height ratio, depth/width ratio and micro-hardness as a function of the laser energy density were analyzed. Fe-Cr and Fe-Ni layers were deposited on a steel die with 11.38 J/mm2 of energy input. The wear-resistance and the friction coefficient of the deposited layer were investigated by a pin-on-disk test. The penetration depth decreased as the scan rate increased as a consequence of the shorter interaction time. The depth/height ratio of the deposited layer decreased with an increase in the scan rate. The depth/width ratio increased as laser power increased and the scan rate decreased. The deposition shape of the Fe-Ni powder was relatively shallow and wide compared with that of the Fe-Cr powder. The scan rate had a substantial effect upon the deposition height, with the Fe-Cr powder melting more than the Fe-Ni powder. The micro-hardness of the layer melted from the powders is higher than that of the substrate, and the hardness of the laser-surface-melted layer without any metal powder is higher compared to that of the metal-powder-melted layer. The direct laser melting process with Fe-Ni powder represents a superior method when restoring a steel die when the bead shape and hardness of the restored surface are important outcome considerations.

  6. Melt Protection of Mg-Al Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Balart

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the current status of Mg melt protection in view to identify near-future challenges, but also opportunities, for Mg melt protection of Mg-Al based alloys. The goal is to design and manufacture sustainable Mg alloys for resource efficiency, recycling and minimising waste. Among alternative cover gas technologies for Mg melt protection other than SF6: commercially available technologies containing―HFC-134a, fluorinated ketone and dilute SO2―and developed technologies containing solid CO2, BF3 and SO2F2, can potentially produce toxic and/or corrosive by-products. On the other hand, additions of alkaline earth metal oxides to Mg and its alloys have developed a strong comparative advantage in the field of Mg melt protection. The near-future challenges and opportunities for Mg-Al based alloys include optimising and using CO2 gas as feedstock for both melt protection and grain refinement and TiO2 additions for melt protection.

  7. A metastable liquid melted from a crystalline solid under decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kono, Yoshio; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-01-01

    A metastable liquid may exist under supercooling, sustaining the liquid below the melting point such as supercooled water and silicon. It may also exist as a transient state in solid–solid transitions, as demonstrated in recent studies of colloidal particles and glass-forming metallic systems. One important question is whether a crystalline solid may directly melt into a sustainable metastable liquid. By thermal heating, a crystalline solid will always melt into a liquid above the melting point. Here we report that a high-pressure crystalline phase of bismuth can melt into a metastable liquid below the melting line through a decompression process. The decompression-induced metastable liquid can be maintained for hours in static conditions, and transform to crystalline phases when external perturbations, such as heating and cooling, are applied. It occurs in the pressure–temperature region similar to where the supercooled liquid Bi is observed. Akin to supercooled liquid, the pressure-induced metastable liquid may be more ubiquitous than we thought. PMID:28112152

  8. Experimental study on MSW gasification and melting technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to develop municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification and melting technology, two preliminary experiments and a principle integrated experiment were fulfilled respectively. The gasification characteristics of MSW are studied at 500-750℃ when equivalence ratio (ER) was 0.2-0.5 using a fluidized-bed gasifier. When temperature was 550-700℃ and ER was 0.2-0.4, low heat value (LHV) of syngas reaches 4000-12000 kJ/Nm3. The melting characteristics of fly ash were investigated at 1100-1460℃ using a fixed-bed furnace. It was proved that over 99.9% of dioxins could be decomposed and most heavy-metals could be solidified when temperature was 1100-1300℃. The principle integrated experiment was carried out in a fluidized-bed gasification and swirl-melting system. MSW was gasified efficiently at 550-650℃, swirl-melting furnace maintains at 1200-1300℃ stably and over 95% of fly ash could be caught by the swirl-melting furnace. The results provided much practical experience and basic data to develop MSW gasification and melting technology.

  9. Impact-induced melting during accretion of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jellie; Nimmo, Francis; Melosh, H. Jay; Jacobson, Seth A.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Rubie, David C.

    2016-12-01

    Because of the high energies involved, giant impacts that occur during planetary accretion cause large degrees of melting. The depth of melting in the target body after each collision determines the pressure and temperature conditions of metal-silicate equilibration and thus geochemical fractionation that results from core-mantle differentiation. The accretional collisions involved in forming the terrestrial planets of the inner Solar System have been calculated by previous studies using N-body accretion simulations. Here we use the output from such simulations to determine the volumes of melt produced and thus the pressure and temperature conditions of metal-silicate equilibration, after each impact, as Earth-like planets accrete. For these calculations a parameterised melting model is used that takes impact velocity, impact angle and the respective masses of the impacting bodies into account. The evolution of metal-silicate equilibration pressures (as defined by evolving magma ocean depths) during Earth's accretion depends strongly on the lifetime of impact-generated magma oceans compared to the time interval between large impacts. In addition, such results depend on starting parameters in the N-body simulations, such as the number and initial mass of embryos. Thus, there is the potential for combining the results, such as those presented here, with multistage core formation models to better constrain the accretional history of the Earth.

  10. Thermodynamic study and modelling of iron-based melts for adequate prediction of modern ladle metallurgy processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, A. I.; Rodionova, I. G.; Shaposhnikov, N. G.; Zemlyanko, O. A.; Karamisheva, N. A.

    2008-02-01

    The representation of iron-based melts as associated liquids have been developed basing on the detail experimental investigation and analysis of available data on their thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. It has allowed, for the first time, to interpret adequately the reactivity of the earth metals in the iron-based melts and to predict with high precision the reactions of metal refinement and non-metallic inclusions modifying in modern ladle metallurgy.

  11. Evolution of Shock Melt Compositions in Lunar Agglutinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, A. M.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar agglutinates are aggregates of regolith grains fused together in a glassy matrix of shock melt produced during smaller-scale (mostly micrometeorite) impacts. Agglutinate formation is a key space weathering process under which the optically-active component of nanophase metallic Fe (npFe(sup 0)) is added to the lunar regolith. Here we have used energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) compositional spectrum imaging in the SEM to quantify the chemical homogeneity of agglutinitic glass, correlate its homogeneity to its parent soil maturity, and identify the principle chemical components contributing to the shock melt compositional variations.

  12. Surface treatment of 0Cr19Ni9 stainless steel SMAW joint by plasma melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗伟; 栾景飞; 严密

    2002-01-01

    Micro-plasma are surface melting of 0Crl9Ni9 shielded metal are welding joint with a micro-plasma are welder produced a thin surface melted layer with a refined microtructure. The surface treatment changed the anodie polarization behavior in 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 solution. The polarization tests showed that for the as-welded joint both the heat-affected zone and the weld metal decreased in resis-tance to corrosion compared with the as-received parent material while for the micro-plasma are surface melted joint the corrosion resistance increased significantly. This increase in corrosion resistance is attributed to the rapid solidification of the melted layer. Rapid solidification of the melted layer refines its mierostrueture, decreases its mierosegregation, and inhibits the precipitation of chromium carbides at the grain boundaries.

  13. On the Mechanism of Ultrasound-Driven Deagglomeration of Nanoparticle Agglomerates in Aluminum Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, Olga; Vorozhtsov, Sergey

    2016-05-01

    One of the promising directions in the technology of composite alloys with improved mechanical properties is reinforcement of the metallic matrix with nanopowders introduced in the liquid metal. Ultrasonic processing is known to significantly improve the introduction of submicrone particles to the metallic melt. This study focuses on the mechanisms of deagglomeration and wettability of such particles by the melt under the action of ultrasound. The suggested mechanism involves the penetration of the liquid metal into the pores and cracks of the agglomerates under the excess pressure created by imploding cavitation bubbles and further destruction of the agglomerate by the sound wave. The main dependences connecting the acoustic parameters and processing time with the physical and chemical properties of particles and the melt are obtained through analytical modeling. The mathematical description of the ultrasonic deagglomeration in liquid metal is presented; a dependence of the threshold intensity of ultrasound for the break-up of agglomerates on their size is reported.

  14. Modern electrochemical processes and technologies in ionic melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelchuk A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the known methods for the electrochemical purification of non-ferrous metals in ionic melts is presented. A comparative estimation of the results of the electrochemical purification of non-ferrous metals by different methods has been performed. The main regularities of the electrochemical behavior of non-ferrous metals in conventional and electrode micro-spacing electrolysis are presented. It has been found that when electrolyzing some metals, e. g. bismuth, gallium, there is either no mass exchange between the electrodes, or it occurs under filtration conditions. It has been shown that the electrode micro-spacing processes provide a high quality of non-ferrous metals purification at low specific consumption of electric power and reagents. The use of bipolar electrodes and β-alumina diaphragms hinders the transfer of metallic impurities from the anode to the cathode. The effects revealed were used to develop new processes for the separation of non-ferrous metal alloys in ionic melts; most of them have been put into practice in non-ferrous metallurgy.

  15. Electrical Conductivity of Cryolite Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, P.; Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.

    1985-11-01

    This paper proposes an equation for the electrical conductivity of multicomponent cryolite-based mixtures. The equation is based on a physical model which assumes that the conductivity is proportional to the number density of the effective electric charges in the melt. The various authors in the available literature show a great discrepancy in conductivity data of cryolite-based melts. The equation based on the physical model enables determination of which set of data is preferable. Special consideration in this respect is given to the influence of magnesium flouride and lithium flouride additions to the melt.

  16. Lattice stability and high pressure melting mechanism of dense hydrogen up to 1.5 TPa

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Hua Y; Wu, Q

    2016-01-01

    Lattice stability and metastability, as well as melting, are important features of the physics and chemistry of dense hydrogen. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), the classical superheating limit and melting line of metallic hydrogen are investigated up to 1.5 TPa. The computations show that the classical superheating degree is about 100 K, and the classical melting curve becomes flat at a level of 350 K when beyond 500 GPa. This information allows us to estimate the well depth and the potential barriers that must be overcome when the crystal melts. Inclusion of nuclear quantum effects (NQE) using path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) predicts that both superheating limit and melting temperature are lowered to below room temperature, but the latter never reach absolute zero. Detailed analysis indicates that the melting is thermally activated, rather than driven by pure zero-point motion (ZPM). This argument was further supported by extensive PIMD simulations, demonstrating the stability of Fddd stru...

  17. The effects of vacancy on melting of Cu under hydrostatic and shock wave loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Ni, S.

    2009-12-01

    Defects, ubiquitous in real solids, are relevant to high pressure melting under static and shock loading conditions as in the Earth’s interior and during planetary impact. A simplest type of defects is vacancy, and we investigate melt- ing of a representative metal (Cu) with pre-existing vacan- cies under hydrostatic and shock wave loading using molec- ular dynamics simulations. The equilibrium melting curve is established with the superheating-supercooling hysteresis method. During hydrostatic compression, the vacancy con- centration is reduced from its initial value and the vacancy effect on melting is minimized at high pressures. Shock wave loading is conducted along h100i at different initial vacancy concentrations. Considerable superheating occurs for initial vacancy concentration5%. Dur- ing shock loading, preexistent vacancies facilitate plasticity and other defect formation, and thus reduce melting temper- ature. Our results indicate that vacancy effect on melting should be considered for shock loading and for low hydro- static pressures. 1

  18. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL CONTENT OF METAL-BURDEN FOR DIFFERENT GRADE MIX OF STEELS, MELTED IN THE STEEL-MAKING FURNACES NO 3 RUP “BELORUSSIAN METALLURGICAL WORKS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Andrianov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The program ''Calculation of the optimal metalburden composition" allowing to minimize the total cost of charging and of addition elements at the required output of molten metal of the predetermined chemical composition, has been developed on the basis of the offered technology.

  19. Crust behavior and erosion rate prediction of EPR sacrificial material impinged by core melt jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gen; Liu, Ming, E-mail: ming.liu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Jinshi; Chong, Daotong; Yan, Junjie

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • A numerical code was developed to analyze melt jet-concrete interaction in the frame of MPS method. • Crust and ablated concrete layer at UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt and concrete interface periodically developed and collapsed. • Concrete surface temperature fluctuated around a low temperature and ablation temperature. • Concrete erosion by Fe-Zr melt jet was significantly faster than that by UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt jet. - Abstract: Sacrificial material is a special ferro-siliceous concrete, designed in the ex-vessel core melt stabilization system of European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR). Given a localized break of RPV lower head, the melt directly impinges onto the dry concrete in form of compact jet. The concrete erosion behavior influences the failure of melt plug, and further affects melt spreading. In this study, a numerical code was developed in the frame of Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, to analyze the crust behavior and erosion rate of sacrificial concrete, impinged by prototypic melt jet. In validation of numerical modeling, the time-dependent erosion depth and erosion configuration matched well with the experimental data. Sensitivity study of sacrificial concrete erosion indicates that the crust and ablated concrete layer presented at UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt and concrete interface, whereas no crust could be found in the interaction of Fe-Zr melt with concrete. The crust went through stabilization-fracture-reformation periodic process, accompanied with accumulating and collapsing of molten concrete layer. The concrete surface temperature fluctuated around a low temperature and ablation temperature. It increased as the concrete surface layer was heated to melting, and dropped down when the cold concrete was revealed. The erosion progression was fast in the conditions of small jet diameter and large concrete inclination angle, and it was significantly faster in the erosion by metallic melt jet than by oxidic melt jet.

  20. Experiments and analyses on melt-structure-water interactions during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seghal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Bui, V.A.; Green, J.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Okkonen, T.O.; Dinh, A.T. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1998-04-01

    This report is the final report for the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI). It describes results of analytical and experimental studies concerning MSWI during the course of a hypothetical core meltdown accident in a LWR. Emphasis has been placed on phenomena which govern vessel failure mode and timing and the mechanisms and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets. It was found that: 2-D effects significantly diminished the focusing effect of an overlying metallic layer on top of an oxide melt pool. This result improves the feasibility of in-vessel retention of a melt pool through external cooling of the lower head; phenomena related to hole ablation and melt discharge, in the event of vessel failure, are affected significantly by crust formation; the jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from liquid to solid temperature; film boiling was investigated by developing a two-phase flow model and inserting it in a multi-D fluid dynamics code. It was concluded that the thickness of the film on the surface of a melt jet would be small and that the effects of the film on the process should not be large. This conclusion is contrary to the modeling employed in some other codes. The computer codes were developed and validated against the data obtained in the MSWI Project. The melt vessel interaction thermal analysis code describes the process of melt pool formation and convection and the resulting vessel thermal loadings. In addition, several innovative models were developed to describe the melt-water interaction process. The code MELT-3D treats the melt jet as a collection of particles whose movement is described with a three-dimensional Eulerian formulation. The model (SIPHRA) tracks the melt jet with an additional equation, using the

  1. The melting curve of Ni to 1 Mbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Oliver T.; Wood, Ian G.; Dobson, David P.; Vočadlo, Lidunka; Wang, Weiwei; Thomson, Andrew R.; Wann, Elizabeth T. H.; Morard, Guillaume; Mezouar, Mohamed; Walter, Michael J.

    2014-12-01

    The melting curve of Ni has been determined to 125 GPa using laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) experiments in which two melting criteria were used: firstly, the appearance of liquid diffuse scattering (LDS) during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondly, plateaux in temperature vs. laser power functions in both in situ and off-line experiments. Our new melting curve, defined by a Simon-Glatzel fit to the data where TM (K) = [ (PM/18.78 ± 10.20 + 1) ]1/2.42 ± 0.66 × 1726, is in good agreement with the majority of the theoretical studies on Ni melting and matches closely the available shock wave melting data. It is however dramatically steeper than the previous off-line LH-DAC studies in which determination of melting was based on the visual observation of motion aided by the laser speckle method. We estimate the melting point (TM) of Ni at the inner-core boundary (ICB) pressure of 330 GPa to be TM = 5800 ± 700 K (2 σ), within error of the value for Fe of TM = 6230 ± 500 K determined in a recent in situ LH-DAC study by similar methods to those employed here. This similarity suggests that the alloying of 5-10 wt.% Ni with the Fe-rich core alloy is unlikely to have any significant effect on the temperature of the ICB, though this is dependent on the details of the topology of the Fe-Ni binary phase diagram at core pressures. Our melting temperature for Ni at 330 GPa is ∼2500 K higher than that found in previous experimental studies employing the laser speckle method. We find that those earlier melting curves coincide with the onset of rapid sub-solidus recrystallization, suggesting that visual observations of motion may have misinterpreted dynamic recrystallization as convective motion of a melt. This finding has significant implications for our understanding of the high-pressure melting behaviour of a number of other transition metals.

  2. Nitrogen Control in VIM Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, P. D.; Hawk, J. A.

    NETL has developed a design and control philosophy for the addition of nitrogen to austenitic and ferritic steels. The design approach uses CALPHAD as the centerpiece to predict the level to which nitrogen is soluble in both the melt and the solid. Applications of this technique have revealed regions of "exclusion" in which the alloy, while within specification limits of prescribed, cannot be made by conventional melt processing. Furthermore, other investigations have found that substantial retrograde solubility of nitrogen exists, which can become problematic during subsequent melt processing and/or other finishing operations such as welding. Additionally, the CALPHAD method has been used to adjust primary melt conditions. To that end, nitrogen additions have been made using chrome nitride, silicon nitride, high-nitrogen ferrochrome as well as nitrogen gas. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach will be discussed and NETL experience in this area will be summarized with respect to steel structure.

  3. Feedback control of Layerwise Laser Melting using optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craeghs, Tom; Bechmann, Florian; Berumen, Sebastian; Kruth, Jean-Pierre

    Layerwise Laser Melting (LLM) is a layerwise production technique enabling the production of complex metallic parts. Thin powder layers are molten according to a predefined scan pattern by means of a laser source. Nowadays constant process parameters are used throughout the build, leading for some geometries to an overly thick feature size or overheating at downfacing surfaces. In this paper a monitoring and control system is presented which enables monitoring the melt pool continously at high speed throughout the building process. The signals from the sensors can be incorporated in a real-time control loop, in this way enabling feedback control of the process parameters. In this paper the experimental set-up will be first shown. Next the dynamic relation between the melt pool and the process parameters is identified. Finally the proof of concept for feedback control is demonstrated with experimental results.

  4. Atomic simulations for surface-initiated melting of Nb(111)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xi-yuan; WU Dan

    2009-01-01

    A modified analytic embedded-atom model(MAEAM) was applied to investigate surface premelting and melting behaviors of Nb(111) plane by molecular dynamics(MD) simulations. First the relaxation of surface interface space at 300 K was studied. Then a number N of the disordered atoms per unit area was determined at the given temperatures to investigate the surface premelting and melting evolution. The obtained results indicated that the premelting phenomena occurred at about 1 100 K and a liquid-like layer emerged on (111) plane simultaneously. As temperature increased up to 2 200 K, the number N grew logarithmically for short-range metallic interactions. Upon 2 350 K surface melting generated originally and the number N increased exponentially with the incremental temperature.

  5. Laser melting of uranium carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utton, C. A.; De Bruycker, F.; Boboridis, K.; Jardin, R.; Noel, H.; Guéneau, C.; Manara, D.

    2009-03-01

    In the context of the material research aimed at supporting the development of nuclear plants of the fourth Generation, renewed interest has recently arisen in carbide fuels. A profound understanding of the behaviour of nuclear materials in extreme conditions is of prime importance for the analysis of the operation limits of nuclear fuels, and prediction of possible nuclear reactor accidents. In this context, the main goal of the present paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of laser induced melting experiments on stoichiometric uranium carbides; UC, UC1.5 and UC2. Measurements were performed, at temperatures around 3000 K, under a few bars of inert gas in order to minimise vaporisation and oxidation effects, which may occur at these temperatures. Moreover, a recently developed investigation method has been employed, based on in situ analysis of the sample surface reflectivity evolution during melting. Current results, 2781 K for the melting point of UC, 2665 K for the solidus and 2681 K for the liquidus of U2C3, 2754 K for the solidus and 2770 K for the liquidus of UC2, are in fair agreement with early publications where the melting behaviour of uranium carbides was investigated by traditional furnace melting methods. Further information has been obtained in the current research about the non-congruent (solidus-liquidus) melting of certain carbides, which suggest that a solidus-liquidus scheme is followed by higher ratio carbides, possibly even for UC2.

  6. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  7. Research Progress of Key Basic Issue in Selective Laser Melting of Metallic Powder%选择性激光熔化成形关键基础问题的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞迪; 魏青松; 刘锦辉; 史玉升; 袁铁锤

    2012-01-01

    基于快速制造高性能复杂金属零件的需求,选择性激光熔化( Selective Laser Melting,SLM)快速成形技术诞生了,它是快速原型制造(Rapid Prototyping & Manufacturing,RP&M)的最新发展形式之一.SLM成形技术基于分层-叠加制造的思想,利用高能量激光束将金属粉末逐层熔化并成形为金属零件,具有制作形状复杂、相对密度高、节省材料等优点[1-2].SLM成形的基本思想与其他快速成形技术相同:首先建立零件的CAD模型,对零件原型逐层切片,每一层切片均包含截面的几何信息,并生成STL格式文件.然后在计算机控制下利用高能激光束熔化切片区域内的金属粉末,采用增长制造的原理成形出金属零件.

  8. Cluster Evolution in Undercooled Melt and Solidification of Undercooled Ge-based Alloy Melts Induced by Extrinsic Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煦; 景勤; 王文魁

    2003-01-01

    The structure or short-range order of clusters in undercooled metallic melts is influenced, to some extent, by the interfacial free energy between the cluster and the melt. Analyses of the effects of interfacial energy on the cluster structure based on the Gibbs equation show a possibility that atoms in the clusters tend to be packed more loosely with the increasing cluster size (or the undercooling). Nucleation may occur, following these analyses,when clusters reach a definite size and atoms in the clusters relax to some extent to form the crystal structure.Indirect support to this viewpoint is provided by the present results of cluster-induced nucleation experiments on undercooled Ge73.7Ni26.3 alloy melts.

  9. Quantifying melting and mobilistaion of interstitial melts in crystal mushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Ilya; Dobson, Katherine; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Humphreys, Madeleine

    2015-04-01

    The deformation of crystals mushes and separation of melts and crystals in is critical to understanding the development of physical and chemical heterogeneity in magma chambers and has been invoked as an eruption trigger mechanism. Here we investigate the behaviour of the melt in the well characterised, classic crystal mush system of the Skaergaard intrusion by combining experimental petrology and the non-destructive 3D imaging methods. Starting materials for partial melting experiments were four samples from the upper Middle Zone of the Layered Series. Cylinders, 15 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length, were drilled out of the rock samples, placed in alumina crucibles and held for 5 days in electric furnaces at atmospheric pressure and 1050-1100 °C. Redox conditions set by the CO-CO2 gas mixture were kept close to those of the FMQ buffer. We then use spatially registered 3D x-ray computed tomography images, collected before and after the experiment, to determine the volume and distribution of the crystal framework and interstitial phases, and the volume, distribution and connectivity the interstitial phases that undergo melting and extraction while at elevated temperature. Image analysis has allowed us to quantify these physical changes with high spatial resolution. Our work is a first step towards quantitative understanding of the melt mobilisation and migration processes operating in notionally locked crystal rich magmatic systems.

  10. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  11. Role of molten salt flux in melting of used beverage container (UBC) scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, J.; Sahai, Y. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Recycling of aluminum scrap, such as Used Beverage Container (UBC) scrap is steadily increasing. In secondary remelting of such scrap, it is a common practice to use protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of the suspended metal droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. The molten salt also reacts with metal. This causes metal loss and change of resulting metal composition. In this paper, role of molten salt fluxes in melting of UBC scrap is discussed, and selection criteria for molten salt are provided.

  12. Investigation of molybdate melts as an alternative method of reprocessing used nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Amber L.; Tkac, Peter; Paulenova, Alena; Willit, James L.; Williamson, Mark A.

    2017-04-01

    An investigation of molybdate melts containing sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) to achieve the separation of uranium from fission products by crystallization has been performed. The separation is based on the difference in solubility of the fission product metal oxides compared to the uranium oxide or molybdate in the molybdate melt. The molybdate melt dissolves uranium dioxide at high temperatures, and upon cooling, uranium precipitates as uranium dioxide or molybdate, whereas the fission product metals remain soluble in the melt. Small-scale experiments using gram quantities of uranium dioxide have been performed to investigate the feasibility of UO2 purification from the fission products. The composition of the uranium precipitate as well as data for partitioning of several fission product surrogates between the uranium precipitate and molybdate melt for various melt compositions are presented and discussed. The fission products Cs, Sr, Ru and Rh all displayed very large distribution ratios. The fission products Zr, Pd, and the lanthanides also displayed good distribution ratios (D > 10). A melt consisting of 20 wt% MoO3- 50 wt% Na2MoO4-30 wt% UO2 heated to 1313 K and cooled to 1123 K for the physical separation of the UO2 product from the melt, and washed once with Na2MoO4 displays optimum conditions for separation of the UO2 from the fission products.

  13. Surface treatment of 0Cr19Ni9 stainless steel SMAW jointby plasma melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗伟; 栾景飞; 严密

    2002-01-01

    Micro-plasma arc surface melting of 0Cr19Ni9 shielded metal arc welding joint with a micro-plasma arc welder produced a thin surface melted layer with a refined microstructure. The surface treatment changed the anodic polarization behavior in 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 solution. The polarization tests showed that for the as-welded joint both the heat-affected zone and the weld metal decreased in resistance to corrosion compared with the as-Received parent material while for the micro-plasma arc surface melted joint the corrosion resistance increased significantly. This increase in corrosion resistance is attributed to the rapid solidification of the melted layer. Rapid solidification of the melted layer refines its microstructure, decreases its microsegregation, and inhibits the precipitation of chromium carbides at the grain boundaries.received parent material while for the micro-plasma arc surface melted joint the corrosion resistance increased significantly. This increase in corrosion resistance is attributed to the rapid solidification of the melted layer. Rapid solidification of the melted layer refines its microstructure, decreases its microsegregation, and inhibits the precipitation of chromium carbides at the grain boundaries.

  14. Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov-Hansen, S.

    2007-09-15

    By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give

  15. Melting of superheated molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeta, Ulyana; Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2017-07-01

    Melting dynamics of micrometer scale, polycrystalline samples of isobutane, dimethyl ether, methyl benzene, and 2-propanol were investigated by fast scanning calorimetry. When films are superheated with rates in excess of 105 K s-1, the melting process follows zero-order, Arrhenius-like kinetics until approximately half of the sample has transformed. Such kinetics strongly imply that melting progresses into the bulk via a rapidly moving solid-liquid interface that is likely to originate at the sample's surface. Remarkably, the apparent activation energies for the phase transformation are large; all exceed the enthalpy of vaporization of each compound and some exceed it by an order of magnitude. In fact, we find that the crystalline melting kinetics are comparable to the kinetics of dielectric α-relaxation in deeply supercooled liquids. Based on these observations, we conclude that the rate of non-isothermal melting for superheated, low-molecular-weight crystals is limited by constituent diffusion into an abnormally dense, glass-like, non-crystalline phase.

  16. Melt processing of radioactive waste: A technical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlienger, M.E.; Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.

    1997-04-01

    Nuclear operations have resulted in the accumulation of large quantities of contaminated metallic waste which are stored at various DOE, DOD, and commercial sites under the control of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste will accumulate at an increasing rate as commercial nuclear reactors built in the 1950s reach the end of their projected lives, as existing nuclear powered ships become obsolete or unneeded, and as various weapons plants and fuel processing facilities, such as the gaseous diffusion plants, are dismantled, repaired, or modernized. For example, recent estimates of available Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex have suggested that as much as 700,000 tons of contaminated 304L stainless steel exist in the gaseous diffusion plants alone. Other high-value metals available in the DOE complex include copper, nickel, and zirconium. Melt processing for the decontamination of radioactive scrap metal has been the subject of much research. A major driving force for this research has been the possibility of reapplication of RSM, which is often very high-grade material containing large quantities of strategic elements. To date, several different single and multi-step melting processes have been proposed and evaluated for use as decontamination or recycling strategies. Each process offers a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses, and ultimately, no single melt processing scheme is optimum for all applications since processes must be evaluated based on the characteristics of the input feed stream and the desired output. This paper describes various melt decontamination processes and briefly reviews their application in developmental studies, full scale technical demonstrations, and industrial operations.

  17. Nepheline structural and chemical dependence on melt composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcial, José; Crum, Jarrod; Neill, Owen; McCloy, John

    2016-02-01

    Nepheline crystallizes upon slow-cooling in some melts concentrated in Na2O and Al2O3, which can result in a residual glass phase of low chemical durability. Nepheline can incorporate many components often found in high-level waste radioactive borosilicate glass, including glass network ions (e.g., Si, Al, Fe), alkali metals (e.g., Cs, K, Na, and possibly Li), alkaline-earth metals (e.g., Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg), and transition metals (e.g., Mn, and possibly Cr, Zn, Ni). When crystallized from melts of different compositions, nepheline chemistry varies as a function of starting glass composition. Five simulated high level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses shown to crystallize large fractions of nepheline on slow cooling, were selected for study. These melts constituted a range of Al2O3, B2O3, CaO, Na2O, K2O, Fe2O3, and SiO2 compositions. Compositional analyses of nepheline crystals in glass by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) indicate that boron is unlikely to be present in any significant concentration, if at all, in nepheline. Also, several models are presented for calculating the fraction of vacancies in the nepheline structure.

  18. Review of selective laser melting: Materials and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, C. Y., E-mail: cyap001@e.ntu.edu.sg [Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Block N3.1 - B2c - 01, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute @ NTU, Interdisciplinary Graduate School, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Block S2 - B3a - 01, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Chua, C. K., E-mail: mckchua@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, Z. H., E-mail: azhliu@ntu.edu.sg; Zhang, D. Q., E-mail: zhangdq@ntu.edu.sg; Loh, L. E., E-mail: leloh1@e.ntu.edu.sg; Sing, S. L., E-mail: sing0011@e.ntu.edu.sg [Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Block N3.1 - B2c - 01, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Dong, Z. L., E-mail: zldong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Block N4.1, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a particular rapid prototyping, 3D printing, or Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique designed to use high power-density laser to melt and fuse metallic powders. A component is built by selectively melting and fusing powders within and between layers. The SLM technique is also commonly known as direct selective laser sintering, LaserCusing, and direct metal laser sintering, and this technique has been proven to produce near net-shape parts up to 99.9% relative density. This enables the process to build near full density functional parts and has viable economic benefits. Recent developments of fibre optics and high-power laser have also enabled SLM to process different metallic materials, such as copper, aluminium, and tungsten. Similarly, this has also opened up research opportunities in SLM of ceramic and composite materials. The review presents the SLM process and some of the common physical phenomena associated with this AM technology. It then focuses on the following areas: (a) applications of SLM materials and (b) mechanical properties of SLM parts achieved in research publications. The review is not meant to put a ceiling on the capabilities of the SLM process but to enable readers to have an overview on the material properties achieved by the SLM process so far. Trends in research of SLM are also elaborated in the last section.

  19. Review of selective laser melting: Materials and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C. Y.; Chua, C. K.; Dong, Z. L.; Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, D. Q.; Loh, L. E.; Sing, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a particular rapid prototyping, 3D printing, or Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique designed to use high power-density laser to melt and fuse metallic powders. A component is built by selectively melting and fusing powders within and between layers. The SLM technique is also commonly known as direct selective laser sintering, LaserCusing, and direct metal laser sintering, and this technique has been proven to produce near net-shape parts up to 99.9% relative density. This enables the process to build near full density functional parts and has viable economic benefits. Recent developments of fibre optics and high-power laser have also enabled SLM to process different metallic materials, such as copper, aluminium, and tungsten. Similarly, this has also opened up research opportunities in SLM of ceramic and composite materials. The review presents the SLM process and some of the common physical phenomena associated with this AM technology. It then focuses on the following areas: (a) applications of SLM materials and (b) mechanical properties of SLM parts achieved in research publications. The review is not meant to put a ceiling on the capabilities of the SLM process but to enable readers to have an overview on the material properties achieved by the SLM process so far. Trends in research of SLM are also elaborated in the last section.

  20. Inward melting in a vertical tube which allows free expansion of the phase-change medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparrow, E.M.; Broadbent, J.A.

    1982-05-01

    Experiments on the melting of a phase-change medium in a vertical tube yielded quantitative results both for the heat transfer and the timewise evolution of the melting front. The upper surface of the phase-change medium was bounded by an insulated air space, which accommodated the volume changes which accompany the melting process. Numerical solutions based on a pure conduction model were also performed for comparison purposes. It was found that the rate of melting and the heat transfer are significantly affected by fluid motions in the liquid melt induced by the volume change and by natural convection, with the former being significant only at early times. For melting initiated with the solid at the phase-change temperatures, the experimentally determined values of the energy transfer associated with the melting process were about 50 percent higher than those predicted by the conduction model. Furthermore, the measured values of the energy stored in the liquid metal were about twice the conduction prediction. A compact dimensionless correlation of the experimental results was achieved using the Fourier, Stefan, and Grashof numbers. Initial subcooling of the solid substantially decreased the rate of melting, with corresponding decreases in the energy transfers for melting and sensible heat storage.

  1. Adaptation of Co-Cr based porcelain-fused-to-metal crown fabricated by selective laser melting%选择性激光熔融钴铬合金烤瓷冠适合性的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑庄; 赵要武; 周慈文; 唐亮

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价选择性激光熔融(selective laser melting,SLM)技术和常规失蜡(lost-wax,LW)铸造技术制作钴铬合金烤瓷冠的适合性.方法 将48颗尺寸统一的树脂代型编号后随机分为两组,每组24颗,分别采用SLM法和LW法制成钴铬合金烤瓷冠,用玻璃离子水门汀粘固于对应编号的树脂代型上,片切后用体视显微镜测量烤瓷冠的适合性.结果 SLM组与LW组的边缘适合性分别为(25.04±5.42) μm、(27.40±6.34)μm,差异无统计学意义(t=-1.751,P=0.084);SLM组与LW组的(牙合)向适合性分别为(32.64±8.85)μm、(56.15±15.81) μm,差异有统计学意义(t=5.942,P=0.034);SLM组与LW组的内部适合性分别为(35.86±8.05) μm、(25.73 ±4.78)μm,差异有统计学意义(=4.928,P=0.033).结论 采用SLM法和LW法制作的钴铬合金烤瓷冠,适合性均可满足临床需要,SLM法制作的钴铬合金烤瓷冠的验向适合性和内部适合性优于LW法.

  2. Microstructural and mechanical investigation of aluminium alloy (Al 1050) melted by microwave hybrid heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashank Lingappa, M.; Srinath, M. S.; Amarendra, H. J.

    2017-07-01

    Microwave processing of metals is an emerging area. Melting of bulk metallic materials through microwave irradiation is still immature. In view of this, the present paper discusses the melting of bulk Al 1050 metallic material through microwave irradiation. The melting process is carried out successfully in a domestic microwave oven with 900 W power at 2450 MHz frequency. Metallurgical and mechanical characterization of the processed and as-received material is carried out. Aluminium phase is found to be dominant in processed material when tested through x-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructure study of as-cast metal through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the formation of uniform hexagonal grain structure free from pores and cavities. The average tensile strength of the cast material is found to be around 21% higher, when compared to as-received material. Vickers’ microhardness of the as-cast metal is measured and is 10% higher than that of the as-received metal. Radiography on as-cast metal shows no significant defects. Al 1050 material melted through microwave irradiation has exhibited superior properties than the as-received Al 1050.

  3. Inducing Stable α + β Microstructures during Selective Laser Melting of Ti-6Al-4V Using Intensified Intrinsic Heat Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Barriobero-Vila

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting is a promising powder-bed-based additive manufacturing technique for titanium alloys: near net-shaped metallic components can be produced with high resource-efficiency and cost savings [...

  4. Evaluation on electrical resistivity of silicon materials after electron beam melting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hafiz Muhammad Noor Ul Huda Khan Asghar; Shuang Shi; Dachuan Jiang; Yi Tan

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with the study of electron beam melting (EBM) methodology utilized in melting silicon material and subsequently discusses on the effect of oxygen level on electrical resistivity change after EBM process. The oxygen content was reduced from 6.177 to less than 0.0517 ppmw when refining time exceeded 10 min with removal efficiency of more than 99.08%. The average value of electrical resistivity of silicon before EBM processing was recorded to be 2.25 cm but with the increase in melting time that was applied through EBM, the electrical resistivity was recorded to go high in the range of 4–13 cm for different regions. The electrical resistivity values were greater in the top and the bottom regions, whereas lowest in the central region at all conditions of melting time. It is the result of the evaporation of oxygen during melting process and the segregation of metal impurities during solidification.

  5. REMOVAL OF CERTAIN FISSION PRODUCT METALS FROM LIQUID BISMUTH COMPOSITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, O.E.; Howe, H.E.; Avrutik, E.R.

    1959-11-24

    A method is described for purifying a solution of urarium in liquid bismuth containing at least one metal from the group consisting of selenium, tellurium, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, niobium, and zirconium. The solution is contacted with zinc in an inert atmosphere to form a homogeneous melt, a solid zinc phase is formed, and the zinc phase containing the metal is separated from the melt.

  6. Magnetic Biocomposites for Remote Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengbo; Liebert, Tim; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Andrea; Gräfe, Christine; Clement, Joachim H; Heinze, Thomas

    2015-08-10

    A new approach toward the fabrication of biocompatible composites suitable for remote melting is presented. It is shown that magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) can be embedded into a matrix of biocompatible thermoplastic dextran esters. For that purpose, fatty acid esters of dextran with adjustable melting points in the range of 30-140 °C were synthesized. Esterification of the polysaccharide by activation of the acid as iminium chlorides guaranteed mild reaction conditions leading to high quality products as confirmed by FTIR- and NMR spectroscopy as well as by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). A method for the preparation of magnetically responsive bionanocomposites was developed consisting of combined dissolution/suspension of the dextran ester and hydrophobized MNPs in an organic solvent followed by homogenization with ultrasonication, casting of the solution, drying and melting of the composite for a defined shaping. This process leads to a uniform distribution of MNPs in nanocomposite as revealed by scanning electron microscope. Samples of different geometries were exposed to high frequency alternating magnetic field. It could be shown that defined remote melting of such biocompatible nanocomposites is possible for the first time. This may lead to a new class of magnetic remote control systems, which are suitable for controlled release applications or self-healing materials.

  7. UNCONSTRAINED MELTING AND SOLIDIFICATION INSIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, ... at initial time of melting process where the layer of liquid PCM near hot ... They carried out the simulation at different Rayleigh numbers ranging from 10 .... An enthalpy-porosity technique [28] is used in FLUENT for modeling the.

  8. Thermodynamics of freezing and melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Costigliola, Lorenzo; Bailey, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    phases at a single thermodynamic state point provide the basis for calculating the pressure, density and entropy of fusion as functions of temperature along the melting line, as well as the variation along this line of the reduced crystalline vibrational mean-square displacement (the Lindemann ratio...

  9. Slicing Strategy for Selective Laser Melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xin; LIU Ji-quan; FAN Shu-qian

    2014-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is one of the most popular additive manufacturing (AM) technologies for metal parts. Slicing result, especially for the different dimensional slicing geometry and its topology, plays an important role because of the thermodynamic behavior of metal powders. To get correct geometry and reliable topology, a slicing strategy for SLM is proposed. The unavoidable numerical error caused by sampling and geometric transformation is suppressed firstly, according to shifting the z-coordinate of a vertex with a small value such the shifted vertex is on a slicing plane. The result of vertex-shifting makes it possible to identify different geometric features such as skin surfaces, overhang surfaces, extreme edges and volumetric solid. Second, from geometric primitives a hierarchy of axis-aligned bounding boxes (AABBs) is constructed and used to speed up intersection of slicing planes against sets of triangles. All intersecting segments are given different signs to depict their geometric or topological information. Based the different signs, the different dimensional geometry that is eventually represented by simple and anticlockwise oriented polygons, are identified. Finally, the polygons are classified and nested in a multi-tree data structure set to produce correct topological relations. The result of digital and physical experiments shows the proposed slicing strategy is feasible and robust.

  10. Density and ionic structure of NdF_3-LiF melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宪伟; 王兆文; 高炳亮; 石忠宁; 刘风国; 曹晓舟

    2010-01-01

    NdF3-LiF melts are commonly used in the electrolysis process of metallic neodymium production. Research on the density and ionic structure of the electrolyte is important for its close connection with the electrolysis mechanism and process. In this paper, the density of LiF-NdF3 melts was studied by the Archimedes method. The results showed that the density decreased with increasing temperature and LiF contents. The changing law was discussed and explained in terms of the micro ionic structure of the melts....

  11. Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurber, W.C.; MacKinney, J.

    1997-02-01

    During the melting of steel with radioactive contamination, radionuclides may be distributed among the metal product, the home scrap, the slag, the furnace lining and the off-gas collection system. In addition, some radionuclides will pass through the furnace system and vent to the atmosphere. To estimate radiological impacts of recycling radioactive scrap steel, it is essential to understand how radionuclides are distributed within the furnace system. For example, an isotope of a gaseous element (e.g., radon) will exhaust directly from the furnace system into the atmosphere while a relatively non-volatile element (e.g., manganese) can be distributed among all the other possible media. This distribution of radioactive contaminants is a complex process that can be influenced by numerous chemical and physical factors, including composition of the steel bath, chemistry of the slag, vapor pressure of the particular element of interest, solubility of the element in molten iron, density of the oxide(s), steel melting temperature and melting practice (e.g., furnace type and size, melting time, method of carbon adjustment and method of alloy additions). This paper discusses the distribution of various elements with particular reference to electric arc furnace steelmaking. The first two sections consider the calculation of partition ratios for elements between metal and slag based on thermodynamic considerations. The third section presents laboratory and production measurements of the distribution of various elements among slag, metal, and the off-gas collection system; and the final section provides recommendations for the assumed distribution of each element of interest.

  12. ONE – STAGE METAL WASTES RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotary tilting furnace is the most efficient installation for recycling of dispersible metal wastes of any alloy. Several constructions have been designed for chips heating and melting, scale recovery, ets.

  13. Laser-based additive manufacturing of metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available For making metallic products through Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes, laser-based systems play very significant roles. Laser-based processes such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) are dominating processes...

  14. Edge-melting: nanoscale key-mechanism to explain nanoparticle formation from heated TEM grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaria, Maura, E-mail: maura.cesaria@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, Antonietta; Catalano, Massimo [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Caricato, Anna Paola; Martino, Maurizio [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanoparticle formation from metal grids explained by edge melting as key mechanism. • The inconsistency of bulk phenomenology invoking the vapor pressure is discussed. • Surface-melting and size-dependent evaporation are questioned as unsatisfactory. • Edge-melting: edges, corners, facets invoked as highly thermally unstable surfaces. • The polycrystalline nature of the really occurring metal grids is accounted for. - Abstract: In this study, we examine at both experimental and fundamental levels, the experimental evidence of nanoparticle formation in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) metal grids annealed at temperatures lower than the melting point of the corresponding metal bulk material. Our experimental investigation considers the most thermally unstable TEM grids (i.e. Cu-grids) and inspects the possible sources and mechanisms of contamination of thin films, conventionally deposited on carbon-coated Cu-grids. The investigations are supported by morphological–compositional analyses performed in different regions of the TEM sample. Then, a general model is formulated and discussed in order to explain the grid thermal instability, based on the critical role of edge-melting (i.e. melting initiated at edges and corners of the grid bars), the enhanced rate of evaporation from a liquid surface and the polycristallinity of the grid bars. Hence, we totally disregard conventional arguments such as bulk evaporation and metal vapor pressure and, in order to emphasize and clarify the alternative point of view of our model, we also overview the nano-scale melting phenomenology relevant to our discussion and survey the discrepancies reported in the literature.

  15. Basal terraces on melting ice shelves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dutrieux, Pierre; Stewart, Craig; Jenkins, Adrian; Nicholls, Keith W; Corr, Hugh F. J; Rignot, Eric; Steffen, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Ocean waters melt the margins of Antarctic and Greenland glaciers, and individual glaciers' responses and the integrity of their ice shelves are expected to depend on the spatial distribution of melt...

  16. Reduction of Oxidative Melt Loss of Aluminum and Its Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Subodh K. Das; Shridas Ningileri

    2006-03-17

    This project led to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of dross formation. The microstructural evolution in industrial dross samples was determined. Results suggested that dross that forms in layers with structure and composition determined by the local magnesium concentration alone. This finding is supported by fundamental studies of molten metal surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data revealed that only magnesium segregates to the molten aluminum alloy surface and reacts to form a growing oxide layer. X-ray diffraction techniques that were using to investigate an oxidizing molten aluminum alloy surface confirmed for the first time that magnesium oxide is the initial crystalline phase that forms during metal oxidation. The analytical techniques developed in this project are now available to investigate other molten metal surfaces. Based on the improved understanding of dross initiation, formation and growth, technology was developed to minimize melt loss. The concept is based on covering the molten metal surface with a reusable physical barrier. Tests in a laboratory-scale reverberatory furnace confirmed the results of bench-scale tests. The main highlights of the work done include: A clear understanding of the kinetics of dross formation and the effect of different alloying elements on dross formation was obtained. It was determined that the dross evolves in similar ways regardless of the aluminum alloy being melted and the results showed that amorphous aluminum nitride forms first, followed by amorphous magnesium oxide and crystalline magnesium oxide in all alloys that contain magnesium. Evaluation of the molten aluminum alloy surface during melting and holding indicated that magnesium oxide is the first crystalline phase to form during oxidation of a clean aluminum alloy surface. Based on dross evaluation and melt tests it became clear that the major contributing factor to aluminum alloy dross was in the alloys with Mg content. Mg was

  17. Validation of the THIRMAL-1 melt-water interaction code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, C.C.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The THIRMAL-1 computer code has been used to calculate nonexplosive LWR melt-water interactions both in-vessel and ex-vessel. To support the application of the code and enhance its acceptability, THIRMAL-1 has been compared with available data from two of the ongoing FARO experiments at Ispra and two of the Corium Coolant Mixing (CCM) experiments performed at Argonne. THIRMAL-1 calculations for the FARO Scoping Test and Quenching Test 2 as well as the CCM-5 and -6 experiments were found to be in excellent agreement with the experiment results. This lends confidence to the modeling that has been incorporated in the code describing melt stream breakup due to the growth of both Kelvin-Helmholtz and large wave instabilities, the sizes of droplets formed, multiphase flow and heat transfer in the mixing zone surrounding and below the melt metallic phase. As part of the analysis of the FARO tests, a mechanistic model was developed to calculate the prefragmentation as it may have occurred when melt relocated from the release vessel to the water surface and the model was compared with the relevant data from FARO.

  18. Effect of melting technology on the properties of G17CrMo5-5 steel for cast turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mańkowski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Two technologies of the G17CrMo 5-5 cast steel melting were compared, i.e. the so far used oxygen-recovery melting technology (electricarc furnace + ladle furnace – EAF + LF and a new recovery melting technology (electric induction furnace + ladle furnace - EIF + LF.The effect of the melting technology on the properties of cast steel for turbine parts was determined. The cast steel was evaluated in term of its metallurgical purity and mechanical properties. During melting of G17CrMo 5-5 steel in induction furnace, lower total content of oxygen in casting was reached, but nitrogen content was higher than it was in the cast steel from arc furnace. Metal refining in LF improved the steel desulphurising degree and contributed to modification of the non-metallic inclusions.

  19. The effect of ultrasonic processing on solidification microstructure and heat transfer in stainless steel melt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Kang, Jinwu; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Jiyu; Huang, Tianyou

    2015-11-01

    The heat transfer in the ultrasonic processing of stainless steel melt is studied in this thesis. The temperature field is simulated when the metal melt is treated with and without ultrasound. In order to avoid the erosion of high temperature melt, ultrasound was introduced from the bottom of melt. It is found that the temperature of melt apparently increases when processed with ultrasound, and the greater the ultrasonic power is, the higher the melt temperature will be; ultrasonic processing can reduce the temperature gradient, leading to more uniform temperature distribution in the melt. The solidification speed is obviously brought down due to the introduction of ultrasound during solidification, with the increasing of ultrasonic power, the melt temperature rises and the solidification speed decreases; as without ultrasound, the interface of solid and mushy zone is arc-shaped, so is the interface of liquid and mushy zone, with ultrasound, the interface of solid and mushy zone is still arc-shaped, but the interface of liquid and mushy zone is almost flat. The simulation results of temperature field are verified in experiment, which also indicates that the dendrite growth direction is in accord with thermal flux direction. The effect of ultrasonic treatment, which improves with the increase of treating power, is in a limited area due to the attenuation of ultrasound.

  20. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  1. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  2. Fundamental Aspects of Selective Melting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, Frank B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Certain details of the additive manufacturing process known as selective laser melting (SLM) affect the performance of the final metal part. To unleash the full potential of SLM it is crucial that the process engineer in the field receives guidance about how to select values for a multitude of process variables employed in the building process. These include, for example, the type of powder (e.g., size distribution, shape, type of alloy), orientation of the build axis, the beam scan rate, the beam power density, the scan pattern and scan rate. The science-based selection of these settings con- stitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy, reactive, dynamic wetting followed by re-solidification. In addition, inherent to the process is its considerable variability that stems from the powder packing. Each time a limited number of powder particles are placed, the stacking is intrinsically different from the previous, possessing a different geometry, and having a different set of contact areas with the surrounding particles. As a result, even if all other process parameters (scan rate, etc) are exactly the same, the shape and contact geometry and area of the final melt pool will be unique to that particular configuration. This report identifies the most important issues facing SLM, discusses the fundamental physics associated with it and points out how modeling can support the additive manufacturing efforts.

  3. Best practices for making high integrity lightweight metal castings- molten metal composition and cleanliness control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qigui Wang

    2014-01-01

    To make high integrity lightweight metal castings, best practices are required in various stages of casting and heat treatment processes, including liquid metal composition and quality control, casting and gating/riser system design, and process optimization. This paper presents best practices for liquid metal processing and quality assurance of molten metal in both melting and mold ifling. Best practices for other aspects of lightweight metal casting wil be published separately.

  4. The effect of sulfide dissolved in silicate melts on enhancing the solubility of the Highly Siderophile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are large inconsistencies among experimental studies of Highly Siderophile Element (HSE) partitioning relations between silicates and metal or sulfide phases, which has usually been attributed to "micronuggets", a general term for sub-optical (approximately HSE sulfide-melt/silicate-melt partition coefficients, where results range over several orders of magnitude. Moreover, nearly all the reported results of directly determined sulfide-melt/silicate-melt partition coefficients are considerably lower than values calculated by combining metal/silicate-melt with metal/sulfide-melt partition coefficients. This discrepancy has been attributed to large effects of S dissolved as sulfide in the silicate melts on HSE solubilities. As such large effects are not expected from the thermodynamic modeling of sulfide solubilities in silicate melts, it has been proposed that HSEs dissolve in sulfide-containing silicate melts by forming HSE-S complexes. This idea has been tested by experiments that compare the solubilities of Ir, Re and Ru in a high-TiO2 silicate melt both with and without dissolved sulfide at 1400 to 1600ºC at atmospheric pressure. The high TiO2 suppresses micronuggets. Experiments were analysed by LA-ICP-MS, with detection limits approaching 2 ppb. For Ir, the results show that at fO2 low enough to enable measurable sulfide in the melt, the presence of the sulfide just raises the level of dissolved Ir above detection limits. These results suggest a fairly large influence of the sulfide, but are not quantitative. By contrast, the experiments on Ru and Re clearly show only a modest effect of dissolved sulfide.

  5. Melting Behaviour of Ferronickel Slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagadin, Christoph; Luidold, Stefan; Wagner, Christoph; Wenzl, Christine

    2016-12-01

    The industrial manufacturing of ferronickel in electric furnaces produces large amounts of slag with strong acidic character and high melting points, which seriously stresses the furnace refractory lining. In this study, the melting behavior of synthetically produced ferronickel slags on magnesia as refractory material was determined by means of a hot stage microscope. Therefore, slags comprising the main oxides SiO2 (35-70 wt.%), MgO (15-45 wt.%) and Fe2O3 (5-35 wt.%) were melted in a graphite crucible and afterwards analyzed by a hot stage microscope. The design of experiments, which was created by the statistic software MODDE®, included 20 experiments with varying slag compositions as well as atmospheres. The evaluation of the test results occurred at three different characteristic states of the samples like the softening point according to DIN 51730 and the temperatures at which the area of residual cross-section of the samples amounted to 30% and 40%, respectively, of the original value depending of their SiO2/MgO ratio and iron oxide content. Additionally, the thickness of the zone influenced by the slag was measured and evaluated.

  6. Optimization of the Brass Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernat S.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the optimization of the melting brass. Brasses, as one of the most popular alloys of copper, deserve special attention in the context of the processes of melting, which in turn would provide not only products of better quality, but also reduce the cost of their production or refining. For this purpose, several studies carried out deriatographic (DTA and thermogravimetric (TG using derivatograph. The results were confronted with the program SLAG - PROP used to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the coatings extraction. Based on the survey and analysis of the program can identify the most favorable physico - chemical properties, which should be carried out treatments. This allows for slag mixtures referred configurations oxide matrix containing specific stimulators of the reaction. Conducted empirical studies indicate a convergence of the areas proposed by the application. It should also be noted that the program also indicates additional areas in which to carry out these processes would get even better, to optimize the melting process, the results.

  7. Impact-melt origin for the Simondium, Pinnaroo, and Hainholz mesosiderites: implicatiions for impact processes beyond the Earth--Moon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floran, R J; Caulfield, J B.D.; Harlow, G E; Prinz, M

    1978-05-01

    The Simondium, Pinnaroo, and Hainholz mesosiderites are interpreted to be clast-laden impact melts that crystallized from immiscible silicate, metallic (Fe-FeS) liquids. The existence of silicate melts is shown by intergranular basaltic textures. Metallic melts are inferred on the basis of smooth boundaries between metal and troilite and the occurrence of troilite as anastomosing areas that radiate outward into the silicate fractions. These relations suggest that troilite crystallized after silicates, concentrating as a late-stage residuum. Evidence for impact melting includes: diversity and abundance of clast types (mineral, metal, lithic) in various stages of recrystallization and assimilation; differences in mineral chemistries between clasts and igneous-textured matrix silicates; unusual metal plus silicate bulk composition. Silicate clasts consist primarily of orthopyroxene and minor olivine with a range of Fe/Fe + Mg ratios, anorthitic plagioclase, and rare orthopyroxenite (diogenite) fragments. Substantial amounts of Fe-Ni metal were melted during the impact events and minor amounts were incorporated into the melts as clasts. The clast populations suggest that at least four rock types were melted and mixed: (a) diogenite, (b) a plagioclase-rich source, possibly cumulate eucrite, (c) dunite, and (d) metal. Most orthopyroxene appears to have been derived from fragmentation of diogenites. Orthopyroxene (En/sub 82-61/) and olivine (Fo/sub 86-67/) clasts include much material unsampled as individual meteorites and probably represent a variety of source rocks.

  8. Effect of impurities in industrial salts on aluminum scrap melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, J.; Sahai, Y. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Revet, A. [Kalium Canada, ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    Aluminum scrap such as Used Beverage Containers (UBC) is melted under a protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of molten droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. Generally, the salt compositions for aluminum scrap recycling are based on equimolar mixtures of NaCl and KCl. A small amount of fluoride is also added in the salt. In the past, laboratory research at universities and industrial laboratories have been limited to pure salts. However, the industrial salts have impurities such as sulfates and other insoluble materials. These impurities have a pronounced effect on the efficiency of the scrap remelting process. In this paper, the role of impurities in industrial salts in terms of their chemical interactions with the metal are summarized. The efficiency of different industrial grade salts containing varying amounts of sulfates and other insoluble impurities for scrap recycling is compared.

  9. Light metal compound casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konrad; J.; M.; PAPIS; Joerg; F.; LOEFFLER; Peter; J.; UGGOWITZER

    2009-01-01

    ‘Compound casting’simplifies joining processes by directly casting a metallic melt onto a solid metal substrate. A continuously metallurgic transition is very important for industrial applications, such as joint structures of spaceframe constructions in transport industry. In this project, ‘compound casting’ of light metals is investigated, aiming at weight-saving. The substrate used is a wrought aluminium alloy of type AA5xxx, containing magnesium as main alloying element. The melts are aluminium alloys, containing various alloying elements (Cu, Si, Zn), and magnesium. By replacing the natural oxygen layer with a zinc layer, the inherent wetting difficulties were avoided, and compounds with flawless interfaces were successfully produced (no contraction defects, cracks or oxides). Electron microscopy and EDX investigations as well as optical micrographs of the interfacial areas revealed their continu- ously metallic constitution. Diffusion of alloying elements leads to heat-treatable microstructures in the vicinity of the joining interfaces in Al-Al couples. This permits significant variability of mechanical properties. Without significantly cutting down on wettability, the formation of low-melting intermetallic phases (Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17 IMPs) at the interface of Al-Mg couples was avoided by applying a protective coating to the substrate.

  10. Light metal compound casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konrad J.M.PAPIS; Joerg F.LOEFFLER; Peter J.UGGOWITZER

    2009-01-01

    'Compound casting'simplifies joining processes by directly casting a metallic melt onto a solid metal substrate. A continuously metallurgic transition is very important for industrial applications, such as joint structures of spaceframe constructions in transport industry. In this project, 'compound casting' of light metals is investigated, aiming at weight-saving. The substrate used is a wrought aluminium alloy of type AA5xxx, containing magnesium as main alloying element. The melts are aluminium alloys, containing various alloying elements (Cu, Si, Zn), and magnesium. By replacing the natural oxygen layer with a zinc layer, the inherent wetting difficulties were avoided, and compounds with flawless interfaces were successfully produced (no contraction defects, cracks or oxides). Electron microscopy and EDX investigations as well as optical micrographs of the interfacial areas revealed their continu-ously metallic constitution. Diffusion of alloying elements leads to heat-treatable microstructures in the vicinity of the joining interfaces in Al-Al couples. This permits significant variability of mechanical properties. Without significantly cutting down on wettability, the formation of low-melting intermetallic phases (Al3Mg2 and AI12Mg17 IMPs) at the interface of Al-Mg couples was avoided by applying a protec-tive coating to the substrate.

  11. DC Arc Plasma Furnace Melting of Waste Incinerator Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mingzhou; MENG Yuedong; SHI Jiabiao; KUANG Jingan; NI Guohua; LIU Wei; JIANG Yiman

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was melted using a set of direct current (DC) arc plasma furnace system for the first time in China.At a feed-rate of flying ash of 80 kg/h,the temperature at the gas outlet was above 1300℃.Dioxins in the off-gas were recorded as 0.029 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (international toxic equivalent,I-TEQ),well below 0.5 ng TEQ/Nm3 (toxic equivalent,TEQ),while those in the melted product(slag)were 0.00035 ng/g I-TEQ.Molten slag from the furnace showed excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals.These results prove that the plasma furnace is effective for the detoxification and stabilization of MSWI fly ash.

  12. Development of metallic fuel fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Ho; Lee, Chong Yak; Lee, Myung Ho and others

    1999-03-01

    With the vacuum melting and casting of the U-10wt%Zr alloy which is metallic fuel for liquid metal fast breeder reactor, we studied the microstructure of the alloy and the parameters of the melting and casting for the fuel rods. Internal defects of the U-10wt%Zr fuel by gravity casting, were inspected by non-destructive test. U-10wt%Zr alloy has been prepared for the thermal stability test in order to estimate the decomposition of the lamellar structure with relation to swelling under irradiation condition. (author)

  13. Metallic copper in ordinary chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic Cu of moderately high purity (approximately 985 mg/g Cu, approximately 15 mg/g Ni) occurs in at least 66% of ordinary chondrites (OC) as heterogeneously distributed, small (typically less than or equal to 20 micrometers) rounded to irregular grains. The mean modal abundance of metallic Cu in H, L and LL chondrites is low: 1.0 to 1.4 x 10(exp -4) vol%, corresponding to only 4 - 5 % of the total Cu in OC whole rocks. In more than 75% of the metallic-Cu-bearing OC, at least some metallic Cu occurs at metallic-Fe-Ni-troilite grain boundaries. In some cases it also occurs within troilite, within metallic Fe-Ni, or at the boundaries these phases form with silicates or chromite. Ordinary chondrites that contain a relatively large number of occurrences of metallic Cu/sq mm have a tendency to have experienced moderately high degrees of shock. Shock processes can cause local melting and transportation of metallic Fe-Ni and troilte; because metallic Cu is mainly associated with these phases, it also gets redistributed during shock events. In the most common petrographic assemblage containing metallic Cu, the Cu is adjacent to small irregular troilite grains surrounded by taenite plus tetrataenite; this assemblage resembles fizzed troilite and may have formed by localized shock melting or remelting of a metal-troilite assemblage.

  14. The judgment of the All-melted-moment during using electron beam melting equipment to purify silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaojie; Meng, Jianxiong; Wang, Shuaiye; Jiang, Tonghao; Wang, Feng; Tan, Yi; Jiang, Dachuan

    2017-06-01

    Experiment has proved that the rate of impurity removal depends on the pressure and the temperature of the vacuum chamber during using electron beam to smelt silicon, and the amount of removed-impurity depends on time when other conditions are the same. In the actual production process, smelting time is a decisive factor of impurity removal amount while pressure and temperature of the vacuum chamber is certain due to a certain melting power. To avoiding the influence of human control and improving the quality of production, thinking of using cooling water temperature to estimate the state of material during metal smelting is considered. We try to use the change of cooling water temperature to judge that when silicon is all melted and to evaluate the effectiveness of this method.

  15. Dynamic melting and impurity particle tracking in continuously adjustable AC magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarevics, V.; Pericleous, K.

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of semi-levitation melting is extended to account for the presence of particles (impurities, broken metal dendrite agglomerates, bubbles) during the full melting cycle simulated numerically using the pseudo-spectral schemes. The AC coil is dynamically moving with the melt front progress, while the generated Joule heat serves to enhance the melting rate. The electromagnetic force is decomposed into the time average and the oscillating parts. The time average effects on the particle transport are investigated previously using approximations derived for a locally uniform magnetic field. This paper presents expressions for the skin-layer type of the AC force containing also the pulsating part which contributes to the particle drag by the ‘history’ and ‘added mass’ contributions. The intense turbulence in the bulk of molten metal additionally contributes to the particle dispersion. The paper attempts to demonstrate the importance of each of the mentioned effects onto the particle transport during the melting until the final pouring stage. The method could be extended to similar AC field controlled melting/solidification processes.

  16. Melting of iron nanoparticles embedded in silica prepared by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Peng; Ma, Ji [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cao, Hui, E-mail: caoh@lzu.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Yi [Department of Biology Science, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203 (China); Wang, Lianwen, E-mail: lwwang@lzu.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Jiangong [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-08-20

    Highlights: • Melting of metallic nanoparticles was studied for some eight elements. • This slim range of materials is successfully expanded to iron. • A mechanical-milled iron–silica composite is employed. • For iron particles of 15 nm in diameter, the melting point depression is 30 K. • The measured data is in agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Abstract: For decades, experimental studies on the size-dependent melting of metals are regretfully limited to some eight archetypal examples. In this work, to expand this slim range of materials, the melting behavior of Fe nanoparticles embedded in SiO{sub 2} prepared by using mechanical milling are investigated. Effects of factors in sample preparation on the size, isolation and thermal stability of Fe nanoparticles are systematically studied. On this basis, the size-dependent melting of Fe is successfully traced: for Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of about 15 nm, the melting point depression is 30 °C in comparison with bulk Fe, in accordance with our recent theoretical prediction.

  17. Carbonatitic and granitic melts produced under conditions of primary immiscibility during anatexis in the lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Silvio; Wunder, Bernd; Ziemann, Martin A.; Wälle, Markus; O'Brien, Patrick J.

    2016-11-01

    Carbonatites are peculiar magmatic rocks with mantle-related genesis, commonly interpreted as the products of melting of CO2-bearing peridotites, or resulting from the chemical evolution of mantle-derived magmas, either through extreme differentiation or secondary immiscibility. Here we report the first finding of anatectic carbonatites of crustal origin, preserved as calcite-rich polycrystalline inclusions in garnet from low-to-medium pressure migmatites of the Oberpfalz area, SW Bohemian Massif (Central Europe). These inclusions originally trapped a melt of calciocarbonatitic composition with a characteristic enrichment in Ba, Sr and LREE. This interpretation is supported by the results of a detailed microstructural and microchemical investigation, as well as re-melting experiments using a piston cylinder apparatus. Carbonatitic inclusions coexist in the same cluster with crystallized silicate melt inclusions (nanogranites) and COH fluid inclusions, suggesting conditions of primary immiscibility between two melts and a fluid during anatexis. The production of both carbonatitic and granitic melts during the same anatectic event requires a suitable heterogeneous protolith. This may be represented by a sedimentary sequence containing marble lenses of limited extension, similar to the one still visible in the adjacent central Moldanubian Zone. The presence of CO2-rich fluid inclusions suggests furthermore that high CO2 activity during anatexis may be required to stabilize a carbonate-rich melt in a silica-dominated system. This natural occurrence displays a remarkable similarity with experiments on carbonate-silicate melt immiscibility, where CO2 saturation is a condition commonly imposed. In conclusion, this study shows how the investigation of partial melting through melt inclusion studies may unveil unexpected processes whose evidence, while preserved in stiff minerals such as garnet, is completely obliterated in the rest of the rock due to metamorphic re

  18. Rotation of melting ice disks due to melt fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbolo, S; Adami, N; Dubois, C; Caps, H; Vandewalle, N; Darbois-Texier, B

    2016-03-01

    We report experiments concerning the melting of ice disks (85 mm in diameter and 14 mm in height) at the surface of a thermalized water bath. During the melting, the ice disks undergo translational and rotational motions. In particular, the disks rotate. The rotation speed has been found to increase with the bath temperature. We investigated the flow under the bottom face of the ice disks by a particle image velocimetry technique. We find that the flow goes downwards and also rotates horizontally, so that a vertical vortex is generated under the ice disk. The proposed mechanism is the following. In the vicinity of the bottom face of the disk, the water eventually reaches the temperature of 4 °C for which the water density is maximum. The 4 °C water sinks and generates a downwards plume. The observed vertical vorticity results from the flow in the plume. Finally, by viscous entrainment, the horizontal rotation of the flow induces the solid rotation of the ice block. This mechanism seems generic: any vertical flow that generates a vortex will induce the rotation of a floating object.

  19. Magnesium melt protection by covering gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Thc protcclion of liquid light metals Cmm oxidation is a major issue in recycling and mclting proccsscs in rhc light mctal industry. Thcprorcction of liquid magncsirrm surfacc was carried out by using salts. alloying clemcnts, incrt gascs or rcactivc gas mixture. Snlt bnscdprorcction is still ~hcm ost widely uscd technology in the recycling of magnesium, but gases arc more frcqucntly uscd in magnesiumc;lszing industry. Protcczing thc mottcn mctal undcr a blanket of an inert gas such as argon or helium is dangerous. bccausc no protcctivctaycr is hrrnorl on thc mctr surface and mctal is frcc to cvaporatc, resulting in safcty hazards when furnace ambicncc is cxposcd to air ducto a violcnt rcaction. Thc disadvantagcs of t hcse methods have been partially ovcrcomc by using reactive gas systcrn, in which n chcmicnlrcaction hctwccn a gas and thc moltcn mctal produces a fhin protective film on the surface of the melt. Rcaclive gascs likc SFI, or SOz donot mccr cnvironmcnral standards due to their cxtrcrnely high global warming ptentiat or toxicity. Thcreforc thc altcrnativc covcringgascs ror magncsium mclrbng arc ol big intcrcst. Gas mixturcs containing HE%-1 34a, Novec 6 12. BF3 (Magshictd systcrn and solid C02have hccn succcssfi~lyl ~cstcdin I he world.

  20. Effect of melting conditions on striae in iron-bearing silicate melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Chemical striae are present in a broad range of glass products, but due to their negative impact on e.g., the optical and mechanical properties, elimination of striae from melts is a key issue in glass technology. By varying melting temperatures, retentions times and redox conditions of an iron......-bearing calciumaluminosilicate melt, we quantify the effect of each of the three melting parameters on the stria content in the melt. The quantification of the stria content in the melt is conducted by means of image analysis on casted melt samples. We find that in comparison to an extension of retention time an increase...... factors such as compositional fluctuation of melts and bubbling due to iron reduction on the stria content. During the melting process, striae with a chemical gradient in a more mobile species equilibrate faster than striae caused by a chemical gradient in a less mobile species. The temperature and time...

  1. Additive Manufacturing by selective laser melting the realizer desktop machine and its application for the dental industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Andreas; Schmidt, Frank-Michael; Hötter, Jan-Steffen; Sokalla, Wolfgang; Sokalla, Patrick

    Additive Manufacturing of metal parts by Selective Laser Melting has become a powerful tool for the direct manufacturing of complex parts mainly for the aerospace and medical industry. With the introduction of its desktop machine, Realizer targeted the dental market. The contribution describes the special features of the machine, discusses details of the process and shows manufacturing results focused on metal dental devices.

  2. A simple classical approach for the melting temperature of inert-gas nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, K. K.

    2006-02-01

    Like the metal and semiconductor nanoparticles, the melting temperature of free inert-gas nanoparticles decreases with decreasing size. The variation is linear with the inverse of the particle size for large nanoparticles and deviates from the linearity for small nanoparticles. The decrease in the melting temperature is slower for free nanoparticles with non-wetting surfaces, while the decrease is faster for nanoparticles with wetting surfaces. Though the depression of the melting temperature has been reported for inert-gas nanoparticles in porous glasses, superheating has also been observed when the nanoparticles are embedded in some matrices. By using a simple classical approach, the influence of size, geometry and the matrix on the melting temperature of nanoparticles is understood quantitatively and shown to be applicable for other materials. It is also shown that the classical approach can be applied to understand the size-dependent freezing temperature of nanoparticles.

  3. Laser Additive Melting and Solidification of Inconel 718: Finite Element Simulation and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John; Ladani, Leila; Sadowski, Magda

    2016-03-01

    The field of powdered metal additive manufacturing is experiencing a surge in public interest finding uses in aerospace, defense, and biomedical industries. The relative youth of the technology coupled with public interest makes the field a vibrant research topic. The authors have expanded upon previously published finite element models used to analyze the processing of novel engineering materials through the use of laser- and electron beam-based additive manufacturing. In this work, the authors present a model for simulating fabrication of Inconel 718 using laser melting processes. Thermal transport phenomena and melt pool geometries are discussed and validation against experimental findings is presented. After comparing experimental and simulation results, the authors present two correction correlations to transform the modeling results into meaningful predictions of actual laser melting melt pool geometries in Inconel 718.

  4. Grain structure evolution in Inconel 718 during selective electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmer, H.; Bauereiß, A., E-mail: Andreas.Bauereiss@fau.de; Singer, R.F.; Körner, C.

    2016-06-21

    Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is an additive manufacturing method where complex parts are built from metal powders in layers of typically 50 µm. An electron beam is used for heating (about 900 °C building temperature) and selective melting of the material. The grain structure evolution is a result of the complex thermal and hydrodynamic conditions in the melt pool. We show how different scanning strategies can be used to produce either a columnar grain structure with a high texture in building direction or an equiaxed fine grained structure. Numerical simulations of the selective melting process are applied to study the fundamental mechanisms responsible for differing grain structures. It is shown, that the direction of the thermal gradient during solidification can be altered by scanning strategies to acquire either epitaxial growth or stray grains. We show that it is possible to locally alter the grain structure of a part, thus allowing tailoring of the mechanical properties.

  5. Investigation on gradient material fabrication with electron beam melting based on scanning track control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new electron beam control system was developed in a general vacuum electron beam machine by assembling with industrial control computer, programmable logic control (PLC), deflection coil, data acquisition card, power amplifier, etc. In this control system, scanning track and energy distribution of electron beam could be edited off-line, real-time adjusted and controlled on-line. Ti-Mo gradient material (GM) with high temperature resistant was fabricated using the technology of electron beam melting. The melting processes include three steps, such as preheating, melting, and homogenizing. The results show that the GM prepared by melting technology has fine appearance, and it has good integrated interface with the Ti alloy. Mo and Ti elements are gradually distributed in the interface of the gradient material. The microstructure close to the Ti alloy base metal is α+β basket-waver grain, and the microstructure close to the GM is a single phase of β solid solution.

  6. Determination of geometrical factors in Layerwise Laser Melting using optical process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craeghs, Tom; Clijsters, Stijn; Yasa, Evren; Bechmann, Florian; Berumen, Sebastian; Kruth, Jean-Pierre

    2011-12-01

    Layerwise Laser Melting (LLM) is a layerwise production technique enabling the production of complex metallic parts. In the process a thin layer of powder is first deposited on a base plate. With the energy of a scanning laser beam this layer is melted at selected places, according to a predefined scanning pattern. After scanning, a new layer of powder is deposited on top of the previous layer and selectively melted. This sequence of depositing and scanning is repeated until the complete part is built. The local geometry surrounding the melt pool has a large influence on the processing behavior. For process control issues, this influence must be known and quantified, in order to determine a priori optimal processing conditions and to interpret measured melt pool radiation. In order to study the melt pool behavior, optical process monitoring of LLM has been applied using a high speed near-infrared CMOS camera and a large area silicon photodiode sensor. Data processing rates up to 10 kHz and real-time process monitoring are achieved using image and signal processing on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Several case studies will be presented showing that the geometric influencing factors can be studied and quantified by analyzing the melt pool sensor output.

  7. A Comparison of Biocompatibility of a Titanium Alloy Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting and Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhao, Bingjing; Liu, Changkui; Wang, Chao; Tan, Xinying; Hu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM) are two advanced rapid prototyping manufacturing technologies capable of fabricating complex structures and geometric shapes from metallic materials using computer tomography (CT) and Computer-aided Design (CAD) data. Compared to traditional technologies used for metallic products, EBM and SLM alter the mechanical, physical and chemical properties, which are closely related to the biocompatibility of metallic products. In this study, we evaluate and compare the biocompatibility, including cytocompatibility, haemocompatibility, skin irritation and skin sensitivity of Ti6Al4V fabricated by EBM and SLM. The results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test. Both the EBM and SLM Ti6Al4V exhibited good cytobiocompatibility. The haemolytic ratios of the SLM and EBM were 2.24% and 2.46%, respectively, which demonstrated good haemocompatibility. The EBM and SLM Ti6Al4V samples showed no dermal irritation when exposed to rabbits. In a delayed hypersensitivity test, no skin allergic reaction from the EBM or the SLM Ti6Al4V was observed in guinea pigs. Based on these results, Ti6Al4V fabricated by EBM and SLM were good cytobiocompatible, haemocompatible, non-irritant and non-sensitizing materials. Although the data for cell adhesion, proliferation, ALP activity and the haemolytic ratio was higher for the SLM group, there were no significant differences between the different manufacturing methods. PMID:27391895

  8. A Comparison of Biocompatibility of a Titanium Alloy Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting and Selective Laser Melting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Electron beam melting (EBM and selective laser melting (SLM are two advanced rapid prototyping manufacturing technologies capable of fabricating complex structures and geometric shapes from metallic materials using computer tomography (CT and Computer-aided Design (CAD data. Compared to traditional technologies used for metallic products, EBM and SLM alter the mechanical, physical and chemical properties, which are closely related to the biocompatibility of metallic products. In this study, we evaluate and compare the biocompatibility, including cytocompatibility, haemocompatibility, skin irritation and skin sensitivity of Ti6Al4V fabricated by EBM and SLM. The results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison test. Both the EBM and SLM Ti6Al4V exhibited good cytobiocompatibility. The haemolytic ratios of the SLM and EBM were 2.24% and 2.46%, respectively, which demonstrated good haemocompatibility. The EBM and SLM Ti6Al4V samples showed no dermal irritation when exposed to rabbits. In a delayed hypersensitivity test, no skin allergic reaction from the EBM or the SLM Ti6Al4V was observed in guinea pigs. Based on these results, Ti6Al4V fabricated by EBM and SLM were good cytobiocompatible, haemocompatible, non-irritant and non-sensitizing materials. Although the data for cell adhesion, proliferation, ALP activity and the haemolytic ratio was higher for the SLM group, there were no significant differences between the different manufacturing methods.

  9. A Comparison of Biocompatibility of a Titanium Alloy Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting and Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhao, Bingjing; Liu, Changkui; Wang, Chao; Tan, Xinying; Hu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM) are two advanced rapid prototyping manufacturing technologies capable of fabricating complex structures and geometric shapes from metallic materials using computer tomography (CT) and Computer-aided Design (CAD) data. Compared to traditional technologies used for metallic products, EBM and SLM alter the mechanical, physical and chemical properties, which are closely related to the biocompatibility of metallic products. In this study, we evaluate and compare the biocompatibility, including cytocompatibility, haemocompatibility, skin irritation and skin sensitivity of Ti6Al4V fabricated by EBM and SLM. The results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison test. Both the EBM and SLM Ti6Al4V exhibited good cytobiocompatibility. The haemolytic ratios of the SLM and EBM were 2.24% and 2.46%, respectively, which demonstrated good haemocompatibility. The EBM and SLM Ti6Al4V samples showed no dermal irritation when exposed to rabbits. In a delayed hypersensitivity test, no skin allergic reaction from the EBM or the SLM Ti6Al4V was observed in guinea pigs. Based on these results, Ti6Al4V fabricated by EBM and SLM were good cytobiocompatible, haemocompatible, non-irritant and non-sensitizing materials. Although the data for cell adhesion, proliferation, ALP activity and the haemolytic ratio was higher for the SLM group, there were no significant differences between the different manufacturing methods.

  10. Rheology of Melt-bearing Crustal Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, C. L.; Medvedev, S.; Handy, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    A review and reinterpretation of previous experimental data on the deformation of melt-bearing crustal rocks (Rosenberg and Handy, 2005) revealed that the relationship of aggregate strength to melt fraction is non-linear, even if plotted on a linear ordinate and abscissa. At melt fractions, Φ 0.07, the dependence of aggregate strength on Φ is significantly greater than at Φ > 0.07. This melt fraction (Φ= 0.07) marks the transition from a significant increase in the proportion of melt-bearing grain boundaries up to this point to a minor increase thereafter. Therefore, we suggest that the increase of melt-interconnectivity causes the dramatic strength drop between the solidus and a melt fraction of 0.07. A second strength drop occurs at higher melt fractions and corresponds to the breakdown of the solid (crystal) framework, corresponding to the well-known "rheologically critical melt percentage" (RCMP; Arzi, 1978). Although the strength drop at the RCMP is about 4 orders of magnitude, the absolute value of this drop is small compared to the absolute strength of the unmelted aggregate, rendering the RCMP invisible in a linear aggregate strength vs. melt fraction diagram. Predicting the rheological properties and thresholds of melt-bearing crust on the basis of the results and interpretations above is very difficult, because the rheological data base was obtained from experiments performed at undrained conditions in the brittle field. These conditions are unlikely to represent the flow of partially melted crust. The measured strength of most of the experimentally deformed, partially-melted samples corresponds to their maximum differential stress, before the onset of brittle failure, not to their viscous strength during "ductile" (viscous) flow. To overcome these problems, we extrapolated a theoretically-derived flow law for partially melted granite deforming by diffusion-accommodated grain-boundary sliding (Paterson, 2001) and an experimentally-derived flow law for

  11. Viscosity model for aluminosilicate melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The structurally based viscosity model proposed in our previous study is extended to include more components, e.g. SiO2, Al2O3, FeO, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O and K2O. A simple method is proposed to calculate the numbers of different types of oxygen ions classified by the different cations they bonded with, which is used to characterize the influence of composition on viscosity. When dealing with the aluminosilicate melts containing several basic oxides, the priority order is established for different cations for charge compensating Al3+ ions, according to the coulombic force between cation and oxygen anion. It is indicated that basic oxides have two paradox influences on viscosity: basic oxide with a higher basicity decreases viscosity more greatly by forming weaker non-bridging oxygen bond; while it increases viscosity more greatly by forming stronger bridging oxygen bond in tetrahedron after charge compensating Al3+ ion. The present model can extrapolate its application range to the system without SiO2. Furthermore, it could also give a satisfy interpretation to the abnormal phenomenon that viscosity increases when adding K2O to CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 melt within a certain composition range.

  12. A melt inclusion study of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (Ontario, Canada): preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kathleen; Hanley, Jacob; Kontak, Daniel; Ames, Doreen

    2013-04-01

    , whereas the following elements behaved incompatibly (in increasing order of incompatibility: Cr, Ni, Cu, Zr, Co, Cs, Ag Nb, Hf, Ta, Rb). Apparent D values between the two coexisting melt phases (DFe-rich-Si-rich) show that most trace elements were weakly compatible or incompatible in each melt phase, with the exception of V, Co, Rb, Sr and Cs that show consistent enrichment in the Fe-rich melt phase. Preliminary melt inclusion analyses suggest that the earliest (and quenched?) melt phase of the SIC, as represented by sublayer quartz diorite, was enriched in Ni and Cu, up to an order of magnitude higher than those liquids trapped in the units stratigraphically higher in the SIC, and may reflect loss of these metals to early sulfide liquids. The results of this study have implications for our understanding of layered intrusions world-wide and may lead to the development of parameters that enhance exploration success in mafic-ultramafic systems where post-magmatic processes have severely limited the application of bulk rock chemistry in understanding their petrogenesis. This study provides the first in-situ determination of actual ore-metal concentrations and partitioning behavior of ore metals and other trace elements in a differentiated, mafic-ultramafic intrusion.

  13. Dynamic properties of Aluminum-Lithium and Aluminum-Magnesium melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, A. I.

    2010-08-01

    A comparison of calculated concentration dependences of the electrical resistivities of the Al-Li and Al-Mg systems suggests that a metal-nonmetal phase transition takes place in the Al-Li system. This assumption casts some doubt on the mechanism of quasi-chemical electron localization used to explain the metal-nonmetal phase transition in Pb-Li and Sn-Li melts.

  14. Tailoring the grain structure of IN718 during selective electron beam melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Körner Carolin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective electron beam melting (SEBM is an additive manufacturing method where complex parts are built from metal powders in layers of about 50 μm. SEBM works under vacuum conditions which results in a perfect protection of the metal alloy. The electron beam is used for heating (about 900 ∘C building temperature and selective melting. The high beam velocities allow innovative scanning strategies in order to adapt the local solidification conditions which determine the epitaxial solidification process of IN718. We show how scanning strategies can be used either to produce a columnar grain structure with a high texture in building direction or a complete texture-free fine grained structure. Numerical simulations of the selective melting process are applied to reveal the fundamental mechanisms responsible for the completely different grain structures. In addition the influence of the different grain structures on the mechanical properties of IN718 is briefly discussed.

  15. Snow Melting and Freezing on Older Townhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Claesson, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The snowy winter of 2009/2010 in Scandinavia prompted many newspaper articles on icicles falling from buildings and the risk this presented for people walking below. The problem starts with snow melting on the roof due to heat loss from the building. Melt water runs down the roof and some...... of it will freeze on the overhang. The rest of the water will either run off or freeze in gutters and downpipes or turn into icicles. This paper describes use of a model for the melting and freezing of snow on roofs. Important parameters are roof length, overhang length, heat resistance of roof and overhang......, outdoor and indoor temperature, snow thickness and thermal conductivity. If the snow thickness is above a specific limit value – the snow melting limit- some of the snow will melt. Another interesting limit value is the dripping limit. All the melt water will freeze on the overhang, if the snow thickness...

  16. METAL-CERAMIC INTERFACES PRODUCED BY LASER MELT INJECTION PROCESSING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHOSSON, JTM; VANDENBURG, M; Burg, M. van den

    1995-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the mechanical performance of various ceramic coatings of Cr2O3 on steel (SAF2205), as produced by CO2 laser processing. It is concluded that a firmly bonded coating of Cr2O3 on steel could be produced by high power laser processing. The actual interface strength of a

  17. Melt-quenched glasses of metal-organic frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, T.D.; Yue, Yuanzheng; Li, P.

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline solids dominate the field of metal−organic frameworks (MOFs), with access to the liquid and glass states of matter usually prohibited by relatively low temperatures of thermal decomposition. In this work, we give due consideration to framework chemistry and topology to expand the phen...

  18. METAL-CERAMIC INTERFACES PRODUCED BY LASER MELT INJECTION PROCESSING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHOSSON, JTM; VANDENBURG, M; Burg, M. van den

    1995-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the mechanical performance of various ceramic coatings of Cr2O3 on steel (SAF2205), as produced by CO2 laser processing. It is concluded that a firmly bonded coating of Cr2O3 on steel could be produced by high power laser processing. The actual interface strength of a (Fe,

  19. Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice Kenneth M. Golden University of Utah, Department of Mathematics phone: (801) 581-6851...feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding the evolution of melt ponds and sea...Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  20. Microstructure characterization of laser melt injected WC particles in Ti-6Al-4V

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeling, JA; Ocelik, [No Value; De Hosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA

    2001-01-01

    The Laser Melt Injection (LMI) process is explored to create a protective Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) layer consisting of 80 mum sized WC particles embedded in the top layer of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In particular the influences of the main process parameters on the laser track dimensions and

  1. Porosity testing methods for the quality assessment of selective laser melted parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, W.W.; Carmignato, S.; Zanini, F.; Vaneker, T.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the comparison of porosity testing methods for the quality assessment of selective laser melted parts. Porosity is regarded as important quality indicator in metal additive manufacturing. Various destructive and non-destructive testing methods are compared, ranging from global

  2. Melt-layer motion and droplet ejection under divertor-relevant plasma conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Temmerman, G.; Daniels, J.; Bystrov, K.; van den Berg, M. A.; Zielinski, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Accidental melting of metallic plasma-facing materials in future fusion devices poses serious issues regarding the material lifetime and power-handling capabilities as well as core plasma performances. The behaviour of aluminium (as a proxy for beryllium) and tungsten materials was investigated in

  3. Impact Melt in Small Lunar Highlands Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.; Cintala, M. J.; Robinson, M. S.; Barnouin, O.; Hawke, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    Impact-melt deposits are a typical characteristic of complex impact craters, occurring as thick pools on the crater floor, ponds on wall terraces, veneers on the walls, and flows outside and inside the rim. Studies of the distribution of impact melt suggested that such deposits are rare to absent in and around small (km to sub-km), simple impact craters. noted that the smallest lunar crater observed with impact melt was approximately 750 m in diameter. Similarly, theoretical models suggest that the amount of melt formed is a tiny fraction (crater volume and thus significant deposits would not be expected for small lunar craters. LRO LROC images show that impact-melt deposits can be recognized associated with many simple craters to diameters down to approximately 200 m. The melt forms pools on the crater floor, veneer on the crater walls or ejecta outside the crater. Such melt deposits are relatively rare, and can be recognized only in some fresh craters. These observations indicate that identifiable quantities of impact melt can be produced in small impacts and the presence of such deposits shows that the material can be aggregated into recognizable deposits. Further, the present of such melt indicates that small craters could be reliably radiometrically dated helping to constrain the recent impact flux.

  4. Low Melt Height Solidification of Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montakhab, Mehdi; Bacak, Mert; Balikci, Ercan

    2016-06-01

    Effect of a reduced melt height in the directional solidification of a superalloy has been investigated by two methods: vertical Bridgman (VB) and vertical Bridgman with a submerged baffle (VBSB). The latter is a relatively new technique and provides a reduced melt height ahead of the solidifying interface. A low melt height leads to a larger primary dendrite arm spacing but a lower mushy length, melt-back transition length, and porosity. The VBSB technique yields up to 38 pct reduction in the porosity. This may improve a component's mechanical strength especially in a creep-fatigue type dynamic loading.

  5. Solute Redistribution in Directional Melting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The solute redistribution in directional melting process is theoretically studied. Based on quantitative evaluations, uniform solute distribution in liquid and a quasi-steady solute distribution in solid are supposed. The discussion on the solute balance comes to a simple model for the solute redistribution in directional melting process. As an example, the variation of liquid composition during melting process of carbon steel is quantitatively evaluated using the model. Results show that the melting of an alloy starts at solidus temperature, but approaches the liquidus temperature after a very short transient process.

  6. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Li, H.X.; Konovakhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Leung, W.H [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1999-08-01

    to fragment. The molten fuel-coolant mixtures with a binary oxidic core melt (UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}) may feature low triggerability and low explosivity. The mechanical-to-thermal conversion ratio may be very low. The presence of metallic component in the melt may significantly enhance triggerability and explosivity of molten corium. The characteristics of melt spreading into 2-D channel are much different from those into 1-D channel. The evaluations of spreading parameters in reactor accident situations would be strongly affected by the uncertainties in the boundary conditions of the melt spreading process, such as downward heat removal and of upward heat removal in case of core melt spreading under water. Computer codes were developed and validated against the data obtained in the MSWI Project. The Multiphase Eulerian Lagrangian Transport code (MELT-313) was validated to investigate the hydrodynamics during the premixing process of jet penetrating into a water pool. The FlowLab code employing the multi-fluid multi-phase Lattice-Boltzmann method was developed and validated. In the Lattice-Boltzmann approach, no special treatment is needed to track the interface. A scaling technology was developed to describe the spreading efficiency of melt into I -D channel. The melt vessel interaction thermal analysis (MVITA) code describes the process of melt pool formation, melt pool convection and the resulting vessel thermal loadings. A gap cooling model and model representing penetrations were incorporated into this code. The code was coupled with ANSYS code, which performs structure analysis. Thus a coupled thermal and mechanical analysis of the loadings of a pressure vessel during the melt-vessel interaction, could be performed.

  7. Optimization of Melt Treatment for Austenitic Steel Grain Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakh, Simon N.; Ge, Jun; Richards, Von; O'Malley, Ron; TerBush, Jessica R.

    2017-02-01

    Refinement of the as-cast grain structure of austenitic steels requires the presence of active solid nuclei during solidification. These nuclei can be formed in situ in the liquid alloy by promoting reactions between transition metals (Ti, Zr, Nb, and Hf) and metalloid elements (C, S, O, and N) dissolved in the melt. Using thermodynamic simulations, experiments were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a predicted sequence of reactions targeted to form precipitates that could act as active nuclei for grain refinement in austenitic steel castings. Melt additions performed to promote the sequential precipitation of titanium nitride (TiN) onto previously formed spinel (Al2MgO4) inclusions in the melt resulted in a significant refinement of the as-cast grain structure in heavy section Cr-Ni-Mo stainless steel castings. A refined as-cast structure consisting of an inner fine-equiaxed grain structure and outer columnar dendrite zone structure of limited length was achieved in experimental castings. The sequential of precipitation of TiN onto Al2MgO4 was confirmed using automated SEM/EDX and TEM analyses.

  8. Physicomechanical Characterization and Optimization of EDTA–mPEG and Avicel®–EDTA–mPEG In Situ Melt Dispersion Mini-Pellets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hibbins, Angus R; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a physicomechanically customizable oral metal chelatory in situ hot melt dispersion mini-pellet entity which could be utilized within a binary drug delivery system. Avicel...

  9. Effects of transition metal oxide doping on the structure of sodium metaphosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotov, N.; Kirfel, A.; Beuneu, B.; Delaplane, R.; Hohlwein, D.; Reinauer, F.; Glaum, R

    2004-07-15

    Neutron diffraction measurements of transition metal-oxide-doped sodium metaphosphate glasses and melts show an anomalous increase of the first sharp diffraction peak both with increasing transition metal content and temperature due to progressive increase of the structural disorder.

  10. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug

    1997-01-01

    The thesis contains an experimental study of the fusion and sintering of ashes collected during straw and coal/straw co-firing.A laboratory technique for quantitative determination of ash fusion has been developed based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). By means of this method the fraction...... of melt in the investigated ashes has been determined as a function of temperature. Ash fusion results have been correlated to the chemical and mineralogical composition of the ashes, to results from a standard ash fusion test and to results from sintering experiments. Furthermore, the ash fusion results......-firing, the model only had a qualitative agreement with the measured ash deposit formation rates.Sintering measurements were carried out by means of compression strength testing of ash pellets. This method showed to not be applicable for the salt rich fly ash derived from straw combustion. For the fly ashes...

  11. Viscosity Meaurement Technique for Metal Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Heng [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Kennedy, Rory [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-09

    Metallic fuels have exceptional transient behavior, excellent thermal conductivity, and a more straightforward reprocessing path, which does not separate out pure plutonium from the process stream. Fabrication of fuel containing minor actinides and rare earth (RE) elements for irradiation tests, for instance, U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.0RE-15Zr samples at the Idaho National Laboratory, is generally done by melt casting in an inert atmosphere. For the design of a casting system and further scale up development, computational modeling of the casting process is needed to provide information on melt flow and solidification for process optimization. Therefore, there is a need for melt viscosity data, the most important melt property that controls the melt flow. The goal of the project was to develop a measurement technique that uses fully sealed melt sample with no Americium vapor loss to determine the viscosity of metallic melts and at temperatures relevant to the casting process. The specific objectives of the project were to: develop mathematical models to establish the principle of the measurement method, design and build a viscosity measurement prototype system based on the established principle, and calibrate the system and quantify the uncertainty range. The result of the project indicates that the oscillation cup technique is applicable for melt viscosity measurement. Detailed mathematical models of innovative sample ampoule designs were developed to not only determine melt viscosity, but also melt density under certain designs. Measurement uncertainties were analyzed and quantified. The result of this project can be used as the initial step toward the eventual goal of establishing a viscosity measurement system for radioactive melts.

  12. Do Melt Inclusions Answer Big Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Sobolev, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    In a pioneering paper, Sobolev and Shimizu (1993) demonstrated the existence of ultra-depleted melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in MORB. They interpreted these as evidence for the preservation of parental melts formed by progressive near-fractional melting. Subsequently many cases have been described where melt inclusions from single basalt samples display enormous chemical and isotopic heterogeneity. The interpretation of these observations hinges critically on whether such melt inclusions can faithfully preserve primary or parental melt composition. If they do, melt inclusion data can truly answer big questions from small-scale observations. If they do not, they answer rather small questions. Favoring the second possibility, Danyushevsky et al. (2004) have suggested that much of the observed variability of highly incompatible trace elements in melt inclusions “may not represent geologically significant melts, but instead reflect localized, grain-scale reaction processes within the magmatic plumbing system.” We disagree and show that this mechanism cannot, for example, explain isotopic heterogeneity measured in several suites of melt inclusions, nor does it not account for the presence of ultra-depleted melts and "ghost" plagioclase signatures in other inclusions. More recently, Spandler et al. (2007) have suggested on the basis of experimental evidence that diffusion rates for REE in olivine are so rapid that parental melt compositions in melt inclusions are rapidly falsified by diffusional exchange with (evolved) host lava. We show that the very fact that extreme chemical and isotopic heterogeneities are routinely preserved in melt inclusions demonstrates that this conclusion is unwarranted, either because residence times of the olivine phenocrysts are much shorter than assumed by Spandler et al. or because the high experimental diffusion rates are caused by an unknown experimental artifact. Although there is no obvious flaw in design and execution of

  13. Using melted media in processes of oil refining and petrochemistry. Primeniniye rasplavlennykh sred v protsessakh neftepererabotki i neftekhimii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feygin, Ye.A.; Raud, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    The review is dedicated to rapidly developing trend in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, to the processes of processing a hydrocarbon raw material and oil products in the presence of melted mediums of metals, salts and oxides. The methods developed in the USSR and abroad for processing in melted mediums are analyzed, along with the industrial layouts, the modal parameters, the equipment formulation and experimental data for different large tonnage processes in oil refining and petrochemistry. Equipment designs are cited for different methods for placing the hydrocarbons in contact with the melts and for different methods of heat supply. The specifications which must be met by the melts used in processing a hydrocarbon raw material and oil products are systemtized. The compositions and basic physical properties of the most common and promising melted mediums are cited.

  14. Design and simulation of a 30 kV, 60 kW electron optical column for melting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sachin; Kandaswamy, E.; Bapat, A.V., E-mail: saching@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Electron beam offers unique advantages as a heat source for melting of refractory metals. It provides contamination free homogeneous melting with precise heat control on the melt target. This paper reports the complete electron optics design procedure for a 30 kV, 60 kW melting gun. The design objective of the electron optical column is to obtain the required power density on the target (10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} W/cm{sup 2}) using electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses. The design constrains are to minimize the high voltage discharges in the gun and beam losses in the beam transport. The challenging task of reducing the electrical discharges in the gun during high power melting with the help of twin electromagnetic lenses is presented in the paper. (author)

  15. The melting curve of Ni to 125 GPa: implications for Earth's Fe rich core alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, O. T.; Wood, I. G.; Dobson, D. P.; Vocadlo, L.; Thomson, A. R.; Wann, E.; Wang, W.; Edgington, A.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, N.; Walter, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The melting curve of Ni has been determined to 125 GPa using laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) experiments and two melting criteria: the appearance of liquid diffuse scattering (LDS) during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and simultaneous plateaux in temperature vs. laser power functions [1]. Our melting curve (Fig. 1) is in good agreement with most theoretical studies [e.g. 2] and the available shock wave data (Fig. 2). It is, however, dramatically steeper than the previous off-line LH-DAC studies in which the determination of melting was based on the visual observation of motion aided by the laser speckle method [e.g. 3]. We estimate the melting point of Ni at the inner-core boundary (ICB; 330 GPa) to be 5800±700 K (2σ), ~2500 K higher than the estimate based on the laser speckle method [3] and within error of Fe (6230±500 K) as determined in a similar in situ LH-DAC study [4]. We find that laser speckle based melting curves coincide with the onset of rapid sub-solidus recrystallization, suggesting that visual observations of motion may have misinterpreted dynamic recrystallization as melt convection. Our new melting curve suggests that the reduction in ICB temperature due to the alloying of Ni with Fe is likely to be significantly smaller than would be expected had the earlier experimental Ni melting studies been correct. We have applied our methodology to a range of other transition metals (Mo, Ti, V, Cu). In the case of Mo, Ti and V the melting curves are in good agreement with the shock compression and theoretical melting studies but hotter and steeper than those based on the laser speckle method, as with Ni. Cu is an exception in which all studies agree, including those employing the laser speckle method. These results go a long way toward resolving the the long-standing controversy over the phase diagrams of the transition metals as determined from static LH-DAC studies on the one hand, and theoretical and dynamic compression studies on the other

  16. A benchmark initiative on mantle convection with melting and melt segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Harro; Dannberg, Juliane; Dohmen, Janik; Kalousova, Klara; Maurice, Maxim; Noack, Lena; Plesa, Ana; Soucek, Ondrej; Spiegelman, Marc; Thieulot, Cedric; Tosi, Nicola; Wallner, Herbert

    2016-04-01

    In recent years a number of mantle convection models have been developed which include partial melting within the asthenosphere, estimation of melt volumes, as well as melt extraction with and without redistribution at the surface or within the lithosphere. All these approaches use various simplifying modelling assumptions whose effects on the dynamics of convection including the feedback on melting have not been explored in sufficient detail. To better assess the significance of such assumptions and to provide test cases for the modelling community we carry out a benchmark comparison. The reference model is taken from the mantle convection benchmark, cases 1a to 1c (Blankenbach et al., 1989), assuming a square box with free slip boundary conditions, the Boussinesq approximation, constant viscosity and Rayleigh numbers of 104 to 10^6. Melting is modelled using a simplified binary solid solution with linearly depth dependent solidus and liquidus temperatures, as well as a solidus temperature depending linearly on depletion. Starting from a plume free initial temperature condition (to avoid melting at the onset time) five cases are investigated: Case 1 includes melting, but without thermal or dynamic feedback on the convection flow. This case provides a total melt generation rate (qm) in a steady state. Case 2 is identical to case 1 except that latent heat is switched on. Case 3 includes batch melting, melt buoyancy (melt Rayleigh number Rm) and depletion buoyancy, but no melt percolation. Output quantities are the Nusselt number (Nu), root mean square velocity (vrms), the maximum and the total melt volume and qm approaching a statistical steady state. Case 4 includes two-phase flow, i.e. melt percolation, assuming a constant shear and bulk viscosity of the matrix and various melt retention numbers (Rt). These cases are carried out using the Compaction Boussinseq Approximation (Schmeling, 2000) or the full compaction formulation. For cases 1 - 3 very good agreement

  17. Pyrolysis and gasification-melting of automobile shredder residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Seon Ah; Kim, Woo Hyun; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tae Jin; Kwak, Yeon Ho; Seo, Yong Chil

    2013-10-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea has commonly been disposed of in landfills. Due to the growing number of scrapped cars and the decreasing availability of landfill space, effective technology for reducing ASR is needed. However ASR is a complex mixture, and finding an appropriate treatment is not easy on account of the harmful compounds in ASR. Therefore, research continues to seek an effective treatment technology. However most studies have thus far been performed in the laboratory, whereas few commercial and pilot studies have been performed. This paper studies the pyrolysis and gasification-melting of ASR. The pyrolyis characteristics have been analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), a Lindberg furnace, and a fixed-bed pyrolyzer to study the fundamental characteristics of ASR thermal conversion. As a pilot study, shaft-type gasification-melting was performed. High-temperature gasification-melting was performed in a 5000 kg/day pilot system. The gas yield and syngas (H2 and CO) concentration increase when the reaction temperature increases. Gas with a high calorific value of more than 16,800 kJ/m3 was produced in the pyrolyzer. From the gasification-melting process, syngas of CO (30-40%) and H2(10-15%) was produced, with 5% CH4 produced as well. Slag generation was 17% of the initial ASR, with 5.8% metal content and 4% fly ash. The concentration of CO decreases, whereas the H2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations increase with an increase in the equivalence ratio (ER). The emission levels of dioxin and air pollution compounds except nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were shown to satisfy Korean regulations.

  18. Invariant electrical resistivity of Co along the melting boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Innocent C.; Secco, Richard A.

    2017-09-01

    The Earth's core is comprised mainly of Fe and Ni with some light alloying element(s) and the electrical resistivity behavior of these elements is an important property for characterizing geodynamo action, determining energy sources, and for understanding core thermal evolution. Knowledge of the electrical resistivity of solid and liquid transition metals with electronic structures similar to Fe reinforces our understanding of core properties. The electrical resistivity of high purity Co has been measured at pressures up to 5 GPa in a large volume press and at temperatures up to 100 K above the melting temperature. The results demonstrate that resistivity of Co is invariant along the melting boundary. This is interpreted in terms of the antagonistic effects of P-induced reduction in the amplitude of lattice vibrations tending to decrease resistivity, and the P-induced shift of the Fermi level closer to the d-resonance which tends to increase resistivity. We calculated the electronic thermal conductivity of Co using the Wiedemann-Franz law and show that it increases with pressure both in the solid and liquid states and decreases with temperature in the solid and increases in the liquid state. The pressure dependences of electrical resistivity and electronic thermal conductivity calculated from equations involving bulk modulus and the Gruneisen parameter are in reasonable agreement with values measured in this study. The constant resistivity of Co along its melting boundary found in our study portends similar behavior for its electronic structural analog, Fe. This prediction suggests that the electronic thermal conductivity of Fe at Earth's inner core boundary could be similar to its 1 atm value at the melting point. Using this value of thermal conductivity for the inner core boundary would admit thermal convection as an energy source for the geodynamo prior to the birth of the inner core.

  19. Evolution of Shock Melt Compositions in Lunar Regoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, A. M.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.; Noble, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Space weathering processes - driven primarily by solar wind ion and micrometeorite bombardment, are constantly changing the surface regoliths of airless bodies, such as the Moon. It is essential to study lunar soils in order to fully under-stand the processes of space weathering, and how they alter the optical reflectance spectral properties of the lunar surface relative to bedrock. Lunar agglutinates are aggregates of regolith grains fused together in a glassy matrix of shock melt produced during micrometeorite impacts into the lunar regolith. The formation of the shock melt component in agglutinates involves reduction of Fe in the target material to generate nm-scale spherules of metallic Fe (nanophase Fe0 or npFe0). The ratio of elemental Fe, in the form of npFe0, to FeO in a given bulk soil indicates its maturity, which increases with length of surface exposure as well as being typically higher in the finer-size fraction of soils. The melting and mixing process in agglutinate formation remain poorly understood. This includes incomplete knowledge regarding how the homogeneity and overall compositional trends of the agglutinate glass portions (agglutinitic glass) evolve with maturity. The aim of this study is to use sub-micrometer scale X-ray compositional mapping and image analysis to quantify the chemical homogeneity of agglutinitic glass, correlate its homogeneity to its parent soil maturity, and identify the principal chemical components contributing to the shock melt composition variations. An additional focus is to see if agglutinitic glass contains anomalously high Fe sub-micron scale compositional domains similar to those recently reported in glassy patina coatings on lunar rocks.

  20. Influence of melt feeding scheme and casting parameters during direct-chill casting on microstructure of an AA7050 billet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L; T. Subroto; Katgerman, L.; Eskin, DG; Miroux, A

    2012-01-01

    © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012 Direct-chill (DC) casting billets of an AA7050 alloy produced with different melt feeding schemes and casting speeds were examined in order to reveal the effect of these factors on the evolution of microstructure. Experimental results show that grain size is strongly influenced by the casting speed. In addition, the distribution of grain sizes across the billet diameter is mostly determined by melt feeding scheme. Grains...

  1. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubble...

  2. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubbles...

  3. Disordering and Melting of Aluminum Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoltze, Per; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Landman, U.

    1988-01-01

    We report on a molecular-dynamics simulation of an Al(110) surface using the effective-medium theory to describe the interatomic interactions. The surface region is found to start melting ≅200 K below the bulk melting temperature with a gradual increase in the thickness of the disordered layer as...

  4. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...

  5. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational viscos...

  6. Stability of foams in silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, Alexander A.; Sahagian, Dork L.; Kutolin, Vladislav A.

    1993-12-01

    Bubble coalescence and the spontaneous disruption of high-porosity foams in silicate melts are the result of physical expulsion of interpore melt (syneresis) leading to bubble coalescence, and diffusive gas exchange between bubbles. Melt expulsion can be achieved either along films between pairs of bubbles, or along Plateau borders which represent the contacts between 3 or more bubbles. Theoretical evaluation of these mechanisms is confirmed by experimental results, enabling us to quantify the relevant parameters and determine stable bubble size and critical film thickness in a foam as a function of melt viscosity, surface tension, and time. Foam stability is controlled primarily by melt viscosity and time. Melt transport leading to coalescence of bubbles proceeds along inter-bubble films for smaller bubbles, and along Plateau borders for larger bubbles. Thus the average bubble size accelerates with time. In silicate melts, the diffusive gas expulsion out of a region of foam is effective only for water (and even then, only at small length scales), as the diffusion of CO 2 is negligible. The results of our analyses are applicable to studies of vesicularity of lavas, melt degassing, and eruption mechanisms.

  7. Electrochemical Method to Accelerate Metal-Slag Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical nature of reaction between melt and slag in a closed system was worked out. Experimental results demonstrated that both the rate and reaction extent increase when the electronic conductor or voltage was applied between melt and slag. The bigger the contact area of the conductor with melts is, the faster the reaction rate is. With the increase of applied voltage which is beneficial for electron's migration between metal and slags, the rate and extent of reaction increase.

  8. Shear Melting and High Temperature Embrittlement: Theory and Application to Machining Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Con; Koch, Sascha; Siemers, Carsten; Mukherji, Debashis; Ackland, Graeme J.

    2015-04-01

    We describe a dynamical phase transition occurring within a shear band at high temperature and under extremely high shear rates. With increasing temperature, dislocation deformation and grain boundary sliding are supplanted by amorphization in a highly localized nanoscale band, which allows for massive strain and fracture. The mechanism is similar to shear melting and leads to liquid metal embrittlement at high temperature. From simulation, we find that the necessary conditions are lack of dislocation slip systems, low thermal conduction, and temperature near the melting point. The first two are exhibited by bcc titanium alloys, and we show that the final one can be achieved experimentally by adding low-melting-point elements: specifically, we use insoluble rare earth metals (REMs). Under high shear, the REM becomes mixed with the titanium, lowering the melting point within the shear band and triggering the shear-melting transition. This in turn generates heat which remains localized in the shear band due to poor heat conduction. The material fractures along the shear band. We show how to utilize this transition in the creation of new titanium-based alloys with improved machinability.

  9. Shear melting and high temperature embrittlement: theory and application to machining titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Con; Koch, Sascha; Siemers, Carsten; Mukherji, Debashis; Ackland, Graeme J

    2015-04-24

    We describe a dynamical phase transition occurring within a shear band at high temperature and under extremely high shear rates. With increasing temperature, dislocation deformation and grain boundary sliding are supplanted by amorphization in a highly localized nanoscale band, which allows for massive strain and fracture. The mechanism is similar to shear melting and leads to liquid metal embrittlement at high temperature. From simulation, we find that the necessary conditions are lack of dislocation slip systems, low thermal conduction, and temperature near the melting point. The first two are exhibited by bcc titanium alloys, and we show that the final one can be achieved experimentally by adding low-melting-point elements: specifically, we use insoluble rare earth metals (REMs). Under high shear, the REM becomes mixed with the titanium, lowering the melting point within the shear band and triggering the shear-melting transition. This in turn generates heat which remains localized in the shear band due to poor heat conduction. The material fractures along the shear band. We show how to utilize this transition in the creation of new titanium-based alloys with improved machinability.

  10. Size-dependent melting of Bi nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E. A.; Efremov, M. Yu.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Allen, L. H.

    2005-02-01

    Nanocalorimetry was used to investigate the melting of Bi nanoparticles. The particles were formed by evaporating Bi onto a silicon nitride substrate, which was then heated. The particles self-assemble into truncated spherical particles. Below 5-nm average film thickness, mean particle sizes increased linearly with deposition thickness but increased rapidly for 10-nm-thick films. As expected, small particles were found to exhibit size-dependent melting temperatures less than the bulk melting temperature (e.g., ΔT =67K for a 3-nm radius particle). The measured melting temperatures for particles below ˜7nm in radius, however, were ˜50K above the value predicted by the homogeneous melting model. We discuss this discrepancy in terms of a possible size-dependent crystal structure change and the superheating of the solid phase.

  11. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Mireles, Jose (Universidad Aut%C3%94onoma de Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez, Mexico); Marquez, Noel (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Quinones, Stella (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX)

    2011-11-01

    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  12. MIIT:Focus of Nonferrous Metal Industry Shift to Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>According to experts,in the 11th five year plan,China’s total nonferrous metal output increased significantly,with the increasing proportion of secondary nonferrous metal output. Technology,equipment,energy conservation and environmental protection capabilities have kept improving. Metal melting recovery rate and product mix have also seen great improvements. The industry has experienced rapid development.

  13. Volatile diffusion in silicate melts and its effects on melt inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarlato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A compendium of diffusion measurements and their Arrhenius equations for water, carbon dioxide, sulfur, fluorine, and chlorine in silicate melts similar in composition to natural igneous rocks is presented. Water diffusion in silicic melts is well studied and understood, however little data exists for melts of intermediate to basic compositions. The data demonstrate that both the water concentration and the anhydrous melt composition affect the diffusion coefficient of water. Carbon dioxide diffusion appears only weakly dependent, at most, on the volatilefree melt composition and no effect of carbon dioxide concentration has been observed, although few experiments have been performed. Based upon one study, the addition of water to rhyolitic melts increases carbon dioxide diffusion by orders of magnitude to values similar to that of 6 wt% water. Sulfur diffusion in intermediate to silicic melts depends upon the anhydrous melt composition and the water concentration. In water-bearing silicic melts sulfur diffuses 2 to 3 orders of magnitude slower than water. Chlorine diffusion is affected by both water concentration and anhydrous melt composition; its values are typically between those of water and sulfur. Information on fluorine diffusion is rare, but the volatile-free melt composition exerts a strong control on its diffusion. At the present time the diffusion of water, carbon dioxide, sulfur and chlorine can be estimated in silicic melts at magmatic temperatures. The diffusion of water and carbon dioxide in basic to intermediate melts is only known at a limited set of temperatures and compositions. The diffusion data for rhyolitic melts at 800°C together with a standard model for the enrichment of incompatible elements in front of growing crystals demonstrate that rapid crystal growth, greater than 10-10 ms-1, can significantly increase the volatile concentrations at the crystal-melt interface and that any of that melt trapped

  14. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Melt Rate Furnace Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-07-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) would like to increase its canister production rate. The goal of this study is to improve the melt rate in DWPF specifically for Macrobatch 3. However, the knowledge gained may result in improved melting efficiencies translating to future DWPF macrobatches and in higher throughput for other Department of Energy's (DOE) melters. Increased melting efficiencies decrease overall operational costs by reducing the immobilization campaign time for a particular waste stream. For melt rate limited systems, a small increase in melting efficiency translates into significant hard dollar savings by reducing life cycle operational costs.

  15. Partitioning coefficients between olivine and silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, J. H.

    2005-08-01

    Variation of Nernst partition coefficients ( D) between olivine and silicate melts cannot be neglected when modeling partial melting and fractional crystallization. Published natural and experimental olivine/liquidD data were examined for covariation with pressure, temperature, olivine forsterite content, and melt SiO 2, H 2O, MgO and MgO/MgO + FeO total. Values of olivine/liquidD generally increase with decreasing temperature and melt MgO content, and with increasing melt SiO 2 content, but generally show poor correlations with other variables. Multi-element olivine/liquidD profiles calculated from regressions of D REE-Sc-Y vs. melt MgO content are compared to results of the Lattice Strain Model to link melt MgO and: D0 (the strain compensated partition coefficient), EM3+ (Young's Modulus), and r0 (the size of the M site). Ln D0 varies linearly with Ln MgO in the melt; EM3+ varies linearly with melt MgO, with a dog-leg at ca. 1.5% MgO; and r0 remains constant at 0.807 Å. These equations are then used to calculate olivine/liquidD for these elements using the Lattice Strain Model. These empirical parameterizations of olivine/liquidD variations yield results comparable to experimental or natural partitioning data, and can easily be integrated into existing trace element modeling algorithms. The olivine/liquidD data suggest that basaltic melts in equilibrium with pure olivine may acquire small negative Ta-Hf-Zr-Ti anomalies, but that negative Nb anomalies are unlikely to develop. Misfits between results of the Lattice Strain Model and most light rare earth and large ion lithophile partitioning data suggest that kinetic effects may limit the lower value of D for extremely incompatible elements in natural situations characterized by high cooling/crystallization rates.

  16. INFILTRATION KINETICS MODEL OF LIQUID METAL INTO A FIBROUS PREFORM IN CENTRIFUGAL ACCELERATING FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The infiltration kinetics of the metal melt into a fibrous preform in centrifugal accelerating field is analyzed on the basis of Da rcy's law and the assumption that the fibrous preform is treated as “bundle of capillaries”. The critical rotating speed is analyzed with the established mo del. The influences of the metal melt mass,the rotating speed of the equipmen t,the casting height, the original outer radius of the metal melt and the fibrou s volume fraction in fibrous preform on infilatration are studied. The results show that the critical rotating speed is dependent on critical pressure, castin g height, metal melt mass and the character of fibrous preform. With the incr ease in the metal melt mass, rotating speed of the equipment and original outer radius of the metal melt, or the decrease in casting height and fibrous volume f raction in fibrous of the metal melt,or the decrease in casting height and fibro us volume fraction in fibrous preform,infiltration of metal melt for fibrous pre form becomes easier.

  17. The erosion resistance of tool alloys in foundry melt the Zamak 4 - 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhametzyanova, GF; Kolesnikov, M. S.; Muhametzyanov, I. R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers the resistance against erosion dissolution in the melt of foundry Zamak 4 - 1 die steels used for press machine parts manufacturing for injection molding, and hard alloys system WC - Co. It is established that the solubility in the melt Zamak - 4 - 1 steel of 4H5MFS and DI - 22 are promising for the parts fabrication of metal-wire casting machines of CLT and IDRA types. A significant reserve to increase the resistance of metal wires is the use of cast steel, as well as in electroslag and electro-beam remelting options. Metal-ceramic alloy doped with chromium VK25H may be recommended for reinforcement of heavily loaded parts of the press-nodes of hot casting machines under pressure.

  18. Analysis of flow development in centrifugal atomization: Part I. Film thickness of a fully spreading melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. Y.

    2004-09-01

    Centrifugal atomization of metal melts is a cost-effective process for powder production and spray deposition. The properties of the as-produced powder and deposit are determined primarily by the characteristics of the atomized droplets, which in turn are largely dependent on the flow development of the melt on the atomizer. This paper develops a model for analysing the flow development of a fully spreading melt on and off the atomizing cup. The model can be used to calculate the velocity and film thickness of the melt as a function of melt volume flow rate, cup rotation speed, cup radius and cup slope angle, as well as to predict the trajectory of the spray off the cup. The model implies that the disintegration of a fully spreading melt takes place in the region just off the cup edge and the film thickness at the cup edge is a critical factor determining the sizes of the resultant droplets. The film thickness at the cup edge is shown to decrease with decreasing volume flow rate, with increasing cup rotation speed, with increasing cup radius and with decreasing cup slope angle.

  19. Internal gettering by metal alloy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonassisi, Anthony; Heuer, Matthias; Istratov, Andrei A.; Pickett, Matthew D.; Marcus, Mathew A.; Weber, Eicke R.

    2010-07-27

    The present invention relates to the internal gettering of impurities in semiconductors by metal alloy clusters. In particular, intermetallic clusters are formed within silicon, such clusters containing two or more transition metal species. Such clusters have melting temperatures below that of the host material and are shown to be particularly effective in gettering impurities within the silicon and collecting them into isolated, less harmful locations. Novel compositions for some of the metal alloy clusters are also described.

  20. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  1. Edge-melting: nanoscale key-mechanism to explain nanoparticle formation from heated TEM grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaria, Maura; Taurino, Antonietta; Catalano, Massimo; Caricato, Anna Paola; Martino, Maurizio

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we examine at both experimental and fundamental levels, the experimental evidence of nanoparticle formation in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) metal grids annealed at temperatures lower than the melting point of the corresponding metal bulk material. Our experimental investigation considers the most thermally unstable TEM grids (i.e. Cu-grids) and inspects the possible sources and mechanisms of contamination of thin films, conventionally deposited on carbon-coated Cu-grids. The investigations are supported by morphological-compositional analyses performed in different regions of the TEM sample. Then, a general model is formulated and discussed in order to explain the grid thermal instability, based on the critical role of edge-melting (i.e. melting initiated at edges and corners of the grid bars), the enhanced rate of evaporation from a liquid surface and the polycristallinity of the grid bars. Hence, we totally disregard conventional arguments such as bulk evaporation and metal vapor pressure and, in order to emphasize and clarify the alternative point of view of our model, we also overview the nano-scale melting phenomenology relevant to our discussion and survey the discrepancies reported in the literature.

  2. Melting of tin using muffle furnace and microwave energy and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthama, T. R.; Harisha, G.; Manjunatha, Y. R.; Mohana Kumara, S. M.; Srinath, M. S.; Shashank Lingappa, M.

    2016-09-01

    Conventional melting of metals consume significant amount of energy. Furthermore, there are possibilities of material and energy losses along with safety risks. To overcome these inherent disadvantages of conventional melting, a novel approach for melting of bulk tin using microwave energy is presented. In the present work, bulk Tin is melted using a conventional muffle furnace and a domestic multimode microwave oven. As received and as cast metals are characterised. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique is used to analyse the phases present. The average tensile strength of the metal casted using muffle furnace and microwave oven is 44.1982 MPa and 50.2867 MPa respectively. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is made use for the study of fractured surface of the tensile specimen, which reveals the areas of plastic deformation. Microwave processed specimen shows 10% higher tensile strength compared to that processed using muffle furnace. Radiography clearly shows cast specimen free from defects. The average hardness of as received tin is higher compared to casted specimens. However, the average hardness value of microwave processed specimen is 19.28% higher than the specimen processed using muffle furnace.

  3. Ingredient Losses during Melting Binary Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.K. Sadrnezhaad; S. Badakhshan Raz

    2005-01-01

    Losses of the alloying elements during vacuum induction melting of the binary NiTi alloys were evaluated by visual observation and chemical analysis of the NiTi melted specimens and the scalp formed on the internal surface of the crucible. The results indicated that the major sources of the losses were (a) evaporation of the metals, (b) formation of the NiTi scalp and (c) the sprinkling drops splashed out of the melt due to the exothermic reactions occurring between Ni and Ti to form the NiTi parent phase. Quantitative evaluations were made for the metallic losses by holding the molten alloy for 0.5, 3, 5, 10 and 15 min at around 100℃ above the melting point inside the crucible.Chemical analysis showed that there existed an optimum holding time of 3 min during which the alloying elements were only dropped to a predictable limit. Microstructure, chemical composition, shape memory and mechanical properties of the cast metal ingots were determined to indicate the appropriate achievements with the specified 3 min optimum holding time.

  4. Melt and Chemical Transport in the Mantle: Insights from Deglaciation-Induced Melting Perturbations in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, D. E.; Ito, G.; Sinton, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Eruptive products represent a time-averaged view of the melting region and melt migration processes, making numerous fundamental parameters of the melt system difficult to constrain. Temporal and spatial variations in melting provide potential windows into this obscure region of the Earth by preferentially sampling melts from different regions of the mantle or mixing melts over different length-scales. We present a newly extended geochemical time series from the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) of Iceland, which experienced a short-lived melting perturbation due to glacial unloading during the last major deglaciation (~15-10 ka). Glacial unloading during this period led to increased degrees of melting particularly in the shallow mantle, which is manifest as an observed increase in volcanic production up to 30 times the steady-state value, decreased levels of highly to moderately incompatible element ratios (e.g., a 35-50% decrease in Nb/Y, with the greatest change occurring in the northernmost WVZ), and elevated SiO2 and CaO concentrations (~0.8 wt. % and ~1.9 wt. % increase in average oxide concentrations respectively) during and immediately following deglaciation. Although eruptive productivity returns to steady-state values within ~3000 yr following deglaciation, the incompatible element concentrations in erupted lavas gradually increase throughout the post-glacial period. We exploit this short-lived melting perturbation to examine and constrain knowledge of fundamental characteristics of melt generation and transport, including mantle permeability, melt ascent rates, depth-dependent melting functions (dF/dP), and the nature of chemical transport and melt mixing in the system. Using conservation equations describing the generation and porous flow of melt in a viscous matrix, we model melt migration in the mantle during and after ice sheet removal, as well as trace element transport for both equilibrium and disequilibrium transport end members. The predicted

  5. Calculation Model of Mass Action Concentration for Mg-Al, Sr-Al and Ba-Al Melts and Determination of Their Thermodynamic Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the phase diagrams and the mass action law in combination with the coexistence theory of metallic melts structure, the calculation model of mass action concentration for Mg-Al, Sr-Al and Ba-Al was built, and their thermodynamic parameters were determined. The agreement between calculated and measured results shows that the model and the determined thermodynamic parameters can reflect the structural characteristics of relevant melts. However, the fact that the thermodynamic parameters from literature don′t give the value agree with the measured result may be due to unconformity of these parameters to real chemical reactions in metallic melts.

  6. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana

    2013-10-15

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Electromagnetic separation of primary iron-rich phases from aluminum-silicon melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天晓; 许振明; 孙宝德; 疏达; 周尧和

    2003-01-01

    The difference of conductivity between primary iron-rich phases and aluminum melt has been used toseparate them by electromagnetic force (EMF) which is induced by imposing a direct electric current and a steadymagnetic field in molten Al-Si alloy. Theoretical analysis and experiments on self-designed electromagnetic separa-tion indicates that primary needle-like β phases are difficult to separate; while primary a iron-rich phases can be sepa-rated by electromagnetic separation. Primary iron-rich phases have been removed from the melt successfully whenthe molten metal flows horizontally through separation channel. The iron content is reduced from 1.13% to 0.41%.

  8. Exploration of the fragmentation of laser shock-melted aluminum using x-ray backlighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Ying-Hua; Li, Xue-Mei; Ye, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Zu-Gen; Cheng, Jin-Ming; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2016-05-01

    The fragmentation of shock-melted metal material is an important scientific problem in shock physics and is suitable for experimentally investigating by the laser-driven x-ray backlighting technique. This letter reports on the exploration of laser shock-melted aluminum fragmentation by means of x-ray backlighting at the SGII high energy facility in China. High-quality and high-resolution radiographs with negligible motion blur were obtained and these images enabled analysis of the mass distribution of the fragmentation product.

  9. Numerical Simulation for Heat and Mass Transfer During Selective Laser Melting of Titanium alloys Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Jui; Tsai, Tsung-Wen; Tseng, Chien-Chou

    The purpose of this research is to analyse the complex phase change and the heat transfer behavior of the Ti-6Al-4 V powder particle during the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. In this study, the rapid melting and solidification process is presented by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach under the framework of the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. The interaction between the laser velocity and power to the solidification shape and defects of the metal components will be studied numerically as a guideline to improve quality and reduce costs.

  10. Numerical Study of Concentration and Thermocapillary Melt Convection under Pulsed Laser Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, O. B.; Popov, A. N.; Smirnova, E. M.; Smurov, I.

    The mathematical model of capillary thermal-concentration convection is proposed; on its basis, a numerical simulation of the process of metal surface alloying with the aid of pulse laser radiation was done. The influence of the pulse intensity on melt hydrodynamics and distribution of the alloying substance was evaluated. In the published works on this theme results of researches are not full enough and the extremely limited. For the substrate material, the data of titanium and iron were used, including the dependence of the surface tension on the melt temperature and admixture concentration.

  11. A Methodology for Modeling Electromagnetic Confinement Systems: Application to Levitation Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kaddah, Nagy; Natarajan, Thinium T.

    A modeling strategy is presented for computing the electromagnetic field and the shape of the molten metal in electromagnetic confinement systems. This strategy involves the use of a hybrid finite element/integral technique to calculate the electromagnetic field and force distribution in the melt. The free surface shape is determined from minimization of electromagnetic, gravitational and surface tension energies using the Lagrange method of multipliers. This approach was applied to model the electromagnetic levitation melting process. The model was found to accurately predict the measured shape of levitated droplets.

  12. Computational dynamics of laser alloyed metallic materials for improved corrosion performance: computational dynamics of laser alloyed metallic materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fatoba, OS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser alloying is a material processing method which utilizes the high power density available from defocused laser beam to melt both metal coatings and a part of the underlying substrate. Since melting occur solitary at the surface, large...

  13. Target-projectile interaction during impact melting at Kamil Crater, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Agnese; D'Orazio, Massimo; Cordier, Carole; Folco, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    In small meteorite impacts, the projectile may survive through fragmentation; in addition, it may melt, and chemically and physically interact with both shocked and melted target rocks. However, the mixing/mingling between projectile and target melts is a process still not completely understood. Kamil Crater (45 m in diameter; Egypt), generated by the hypervelocity impact of the Gebel Kamil Ni-rich ataxite on sandstone target, allows to study the target-projectile interaction in a simple and fresh geological setting. We conducted a petrographic and geochemical study of macroscopic impact melt lapilli and bombs ejected from the crater, which were collected during our geophysical campaign in February 2010. Two types of glasses constitute the impact melt lapilli and bombs: a white glass and a dark glass. The white glass is mostly made of SiO2 and it is devoid of inclusions. Its negligible Ni and Co contents suggest derivation from the target rocks without interaction with the projectile (<0.1 wt% of projectile contamination). The dark glass is a silicate melt with variable contents of Al2O3 (0.84-18.7 wt%), FeOT (1.83-61.5 wt%), and NiO (<0.01-10.2 wt%). The dark glass typically includes fragments (from few μm to several mm in size) of shocked sandstone, diaplectic glass, lechatelierite, and Ni-Fe metal blebs. The metal blebs are enriched in Ni compared to the Gebel Kamil meteorite. The dark glass is thus a mixture of target and projectile melts (11-12 wt% of projectile contamination). Based on recently proposed models for target-projectile interaction and for impact glass formation, we suggest a scenario for the glass formation at Kamil. During the transition from the contact and compression stage and the excavation stage, projectile and target liquids formed at their interface and chemically interact in a restricted zone. Projectile contamination affected only a shallow portion of the target rocks. The SiO2 melt that eventually solidified as white glass behaved as

  14. Sulfide Composition and Melt Stability Field in the Earth's Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Earth's upper mantle, sulfur occurs chiefly as (Fe, Ni)xS minerals and melts with near-monosulfide stoichiometries. These could have substantial influence on geochemical and geophysical properties of the Earth's interior. For example, sulfide mineral and melts are the major carriers of chalcophile and platinum group elements (PGEs) and sulfide melts are potentially responsible for mantle geophysical anomalies, as their physical properties (higher density, surface tension, electrical conductivity and lower melting points) differ greatly from those of silicates. Sulfide melts are a potential sink for reduced mantle carbon and perhaps be associated with carbon transport, including diamond precipitation. Sulfides may be molten in large parts of the mantle, but this is determined in part by sulfide composition, which is in turn a product of Fe-Ni exchange with olivine and of the effect of sulfur, oxygen, and carbon fugacities on metal/anion ratios of melts. Melting experiments define the monosulfide (Fe0.35Ni0.12Cu0.01S0.52) solidus from 1-8 GPa at carbon-free and graphite saturated conditions. The resulting carbon-free solidus is below the mantle adiabat to depths of at least 300 km, but does not indicate sulfide melting in continental lithosphere. In contrast, the graphite saturated solidus indicates melting in the lithosphere at 6-7 GPa (~200 km), close to the source conditions typical of diamond formation. To determine the composition of sulfide equilibrated with olivine, we performed experiments on monosulfide-olivine (crushed powders from San Carlos single crystal) under 2 GPa, 1400 ◦C. Our preliminary results suggests that Fe-Ni distribution coefficients KD, defined by (Ni/Fe)sulfide/(Ni/Fe)olivine, have significantly lower values than those determined previously at one atmosphere (Doyle and Naldrett 1987; Fleet and MacRae 1987; Gaetani and Grove 1997). This indicates that sulfide equilibrated with olivine in the mantle is richer in Fe than former

  15. Experimental Determination of Spinel/Melt, Olivine/Melt, and Pyroxene/Melt Partition Coefficients for Re, Ru, Pd, Au, and Pt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies have identified spinels as important hosts phases for many of the highly siderophile elements (HSE). Yet experimental studies involving chromite or Cr-rich spinel have been lacking. Experimental studies of partitioning of HSEs between silicate, oxides and silicate melt are plagued by low solubilities and the presence of small metallic nuggets at oxygen fugacities relevant to magmas, which interfere with analysis of the phases of interest. We have circumvented these problems in two ways: 1) performing experiments at oxidized conditions, which are still relevant to natural systems but in which nuggets are not observed, and 2) analysis of run products with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), allowing a combination of high sensitivity and good spatial resolution.

  16. Melt spreading code assessment, modifications, and application to the EPR core catcher design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T .; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-30

    in the EPR core catcher that addressed parametric variations in: (1) melt pour mass, (2) melt composition, (3) melt pour rate, (4) pour configuration (i.e., homogeneous vs. stratified metal-oxide phases), (5) melt temperature, (6) cavity condition (wet vs. dry), (7) spreading channel inclination angle, and finally (8) uncertainties in the melt viscosity correlation that are based on comparisons with the reactor material melt spreading database. Although differences were found in the rate of spreading and the degree to which the sacrificial concrete in the spreading room is ablated during the transients, in all cases the melt eventually (over a period of minutes) spreads to a uniform depth in the system.

  17. Rapidly solidified titanium alloys by melt overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Thomas A.; Bruce, Thomas J., Jr.; Hackman, Lloyd E.; Brasmer, Susan E.; Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Baeslack, William A., III

    1989-01-01

    A pilot plant scale furnace was designed and constructed for casting titanium alloy strips. The furnace combines plasma arc skull melting techniques with melt overflow rapid solidification technology. A mathematical model of the melting and casting process was developed. The furnace cast strip of a suitable length and width for use with honeycomb structures. Titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-14Al-21 Nb were successfully cast into strips. The strips were evaluated by optical metallography, microhardness measurements, chemical analysis, and cold rolling.

  18. Physics of the Lindemann melting rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, Andrew C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of melting for 74 distinct chemical elements including several actinides and rare earths. We find that the observed melting points are consistent with a linear relationship between the correlation entropy of the liquid and the Grueneisen constant of the solid, and that the Lindemann rule is well obeyed for the elements with simple structures and less well obeyed for the less symmetric more open structures. No special assumptions are required to explain the melting points of the rare earths or light actinides.

  19. Melt processed high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The achievement of large critical currents is critical to the applications of high-temperature superconductors. Recent developments have shown that melt processing is suitable for producing high J c oxide superconductors. Using magnetic forces between such high J c oxide superconductors and magnets, a person could be levitated.This book has grown largely out of research works on melt processing of high-temperature superconductors conducted at ISTEC Superconductivity Research Laboratory. The chapters build on melt processing, microstructural characterization, fundamentals of flux pinning, criti

  20. Diffusive loss of argon in response to melt vein formation in polygenetic impact melt breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Cameron M.; Hodges, Kip V.

    2017-08-01

    Many planetary surfaces in the solar system have experienced prolonged bombardment. With each impact, new rocks can be assembled that incorporate freshly generated impact melts with fragments of older rocks. Some breccias can become polygenetic, containing multiple generations of impact melt products, and can potentially provide important insights into the extensive bombardment history of a region. However, the amount of chronological information that can be extracted from such samples depends on how well the mineral isotopic systems of geochronometers can preserve the ages of individual melt generations without being disturbed by younger events. We model the thermal evolution of impact melt veins and the resulting loss of Ar from K-bearing phases common in impact melt breccias to assess the potential for preserving the 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual melt generations. Our model results demonstrate that millimeter-scale, clast-free melt veins cause significant heating of adjacent host rock minerals and can cause detectable Ar loss in contact zones that are generally thinner than, and at most about the same thickness as, the vein width. The incorporation of cold clasts in melt veins reduces the magnitudes of heating and Ar loss in the host rocks, and Ar loss can be virtually undetectable for sufficiently clast-rich veins. Quantitative evidence of the timing of impacts, as measured with the 40Ar/39Ar method, can be preserved in polygenetic impact melt breccias, particularly for those containing millimeter-scale bodies of clast-bearing melt products.

  1. The Reaction of Carbonates in Contact with Superheated Silicate Melts: New Insights from MEMIN Laser Melting Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, C.; Hecht, L.; Schäffer, S.; Deutsch, A.; Lexow, B.

    2016-08-01

    The reaction of carbonates in contact with silicate impact melts is discussed quite controversially in the impact community. Here, we discuss four MEMIN laser melting experiments involving carbonates in contact with superheated silicate melts.

  2. Partitioning of Moderately Siderophile Elements Among Olivine, Silicate Melt, and Sulfide Melt: Constraints on Core Formation in the Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetani, Glenn A.; Grove, Timothy L.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of Variations in the fugacities of oxygen and sulfur on the partitioning of first series transition metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni. and Cu) and W among coexisting sulfide melt, silicate melt, and olivine. Experiments were performed at 1 atm pressure, 1350 C, with the fugacities of oxygen and sulfur controlled by mixing CO2, CO, and SO2 gases. Starting compositions consisted of a CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO-Na2O analog for a barred olivine chondrule from an ordinary chondrite and a synthetic komatiite. The f(sub O2)/f(sub S2), conditions ranged from log of f(sub O2) = -7.9 to - 10.6, with log of f(sub S2) values ranging from - 1.0 to -2.5. Our experimental results demonstrate that the f(sub O2)/f(sub S2) dependencies of sulfide melt/silicate melt partition coefficients for the first series transition metals arc proportional to their valence states. The f(sub O2)/f(sub S2) dependencies for the partitioning of Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu are weaker than predicted on the basis of their valence states. Variations in conditions have no significant effect on olivine/melt partitioning other than those resulting from f(sub O2)-induced changes in the valence state of a given element. The strong f(sub O2)/f(sub S2) dependence for the olivine/silicate melt partitioning of V is attributable to a change of valence state, from 4+ to 3+, with decreasing f(sub O2). Our experimentally determined partition coefficients are used to develop models for the segregation of sulfide and metal from the silicate portion of the early Earth and the Shergottite parent body (Mars). We find that the influence of S is not sufficient to explain the overabundance of siderophile and chalcophile elements that remained in the mantle of the Earth following core formation. Important constraints on core formation in Mars are provided by our experimental determination of the partitioning of Cu between silicate and sulfide melts. When combined with existing estimates for siderophile

  3. Cloud screening and melt water detection over melting sea ice using AATSR/SLSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg

    2014-05-01

    With the onset of melt in the Arctic Ocean, the fraction of melt water on sea ice, the melt pond fraction, increases. The consequences are: the reduced albedo of sea ice, increased transmittance of sea ice and affected heat balance of the system with more heat passing through the ice into the ocean, which facilitates further melting. The onset of melt, duration of melt season and melt pond fraction are good indicators of the climate state of the Arctic and its change. In the absence of reliable sea ice thickness retrievals in summer, melt pond fraction retrieval from satellite is in demand as input for GCM as an indicator of melt state of the sea ice. The retrieval of melt pond fraction with a moderate resolution radiometer as AATSR is, however, a non-trivial task due to a variety of subpixel surface types with very different optical properties, which give non-unique combinations if mixed. In this work this has been solved by employing additional information on the surface and air temperature of the pixel. In the current work, a concept of melt pond detection on sea ice is presented. The basis of the retrieval is the sensitivity of AATSR reflectance channels 550nm and 860nm to the amount of melt water on sea ice. The retrieval features extensive usage of a database of in situ surface albedo spectra. A tree of decisions is employed to select the feasible family of in situ spectra for the retrieval, depending on the melt stage of the surface. Reanalysis air temperature at the surface and brightness temperature measured by the satellite sensor are analyzed in order to evaluate the melting status of the surface. Case studies for FYI and MYI show plausible retrieved melt pond fractions, characteristic for both of the ice types. The developed retrieval can be used to process the historical AATSR (2002-2012) dataset, as well as for the SLSTR sensor onboard the future Sentinel-3 mission (scheduled for launch in 2015), to keep the continuity and obtain longer time sequence

  4. A benchmark initiative on mantle convection with melting and melt segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Harro; Dohmen, Janik; Wallner, Herbert; Noack, Lena; Tosi, Nicola; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Maurice, Maxime

    2015-04-01

    In recent years a number of mantle convection models have been developed which include partial melting within the asthenosphere, estimation of melt volumes, as well as melt extraction with and without redistribution at the surface or within the lithosphere. All these approaches use various simplifying modelling assumptions whose effects on the dynamics of convection including the feedback on melting have not been explored in sufficient detail. To better assess the significance of such assumptions and to provide test cases for the modelling community we initiate a benchmark comparison. In the initial phase of this endeavor we focus on the usefulness of the definitions of the test cases keeping the physics as sound as possible. The reference model is taken from the mantle convection benchmark, case 1b (Blanckenbach et al., 1989), assuming a square box with free slip boundary conditions, the Boussinesq approximation, constant viscosity and a Rayleigh number of 1e5. Melting is modelled assuming a simplified binary solid solution with linearly depth dependent solidus and liquidus temperatures, as well as a solidus temperature depending linearly on depletion. Starting from a plume free initial temperature condition (to avoid melting at the onset time) three cases are investigated: Case 1 includes melting, but without thermal or dynamic feedback on the convection flow. This case provides a total melt generation rate (qm) in a steady state. Case 2 includes batch melting, melt buoyancy (melt Rayleigh number Rm), depletion buoyancy and latent heat, but no melt percolation. Output quantities are the Nusselt number (Nu), root mean square velocity (vrms) and qm approaching a statistical steady state. Case 3 includes two-phase flow, i.e. melt percolation, assuming a constant shear and bulk viscosity of the matrix and various melt retention numbers (Rt). These cases should be carried out using the Compaction Boussinseq Approximation (Schmeling, 2000) or the full compaction

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation study of the melting and structural evolution of bimetallic Pd-Pt nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Bhethanabotla, Venkat R.; Joseph, Babu

    2006-10-01

    Thermal characteristics of Pd-Pt metal nanowires with diameters ranging from 2.3 to 3.5nm and of several compositions were studied by molecular dynamics simulations utilizing the quantum Sutton-Chen potential function. Monte Carlo simulations employing bond order simulation model were used to generate the initial wire configurations that consisted of surface segregated structures. Melting temperatures were estimated based on variations in thermodynamic properties such as potential energy and specific heat capacity. We find that the melting transition temperatures for the nanowires are much lower than those of bulk alloys of the same composition and at least 100-200K higher than those of nanoclusters of the same diameter. Density distributions along the nanowire cross section and axis as well as components of shell-based diffusion coefficients and velocity autocorrelation functions were used to investigate the melting mechanism in these nanowires. Our findings indicate a surface-initiated melting process characterized by predominantly larger cross-sectional movement. This two-dimensional surface melting mechanism in nanowires differs from that in nanoclusters in which atomic movement is more isotropic in all three dimensions. Differences in the surface melting mechanism result in structural transformations from fcc-hcp type and lead to simulated phase boundaries for nanowires that are different from bulk alloys as well as from same-diameter nanoclusters. A composition and temperature dependent fcc-hcp transformation occurs prior to the melting transition in both nanowires and nanoclusters. Hcp phase occurs over a wider temperature range at Pd-rich compositions and a narrower range at low Pd compositions with the fcc-hcp and hcp-liquid transition temperatures showing a minimum at 25% Pt composition. In contrast, the nanoclusters exhibit a near-linear dependence of melting temperature on Pd composition with the hcp phase existing over a much narrower range of

  6. Investigation of Melting Dynamics of Hafnium Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wei Chun; Lim, Thong Leng; Yoon, Tiem Leong

    2017-03-27

    Melting dynamics of hafnium clusters are investigated using a novel approach based on the idea of the chemical similarity index. Ground state configurations of small hafnium clusters are first derived using Basin-Hopping and Genetic Algorithm in the parallel tempering mode, employing the COMB potential in the energy calculator. These assumed ground state structures are verified by using the Low Lying Structures (LLS) method. The melting process is carried out either by using the direct heating method or prolonged simulated annealing. The melting point is identified by a caloric curve. However, it is found that the global similarity index is much more superior in locating premelting and total melting points of hafnium clusters.

  7. Ice-shelf melting around Antarctica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rignot, E; Jacobs, S; Mouginot, J; Scheuchl, B

    2013-01-01

    We compare the volume flux divergence of Antarctic ice shelves in 2007 and 2008 with 1979 to 2010 surface accumulation and 2003 to 2008 thinning to determine their rates of melting and mass balance...

  8. Energy-Efficient Glass Melting: Submerged Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-01-01

    Oxy-gas-fired submerged combustion melter offers simpler, improved performance. For the last 100 years, the domestic glass industry has used the same basic equipment for melting glass on an industrial scale.

  9. Principle of Melt-glue Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈人豪; 曹建达; 李济群; 张利梅; 何洋

    2003-01-01

    This paper advances a new concept of textile-meltglue cloth, and introduces the readers to the basic principle of melt-glue cloth. On the basis of melt spinning, the spinneret can be replaced by a spinning device that consists of an outer spinneret (a loop)and an inner spinneret ( a round plate), and between them there is an interval circle on which the centers of the holes are evenly distributed. When the machine is running, the outer spinneret (or the inner one) is fixed, the inner spinneret (or the outer one)is spinning, and a columnar net will be obtained.Then it will be excided with the help of a cutter in transporting it. Finally the once-forming melt-glue cloth will be produced. Compared with the traditional woven fabric, melt-glue cloth has a lot of special features and a bright future of application.

  10. Electrochemical Studies in Aluminum Chloride Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-31

    Molten Salt Systems", Symposium on Molten Salts, Symposium Volume, The Electrochemical Society , in press (1976). Manuscripts in Preparation--Related to...Fused Salt Technology, Electrochemical Society Meeting, Chicaao, May 8-13, 1973. R. A. Osteryoung, R. H. Abel, L. G. Boxall and B. H. Vassos, "An...aluminate Melts", Electrochemical Society , San Francisco, CA, May, 1974. R. A. Osteryoung, "Chemistry in Aluminum Chloride Melts", Fifth International

  11. Terrestrial analogues for lunar impact melt flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pāhoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pāhoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  12. Improved Wear Resistance of Low Carbon Steel with Plasma Melt Injection of WC Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiguo; Guo, Mianhuan; Hu, Hailong

    2010-08-01

    Surface of a low carbon steel Q235 substrate was melted by a plasma torch, and tungsten carbide (WC) particles were injected into the melt pool. WC reinforced surface metal matrix composite (MMC) was synthesized. Dry sliding wear behavior of the surface MMC was studied and compared with the substrate. The results show that dry sliding wear resistance of low carbon steel can be greatly improved by plasma melt injection of WC particles. Hardness of the surface MMC is much higher than that of the substrate. The high hardness lowers the adhesion and abrasion of the surface MMC, and also the friction coefficient of it. The oxides formed in the sliding process also help to lower the friction coefficient. In this way, the dry sliding wear resistance of the surface MMC is greatly improved.

  13. Melt damage simulation of W-macrobrush and divertor gaps after multiple transient events in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazylev, B.N. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: bazylev@ihm.fzk.de; Janeschitz, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Fusion, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Landman, I.S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loarte, A. [EFDA-CSU, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pestchanyi, S.E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Tungsten in the form of macrobrush structure is foreseen as one of two candidate materials for the ITER divertor and dome. In ITER, even for moderate and weak ELMs when a thin shielding layer does not protect the armour surface from the dumped plasma, the main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion, which determines the lifetime of the plasma facing components. The melt erosion of W-macrobrush targets with different geometry of brush surface under the heat loads caused by weak ELMs is numerically investigated using the modified code MEMOS. The optimal angle of brush surface inclination that provides a minimum of surface roughness is estimated for given inclination angles of impacting plasma stream and given parameters of the macrobrush target. For multiple disruptions the damage of the dome gaps and the gaps between divertor cassettes caused by the radiation impact is estimated.

  14. Melt damage simulation of W-macrobrush and divertor gaps after multiple transient events in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylev, B. N.; Janeschitz, G.; Landman, I. S.; Loarte, A.; Pestchanyi, S. E.

    2007-06-01

    Tungsten in the form of macrobrush structure is foreseen as one of two candidate materials for the ITER divertor and dome. In ITER, even for moderate and weak ELMs when a thin shielding layer does not protect the armour surface from the dumped plasma, the main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion, which determines the lifetime of the plasma facing components. The melt erosion of W-macrobrush targets with different geometry of brush surface under the heat loads caused by weak ELMs is numerically investigated using the modified code MEMOS. The optimal angle of brush surface inclination that provides a minimum of surface roughness is estimated for given inclination angles of impacting plasma stream and given parameters of the macrobrush target. For multiple disruptions the damage of the dome gaps and the gaps between divertor cassettes caused by the radiation impact is estimated.

  15. Joining of Different Melting-Point Materials by Charging with Electromagnetic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneji, Tatsushi; Sueyoshi, Toshiyasu; Makabe, Chobin; Miyagi, Kiyohiro

    An electrical resistance welding method was applied under atmospheric conditions by using a metal powder medium or media mixture which was sandwiched in the space between two metal bars which were compressed longitudinally, and simultaneously, current was conducted to generate Joule thermal heat. In the joining, aluminum was used as a base material and was joined to another aluminum, or one of four other metal bars with different melting points, by using resistance-welding apparatus. In the experiments, the specimens used as metal bars were aluminum, stainless steel, carbon steel, titanium and copper; and the powder media were aluminum, nickel and silicon. The reliability of the joined specimens was confirmed by their mechanical properties. In the present study, qualitative results are shown, but the best joining conditions are unknown, yet. However, it is concluded that the present method is useful for the joining of different metals, and it is of value to continue the investigation of joining by generated Joule thermal heat.

  16. The melting and solidification of nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, B. J.; Myers, T. G.

    2016-06-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the melting of nanowires. The first section of the paper deals with a standard theoretical situation, where the wire melts due to a fixed boundary temperature. This analysis allows us to compare with existing results for the phase change of nanospheres. The equivalent solidification problem is also examined. This shows that solidification is a faster process than melting; this is because the energy transfer occurs primarily through the solid rather than the liquid which is a poorer conductor of heat. This effect competes with the energy required to create new solid surface which acts to slow down the process, but overall conduction dominates. In the second section, we consider a more physically realistic boundary condition, where the phase change occurs due to a heat flux from surrounding material. This removes the singularity in initial melt velocity predicted in previous models of nanoparticle melting. It is shown that even with the highest possible flux the melting time is significantly slower than with a fixed boundary temperature condition.

  17. Melting behavior of large disordered sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Aguado, A

    2000-01-01

    The melting-like transition in disordered sodium clusters Na_N, with N=92 and 142 is studied by using a first-principles constant-energy molecular dynamics simulation method. Na_142, whose atoms are distributed in two (surface and inner) main shells with different radial distances to the center of mass of the cluster, melts in two steps: the first one, at approx. 130 K, is characterized by a high intrashell mobility of the atoms, and the second, homogeneous melting, at approx. 270 K, involves diffusive motion of all the atoms across the whole cluster volume (both intrashell and intershell displacements are allowed). On the contrary, the melting of Na_92 proceeds gradually over a very wide temperature interval, without any abrupt step visible in the thermal or structural melting indicators. The occurrence of well defined steps in the melting transition is then shown to be related to the existence of a distribution of the atoms in shells. Thereby we propose a necessary condition for a cluster to be considered r...

  18. Manufacturing laser glass by continuous melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J H; Suratwala, T; krenitsky, S; Takeuchi, K

    2000-07-01

    A novel, continuous melting process is being used to manufacture meter-sized plates of laser glass at a rate 20-times faster, 5-times cheaper, and with 2-3 times better optical quality than with previous one-at-a-time, ''discontinuous'' technology processes. This new technology for manufacturing laser glass, which is arguably the most difficult continuously-melted optical material ever produced, comes as a result of a $60 million, six-year joint R&D program between government and industry. The glasses manufactured by the new continuous melting process are Nd-doped phosphate-based glasses and are marketed under the product names LG-770 (Schott Glass Technologies) and LHG-8 (Hoya Corporation USA). With this advance in glass manufacturing technology, it is now possible to construct high-energy, high-peak-power lasers for use in fusion energy development, national defense, and basic physics research that would have been impractical to build using the old melting technology. The development of continuously melted laser glass required technological advances that have lead to improvements in the manufacture of other optical glass products as well. For example, advances in forming, annealing, and conditioning steps of the laser glass continuous melting process are now being used in manufacture of other large-size optical glasses.

  19. Primary crustal melt compositions: Insights into the controls, mechanisms and timing of generation from kinetics experiments and melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; London, David; Morgan, George B.; Cesare, Bernardo; Buick, Ian; Hermann, Jörg; Bartoli, Omar

    2017-08-01

    We explore the controls, mechanisms and timing of generation of primary melts and their compositions, and show that the novel studies of melt inclusions in migmatites can provide important insights into the processes of crustal anatexis of a particular rock. Partial melting in the source region of granites is dependent on five main processes: (i) supply of heat; (ii) mineral-melt interface reactions associated with the detachment and supply of mineral components to the melt, (iii) diffusion in the melt, (iv) diffusion in minerals, and (v) recrystallization of minerals. As the kinetics of these several processes vary over several orders of magnitude, it is essential to evaluate in Nature which of these processes control the rate of melting, the composition of melts, and the extent to which residue-melt chemical equilibrium is attained under different circumstances. To shed light on these issues, we combine data from experimental and melt inclusion studies. First, data from an extensive experimental program on the kinetics of melting of crustal protoliths and diffusion in granite melt are used to set up the necessary framework that describes how primary melt compositions are established during crustal anatexis. Then, we use this reference frame and compare compositional trends from experiments with the composition of melt inclusions analyzed in particular migmatites. We show that, for the case of El Hoyazo anatectic enclaves in lavas, the composition of glassy melt inclusions provides important information on the nature and mechanisms of anatexis during the prograde suprasolidus history of these rocks, including melting temperatures and reactions, and extent of melt interconnection, melt homogenization and melt-residue equilibrium. Compositional trends in several of the rehomogenized melt inclusions in garnet from migmatites/granulites in anatectic terranes are consistent with diffusion in melt-controlled melting, though trace element compositions of melt inclusions

  20. Recent changes in Arctic sea ice melt onset, freezeup, and melt season length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Thorsten; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Miller, Jeffrey

    2009-12-01

    In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freezeup, and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freezeup. Using this method we analyze trends in melt onset and freezeup for 10 different Arctic regions. In all regions except for the Sea of Okhotsk, which shows a very slight and statistically insignificant positive trend (0.4 d decade-1), trends in melt onset are negative, i.e., toward earlier melt. The trends range from -1.0 d decade-1 for the Bering Sea to -7.3 d decade-1 for the East Greenland Sea. Except for the Sea of Okhotsk all areas also show a trend toward later autumn freeze onset. The Chukchi/Beaufort seas and Laptev/East Siberian seas observe the strongest trends with 7 d decade-1. For the entire Arctic, the melt season length has increased by about 20 days over the last 30 years. Largest trends of over 10 d decade-1 are seen for Hudson Bay, the East Greenland Sea, the Laptev/East Siberian seas, and the Chukchi/Beaufort seas. Those trends are statistically significant at the 99% level.

  1. Quantum simulation of low-temperature metallic liquid hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji; Li, Xin-Zheng; Zhang, Qianfan; Probert, Matthew I J; Pickard, Chris J; Needs, Richard J; Michaelides, Angelos; Wang, Enge

    2013-01-01

    The melting temperature of solid hydrogen drops with pressure above ~65 GPa, suggesting that a liquid state might exist at low temperatures. It has also been suggested that this low-temperature liquid state might be non-molecular and metallic, although evidence for such behaviour is lacking. Here we report results for hydrogen at high pressures using ab initio methods, which include a description of the quantum motion of the protons. We determine the melting temperature as a function of pressure and find an atomic solid phase from 500 to 800 GPa, which melts at metallic atomic liquid is stable at temperatures as low as 50 K. The quantum motion of the protons is critical to the low melting temperature reported, as simulations with classical nuclei lead to considerably higher melting temperatures of ~300 K across the entire pressure range considered.

  2. Late-phase melt progression experiment: MP-2. Results and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, R.D.; Gauntt, R.O.; Bourcier, S.C. [and others

    1997-05-01

    In-pile experiments addressing late-phase processes in Light Water Reactors (LWRs) were performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories. Melt Progression (MP) experiments were designed to provide information to develop and verify computer models for analysis of LWR core damage in severe accidents. Experiments examine the formation and motion of ceramic molten pools in disrupted reactor core regions. The MP-2 experiment assembly consisted of: (1) a rubble bed of enriched UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} simulating severely disrupted reactor core regions, (2) a ceramic/metallic crust representing blockage formed by early phase melting, relocation, and refreezing of core components, and (3) an intact rod stub region that remained in place below the blockage region. The test assembly was fission heated in the central cavity of the ACRR at an average rate of about 0.2 KA, reaching a peak molten pool temperature around 3400 K. Melting of the debris bed ceramic components was initiated near the center of the bed. The molten material relocated downward, refreezing to form a ceramic crust near the bottom of the rubble bed. As power levels were increased, the crust gradually remelted and reformed at progressively lower positions in the bed until late in the experiment when it penetrated into and attacked the ceramic/metallic blockage. The metallic components of the blockage region melted and relocated to the bottom of the intact rod stub region before the ceramic melt penetrated the blockage region from above. The ceramic pool penetrated halfway into the blockage region by the end of the experiment. Measurements of thermal response and material relocation are compared to the results of the computer simulations. Postexperiment examination of the assembly with the associated material interactions and metallurgy are also discussed in detail with the analyses and interpretation of results. 16 refs., 206 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Plasma Sprayed Pour Tubes and Other Melt Handling Components for Use in Gas Atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, David; Rieken, Joel; Heidloff, Andy; Besser, Matthew; Anderson, Iver

    2011-04-01

    Ames Laboratory has successfully used plasma sprayed ceramic components made from yttria stabilized zirconia as melt pouring tubes for gas atomization for many years. These tubes have proven to be strong, thermal shock resistant and versatile. Various configurations are possible both internally and externally. Accurate dimensions are achieved internally with a machined fugitive graphite mandrel and externally by diamond grinding. The previous study of the effect of spray parameters on density was extended to determine the effect of the resulting density on the thermal shock characteristics on down-quenching and up-quenching. Encouraging results also prompted investigation of the use of plasma spraying as a method to construct a melt pour exit stopper that is mechanically robust, thermal shock resistant, and not susceptible to attack by reactive melt additions. The Ames Laboratory operates two close-coupled high pressure gas atomizers. These two atomizers are designed to produce fine and coarse spherical metal powders (5{mu} to 500{mu} diameter) of many different metals and alloys. The systems vary in size, but generally the smaller atomizer can produce up to 5 kg of powder whereas the larger can produce up to 25 kg depending on the charge form and density. In order to make powders of such varying compositions, it is necessary to have melt systems capable of heating and containing the liquid charge to the desired superheat temperature prior to pouring through the atomization nozzle. For some metals and alloys this is not a problem; however for some more reactive and/or high melting materials this can pose unique challenges. Figure 1 is a schematic that illustrates the atomization system and its components.

  4. Plasma Sprayed Pour Tubes and Other Melt Handling Components for Use in Gas Atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, David; Rieken, Joel; Heidloff, Andy; Besser, Matthew; Anderson, Iver

    2011-04-01

    Ames Laboratory has successfully used plasma sprayed ceramic components made from yttria stabilized zirconia as melt pouring tubes for gas atomization for many years. These tubes have proven to be strong, thermal shock resistant and versatile. Various configurations are possible both internally and externally. Accurate dimensions are achieved internally with a machined fugitive graphite mandrel and externally by diamond grinding. The previous study of the effect of spray parameters on density was extended to determine the effect of the resulting density on the thermal shock characteristics on down-quenching and up-quenching. Encouraging results also prompted investigation of the use of plasma spraying as a method to construct a melt pour exit stopper that is mechanically robust, thermal shock resistant, and not susceptible to attack by reactive melt additions. The Ames Laboratory operates two close-coupled high pressure gas atomizers. These two atomizers are designed to produce fine and coarse spherical metal powders (5{mu} to 500{mu} diameter) of many different metals and alloys. The systems vary in size, but generally the smaller atomizer can produce up to 5 kg of powder whereas the larger can produce up to 25 kg depending on the charge form and density. In order to make powders of such varying compositions, it is necessary to have melt systems capable of heating and containing the liquid charge to the desired superheat temperature prior to pouring through the atomization nozzle. For some metals and alloys this is not a problem; however for some more reactive and/or high melting materials this can pose unique challenges. Figure 1 is a schematic that illustrates the atomization system and its components.

  5. Containerless Undercooled Melts: Ordering, Nucleation, and Dendrite Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlach, Dieter M.; Binder, Sven; Galenko, Peter; Gegner, Jan; Holland-Moritz, Dirk; Klein, Stefan; Kolbe, Matthias; Volkmann, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Electromagnetic and electrostatic levitation are applied to containerless undercool and solidify metallic melts. A large undercooling range becomes accessible with the extra benefit that the freely suspended drop is accessible directly for in situ observation. The short-range order in undercooled melts is investigated by combining levitation with elastic neutron scattering and X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation. Muon Spin Rotation ( µSR) experiments show magnetic ordering in deeply undercooled Co80Pd20 alloys. The onset of magnetic ordering stimulates nucleation. Results on nucleation undercooling of zirconium are presented showing the limit of maximum undercoolability set by the onset of homogeneous nucleation. Metastable phase diagrams are determined by applying energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction of Ni-V alloys with varying concentration. Nucleation is followed by crystal growth. Rapid dendrite growth velocity is measured on levitation-processed samples as a function of undercooling ∆ T by using high-speed video camera technique. Solute trapping in dilute solid solutions and disorder trapping in intermetallic compounds are experimentally verified. Measurements of glass-forming Cu-Zr alloy show a maximum in the V(∆ T) relation that is indicative for diffusion-controlled growth. The influence of convection on dendrite growth of Al50Ni50 is shown by comparative measurements of dendrite growth velocity on Earth and in reduced gravity. Eventually, faceting of a rough interface by convection is presented as observed on Ni2B alloys.

  6. Non-combustible waste melting with plasma torch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kil; Moon, Young Pyo; Lee, Myung Chan; Song, Myung Jae

    1999-07-01

    Non-combustible radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants are composed of concrete, glass, asbestos, metal, sand, soil, spent filter, etc. The melting tests for concrete, glass, sand, and spent filter were carried out using 60 kW plasma torch system. The surrogate wastes were prepared for the tests and Co and Cs were added to thesurrogates in order to simulate the radioactive waste. Several kinds of surrogate were prepared by mixing them or individual waste, and were melted with plasma torch system to produce glassy waste forms. The characteristics of glassy waste forms were examined for the volume reduction factor (VRF) and the leach rate. The VRFs were estimated through measurement of density for surrogate and glassy waste forms, and were turned out to be 1.2 - 2.4. The EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was applied to determine the leach resistance for As, Ba, Hg, Pb, Se, Co, and Cs, and the leaching index was calculated using the total content in both the waste forms and the leached amount for each element. The TCLP tests resulted that the leach rates for all elements except Se, Co, and Cs were lower than those of the EPA guide line. For Co and Cs, there is no the EPA guide line and the leach rate and index for them were around 10 times higher than those of the other elements. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Cathodic processes of neodymium(iii) in LiF-NdF3-Nd2O3 melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Liu, Xiaolong; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Shizhe; Li, Bing

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry are applied to characterize the cathode processes of neodymium ions on a W electrode in LiF-NdF3 melts with or without the metal Nd. The results indicate that neodymium ions in the LiF-NdF3 (2 wt%) melt are reduced in two steps, i.e. Nd(3+) → Nd(2+) and Nd(2+) → Nd(0), corresponding to starting reduction potentials of 0.35 V vs. Li(+)/Li and 0.1 V vs. Li(+)/Li, respectively. The Nd(3+) → Nd(2+) process is controlled by mass transfer and the Nd(2+) → Nd(0) process is controlled by both an interfacial step and mass transfer. But in the LiF-NdF3 melt with excess metal Nd equilibrium, the kinetics of the above two processes are controlled by mass transfer. After potentiostatic electrolysis at 0.35 V in the LiF-NdF3-Nd2O3 melt NdF2 is formed on the Mo cathode, and metallic Nd is obtained by potentiostatic electrolysis at 0.1 V in the LiF-NdF3-Nd2O3-Nd melt, which validates the above electrochemical reduction results.

  8. Integral coolant channels supply made by melt-out method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, W. J. D.

    1964-01-01

    Melt-out method of constructing strong, pressure-tight fluid coolant channels for chambers is accomplished by cementing pins to the surface and by depositing a melt-out material on the surface followed by two layers of epoxy-resin impregnated glass fibers. The structure is heated to melt out the low-melting alloy.

  9. An Investigation of Sintering Parameters on Titanium Powder for Electron Beam Melting Processing Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Drescher

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Selective electron beam melting (SEBM is a relatively new additive manufacturing technology for metallic materials. Specific to this technology is the sintering of the metal powder prior to the melting process. The sintering process has disadvantages for post-processing. The post-processing of parts produced by SEBM typically involves the removal of semi-sintered powder through the use of a powder blasting system. Furthermore, the sintering of large areas before melting decreases productivity. Current investigations are aimed at improving the sintering process in order to achieve better productivity, geometric accuracy, and resolution. In this study, the focus lies on the modification of the sintering process. In order to investigate and improve the sintering process, highly porous titanium test specimens with various scan speeds were built. The aim of this study was to decrease build time with comparable mechanical properties of the components and to remove the residual powder more easily after a build. By only sintering the area in which the melt pool for the components is created, an average productivity improvement of approx. 20% was achieved. Tensile tests were carried out, and the measured mechanical properties show comparatively or slightly improved values compared with the reference.

  10. Superheating and melting within aluminum core-oxide shell nanoparticles for a broad range of heating rates: multiphysics phase field modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong Seok; Levitas, Valery I

    2016-10-19

    The external surface of metallic particles is usually covered by a thin and strong oxide shell, which significantly affects superheating and melting of particles. The effects of geometric parameters and heating rate on characteristic melting and superheating temperatures and melting behavior of aluminum nanoparticles covered by an oxide shell were studied numerically. For this purpose, the multiphysics model that includes the phase field model for surface melting, a dynamic equation of motion, a mechanical model for stress and strain simulations, interface and surface stresses, and the thermal conduction model including thermoelastic and thermo-phase transformation coupling as well as transformation dissipation rate was formulated. Several nontrivial phenomena were revealed. In comparison with a bare particle, the pressure generated in a core due to different thermal expansions of the core and shell and transformation volumetric expansion during melting, increases melting temperatures with the Clausius-Clapeyron factor of 60 K GPa(-1). For the heating rates Q ≤ 10(9) K s(-1), melting temperatures (surface and bulk start and finish melting temperatures, and maximum superheating temperature) are independent of Q. For Q ≥ 10(12) K s(-1), increasing Q generally increases melting temperatures and temperature for the shell fracture. Unconventional effects start for Q ≥ 10(12) K s(-1) due to kinetic superheating combined with heterogeneous melting and geometry. The obtained results are applied to shed light on the initial stage of the melt-dispersion-mechanism of the reaction of Al nanoparticles. Various physical phenomena that promote or suppress melting and affect melting temperatures and temperature of the shell fracture for different heating-rate ranges are summarized in the corresponding schemes.

  11. Bonding theory for metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Frederick E

    2005-01-01

    Bonding Theory for Metals and Alloys exhorts the potential existence of covalent bonding in metals and alloys. Through the recognition of the covalent bond in coexistence with the 'free' electron band, the book describes and demonstrates how the many experimental observations on metals and alloys can all be reconciled. Subsequently, it shows how the individual view of metals and alloys by physicists, chemists and metallurgists can be unified. The physical phenomena of metals and alloys covered in this book are: Miscibility Gap between two liquid metals; Phase Equilibrium Diagrams; Phenomenon of Melting. Superconductivity; Nitinol; A Metal-Alloy with Memory; Mechanical Properties; Liquid Metal Embrittlement; Superplasticity; Corrosion; The author introduces a new theory based on 'Covalon' conduction, which forms the basis for a new approach to the theory of superconductivity. This new approach not only explains the many observations made on the phenomenon of superconductivity but also makes predictions that ha...

  12. Tailoring the thermal conductivity of the powder bed in Electron Beam Melting (EBM) Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C J; Tammas-Williams, S; Hernandez-Nava, E; Todd, I

    2017-09-05

    Metallic powder bed additive manufacturing is capable of producing complex, functional parts by repeatedly depositing thin layers of powder particles atop of each other whilst selectively melting the corresponding part cross-section into each layer. A weakness with this approach arises when melting overhanging features, which have no prior melted material directly beneath them. This is due to the lower thermal conductivity of the powder relative to solid material, which as a result leads to an accumulation of heat and thus distortion. The Electron Beam Melting (EBM) process alleviates this to some extent as the powder must first be sintered (by the beam itself) before it is melted, which results in the added benefit of increasing the thermal conductivity. This study thus sought to investigate to what extent the thermal conductivity of local regions in a titanium Ti-6Al-4V powder bed could be varied by imparting more energy from the beam. Thermal diffusivity and density measurements were taken of the resulting sintered samples, which ranged from being loosely to very well consolidated. It was found that the calculated thermal conductivity at two temperatures, 40 and 730 °C, was more than doubled over the range of input energies explored.

  13. Material properties of the F82H melted in an electric arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakasegawa, Hideo, E-mail: sakasegawa.hideo@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Kano, Sho; Abe, Hiroaki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku university, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We studied material properties of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel. • We melted F82H using a 20 tons electric arc furnace for the first time. • Mass effect likely affected material properties. • MX (M: Metal, C: Carbon and/or Nitrogen) precipitates mainly formed on grain and sub grain boundaries. - Abstract: Fusion DEMO reactor requires over 11,000 tons of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel. It is necessary to develop the manufacturing technology for fabricating such large-scale steel with appropriate mechanical properties. In this work, we focused fundamental mechanical properties and microstructures of F82H-BA12 heat which was melted using a 20 tons electric arc furnace followed by electroslag remelting process. Its raw material of iron was blast furnace iron, because the production volume of electrolytic iron which has been used in former heats, is limited. After melting and forging, this F82H-BA12 heat was heat-treated in four different conditions to consider their fluctuations and to optimize them, and tensile and Charpy impact tests were then performed. The result of these mechanical properties were comparable to those of former F82H heats less than 5 tons which were melted applying vacuum induction melting.

  14. A Review of Dynamic Models of Hot-Melt Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Grimard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot-melt extrusion is commonly applied for forming products, ranging from metals to plastics, rubber and clay composites. It is also increasingly used for the production of pharmaceuticals, such as granules, pellets and tablets. In this context, mathematical modeling plays an important role to determine the best process operating conditions, but also to possibly develop software sensors or controllers. The early models were essentially black-box and relied on the measurement of the residence time distribution. Current models involve mass, energy and momentum balances and consists of (partial differential equations. This paper presents a literature review of a range of existing models. A common case study is considered to illustrate the predictive capability of the main candidate models, programmed in a simulation environment (e.g., MATLAB. Finally, a comprehensive distributed parameter model capturing the main phenomena is proposed.

  15. Investigation on recalescence temperatures of deeply undercooled melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X. L.; Liu, F.; Hou, H.; Zhao, Y. H.; Gu, T.; Wang, S. Y.; Yan, F.

    2016-12-01

    According to the theory of classic thermodynamics, any transformation is driven by the decrease of Gibbs free energy of the system. Solidification pertains to the first order transformation and obeys this basic law. The Gibbs free energy of the condensed phases of metals and alloys is closely related to the temperature and composition of the system. Thus we can describe rapid solidification process in a more precise way by using quantitative thermodynamic calculation. In combination with solidification kinetics theory, we calculated the evolution of the thermodynamic parameters during rapid solidification process. On this basis, we proposed a criterion for the end point of recalescence process and built a physical model for describing rapid solidification process and predicting recalescence temperatures of undercooled melts. Good agreement can be achieved between the present model prediction and experimental data.

  16. Investigation on contact melting of Cu/Al laminated composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Pronichev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents investigation of chemical composition, microhardness and electrical conductivity of Cu/Al laminated metal composite after heat treatment at temperatures higher than Cu–Al eutectic melting point. The Cu/Al bimetal was obtained via explosion welding. Chemical composition of the material after heat treatments was identified using EDS analysis. Eddy current testing was applied to investigate electrical conductivity of the composite’s components. Strain-hardened zones were identified in the explosion welded composite. The experimental value of electrical conductivity of explosion welded composite was in good coherence with calculated by additivity rule results. Heat treatments resulted in the formation of multiple interlayers which had high microhardness value and had intermetallics in composition. The electrical conductivity of the identified interlayers was significantly lower than of Cu and Al.

  17. Validation experiments for LBM simulations of electron beam melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, Regina; Rüde, Ulrich; Markl, Matthias; Jüchter, Vera; Körner, Carolin

    2014-05-01

    This paper validates three-dimensional (3D) simulation results of electron beam melting (EBM) processes by comparing experimental and numerical data. The physical setup is presented which is discretized by a 3D thermal lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). An experimental process window is used for the validation depending on the line energy injected into the metal powder bed and the scan velocity of the electron beam. In the process window, the EBM products are classified into the categories, porous, good and swelling, depending on the quality of the surface. The same parameter sets are used to generate a numerical process window. A comparison of numerical and experimental process windows shows a good agreement. This validates the EBM model and justifies simulations for future improvements of the EBM processes. In particular, numerical simulations can be used to explain future process window scenarios and find the best parameter set for a good surface quality and dense products.

  18. Analysis of flow development in centrifugal atomization: Part II. Disintegration of a non-fully spreading melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. Y.

    2004-09-01

    Centrifugal atomization of metal melts is a cost-effective process for powder production and spray deposition. The properties of the as-produced powder and deposit are determined primarily by the characteristics of the atomized droplets, which in turn are largely dependent on the flow development of the melt on the atomizer. This paper develops a model for analysing the flow development of a non-fully spreading melt on the atomizing cup. The model shows that the melt can disintegrate prematurely before reaching the edge of the cup when the dynamic contact angle of the melt exceeds a critical contact angle. The critical contact angle is very small for a flat disc but increases markedly with increasing slope angle of a cup. The critical contact angle also increases with increasing melt flow rate and cup rotation speed. The model gives a good insight into the atomization mechanism and explains well the phenomena observed in centrifugal atomization, including the conditions of the occurrence of the three atomization modes and the existence of an optimum melt flow rate, cup radius, cup slope angle and cup rotation speed for achieving small droplet sizes.

  19. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-08-22

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  20. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-02-07

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  1. Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesente, S.; Vanini, S.; Benettoni, M.; Bonomi, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G.; Squarcia, S.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2010-08-01

    Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

  2. Metals Additive ManufacturingGreat Promise in Mitigating Shortages but Some Risks Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    metals AM such as Selective Laser Melting, Laser Cutting, Direct Metal Laser Sintering and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) and collectively refers to...welding approach during which a computer-controlled laser or electron beam is moved over a bed of powder, fusing or sintering the powder selec- tively to...Group Figure 1. The Powder Bed Metal Fusion Additive Manufacturing Process Laser Unsintered material in previous layers Roller Laser

  3. Direct manufacturing of Cu-based alloy parts by selective laser melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihui Wu; Yongqiang Yang; Yanlu Huang

    2007-01-01

    The frequent defects of the metal parts, such as non-fully melting, thermal strain, and balling, which are produced by selective laser melting (SLM) that is a novel method of one-step manufacturing, are analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The processing parameters significantly affect the quality of the final parts, and simultaneously, the appropriate laser mode and the special scanning strategy assure a satisfying quality of the final parts. The SLM experiment is carried out using Cu-based powder. The metal part is divided into several scanned regions, each of which is scanned twice at the cross direction with different scanning speeds. The microstructure is analyzed on microscope. The results show that the part is metallurgically bonded entity with a relative density of 95%, and the microstructure is composed of equiaxial crystal and dendritic crystal whose distributions are mainly decided by the scanning strategy.

  4. Morphological Investigation of Foamed Aluminum Parts Produced by Melt Gas Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Surace

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous metal materials are a new class of materials with low densities, large specific surface, and novel physical and mechanical properties. Their applications are extremely varied: for light weight structural components, for filters and electrodes, and for shock or sound absorbing products. Recently, interesting foaming technology developments have proposed metallic foams as a valid commercial chance; foam manufacturing techniques include solid, liquid, or vapor state methods. The foams presented in this study are produced by Melt Gas Injection (MGI process starting from melt aluminum. The aim of this investigation is to obtain complex foamed aluminum parts in order to make the MGI more flexible. This new method, called MGI-mould process, makes possible to produce 3D-shaped parts with complicated shape or configuration using some moulds obtained by traditional investment casting process.

  5. Comparative Study on Two Melting Simulation Methods: Melting Curve of Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Li; Sun, Jun-Sheng; Li, Rui; Zhang, Xiu-Lu; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2016-05-01

    Melting simulation methods are of crucial importance to determining melting temperature of materials efficiently. A high-efficiency melting simulation method saves much simulation time and computational resources. To compare the efficiency of our newly developed shock melting (SM) method with that of the well-established two-phase (TP) method, we calculate the high-pressure melting curve of Au using the two methods based on the optimally selected interatomic potentials. Although we only use 640 atoms to determine the melting temperature of Au in the SM method, the resulting melting curve accords very well with the results from the TP method using much more atoms. Thus, this shows that a much smaller system size in SM method can still achieve a fully converged melting curve compared with the TP method, implying the robustness and efficiency of the SM method. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 41574076 and the NSAF of China under Grant No. U1230201/A06, and the Young Core Teacher Scheme of Henan Province under Grant No. 2014GGJS-108

  6. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Ti6Al4V Parts Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting and Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, H. K.; Karthik, N. V.; Gong, Haijun; Starr, Thomas L.; Stucker, Brent E.

    2013-12-01

    This work compares two metal additive manufacturing processes, selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM), based on microstructural and mechanical property evaluation of Ti6Al4V parts produced by these two processes. Tensile and fatigue bars conforming to ASTM standards were fabricated using Ti6Al4V ELI grade material. Microstructural evolution was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Tensile and fatigue tests were carried out to understand mechanical properties and to correlate them with the corresponding microstructure. The results show differences in microstructural evolution between SLM and EBM processed Ti6Al4V and their influence on mechanical properties. The microstructure of SLM processed parts were composed of an α' martensitic phase, whereas the EBM processed parts contain primarily α and a small amount of β phase. Consequently, there are differences in tensile and fatigue properties between SLM- and EBM-produced Ti6Al4V parts. The differences are related to the cooling rates experienced as a consequence of the processing conditions associated with SLM and EBM processes.

  7. Corrosion resistance characteristics of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy scaffold that is fabricated by electron beam melting and selective laser melting for implantation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingjing; Wang, Hong; Qiao, Ning; Wang, Chao; Hu, Min

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy fabricated with electron beam melting and selective laser melting for implantation in vivo. Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens were fabricated with electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM). A wrought form of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was used as a control. Surface morphology observation, component analysis, corrosion resistance experimental results, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, crevice corrosion resistance experimental results, immersion test and metal ions precipitation analysis were processed, respectively. The thermal stability of EBM specimen was the worst, based on the result of open circuit potential (OCP) result. The result of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the corrosion resistance of the SLM specimen was the best under the low electric potential. The result of potentiodynamic polarization suggested that the corrosion resistance of the SLM specimen was the best under the low electric potential (1.5V).The crevice corrosion resistance of the EBM specimen was the best. The corrosion resistance of SLM specimen was the best, based on the result of immersion test. The content of Ti, Al and V ions of EBM, SLM and wrought specimens was very low. In general, the scaffolds that were fabricated with EBM and SLM had good corrosion resistance, and were suitable for implantation in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Origin of impact melt rocks in the Bununu howardite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, L. C.; Hewins, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Bununu howardite is a polymict regolith breccia which contains impact melt that is largely restricted to a 1-cm thick intrusion containing residual glass. As in Malvern, the melt rock contains melt with meteoritic Ni-Co contents. The cooling rate, interpreted for forming glass from this composition, is a few tenths of a degree per minute. The intrusive melts rock, which is a feature unique to Bununu, may indicate that Bununu was consolidated at the time of impact melting.

  9. Melting of the Earth's inner core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, David; Sreenivasan, Binod; Mound, Jon; Rost, Sebastian

    2011-05-19

    The Earth's magnetic field is generated by a dynamo in the liquid iron core, which convects in response to cooling of the overlying rocky mantle. The core freezes from the innermost surface outward, growing the solid inner core and releasing light elements that drive compositional convection. Mantle convection extracts heat from the core at a rate that has enormous lateral variations. Here we use geodynamo simulations to show that these variations are transferred to the inner-core boundary and can be large enough to cause heat to flow into the inner core. If this were to occur in the Earth, it would cause localized melting. Melting releases heavy liquid that could form the variable-composition layer suggested by an anomaly in seismic velocity in the 150 kilometres immediately above the inner-core boundary. This provides a very simple explanation of the existence of this layer, which otherwise requires additional assumptions such as locking of the inner core to the mantle, translation from its geopotential centre or convection with temperature equal to the solidus but with composition varying from the outer to the inner core. The predominantly narrow downwellings associated with freezing and broad upwellings associated with melting mean that the area of melting could be quite large despite the average dominance of freezing necessary to keep the dynamo going. Localized melting and freezing also provides a strong mechanism for creating seismic anomalies in the inner core itself, much stronger than the effects of variations in heat flow so far considered.

  10. CRYSTALLIZATION AND MELTING OF NYLON 610

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study the crystallization and melting of nylon 610. For nylon 610 crystallized from the melt state (260℃), the overall rate of bulk crystallization can be described by a simple Avrami equation with Avrami exponent n≈2, independent of crystallization temperature. With the experimentally obtained Tm0 (235℃~255℃) of nylon 610, the fold surface free energy σe was determined to be 35~38 erg/cm2. The effects of annealing temperature and time on the melting of quenched nylon 610 were also investigated. For nylon 610 quenched at room temperature there is only one DSC endotherm peak DSC scans on annealed samples exhibited an endotherm peak at approximately 10℃ above the annealing temperature. The size and position of the endothermic peak is strongly related to annealing temperature and time. An additional third melting was observed when quenched nylon 610 was annealed at high temperature for a sufficiently long residence time. The existence of the third melting peak suggests that more than one kind of distribution of lamella thickness may occur when quenched nylon610 is annealed. The implications of these results in terms of crystal thickening mechanism were discussed.

  11. Polyether Based Thermoplastic Polyurethane Melt Blown Nonwovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezie Zapletalova

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of melt blown samples were produced from three hardness grades of ether based thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (TPU. The fabrics were tested to investigate their structure-property relationship in a melt blown process. Solution viscosities of the web were only 20-26% of there original values indicating a large loss in polymer molecular weight during melt blowing. Fiber diameter distributions measured on melt blown samples were found comparable to those made with more conventional polymers. The fiber orientation distribution functions (ODF suggest slight fiber orientation in machine direction. Tensile and elongation properties depended on die-to-collector distance (DCD, polymer hardness and fiber ODF. A strong relationship between the tensile strength and die-to-collector distance was identified and attributed to reduced interfiber adhesion in the web with increasing DCD. The reduction in adhesion was attributed to greater extents of solidification before reaching the forming belt for longer DCDs. This paper is the first in a series relating the influence of the melt blowing process parameters on the polymer properties and the nonwoven fabric properties for block thermoplastic elastomers.

  12. Melt electrospinning of biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchin, Ari; Simonovsky, Felix I.; Ratner, Buddy D.; Sanders, Joan E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrospinning from the melt, in contrast to from solution, is an attractive tissue engineering scaffold manufacturing process as it allows for the formation of small diameter fibers while eliminating potentially cytotoxic solvents. Despite this, there is a dearth of literature on scaffold formation via melt electrospinning. This is likely due to the technical challenges related to the need for a well-controlled high temperature setup and the difficulty in developing an appropriate polymer. In this paper, a biodegradable and thermally stable polyurethane (PU) is described specifically for use in melt electrospinning. Polymer formulations of aliphatic PUs based on (CH2)4-content diisocyanates, polycaprolactone (PCL), 1,4-butanediamine and 1,4-butanediol (BD) were evaluated for utility in the melt electrospinning process. The final polymer formulation, a catalyst-purified PU based on 1,4-butane diisocyanate, PCL and BD in a 4/1/3 molar ratio with a weight-average molecular weight of about 40 kDa, yielded a nontoxic polymer that could be readily electrospun from the melt. Scaffolds electrospun from this polymer contained point bonds between fibers and mechanical properties analogous to many in vivo soft tissues. PMID:21640853

  13. Femtosecond laser pulse driven melting in gold nanorod aqueous colloidal suspension: identification of a transition from stretched to exponential kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuelin; Jiang, Zhang; Lin, Xiao-Min; Wen, Haidan; Walko, Donald A; Deshmukh, Sanket A; Subbaraman, Ram; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; Gray, Stephen K; Ho, Phay

    2015-01-30

    Many potential industrial, medical, and environmental applications of metal nanorods rely on the physics and resultant kinetics and dynamics of the interaction of these particles with light. We report a surprising kinetics transition in the global melting of femtosecond laser-driven gold nanorod aqueous colloidal suspension. At low laser intensity, the melting exhibits a stretched exponential kinetics, which abruptly transforms into a compressed exponential kinetics when the laser intensity is raised. It is found the relative formation and reduction rate of intermediate shapes play a key role in the transition. Supported by both molecular dynamics simulations and a kinetic model, the behavior is traced back to the persistent heterogeneous nature of the shape dependence of the energy uptake, dissipation and melting of individual nanoparticles. These results could have significant implications for various applications such as water purification and electrolytes for energy storage that involve heat transport between metal nanorod ensembles and surrounding solvents.

  14. Doping of germanium by ion-implantation and laser annealing in the melting regime

    OpenAIRE

    Milazzo, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Germanium is the main candidate for replacing silicon in active regions in future complementary metal-oxide transistors due to: (i) its higher mobility of charge carriers that makes it able to attain higher drive current; (ii) the availability of high-k materials, excellent substitutes for its unstable native oxide and (iii) its lower melting point that allows lower processing temperatures. However, a downscaling beyond 15-nm necessarily requires higher doping levels (higher than 1x10^20cm^-3...

  15. Microstructure of reaction zone in WCp/duplex stainless steels matrix composites processing by laser melt injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do Nascimento, A. M.; Ocelik, V.; Ierardi, M. C. F.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    The laser melt injection (LMI) process has been used to create a metal matrix composite consisting of 80gm sized multi-grain WC particles embedded in three cast duplex stainless steels. The microstruture was investigated by scanning electron microscopy with integrated EDS and electron back-scatter d

  16. [Comparison of adaptation and microstructure of titanium upper complete denture base fabricated by selecting laser melting and electron beam melting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y; Xiong, Y Y; Zhu, J R; Sun, J

    2017-06-09

    Objective: To fabricate Ti alloy frameworks for a maxillary complete denture with three-dimensional printing (3DP) technique, such as selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM), and to evaluate the microstructure of these frameworks and their adaptation to the die stone models. Methods: Thirty pairs of edentulous casts were divided into 3 groups randomly and equally. In each group, one of the three techniques (SLM, EBM, conventional technique) was used to fabricate Ti alloy frameworks. The base-cast sets were transversally sectioned into 3 sections at the distal of canines, mesial of first molars, and the posterior palatal zone. The gap between the metal base and cast was measured in the 3 sections. Stereoscopic microscope was used to measure the gap. Three pieces of specimens of 5 mm diameter were fabricated with Ti alloy by SLM, EBM and the traditional casting technology (as mentioned above). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the differences of microstructure among these specimens. Results: The gaps between the metal base and cast were (99.4±17.0), (98.2±26.1), and (99.6± 16.1) μm in conventional method; (99.4 ± 22.8), (83.1 ± 19.3), and (103.3 ± 13.8) μm in SLM technique; (248.3±70.3), (279.1±71.9), and (189.1±31.6) μm in EBM technique. There was no statistical difference in the value of gaps between SLM Ti alloy and conventional method Ti alloy group (P>0.05). There was statistical difference among EBM Ti alloy, conventional method Ti alloy and SLM Ti alloy group (Pcomplete denture. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the denture frameworks prepared by SLM indicate that these dentures are appropriate for clinical use. EBM technique is inadequate to make a complete denture now.

  17. Analysis of picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Huang, C.Y.; Malvezzi, A.M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm/sup -1/ and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm/sup -1/, the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nonosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence.

  18. Analysis of Picosecond Pulsed Laser Melted Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Malvezzi, A. M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-12-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm{sup -1} and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm{sup -1}, the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nanosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence.

  19. Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements and into the t......We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...... and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find...

  20. A model for melting of confined DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, E; Ambjörnsson, T; Mehlig, B

    2015-01-01

    When DNA molecules are heated they denature. This occurs locally so that loops of molten single DNA strands form, connected by intact double-stranded DNA pieces. The properties of this "melting" transition have been intensively investigated. Recently there has been a surge of interest in this question, caused by experiments determining the properties of partially bound DNA confined to nanochannels. But how does such confinement affect the melting transition? To answer this question we introduce, and solve a model predicting how confinement affects the melting transition for a simple model system by first disregarding the effect of self-avoidance. We find that the transition is smoother for narrower channels. By means of Monte-Carlo simulations we then show that a model incorporating self-avoidance shows qualitatively the same behaviour and that the effect of confinement is stronger than in the ideal case.

  1. Scleral melt following Retisert intravitreal fluocinolone implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgalas I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ilias Georgalas,1 Chrysanthi Koutsandrea,1 Dimitrios Papaconstantinou,1 Dimitrios Mpouritis,1 Petros Petrou1,2 1Ophthalmology Department, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 2Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant (Retisert has a high potency, a low solubility, and a very short duration of action in the systemic circulation, enabling the steroid pellet to be small and reducing the risk of systemic side effects. Scleral melt has not been reported as a possible complication of Retisert implant. The authors describe the occurrence of scleral melt 18 months after the implantation of fluocinolone acetonide implant in a 42-year-old Caucasian woman. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of this possible complication.Keywords: Retisert, scleral melt, complication, surgical management

  2. Direct Slicing Approach For The Production Of Perfused Components By Laser Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrt, Jan Torsten

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, laser beam melting technology is applied to the manufacture of defined porous metal structures using the exposure strategies of the machine manufacturer. It turns out that specific filter characteristics such as density, permeability, pore size, porosity, and shear strength are comparable to conventionally-made porosities [1]. To overcome some restrictions imposed by the default settings of the machine manufacturer, and to manufacture ultra-lightweight products, our own investigations such as direct slicing lead to an alternative exposure strategy for the laser. Here unique exposure lines, with their corresponding start and end points, are individually designed according to their practical needs. Even though this procedure is very complex and time-consuming, it leads to new possibilities for the perfusion of liquid or gaseous fluids that run through metal walls. In summary, the adjustment of the functional porosity of laser beam melted parts made of metal material is the focus of this investigation; and with it, the variation and determination of the proper process parameters is essential. With the easily adjustable porosities and pore sizes that are investigated, combined with the geometric freedom of laser beam melting, very complex elements can be integrated into one part; and this also leads to new fields of application.

  3. Porous niobium coatings fabricated with selective laser melting on titanium substrates: Preparation, characterization, and cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Cheng, Xian; Yao, Yao; Wei, Yehui; Han, Changjun; Shi, Yusheng; Wei, Qingsong; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Nb, an expensive and refractory element with good wear resistance and biocompatibility, is gaining more attention as a new metallic biomaterial. However, the high price of the raw material, as well as the high manufacturing costs because of Nb's strong oxygen affinity and high melting point have limited the widespread use of Nb and its compounds. To overcome these disadvantages, porous Nb coatings of various thicknesses were fabricated on Ti substrate via selective laser melting (SLM), which is a 3D printing technique that uses computer-controlled high-power laser to melt the metal. The morphology and microstructure of the porous Nb coatings, which had pores ranging from 15 to 50 μm in size, were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average hardness of the coating, which was measured with the linear intercept method, was 392±37 HV. In vitro tests of the porous Nb coating which was monitored with SEM, immunofluorescence, and CCK-8 counts of cells, exhibited excellent cell morphology, attachment, and growth. The simulated body fluid test also proved the bioactivity of the Nb coating. Therefore, these new porous Nb coatings could potentially be used for enhanced early biological fixation to bone tissue. In addition, this study has shown that SLM technique could be used to fabricate coatings with individually tailored shapes and/or porosities from group IVB and VB biomedical metals and their alloys on stainless steel, Co-Cr, and other traditional biomedical materials without wasting raw materials.

  4. How to identify garnet lherzolite melts and distinguish them from pyroxenite melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, T. L.; Holbig, E.; Barr, J. A.; Till, C.; Krawczynski, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Liquids form in equilibrium with garnet lherzolite sources when the Earth's mantle melts at depths of greater than ~ 60 km. We present a phase equilibrium investigation of Tibetan plateau olivine leucitites from 2.2 to 2.8 GPa and 1380 to 1480 °C. The resulting liquids were multiply saturated with spinel and garnet lherzolite assemblages (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel +/-garnet) under nominally anhydrous conditions. These SiO2-undersaturated liquids and published experimental data have been used to develop a new model that parameterizes the major element compositions of garnet lherzolite partial melts, allowing the prediction of melt compositions from depleted to metasomatically enriched peridotite. The model is calibrated over the pressure range of 1.9 to 6 GPa. The model also predicts the suprasolidus pressure and temperature of the spinel to garnet lherzolite phase transition for natural peridotite compositions. Combined with the recent parameterization of melting in the plagioclase- and spinel- lherzolite facies (Till et al., 2012, JGR, 117, B06206), the new model distinguishes between melts of garnet vs. spinel vs. plagioclase lherzolites, but can also be used to distinguish between melts of lherzolitic vs. pyroxenitic source regions, allowing source lithology to be uniquely identified. Pyroxenite melts fall into two compositionally distinct groups; an olivine-normative, SiO2-undersaturated group and quartz-normative, SiO2-oversaturated group. Melts of plagioclase, spinel, and garnet lherzolite plot between these two types of pyroxenitic melts in mineral normative composition space. When our model is applied to high-K lavas erupted in the Tibetan plateau, we find that these magmas are derived from both pyroxenite and lherzolite source regions. Distinctive enrichments in compatible trace elements (Ni, Cr) are observed in the lherzolite-derived magmas. Applied to Hawaiian basalts, our model suggests the transitional and weakly alkaline pre

  5. Hydrolysis of and oxide solubilities in melts related to electrolytic magnesium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vindstad, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    It takes about 13-14 kWh to produce 1 kg magnesium metal by today`s technology, although the thermodynamic energy required is only about 6.8 kWh/kg (at 700{sup o}C). The specific energy consumption of a magnesium electrolysis cell is inversely proportional to the current efficiency, which is affected by the presence of impurities in the electrolyte. A high current efficiency requires that the cathode is well wetted by the liquid magnesium and that the latter is well wetted by the electrolyte. If the metal does not wet the cathode, and the melt not the metal, then the cathodic overvoltage and thus also the energy consumption increases. The presence of water has a detrimental effect on the electrolysis because an MgO film forms on the metal when the water reacts with the magnesium produced, thus interfering with the wetting of the cathode by the metal. It follows that a thorough knowledge of the processes going on in the hydrolysis is important for improving the energy efficiency of the magnesium production. The first part of this doctoral thesis discusses experiments on the equilibria established during hydrolysis of pure liquid MgCl{sub 2} and of a liquid NaCl-MgCl{sub 2} mixture at 730 and 675 {sup o}C. The second part deals with the effect of fluoride on the solubility of MgO in MgCl{sub 2}-containing melts. 67 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Chemical reactions in solvents and melts

    CERN Document Server

    Charlot, G

    1969-01-01

    Chemical Reactions in Solvents and Melts discusses the use of organic and inorganic compounds as well as of melts as solvents. This book examines the applications in organic and inorganic chemistry as well as in electrochemistry. Organized into two parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general properties and the different types of reactions, including acid-base reactions, complex formation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. This text then describes the properties of inert and active solvents. Other chapters consider the proton transfer reactions in

  7. Thermal melting studies of ligand DNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédin, Aurore; Lacroix, Laurent; Mergny, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    A simple thermal melting experiment may be used to demonstrate the stabilization of a given structure by a ligand (usually a small molecule, sometimes a peptide). Preparation of the sample is straightforward, and the experiment itself requires an inexpensive apparatus. Furthermore, reasonably low amounts of sample are required. A qualitative analysis of the data is simple: An increase in the melting temperature (T(m)) indicates preferential binding to the folded form as compared to the unfolded form. However, it is perilous to derive an affinity constant from an increase in T(m) as other factors play a role.

  8. Experimental observation of Minkowski spacetime melting

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid in the presence of an external magnetic field forms a self-assembled hyperbolic metamaterial, which may be described as an effective 3D Minkowski spacetime for extraordinary photons. If the magnetic field is not strong enough, this effective Minkowski spacetime gradually melts under the influence of thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, it may restore itself if the magnetic field is increased back to its original value. Here we present direct microscopic visualization of such a Minkowski spacetime melting/crystallization, which is somewhat similar to hypothesized formation of the Minkowski spacetime in loop quantum cosmology.

  9. Influence of Grain Boundary on Melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王暾; 周富信; 刘曰武

    2001-01-01

    The temperature behaviour of an Al bicrystal with surfaces consisting of (110) and (111) crystals is simulated using molecular dynamics. The result shows that the (110) crystal losses its crystalline order at 820K, whereas the disorder does not propagate through the (111) crystal at this temperature. Instead, some disordered atoms are recrystallized into the (111) crystal and the initial grain boundary changes into a stable order-disorder interface. Thus, it was discovered that at a temperature near its melting point, the (111) crystal grew and obstructed the propagation of disorder. Such an obstruction is helpfulfor understanding melting.

  10. Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find......We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...

  11. 3He melting pressure temperature scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halperin, W.P.; Archie, C.N.; Richardson, R.C.;

    1976-01-01

    The latent heat for solidification of **3He has been measured along the **3He melting curve between 23 and 1 mK. A temperature scale is established which depends only on measurements of heat, pressure and volume, and on the condition that the entropy of solid **3He approaches R ln 2 at high...... temperatures. The A feature of the melting curve which suggests itself as a thermometric fixed point is found to be T//A equals 2. 75 plus or minus 0. 11 mK. The agreement between this value and independent measurements of T//A, based on nuclear or electronic paramagnetism, Johnson noise thermometry...

  12. Simulations of Metal Cu in Heating Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG, Tao(张弢); WU, Ai-Ling(吴爱玲); GUAN, Li(管立); QI, Yuan-Hua(齐元华)

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Finnis-Sinsclair (FS) many-body potential model, the melting process of a system, which consists of 500 Cu atoms, controlled by period boundary condition has been simulated. The means of pair correlation function, mean square displacement and Honeycutt-Anderson bonded pair have been used to characterize the melting behavior of Cu at different heating rates. The simulation indicates that melting point of metal Cu is 1444 K during a continuous heating process, and the calculated diffusion constant at the melting point is 4.31×10-9 m2/s. These results are better than those from the EAM method, showing that the FS potential model works well in some disordered systems.

  13. Control of Melt Structures on Cu-Au Mineralization in Basic-Ultrabasic Complexes of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on systematic analyses of 72 samples of different basic-ultrabasic rocks, the present paper discusses the relationship between melt strcture and Cu and Au mineralization. It is found that if the NBO/T, NBO, M2+,FeO and MgO values are relatively high and the T, M3+, Fe2O3 and CaO values are low the basic-ultrahasic melt will be favourable to Cu (Ni) mineralization, but if the former are low and the latter are high it is favourable to Au metallization. Cu ions occupy dominantly octahedra in basic-ultrabasic melt and the higher the NBO/T, NBO and M2+ values, the more the octahedra in the melt. Au element mainly takes the form of Au+ions in basic-ultrabasic melt and the Au+ ions constitute tetrahedral sites together with Fe3+ ions. Therefore, low M2+ and high Fe3+, i.e. high oxygen fugacity, can promote the enrichment of Au+ ions and Au mineralization. Components M+ (other than Au+), Al2O3 and SiO2 in basic-ultrabasic melt have no effect on metallogenetic species. As mentioned above, in relevant diagrams distribution areas of the characteristic values of ore-free melt and those of ore-forming melt are overlapped in different degrees, which possibly indicates that not all the magmas have mineralizing ability. It can be well distinguished whather basic-ultrabasic rocks are favourable to Cu or Au mineralization or they are just ore-free rocks by analysing integrated diagrams of the characteristic values of the magmatic melt structure.

  14. The metal-rich portions of the phase system Cu-Fe-Pd-S at 100°c, 900°c and 725°c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, Emil; Barnes, Sarah-Jane

    2008-01-01

    , bornite, Fe1-xS and iss (intermediate solid solution, Cabri, 1973) and Pd4S. Compositional data were obtained for the associations bornite-alloy-melt, pyrrhotite-alloy-melt and for immiscible Cu-rich sulphide melts. Partition coefficients for all three metals were derived for the association alloy...

  15. Evolution of melt-vapor surface tension in silicic volcanic systems: Experiments with hydrous melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, M.; Sisson, T.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the melt-vapor surface tension (??) of natural, water-saturated dacite melt at 200 MPa, 950-1055??C, and 4.8-5.7 wt % H2O. We experimentally determine the critical supersaturation pressure for bubble nucleation as a function of dissolved water and then solve for ?? at those conditions using classical nucleation theory. The solutions obtained give dacite melt-vapor surface tensions that vary inversely with dissolved water from 0.042 (??0.003) J m-2 at 5.7 wt% H2O to 0.060 (??0.007) J m-2 at 5.2 wt% H2O to 0.073 (??0.003) J m-2 at 4.8 wt% H2O. Combining our dacite results with data from published hydrous haplogranite and high-silica rhyolite experiments reveals that melt-vapor surface tension also varies inversely with the concentration of mafic melt components (e.g., CaO, FeOtotal, MgO). We develop a thermodynamic context for these observations in which melt-vapor surface tension is represented by a balance of work terms controlled by melt structure. Overall, our results suggest that cooling, crystallization, and vapor exsolution cause systematic changes in ?? that should be considered in dynamic modeling of magmatic processes.

  16. Melting Behavior and Thermolysis of NaBH4−Mg(BH42 and NaBH4−Ca(BH42 Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten B. Ley

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties and the hydrogen release of NaBH4–Mg(BH42 and NaBH4−Ca(BH42 composites are investigated using in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and temperature programmed photographic analysis. The composite, xNaBH4–(1 − xMg(BH42, x = 0.4 to 0.5, shows melting/frothing between 205 and 220 °C. However, the sample does not become a transparent molten phase. This behavior is similar to other alkali-alkaline earth metal borohydride composites. In the xNaBH4–(1 − xCa(BH42 system, eutectic melting is not observed. Interestingly, eutectic melting in metal borohydrides systems leads to partial thermolysis and hydrogen release at lower temperatures and the control of sample melting may open new routes for obtaining high-capacity hydrogen storage materials.

  17. Investigation of the High-Cycle Fatigue Life of Selective Laser Melted and Hot Isostatically Pressed Ti-6Al-4v

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Laser Sintering , and Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are commonly used throughout literature as synonymous terms to describe laser -based powder bed...42] L. Chauke, K. Mutombo and C. Kgomo, "Characterization of the direct metal laser sintered Ti6Al4V components," presented at 14th Annual...marketed for production of parts with metal alloys: electron-beam melting and laser sintering (LS) [3, 10, 36]. The primary

  18. STUDY ON SOFTENING AND DROPPING PROPERTIES OF METALIZED BURDEN INSIDE BLAST FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-yang Tuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inferences of burden metallization rate on softening-melting dropping properties were investigated through softening-melting dropping test of three kinds of metalized burden pressure drop. The results indicated that the softeningmelting temperature interval of pre-reduction mixed burden is bigger than primeval mixed burden, the melting interval narrow with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden as well as dropping temperature interval. The average pressure drop, maximum pressure drop and softening-melting dropping properties eigenvalue decrease with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden. Besides, the dropping temperature of burden reduces with the rise of carbon content of molten iron. The combination high metalized burden and higher carbon content of molten iron is benefit to decreasing thickness of cohesive zone and improve permeability of cohesive zone.

  19. Recent Changes in Arctic Sea Ice Melt Onset, Freeze-Up, and Melt Season Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Thorsten; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Miller, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freeze-up and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freeze-up. Using this method we analyze trends in melt onset and freeze-up for 10 different Arctic regions. In all regions except for the Sea of Okhotsk, which shows a very slight and statistically insignificant positive trend (O.4 days/decade), trends in melt onset are negative, i.e. towards earlier melt. The trends range from -1.0day/decade for the Bering Sea to -7.3 days/decade for the East Greenland Sea. Except for the Sea of Okhotsk all areas also show a trend towards later autumn freeze onset. The Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Laptev/East Siberian Seas observe the strongest trends with 7 days/decade. For the entire Arctic, the melt season length has increased by about 20 days over the last 30 years. Largest trends of over 1O days/decade are seen for Hudson Bay, the East Greenland Sea the Laptev/East Siberian Seas, and the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas. Those trends are statistically significant a1 the 99% level.

  20. Recent Changes in Arctic Sea Ice Melt Onset, Freeze-Up, and Melt Season Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Thorsten; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Miller, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freeze-up and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freeze-up. Using this method we analyze trends in melt onset and freeze-up for 10 different Arctic regions. In all regions except for the Sea of Okhotsk, which shows a very slight and statistically insignificant positive trend (O.4 days/decade), trends in melt onset are negative, i.e. towards earlier melt. The trends range from -1.0day/decade for the Bering Sea to -7.3 days/decade for the East Greenland Sea. Except for the Sea of Okhotsk all areas also show a trend towards later autumn freeze onset. The Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Laptev/East Siberian Seas observe the strongest trends with 7 days/decade. For the entire Arctic, the melt season length has increased by about 20 days over the last 30 years. Largest trends of over 1O days/decade are seen for Hudson Bay, the East Greenland Sea the Laptev/East Siberian Seas, and the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas. Those trends are statistically significant a1 the 99% level.