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Sample records for m5 pep m6

  1. First TREAT transient overpower tests on U-Pu-Zr fuel: M5 and M6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.R.; Bauer, T.H.; Wright, A.E.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Klickman, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) tests M5 and M6 were the first transient overpower (TOP) test of the margin to cladding breach and prefailure elongation of metallic U-Pu-Zr ternary fuel, the reference fuel of the integral fast reactor concept. Similar tests on U-5 wt% Fs fueled Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR)-II driver pins were previously performed and reported. Results from these earlier tests indicated a margin to failure of ∼ 4 times nominal power and significant axial elongation prior to failure, a feature that was very pronounced at low burnups. While these two fuels types are similar in many respects, the ternary alloy exhibits a much more complex physical structure and is typically irradiated at much higher temperatures. Thus, a prime motivation for performing M5 and M6 was to compare the safety-related fuel performance characteristics of U-Fs and U-Pu-Zr. Tests M5 and M6 indicate that, under the TOP conditions used in the tests, ternary fuel displayed about the same margin to failure as U-Fs fuel. At low burnups, ternary fuel showed less prefailure axial elongation than observed in U-Fs pins, but elongations of 3 to 5% might turn out to be typical. Finally, fuel from the breached ternary pin in M6 showed, qualitatively, the same benignly dispersive behavior as U-Fs

  2. First TREAT [Transient Reactor Test Facility] transient overpower tests on U-Pu-Zr fuel: M5 and M6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.R.; Bauer, T.H.; Wright, A.E.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Klickman, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) tests M5 and M6 were the first transient overpower (TOP) tests of the margin to cladding breach and prefailure elongation of metallic U-Pu-Zr ternary fuel, the reference fuel of the Integral Fast Reactor concept. Similar tests on U-Fs fueled EBR-II driver pins were previously performed and reported [1,2]. Results from these earlier tests indicated a margin to failure of about 4 times nominal power and significant axial elongation prior to failure, a feature that was very pronounced at low burnups. While these two fuel types are similar in many respects, the ternary alloy exhibits a much more complex physical structure and is typically irradiated at much higher temperatures. Thus, a prime motivation for performing M5 and M6 was to compare the safety related fuel performance characteristics of U-Fs and U-Pu-Zr. This report described conditions, results, and conclusions of testing of these fuel types

  3. Structure and expression of MHC class Ib genes of the central M region in rat and mouse: M4, M5, and M6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Moore, Yuki F; Wonigeit, Kurt; Lindahl, Kirsten Fischer

    2008-04-01

    The M region at the telomeric end of the murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains class I genes that are highly conserved in rat and mouse. We have sequenced a cosmid clone of the LEW rat strain (RT1 haplotype) containing three class I genes, RT1.M6-1, RT1.M4, and RT1.M5. The sequences of allelic genes of the BN strain (RT1n haplotype) were obtained either from cDNAs or genomic clones. For the coding parts of the genes few differences were found between the two RT1 haplotypes. In LEW, however, only RT1.M5 and RT1.M6 have open reading frames; whereas in BN all three genes were intact. In line with the findings in BN, transcription was found for all three rat genes in several tissues from strain Sprague Dawley. Protein expression in transfectants could be demonstrated for RT1.M6-1 using the monoclonal antibody OX18. By sequencing of transcripts obtained by RT-PCR, a second, transcribed M6 gene, RT1.M6-2, was discovered, which maps next to RT1.M6-1 outside of the region covered by the cosmid. In addition, alternatively spliced forms for RT1.M5 and RT1.M6 were detected. Of the orthologous mouse genes, H2-M4, H2-M5, and H2-M6, only H2-M5 has an open reading frame. Other important differences between the corresponding parts of the M region of the two species are insertion of long LINE repeats, duplication of RT1.M6, and the inversion of RT1.M5 in the rat. This demonstrates substantial evolutionary dynamics in this region despite conservation of the class I gene sequences themselves.

  4. Stabilization of the H,K-ATPase M5M6 membrane hairpin by K+ ions. Mechanistic significance for p2-type atpases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, C; Lutsenko, S; Shin, J M; Sachs, G; Kaplan, J H

    1999-05-14

    The integral membrane protein, the gastric H,K-ATPase, is an alpha-beta heterodimer, with 10 putative transmembrane segments in the alpha-subunit and one such segment in the beta-subunit. All transmembrane segments remain within the membrane domain following trypsinization of the intact gastric H,K-ATPase in the presence of K+ ions, identified as M1M2, M3M4, M5M6, and M7, M8, M9, and M10. Removal of K+ ions from this digested preparation results in the selective loss of the M5M6 hairpin from the membrane. The release of the M5M6 fragment is directed to the extracellular phase as evidenced by the accumulation of the released M5M6 hairpin inside the sealed inside out vesicles. The stabilization of the M5M6 hairpin in the membrane phase by the transported cation as well as loss to the aqueous phase in the absence of the transported cation has been previously observed for another P2-type ATPase, the Na, K-ATPase (Lutsenko, S., Anderko, R., and Kaplan, J. H. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92, 7936-7940). Thus, the effects of the counter-transported cation on retention of the M5M6 segment in the membrane as compared with the other membrane pairs may be a general feature of P2-ATPase ion pumps, reflecting a flexibility of this region that relates to the mechanism of transport.

  5. Point mutations in the extracytosolic loop between transmembrane segments M5 and M6 of the yeast Pma1 H+-ATPase: alanine-scanning mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Valery V

    2015-01-01

    Membrane-spanning segments M4, M5, M6, and M8 of the H(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and K(+), Na(+)-ATPases, which belong to the P2-type pumps are the core through which cations are transported. M5 and M6 loop is a short extracytoplasmic stretch of the seven amino acid residues (714-DNSLDID) connecting two of these segments, M5 and M6, where residues involved in the formation of the proton-binding site(s) are located. In the present study, we have used alanine-scanning mutagenesis to explore the structural and functional relationships within this loop of the yeast plasma membrane Pma1 H(+)-ATPase. Of the 7 Ala mutants made, substitution for the most conserved residue (Leu-717) has led to a severe misfolding and complete block in biogenesis of the mutant enzyme. The replacement of Asp-714 has also caused misfolding leading to significant decrease in the expression of the mutant and loss of activity. The remaining mutants were expressed in secretory vesicles at 21-119% of the wild-type level and were active enough to be analyzed in detail. One of these mutants (I719A) showed five- to threefold decrease in both expression and ATP hydrolyzing and H(+) pumping activities and also threefold reduction in the coupling ratio between ATP hydrolysis and H(+) transport. Thus, Ala substitutions at three positions of the seven seriously affected biogenesis, folding, stability and/or functioning of the enzyme. Taken together, these results lead to suggestion that M5 and M6 loop play an important role in the protein stability and function and is responsible for proper arrangement of transmembrane segments M5 and M6 and probably other domains of the enzyme. Results for additional conserved substitutions (Asn and Glu) at Asp-714 and Asp-720 confirmed this suggestion.

  6. Wide aperture multipole magnets of the kinematic separator COMBAS. Correcting pair of multipole magnets M3M4 (M5M6) with compensation for higher order aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyukh, A.G.; Gridnev, G.F.; Teterev, Yu.G.

    1999-01-01

    The high-resolving large aperture separator COMBAS has been created and commissioned. The magneto-optical structure of the separator is based on the strong focusing principle. The separator consists of eight wide aperture multipole magnets M1-M8. The magnets M1, M2, M7, M8 forming the 1 st order optics together with some higher order optical corrections and M3-M6 being dedicated to higher order corrections of the chromatic and spherical aberrations at the intermediate and exit foci of the separator. The multipole correctors M3-M6 contain the dipolar, sextupole and octupole components in their magnetic field distributions. It was the use of the rectangular dipoles M3-M6 as carriers of sextupole and octupole field components that let achieve high values of the separator angular and momentum acceptances. Measurements of the magnetic field distributions in the median planes of the pairs of magnets M3M6 (M4M5) have been performed. These measurements allowed one to analyze the magnets manufacturing quality. Based on the analysis, shimming of pole pieces of the pair of magnets M3M6 have been done. Pole surface correcting coils for the magnets M4M5 have been foreseen to compensate for small deviations (within a few percents) of the 2 nd and 3 rd order field components from the design values, which are probable due to manufacturing errors in all the magnets M1-M8. The measured magnetic field distributions are supposed to be used for particle trajectory simulations throughout the entire separator

  7. Phe783, Thr797, and Asp804 in transmembrane hairpin M5-M6 of Na+,K+-ATPase play a key role in ouabain binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Li Yan; Koenderink, Jan B; Swarts, Herman G P; Willems, Peter H G M; De Pont, Jan Joep H H M

    2003-11-21

    Ouabain is a glycoside that binds to and inhibits the action of Na+,K+-ATPase. Little is known, however, about the specific requirements of the protein surface for glycoside binding. Using chimeras of gastric H+,K+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase, we demonstrated previously that the combined presence of transmembrane hairpins M3-M4 and M5-M6 of Na+,K+-ATPase in a backbone of H+,K+-ATPase (HN34/56) is both required and sufficient for high affinity ouabain binding. Since replacement of transmembrane hairpin M3-M4 by the N terminus up to transmembrane segment 3 (HNN3/56) resulted in a low affinity ouabain binding, hairpin M5-M6 seems to be essential for ouabain binding. To assess which residues of M5-M6 are required for ouabain action, we divided this transmembrane hairpin in seven parts and individually replaced these parts by the corresponding sequences of H+,K+-ATPase in chimera HN34/56. Three of these chimeras failed to bind ouabain following expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Altogether, these three chimeras contained 7 amino acids that were specific for Na+,K+-ATPase. Individual replacement of these 7 amino acids by the corresponding amino acids in H+,K+-ATPase revealed a dramatic loss of ouabain binding for F783Y, T797C, and D804E. As a proof of principle, the Na+,K+-ATPase equivalents of these 3 amino acids were introduced in different combinations in chimera HN34. The presence of all 3 amino acids appeared to be required for ouabain action. Docking of ouabain onto a three-dimensional-model of Na+,K+-ATPase suggests that Asp804, in contrast to Phe783 and Thr797, does not actually form part of the ouabain-binding pocket. Most likely, the presence of this amino acid is required for adopting of the proper conformation for ouabain binding.

  8. Role of loop L5-6 connecting transmembrane segments M5 and M6 in biogenesis and functioning of yeast Pma1 H+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V V

    2015-01-01

    The L5-6 loop is a short extracytoplasmic stretch (714-DNSLDID) connecting transmembrane segments M5 and M6 and forming along with segments M4 and M8 the core through which cations are transported by H+-, Ca2+-, K+,Na+-, H+,K+-, and other P2-ATPases. To study structure-function relationships within this loop of the yeast plasma membrane Pma1 H+-ATPase, alanine- and cysteine-scanning mutagenesis has been employed. Ala and Cys substitutions for the most conserved residue (Leu717) led to complete block in biogenesis preventing the enzyme from reaching secretory vesicles. The Ala replacement at Asp714 led to five-fold decrease in the mutant expression and loss of its activity, while the Cys substitution blocked biogenesis completely. Replacements of other residues did not lead to loss of enzymatic activity. Additional replacements were made for Asp714 and Asp720 (Asp®Asn/Glu). Of the substitutions made at Asp714, only D714N partially restored the mutant enzyme biogenesis and functioning. However, all mutant enzymes with substituted Asp720 were active. The expressed mutants (34-95% of the wild-type level) showed activity high enough (35-108%) to be analyzed in detail. One of the mutants (I719A) had three-fold reduced coupling ratio between ATP hydrolysis and H+ transport; however, the I719C mutation was rather indistinguishable from the wild-type enzyme. Thus, substitutions at two of the seven positions seriously affected biogenesis and/or functioning of the enzyme. Taken together, these results suggest that the M5-M6 loop residues play an important role in protein stability and function, and they are probably responsible for proper arrangement of transmembrane segments M5 and M6 and other domains of the enzyme. This might also be important for the regulation of the enzyme.

  9. Newly identified CpG ODNs, M5-30 and M6-395, stimulate mouse immune cells to secrete TNF-alpha and enhance Th1-mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun-Shim; Chung, Eunkyung; Jung, Yu-Jin

    2010-08-01

    Bacterial CpG motifs are known to induce both innate and adaptive immunity in infected hosts via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Because small oligonucleotides (ODNs) mimicking bacterial CpG motifs are easily synthesized, they have found use as immunomodulatory agents in a number of disease models. We have developed a novel bioinformatics approach to identify effective CpG ODN sequences and evaluate their function as TLR9 ligands in a murine system. Among the CpG ODNs we identified, M5-30 and M6-395 showed significant ability to stimulate TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma production in a mouse macrophage cell line and mouse splenocytes, respectively. We also found that these CpG ODNs activated cells through the canonical NF-kappa B signaling pathway. Moreover, both CpG ODNs were able to induce Th1-mediated immunity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected mice. Our results demonstrate that M5-30 and M6-395 function as TLR9-specific ligands, making them useful in the study of TLR9 functionality and signaling in mice.

  10. PEP talk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The newly operating PEP electron-positron storage ring, built by the Berkeley and Stanford Laboratories, was dedicated on 5 September. PEP comes on with some unusual handicaps. It is of course competing with PETRA at DESY. It is late and it will take all the ingenuity and imagination that this great Lab, with its great traditions, can muster to catch up and show the world that US physics is strong and that the large funds vested here are well spent

  11. PEP sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunk, W.O.

    1976-10-01

    The sextupole requirements of PEP are such that they represent a much larger proportion of the ring magnet cost than they did in SPEAR. A study is given of various fabrication techniques all pointed toward cost reduction without an undue sacrifice of function quality. The point of debarkation is the sextupole design as described in the PEP Conceptual Design Report. There are three main areas of inquiry, namely, pole tip contour, coil material and fabrication and yoke size

  12. Olivetti M6 640

    CERN Multimedia

    1993-01-01

    The M6-640 is the highest performance personal computer workstation in the Suprema range with multimedia, document imaging and communications capabilities. It has a 90MHz Pentium processor with 256Kb of secondary cache. It can accommodate up to 128Mb RAM and supports hard disks of up to 1Gb through an IDE interface.

  13. Pep for PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The major B-factory project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center have(SLAC) is well underway and moving along smartly, en route to commencement of operations in September 1998. Called PEP-II, the new facility is a joint venture of three California laboratories: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) and SLAC. Housed at SLAC in the tunnels and buildings built for the original PEP electron-positron collider in the late 1970s, it involves no conventional civil engineering. In fact, PEP-II is a recycling project in more ways than one: for example, most of the original PEP magnets have been renovated for reuse in the PEP-II high-energy ring. While some of them require substantial rework (to change their length, for instance), many of them merely require repainting and remeasuring. The work of building the hardware is divided up among the three laboratories. LBL is primarily responsible for the low-energy ring; LLNL is building most of the interaction region, the complicated part where the high and low energy rings come together; and SLAC is responsible for the rest. Proposed by President Clinton as a ''presidential initiative'' (December 1993, page 2), the project was given a four-year funding profile. The total cost of $177 million, excluding the BaBar detector (September, page 16), was planned by the US government to be entirely provided during the present administration, the last increment coming in the final quarter of 1997. Happily, the first two increments have been forthcoming as planned and the third is faring well in US Congress. The PEP-II design is based on two intersecting storage rings, one carrying 9 GeV electrons and the other 3.1 GeV positrons, operating with high beam currents (a few amperes) to produce a luminosity of 3 x 10 33 per sq cm per s. The asymmetry in the energies of the colliding particles means that the centre-ofmass of the electron-positron annihilation system moves rapidly in the

  14. The Danish PEP Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Suzanne; Katzenstein, Terese L; Kronborg, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of occupational exposures to blood cannot be eliminated completely and access to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent HIV transmission is important. However, PEP administration has been associated with frequent adverse effects, low compliance and difficulties to ensure ...

  15. Luminosity monitor at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Franklin, M.E.B.

    1981-02-01

    The luminosity monitor system utilized by the MKII Detector and by the PEP operators is described. This system processes information from 56 photomultipliers and calculates independent luminosities for each of the 3 colliding bunches in PEP. Design considerations, measurement techniques, and sources of error in the luminosity measurement are discussed

  16. PEP liquid level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1981-03-01

    A liquid level system has been installed in the accelerator housing of the PEP storage ring. This instrument spans the entire 2.2 km circumference of the PEP project, and over one hundred readouts provide reference elevations which are used for the accurate alignment of accelerator components. The liquid level has proven to be extremely precise (+-0.10 mm) and quick to use, and it has contributed to the accurate alignment of PEP before beam turn-on. Since the liquid level readouts are rigidly attached to the accelerator housing, the liquid level has been a convenient means to monitor the settling of the accelerator housing

  17. PEP-II Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Gaydosh, M

    2003-01-01

    The PEP-II Asymmetric B-factory consists of two independent storage rings, one located atop the other in the 2200m-circumference PEP tunnel. The high-energy ring, which stores a 9-GeV electron beam, is an upgrade of the existing PEP collider. It re-utilizes all of the PEP magnets and incorporates a state-of-the-art copper vacuum chamber and a new RF system capable of supporting a one-amp stored beam. The low-energy ring, which stores 3.1-GeV positrons, is new construction. Injection is achieved by extracting electrons and positrons at collision energies from the SLC and transporting them each in a dedicated bypass line. The low-emittance SLC beams will be used for the injection process.

  18. P.E.P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    The design and construction of the PEP project is briefly reviewed. The initial testing of the storage ring system and its present performance is described. The short-range plans for continuing development are discussed

  19. Background sources at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, γ-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  20. PEP storage ring: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.R.

    1981-02-01

    This report comments on the performance of the subsystems of PEP, discusses the beam dynamical behavior of the machine and compares it with our expectations and, finally, describes plans for improving PEP

  1. Muon shielding for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, T.M.; Thomas, R.H.

    1974-01-01

    The first stage of construction of PEP will consist of electron and positron storage rings. At a later date a 200 GeV proton storage ring may be added. It is judicious therefore, to ensure that the first and second phases of construction are compatible with each other. One of several factors determining the elevation at which the storage rings will be constructed is the necessity to provide adequate radiation shielding. The overhead shielding of PEP is determined by the reproduction of neutrons in the hadron cascade generated by primary protons lost from the storage ring. The minimum overburden planned for PEP is 5.5 meters of earth (1100 gm cm/sup /minus/2/). To obtain a rough estimate of the magnitude of the muon radiation problem this note presents some preliminary calculations. Their purpose is intended merely to show that the presently proposed design for PEP will present no major shielding problems should the protons storage ring be installed. More detailed calculations will be made using muon yield computer codes developed at CERN and NAL and muon transport codes developed at SLAC, when details of the proton storage ring become settled. 9 refs., 4 figs

  2. Seepage into PEP tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, H.

    1990-01-01

    The current rate of seepage into the PEP tunnel in the vicinity of IR-10 is very low compared to previous years. Adequate means of handling this low flow are in place. It is not clear whether the reduction in the flow is temporary, perhaps due to three consecutive dry years, or permanent due to drainage of a perched water table. During PEP construction a large amount of effort was expended in attempts to seal the tunnel, with no immediate effect. The efforts to ''manage'' the water flow are deemed to be successful. By covering equipment to protect it from dripping water and channeling seepage into the drainage gutters, the seepage has been reduced to a tolerable nuisance. There is no sure, safe procedure for sealing a leaky shotcreted tunnel

  3. PEP Laser Surveying System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1979-03-01

    A Laser Surveying System has been developed to survey the beam elements of the PEP storage ring. This system provides automatic data acquisition and analysis in order to increase survey speed and to minimize operator error. Two special instruments, the Automatic Readout Micrometer and the Small Automatic Micrometer, have been built for measuring the locations of fiducial points on beam elements with respect to the light beam from a laser. These instruments automatically encode offset distances and read them into the memory of an on-line computer. Distances along the beam line are automatically encoded with a third instrument, the Automatic Readout Tape Unit. When measurements of several beam elements have been taken, the on-line computer analyzes the measured data, compared them with desired parameters, and calculates the required adjustments to beam element support stands

  4. The PEP injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Avery, R.T.; Peterson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A system to transport 10-to-15-GeV electron and positron beams from the Stanford Linear Accelerator and to inject them into the PEP storage ring under a wide variety of lattice configurations has been designed. Optically, the transport line consists of three 360/degree/ phase-shift sections of FODO lattice, with bending magnets interspersed in such a way as to provide achromaticity, convenience in energy and emittance definition, and independent tuning of the various optical parameters for matching into the ring. The last 360/degree/ of phase shift has 88 milliradians of bend in a vertical plane and deposits the beam at the injection septum via a Lambertson magnet. Injection is accomplished by launching the beam with several centimeters of radial betatron amplitude in a fast bump provided by a triad of pulsed kicker magnets. Radiation damping reduces the collective amplitude quickly enough to allow injection at a high repetition rate

  5. Performance evaluation of PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1987-10-01

    An investigation of collective effects has been undertaken to assess the possibilities for using the low emittance operating mode of the PEP storage ring as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation. Beam current limitations associated with longitudinal and transverse instabilities, and the expected emittance growth due to intrabeam scattering have been studied as a function of beam energy. Calculations of the beam lifetime due to Touschek and gas scattering are presented, and the growth times of coupled-bunch instabilities are estimated. In general, the results are encouraging, and no fundamental problems have been uncovered. It appears that beam currents up to about 10 mA per bunch should be achievable, and that the emittance growth is not a severe problem at an energy of about 8 GeV. A feedback system to deal with coupled-bunch instabilities is likely to be required. 7 refs., 13 figs

  6. Crystal Ball at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Bulos, F.; Luke, D.; Peck, C.; Strauch, K.

    1975-01-01

    The modifications to the SPEAR version of the Crystal Ball required by the higher energies at PEP are discussed. Since the hadron multiplicity is expected to rise as log s, their average energy must rise. On the other hand, if the hadrons are produced in jets, the low energy part of their spectrum is not heavily depleted. This implies that modifications for high energy particles should not deteriorate low energy performance. An external iron calorimeter for measuring the high energy hadrons, charged and neutral, is considered. To improve the angular resolution on γ's, an active internal converter has been studied, estimates have been made of its expected performance, and difficulties requiring further study have been outlined

  7. PEP instrumentation and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melen, R.

    1980-06-01

    This paper describes the operating characteristics of the primary components that form the PEP Instrumentation and Control System. Descriptions are provided for the computer control system, beam monitors, and other support systems.

  8. PEP instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melen, R.

    1980-06-01

    This paper describes the operating characteristics of the primary components that form the PEP Instrumentation and Control System. Descriptions are provided for the computer control system, beam monitors, and other support systems

  9. New particle searches at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berley, D.; Bulos, F.; Cheng, D.

    1988-01-01

    The new particles that could be produced at PEP are discussed in terms of their specific signatures and production rates. We find that a small number of general signatures characterize these particles. Backgrounds associated with the general signatures are considered and necessary rejection rates are calculated. We describe several typical detectors and tabulate the requirements they place on the PEP machine and the experimental areas. 10 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Skew quad compensation at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.J.

    1977-10-01

    Rotational and focal effects of solenoids used in PEP detectors will cause severe perturbations of machine beam optics and must be corrected. Ordinarily this would be accomplished by the addition of compensating solenoids and adjustment of insertion quadrupole strengths. It has been found that an arbitrary cross plane coupling representing the effects of solenoids and/or skew quads in any combination can be synthesized (or compensated) exactly using a quartet of skew quads combined with other erect transport elements in a wide variety of configurations. Specific skew quad compensating systems for PEP have been designed and are under study by PEP staff. So far no fundamental flaws have been discovered. In view of that, PEP management has tentatively authorized the use of such a system in the PEP-4, PEP-9 experiments and proposes to leave the question open ''without prejudice'' for other experiments. Use of skew quad compensation involves an imponderable risk, of course, simply because the method is new and untested. But in addition to providing the only known method for dealing with skew quad perturbations, skew quad compensation, as an alternate to compensating solenoids, promises to be much cheaper, to require much less power and to occupy much less space in the IR's. The purpose of this note is to inform potential users of the foregoing situation and to explain skew quad compensation more fully. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. M6-C artificial disc placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coric, Domagoj; Parish, John; Boltes, Margaret O

    2017-01-01

    There has been a steady evolution of cervical total disc replacement (TDR) devices over the last decade resulting in surgical technique that closely mimics anterior cervical discectomy and fusion as well as disc design that emphasizes quality of motion. The M6-C TDR device is a modern-generation artificial disc composed of titanium endplates with tri-keel fixation as well as a polyethylene weave with a polyurethane core. Although not yet approved by the FDA, M6-C has finished a pilot and pivotal US Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) study. The authors present the surgical technique for implantation of a 2-level M6-C cervical TDR device. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/rFEAqINLRCo .

  12. PEP computer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of the computer system that will be used to control and monitor the PEP storage ring. Since the design is essentially complete and much of the system is operational, the system is described as it is expected to 1979. Section 1 of the paper describes the system hardware which includes the computer network, the CAMAC data I/O system, and the operator control consoles. Section 2 describes a collection of routines that provide general services to applications programs. These services include a graphics package, data base and data I/O programs, and a director programm for use in operator communication. Section 3 describes a collection of automatic and semi-automatic control programs, known as SCORE, that contain mathematical models of the ring lattice and are used to determine in real-time stable paths for changing beam configuration and energy and for orbit correction. Section 4 describes a collection of programs, known as CALI, that are used for calibration of ring elements

  13. Background estimates for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.

    1975-04-01

    The beam gas bremsstrahlung radiation for PEP has been studied in detail using the ray trace program TURTLE. With this program, an electron (positron) trajectory starting at an interaction region is traced through the storage ring until it radiates, then the radiated electron is traced until it stops in the beam pipe. The relative number of electrons stopping between the strong focusing quadrupoles is used to determine a rate at which electromagnetic showers will occur in the region of the experimental apparatus. It was found that 2.46% of the radiated electrons will stop in the interaction region. Assuming a uniform pressure of 2 x 10/sup /minus/9/ Torr in the vacuum pipe for a residual gas (X/sub o/ = 34.7 gm/cm 2 ), 2.5 x 10 5 electrons (positrons) will stop in the interaction region per beam (4 x 10 12 electrons at 15 GeV) per second. If the luminosity is 10 32 , this rate is equivalent to a cross section of 2.5 x 10/sup /minus/27/ cm 2 . 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. m6ASNP: a tool for annotating genetic variants by m6A function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuai; Xie, Yubin; He, Zhihao; Zhang, Ya; Zhao, Yuli; Chen, Li; Zheng, Yueyuan; Miao, Yanyan; Zuo, Zhixiang; Ren, Jian

    2018-04-02

    Large-scale genome sequencing projects have identified many genetic variants for diverse diseases. A major goal of these projects is to characterize these genetic variants to provide insight into their function and roles in diseases. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is one of the most abundant RNA modifications in eukaryotes. Recent studies have revealed that aberrant m6A modifications are involved in many diseases. In this study, we present a user-friendly web server called "m6ASNP" that is dedicated to the identification of genetic variants targeting m6A modification sites. A random forest model was implemented in m6ASNP to predict whether the methylation status of a m6A site is altered by the variants surrounding the site. In m6ASNP, genetic variants in a standard VCF format are accepted as the input data, and the output includes an interactive table containing the genetic variants annotated by m6A function. In addition, statistical diagrams and a genome browser are provided to visualize the characteristics and annotate the genetic variants. We believe that m6ASNP is a highly convenient tool that can be used to boost further functional studies investigating genetic variants. The web server "m6ASNP" is implemented in JAVA and PHP and is freely available at http://m6asnp.renlab.org.

  15. PEP conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The accelerator system design, the physical plant, the experimental areas, cost estimates, and schedules for PEP are discussed. The main component of the proposed facility is a storage ring in which beams of positrons and electrons circulate in opposite directions in a vacuum chamber embedded in a magnetic guide field having six bending arcs and six long straight sections. The electrons and positrons to be stored in it are produced in the SLAC linac and are introduced into the storage ring via two beam transport paths emanating from the end of the two-mile accelerator. Beams of energies up to 18 GeV can be stored, and, at a future date, components could be added to permit energies as high as 22 GeV. Provisions are also made in the design of the ring housing so that a synchrotron-radiation research facility could be added in the future. The energy lost from the beams by synchrotron radiation is restored by a high-power radio frequency accelerating system which employs klystrons to drive the accelerating structures at a frequency of 353 MHz. The system is capable of delivering five megawatts of power to the beams. Low pressures will be sustained by means of long, narrow sputter-ion pumps located in the vacuum chamber in the bending magnets directly alongside the beams. The proposed storage ring is designed to generate a luminosity (reaction rate per unit reaction cross section) of more than 10 31 cm -2 sec -1 per interaction region at beam energies between 5 GeV and 18 GeV and a maximum luminosity of 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 per interaction region at a beam energy of 15 GeV

  16. m6AVar: a database of functional variants involved in m6A modification

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yueyuan; Nie, Peng; Peng, Di; He, Zhihao; Liu, Mengni; Xie, Yubin; Miao, Yanyan; Zuo, Zhixiang; Ren, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Identifying disease-causing variants among a large number of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) is still a major challenge. Recently, N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) has become a research hotspot because of its critical roles in many fundamental biological processes and a variety of diseases. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effect of variants on m6A modification, in order to gain a better understanding of them. Here, we report m6AVar (http://m6avar.renlab.org), a comprehensive da...

  17. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months

  18. PEP magnet power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, L.T.

    1977-01-01

    The dc electrical requirements of the PEP magnets fall mainly into two categories: (1) high power and current of single polarity and (2) low-power bi-polar. The first category will be thyristor-chopper controlled off common 600 V dc busses. The second group will utilize continuously controlled push-pull transistor actuators

  19. Positron--Electron Project (PEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    PEP, an 18-GeV electron-positron colliding-beam storage ring facility at SLAC, is being built by a team from LBL and SLAC. Construction is under way and completion is scheduled for Fall of 1979. A summary is given of the design of the facility, and the status of the project is reported

  20. Precision surveying system for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.; Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.; Pellisier, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    A semi-automatic precision surveying system is being developed for PEP. Reference elevations for vertical alignment will be provided by a liquid level. The short range surveying will be accomplished using a Laser Surveying System featuring automatic data acquisition and analysis

  1. Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Transmission of HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics Just ... to HIV frequently. Another HIV prevention method, called pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP, is when people at high risk ...

  2. m6A level and isoform characterization sequencing (m6A-LAIC-seq) reveals the census and complexity of the m6A epitranscriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Molinie, Benoit; Wang, Jinkai; Lim, Kok-Seong; Hillebrand, Roman; Lu, Zhi-xiang; Van Wittenberghe, Nicholas; Howard, Benjamin D.; Daneshvar, Kaveh; Mullen, Alan C.; Dedon, Peter; Xing, Yi; Giallourakis, Cosmas C.

    2016-01-01

    N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is a widespread, reversible chemical modification of RNA molecules, implicated in many aspects of RNA metabolism. Little quantitative information exists as to either how many transcript copies of particular genes are m6A modified (‘m6A levels’) or the relationship of m6A modification(s) to alternative RNA isoforms. To deconvolute the m6A epitranscriptome, we developed m6A-level and isoform-characterization sequencing (m6A-LAIC-seq). We found that cells exhibit a broad...

  3. ) m /SrVO3 ( m = 5, 6) Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Qingqing

    2018-05-04

    The (LaV3+O3)m/SrV4+O3 (m = 5, 6) superlattices are investigated by first principles calculations. While bulk LaVO3 is a C‐type antiferromagnetic semiconductor and bulk SrVO3 is a paramagnetic metal, semiconducting A‐type antiferromagnetic states for both superlattices are found due to epitaxial strain. At the interfaces, however, the V spins couple antiferromagnetically for m = 5 and ferromagnetically for m = 6 (m‐dependence of the magnetization). Electronic reconstruction in form of charge ordering is predicted to occur with V3+ and V4+ states arranged in a checkerboard pattern on both sides of the SrO layer. As compared to bulk LaVO3, the presence of V4+ ions introduces in‐gap states that strongly reduce the bandgap and influence the orbital occupation and ordering.

  4. PEP-II prototype klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Caryotakis, G.; Lee, T.G.; Pearson, C.; Wright, E.L.

    1993-04-01

    A 540-kW continuous-wave (cw) klystron operating at 476 MHz was developed for use as a power source for testing PEP-II rf accelerating cavities and rf windows. It also serves as a prototype for a 1.2 MW cw klystron presently being developed as a potential rf source for asymmetric colliding ring use. The design incorporates the concepts and many of the parts used in the original 353 MHz PEP klystron developed sixteen years ago. The superior computer simulation codes available today result in improved performance with the cavity frequencies, drift lengths, and output circuit optimized for the higher frequency.The design and operating results of this tube are described with particular emphasis on the factors which affect efficiency and stability

  5. Optical beam diagnostics on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabersky, A.P.

    1981-02-01

    In designing the PEP optical diagnostics we have been able to build on the experience gained with SPEAR. Most of the problems at SPEAR could be traced to the optical diagnostic system being inside the tunnel. A machine shutdown is required for any maintenance or modification. This implies that in order to make such an instrument successful, a large engineering effort must be mounted to ensure 100% operation at startup. The functions that do not work at startup may never be made to work; this has happened at several machines. Experimental setups are likewise risky and time consuming. A point which has been borne out in both SPEAR and PEP is that the mechanical part of the instrument, the special vacuum chamber, the optical mounts, the alignment and adjustments, require approximately 60% of the effort and cost of the optical diagnostics. It is far better to economize on detectors and electronics than on mechanical and optical essentials

  6. Osteolytic Bone Lesions - A Rare Presentation of AML M6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, N; Sreelesh, K P; Priya, M J; Lali, V S; Rekha, N

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M6 is a rare form of AML accounting for M6 before. We discuss the case of a 17 year old boy with AML M6, who presented with osteolytic lesion of right humerus. He was treated with induction and consolidation chemotherapy. The present case is the first report in literature of AML M6 presenting with skeletal lesions.

  7. rf reference line for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system

  8. rf reference line for PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system.

  9. PEP-II status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfan, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    The main design features of the PEP-II asymmetric two-ring electron-positron B Factory collider, built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, are described. This facility will complete construction in June 1998. The high energy ring, completed in May 1997, has had 3 months of commissioning and successfully stored 0.75 A of electrons. The success of the high energy ring testing validates not only its ring components, but also the injection system, the RF system and the control system all of which are common to the two rings

  10. A new lattice for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.; Wiedemann, H.

    1976-01-01

    A new low-beta configuration has been proposed for PEP which has a reduced β/sub y/* and is capable of delivering design luminosity with lower circulating beam currents that those required in the standard configuration described in the Conceptual Design Report of February, 1976. A feasibility study has been carried out and it is reported in PTM-65, September 8, 1976, by Lee, Morton and Wiedemann. The beam-stay-clear region is specified in PTM-66, September 3, 1976 by H. Wiedemann. The principal advantages of the new lattice are that the lower beam currents lead to lower higher-order-mode power and permit reduction of the total rf power required which in turn reduces both capital cost and operating cost. Its disadvantages stem primarily from the relatively high maximum beta values which occur in the interaction-region quadrupoles. These produce high chromaticities which require a generally stronger sextupole system for their compensation. The advantages outweigh the disadvantages and the new 11-cm-beta configuration has been adopted as the design configuration for energies of 15-GeV and lower. In the remainder of this report we shall discuss the implications of this new configuration for the various systems of PEP. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Status report of PEP-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamae, Tuneyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The present status of PEP-4 is reported. The cosmic ray test of a TPC without magnetic field was done in July, 1981, and tracks were observed on the first day of the test. The entire PEP-4 detector was tested with 3.9 kG magnetic field in November, 1981, and various trigger configurations were tested. The TPC performed well during the test, and a preliminary analysis gave an encouraging position resolution which is expected to be improved with the correction for various non-uniformity and by refining the fitting procedure. Furthermore, the detection efficiency of the muon chamber was about 99 %. In November and December, 1981, the cosmic ray test of the hexagonal calorimeter was carried out. The performance was just as expected. Noise did not pose any problem, and the peak of the Fourier coefficient gave a nice overall calibration of the calorimeter. There are some problems to be solved in future. With the TPC, the impurities in the gas, the electronic noise, the hooks and the magnetic coil should be improved. In addition, there are some problems with the inner drift chamber, the hexagonal calorimeter and the relativistic rise measured by the TPC. The very recent results with the first e + e - beam obtained in February, 1982, are briefly reported, although the events have not been fully analyzed. (Ito, K.)

  12. Status of PEP and TPC/2γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapalac, G.

    1989-06-01

    The TPC/2γ program at PEP has been upgraded by increasing the PEP luminosity and by the adding of a vertex chamber to the TPC detector. These improvements will allow a strong program in B and τ physics, and will contribute to ongoing studies in two-photon physics and hadronization. 10 refs., 3 figs

  13. PEP-II: An asymmetric B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    In this report, the authors have described an updated conceptual design for the high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory (PEP-II) to be built in the PEP tunnel culmination of more than four years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e + e - collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . All aspects of the conceptual design were scrutinized in March 1991 by a DOE technical review committee chaired by Dr. L. Edward Temple. The design was deemed feasible and capable of achieving its physics goals. Furthermore, the cost estimate, schedule, and management plan for the project were fully endorsed by the committee. This updated conceptual design report captures the technical progress since the March 1991 review and reflects the lower cost estimate corresponding to the improved design. Although the PEP-II design has continued to evolve, no technical scope changes have been made that invalidate the conclusion of the DOE review. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, an electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of PEP-II. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two PEP-II storage rings

  14. A monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes m6A nucleoside

    OpenAIRE

    Espuny, Ruth; Castro, Ana; Codony, Carles; Eritja Casadellà, Ramón; Bach-Elias, Montse

    1998-01-01

    A hybridoma against the nucleoside m6A has been obtained from mouse spleen. This hybridoma was named H65 and it secretes monoclonal antibodies anti-m6A. The competition assays showed that the monoclonal antibody was highly specific for m6A nucleoside.

  15. PEP surveying procedures and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linker, F.

    1982-06-01

    The PEP Survey and Alignment System, which employs both laser-based and optical survey methods, is described. The laser is operated in conjunction with the Tektronix 4051 computer and surveying instruments such as ARM and SAM, system which is designed to automate data input, reduction, and production of alignment instructions. The laser system is used when surveying ring quadrupoles, main bend magnets, sextupoles, and is optional when surveying RF cavities and insertion quadrupoles. Optical methods usually require that data be manually entered into the computer for alignment, but in some cases, an element can be aligned using nominal values of fiducial locations without use of the computer. Optical surveying is used in the alignment of NIT and SIT, low field bend magnets, wigglers, RF cavities, and insertion quadrupoles

  16. Status Report on PEP-II Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matter, Regina S.

    2002-01-01

    PEP-II [1-9] is an e+e- collider with asymmetric energies (3.1 and 9 GeV, respectively) in a 2200 m tunnel at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The collider produces B mesons to study a particle physics effect called CP violation as well as other physics topics. PEP-II was completed in 1998 with the first luminosity generated in July of that year. The installation of the BaBar Detector was finished in May 1999. The overall layout of PEP-II is shown in Figure 1 and the interaction region of PEP-II in Figure 2. The accelerator parameters and achievements of the High Energy Ring (HER) are listed in Table 1 and those for the Low Energy Ring (LER) in Table 2. The two beams collide at a single point in the IR2 hall where the BaBar detector is located. Beam parameters at the best luminosity are shown in Table 3 and PEP-II milestones in Table 4. In August 1999 PEP-II passed the world's record for luminosity which was 8.1x10 32 /cm 2 /s. The present luminosity in PEP-II is 2.15x10 33 /cm 2 /s which is 72% of the design. In June 2000 PEP-II delivered an integrated luminosity of 150 pb -1 in one day, which is above the design integrated luminosity per day of 135 pb -1 . Over the past year PEP-II has delivered over 12 fb -1 to BaBar. BaBar has logged over 11 pb -1 . The present plan is collide until the end of October 2000 followed by a three month installation period

  17. Estimate of coherent tune shifts for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, C.Y.; Chao, A.W.

    1981-02-01

    Transverse and longitudinal instabilities for a bunched PEP beam with a Gaussian distribution are treated using the standard technique in which instability problems are solved by looking for eigenvalues of the linearized Vlasov equation. The eigen solutions are conveniently expanded in terms of the Laquerre polynomials, and the eigenvalues are given by a symmetric matrix whose elements can be expressed in infinite series. The well-known formalism is used to obtain the matrix formula, and then applied numerically to the PEP ring to estimate the transverse coherent tune shifts. The impedance used is that estimated for the PEP RF cavities. The agreement with experimental data seems reasonable

  18. Event rates to be expected at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1988-01-01

    As a guide for planning experiments at PEP, some estimates are given of average luminosity, charged and neutral particle yields vs. momentum, QED test capabilities, and weak interaction effects. 2 figs

  19. Storage rings, internal targets and PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1986-11-01

    Storage rings with internal targets are described, using PEP as an example. The difference between electrons and heavier particles such as protons, antiprotons, and heavy ions is also discussed because it raises possibilities of bypass insertions for more exotic experiments. PEP is compared to other rings in various contexts to verify the assertion that it is an ideal ring for many fundamental and practical applications that can be carried on simultaneously

  20. A Self-Diagnostic System for the M6 Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Patrick M.; Lekki, John

    2001-01-01

    The design of a Self-Diagnostic (SD) accelerometer system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine is presented. This retrofit system connects diagnostic electronic hardware and software to the current M6 accelerometer system. This paper discusses the general operation of the M6 accelerometer SD system and procedures for developing and evaluating the SD system. Signal processing techniques using M6 accelerometer diagnostic data are explained. Test results include diagnostic data responding to changing ambient temperature, mounting torque and base mounting impedance.

  1. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  2. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e + e - collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings

  3. PEP quark search proportional chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S I; Harris, F; Karliner, I; Yount, D [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA); Ely, R; Hamilton, R; Pun, T [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.; Guryn, W; Miller, D; Fries, R [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA)

    1981-04-01

    Proportional chambers are used in the PEP Free Quark Search to identify and remove possible background sources such as particles traversing the edges of counters, to permit geometric corrections to the dE/dx and TOF information from the scintillator and Cerenkov counters, and to look for possible high cross section quarks. The present beam pipe has a thickness of 0.007 interaction lengths (lambdasub(i)) and is followed in both arms each with 45/sup 0/ <= theta <= 135/sup 0/, ..delta..phi=90/sup 0/ by 5 proportional chambers, each 0.0008 lambdasub(i) thick with 32 channels of pulse height readout, and by 3 thin scintillator planes, each 0.003 lambdasub(i) thick. Following this thin front end, each arm of the detector has 8 layers of scintillator (one with scintillating light pipes) interspersed with 4 proportional chambers and a layer of lucite Cerenkov counters. Both the calculated ion statistics and measurements using He-CH/sub 4/ gas in a test chamber indicate that the chamber efficiencies should be >98% for q=1/3. The Landau spread measured in the test was equal to that observed for normal q=1 traversals. One scintillator plane and thin chamber in each arm will have an extra set of ADC's with a wide gate bracketing the normal one so timing errors and tails of earlier pulses should not produce fake quarks.

  4. The M5 Fuel Rod Cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, J.P.; Charquet, D.; Senevat, J.

    1998-01-01

    The large-scale program for the development and irradiation of new Zr alloys started by FRAMATOME and its industrial partners CEZUS and ZIRCOTUBE more than 10 years ago is now enabling FRAGEMA to offer the ternary M5 (ZrNbO) as the cladding material for PWR advanced fuel rods. Compared with the former product (low-tin-Zircaloy-4), this alloy exhibits impressive gains under irradiation at extended burnup (55 GWd/t) relatively to corrosion (factor 3 to 4), hydriding (factor 5 to 6), growth and creep (factor 2 to 3). In this paper, we shall successively address: - the industrial development and manufacturing experience - the corrosion, hydriding, creep and growth performances obtained over a wide range of PWR normal irradiation conditions (France and other countries) up to burnups of 55 GWd/t - The interpretation of these results by means of analytical experiments conducted in test reactors (free growth, creep) and microstructural observations on the irradiated material - and the behaviour under accident (LOCA) and severe environment and irradiation (Li, boiling) conditions. (Author)

  5. Soybean (Glycine max) allergy in Europe: Gly m 5 (beta-conglycinin) and Gly m 6 (glycinin) are potential diagnostic markers for severe allergic reactions to soy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Wackermann, Olga; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soybean is considered an important allergenic food, but published data on soybean allergens are controversial. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify relevant soybean allergens and correlate the IgE-binding pattern to clinical characteristics in European patients with confirmed soy allergy....

  6. Phe783, Thr797, and Asp804 in transmembrane hairpin M5-M6 of Na+,K+-ATPase play a key role in ouabain binding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, L.Y.; Koenderink, J.B.; Swarts, H.G.P.; Willems, P.H.G.M.; Pont, J.J.H.H.M. de

    2003-01-01

    Ouabain is a glycoside that binds to and inhibits the action of Na+,K+-ATPase. Little is known, however, about the specific requirements of the protein surface for glycoside binding. Using chimeras of gastric H+,K+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase, we demonstrated previously that the combined presence of

  7. Comparison of childhood myelodysplastic syndrome, AML FAB M6 or M7, CCG 2891: report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Dorothy R; Alonzo, Todd A; Gerbing, Robert B; Lange, Beverly; Woods, William G

    2007-07-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute erythroleukemia (FAB M6), and acute megakaryocytic leukemia (FAB M7) have overlapping features. Children without Down syndrome or acute promyelocytic leukemia who were newly diagnosed with primary myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M6 or M7 were compared to children with de novo AML M0-M5. All children were entered on the Children's Cancer Group therapeutic research study CCG 2891. The presentation and outcomes of the 132 children diagnosed with MDS (60 children), AML FAB M6 (19 children), or AML FAB M7 (53 children) were similar. Children with AML FAB M7 were diagnosed at a significantly younger age (P = 0.001). Children with MDS, M6, or M7 had significantly lower white blood cell (WBC) counts (P = 0.001), lower peripheral blast counts (P M6 and AML M7 resemble MDS in presentation, poor induction success rates, and outcomes.

  8. PEP-II injection timing and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, V.; Browne, M.; Crane, M.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Ross, M.; Stanek, M.; Ronan, M.

    1997-07-01

    Hardware has been built and software written and incorporated in the existing SLC accelerator control system to control injection of beam pulses from the accelerator into the PEP-II storage rings currently under construction. Hardware includes a CAMAC module to delay the machine timing fiducial in order that a beam pulse extracted from a damping ring will be injected into a selected group of four 476 MHz buckets in a PEP-II ring. Further timing control is accomplished by shifting the phase of the bunches stored in the damping rings before extraction while leaving the phase of the PEP-II stored beam unchanged. The software which drives timing devices on a pulse-to-pulse basis relies on a dedicated communication link on which one scheduling microprocessor broadcasts a 128-bit message to all distributed control microprocessors at 360 Hz. PEP-II injection will be driven by the scheduling microprocessor according to lists specifying bucket numbers in arbitrary order, and according to scheduling constraints maximizing the useful beam delivered to the SLC collider currently in operation. These lists will be generated by a microprocessor monitoring the current stored per bucket in each of the PEP-II rings

  9. Luminosity with more bunches in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.

    1990-12-01

    The near term accelerator physics program for PEP includes experiments in a collider mode with up to 9 bunches in each beam. In this memo, luminosity data from the 3 x 3 configuration is first used to calculate vertical beam size, emittance and tune shift as a function of current. The data is then used to extrapolate to the case with either 6 x 6 or 9 x 9 bunches colliding in PEP. Vertical emittance growth from the separated bunch optics and dispersion at the IP are included in the calculations. The conclusion is that given a 90 mA current drive limitation in PEP, operating with 6 x 6 bunches yields the maximum luminosity. 9 refs., 6 figs

  10. Single wavelength standard wiggler for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunk, W.; Fischer, G.; Spencer, J.

    1979-03-01

    A 1lambda planar wiggler has been designed that will be used for the initial operation of the 4 to 18 GeV storage ring PEP. Three of these wigglers will be installed symmetrically around the ring at 120 0 intervals in three of six available 5 m straight sections with the purpose of providing: (1) beam size control to obtain better luminosities below 15 GeV, and (2) decreased damping times to obtain better injection rates at lower energies. Design goals are discussed and a description of the final system including cost estimates is given. Expected results and usage in PEP are discussed. Some possibilities for production of synchrotron radiation and beam monitoring with shorter wavelength, multiple-period wigglers at PEP energies are also discussed. Comparison to a wiggler now operating in SPEAR is given

  11. Synthesis and biological activity of M6-P and M6-P analogs on fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Caroline; Barragan-Montero, Véronique; Garric, Xavier; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Montero, Jean-Louis

    2005-09-01

    A new synthetic route to obtain the carboxylate analog of mannose 6-phosphate (M6-P) is presented. The effects of the M6-P, the carboxylate and two other analogs (the phosphonate and the alpha,beta ethylenic carboxylate) on the proliferation of human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts as well as on the proliferation of a murine fibroblast cell line, 3T3-J2 are tested. We observed that M6-P is a potent inhibitor of proliferation of both fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Among its analogs, the phosphonate showed a similar effect on human dermal fibroblasts but not on keratinocytes.

  12. New results on flavor production at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.

    1984-05-01

    This report includes results from five PEP detectors: DELCO, HRS, MAC, MARK II and TPC. All, except the TPC, are presently taking data at PEP. The TPC is being upgraded: a new superconducting coil is being installed and other improvements are being implemented. The results discussed here are either new or improved since the Cornell Conference. New results on Particle Searches and a limit on neutrino generations are discussed. New data are included on weak couplings of c and b quarks. Various new results on hadron production are reported. All data were obtained in e +- collisions with total energy √s=29 GeV. 54 references

  13. Recent improvements in luminosity at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Allen, M.; Chao, A.

    1983-03-01

    We will describe improvements which have led to new records for peak and average luminosity at PEP. Comparison of recent results with several earlier lattice and optical modifications shows rather good correlation with the predictions of a beam-beam simulation program

  14. KEKB and PEP-II B Factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    Two asymmetric B-Factories KEKB at KEK and PEP-II at SLAC are under construction, designed to study CP violation in the b-quark sector with a center of mass energy of 10.58 GeV. These two new accelerators are high luminosity two-ring two-energy e + e - colliders with one interaction point. There are many challenging accelerator physics and engineering issues associated with the high beam currents and high luminosities of these rings. The chosen solutions to these issues and the general parameters of the two rings are described in detail side-by-side. KEKB and PEP-II are well into the installation phase and are both scheduled to be completed in 1998. The particle physics programs are scheduled to start in 1999

  15. APS [Advanced Photon Source] interests in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncton, D.E.; Shenoy, G.K.; Mills, D.M.

    1987-11-01

    As one of the very few high-energy electron storage rings in the world, potentially available for synchrotron radiation studies, PEP represents an opportunity to accomplish certain preconstruction R and D tasks relevant to the successful construction and operation of dedicated user facilities such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne. Three topical areas are discussed: Accelerator R and D, Insertion Devices (ID) R and D, and Beam Line Instrumentation R and D

  16. Operation of PEP longitudinal feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Karvonen, L.G.; McConnell, R.A.; Schwarz, H.

    1981-03-01

    In order to suppress longitudinal coupled-bunch oscillations which might limit the capabilities of PEP, the 18 GeV e + e - storage ring at SLAC, a longitudinal feedback system is utilized. A frequency domain feedback system was chosen with the frequency spectrum of the stored beam being sampled close to a symmetry point in the ring where the feedback cavity itself is also located. The symmetry point chosen is symmetry point 5 which lies half-way between interaction regions 4 and 6. The system has been installed in PEP and is now operational. However, at stored currents up to the maximum stored in PEP to date at 14.5 GeV (approximately 40 mA in 6 bunches), the ring has been stable to all modes of longitudinal coupled-bunch oscillations both barycentric and the other fundamental modes. By deliberately detuning the main accelerating cavities, small multibunch oscillations can be introduced which, in turn, can be damped by the feedback system. Under optimized beam conditions the feedback system could be adjusted to positive feedback and excite oscillations with relatively small power to the feedback cavity. This will be described along with other details of the system

  17. InverPep: A database of invertebrate antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Esteban A; Giraldo, Paula; Orduz, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to construct InverPep, a database specialised in experimentally validated antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from invertebrates. AMP data contained in InverPep were manually curated from other databases and the scientific literature. MySQL was integrated with the development platform Laravel; this framework allows to integrate programming in PHP with HTML and was used to design the InverPep web page's interface. InverPep contains 18 separated fields, including InverPep code, phylum and species source, peptide name, sequence, peptide length, secondary structure, molar mass, charge, isoelectric point, hydrophobicity, Boman index, aliphatic index and percentage of hydrophobic amino acids. CALCAMPI, an algorithm to calculate the physicochemical properties of multiple peptides simultaneously, was programmed in PERL language. To date, InverPep contains 702 experimentally validated AMPs from invertebrate species. All of the peptides contain information associated with their source, physicochemical properties, secondary structure, biological activity and links to external literature. Most AMPs in InverPep have a length between 10 and 50 amino acids, a positive charge, a Boman index between 0 and 2 kcal/mol, and 30-50% hydrophobic amino acids. InverPep includes 33 AMPs not reported in other databases. Besides, CALCAMPI and statistical analysis of InverPep data is presented. The InverPep database is available in English and Spanish. InverPep is a useful database to study invertebrate AMPs and its information could be used for the design of new peptides. The user-friendly interface of InverPep and its information can be freely accessed via a web-based browser at http://ciencias.medellin.unal.edu.co/gruposdeinvestigacion/prospeccionydisenobiomoleculas/InverPep/public/home_en. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Peptidase-3 (Pep-3), dipeptidase variant in the rat homologous to mouse pep-3 (Dip-1) and human PEP-c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, J E; Cramer, D V

    1980-10-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis and histochemical staining with L-leucyl-L-tyrosine have revealed genetic variation for dipeptidase in Rattus norvegicus. The tissue distribution, substrate specificity, and heterozygous expression as a monmeric protein suggest homology of the variant peptidase to human PEP-C and mouse Pep-3 (Dip-1). We propose Peptidase-3 (Pep-3) as a name for this autosomal locus in the rat. The allele responsible for slower (less anodal) electrophoretic migration is designated Pep-3a and is characteristic of strain ACI/Pit. A faster (more anodal) electrophoretic mobility is the product of the Pep-3b allele in strain F344/Pit. Twenty-five additional inbred strains carry Pep-3a and 16 others carry Pep-3b. Wild rats trapped in Pittsburgh were polymorphic for this locus. Alleles at Pep-3 segregated independently of c (linkage group I), a (linkage group IV), RT2 and Es-1 (linkage group V), h (linkage group VI), and RTI (linkage group VIII).

  19. BERKELEY: Collaboration on PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Since the announcement by President Clinton in October 1993 that the US Department of Energy would going ahead the PEPII Asymmetric B Factory project (a joint proposal of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center - SLAC, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - LBNL, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - LLNL), LBNL has continued its strong support of the project (for a review, see October, page 9). LBNL accelerator physicists have been active in the design of PEP-II since 1988 - shortly after the original concept was suggested by LBNL Deputy Director Pier Oddone. Indeed, the original feasibility study for such a machine was a joint LBNLSLAC- Caltech effort led by Swapan Chattopadhyay, now head of LBNL's Center for Beam Physics (CBP) in the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division (AFRD). The effort grew to include about seven full-time LBNL accelerator physicists (along with about 15 SLAC and LLNL physicists) during the formal design phase, which began in late 1989. This effort encompassed three editions of the Conceptual Design Report, along with innumerable reviews, as is typical of today's accelerator projects. Taking advantage of an experienced engineering staff, fresh from the successful completion of the Advanced Light Source (ALS), LBNL has been assigned lead responsibility for the challenging Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II project, an entirely new storage ring to be added to the PEP tunnel. The LBNL design team is headed by CBP accelerator physicist Michael Zisman and senior engineers Ron Yourd (who served as the Project Manager for the ALS) and Hank Hsieh (a recent addition to the LBNL staff who was Project Engineer for the NSLS storage rings at BNL and most recently served as Project Engineer for the DAFNE project at Frascati). LBNL is also represented in the overall management of the PEP-II project by Tom Elioff, who serves as Deputy to the Project Director Jonathan Dorfan at SLAC. (Elioff served in the same role for the original

  20. PEP-II IR-2 Alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seryi, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first results and preliminary analysis obtained with several alignment monitoring systems recently installed in the PEP-II interaction region. The hydrostatic level system, stretched wire system, and laser tracker have been installed in addition to the existing tiltmeters and LVDT sensors. These systems detected motion of the left raft, which correlated primarily with the low energy ring (LER) current. The motion is of the order of 120 micrometers. The cause was identified as synchrotron radiation heating the beampipe, causing its expansion which then results in its deformation and offset of the IR quadrupoles. We also discuss further plans on measurements, analysis and means to counteract this motion

  1. PEP-II RF feedback system simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tighe, R [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A model containing the fundamental impedance of the PEP-II cavity along with the longitudinal beam dynamics and RF feedback system components is in use. It is prepared in a format allowing time-domain as well as frequency-domain analysis and full graphics capability. Matlab and Simulink are control system design and analysis programs (widely available) with many built-in tools. The model allows the use of compiled C-code modules for compute intensive portions. We desire to represent as nearly as possible the components of the feedback system including all delays, sample rates and applicable nonlinearities. (author)

  2. Control electronics of the PEP RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, J.L.; Schwarz, H.

    1981-01-01

    The operation of the major components used for controlling the phase and field level of the PEP RF cavities is described. The control electronics of one RF station is composed of several control loops: each cavity has a tuners' servo loop which maintains the frequency constant and also keeps the fields of each cavity balanced; the total gap voltage developed by a pair of cavities is regulated by a gap voltage controller; finally, the phase variation along the amplification chain, the klystron and the cavities are compensated by a phase lock loop. The design criteria of each loop are set forth and the circuit implementation and test results are presented

  3. Reliable 6 PEP LTPS device for AMOLED's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Pei-Yun; Hu, Chin-Wei; Chang, York; Chuang, Ching-Sang; Lin, Yusin

    2013-09-01

    This study presents a TFT structure which has less photo process and higher cost competitiveness in AMOLED display markets. A novel LTPS based 6 masks TFT structure for bottom emission AMOLED display is demonstrated in this paper. High field effect mobility (PMOS < 80 cm2/Vs ) and high reliability (PBTS △Vth< 0.02V @ 50oC VG=15V 10ks) was accomplished without the high temperature and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) activation process. Furthermore, a 14-inch AMOLED TV was achieved on the proposed 6-pep TFT backplane using the Gen. 3.5 mass production factory.

  4. Search for heavy neutrino production at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.J.

    1985-10-01

    We report a search for long-lived heavy neutrinos produced by the neutral weak current in e + e - annihilation at 29 GeV at PEP. Data from the Mark II detector are examined for evidence of events with one or two separated vertices in the radial range of 2 mm to 10 cm. No events were found that were consistent with the hypothesis of heavy neutrino production, eliminating the possibility of heavy neutrinos with decay lengths of 1 to 20 cm in mass range 1 to 13 GeV/c 2

  5. Radiation and electrical safety systems for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Constant, T.; Crook, K.; Fitch, J.; Taylor, T.

    1981-02-01

    At SLAC, the Personnel Protection System (PPS) protects people from radiation hazards. For PEP, the system has been expanded to include protection against electrical and RF hazards. This paper describes the overall system design, giving particular attention to the novel features not found in similar systems in other areas of SLAC. These include the Restricted Access Mode to allow limited occupancy in the ring while high voltage or RF may be present, the automatic badge reader system for improving the efficiency of entry logging and control, and the solid state lighting control system for switching large lighting loads with minimum electro-magetic interference

  6. Recent high precision surveys at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, R.C.

    1980-12-01

    The task of surveying and aligning the components of PEP has provided an opportunity to develop new instruments and techniques for the purpose of high precision surveys. The new instruments are quick and easy to use, and they automatically encode survey data and read them into the memory of an on-line computer. When measurements of several beam elements have been taken, the on-line computer analyzes the measured data, compares them with desired parameters, and calculates the required adjustments to beam element support stands

  7. Searches for new particles at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    The status of searches for new particles at the PEP storage ring is reviewed. The result of the excited electron search by MARKII is presented and a limit on the coupling strength of the e*eγ vertex is given. The search for single photons in the ASP and MAC detectors is reported and the results are used to set limits on the number of light neutrino species and, in the context of supersymmetry (SUSY) theories, are interpreted as setting simultaneous limits on the masses of the selectron and photino

  8. Pep3p/Pep5p complex: a putative docking factor at multiple steps of vesicular transport to the vacuole of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, A; Woolford, C A; Jones, E W

    2000-01-01

    Pep3p and Pep5p are known to be necessary for trafficking of hydrolase precursors to the vacuole and for vacuolar biogenesis. These proteins are present in a hetero-oligomeric complex that mediates transport at the vacuolar membrane. PEP5 interacts genetically with VPS8, implicating Pep5p in the earlier Golgi to endosome step and/or in recycling from the endosome to the Golgi. To understand further the cellular roles of Pep3p and Pep5p, we isolated and characterized a set of pep3 conditional ...

  9. Geotechnical investigations of the PEP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, R.S.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the general nature of the geology and rock and soil formations of the PEP site as they relate to the design and construction of the project; to describe site investigation programs and to catalog the geotechnical information presently available about the site. The recently-completed investigation of subterranean conditions around the PEP ring when coupled with previous surveys gives us a good understanding of what to expect with regard to tunneling, undertaking larger underground excavations and constructing research halls are the interaction areas. It bears out the predictions made in Jacobs and Associates' report of 1973; i.e., that the ring housing construction is classified as soft-ground tunneling and that large underground openings, such as region 10 and the injection junction structures, will require great attention to support. A shield or shields will probably be required. On the positive side, the site affords very good conditions for soft-ground tunneling. Water will be a problem in some areas, but not an unsolvable one. The possibility of encountering lethal or explosive gases, almost always the case in tunneling in California's coastal formations, exists but has not been ascertained. Finally, no reasons to change current cost estimates or schedules have merged from the investigation. 13 refs., 1 fig

  10. Upgrades to PEP-II Tune Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan S.

    2002-07-30

    The tune monitors for the two-ring PEP-II collider convert signals from one set of four BPM-type pickup buttons per ring into horizontal and vertical differences, which are then downconverted from 952 MHz (twice the RF) to baseband. Two-channel 10-MHz FFT spectrum analyzers show spectra in X-window displays in the Control Room, to assist PEP operators. When operating with the original system near the beam-beam limit, collisions broadened and flattened the tune peaks, often bringing them near the noise floor. We recently installed new downconverters that increase the signal-to-noise ratio by about 5 dB. In addition, we went from one to two sets of pickups per ring, near focusing and defocusing quadrupoles, so that signals for both planes originate at locations with large amplitudes. We also have just installed a tune tracker, based on a digital lock-in amplifier (one per tune plane) that is controlled by an EPICS software feedback loop. The tracker monitors the phase of the beam's response to a sinusoidal excitation, and adjusts the drive frequency to track the middle of the 1 go-degree phase transition across the tune resonance. We plan next to test an outer loop controlling the tune quadrupoles based on this tune measurement.

  11. Upgrades to PEP-II Tune Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan S.

    2002-07-30

    The tune monitors for the two-ring PEP-II collider convert signals from one set of four BPM-type pickup buttons per ring into horizontal and vertical differences, which are then downconverted from 952 MHz (twice the RF) to baseband. Two-channel l0-MHz FFT spectrum analyzers show spectra in X-window displays in the Control Room, to assist PEP operators. When operating with the original system near the beam-beam limit, collisions broadened and flattened the tune peaks, often bringing them near the noise floor. We recently installed new downconverters that increase the signal-to-noise ratio by about 5 dB. In addition, we went from one to two sets of pickups per ring, near focusing and defocusing quadrupoles, so that signals for both planes originate at locations with large amplitudes. We also have just installed a tune tracker, based on a digital lock-in amplifier (one per tune plane) that is controlled by an EPICS software feedback loop. The tracker monitors the phase of the beam's response to a sinusoidal excitation, and adjusts the drive frequency to track the middle of the 180-degree phase transition across the tune resonance. We plan next to test an outer loop controlling the tune quadrupoles based on this tune measurement.

  12. Upgrades to PEP-II tune measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Alan S.; Petree, Mark; Wienands, Uli; Allison, Stephanie; Laznovsky, Michael; Seeman, Michael; Robin, Jolene

    2002-01-01

    The tune monitors for the two-ring PEP-II collider convert signals from one set of four BPM-type pickup buttons per ring into horizontal and vertical differences, which are then downconverted from 952 MHz (twice the RF) to baseband. Two-channel 10-MHz FFT spectrum analyzers show spectra in X-window displays in the Control Room, to assist PEP operators. When operating with the original system near the beam-beam limit, collisions broadened and flattened the tune peaks, often bringing them near the noise floor. We recently installed new downconverters that increase the signal-to-noise ratio by about 5 dB. In addition, we went from one to two sets of pickups per ring, near focusing and defocusing quadrupoles, so that signals for both planes originate at locations with large amplitudes. We also have just installed a tune tracker, based on a digital lock-in amplifier (one per tune plane) that is controlled by an EPICS software feedback loop. The tracker monitors the phase of the beam's response to a sinusoidal excitation, and adjusts the drive frequency to track the middle of the 180-degree phase transition across the tune resonance. We plan next to test an outer loop controlling the tune quadrupoles based on this tune measurement

  13. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Their levels of knowledge and indications for. PEP as well as ... uninfected patient and even re-infection of an already infected .... Surgical cuts/wounds. 7 ... Table 4: Knowledge of time of administration of PEP. Time .... respondents to be uncertain about the existence of such ... Surely, before the advent of this long awaited.

  14. Investigation of Backprojection Uncertainties With M6 Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate possible biasing effects of inaccurate timing corrections on teleseismic P wave backprojection imaging of large earthquake ruptures. These errors occur because empirically estimated time shifts based on aligning P wave first arrivals are exact only at the hypocenter and provide approximate corrections for other parts of the rupture. Using the Japan subduction zone as a test region, we analyze 46 M6-M7 earthquakes over a 10 year period, including many aftershocks of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake, performing waveform cross correlation of their initial P wave arrivals to obtain hypocenter timing corrections to global seismic stations. We then compare backprojection images for each earthquake using its own timing corrections with those obtained using the time corrections from other earthquakes. This provides a measure of how well subevents can be resolved with backprojection of a large rupture as a function of distance from the hypocenter. Our results show that backprojection is generally very robust and that the median subevent location error is about 25 km across the entire study region (˜700 km). The backprojection coherence loss and location errors do not noticeably converge to zero even when the event pairs are very close (<20 km). This indicates that most of the timing differences are due to 3-D structure close to each of the hypocenter regions, which limits the effectiveness of attempts to refine backprojection images using aftershock calibration, at least in this region.

  15. The dual formulation of M5-brane action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Sheng-Lan; Vanichchapongjaroen, Pichet [The Institute for Fundamental Study “The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ,Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand)

    2016-06-06

    We construct a dual formulation, with respect to the conventional PST formalism, of the M5-brane action propagating in a generic 11d supergravity background. Constraint analysis is performed to further justify that our theory has the correct number of degrees of freedom. Comparison of this action with the existing M5-brane actions is carried out. We also show that a conventional D4-brane action is obtained upon double dimensional reduction.

  16. PEP-II: An asymmetric B factory. Conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    In this report, the authors have described an updated conceptual design for the high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory (PEP-II) to be built in the PEP tunnel culmination of more than four years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sub +}e{sub {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. All aspects of the conceptual design were scrutinized in March 1991 by a DOE technical review committee chaired by Dr. L. Edward Temple. The design was deemed feasible and capable of achieving its physics goals. Furthermore, the cost estimate, schedule, and management plan for the project were fully endorsed by the committee. This updated conceptual design report captures the technical progress since the March 1991 review and reflects the lower cost estimate corresponding to the improved design. Although the PEP-II design has continued to evolve, no technical scope changes have been made that invalidate the conclusion of the DOE review. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, an electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of PEP-II. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two PEP-II storage rings.

  17. Investigation of Back-Projection Uncertainties with M6 Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Shearer, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate possible biasing effects of inaccurate timing corrections on teleseismic P-wave back-projection imaging of large earthquake ruptures. These errors occur because empirically-estimated time shifts based on aligning P-wave first arrivals are exact only at the hypocenter and provide approximate corrections for other parts of the rupture. Using the Japan subduction zone as a test region, we analyze 46 M6-7 earthquakes over a ten-year period, including many aftershocks of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake, performing waveform cross-correlation of their initial P-wave arrivals to obtain hypocenter timing corrections to global seismic stations. We then compare back-projection images for each earthquake using its own timing corrections with those obtained using the time corrections for other earthquakes. This provides a measure of how well sub-events can be resolved with back-projection of a large rupture as a function of distance from the hypocenter. Our results show that back-projection is generally very robust and that sub-event location errors average about 20 km across the entire study region ( 700 km). The back-projection coherence loss and location errors do not noticeably converge to zero even when the event pairs are very close (<20 km). This indicates that most of the timing differences are due to 3D structure close to each of the hypocenter regions, which limits the effectiveness of attempts to refine back-projection images using aftershock calibration, at least in this region.

  18. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Chin, M.; Doolittle, L.; Akre, R.

    2005-01-01

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx(R) ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design

  19. Search for scalar electrons at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.J.

    1983-08-01

    Experimental results from e + e - reactions at the Positron Electron Project (PEP) using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) are presented. Events with two electrons, and no other charged particles, in the final state are studied. Limits are given for the production of scalar-electrons predicted by models based on supersymmetry. In particular the pair production of such particles through s-channel single photon annihilation and t-channel inelastic scattering is considered. The data are well described by quantum electrodynamics (QED) but we observe one event which is also consistent with a supersymmetric model. Using this single event we find that the mass, M/sub se/, of these scalar-electrons es excluded, to 95% CL, in the range 1.8 less than or equal to M/sub se/ less than or equal to 14.2 GeV/c 2 . A description of the HRS detector is given with particular emphasis on the electronic trigger system

  20. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.M.; Chin, M.J.; Doolittle, L.R.; Akre, R.

    2006-01-01

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx(reg s ign) ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design

  1. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Jonah; Chin, Michael; Doolittle, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx® ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.

  2. PEP-II RF cavity revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmer, R.A.; Koehler, G.; Li, D.; Hartman, N.; Folwell, N.; Hodgson, J.; Ko, K.; McCandless, B.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of numerical simulations of the PEP-II RF cavity performed after the completion of the construction phase of the project and comparisons are made to previous calculations and measured results. These analyses were performed to evaluate new calculation techniques for the HOM distribution and RF surface heating that were not available at the time of the original design. These include the use of a high frequency electromagnetic element in ANSYS and the new Omega 3P code to study wall losses, and the development of broadband time domain simulation methods in MAFIA for the HOM loading. The computed HOM spectrum is compared with cavity measurements and observed beam-induced signals. The cavity fabrication method is reviewed, with the benefit of hindsight, and simplifications are discussed

  3. Operation of the PEP transverse beam feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.W.; Paterson, J.M.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Rees, J.R.

    1981-02-01

    The PEP Storage Ring has been equipped with a wide band beam feedback system capable of damping the vertical and horizontal motion of six bunches. The oscillation detection is done at a symmetry point on the Storage Ring and feedback is applied at the same location one orbital period later. The signal is synchronously gated and the system appears as twelve independent feedback loops, operating on the two coordinates of each of the six bunches. Two beam deflection electrodes are driven each by a low-Q push-pull amplifier which is tuned at the 72nd harmonic of the revolution frequency and suppressed-carrier modulation is generated by a sequence of the detected bunch oscillations. The design parameters are reviewed as well as the salient features of the hardware, and the impact of this system on the machine operation is evaluated in the light of experimental results

  4. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, E.; Adler, S.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

    2010-09-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies as one has to address many network operators to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2009 the COST-action 725 established a European wide data set of phenological observations. But the deliverables of this COST action was not only the common phenological database and common observation guidelines - COST725 helped to trigger a revival of some old networks and to establish new ones as for instance in Sweden. At the end of 2009 the COST action the database comprised about 8 million data in total from 15 European countries plus the data from the International Phenological Gardens IPG. In January 2010 PEP725 began its work as follow up project with funding from EUMETNET the network of European meteorological services and of ZAMG the Austrian national meteorological service. PEP725 not only will take over the part of maintaining, updating the COST725 database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of vegetation development.

  5. Gerbes, M5-brane anomalies and E8 gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschieri, Paolo; Jurco, Branislav

    2004-01-01

    Abelian gerbes and twisted bundles describe the topology of the NS 3-form gauge field strength H. We review how they have been usefully applied to study and resolve global anomalies in open string theory. Abelian 2-gerbes and twisted nonabelian gerbes describe the topology of the 4-form field strength G of M-theory. We show that twisted nonabelian gerbes are relevant in the study and resolution of global anomalies of multiple coinciding M5-branes. Global anomalies for one M5-brane have been studied by Witten and by Diaconescu, Freed and Moore. The structure and the differential geometry of twisted nonabelian gerbes (i.e. modules for 2-gerbes) is defined and studied. The nonabelian 2-form gauge potential living on multiple coinciding M5-branes arises as curving (curvature) of twisted nonabelian gerbes. The nonabelian group is in general Ω-tildeE 8 , the central extension of the E 8 loop group. The twist is in general necessary to cancel global anomalies due to the non-triviality of the 11-dimensional 4-form field strength G and due to the possible torsion present in the cycles the M5-branes wrap. Our description of M5-branes global anomalies leads to the D4-branes one upon compactification of M-theory to Type IIA theory. (author)

  6. Gerbes, M5-Brane Anomalies and E8 Gauge Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschieri, Paolo; Jurco, Branislav

    2004-10-01

    Abelian gerbes and twisted bundles describe the topology of the NS 3-form gauge field strength H. We review how they have been usefully applied to study and resolve global anomalies in open string theory. Abelian 2-gerbes and twisted nonabelian gerbes describe the topology of the 4-form field strength G of M-theory. We show that twisted nonabelian gerbes are relevant in the study and resolution of global anomalies of multiple coinciding M5-branes. Global anomalies for one M5-brane have been studied by Witten and by Diaconescu, Freed and Moore. The structure and the differential geometry of twisted nonabelian gerbes (i.e. modules for 2-gerbes) is defined and studied. The nonabelian 2-form gauge potential living on multiple coinciding M5-branes arises as curving (curvature) of twisted nonabelian gerbes. The nonabelian group is in general tilde OmegaE8, the central extension of the E8 loop group. The twist is in general necessary to cancel global anomalies due to the nontriviality of the 11-dimensional 4-form field strength G and due to the possible torsion present in the cycles the M5-branes wrap. Our description of M5-branes global anomalies leads to the D4-branes one upon compactification of M-theory to Type IIA theory.

  7. The Woods Hole Partnership Education Program (PEP) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jearld, A.; Liles, G.; Gutierrez, B.

    2013-12-01

    In March 2009, the Woods Hole Diversity Initiative (WHDI) launched the Partnership Education Program (PEP), a multi-institutional effort to increase diversity in the student population (and ultimately the work force) in the Woods Hole science community. PEP, a summer research internship program, is open to students of all backgrounds but is designed especially to provide opportunities for individuals from populations under-represented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and who otherwise would not have had the opportunity to come to Woods Hole to study or do research. A month-long course, 'Ocean and Environmental Sciences: Global Climate Change,' sets the stage for their summer research projects. The PEP model is emerging as an effective and sustainable approach to bringing students into the STEM research community. PEP is carefully structured to provide critical support for students as they complete their undergraduate experience and prepare for careers and/or graduate school. In its first five years, PEP has brought to the Woods Hole science community more than 75 students from over 50 colleges and universities, including many that do not typically send talent into marine and/or ecological research. PEP is unusual (perhaps even unique) in that it is a collaborative initiative involving seven partner institutions. Working together, the PEP collaborative has established a critical mass of under-represented students who are now in graduate school and/or working in STEM areas.

  8. m6A-Driver: Identifying Context-Specific mRNA m6A Methylation-Driven Gene Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Song-Yao; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Liu, Lian; Meng, Jia; Huang, Yufei

    2016-01-01

    As the most prevalent mammalian mRNA epigenetic modification, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has been shown to possess important post-transcriptional regulatory functions. However, the regulatory mechanisms and functional circuits of m6A are still largely elusive. To help unveil the regulatory circuitry mediated by mRNA m6A methylation, we develop here m6A-Driver, an algorithm for predicting m6A-driven genes and associated networks, whose functional interactions are likely to be actively modulated ...

  9. Introduction program of M5TM cladding in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, Jean Paul; Kaneko, Nori

    2008-01-01

    Experience from irradiation in PWR has confirmed that M5 TM possesses all the properties required for upgraded operation including new fuel management approaches and high duty reactor operation. Specifically, the alloy M5 TM has demonstrated impressive improvements over Zircaloy-4 for fuel rod cladding and fuel assembly structural components. Moreover, several irradiation campaigns have been worldwide performed in order to confirm the excellent M5 TM in-pile behavior in very demanding PWR irradiation conditions (high void fraction, heat flux, temperature, lithium content and Zinc injection). Regarding licensing, the authorization for loading M5 TM alloy has been granted by US, UK, South Korean, German, Chinese, South-African, Swedish and Belgian Safety Authorities. Also the French Nuclear Safety Authority has given individually its authorization to load all-M5 TM fuel assembly batches in 1300MWe plants and a generic license to load all-M5 TM fuel in EDF N4 reactors and M5 TM fuel clad in 900MWe reactors for MOX parity fuel management. Licensing is also now underway in Switzerland, Finland, Brazil and Spain. The M5 TM alloy has demonstrated its superiority at burn-ups beyond current licensing limits, through operations in PWR at fuel rod burn-ups exceeding 71GWd/tU in the United States and 78GWd/tU in Europe. The Japanese nuclear industry has planned a stepwise approach to increase the burn-up of the fuel. Step-I fuel (48GWd/tU Fuel Assembly maximum burn-up) which was introduced in the late 80s. In the 90s started the licensing of the Step-II fuel (55GWd/tU Fuel Assembly maximum burn-up). Because the extension of the burn-up is important to reduce discharge fuel and cycle cost, the Japanese industry has plans to further extend the burn-up. In such burn-up region, fuel cladding with even better corrosion properties and very low hydrogen pick-up shall be necessary. M5 TM alloy, with high anticorrosion/hydriding properties, is suitable for not only the Step-II fuel

  10. M5TM alloy high burnup behavior and worldwide licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, J.P.; Hoffmann, P.B.; Garner, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    The in-reactor behavior of advanced PWR Zirconium alloys at burnups equal to or below licensing limits has been widely reported. Specifically, the advanced alloy M5 has demonstrated impressive improvements over Zircaloy-4 for fuel rod cladding and fuel assembly structural components. To demonstrate superiority of the alloy at burnups beyond current licensing limits, M5 has been operated in PWR at burnups exceeding 71 GWd/tU in the United States and 78 GWd/tU in Europe. Two extensive irradiation programs have been performed in the United States to demonstrate alloy M5 performance beyond current licensing limits. Four M5 TM fuel rods were exposed to four 24-month cycles in a 15x15 reactor beginning in 1995. Additionally, one 17x17 lead assembly containing M5 fuel rods and guide tubes was operated for four 18-month cycles beginning from 1997. Post-irradiation examinations (PIE) performed after all four cycles in the 15x15 demonstration program revealed excellent performance in the licensed burnup and in the high burnup stages of the experience. Examination of the 4th cycle 17x17 assembly will be accomplished in two stages the first of which is scheduled for June 2005. Moreover, several irradiation campaigns have been performed in Europe in order to confirm the excellent M5 in-pile behavior in demanding PWRs irradiation conditions with regard to void fraction, heat flux, lithium content and temperature. Results from the high burnup fuel examinations verify that the excellent performance achieved up to 62 GWd/tU was continued into higher burnup. The results of high burnup PIE campaigns for European and American PWR's are presented in this paper. Measured performance indicators include fuel assembly dimensional stability parameters (assembly length, fuel rod length, assembly bow, fuel rod bow, fuel rod radial creep and spacer grid width), oxidation measurements (fuel rod and guide tube) and hydrogen pick-up data (fuel rod). In the framework of PCI studies, power ramp

  11. M-theory inflation from multi M5-brane dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Krause, Axel

    2005-01-01

    We derive inflation from M-theory on S 1 /Z 2 via the non-perturbative dynamics of N M5-branes. The open membrane instanton interactions between the M5-branes give rise to exponential potentials which are too steep for inflation individually but lead to inflation when combined together. The resulting type of inflation, known as assisted inflation, facilitates considerably the requirement of having all moduli, except the inflaton, stabilized at the beginning of inflation. During inflation the distances between the M5-branes, which correspond to the inflatons, grow until they reach the size of the S 1 /Z 2 orbifold. At this stage the M5-branes will reheat the universe by dissolving into the boundaries through small instanton transitions. Further flux and non-perturbative contributions become important at this late stage, bringing inflation to an end and stabilizing the moduli. We find that with moderate values for N, one obtains both a sufficient amount of e-foldings and the right size for the spectral index

  12. ) m /SrVO3 ( m = 5, 6) Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Qingqing; Lü ders, Ulrike; Fré sard, Raymond; Eckern, Ulrich; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2018-01-01

    The (LaV3+O3)m/SrV4+O3 (m = 5, 6) superlattices are investigated by first principles calculations. While bulk LaVO3 is a C‐type antiferromagnetic semiconductor and bulk SrVO3 is a paramagnetic metal, semiconducting A‐type antiferromagnetic states

  13. Vacuum system for the Stanford-LBL storage ring (PEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostic, D.; Cummings, U.; Dean, N.; Jeong, B.; Jurow, J.

    1975-03-01

    The vacuum system for PEP will be similar in design, construction and operation to the system currently in operation at SPEAR. There will, of course, be quantitative differences since the closed path of PEP will be 10 times longer than the SPEAR path. Some qualitative differences will also arise since the radiated synchrotron power for PEP will be about 13 times greater than for SPEAR giving rise to an increased linear power density incident on the chamber wall. Other differences arise from the higher energy spectrum of the synchrotron radiation. The SPEAR vacuum system has been in operation since April 1972 and has proven satisfactory in design, construction and operation. The chamber has been subject to synchrotron radiation for approximately 300 ampere-hours and beam lifetimes are now more than several hours. The details of the PEP design and the SPEAR operating experience will be further discussed in this paper. 1 ref., 4 figs

  14. Configuring the SLC linac for injection into PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.

    1989-01-01

    From time to time the normal SLC physics program is to be interrupted so that beam can be delivered to PEP. In order that the switch to PEP injection (and the switch back again) can be accomplished quickly and easily, the gun, the damping rings, the linac phase ramp, the energy profile of the linac klystrons for the scavenger bunch, and the entire positron production system are to be kept the same as in the SLC configuration. What mainly remains to be changed is the linac klystron profile for the leading two bunches - those going to PEP. The new klystron profile must be such that it leaves these two beams (1) with final energies that match that of the storage ring and (2) with final energy spectra that fit within the energy aperture of the PEP transfer line. The conditions that need to be met in order to achieve these two goals are discussed in this note. 1 ref., 2 figs

  15. PEP radiation shielding tests in SLAC A Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, W.; DeStaebler, H.; Harris, J.; Jenkins, T.; Murray, J.

    1977-09-01

    Radiation shielding tests designed to simulate possible conditions in and around the PEP experimental halls were conducted. The SLAC A Beam was targeted in the block tunnel at a point about midway between End Station A and Beam Dump East. At that site it was relatively easy to rearrange the concrete block structure to simulate the various shielding configurations under consideration for PEP. Extensive surveys of neutron and ionizing radiation were made. Complete results of the shielding tests are given

  16. PEP-II design update and R ampersand D results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the present status of the PEP-II asymmetric β factory design undertaken by SLAC, LBL, and LLNL. Design optimization during the past year and changes from the original CDR design are described. R ampersand D activities have focused primarily on the key technology areas of vacuum, RF, and feedback system design. Recent progress in these areas is described. The R ampersand D results have verified our design assumptions and provide further confidence in the design of PEP-II

  17. The Danish PEP registry: experience with the use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) following sexual exposure to HIV from 1998 to 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Suzanne; Katzenstein, Terese L; Kronborg, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) after sexual exposure to HIV reduce the risk of infection considerably. Since 1998 PEP after sexual HIV exposure within the preceding 24 hours, has been available in Denmark. PEP can only be prescribed at clinical...... centers with specialists experienced in HIV treatment. The objective of this study is to describe the use of PEP after sexual exposure from 1998 to 2006. METHODS: The Danish PEP registry collects data from all cases of PEP use in Denmark after exposure to HIV through a structured questionnaire. RESULTS......: There were 374 cases of PEP use after sexual exposure. The incidence increased from 5 cases in 1997 to 87 in 2006. PEP was used by heterosexuals (40%) as well as men who have sex with men (57%). The HIV-status of the source was unknown in 41% of the cases of which 90% involved a source belonging to a high...

  18. m6aViewer: software for the detection, analysis, and visualization of N6-methyladenosine peaks from m6A-seq/ME-RIP sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanaviciute, Agne; Baquero-Perez, Belinda; Watson, Christopher M; Harrison, Sally M; Lascelles, Carolina; Crinnion, Laura; Markham, Alexander F; Bonthron, David T; Whitehouse, Adrian; Carr, Ian M

    2017-10-01

    Recent methods for transcriptome-wide N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) profiling have facilitated investigations into the RNA methylome and established m 6 A as a dynamic modification that has critical regulatory roles in gene expression and may play a role in human disease. However, bioinformatics resources available for the analysis of m 6 A sequencing data are still limited. Here, we describe m6aViewer-a cross-platform application for analysis and visualization of m 6 A peaks from sequencing data. m6aViewer implements a novel m 6 A peak-calling algorithm that identifies high-confidence methylated residues with more precision than previously described approaches. The application enables data analysis through a graphical user interface, and thus, in contrast to other currently available tools, does not require the user to be skilled in computer programming. m6aViewer and test data can be downloaded here: http://dna2.leeds.ac.uk/m6a. © 2017 Antanaviciute et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  19. The PEP-II abort kicker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamare, J de; Donaldson, A.; Kulikov, A. Lipari, J.

    1997-07-01

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of electron beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 uS (the beam transit time around the time). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% in 370 nS. This report discusses the design of the system controls, interlocks, power supplies, and modulator

  20. Coherent x-rays from PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, S.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Tatchyn, R.; Winick, H.; Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.C.; Pellegrini, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a large-circumference, high-energy, electron-positron collider such as PEP to drive a free-electron laser (FEL), producing high levels of coherent power at short wavelengths. The author consider Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE), in which electron bunches with low emittance, high peak current and small energy spread radiate coherently in a single passthrough a long undulator. As the electron beam passes down the undulator, its interaction with the increasingly intense spontaneous radiation causes a bunch density modulation at the optical wavelength, resulting in stimulated emissional growth of coherent power in a single pass. The need for optical-cavity mirrors, which place a lower limit on the wavelength of a conventional FEL oscillator, is avoided. The authors explore various combinations of electron-beam and undulator parameters, as well as special undulator designs and optical klystrons (OK), to reach high average or peak coherent power at wavelengths around 40 angstrom by achieving significant exponential gain or full saturation. Examples are presented for devices that achieve high peak coherent power (up to about 400 MW) with lower average coherent power (about 20 mW) and other devices which produce a few watts of average coherent power

  1. Diagnosing the PEP-II Injection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.H.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, G.C.; Weaver, M.; /SLAC

    2005-05-09

    The injection of beam into the PEP-II B-Factory, especially into the High Energy Ring (HER) has some challenges. A high background level in the BaBar detector has for a while inhibited us from trickling charge into the HER similar to the Low Energy Ring (LER). Analyzing the injection system has revealed many issues which could be improved. The injection bump between two kickers was not closed, mainly because the phase advance wasn't exactly 180{sup o} and the two kicker strengths were not balanced. Additionally we found reflections which kick the stored beam after the main kick and cause the average luminosity to drop about 3% for a 10 Hz injection rate. The strength of the overall kick is nearly twice as high as the design, indicating a much bigger effective septum thickness. Compared with single beam the background is worse when the HER beam is colliding with the LER beam. This hints that the beam-beam force and the observed vertical blow-up in the HER pushes the beam and especially the injected beam further out to the edge of the dynamic aperture or beyond.

  2. Diagnosing the PEP-II Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.H.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, G.C.; Weaver, M.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The injection of beam into the PEP-II B-Factory, especially into the High Energy Ring (HER) has some challenges. A high background level in the BaBar detector has for a while inhibited us from trickling charge into the HER similar to the Low Energy Ring (LER). Analyzing the injection system has revealed many issues which could be improved. The injection bump between two kickers was not closed, mainly because the phase advance wasn't exactly 180 o and the two kicker strengths were not balanced. Additionally we found reflections which kick the stored beam after the main kick and cause the average luminosity to drop about 3% for a 10 Hz injection rate. The strength of the overall kick is nearly twice as high as the design, indicating a much bigger effective septum thickness. Compared with single beam the background is worse when the HER beam is colliding with the LER beam. This hints that the beam-beam force and the observed vertical blow-up in the HER pushes the beam and especially the injected beam further out to the edge of the dynamic aperture or beyond

  3. Implications of shorter cells in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1975-01-01

    Further studies on the beam-stay-clear requirements in PEP led to the conclusion that the vertical aperture needed to be enlarged. There are two main reasons for that: Observations at SPEAR indicate that the aperture should be large enough for a fully coupled beam. Full coupling of the horizontal and vertical betatron oscillations occurs not only occasionally when the energy, tune or betatron function at the interaction point is changed but also due to the beam/endash/beam effect of two strong colliding beams. The second reason for an increased aperture requirement is the nonlinear perturbation of the particle trajectories by the sextupoles. This perturbation increases a fully coupled beam by another 50% to 80%. Both effects together with a +-5 mm allowance for closed orbit perturbation result in a vertical beam-stay-clear in the bending magnets of +-4.8 to +-5.6 cm, compared to the present +-2.0 cm. This beam-stay-clear, together with additional space for vacuum chamber, etc., leads to very costly bending magnets. In this note, a shorter cell length is proposed which would reduce considerably the vertical beam-stay-clear requirements in the bending magnets. 7 figs

  4. The PEP electron-positron ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The first stage of the positron-electron-proton (PEP) colliding-beam system which has been under joint study by a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory-Stanford Linear Accelerator Center team for the past two years, will be the electron-positron storage ring. The physics justification for the e + e/sup minus/ ring is summarized briefly and the proposed facility is described. The ring will have six arcs having gross radii of about 220 m and six interaction regions located at the centers of straight sections about 130 m long. The longitudinal distance left free for experimental apparatus at the intersection regions will be 20 m. The range of operating beam energies will be from 5 GeV to 15 GeV. The design luminosity at 15 GeV will be 10 32 cm/sup minus 2/s/sup minus 1/, and the luminosity will vary approximately as the square of the beam energy. Alternative methods under consideration for adjusting the beam cross-section are discussed. The designs of the storage ring subsystems and of the conventional facilities including the experimental halls at the interaction regions are described

  5. M5 segment aneurysm presenting as "pure acute SDH"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous "pure acute subdural hematoma (SDH" is arguably a rare condition. We report on a pregnant female patient presenting as spontaneous acute SDH without subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH due to rupture of distal (M5 segment middle cerebral artery aneurysm. We hereby discuss the diagnostic dilemma of this rare condition, along with the need for watchful evaluation of acute SDH without preceding head injury presenting in emergency outpatient departments, especially when it is first encountered by a trainee resident.

  6. The PEP II injection kicker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, G.C.; Donaldson, A.R.; Williams, D.

    1997-07-01

    PEP II or the B Factory consists of two asymmetric storage rings. The injection energy for electrons is 9 GeV, while that for positrons is 3.1 GeV. The bend angle into the high energy ring (HER) is 0.35 m-rad, and the angle into the low energy ring (LER) is 0.575 m-rad. The magnetic length for the HER kicker is 0.85 m, and 0.55 m for the LER kicker. The field produced by the magnet is therefore 123.5 G for the HER, and 132 G for the LER. Each ring has a kicker magnet upstream of the injection line which is used to distort the orbit of the stored beam. An identical magnet downstream of the injection line is used to restore the orbit of the stored beam and inject the incoming beam. The two magnets are driven in parallel by the modulator. The apeture of the magnets is 3.86x3.46 cm (HxV). Therefore the current required to drive the HER is 863 A, while for the LER it is 756 A. The inductance of the magnet is approximately 1.4 uH/m. The current pulse is a critically damped sinusoid with a rise time of less than 300 ns. A kicker system has been designed which can be used for injection of both beams by varying the charge of voltage. The modulator uses a conjugate circuit to match the impedance of the magnet, and coupling to the beam chamber

  7. Seismomagnetic effects from the long-awaited 28 September 2004 M 6.0 parkfield earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Sasai, Y.; Egbert, G.D.; Mueller, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    , and this may have played a role in the final occurrence of the 28 September 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake. The absence of electric and magnetic field precursors for this, and other earthquakes with M 5-7.3 elsewhere in the San Andreas fault system, indicates useful prediction of damaging earthquakes seems unlikely using these electromagnetic data.

  8. A role for the membrane protein M6 in the Drosophila visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappia, María Paula; Bernabo, Guillermo; Billi, Silvia C; Frasch, Alberto C; Ceriani, María Fernanda; Brocco, Marcela Adriana

    2012-07-04

    Members of the proteolipid protein family, including the four-transmembrane glycoprotein M6a, are involved in neuronal plasticity in mammals. Results from our group previously demonstrated that M6, the only proteolipid protein expressed in Drosophila, localizes to the cell membrane in follicle cells. M6 loss triggers female sterility, which suggests a role for M6 in follicular cell remodeling. These results were the basis of the present study, which focused on the function and requirements of M6 in the fly nervous system. The present study identified two novel, tissue-regulated M6 isoforms with variable N- and C- termini, and showed that M6 is the functional fly ortholog of Gpm6a. In the adult brain, the protein was localized to several neuropils, such as the optic lobe, the central complex, and the mushroom bodies. Interestingly, although reduced M6 levels triggered a mild rough-eye phenotype, hypomorphic M6 mutants exhibited a defective response to light. Based on its ability to induce filopodium formation we propose that M6 is key in cell remodeling processes underlying visual system function. These results bring further insight into the role of M6/M6a in biological processes involving neuronal plasticity and behavior in flies and mammals.

  9. M6 membrane protein plays an essential role in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappia, María Paula; Brocco, Marcela Adriana; Billi, Silvia C; Frasch, Alberto C; Ceriani, María Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    We had previously shown that the transmembrane glycoprotein M6a, a member of the proteolipid protein (PLP) family, regulates neurite/filopodium outgrowth, hence, M6a might be involved in neuronal remodeling and differentiation. In this work we focused on M6, the only PLP family member present in Drosophila, and ortholog to M6a. Unexpectedly, we found that decreased expression of M6 leads to female sterility. M6 is expressed in the membrane of the follicular epithelium in ovarioles throughout oogenesis. Phenotypes triggered by M6 downregulation in hypomorphic mutants included egg collapse and egg permeability, thus suggesting M6 involvement in eggshell biosynthesis. In addition, RNAi-mediated M6 knockdown targeted specifically to follicle cells induced an arrest of egg chamber development, revealing that M6 is essential in oogenesis. Interestingly, M6-associated phenotypes evidenced abnormal changes of the follicle cell shape and disrupted follicular epithelium in mid- and late-stage egg chambers. Therefore, we propose that M6 plays a role in follicular epithelium maintenance involving membrane cell remodeling during oogenesis in Drosophila.

  10. StraPep: a structure database of bioactive peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Yin, Tailang; Xiao, Xuwen; He, Dan; Xue, Zhidong; Jiang, Xinnong; Wang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Bioactive peptides, with a variety of biological activities and wide distribution in nature, have attracted great research interest in biological and medical fields, especially in pharmaceutical industry. The structural information of bioactive peptide is important for the development of peptide-based drugs. Many databases have been developed cataloguing bioactive peptides. However, to our knowledge, database dedicated to collect all the bioactive peptides with known structure is not available yet. Thus, we developed StraPep, a structure database of bioactive peptides. StraPep holds 3791 bioactive peptide structures, which belong to 1312 unique bioactive peptide sequences. About 905 out of 1312 (68%) bioactive peptides in StraPep contain disulfide bonds, which is significantly higher than that (21%) of PDB. Interestingly, 150 out of 616 (24%) bioactive peptides with three or more disulfide bonds form a structural motif known as cystine knot, which confers considerable structural stability on proteins and is an attractive scaffold for drug design. Detailed information of each peptide, including the experimental structure, the location of disulfide bonds, secondary structure, classification, post-translational modification and so on, has been provided. A wide range of user-friendly tools, such as browsing, sequence and structure-based searching and so on, has been incorporated into StraPep. We hope that this database will be helpful for the research community. Database URL: http://isyslab.info/StraPep PMID:29688386

  11. Supersymmetric states in M5/M2 CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz

    2007-01-01

    We propose an exact, finite N formula for the partition function over 1/4 th BPS states in the conformal field theory on the world volume of N coincident M5 branes, and 1/8 th BPS states in the theory of N conincident M2 branes. We obtain our partition function by performing the radial quantization of the Coulomb Branches of these theories and rederive the same formula from the quantization of supersymmetric giant and dual giant gravitons in AdS 7 x S 4 and AdS 4 x S 7 . Our partition function is qualitatively similar to the analogous quantity in N = 4 Yang Mills. It reduces to the sum over supersymmetric multi gravitons at low energies, but deviates from this supergravity formula at energies that scale like a positive power of N

  12. Quiver tails and N=1 SCFTs from M5-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Prarit [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego,La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Bah, Ibrahima [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California,Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Maruyoshi, Kazunobu [California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Song, Jaewon [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego,La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We study a class of four-dimensional N=1 superconformal field theories obtained by wrapping M5-branes on a Riemann surface with punctures. We identify four-dimensional UV descriptions of the SCFTs corresponding to curves with a class of punctures. The quiver tails appearing in these UV descriptions differ significantly from their N=2 counterpart. We find a new type of object that we call the ‘Fan’. We show how to construct new N=1 superconformal theories using the Fan. Various dual descriptions for these SCFTs can be identified with different colored pair-of-pants decompositions. For example, we find an N=1 analog of Argyres-Seiberg duality for the SU(N) SQCD with 2N flavors. We also compute anomaly coefficients and superconformal indices for these theories and show that they are invariant under dualities.

  13. PEP-II RF System Operation and Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, P.

    2005-01-01

    The Low Energy Ring (LER) and High Energy Ring (HER) RF systems have operated now on PEP-II since July 1998 and have assisted in breaking all design luminosity records back in June 2001. Luminosity on PEP-II has steadily increased since then as a consequence of larger e+ and e- beam currents being accumulated. This has meant that the RF systems have inevitably been driven harder, not only to achieve these higher stored beam currents, but also to reliably keep the beams circulating whilst at the same time minimizing the number of aborts due to RF system faults. This paper details the current PEP-II RF system configurations for both rings, as well as future upgrade plans spanning the next 3-5 years. Limitations of the current RF system configurations are presented, highlighting improvement projects which will target specific areas within the RF systems to ensure that adequate operating overheads are maintained and reliable operation is assured. The Low Energy Ring (LER) and High Energy Ring (HER) RF systems have operated now on PEP-II since July 1998 and have assisted in breaking all design luminosity records back in June 2001. Luminosity on PEP-II has steadily increased since then as a consequence of larger e+ and e- beam currents being accumulated. This has meant that the RF systems have inevitably been driven harder, not only to achieve these higher stored beam currents, but also to reliably keep the beams circulating whilst at the same time minimizing the number of aborts due to RF system faults. This paper details the current PEP-II RF system configurations for both rings, as well as future upgrade plans spanning the next 3-5 years. Limitations of the current RF system configurations are presented, highlighting improvement projects which will target specific areas within the RF systems to ensure that adequate operating overheads are maintained and reliable operation is assured

  14. Nuclear physics at PEP: First test and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bibber, K.; Dietrich, F.S.; Melnikoff, S.O.

    1986-09-01

    A test run of internal target nuclear physics at the PEP storage ring is described. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC-2γ detector) was used to detect the inelastically scattered electron and complete hadronic final state in the interaction of 14.5 GeV electrons with D 2 , Ar and Xe gas targets. The data comprise mostly low-x low-Q 2 events, but some deep inelastic scattering as well. The future possibilities of a dedicated nuclear physics program at PEP are outlined. 15 refs., 25 figs

  15. An asymmetric Β-factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddone, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the motivation for building asymmetric B-factories based on storage rings and describes the current LBL/SLAC study to develop such a factory by modifying the PEP storage ring and adding a new low energy (2.5-3 GeV) storage ring. Collisions between the beam of the modified high energy PEP ring and the low energy ring lead to a luminosity of 2 x 10 33 cm- 2 sec - 1 at E cm = Y(4s) with currents of 0.8A in each beam. Further increases in current can lead to luminosities close to 10 34 cm - 2 sec - 1

  16. Plans for PEP survey and alignment: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.; Sah, R.

    1975-01-01

    This note discusses the current state of survey and alignment plans for PEP Stage I. Several surveying techniques are described; one is described in considerable detail. The survey and alignment task for PEP consists of positioning approximately 700 ring magnets, 100 injection line magnets, and 100 miscellaneous components. The alignment tolerances are tight and they are set by the requirement that closed orbit distortions must be small for proper storage ring operation. The alignment problem is aggravated by the circumstance that the storage ring components are placed in tunnels which span a large area (over 700 meters across) and which do not permit long lines of sight. 6 ref., 1 fig

  17. Preschool Children's Performance on Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Fiona E.; Smyth, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) has not been used widely to assess prosodic abilities of preschool children. This study was therefore aimed at investigating typically developing 4-year-olds' performance on PEPS-C. PEPS-C was presented to 30 typically developing 4-year-olds recruited in southern Ireland. Children were…

  18. Review of e+e- physics at PEP - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1982-10-01

    Results obtained at PEP by the MARK II, MAC and DELCO collaborations in the past year are reviewed. They include QED tests, measurements of tau lepton properties, charm and bottom fragmentation functions, scaling violations, energy correlations and the total hadronic cross section

  19. On setting magnets in the PEP beam-transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses magnets in the PEP beam-transport line. Topics discussed are: conditioning, direction of excitation, rate of excitation; determination of the excitation current for the principal bend magnets; steering mechanisms; bump magnets; and determination of excitation currents of the quadrupole magnets

  20. Measuring, calculating and estimating PEP's parasitic mode loss parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This note discusses various ways the parasitic mode losses from a bunched beam to a vacuum chamber can be measured, calculated or estimated. A listing of the parameter, k, for the various PEP ring components is included. A number of formulas for calculating multiple and single pass losses are discussed and evaluated for several cases. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. A missing-bending-magnet scheme for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, R.Z.; Winick, H.

    1988-01-01

    This article presents a missing-bending-magnet scheme for PEP as a modification that could be considered if PEP were available as a fully dedicated synchrotron radiation source. The scheme can be applied to one or more PEP sextants without changing the rest. By removing some bending magnets, rearranging the remaining magnets, and adding two quadrupoles, ten additional straight sections per sextant can be created, each 5 m or more in length, for insertion devices. Beam lines therefrom, plus possible beam lines from bending magnets would enter a continuous experimental hall instead of individual tunnels and halls for each beam line. This should result in construction cost savings and increased operations efficiency. The ideal beam orbit is unchanged at the two ends and the middle of the sextant. At the end of the curved part of the sextant the lattice functions match those of the long interaction region straight section in the low emittance configuration of PEP. The electron beam characteristics in the newly created straight sections are described, including the enlargement of the horizontal beam size due to the nonzero dispersion. Some disadvantages of the scheme are increased operations complexity due to the need for nine new quadrupole families, increased beam emittance (by 14.5% is one sextant is modified), and reduced dynamic aperture. However, the dynamic aperture is still about as large as the physical aperture and should be adequate for good beam lifetime and injection. (orig.)

  2. e sup + e sup - Factories: PEP-II, KEKB, DAPHINE

    CERN Document Server

    Guiducci, S

    2001-01-01

    In 1999 two B-factories, PEP-II and KEK, and a PHI-factory, DAPHINE, started their physics experiments. A status report of the three factories is presented. A description of the interaction regions, strongly influenced by the detector requirements, and of the machine background in the detectors is presented.

  3. Transverse instability excited by rf deflecting modes for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Yao, C.Y.

    1979-11-01

    We have looked at the possible transverse instability effects which are caused by the deflecting modes of the rf cavities in PEP. The results are obtained by applying the expression of the instability damping rate. We have assumed that there equal bunches equally spaced in PEP. We have worked out the equivalent for a single bunch beam. The effect of chromaticity ξ is included as a frequency shift in the bunch mode spectra. We rewrite this result in terms of the transverse wake field instead of the impedance. We include an application of the Sacherer formalism to the case of resistive wall. The resulting expression of the damping rate contains two terms. The first term corresponds to the effect of the short wake fields; it agrees with the result of the head-tail instability as derived by Sands. A numerical estimate of this resistive-wall head tail case for PEP is given. It re-confirms that the resistive wall instability is not a serious problem for PEP. The second term gives the effect of long wake fields and it agrees with the result of Courant and Sessler. 10 refs., 2 figs

  4. Preliminary design considerations for the stage 1 PEP lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.H.; Lee, M.J.

    1974-07-01

    A general description of the proposed PEP e + e - storage ring is discussed in the paper. We discuss the lattice and its operating characteristics in more detail, show how the design luminosity operative regions may be met and outline the limits of the operative regions of the beam parameters in several modes of operation. 18 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  5. Topology in quantum states. PEPS formalism and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik. Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1. D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cirac, J I [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik. Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1. D-85748 Garching (Germany); Vidal, G [School of Physical Sciences. University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    Topology has been proposed as a tool to protect quantum information encoding and processes. Work concerning the meaning of topology in quantum states as well as its characterisation in the projected entangled pair state (PEPS) formalism and related schemes is reviewed.

  6. FTO, m6 Am , and the hypothesis of reversible epitranscriptomic mRNA modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, Jan; Jaffrey, Samie R

    2018-05-12

    The fate of mRNA is regulated by epitranscriptomic nucleotide modifications, the most abundant of which is N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A). Although the pattern and distribution of m 6 A in mRNA is mediated by specific methyltransferases, a recent hypothesis is that specific demethylases or 'erasers' allow m 6 A to be dynamically reversed by signaling pathways. In this Review, we discuss the data in support and against this model. New insights into the function of fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO), the original enzyme thought to be an m 6 A eraser, reveal that its physiologic target is not m 6 A, but instead is N 6 ,2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m 6 A m ). Another m 6 A demethylase, ALKBH5, appears to have functions limited to sperm development in normal mice. Overall, the majority of the data suggest that m 6 A is generally not reversible, although m 6 A may be susceptible to demethylation in pathophysiological states such as cancer. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Diversity and wiring variability of visual local neurons in the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, An-Lun; Lin, Chih-Yung; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Dickson, Barry J; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2014-12-01

    Local neurons in the vertebrate retina are instrumental in transforming visual inputs to extract contrast, motion, and color information and in shaping bipolar-to-ganglion cell transmission to the brain. In Drosophila, UV vision is represented by R7 inner photoreceptor neurons that project to the medulla M6 stratum, with relatively little known of this downstream substrate. Here, using R7 terminals as references, we generated a 3D volume model of the M6 stratum, which revealed a retinotopic map for UV representations. Using this volume model as a common 3D framework, we compiled and analyzed the spatial distributions of more than 200 single M6-specific local neurons (M6-LNs). Based on the segregation of putative dendrites and axons, these local neurons were classified into two families, directional and nondirectional. Neurotransmitter immunostaining suggested a signal routing model in which some visual information is relayed by directional M6-LNs from the anterior to the posterior M6 and all visual information is inhibited by a diverse population of nondirectional M6-LNs covering the entire M6 stratum. Our findings suggest that the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum contains diverse LNs that form repeating functional modules similar to those found in the vertebrate inner plexiform layer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Osteolytic bone lesions – A rare presentation of AML M6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML M6 is a rare form of AML  accounting  for < 5 % of all AML.  Extramedullary involvement  is very rarely seen in this entity.  Skeletal lesion has not been described in AML M6 before. We discuss the case of  a 17 year old boy with AML M6 who presented with  osteolytic lesion of right humerus.  He was treated with  induction and consolidation chemotherapy. The present case is the first report in literature of AML M6 presenting with skeletal lesions.

  9. The Role of Dynamic m6 A RNA Methylation in Photobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Myles; Shah, Palak; Cui, Yan-Hong; He, Yu-Ying

    2018-05-04

    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) is the most abundant internal RNA modification among numerous post-transcriptional modifications identified in eukaryotic mRNA. m 6 A modification of RNA is catalyzed by the "writer" m 6 A methyltransferase enzyme complex, consisting of METTL3, METTL14, WTAP and KIAA1429. The m 6 A modification is reversible and can be removed by "eraser" m 6 A demethylase enzymes, namely, FTO and ALKBH5. The biological function of m 6 A modification on RNA is carried out by RNA-binding effector proteins called "readers." Varied functions of the reader proteins regulate mRNA metabolism by affecting stability, translation, splicing or nuclear export. The epitranscriptomic gene regulation by m 6 A RNA methylation regulates various pathways, which contribute to basic cellular processes essential for cell maintenance, development and cell fate, and affect response to external stimuli and stressors. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the regulation and function of m 6 A RNA methylation, with a focus on UV-induced DNA damage response and the circadian clock machinery. Insights into the mechanisms of m 6 A RNA regulation and post-transcriptional regulatory function in these biological processes may facilitate the development of new preventive and therapeutic strategies for various diseases related to dysregulation of UV damage response and circadian rhythm. © 2018 The American Society of Photobiology.

  10. Progress of the PEP-II B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fisher, A.; Fox, J.; Heifets, S.; Iverson, R.; Kozanecki, W.; Krejcik, P.; Kulikov, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Schuh, P.; Schwarz, H.; Stanek, M.; Sullivan, M.; Teytelman, D.; Turner, J.; Wienands, U.; Yan, Y.; Yocky, J.; Biagini, M.; Zisman, M.

    2003-01-01

    PEP-II is an e + e - B-Factory Collider located at SLAC operating at the Upsilon 4S resonance. PEP-II has delivered, over the past five years, an integrated luminosity to the BaBar detector of over 139 fb -1 and has reached a luminosity of 6.58 x 10 36 /cm 2 /s. Steady progress is being made in reaching higher luminosity. The goal over the next several years is to reach a luminosity of at least 2 x 10 34 /cm 2 /s. The accelerator physics issues being addressed in PEP-II to reach this goal include the electron cloud instability, beam-beam effects, parasitic beam-beam effects, high RF beam loading, shorter bunches, lower beta y*, interaction region operation, and coupling control. A view of the PEP-II tunnel is shown in Figure 1. The present parameters of the PEP-II B-Factory are shown in Table 1 compared to the design. The present peak luminosity is 219% of design and the best integrated luminosity per month is 7.4 fb -1 that is 225% of design. The best luminosity per month is shown in Figure 2. The integrated luminosity over a month is shown in Figure 3 and the total integrated luminosity in shown in Figure 4. The progress in luminosity has come from correcting the orbits, adding specific orbit bumps to correct coupling and dispersion issues, lowering the beta y* in the LER, and moving the fractional horizontal tunes in both rings to just above the half integer (<0.52)

  11. Holographic cosmology from a system of M2–M5 branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.sepehri@uk.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Setare, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir [Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: afali@fsu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we analyze the holographic cosmology using a M2–M5 brane configuration. In this configuration, a M2-brane will be placed in between a M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane. The M2-brane will act as a channel for energy to flow from an anti-M5-brane to a M5-brane, and this will increase the degrees of freedom on the M5-brane causing inflation. The inflation will end when the M5-brane and anti-M5-brane get separated. However, at a later stage the distance between the M5-brane and the anti-M5-bran can reduce and this will cause the formation of tachyonic states. These tachyonic states will again open a bridge between the M5-branes and the anti-M5-branes, which will cause further acceleration of the universe.

  12. Holographic cosmology from a system of M2–M5 branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Faizal, Mir; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the holographic cosmology using a M2–M5 brane configuration. In this configuration, a M2-brane will be placed in between a M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane. The M2-brane will act as a channel for energy to flow from an anti-M5-brane to a M5-brane, and this will increase the degrees of freedom on the M5-brane causing inflation. The inflation will end when the M5-brane and anti-M5-brane get separated. However, at a later stage the distance between the M5-brane and the anti-M5-bran can reduce and this will cause the formation of tachyonic states. These tachyonic states will again open a bridge between the M5-branes and the anti-M5-branes, which will cause further acceleration of the universe.

  13. The PEP [positron-electron-proton] electron-positron ring: PEP Stage I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    The first stage of the positron-electron-proton (PEP) colliding-beam system which has been under joint study by a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory-Stanford Linear Accelerator Center team for the past two years, will be the electron-positron storage ring. The physics justification for the e/sup /plus//e/sup /minus// ring is summarized briefly and the proposed facility is described. The ring will have six arcs having gross radii of about 220 m and six interaction regions located at the centers of straight sections about 130 m long. The longitudinal distance left free for experimental apparatus around the interaction regions will be 20 m. The range of operating beam energies will be from 5 GeV to 15 GeV. The design luminosity at 15 GeV will be 10 32 cm/sup /minus/2/s/sup/minus/1/, and the luminosity will vary approximately as the square of the beam energy. Alternative methods under consideration for adjusting the beam cross-section are discussed. The designs of the storage ring subsystems and of the conventional facilities including the experimental halls at the interaction regions are described. 7 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Isolation and characterization of PEP3, a gene required for vacuolar biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Preston, R A; Manolson, M F; Becherer, K; Weidenhammer, E; Kirkpatrick, D; Wright, R; Jones, E W

    1991-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PEP3 gene was cloned from a wild-type genomic library by complementation of the carboxypeptidase Y deficiency in a pep3-12 strain. Subclone complementation results localized the PEP3 gene to a 3.8-kb DNA fragment. The DNA sequence of the fragment was determined; a 2,754-bp open reading frame predicts that the PEP3 gene product is a hydrophilic, 107-kDa protein that has no significant similarity to any known protein. The PEP3 predicted protein has a zinc finger (CX...

  15. Transcallosal Projections Require Glycoprotein M6-Dependent Neurite Growth and Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Sakura; de Monasterio-Schrader, Patricia; Fünfschilling, Ursula; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Mizuno, Hidenobu; Iwasato, Takuji; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Werner, Hauke B; Hirata, Tatsumi

    2015-11-01

    The function of mature neurons critically relies on the developmental outgrowth and projection of their cellular processes. It has long been postulated that the neuronal glycoproteins M6a and M6b are involved in axon growth because these four-transmembrane domain-proteins of the proteolipid protein family are highly enriched on growth cones, but in vivo evidence has been lacking. Here, we report that the function of M6 proteins is required for normal axonal extension and guidance in vivo. In mice lacking both M6a and M6b, a severe hypoplasia of axon tracts was manifested. Most strikingly, the corpus callosum was reduced in thickness despite normal densities of cortical projection neurons. In single neuron tracing, many axons appeared shorter and disorganized in the double-mutant cortex, and some of them were even misdirected laterally toward the subcortex. Probst bundles were not observed. Upon culturing, double-mutant cortical and cerebellar neurons displayed impaired neurite outgrowth, indicating a cell-intrinsic function of M6 proteins. A rescue experiment showed that the intracellular loop of M6a is essential for the support of neurite extension. We propose that M6 proteins are required for proper extension and guidance of callosal axons that follow one of the most complex trajectories in the mammalian nervous system. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Regulatory Role of N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) Methylation in RNA Processing and Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenqiang; Ji, Xinying; Guo, Xiangqian; Ji, Shaoping

    2017-09-01

    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) modification is an abundant and conservative RNA modification in bacterial and eukaryotic cells. m 6 A modification mainly occurs in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and near the stop codons of mRNA. Diverse strategies have been developed for identifying m 6 A sites in single nucleotide resolution. Dynamic regulation of m 6 A is found in metabolism, embryogenesis, and developmental processes, indicating a possible epigenetic regulation role along RNA processing and exerting biological functions. It has been known that m 6 A editing involves in nuclear RNA export, mRNA degradation, protein translation, and RNA splicing. Deficiency of m 6 A modification will lead to kinds of diseases, such as obesity, cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), infertility, and developmental arrest. Some specific inhibitors against methyltransferase and demethylase have been developed to selectively regulate m 6 A modification, which may be advantageous for treatment of m 6 A related diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2534-2543, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The putative serine protease inhibitor Api m 6 from Apis mellifera venom: recombinant and structural evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Y; McIntyre, M; Ginglinger, H; Ollert, M; Cifuentes, L; Blank, S; Spillner, E

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated reactions to honeybee venom can cause severe anaphylaxis, sometimes with fatal consequences. Detailed knowledge of the allergic potential of all venom components is necessary to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of allergy and to gain a better understanding of the allergological mechanisms of insect venoms. Our objective was to undertake an immunochemical and structural evaluation of the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6, a component of honeybee venom. We recombinantly produced Api m 6 as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli and in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells.We also assessed specific IgE reactivity of venom-sensitized patients with 2 prokaryotically produced Api m 6 variants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, we built a structural model ofApi m 6 and compared it with other protease inhibitor structures to gain insights into the function of Api m 6. In a population of 31 honeybee venom-allergic patients, 26% showed specific IgE reactivity with prokaryotically produced Api m 6, showing it to be a minor but relevant allergen. Molecular modeling of Api m 6 revealed a typical fold of canonical protease inhibitors, supporting the putative function of this venom allergen. Although Api m 6 has a highly variant surface charge, its epitope distribution appears to be similar to that of related proteins. Api m 6 is a honeybee venom component with IgE-sensitizing potential in a fraction of venom-allergic patients. Recombinant Api m 6 can help elucidate individual component-resolved reactivity profiles and increase our understanding of immune responses to low-molecular-weight allergens

  18. Butyrate transcriptionally enhances peptide transporter PepT1 expression and activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Dalmasso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PepT1, an intestinal epithelial apical di/tripeptide transporter, is normally expressed in the small intestine and induced in colon during chronic inflammation. This study aimed at investigating PepT1 regulation by butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by commensal bacteria and accumulated inside inflamed colonocyte. RESULTS: We found that butyrate treatment of human intestinal epithelial Caco2-BBE cells increased human PepT1 (hPepT1 promoter activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with maximal activity observed in cells treated with 5 mM butyrate for 24 h. Under this condition, hPepT1 promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression levels were increased as assessed by luciferase assay, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. hPepT1 transport activity was accordingly increased by approximately 2.5-fold. Butyrate did not alter hPepT1 mRNA half-life indicating that butyrate acts at the transcriptional level. Molecular analyses revealed that Cdx2 is the most important transcription factor for butyrate-induced increase of hPepT1 expression and activity in Caco2-BBE cells. Butyrate-activated Cdx2 binding to hPepT1 promoter was confirmed by gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Moreover, Caco2-BBE cells overexpressing Cdx2 exhibited greater hPepT1 expression level than wild-type cells. Finally, treatment of mice with 5 mM butyrate added to drinking water for 24 h increased colonic PepT1 mRNA and protein expression levels, as well as enhanced PepT1 transport activity in colonic apical membranes vesicles. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results demonstrate that butyrate increases PepT1 expression and activity in colonic epithelial cells, which provides a new understanding of PepT1 regulation during chronic inflammation.

  19. PEP Run Report for Simulant Shakedown/Functional Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.

    2009-12-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes." The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3-8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration

  20. Collimation issues for the PEP-II B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.

    1997-12-01

    This note describes how beam collimation affects detector backgrounds at the collision point for the PEP-II B-factory, a joint effort of three laboratories: LBNL, LLNL, and SLAC. Beam collimation controls the transverse size as well as the maximum allowed energy spread of the beam. The location of synchrotron radiation masks is determined by the transverse size of the beam in that the masks must prevent radiation generated by beam particles located at large transverse beam positions from directly striking the detector beam pipe. Collimation of the energy spread of the beam is important in the control of backgrounds produced by beam particles that strike a gas molecule (lost beam particles). The author describes some preliminary information from background studies during the first months of commissioning the high energy ring of the PEP-II B-factory and present some model predictions for synchrotron radiation backgrounds when collimators are not present

  1. Hazard Analysis for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robin S.; Geeting, John GH; Lawrence, Wesley E.; Young, Jonathan

    2008-07-10

    The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is designed to perform a demonstration on an engineering scale to confirm the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and filtration process equipment design and sludge treatment process. The system will use scaled prototypic equipment to demonstrate sludge water wash, caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, and filtration. Unit operations to be tested include pumping, solids washing, chemical reagent addition and blending, heating, cooling, leaching, filtration, and filter cleaning. In addition, the PEP will evaluate potential design changes to the ultrafiltration process system equipment to potentially enhance leaching and filtration performance as well as overall pretreatment throughput. The skid-mounted system will be installed and operated in the Processing Development Laboratory-West at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  2. The Optical Design of the PEP-II Injection Beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Fieguth, T

    1996-01-01

    The optical design of the PEP-II electron and positron Injection Beamlines is described. Use of the existing high power, low emittance beams available from the SLC damping rings require that pulsed extraction of 9.0 GeV electrons and 3.1 GeV positrons for injection into the PEP-II rings occur in the early sectors of the accelerator. More than 5 kilometers of new beam transport lines have been designed and are being constructed to bring these beams to their respective rings. The optical design maximizes the tolerance to errors especially to those contributing to beam size and position jitter. Secondly, the design minimizes costs by utilizing existing components or component designs and minimizing the number required. Here we discuss important attributes including choice of lattice, specification of error tolerances, including errors in construction, alignment, field errors, power supply stability, and orbit correction.

  3. Design and performance of PEP dc-power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.

    1981-03-01

    The PEP Magnet Power Supply System represents a significant departure from previous technology with the goal of improved performance at lower cost. In nineteen of the magnet families around the ring, Chopper power supplies are used. The many choppers are powered from two 2 MW dc supplies, and control the average power to the various magnet loads by pulse-width modulation at a 2 kilohertz repetition rate. Each chopper utilizes SCR's for switching, and stores sufficient capacitive energy for turn-off on command. Most of the energy is recirculated, resulting in high-efficiency. The two kilohertz chopping rate allows a one kilohertz unity-gain bandwidth in the current-regulator loop, and this wide bandwidth, coupled with low drift components in the error-detection system, provides a high-performance system. The PEP system has also shown that the chopper system is economical compared to standard multi-pulse controlled-rectifier

  4. The PEP-II project-wide database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.; Calish, S.; Crane, G.; MacGregor, I.; Meyer, S.; Wong, J.

    1995-05-01

    The PEP-II Project Database is a tool for monitoring the technical and documentation aspects of this accelerator construction. It holds the PEP-II design specifications, fabrication and installation data in one integrated system. Key pieces of the database include the machine parameter list, magnet and vacuum fabrication data. CAD drawings, publications and documentation, survey and alignment data and property control. The database can be extended to contain information required for the operations phase of the accelerator and detector. Features such as viewing CAD drawing graphics from the database will be implemented in the future. This central Oracle database on a UNIX server is built using ORACLE Case tools. Users at the three collaborating laboratories (SLAC, LBL, LLNL) can access the data remotely, using various desktop computer platforms and graphical interfaces

  5. The Optical Design of the PEP-II Injection Beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieguth, Ted

    2003-05-23

    The optical design of the PEP-II electron and positron Injection Beamlines is described. Use of the existing high power, low emittance beams available from the SLC damping rings require that pulsed extraction of 9.0 GeV electrons and 3.1 GeV positrons for injection into the PEP-II rings occur in the early sectors of the accelerator. More than 5 kilometers of new beam transport lines have been designed and are being constructed to bring these beams to their respective rings. The optical design maximizes the tolerance to errors especially to those contributing to beam size and position jitter. Secondly, the design minimizes costs by utilizing existing components or component designs and minimizing the number required. Here we discuss important attributes including choice of lattice, specification of error tolerances, including errors in construction, alignment, field errors, power supply stability, and orbit correction.

  6. RF system design for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    The paper presents an overview of the design of the RF system for the PEP-II B Factory. An RF station consists of either two or four single-cell cavities driven by a 1.2 MW klystron through a waveguide distribution network. A variety of feedback loops stabilize the RF and its interaction with the beam. System parameters and all the relevant parameters of klystron and cavities are given

  7. Beam-beam depolarization in SPEAR and PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    In this note some approximate estimates are made of depolarization due to beam-beam forces in SPEAR and PEP, using the results of a calculation by Kondratenko. The model assumes head-on collisions between bunches of Gaussian distribution in the transverse directions; the force on the weak-beam particle is taken to be a δ-function at the interaction point. 1 ref

  8. An asymmetric B-meson factory at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garren, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chin, Y.; Oddone, P.; Zisman, M.S.; Donald, M.; Feldman, G.; Paterson, J.M.; Rees, J.

    1989-03-01

    A preliminary design for a B-factory has been made using asymmetric collisions between positrons in the PEP storage ring and electrons in a new, log-energy ring. The design utilizes small-aperture, permanent-magnet quadrupoles close to the interaction point (IP). Optimization of optical and beam parameters at the IP will be discussed, as well as the lattice design of the interaction region and of the rings. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. A first look at a polarimeter for EPIC or PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    A derivation of the resolution function is given in terms of machine parameters and detector resolution. A preliminary design is outlined for a pair spectrometer to detect high energy backscattered laser photons. A more careful examination is needed of the asymmetry as a function of resolution, of laser geometry and rates, and of problems associated with installing and using the system at PEP. 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Status of the PEP-II asymmetric B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattison, T.S.

    1994-11-01

    The PEP-II project is an e + e - storage ring complex with unequal energy beams to study CP violation in the B meson system. High luminosity requires a large number of bunches and a low value of beta at the collision point. The high beam current requires advances in vacuum chambers, damped RF cavities, and feedback systems. Machine elements inside the detector are required to achieve low beta values and magnetic separation

  11. PEP-II vacuum system pressure profile modeling using EXCEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordby, M.; Perkins, C.

    1994-06-01

    A generic, adaptable Microsoft EXCEL program to simulate molecular flow in beam line vacuum systems is introduced. Modeling using finite-element approximation of the governing differential equation is discussed, as well as error estimation and program capabilities. The ease of use and flexibility of the spreadsheet-based program is demonstrated. PEP-II vacuum system models are reviewed and compared with analytical models

  12. RF feedback simulation results for PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, R.; Corredoura, P.

    1995-06-01

    A model of the RF feedback system for PEP-II has been developed to provide time-domain simulation and frequency-domain analysis of the complete system. The model includes the longitudinal beam dynamics, cavity fundamental resonance, feedback loops, and the nonlinear klystron operating near saturation. Transients from an ion clearing gap and a reference phase modulation from the longitudinal feedback system are also studied. Growth rates are predicted and overall system stability examined

  13. RF feedback simulation for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, R.

    1994-06-01

    A model, of the beam and RF system for PEP-11 has been developed to allow both time-domain simulation and frequency-domain analysis of the complete system. The model includes the full set of feedback loops and nonlinear elements such as the beam and klystron. The model may be used to predict beam and feedback stability in the presence of nonlinearities through time-domain simulation as well as system frequency response about a given operating point

  14. Bunch-by-bunch feedback for PEP II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.; Claus, R.; Eisen, N.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Hoeflich, J.; Olsen, J.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Linscott, I.

    1993-01-01

    The proposed PEP II B factory at SLAC requires a feedback to damp out longitudinal synchrotron oscillations. A time domain, downsampled, bunch-by-bunch feedback system in which each bunch is treated as an oscillator being driven by disturbances from other bunches is presented as we review the evolution of the system design. Results from a synchrotron oscillation damping experiment conducted at the SLAC/SSRL/SPEAR ring are also presented in this paper

  15. Successful treatment of congenital acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M6) in a premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Joyce C A; Dalinghaus, Michiel; Kroon, Andre A; de Vries, Andrica C H; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2009-11-01

    Congenital acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and especially AML-M6 is a rare disease with a poor prognosis. Moreover, reports of treatment outcome of congenital AML-M6 in premature infants are not available. We report the first treated case of congenital AML-M6 in a premature girl, who received a full AML protocol. She presented with blueberry-muffin spots, anemia, high white blood cell count, and serious cardiopulmonary distress. Peripheral blood smears showed AML-M6 blasts. After treatment with a sequential low-dose cytarabine after birth and full-dose AML treatment according to the MRC-12 protocol at the age of 2 months, she now is in continuous complete remission for 4 years.

  16. Engineering of a DNA Polymerase for Direct m6 A Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Joos; Werner, Stephan; Marchand, Virginie; Adam, Martina; Motorin, Yuri; Helm, Mark; Marx, Andreas

    2018-01-08

    Methods for the detection of RNA modifications are of fundamental importance for advancing epitranscriptomics. N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) is the most abundant RNA modification in mammalian mRNA and is involved in the regulation of gene expression. Current detection techniques are laborious and rely on antibody-based enrichment of m 6 A-containing RNA prior to sequencing, since m 6 A modifications are generally "erased" during reverse transcription (RT). To overcome the drawbacks associated with indirect detection, we aimed to generate novel DNA polymerase variants for direct m 6 A sequencing. Therefore, we developed a screen to evolve an RT-active KlenTaq DNA polymerase variant that sets a mark for N 6 -methylation. We identified a mutant that exhibits increased misincorporation opposite m 6 A compared to unmodified A. Application of the generated DNA polymerase in next-generation sequencing allowed the identification of m 6 A sites directly from the sequencing data of untreated RNA samples. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. Luminosity upgrade possibilities for the PEP-II B-Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, M

    2003-01-01

    PEP-II is an asymmetric e sup + e sup - collider being constructed in the SLAC PEP tunnel by SLAC, LBNL, and LLNL. The two beams have energies of 3.1 GeV and 9.0 GeV and are made to collide at a single interaction point. PEP-II has a 2200 m circumference. The nominal parameters for PEP-II are listed in Table 1. The High Energy Ring (HER) of PEP-II started commissioning in 1997. The Low Energy Ring (LER) will be commissioned in the summer of 1998. The BaBar detector is to be installed starting January 1999. Studies for increasing the luminosity in PEP-II beyond the design are underway. A brief summary of the possibilities are presented here. Improvements to the integrated luminosity will be implemented gradually. Major luminosity improvements will likely come in two phased upgrades. Several of these possibilities are summarized in Table 1.

  18. LUMINOSITY UPGRADE POSSIBILITIES FOR THE PEP-II B-FACTORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Michael K

    2003-01-01

    PEP-II is an asymmetric e + e - collider being constructed in the SLAC PEP tunnel by SLAC, LBNL, and LLNL. The two beams have energies of 3.1 GeV and 9.0 GeV and are made to collide at a single interaction point. PEP-II has a 2200 m circumference. The nominal parameters for PEP-II are listed in Table 1. The High Energy Ring (HER) of PEP-II started commissioning in 1997. The Low Energy Ring (LER) will be commissioned in the summer of 1998. The BaBar detector is to be installed starting January 1999. Studies for increasing the luminosity in PEP-II beyond the design are underway. A brief summary of the possibilities are presented here. Improvements to the integrated luminosity will be implemented gradually. Major luminosity improvements will likely come in two phased upgrades. Several of these possibilities are summarized in Table 1

  19. An m6A-YTH Module Controls Developmental Timing and Morphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Hernández, Laura; Bressendorff, Simon; Hansen, Mathias Henning; Poulsen, Christian; Erdmann, Susanne; Brodersen, Peter

    2018-04-11

    Methylation of N6-adenosine (m6A) in mRNA is an important post-transcriptional gene regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes. m6A provides a binding site for effector proteins ("readers") that influence pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA degradation or translational efficiency. YT521-B homology (YTH) domain proteins are important m6A readers with established functions in animals. Plants contain more YTH domain proteins than other eukaryotes, but their biological importance remains unknown. Here, we show that the cytoplasmic Arabidopsis thaliana YTH domain proteins EVOLUTIONARILY CONSERVED C-TERMINAL REGION2/3 (ECT2/3) are required for the correct timing of leaf formation and for normal leaf morphology. These functions depend fully on intact m6A binding sites of ECT2 and ECT3, indicating that they function as m6A readers. Mutation of the close ECT2 homolog, ECT4, enhances the delayed leaf emergence and leaf morphology defects of ect2/ect3 mutants, and all three ECT proteins are expressed at leaf formation sites in the shoot apex of young seedlings and in the division zone of developing leaves. ECT2 and ECT3 are also highly expressed at early stages of trichome development and are required for trichome morphology, as previously reported for m6A itself. Overall, our study establishes the relevance of a cytoplasmic m6A-YTH regulatory module in the timing and execution of plant organogenesis. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  20. The Ustilago maydis effector Pep1 suppresses plant immunity by inhibition of host peroxidase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hemetsberger

    Full Text Available The corn smut Ustilago maydis establishes a biotrophic interaction with its host plant maize. This interaction requires efficient suppression of plant immune responses, which is attributed to secreted effector proteins. Previously we identified Pep1 (Protein essential during penetration-1 as a secreted effector with an essential role for U. maydis virulence. pep1 deletion mutants induce strong defense responses leading to an early block in pathogenic development of the fungus. Using cytological and functional assays we show that Pep1 functions as an inhibitor of plant peroxidases. At sites of Δpep1 mutant penetrations, H₂O₂ strongly accumulated in the cell walls, coinciding with a transcriptional induction of the secreted maize peroxidase POX12. Pep1 protein effectively inhibited the peroxidase driven oxidative burst and thereby suppresses the early immune responses of maize. Moreover, Pep1 directly inhibits peroxidases in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. Using fluorescence complementation assays, we observed a direct interaction of Pep1 and the maize peroxidase POX12 in vivo. Functional relevance of this interaction was demonstrated by partial complementation of the Δpep1 mutant defect by virus induced gene silencing of maize POX12. We conclude that Pep1 acts as a potent suppressor of early plant defenses by inhibition of peroxidase activity. Thus, it represents a novel strategy for establishing a biotrophic interaction.

  1. The Danish PEP registry: experience with the use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) following sexual exposure to HIV from 1998 to 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Suzanne; Katzenstein, Terese L; Kronborg, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    centers with specialists experienced in HIV treatment. The objective of this study is to describe the use of PEP after sexual exposure from 1998 to 2006. METHODS: The Danish PEP registry collects data from all cases of PEP use in Denmark after exposure to HIV through a structured questionnaire. RESULTS......: There were 374 cases of PEP use after sexual exposure. The incidence increased from 5 cases in 1997 to 87 in 2006. PEP was used by heterosexuals (40%) as well as men who have sex with men (57%). The HIV-status of the source was unknown in 41% of the cases of which 90% involved a source belonging to a high...... risk group, and 63% involved exposure by receptive anal intercourse. PEP was administered within 24 hours in 95% of the cases and the median time to initiation (N = 225) was 11.0 hours (range 0.5-60.0). PEP was completed by 65%. CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study showed a steady but moderate increase...

  2. Structure and stability of M6N8 clusters (M = Si, Ge, Sn, Ti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, Elena I; Timoshkin, Alexey Y; Frenking, Gernot

    2010-06-10

    The structures and stabilities of the M(6)N(8) clusters (M = Si, Ge, Sn, Ti) have been theoretically studied at DFT and ab initio levels of theory. Two new isomers have been considered: cage-like molecules and propeller-like molecules. It is shown that only for M = Si are both isomers true minima on the potential energy surface. The thermodynamics of the dissociation process (1/6)M(6)N(8) --> (1/3)M(3)N(4) is discussed. For each M(3)N(4) molecule, four structures with different multiplicity are considered. The thermodynamic analysis shows that independently of the multiplicity of M(3)N(4) nitrides all M(6)N(8) clusters are stable in the gas phase in a wide temperature range and could be potential intermediates in chemical vapor deposition of the nitride materials.

  3. Transmembrane helix M6 in sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase forms a functional interaction site with phospholamban. Evidence for physical interactions at other sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, M; Kimura, Y; Kurzydlowski, K; Tada, M; MacLennan, D H

    1999-11-12

    In an earlier study (Kimura, Y., Kurzydlowski, K., Tada, M., and MacLennan, D. H. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 15061-15064), mutation of amino acids on one face of the phospholamban (PLN) transmembrane helix led to loss of PLN inhibition of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) molecules. This helical face was proposed to form a site of PLN interaction with a transmembrane helix in SERCA molecules. To determine whether predicted transmembrane helices M4, M5, M6, or M8 in SERCA1a interact with PLN, SERCA1a mutants were co-expressed with wild-type PLN and effects on Ca(2+) dependence of Ca(2+) transport were measured. Wild-type inhibitory interactions shifted apparent Ca(2+) affinity of SERCA1a by an average of -0.34 pCa units, but four of the seven mutations in M4 led to a more inhibitory shift in apparent Ca(2+) affinity, averaging -0.53 pCa units. Seven mutations in M5 led to an average shift of -0.32 pCa units and seven mutations in M8 led to an average shift of -0.30 pCa units. Among 11 mutations in M6, 1, Q791A, increased the inhibitory shift (-0.59 pCa units) and 5, V795A (-0.11), L802A (-0.07), L802V (-0.04), T805A (-0.11), and F809A (-0.12), reduced the inhibitory shift, consistent with the view that Val(795), Leu(802), Thr(805), and Phe(809), located on one face of a predicted M6 helix, form a site in SERCA1a for interaction with PLN. Those mutations in M4, M6, or M8 of SERCA1a that enhanced PLN inhibitory function did not enhance PLN physical association with SERCA1a, but mutants V795A and L802A in M6, which decreased PLN inhibitory function, decreased physical association, as measured by co-immunoprecipitation. In related studies, those PLN mutants that gained inhibitory function also increased levels of co-immunoprecipitation of wild-type SERCA1a and those that lost inhibitory function also reduced association, correlating functional interaction sites with physical interaction sites. Thus, both functional and physical data confirm that PLN

  4. Fabrication process for the PEP II RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, R.M.; Rimmer, R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Schwarz, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1997-06-05

    This paper presents the major steps used in the fabrication of the 26 RF Cavities required for the PEP-II B-factory. Several unique applications of conventional processes have been developed and successfully implemented: electron beam welding (EBW), with minimal porosity, of .75 inch (19 mm) copper cross-sections; extensive 5-axis milling of water channels; electroplating of .37 inch (10 mm) thick OFE copper; tuning of the cavity by profiling beam noses prior to final joining with the cavity body; and machining of the cavity interior, are described here.

  5. RF feedback development for the PEP-II B Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corredoura, P.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Tighe, R.

    1994-06-01

    In PEP-II heavy beam loading along with a relatively long revolution period combine to strongly drive lower coupled-bunch modes through interaction with the fundamental cavity mode. Feedback techniques can be applied to reduce the cavity impedance seen by the beam. Several RF feedback loops are planned to reduce the growth rates down to a level which can be damped by the relatively low power bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system. This paper describes the RF feedback loops as well as hardware tests using a 500 kW klystron, analog and digital feedback loops, and a low power test cavity.

  6. Numerical simulation of the PEP-II beam position monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, N; Martin, D; Ng, C -K; Smith, S [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Weiland, T

    1996-08-01

    We use MAFIA to analyze the PEP-II button-type beam position monitor (BPM). Employing proper termination of the BPM into a coaxial cable, the output signal at the BPM is determined. Thus the issues of signal sensitivity and power output can be addressed quantitatively, including all transient effects and wakefields. Besides this first quantitative analysis of a true BPM 3D structure, we find that internal resonant modes are a major source of high value narrow-band impedances. The effects of these resonances on coupled-bunch instabilities are discussed. An estimate of the power dissipation in the ceramic vacuum seal under high current operation is given. (author)

  7. Impedance of the PEP-II DIP screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C -K [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Weiland, T

    1996-08-01

    The vacuum chamber of a storage ring normally consists of periodically spaced pumping slots. The longitudinal impedance of slots are analyzed in this paper. It is found that although the broad-band impedance is tolerable, the narrow-band impedance, as a consequence of the periodicity of the slots, may exceed the stability limit given by natural damping with no feedback system on. Based on this analysis, the PEP-II distributed-ion-pump (DIP) screen uses long grooves with hidden holes cut halfway to reduce both the broad-band and narrow-band impedances. (author)

  8. A proposed orbit and vertical dispersion correction system for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, E.; Cornacchia, M.; King, A.S.; Lee, M.J.

    1978-07-01

    The proposed arrangement of position monitors and dipole magnets for the closed orbit correction system in PEP is described. The computer code ALIGN, which simulates and corrects closed orbit displacements, has been used to study the most effective layout of monitors and correctors. The vertical dispersion function has been computed before and after closed orbit correction. The results indicate that the residual vertical dispersion after the orbit is corrected could exceed the tolerable values. A correction procedure for the vertical dispersion has been studied with the compute code CO-OP and this scheme of correction has been verified experimentally in SPEAR. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Numerical simulation of the PEP-II beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, N.; Martin, D.; Ng, C.K.; Smith, S.; Weiland, T.

    1995-09-01

    The authors use MAFIA to analyze the PEP-II button-type beam position monitor (BPM). Employing proper termination of the BPM into a coaxial cable, the output signal at the BPM is determined. Thus the issues of signal sensitivity and power output can be addressed quantitatively, including all transient effects and wakefields. Besides this first quantitative analysis of a true BPM 3D structure, they find that internal resonant modes are a major-source of high value narrow-band impedances. The effects of these resonances on coupled-bunch instabilities are discussed. An estimate of the power dissipation in the ceramic vacuum seal under high current operation is given

  10. Impedance of the PEP-II DIP screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.K.; Weiland, T.

    1995-09-01

    The vacuum chamber of a storage ring normally consists of periodically spaced pumping slots. The longitudinal impedance of slots are analyzed in this paper. It is found that although the broad-band impedance is tolerable, the narrow-band impedance, as a consequence of the periodicity of the slots, may exceed the stability limit given by natural damping with no feedback system on. Based on this analysis, the PEP-II distributed-ion-pump (DIP) screen uses long grooves with hidden holes cut halfway to reduce both the broad-band and narrow-band impedances

  11. Study of Beam-Beam Effects at PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narsky, I

    2004-01-01

    Using a self-consistent three-dimensional simulation running on parallel supercomputers, we have modeled the beam-beam interaction at the PEP-II asymmetric e + e - collider. To provide guidance for luminosity improvement, we scanned the tunes and currents in both rings and computed their impact on the luminosity and transverse beam sizes. We also studied the effects of colliding the beams with a small crossing angle. Where possible, the code was benchmarked against experimental measurements of luminosity and beam sizes, yielding an acceptable agreement

  12. RF feedback development for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corredoura, P.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Tighe, R.

    1994-06-01

    In PEP-II heavy beam loading along with a relatively long revolution period combine to strongly drive lower coupled-bunch modes through interaction with the fundamental cavity mode. Feedback techniques can be applied to reduce the cavity impedance seen by the beam. Several RF feedback loops are planned to reduce the growth rates down to a level which can be damped by the relatively low power bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system. This paper describes the RF feedback loops as well as hardware tests using a 500 kW klystron, analog and digital feedback loops, and a low power test cavity

  13. Acute erythremic myelosis (true erythroleukaemia): a variant of AML FAB-M6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasserjian, R P; Howard, J; Wood, A; Henry, K; Bain, B

    2001-03-01

    Classic erythroleukaemia (acute myeloid leukaemia M6, or M6 AML) is defined as an excess of myeloblasts in an erythroid predominant background. Leukaemia variants in which the primitive blast cells are demonstrably erythroid are extremely rare and poorly characterised. Variably referred to as "true erythroleukaemia" or "acute erythremic myelosis", they are often included within the M6 AML category even though they do not meet strict criteria for this type of AML. Two cases of acute erythroid neoplasia are presented with clinical, morphological, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic analysis. Both patients presented with profound anaemia, one in a setting of long standing myelodysplasia. Bone marrow examination revealed a predominant population of highly dysplastic erythroid cells in both cases. In one case, the liver was infiltrated by neoplastic erythroid cells. Both patients died within four months of diagnosis. This report illustrates that cases of acute leukaemia occur in which the dominant neoplastic cell is a primitive erythroid cell without an accompanying increase in myeloblasts. This does not preclude the neoplastic clone originating in a multipotent haemopoietic stem cell, as suggested by cases arising in patients with myelodysplasia. Acute erythremic myelosis should be recognised as a distinct variant of M6 AML.

  14. Genome Sequence of Selenium-Solubilizing Bacterium Caulobacter vibrioides T5M6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yihua; Qin, Yanan; Kot, Witold

    2016-01-01

    Caulobacter vibrioides T5M6 is a Gram-negative strain that strongly solubilizes selenium (Se) mineral into Se(IV) and was isolated from a selenium mining area in Enshi, southwest China. This strain produces the phytohormone IAA and promotes plant growth. Here we present the genome of this strain...

  15. Characteristics of gravity fields in the Jinggu M6.6 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Shaoan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of high-precision gravity data obtained from recent studies and the regional gravity network for Yunnan province, a variation in the regional gravity field was identified before the occurrence of the Yunnan Jinggu M6. 6 earthquake.

  16. M6: A diploid potato inbred line for use in breeding and genetics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    M6 is a vigorous, homozygous breeding line derived by self-pollinating the diploid wild potato relative Solanum chacoense for seven generations. While most wild Solanum species are self-incompatible, this clone is homozygous for the dominant self-incompatibility inhibitor gene Sli. It is homozygous ...

  17. Proteomic analysis of Mortierella isabellina M6-22 during cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Binbin; Luo, Minzhou; Ji, Xiuling; Lin, Lianbing; Wei, Yunlin; Zhang, Qi

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to gain a better understanding of cold adaption in Mortierella isabellina M6-22 by using proteomics approaches. The temperature range and optimal temperature for M6-22 growth were investigated, and composition changes in fatty acids were analyzed. Accompanied with the 2-D gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis was conducted to characterize alterations in protein profiling in M6-22 cultured at 30 °C for 24 h and 15 °C for another 24 h when compared with those cultured at 30 °C for 48 h. Gene Ontology (GO) cluster analysis was finally conducted for successfully identified proteins. M6-22 cells could grow well at temperatures ranging from 15 to 30 °C. As temperature decreased from 30 to 15 °C, LA and GLA significantly increased from 11.63 to 17.85 % and from 9.12 to 13.19 %, respectively, while oleic acid significantly decreased from 47.25 to 36.53 %. Proteomics analyses revealed 111 differentially expressed protein spots, among which 5 unique proteins (A38, A40, A47, A49 and A58), 29 up-regulated proteins and 10 down-regulated proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. GO enrichment analysis demonstrated that these proteins mainly involved in glycolytic pathway (A34 and A50), electron transport (A28), ATP production (A35 and B39) and protein modification (A38). A total of 44 differentially expressed proteins have been successfully identified in M. isabellina M6-22 cultured at 15 °C. These proteins may play important roles in cold adaption via regulation of ATP synthesis, activation of cold-adaptive proteins, degradation of needless protein, accumulation of PUFAs, etc.

  18. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 9: PEP design, development and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A plan for the production of two PEP flight systems is defined. The task's milestones are described. Provisions for the development and assembly of new ground support equipment required for both testing and launch operations are included.

  19. Progress on PEP-II magnet power conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellomo, P.; Genova, L.; Jackson, T.; Shimer, D.

    1996-01-01

    The various power systems for supplying the PEP-II DC magnets rely exclusively on switchmode conversion, utilizing a variety of means depending on the requirements. All of the larger power supplies, ranging from 10 to 200 kW, are powered from DC sources utilizing rectified 480 V AC. Choppers can be used for the series connected strings, but for smaller groups and individual magnets, inverters driving high-frequency transformers with rectifiers comprise the best approach. All of the various systems use a ''building block'' approach of multiple standard-size units connected in series or parallel to most cost-effectively deal with a great range of voltage and current requirements. Utilization of existing infrastructure from PEP-I has been a cost-effective determinant. Equipment is being purchased either off-the-shelf, through performance specification, or by hardware purchase based on design-through-prototype. The corrector magnet power system, utilizing inexpensive, off-the-shelf, four-quadrant switching motor-controllers, has already proven very reliable: 120 of the total of 900 units have been running on the injection system for four months with no failures

  20. PEP-II Beta Beat Fixes with MIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y

    2004-01-01

    We first find a virtual accelerator for the HER or the LER through determination of all quadrupole strengths and sextupole feed-downs as well as all BPM gains and BPM cross-plane couplings by an SVD-enhanced Least-squares fitting of the quantities derivable from a complete set of orbits. These quantities are the phase advances, the Green's functions, and the tilt angles and axis ratios of the coupling eigen ellipses. They are obtained by analyzing turn-by-turn Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data with a high-resolution model-independent analysis (MIA). Once the virtual accelerator is found, we select a limited number of key quadrupoles, for example, the linear trombone quadrupoles and the global skews, for Least-square fitting of their strengths to minimize the beta beat while keeping other optics characters unchanged if not improved. We then dial in these limited number of quadrupole strength changes to the real accelerator (HER or LER) to achieve a better-performance PEP-II. Noticeable achievement by this MIA technique has been that MIA has helped PEP-II achieve its breaking record peak luminosity of 6.5 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 in 2003 by bringing the LER working tune to near half integer and simultaneously fixing the beta beat, which would, otherwise, be difficult without MIA because of the strong LER coupling effect

  1. Progress on PEP-II magnet power conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellomo, P.; Genova, L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Jackson, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Shimer, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-06-04

    The various power systems for supplying the PEP-II DC magnets rely exclusively on switchmode conversion, utilizing a variety of means depending on the requirements. All of the larger power supplies, ranging from 10 to 200 kW, are powered from DC sources utilizing rectified 480 V AC. Choppers can be used for the series connected strings, but for smaller groups and individual magnets, inverters driving high-frequency transformers with rectifiers comprise the best approach. All of the various systems use a ``building block`` approach of multiple standard-size units connected in series or parallel to most cost-effectively deal with a great range of voltage and current requirements. Utilization of existing infrastructure from PEP-I has been a cost-effective determinant. Equipment is being purchased either off-the-shelf, through performance specification, or by hardware purchase based on design-through-prototype. The corrector magnet power system, utilizing inexpensive, off-the-shelf, four-quadrant switching motor-controllers, has already proven very reliable: 120 of the total of 900 units have been running on the injection system for four months with no failures.

  2. Background sources and masks for Mark II detector at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyk, J.

    1981-06-01

    The shielding masks currently at use in several of the current experiments at PEP are the result of an early organized effort to understand the sources of particle background expected at PEP, followed by the evolution of the conceptual designs into actual hardware. The degree and kind of background particle loading which could be tolerated was expected to differ significantly among the different experiments, and several designs emerged from the common study. Qualitatively, the types of radiations studied were, Synchrotron Radiation (SR), Beam Gas Bremsstrahlung (BGB), and, to a limited extent others, e.g., Electroproduction (EP). Calculations will be given of predicted occupancies in the pipe counter and other sensitive elements at small radius, since these will be most susceptible to the SR and BGB backgrounds. The calculations presented in this note are specific to the Mark II detector. Some general statements will be made first about the character of each of the various types of backgrounds considered, then some detailed calculations made for application to the Mark II detector

  3. Optimization of Dynamic Aperture of PEP-X Baseline Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC; Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC

    2010-08-23

    SLAC is developing a long-range plan to transfer the evolving scientific programs at SSRL from the SPEAR3 light source to a much higher performing photon source. Storage ring design is one of the possibilities that would be housed in the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel. The design goal of PEPX storage ring is to approach an optimal light source design with horizontal emittance less than 100 pm and vertical emittance of 8 pm to reach the diffraction limit of 1-{angstrom} x-ray. The low emittance design requires a lattice with strong focusing leading to high natural chromaticity and therefore to strong sextupoles. The latter caused reduction of dynamic aperture. The dynamic aperture requirement for horizontal injection at injection point is about 10 mm. In order to achieve the desired dynamic aperture the transverse non-linearity of PEP-X is studied. The program LEGO is used to simulate the particle motion. The technique of frequency map is used to analyze the nonlinear behavior. The effect of the non-linearity is tried to minimize at the given constrains of limited space. The details and results of dynamic aperture optimization are discussed in this paper.

  4. Optimization of Dynamic Aperture of PEP-X Baseline Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Min-Huey

    2010-01-01

    SLAC is developing a long-range plan to transfer the evolving scientific programs at SSRL from the SPEAR3 light source to a much higher performing photon source. Storage ring design is one of the possibilities that would be housed in the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel. The design goal of PEPX storage ring is to approach an optimal light source design with horizontal emittance less than 100 pm and vertical emittance of 8 pm to reach the diffraction limit of 1-(angstrom) x-ray. The low emittance design requires a lattice with strong focusing leading to high natural chromaticity and therefore to strong sextupoles. The latter caused reduction of dynamic aperture. The dynamic aperture requirement for horizontal injection at injection point is about 10 mm. In order to achieve the desired dynamic aperture the transverse non-linearity of PEP-X is studied. The program LEGO is used to simulate the particle motion. The technique of frequency map is used to analyze the nonlinear behavior. The effect of the non-linearity is tried to minimize at the given constrains of limited space. The details and results of dynamic aperture optimization are discussed in this paper.

  5. An Orbit And Dispersion Correction Scheme for the PEP II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Donald, M.; Shoaee, H.; White, G.; Yasukawa, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    To achieve optimum luminosity in a storage ring it is vital to control the residual vertical dispersion. In the original PEP storage ring, a scheme to control the residual dispersion function was implemented using the ring orbit as the controlling element. The 'best' orbit not necessarily giving the lowest vertical dispersion. A similar scheme has been implemented in both the on-line control code and in the simulation code LEGO. The method involves finding the response matrices (sensitivity of orbit/dispersion at each Beam-Position-Monitor (BPM) to each orbit corrector) and solving in a least squares sense for minimum orbit, dispersion function or both. The optimum solution is usually a subset of the full least squares solution. A scheme of simultaneously correcting the orbits and dispersion has been implemented in the simulation code and on-line control system for PEP-II. The scheme is based on the eigenvector decomposition method. An important ingredient of the scheme is to choose the optimum eigenvectors that minimize the orbit, dispersion and corrector strength. Simulations indicate this to be a very effective way to control the vertical residual dispersion.

  6. Optimizing the injection straight of PEP II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Bloom, E.; Davies-White, W.; Donald, M.; Fairfield, K.; Fieguth, T.; Godfrey, G.; Holtzapple, R.; Hutton, A.; Loew, G.; Miller, R.; Sukiennicki, B.; Wen, H.; Ronan, M.

    1992-04-01

    The asymmetric energy PEP II B Factory proposed as an upgrade of PEP at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center requires both a powerful low emittance source of e - e + and a very reliable and efficient injection system. The SLC linac fulfills the source requirement very well. We describe here the optimization of the optics of the injection straight to insure reliable and efficient injection

  7. PEP cooling water systems and underground piped utilities design criteria report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, F.; Robbins, D.

    1975-10-01

    This paper discusses the cooling systems required by the PEP Storage Ring. Particular topics discussed are: Cooling tower systems, RF cavity and vacuum chamber LCW cooling systems, klystron and ring magnet LLW cooling systems, Injection magnet LCW Cooling Systems; PEP interaction area detector LCW Cooling Systems; and underground piped utilities. 1 ref., 20 figs

  8. Problems in obtaining polarized e+ and e- beams and perspectives for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1980-09-01

    A matrix formalism for polarization calculation, as well as its comparison with other methods, is briefly discussed. The prediction for SPEAR is compared with experimental measurements. An estimate is offered for the transverse polarization for PEP. Various schemes for obtaining the longitudinal polarization in PEP are studied

  9. Optimizing the injection straight of PEP II asymmetric B factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Bloom, E.; Davies-White, W.; Donald, M.; Fairfield, K.; Fieguth, T.; Godfrey, G.; Holtzapple, R.; Hutton, A.; Loew, G.; Miller, R.; Sukiennicki, B.; Wen, H.

    1992-01-01

    The asymmetric energy PEP II B Factory proposed as an upgrade of PEP at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center requires both a powerful low emittance source of e - e + and a very reliable and efficient injection system. The SLC linac fulfills the source requirement very well. We describe here the optimization of the optics of the injection straight to insure reliable and efficient injection

  10. Evolutionary divergence of the plant elicitor peptides (Peps) and their receptors: interfamily incompatibility of perception but compatibility of downstream signalling

    KAUST Repository

    Lori, M.; van Verk, M. C.; Hander, T.; Schatowitz, H.; Klauser, D.; Flury, P.; Gehring, Christoph A; Boller, T.; Bartels, S.

    2015-01-01

    Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are potent inducers of pattern-triggered immunity and amplify the immune response against diverse pathogens. Peps have been discovered and studied extensively in Arabidopsis and only recently orthologs in maize were

  11. Effects of pergolide mesylate on transduction efficiency of PEP-1-catalase protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, So Mi; Lim, Soon Sung; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Kwon, Hyeok Yil; Kim, Duk-Soo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We studied effects of pergolide mesylate (PM) on in vitro and in vivo transduction of PEP-1-catalase. → PEP-1-catatase inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation. → PM enhanced the transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT cells and skin tissue. → PM increased anti-inflammatory activity of PEP-1-catalase. → PM stimulated therapeutic action of anti-oxidant enzyme catalase in oxidative-related diseases. -- Abstract: The low transduction efficiency of various proteins is an obstacle to their therapeutic application. However, protein transduction domains (PTDs) are well-known for a highly effective tool for exogenous protein delivery to cells. We examined the effects of pergolide mesylate (PM) on the transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT human keratinocytes and mice skin and on the anti-inflammatory activity of PEP-1-catatase against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation using Western blot and histological analysis. PM enhanced the time- and dose-dependent transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT cells without affecting the cellular toxicity. In a mouse edema model, PEP-1-catalase inhibited the increased expressions of inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6 and -1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α induced by TPA. On the other hand, PM alone failed to exert any significant anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of co-treatment with PEP-1-catalase and PM was more potent than that of PEP-1-catalase alone. Our results indicate that PM may enhance the delivery of PTDs fusion therapeutic proteins to target cells and tissues and has potential to increase their therapeutic effects of such drugs against various diseases.

  12. Experiences of HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) among highly exposed men who have sex with men (MSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palich, Romain; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Cuzin, Lise; Le Talec, Jean-Yves; Boyer, Pierre; Massip, Patrice; Delobel, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is indicated after sexual exposure with high risk of transmission. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the main target of PEP. The aim of our study was to investigate the experience and shortcomings of PEP among people with a high risk of HIV exposure. Subjects with ongoing follow-up for HIV infection and PEP history were selected for the qualitative study. Semistructured interviews were conducted at the patients' homes. They were audio-recorded, transcribed and deidentified before data analysis, double coding and thematic analysis with an inductive approach. Twenty-three patients were eligible for the qualitative study. Thirteen interviews were carried out. All patients were 20-60-year-old MSM. The median time between PEP and HIV diagnosis was 3.3 years (interquartile range (IQR) 25-75 =0.9-4.9). Many participants reported negative PEP experiences: awkward access to the PEP clinic, uneasiness and shame in the hospital setting, unpleasant interaction and moral disapprobation from the medical staff, treatment intolerance and prevention messages that were 'inconsistent with real life' CONCLUSION: Our data highlight PEP management failures among its target population that may have compromised any subsequent attempts to seek out PEP. Practitioners should be more aware of MSM sexual contexts and practices. PEP consultations should provide the opportunity to discuss prevention strategies with highly exposed HIV-negative subjects, which may include pre-exposure prophylaxis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Effects of pergolide mesylate on transduction efficiency of PEP-1-catalase protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, So Mi [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Soon Sung [Department of Food Science and Nutrition and RIC Center, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae-Cheon [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyeok Yil [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duk-Soo [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan-Si 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Woo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hyun Sook, E-mail: wazzup@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young, E-mail: sychoi@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} We studied effects of pergolide mesylate (PM) on in vitro and in vivo transduction of PEP-1-catalase. {yields} PEP-1-catatase inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation. {yields} PM enhanced the transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT cells and skin tissue. {yields} PM increased anti-inflammatory activity of PEP-1-catalase. {yields} PM stimulated therapeutic action of anti-oxidant enzyme catalase in oxidative-related diseases. -- Abstract: The low transduction efficiency of various proteins is an obstacle to their therapeutic application. However, protein transduction domains (PTDs) are well-known for a highly effective tool for exogenous protein delivery to cells. We examined the effects of pergolide mesylate (PM) on the transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT human keratinocytes and mice skin and on the anti-inflammatory activity of PEP-1-catatase against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation using Western blot and histological analysis. PM enhanced the time- and dose-dependent transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT cells without affecting the cellular toxicity. In a mouse edema model, PEP-1-catalase inhibited the increased expressions of inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6 and -1{beta}, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} induced by TPA. On the other hand, PM alone failed to exert any significant anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of co-treatment with PEP-1-catalase and PM was more potent than that of PEP-1-catalase alone. Our results indicate that PM may enhance the delivery of PTDs fusion therapeutic proteins to target cells and tissues and has potential to increase their therapeutic effects of such drugs against various diseases.

  14. Evolutionary divergence of the plant elicitor peptides (Peps) and their receptors: interfamily incompatibility of perception but compatibility of downstream signalling

    KAUST Repository

    Lori, M.

    2015-05-22

    Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are potent inducers of pattern-triggered immunity and amplify the immune response against diverse pathogens. Peps have been discovered and studied extensively in Arabidopsis and only recently orthologs in maize were also identified and characterized in more detail. Here, the presence of PROPEPs, the Pep precursors, and PEPRs, the Pep receptors, was investigated within the plant kingdom. PROPEPs and PEPRs were identified in most sequenced species of the angiosperms. The conservation and compatibility of the Pep-PEPR-system was analysed by using plants of two distantly related dicot families, Brassicaceae and Solanaceae, and a representative family of monocot plants, the Poaceae. All three plant families contain important crop plants, including maize, rice, tomato, potato, and canola. Peps were not recognized by species outside of their plant family of origin, apparently because of a divergence of the Pep sequences. Three family-specific Pep motifs were defined and the integration of such a motif into the Pep sequence of an unrelated Pep enabled its perception. Transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana with the coding sequences of the AtPEPR1 and ZmPEPR1a led to the recognition of Pep peptides of Brassicaceae or Poaceae origin, respectively, and to the proper activation of downstream signalling. It was concluded that signalling machinery downstream of the PEPRs is highly conserved whereas the leucine-rich repeat domains of the PEPRs co-evolved with the Peps, leading to distinct motifs and, with it, interfamily incompatibility.

  15. Effective temperatures of late-type stars: The field giants from K0 to M6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgway, S.T.; Joyce, R.R.; White, N.M.; Wing, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Angular diameters from lunar occultation are combined with infrared photometry to determine effective temperatures, T/sub eff/, for K0--M6 giants. The relation between T/sub eff/ and color temperature, MK spectral type, V--K color, and I (104) --L color are derived. The principal result is a general increase in T/sub eff/ for the cooler spectral types compared to previous calibrations. Throughout the temperature range studied, we obtain excellent agreement with recent model atmosphere computations

  16. mRNA Traffic Control Reviewed: N6-Methyladenosine (m6 A) Takes the Driver's Seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan, Abhirami; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

    2018-01-01

    Messenger RNA is a flexible tool box that plays a key role in the dynamic regulation of gene expression. RNA modifications variegate the message conveyed by the mRNA. Similar to DNA and histone modifications, mRNA modifications are reversible and play a key role in the regulation of molecular events. Our understanding about the landscape of RNA modifications is still rudimentary in contrast to DNA and histone modifications. The major obstacle has been the lack of sensitive detection methods since they are non-editing events. However, with the advent of next-generation sequencing techniques, RNA modifications are being identified precisely at single nucleotide resolution. In recent years, methylation at the N6 position of adenine (m 6 A) has gained the attention of RNA biologists. The m 6 A modification has a set of writers (methylases), erasers (demethylases), and readers. Here, we provide a summary of interesting facts, conflicting findings, and recent advances in the technical and functional aspects of the m 6 A epitranscriptome. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Meclofenamic acid selectively inhibits FTO demethylation of m6A over ALKBH5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Yan, Jingli; Li, Qi; Li, Jiafei; Gong, Shouzhe; Zhou, Hu; Gan, Jianhua; Jiang, Hualiang; Jia, Gui-Fang; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Cai-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Two human demethylases, the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) enzyme and ALKBH5, oxidatively demethylate abundant N6-methyladenosine (m6A) residues in mRNA. Achieving a method for selective inhibition of FTO over ALKBH5 remains a challenge, however. Here, we have identified meclofenamic acid (MA) as a highly selective inhibitor of FTO. MA is a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug that mechanistic studies indicate competes with FTO binding for the m6A-containing nucleic acid. The structure of FTO/MA has revealed much about the inhibitory function of FTO. Our newfound understanding, revealed herein, of the part of the nucleotide recognition lid (NRL) in FTO, for example, has helped elucidate the principles behind the selectivity of FTO over ALKBH5. Treatment of HeLa cells with the ethyl ester form of MA (MA2) has led to elevated levels of m6A modification in mRNA. Our collective results highlight the development of functional probes of the FTO enzyme that will (i) enable future biological studies and (ii) pave the way for the rational design of potent and specific inhibitors of FTO for use in medicine. PMID:25452335

  18. Critical Role of PepT1 in Promoting Colitis-Associated Cancer and Therapeutic Benefits of the Anti-inflammatory PepT1-Mediated Tripeptide KPV in a Murine ModelSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Viennois

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The human intestinal peptide transporter 1 (hPepT1, is expressed in the small intestine at low levels in the healthy colon and up-regulated during inflammatory bowel disease. hPepT1 plays a role in mouse colitis and human studies have shown that chronic intestinal inflammation leads to colorectal cancer (colitis-associated cancer; CAC. Hence, we assessed here the role of PepT1 in CAC. Methods: Mice with hPepT1 overexpression in intestinal epithelial cells (transgenic [TG] or PepT1 (PepT1-knockout [KO] deletion were used and CAC was induced by azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate. Results: TG mice had larger tumor sizes, increased tumor burdens, and increased intestinal inflammation compared with wild-type (WT mice. Conversely, tumor number and size and intestinal inflammation were decreased significantly in PepT1-KO mice. Proliferating crypt cells were increased in TG mice and decreased in PepT1-KO mice. Analysis of human colonic biopsy specimens showed increased expression of PepT1 in patients with colorectal cancer, suggesting that PepT1 might be targeted for the treatment of CAC. The use of an anti-inflammatory tripeptide Lys-Pro-Val (KPV transported by PepT1 was able to prevent carcinogenesis in WT mice. When administered to PepT1-KO mice, KPV did not trigger any of the inhibitory effect on tumorigenesis observed in WT mice. Conclusions: The observations that PepT1 was highly expressed in human colorectal tumor and that its overexpression and deletion in mice increased and decreased colitis-associated tumorigenesis, respectively, suggest that PepT1 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of colitis-associated tumorigenesis. Keywords: Colitis-Associated Cancer, Intestinal Inflammation, PepT1, KPV Peptide

  19. PEP-II RF Cavity Revisited (LCC-0032)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmer, R.

    2004-03-23

    This report describes the results of numerical simulations of the PEP-II RF cavity performed after the completion of the construction phase of the project and comparisons are made to previous calculations and measured results. These analyses were performed to evaluate new calculation techniques for the HOM distribution and RF surface heating that were not available at the time of the original design. These include the use of a high frequency electromagnetic element in ANSYS and the new Omega 3P code to study wall losses, and the development of broadband time domain simulation methods in MAFIA for the HOM loading. The computed HOM spectrum is compared with cavity measurements and observed beam-induced signals. The cavity fabrication method is reviewed, with the benefit of hindsight, and simplifications are discussed.

  20. Impedance analysis of the PEP-II vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.K.; Weiland, T.

    1995-05-01

    The PEP-II high energy ring (HER) vacuum chamber consists of a copper tube with periodically spaced pumping slots. The impedance of the vacuum chamber due to the slots is analyzed. Both narrow-band and broadband impedances are considered as well as longitudinal and transverse components thereof. It is found that although the broad-band impedance is tolerable, the narrow-band impedance may exceed the instability limit given by the natural damping with no feedback system on. Traveling wave modes in the chamber are the major source of this high value narrow-band impedance. We also study the dependences of the impedance on the slot length and the geometrical cross section

  1. Simulation of PEP-II Accelerator Backgrounds Using TURTLE

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, Roger J; Kozanecki, Witold; Majewski, Stephanie; Roudeau, Patrick; Stocchi, Achille

    2005-01-01

    We present studies of accelerator-induced backgrounds in the BaBar detector at the SLAC B-Factory, carried out using a modified version ofthe DECAY TURTLE simulation package. Lost-particle backgrounds in PEP-II are dominated by a combination of beam-gas bremstrahlung, beam-gas Coulomb scattering, radiative-Bhabha events and beam-beam blow-up. The radiation damage and detector occupancy caused by the associated electromagnetic shower debris can limit the usable luminosity. In order to understand and mitigate such backgrounds, we have performed a full programme of beam-gas and luminosity-background simulations, that include the effects of the detector solenoidal field, detailed modelling of limiting apertures in both collider rings, and optimization of the betatron collimation scheme in the presence of large transverse tails.

  2. Local chromatic correction scheme for LER of PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, E.; Robin, D.; Zholents, A.; Donald, M.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Sullivan, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The correction of the chromaticity of low-beta insertions in storage rings is usually made with sextupole lenses in the ring arcs. When decreasing the beta functions at the interaction point (IP), this technique becomes fairly ineffective, since it fails to properly correct the higher-order chromatic aberrations. Here we consider the approach for ampersand PEP-II B Factory low energy ring (LER) where the chromatic effects of the quadrupole lenses generating low beta functions at the IP are corrected locally with two families of sextupoles, one family for each plane. For the IP straight section the lattice is designed in such a way that the chromatic aberrations are made small and sextupole-like aberrations are eliminated. The results of dimensional tracking simulations are presented

  3. Dual Power Supplies for PEP-II Injection Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewski, Joseph; Iverson, Richard; Kulikov, Artem; Pappas, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Originally the PEP-II injection kickers where powered by one power supply. Since the kicker magnets where not perfectly matched, the stored beam got excited by about 7% of the maximum kicker amplitude. This led to luminosity losses which were especially obvious for trickle injection when the detector is on for data taking. Therefore two independant power supplies with thyratrons in the tunnel next to the kicker magnet were installed. This also reduces the necessary power by about a factor of five since there are no long cables that have to be charged. The kickers are now independantly adjustable to eliminate any non-closure of the kicker system and therefore excitation of the stored beam. Setup, commissioning and fine tuning of this system are discussed.

  4. Dual Power Supplies for PEP-II Injection Kickers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J; Decker, F.-J.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, C.; /SLAC

    2005-05-25

    Originally the PEP-II injection kickers were powered by one power supply. Since the kicker magnets where not perfectly matched, the stored beam got excited by about 7% of the maximum kicker amplitude. This led to luminosity losses which were especially obvious for trickle injection when the detector is on for data taking. Therefore two independent power supplies with thyratrons in the tunnel next to the kicker magnet were installed. This also reduces the necessary power by about a factor of four since there are no long cables that have to be charged. The kickers are now independently adjustable to eliminate any non-closure of the kicker system and therefore excitation of the stored beam. Setup, commissioning and fine tuning of this system are discussed.

  5. Dual Power Supplies for PEP-II Injection Kickers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J; Decker, F.-J.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, C.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    Originally the PEP-II injection kickers were powered by one power supply. Since the kicker magnets where not perfectly matched, the stored beam got excited by about 7% of the maximum kicker amplitude. This led to luminosity losses which were especially obvious for trickle injection when the detector is on for data taking. Therefore two independent power supplies with thyratrons in the tunnel next to the kicker magnet were installed. This also reduces the necessary power by about a factor of four since there are no long cables that have to be charged. The kickers are now independently adjustable to eliminate any non-closure of the kicker system and therefore excitation of the stored beam. Setup, commissioning and fine tuning of this system are discussed

  6. The PEP-II Lower Pressure HER Vacuum Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBarger, S.; Metcalfe, S.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Wright, D.

    2006-01-01

    This new vacuum chamber has been installed from 12 to 21 meters upstream of the BaBar detector in the PEP-II High Energy Ring (HER) to reduce lost particle backgrounds. The backgrounds from HER now dominate the backgrounds in the BaBar detector and the present vacuum pressure is 1 x 10 -9 Torr. The new chamber will increase the pumping significantly by adding 18 x 2000 l/s titanium sublimation pumps to the existing 5 x 440 l/s ion pumps, and is expected to reduce the pressure by about a factor of five. Features of the chamber include improved water cooling, improved vacuum conductance through copper RF screens featuring over 15,000 small square holes and the ability to sublimate titanium while the beam is still on

  7. Beam Commissioning of the PEP-II High Energy Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Anderson, S.; Assmann, R.; Bharadwaj, V.; Cai, Y.; Clendenin, J.; Corredoura, P.; Decker, F.J.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Emma, P.; Erickson, R.; Fox, J.; Fieguth, T.; Fisher, A.; Heifets, S.; Hill, A.; Himel, T.; Iverson, R.; Johnson, R.; Judkins, J.; Krejcik, P.; Kulikov, A.; Lee, M.; Mattison, T.; Minty, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Phinney, N.; Placidi, M.; Prabhakar, S.; Ross, M.; Smith, S.; Schwarz, H.; Stanek, M.; Teytelman, D.; Traller, R.; Turner, J.; Zimmermann, F.; Barry, W.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Corlett, J.; Decking, W.; Furman, M.; Nishimura, H.; Portmann, G.; Rimmer, R.; Zholents, A.; Zisman, M.; Kozanecki, W.; Hofmann, A.; Zotter, B.; Steier, C.; Bialowons, W.; Lomperski, M.; Lumpkin, A.; Reichel, I.; Safranek, J.; Smith, V.; Tighe, R.; Sullivan, M.; Byrd, J.; Li, D.

    1998-01-01

    The PEP-II High Energy Ring (HER), a 9 GeV electron storage ring, has been in commissioning since spring 1997. Initial beam commissioning activities focused on systems checkout and commissioning and on determining the behavior of the machine systems at high beam currents. This phase culminated with the accumulation of 0.75 A of stored beam-sufficient to achieve design luminosity--in January 1998 after 3.5 months of beam time. Collisions with the 3 GeV positron beam of the Low Energy Ring (LER) were achieved in Summer of 1998. At high beam currents, collective instabilities have been seen. Since then, commissioning activities for the HER have shifted in focus towards characterization of the machine and a rigorous program to understand the machine and the beam dynamics is presently underway

  8. Commissioning experience from PEP-II HER longitudinal feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S.; Teytelman, D.; Fox, J.; Young, A.; Corredoura, P.; Tighe, R.

    1998-06-01

    The DSP-based bunch-by-bunch feedback system installed in the PEP-II HER has been used to damp HOM-induced instabilities at beam currents up to 6-5 mA during commissioning. Beam pseudospectra calcualted from feedback system data indicate the presence of coupled bunch modes that oincide with the 0-M-2 cavity HOM. Bunch current and synchronous phase measurements are also extracted from the data. These measurements reveal the impedance seen by the beam at revolution harmonics. The impedance peak at 3*frev indicates incorrect parking of the idle cavities, and explains the observed instability of mode 3. Bunch synchrotron tunes are calculated from lorentzian fits to the data. Bunch-to-bunch time variation due to the cavity transient is shown to be large enough to result in Landau damping of coupled bunch modes

  9. PEP II: RF and feedback R ampersand D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindi, H.: Fox, J.; Eisen, N.; Linscott, I.; Oxoby, G.; Pendleton, R.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Schwarz, H.D.; Rimmer, R.; Lambertson, A.; Voelker, F.; Serio, M.

    1992-11-01

    The key elements of the PEP 11 approach to dealing with the problem of coupled-bunch instabilities are presented. The approach involves using warm copper RF cavities with damping waveguides (above the cutoff of the fundamental) attached to the cavity walls. These couple out the troublesome higher-order modes (HOMs) into absorbing loads, while the fundamental mode remains in the cavity. The Q of the worst HOM is reduced to below 70. Instabilities due to residual coupling are damped using a bunch-by-bunch feedback system, which is implemented using digital signal processors. A prototype cavity has been built and the concept of HOM damping has been verified. A prototype feedback system has been built and tested at SPEAR. Results to date indicate that the combination of damped cavities and bunch-by-bunch feedback provide a very effective means of dealing with the problem

  10. Identifying Lattice, Orbit, And BPM Errors in PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.-J.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The PEP-II B-Factory is delivering peak luminosities of up to 9.2 · 10 33 1/cm 2 · l/s. This is very impressive especially considering our poor understanding of the lattice, absolute orbit and beam position monitor system (BPM). A few simple MATLAB programs were written to get lattice information, like betatron functions in a coupled machine (four all together) and the two dispersions, from the current machine and compare it the design. Big orbit deviations in the Low Energy Ring (LER) could be explained not by bad BPMs (only 3), but by many strong correctors (one corrector to fix four BPMs on average). Additionally these programs helped to uncover a sign error in the third order correction of the BPM system. Further analysis of the current information of the BPMs (sum of all buttons) indicates that there might be still more problematic BPMs

  11. Neural glycoprotein M6a is released in extracellular vesicles and modulated by chronic stressors in blood

    OpenAIRE

    Monteleone, Melisa C.; Billi, Silvia C.; Brocco, Marcela A.; Frasch, Alberto C.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane neuronal glycoprotein M6a is highly expressed in the brain and contributes to neural plasticity promoting neurite growth and spine and synapse formation. We have previously showed that chronic stressors alter hippocampal M6a mRNA levels in rodents and tree shrews. We now show that M6a glycoprotein can be detected in mouse blood. M6a is a transmembrane glycoprotein and, as such, unlikely to be free in blood. Here we demonstrate that, in blood, M6a is transported in extracellular vesic...

  12. RNA epitranscriptomics: Regulation of infection of RNA and DNA viruses by N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Brandon; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2018-04-26

    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) was discovered 4 decades ago. However, the functions of m 6 A and the cellular machinery that regulates its changes have just been revealed in the last few years. m 6 A is an abundant internal mRNA modification on cellular RNA and is implicated in diverse cellular functions. Recent works have demonstrated the presence of m 6 A in the genomes of RNA viruses and transcripts of a DNA virus with either a proviral or antiviral role. Here, we first summarize what is known about the m 6 A "writers," "erasers," "readers," and "antireaders" as well as the role of m 6 A in mRNA metabolism. We then review how the replications of numerous viruses are enhanced and restricted by m 6 A with emphasis on the oncogenic DNA virus, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), whose m 6 A epitranscriptome was recently mapped. In the context of KSHV, m 6 A and the reader protein YTHDF2 acts as an antiviral mechanism during viral lytic replication. During viral latency, KSHV alters m 6 A on genes that are implicated in cellular transformation and viral latency. Lastly, we discuss future studies that are important to further delineate the functions of m 6 A in KSHV latent and lytic replication and KSHV-induced oncogenesis. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Development of HyPEP, A Hydrogen Production Plant Efficiency Calculation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Jin; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Won Jae; Shin, Young Joon; Kim, Jong Ho; Hong, Sung Deok; Lee, Seung Wook; Hwang, Moon Kyu

    2007-12-01

    Development of HyPEP program for assessing the steady-state hydrogen production efficiency of the nuclear hydrogen production facilities was carried out. The main developmental aims of the HyPEP program are the extensive application of the GUI for enhanced user friendliness and the fast numerical solution scheme. These features are suitable for such calculations as the optimisation calculations. HyPEP was developed with the object-oriented programming techniques. The components of the facility was modelled as objects in a hierarchical structure where the inheritance property of the object oriented program were extensively applied. The Delphi program language which is based on the Object Pascal was used for the HyPEP development. The conservation equations for the thermal hydraulic flow network were setup and the numerical solution scheme was developed and implemented into HyPEP beta version. HyPEP beta version has been developed with working GUI and the numerical solution scheme implementation. Due to the premature end of this project the fully working version of HyPEP was not produced

  14. M2- and M5-branes in E11 current algebra formulation of M-theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Shotaro; Sugawara, Hirotaka

    2018-03-01

    Equations of motion for M2- and M5-branes are written down in the E11 current algebra formulation of M-theory. These branes correspond to currents of the second and the fifth rank antisymmetric tensors in the E11 representation, whereas the electric and magnetic fields (coupled to M2- and M5-branes) correspond to currents of the third and the sixth rank antisymmetric tensors, respectively. We show that these equations of motion have solutions in terms of the coordinates on M2- and M5-branes. We also discuss the geometric equations, and show that there are static solutions when M2- or M5-brane exists alone and also when M5-brane wraps around M2-brane. This situation is realized because our Einstein-like equation contains an extra term which can be interpreted as gravitational energy contributing to the curvature, thus avoiding the usual intersection rule.

  15. E-ELT M5 field stabilisation unit scale 1 demonstrator design and performances evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalta, J. M.; Barriga, J.; Ariño, J.; Mercader, J.; San Andrés, M.; Serra, J.; Kjelberg, I.; Hubin, N.; Jochum, L.; Vernet, E.; Dimmler, M.; Müller, M.

    2010-07-01

    The M5 Field stabilization Unit (M5FU) for European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a fast correcting optical system that shall provide tip-tilt corrections for the telescope dynamic pointing errors and the effect of atmospheric tiptilt and wind disturbances. A M5FU scale 1 demonstrator (M5FU1D) is being built to assess the feasibility of the key elements (actuators, sensors, mirror, mirror interfaces) and the real-time control algorithm. The strict constraints (e.g. tip-tilt control frequency range 100Hz, 3m ellipse mirror size, mirror first Eigen frequency 300Hz, maximum tip/tilt range +/- 30 arcsec, maximum tiptilt error < 40 marcsec) have been a big challenge for developing the M5FU Conceptual Design and its scale 1 demonstrator. The paper summarises the proposed design for the final unit and demonstrator and the measured performances compared to the applicable specifications.

  16. The M6-C Cervical Disk Prosthesis: First Clinical Experience in 33 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sam; Willems, Karel; Van den Daelen, Luc; Linden, Patrick; Ciocci, Maria-Cristina; Bocher, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Retrospective study. To determine the short-term clinical succesrate of the M6-C cervical disk prosthesis in primary and secondary surgery. Cervical disk arthroplasty (CDA) provides an alternative to anterior cervical decompression and fusion for the treatment of spondylotic radiculopathy or myelopathy. The prevention of adjacent segment disease (ASD), a possible complication of anterior cervical decompression and fusion, is its most cited--although unproven--benefit. Unlike older arthroplasty devices that rely on a ball-and-socket-type design, the M6-C cervical disk prosthesis represents a new generation of unconstrained implants, developed to achieve better restoration of natural segmental biomechanics. This device should therefore optimize clinical performance of CDA and reduce ASD. All patients had preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative x-rays. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Neck Disability Index, a Visual Analog Scale, and the SF-36 questionnaire. Patients were asked about overall satisfaction and whether they would have the surgery again. Thirty-three patients were evaluated 17.1 months after surgery, on average. Nine patients had a history of cervical interventions. Results for Neck Disability Index, Visual Analog Scale, and SF-36 were significantly better among patients who had undergone primary surgery. In this group, 87.5% of patients reported a good or excellent result and 91.7% would have the procedure again. In contrast, all 4 device-related complications occurred in the small group of patients who had secondary surgery. The M6-C prosthesis appears to be a valuable addition to the CDA armatorium. It generates very good results in patients undergoing primary surgery, although its use in secondary surgery should be avoided. Longer follow-up is needed to determine to what measure this device can prevent ASD.

  17. A new perylenequinone from a halotolerant fungus, Alternaria sp. M6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Ya; Li, Zhan-Lin; Bai, Jiao; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Li-Min; Wu, Xin; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2012-01-01

    To study the metabolites of a halotolerant fungus Alternaria sp. M6. The metabolites were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques. Their structures were determined on the basis of physical properties and spectroscopic data. Nine compounds were isolated and identified as 8β-chloro-3, 6aα, 7β, 9β, 10-pentahydroxy-9, 8, 7, 6a-tetrahydroperylen-4(6aH)-one (1), alterperylenol (2), dihydroalterperylenol (3), adenine (4), adenosine (5), deoxyadenosine (6), guanosine (7), tryptophan (8), and hexadecanoic acid (9). Compound 1 is a new perylenequinone. Copyright © 2012 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Solar and Geomagnetic Activity Variations Correlated to Italian M6+ Earthquakes Occurred in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2017-04-01

    Between August 2016 and October 2016 in Italy were recorded three strong earthquakes: M6.2 on August 2016 at 01:36:32 UTC; M6.1 on October 26, 2016 at 19:18:08 UTC and M6,6 on October 30, 2016 at 06:40:18 UTC. The authors of this study wanted to verify the existence of a correlation between these earthquakes and solar/geomagnetic activity. To confirming or not the presence of this kind of correlation, the authors analyzed the conditions of Spaceweather "near Earth" and the characteristics of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the hours that preceded the three earthquakes. The data relating to the three earthquakes were provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density of three different energy fractions: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). Geomagnetic activity data were provided by Tromsø Geomagnetic Observatory (TGO), Norway; by Scoresbysund Geomagnetic Observatory (SCO), Greenland, Denmark; Dikson Geomagnetic Observatory (DIK), Russia and by Pushkov Institute of terrestrial magnetism, ionosphere and radio wave propagation (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow Region. The results of the study, in agreement with what already ascertained by authors from 2012, have confirmed that the three strong Italian earthquakes were preceded by a clear increase of the solar wind proton density which

  19. Investigation of the Building M6-794 Roofing Fatality, Type A Mishap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, John H.; French, Kristie; Tipton, David A.; Bennardo, C. P.; Miller, Darcy H.; Facemire, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The Building M6-794 Roofing Fatality Mishap Investigation Board (Board) was commissioned to gather information; analyze the facts; identify the proximate causes, root causes, and contributing factors relating to the mishap; and recommend appropriate actions to prevent a similar mishap from occurring in the future. During the investigation of this mishap, the Board also examined the fall protection policies of other NASA Centers and operating locations to gain an understanding of how those entities conduct fall protection, as well as the degree to which fall protection is standardized across the Agency.

  20. Anomalous decrease in groundwater radon before the Taiwan M6.8 Chengkung earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, T.; Fan, K.; Kuochen, H.; Han, Y.; Chu, H.; Lee, Y.

    2006-01-01

    On December 10, 2003, an earthquake of magnitude (M) 6.8, the strongest since 1951, occurred near the Chengkung area in eastern Taiwan. Approximately 65 d prior to the 2003 Chengkung earthquake, precursory changes in the groundwater radon concentration were observed at the Antung radon-monitoring station located 20 km from the epicenter. The radon anomaly was a decrease from a background level of 28.9 Bq L -1 to a minimum of 12.2 Bq L -1 . Observations at the Antung hot spring suggest that the groundwater radon, when observed under suitable geological conditions, can be a sensitive tracer for strain changes in the crust preceding an earthquake

  1. Proline iminopeptidase PepI overexpressing Lactobacillus casei as an adjunct starter in Edam cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Takala, Timo M; Alatossava, Tapani; Saris, Per EJ

    2013-01-01

    In this study the growth of genetically modified Lactobacillus casei LAB6, overexpressing proline iminopeptidase PepI and its capacity to increase free proline was investigated during ripening of Edam cheese. The strain successfully survived 12 weeks of ripening period in cheese. The food-grade plasmid pLEB604, carrying the pepI gene, was stable, and PepI enzyme was active in LAB6 cells isolated at different stages of the ripening process. However, HPLC analyses indicated that Lb. casei LAB6 could not increase the amount of free proline in ripened cheese. PMID:23851577

  2. Endogenous morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) is present in the plasma of patients: validation of a specific anti-M6G antibody for clinical and basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux-Biehlmann, Alexis; Chung, Hélène; Mouheiche, Jinane; Vérièpe, Julie; Delalande, François; Lamshöft, Marc; Welters, Ingeborg D; Soldevila, Stéphanie; Bazin, Hervé; Lamarque, Laurent; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Poisbeau, Pierrick; Schneider, Francis; Goumon, Yannick; Garnero, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous morphine and its derivatives (morphine-6-glucuronide [M6G]; morphine-3-glucuronide [M3G]) are formed by mammalian cells from dopamine. Changes in the concentrations of endogenous morphine have been demonstrated in several pathologies (sepsis, Parkinson's disease, etc.), and they might be relevant as pathological markers. While endogenous morphine levels are detectable using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was, so far, the only approach to detect and quantify M6G. This study describes the preparation of a specific anti-M6G rabbit polyclonal antibody and its validation. The specificity of this antibody was assessed against 30 morphine-related compounds. Then, a M6G-specific ELISA-assay was tested to quantify M6G in the plasma of healthy donors, morphine-treated, and critically ill patients. The antibody raised against M6G displays a strong affinity for M6G, codeine-6-glucuronide, and morphine-3-6-glucuronide, whereas only weak cross-reactivities were observed for the other compounds. Both M6G-ELISA and LC-MS/MS approaches revealed the absence of M6G in the plasma of healthy donors (controls, n = 8). In all positive donors treated with morphine-patch (n = 5), M6G was detected using both M6G-ELISA and LC-MS/MS analysis. Finally, in a study on critically ill patients with circulating endogenous morphine (n = 26), LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that 73% of the positive-patients (19 of 26), corresponding to high M6G-levels in M6G-ELISA, contained M6G. In conclusion, we show that endogenous M6G can be found at higher levels than morphine in the blood of morphine-naive patients. With respect to the interest of measuring endogenous M6G in pathologies, we provide evidences that our ELISA procedure represents a powerful tool as it can easily and specifically detect endogenous M6G levels. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Involvement of T6 pili in biofilm formation by serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Keiji Richard; Nakata, Masanobu; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Podbielski, Andreas; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2012-02-01

    The group A streptococcus (GAS) Streptococcus pyogenes is known to cause self-limiting purulent infections in humans. The role of GAS pili in host cell adhesion and biofilm formation is likely fundamental in early colonization. Pilus genes are found in the FCT (fibronectin-binding protein, collagen-binding protein, and trypsin-resistant antigen) genomic region, which has been classified into nine subtypes based on the diversity of gene content and nucleotide sequence. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that FCT type 1 strains, including serotype M6, produce large amounts of monospecies biofilm in vitro. We examined the direct involvement of pili in biofilm formation by serotype M6 clinical isolates. In the majority of tested strains, deletion of the tee6 gene encoding pilus shaft protein T6 compromised the ability to form biofilm on an abiotic surface. Deletion of the fctX and srtB genes, which encode pilus ancillary protein and class C pilus-associated sortase, respectively, also decreased biofilm formation by a representative strain. Unexpectedly, these mutant strains showed increased bacterial aggregation compared with that of the wild-type strain. When the entire FCT type 1 pilus region was ectopically expressed in serotype M1 strain SF370, biofilm formation was promoted and autoaggregation was inhibited. These findings indicate that assembled FCT type 1 pili contribute to biofilm formation and also function as attenuators of bacterial aggregation. Taken together, our results show the potential role of FCT type 1 pili in the pathogenesis of GAS infections.

  4. Application of the adjoint optimisation of shock control bump for ONERA-M6 wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, A.; Mazaheri, K.

    2017-11-01

    This article is devoted to the numerical investigation of the shock wave/boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) as the main factor influencing the aerodynamic performance of transonic bumped airfoils and wings. The numerical analysis is conducted for the ONERA-M6 wing through a shock control bump (SCB) shape optimisation process using the adjoint optimisation method. SWBLI is analyzed for both clean and bumped airfoils and wings, and it is shown how the modified wave structure originating from upstream of the SCB reduces the wave drag, by improving the boundary layer velocity profile downstream of the shock wave. The numerical simulation of the turbulent viscous flow and a gradient-based adjoint algorithm are used to find the optimum location and shape of the SCB for the ONERA-M6 airfoil and wing. Two different geometrical models are introduced for the 3D SCB, one with linear variations, and another with periodic variations. Both configurations result in drag reduction and improvement in the aerodynamic efficiency, but the periodic model is more effective. Although the three-dimensional flow structure involves much more complexities, the overall results are shown to be similar to the two-dimensional case.

  5. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

    2001-08-14

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

  6. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHOU, W.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade

  7. Acute food deprivation reverses morphine-induced locomotion deficits in M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidl, Stephan; Lee, Esther; Wasserman, David; Yeomans, John S

    2013-09-01

    Lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT), one of two sources of cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), block conditioned place preference (CPP) for morphine in drug-naïve rats. M5 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, expressed by midbrain dopamine neurons, are critical for the ability of morphine to increase nucleus accumbens dopamine levels and locomotion, and for morphine CPP. This suggests that M5-mediated PPT cholinergic inputs to VTA dopamine neurons critically contribute to morphine-induced dopamine activation, reward and locomotion. In the current study we tested whether food deprivation, which reduces PPT contribution to morphine CPP in rats, could also reduce M5 contributions to morphine-induced locomotion in mice. Acute 18-h food deprivation reversed the phenotypic differences usually seen between non-deprived wild-type and M5 knockout mice. That is, food deprivation increased morphine-induced locomotion in M5 knockout mice but reduced morphine-induced locomotion in wild-type mice. Food deprivation increased saline-induced locomotion equally in wild-type and M5 knockout mice. Based on these findings, we suggest that food deprivation reduces the contribution of M5-mediated PPT cholinergic inputs to the VTA in morphine-induced locomotion and increases the contribution of a PPT-independent pathway. The contributions of cholinergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons to the effects of acute food deprivation are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Summary on out-of-pile and in-pile properties of M5 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenjin

    2001-01-01

    The out-of-pile and in-pile corrosion, mechanical properties, microstructure,hydrogen absorption, creep and growth resistances of M5 alloy using as PWR fuel rod cladding materials developed by FRAMATOME in France has been summarized with reference to the literatures. The results obtained from in-pile irradiation tests show that the corrosion and hydrogen absorption resistances, creep and irradiation growth resistances of M5 alloy cladding are superior to that of the optimized Zircaloy-4. It could be estimated that the M5 alloy enables rod burnups close to 65GWd/tU to be reached

  9. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes' of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  10. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Huckaby, James L.; Karri, Naveen K.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes' of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  11. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Huckaby, James L.; Karri, Naveen K.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-22

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  12. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  13. Responses of mRNA expression of PepT1 in small intestine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... 2National Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Beijing, 100193, China. 3College ... porters are present in tissues of sheep, cows, pigs and .... PepT1; Peptide transporter, GAPDH; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

  14. Ca 2+ signaling by plant Arabidopsis thaliana Pep peptides depends on AtPepR1, a receptor with guanylyl cyclase activity, and cGMP-activated Ca 2+ channels

    KAUST Repository

    Qia, Zhi

    2010-11-18

    A family of peptide signaling molecules (AtPeps) and their plasma membrane receptor AtPepR1 are known to act in pathogendefense signaling cascades in plants. Little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms that link these signaling peptides and their receptor, a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, to downstream pathogen-defense responses. We identify some cellular activities of these molecules that provide the context for a model for their action in signaling cascades. AtPeps activate plasma membrane inwardly conducting Ca 2+ permeable channels in mesophyll cells, resulting in cytosolic Ca 2+ elevation. This activity is dependent on their receptor as well as a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC2). We also show that the leucine-rich repeat receptor- like kinase receptor AtPepR1 has guanylyl cyclase activity, generating cGMP from GTP, and that cGMP can activate CNGC2- dependent cytosolic Ca 2+ elevation. AtPep-dependent expression of pathogen-defense genes (PDF1.2, MPK3, and WRKY33) is mediated by the Ca 2+ signaling pathway associated with AtPep peptides and their receptor. The work presented here indicates that extracellular AtPeps, which can act as danger-associated molecular patterns, signal by interaction with their receptor, AtPepR1, a plasma membrane protein that can generate cGMP. Downstream from AtPep and AtPepR1 in a signaling cascade, the cGMP-activated channel CNGC2 is involved in AtPep- and AtPepR1-dependent inward Ca 2+ conductance and resulting cytosolic Ca 2+ elevation. The signaling cascade initiated by AtPeps leads to expression of pathogen- defense genes in a Ca 2+-dependent manner.

  15. Acute guttate psoriasis patients have positive streptococcus hemolyticus throat cultures and elevated antistreptococcal M6 protein titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang; Feng, Xiaoling; Na, Aihua; Yongqiang, Jiang; Cai, Qing; Kong, Jian; Ma, Huijun

    2005-02-01

    To further study the role of Streptococci hemolyticus infection and streptococcal M6 protein in the pathogenesis of acute guttate psoriasis, streptococcal cultures were taken from the throats of 68 patients with acute guttate psoriasis. PCR technique was applied to detect M6 protein encoding DNA from those cultured streptococci. Pure M6 protein was obtained by Sephacry/S-200HR and Mono-Q chromatography from proliferated Streptococcus hemolyticus. Antistreptococcal M6 protein titers were measured in the serum of patients with acute guttate psoriasis, plaque psoriasis and healthy controls by ELISA. A high incidence of Streptococcus hemolyticus culture was observed in the guttate psoriatic group compared with the plaque psoriasis and control groups. Fourteen strains of Streptococcus hemolyticus were cultured from the throats of 68 acute guttate psoriasis patients. Of these, 5 strains contain DNA encoding the M6 protein gene as confirmed by PCR technique. More than 85% purification of M6 protein was obtained from Streptococcus pyogenes. Applying our pure M6 protein with the ELISA methods, we found that the titer of antistreptococcal M6 protein was significantly higher in the serum of guttate psoriasis patients than in the control or plaque psoriasis groups (P M6 protein in their sera.

  16. DomPep--a general method for predicting modular domain-mediated protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions (PPIs are frequently mediated by the binding of a modular domain in one protein to a short, linear peptide motif in its partner. The advent of proteomic methods such as peptide and protein arrays has led to the accumulation of a wealth of interaction data for modular interaction domains. Although several computational programs have been developed to predict modular domain-mediated PPI events, they are often restricted to a given domain type. We describe DomPep, a method that can potentially be used to predict PPIs mediated by any modular domains. DomPep combines proteomic data with sequence information to achieve high accuracy and high coverage in PPI prediction. Proteomic binding data were employed to determine a simple yet novel parameter Ligand-Binding Similarity which, in turn, is used to calibrate Domain Sequence Identity and Position-Weighted-Matrix distance, two parameters that are used in constructing prediction models. Moreover, DomPep can be used to predict PPIs for both domains with experimental binding data and those without. Using the PDZ and SH2 domain families as test cases, we show that DomPep can predict PPIs with accuracies superior to existing methods. To evaluate DomPep as a discovery tool, we deployed DomPep to identify interactions mediated by three human PDZ domains. Subsequent in-solution binding assays validated the high accuracy of DomPep in predicting authentic PPIs at the proteome scale. Because DomPep makes use of only interaction data and the primary sequence of a domain, it can be readily expanded to include other types of modular domains.

  17. The Woods Hole Partnership Education Program (PEP): Broadening Participation in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, O.; Jearld, A., Jr.; Liles, G.; Gutierrez, B.

    2015-12-01

    In March 2009, the Woods Hole Diversity Initiative launched the Partnership Education Program (PEP), a multi-institutional effort to increase diversity in the student population (and ultimately the work force) in the Woods Hole science community. PEP, a summer research internship program, is open to students of all backgrounds but is designed especially to provide opportunities for URM in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). PEP is a 10-week program which provides intensive mentored research, a credit-bearing course and supplemental career and professional development activities. Students have opportunities to work in various research areas of geosciences. PEP is emerging as an effective and sustainable approach to bringing students into the STEM research community. PEP is carefully structured to provide critical support for students as they complete their undergraduate experience and prepare for geosciences careers and/or graduate school. The PEP experience is intended to provide students with an entry into the Woods Hole science community, one of the most vibrant marine and environmental research communities in the world. The program aims to provide a first-hand introduction to emerging issues and real-world training in the research skills that students need to advance in science, either as graduate students or bachelors-level working scientists. This is a long-recognized need and efforts are being made to ensure that the students begin to acquire skills and aptitudes that position them to take advantage of a wide range of opportunities. Of note is that the PEP is transitioning into a two year program where students are participating in a second year as a research intern or employee. Since 2013, at least four partner institutions have invited PEP alumni to participate in their respective programs as research assistants and/or full-time technicians.

  18. Effects of a school-based sexuality education program on peer educators: the Teen PEP model

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May 2008. The sample consisted of 96 intervention (i.e. Teen PEP peer educators) and 61 comparison students from five high schools in New Jersey. Baseline a...

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M6 open cluster: star members properties (Kilicoglu+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, T.; Monier, R.; Richer, J.; Fossati, L.; Albayrak, B.

    2018-03-01

    The spectra of 104 objects in the region of M6 were obtained using the Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) instrument with the GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the Unit 2 Kueyen of the Very Large Telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) by one of us (L.F.). The instrument settings and target selection were carried out in the same way as described by Fossati et al. (2011MNRAS.413.1132F). We primarily considered 56 targets with Teff>6100 K and spectra with S/N~100, and selected 44 targets to perform a more thorough spectral analysis considering the membership from 3 criteria: (i) proper motions, (ii) radial velocity, and (iii) position of the stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram (Table 3). (6 data files).

  20. Characterizing the Resolved M6 Dwarf Twin LP 318-218AB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Hilario, Elizabeth; Burgasser, Adam J.; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Tamiya, Tomoki

    2017-01-01

    The lowest-mass stars and brown dwarfs are among the most common objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, but theories of their formation and evolution remain poorly constrained. Binary systems are important for understanding the formation of these objects and for making direct orbit and mass measurements to validate evolutionary theories. We report the discovery of LP 318-218, a high proper motion late M dwarf, as a near equal-brightness binary system with a separation of 0.72 arcseconds. Resolved near-infrared spectroscopy confirms the components as nearly identical M6 twins. We using our resolved photometry and spectroscopy to estimate the distance, projected separation and tangential velocity of the system, and confirm common proper motion. We also perform atmosphere model fits to the resolved spectra to assess their physical properties. We place LP 318-218 in context with other widely-separated late M dwarf binaries.

  1. The pepATTRACT web server for blind, large-scale peptide-protein docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sjoerd J; Rey, Julien; Schindler, Christina E M; Zacharias, Martin; Tuffery, Pierre

    2017-07-03

    Peptide-protein interactions are ubiquitous in the cell and form an important part of the interactome. Computational docking methods can complement experimental characterization of these complexes, but current protocols are not applicable on the proteome scale. pepATTRACT is a novel docking protocol that is fully blind, i.e. it does not require any information about the binding site. In various stages of its development, pepATTRACT has participated in CAPRI, making successful predictions for five out of seven protein-peptide targets. Its performance is similar or better than state-of-the-art local docking protocols that do require binding site information. Here we present a novel web server that carries out the rigid-body stage of pepATTRACT. On the peptiDB benchmark, the web server generates a correct model in the top 50 in 34% of the cases. Compared to the full pepATTRACT protocol, this leads to some loss of performance, but the computation time is reduced from ∼18 h to ∼10 min. Combined with the fact that it is fully blind, this makes the web server well-suited for large-scale in silico protein-peptide docking experiments. The rigid-body pepATTRACT server is freely available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/services/pepATTRACT. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Pan European Phenological database (PEP725): a single point of access for European data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Koch, Elisabeth; Bolmgren, Kjell; Ungersböck, Markus; Paul, Anita; Scheifinger, Helfried; Rutishauser, This; Busto, Montserrat; Chmielewski, Frank-M.; Hájková, Lenka; Hodzić, Sabina; Kaspar, Frank; Pietragalla, Barbara; Romero-Fresneda, Ramiro; Tolvanen, Anne; Vučetič, Višnja; Zimmermann, Kirsten; Zust, Ana

    2018-02-01

    The Pan European Phenology (PEP) project is a European infrastructure to promote and facilitate phenological research, education, and environmental monitoring. The main objective is to maintain and develop a Pan European Phenological database (PEP725) with an open, unrestricted data access for science and education. PEP725 is the successor of the database developed through the COST action 725 "Establishing a European phenological data platform for climatological applications" working as a single access point for European-wide plant phenological data. So far, 32 European meteorological services and project partners from across Europe have joined and supplied data collected by volunteers from 1868 to the present for the PEP725 database. Most of the partners actively provide data on a regular basis. The database presently holds almost 12 million records, about 46 growing stages and 265 plant species (including cultivars), and can be accessed via http://www.pep725.eu/. Users of the PEP725 database have studied a diversity of topics ranging from climate change impact, plant physiological question, phenological modeling, and remote sensing of vegetation to ecosystem productivity.

  3. Perception of Arabidopsis AtPep peptides, but not bacterial elicitors, accelerates starvation-induced senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay eGully

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the AtPep group of Arabidopsis endogenous peptides have frequently been reported to induce pattern-triggered immunity and to increase resistance to diverse pathogens by amplifying the innate immune response. Here, we made the surprising observation that dark-induced leaf senescence was accelerated by the presence of Peps. Adult leaves as well as leaf discs of Col-0 wild type plants showed a Pep-triggered early onset of chlorophyll breakdown and leaf yellowing whereas pepr1 pepr2 double mutant plants were insensitive. In addition, this response was dependent on ethylene signaling and inhibited by the addition of cytokinins. Notably, addition of the bacterial elicitors flg22 or elf18, both potent inducers of pattern-triggered immunity, did not provoke an early onset of leaf senescence.Continuous darkness leads to energy deprivation and starvation and therewith promotes leaf senescence. We found that continuous darkness also strongly induced PROPEP3 transcription. Moreover, Pep-perception led to a rapid induction of PAO, APG7 and APG8a, genes indispensable for chlorophyll degradation as well as autophagy, respectively, and all three hallmarks of starvation and senescence. Notably, addition of sucrose as a source of energy inhibited the Pep-triggered early onset of senescence. In conclusion, we report that Pep-perception accelerates dark/starvation-induced senescence via an early induction of chlorophyll degradation and autophagy. This represents a novel and unique characteristic of PEPR signaling, unrelated to pattern-triggered immunity.

  4. Factors Associated With Forensic Nurses Offering HIV nPEP Status Post Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draughon, Jessica E; Hauda, William E; Price, Bonnie; Rotolo, Sue; Austin, Kim Wieczorek; Sheridan, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    Nonoccupational, postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is offered inconsistently to patients who have been sexually assaulted. This may be due to Forensic Nurse Examiner (FNE) programs utilizing diverse nPEP protocols and HIV risk assessment algorithms. This study examines factors associated with FNEs offering nPEP to patients following sexual assault at two FNE programs in urban settings. Offering nPEP is mostly driven by site-specific protocol. At Site 1, in addition to open anal or open genital wounds, the presence of injury to the head or face was associated with FNEs offering nPEP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 64.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.12, 1942.37]). At Site 2, patients assaulted by someone of Other race/ethnicity (non-White, non-African American) were 86% less likely to be offered nPEP (AOR 0.14, 95% CI = [.03, .72]) than patients assaulted by Whites. In addition to following site-specific protocols, future research should further explore the mechanisms influencing clinician decision making. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Pan European Phenological database (PEP725): a single point of access for European data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Koch, Elisabeth; Bolmgren, Kjell; Ungersböck, Markus; Paul, Anita; Scheifinger, Helfried; Rutishauser, This; Busto, Montserrat; Chmielewski, Frank-M.; Hájková, Lenka; Hodzić, Sabina; Kaspar, Frank; Pietragalla, Barbara; Romero-Fresneda, Ramiro; Tolvanen, Anne; Vučetič, Višnja; Zimmermann, Kirsten; Zust, Ana

    2018-06-01

    The Pan European Phenology (PEP) project is a European infrastructure to promote and facilitate phenological research, education, and environmental monitoring. The main objective is to maintain and develop a Pan European Phenological database (PEP725) with an open, unrestricted data access for science and education. PEP725 is the successor of the database developed through the COST action 725 "Establishing a European phenological data platform for climatological applications" working as a single access point for European-wide plant phenological data. So far, 32 European meteorological services and project partners from across Europe have joined and supplied data collected by volunteers from 1868 to the present for the PEP725 database. Most of the partners actively provide data on a regular basis. The database presently holds almost 12 million records, about 46 growing stages and 265 plant species (including cultivars), and can be accessed via http://www.pep725.eu/ . Users of the PEP725 database have studied a diversity of topics ranging from climate change impact, plant physiological question, phenological modeling, and remote sensing of vegetation to ecosystem productivity.

  6. Is there an optimal level of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) to improve walking tolerance in patients with severe COPD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Davide; Simonelli, Carla; Paneroni, Mara; Saleri, Manuela; Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Cardinale, Francesco; Vitacca, Michele; Nicolini, Antonello

    2016-07-01

    The application of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) devices during exercise had been proposed in order to counteract the pulmonary hyperinflation, reduce the dyspnea and thus increase the exercise tolerance in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This randomized controlled crossover trial investigated the effect of two different levels of PEP (1 cmH2O and 10 cmH2O) on distance covered at 6minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with severe COPD. Secondary outcomes were the evaluation of PEP effects on physiological and pulmonary function variables. Seventy-two severe COPD patients, referred to our hospitals as in and out patients, were recruited. A basal 6MWT without devices was performed on the first day, and then repeated with PEP 1 cmH2O (PEP1) and 10 cmH2O (PEP10), with a randomized crossover design. Slow and forced spirometries, including the inspiratory capacity measure, were repeated before and after each 6MWT. 50 patients (average age 69,92 year, mean FEV1 41,42% of predicted) concluded the trial. The 6MWT improved significantly among both PEP levels and baseline (323,8 mt at baseline vs. 337,8 PEP1 and 341,8 PEP10; p<.002 and p<.018, respectively). The difference between PEP10 and PEP1 did not reach the significance. No improvements were found in pulmonary function, symptoms and physiological variables after the 6MWT. In patients with severe COPD, the application of 1 cmH2O of PEP seems to improve the exercise tolerance as 10 cmH2O, with similar dyspnea. Further studies should investigate the effects of low levels of PEP on aerobic training programs. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Some anomalous behaviour of vertebrates and insects preceding M5+ earthquakes in the North Western Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straser, Valentino

    2013-04-01

    longissimus) was found lying in snow beside a road. A few months later, in the Emilian Po Valley Plain, around 70-80km from the area under investigation, a long seismic sequence featuring seven earthquakes with a magnitude between M5.0 and M6.0, afforded a further opportunity to check for other anomalies. In the area struck by one of the most powerful seisms, local beekeepers noted the sudden disappearance of bees (Apis mellifera) from their hives, especially near San Carlo (Ferrara - Italy), where a deep crack had formed in the ground near the village which, in certain stretches, had raised the ground by as much as half a metre and ejected considerable quantities of mud due to the liquefaction of the sand, in some areas and near the dwellings.

  8. Progress on PEP-II injection R ampersand D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.; Bulos, F.; Fieguth, T.; Godfrey, G.; Loew, G.; Miller, R.

    1993-06-01

    The R ampersand D program described in this paper focuses on an improvement of the SLAC linac designed to extract and study a 9 GeV electron beam under stringent control of energy, energy spread, emittance, optical parameters, and timing. The extraction system begins with an on-axis pulsed magnet, followed by a magnetic lattice and diagnostic equipment required for the measurement and optimization of the above beam qualities. Design, construction, and installation of this system is the first step in the development of the overall PEP-II e ± injection system. This system is required to fill 1658 bunches of 9 GeV electrons (0.99A stored) and 3.1 GeV positrons (2.14A stored) in two separate rings in a total of about 6 minutes from zero ring current (i.e., full-fill mode, 0 to 100%) or in about 3 minutes from 80% ring current (i.e., topping-off mode, 80 to 100%). This unprecedented rate of filling can be met by a judicious use of the SLC linac, damping rings, and positron source

  9. Design of the PEP-II Interaction Region Septum Quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, J.; Tanabe, J.; Yee, D.; Younger, F.

    1997-05-01

    The PEP-II QF2 magnet is one of the final focus quadrupoles for the Low-Energy Ring (LER) and utilizes a septum aperture to accommodate the adjacent High-Energy Ring (HER) beamline. The LER lattice design specification calls for an extremely high field quality for this magnet. A conventional water-cooled copper coil and laminated steel core design was selected to allow adjustment in the excitation. The close proximity between the LER and HER beamlines and the required integrated quadrupole strength result in a moderately high current density septum design. The QF2 magnets are imbedded in a confined region at each end of the BaBar detector, thus requiring a small magnet core cross section. Pole face windings are included in the QF2 design to buck the skew octupole term induced by the solenoidal fringe field that leaks out of the detector. Back-leg windings are included to buck a small dipole component induced by the lack of perfect quadrupole symmetry in this septum design. 2D pole contour optimization and 3D end chamfers are used to minimize harmonic errors; a separate permanent-magnet Harmonic Corrector Ring compensates for remaining field errors. The design methods and approach, 2D and 3D analyses, and the resulting expected magnet performance are described in this paper.

  10. Secondary Electron Emission Yields from PEP-II Accelerator Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    The PEP-II B-Factory at SLAC operates with aluminum alloy and copper vacuum chambers, having design positron and electron beam currents of 2 and 1 A, respectively. Titanium nitride coating of the aluminum vacuum chamber in the arcs of the positron ring is needed in order to reduce undesirable electron-cloud effects. The total secondary electron emission yield of TiN-coated aluminum alloy has been measured after samples of beam chamber material were exposed to air and again after electron-beam bombardment, as a function of incident electron beam angle and energy. The results may be used to simulate and better understand electron-cloud effects under actual operating conditions. We also present yield measurements for other accelerator materials because new surface effects are expected to arise as beam currents increase. Copper, in particular, is growing in popularity for its good thermal conductivity and self-radiation-shielding properties. The effect of electron bombardment, ''conditioning'', on the yield of TiN and copper is shown

  11. PEP-II Large Power Supplies Rebuild Program at SLAC

    CERN Document Server

    de Lira, Antonio C; Lipari, James J; da Silva Rafael, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    At PEP-II, seven large power supplies (LGPS) are used to power quad magnets in the electron-positron collider region. The LGPS ratings range from 72kW to 270kW, and were installed in 1997. They are unipolar off-line switch mode supplies, with a 6 pulse bridge rectifying 480VAC, 3-phase input power to yield 650VDC unregulated. This unregulated 650VDC is then input into one (or two) IGBT H-bridges, which convert the DC into PWM 16 kHz square wave AC. This high frequency AC drives the primary side of a step-down transformer followed by rectifiers and low pass filters. Over the years, these LGPS have presented many problems mainly in their control circuits, making it difficult to troubleshoot and affecting the overall accelerator availability. A redesign/rebuilding program for these power supplies was established under the coordination of the Power Conversion Department at SLAC. During the 2004 accelerator summer shutdown all the control circuits in these supplies were redesigned and replaced. A new PWM control b...

  12. Sensitivity of the PEP beam transport line to perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.; Brown, K.L.

    1979-03-01

    The sensitivity of a beam-transport line to various perturbations determines the extent to which one can simplify component design and relax tolerances. For the PEP injection lines, effects of various fabrication errors, magnet misalignments, and residual gas scattering were studied. Using the TURTLE ray-tracing program, it is found that magnetic-field errors corresponding to a relative sextupole strength in the dipoles of 0.5% and/or a relative sextupole or octupole strength in the quadrupoles of 5% are permissible. This allows relatively loose tolerances in magnet fabrication. Transverse misalignment of a quadrupole by a distance x causes the beam centroid to be displaced downstream by as much as 5x. This requires a quadrupole alignment accuracy of +- 0.5 mm or better. No compensation for the earth's field is necessary because an integral number of optical wavelengths and a short wavelength were used for the design. Analysis shows that beam broadening from multiple coulomb scattering is insignificant for pressures of less than 1/10 torr

  13. Progress on PEP-II injection R ampersand D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.; Bulos, F.; Fieguth, T.; Godfrey, G.; Loew, G.; Miller, R.

    1993-01-01

    The R ampersand D program described in this paper focuses on an improvement of the SLAC linac designed to extract and study a 9 GeV electron beam under stringent control of energy, energy spread, emittance, optical parameters, and timing. The extraction system begins with an on-axis pulsed magnet, followed by a magnetic lattice and diagnostic equipment required for the measurement and optimization of the above beam qualities. Design, construction, and installation of this system is the first step in the development of the overall PEP-II e ± injection system. This system is required to fill 1658 bunches of 9 GeV electrons (0.99A stored) and 3.1 GeV positrons (2.14A stored) in two separate rings in a total of about 6 minutes from zero ring current (i.e., full-fill mode, 0 to 100%) or in about 3 minutes from 80% ring current (i.e., topping-off mode, 80 to 100%). This unprecedented rate of filling can be met by a judicious use of the SLC linac, damping rings, and positron source

  14. Lattice Effects Due to High Currents in PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.-J.; Smith, H.; Turner, J.L.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The very high beam currents in the PEP-II B-Factory have caused many expected and unexpected effects: Synchrotron light fans move the beam pipe and cause dispersion; higher order modes cause excessive heating, e-clouds around the positron beam blow up its beam size. Here we describe an effect where the measured dispersion of the beam in the Low Energy Ring (LER) is different at high and at low beam currents. The dispersion was iteratively lowered by making anti-symmetric orbit bumps in many sextupole duplets, checking each time with a dispersion measurement where a dispersive kick is generated. This can be done parasitically during collisions. It was a surprise when checking the low current characterization data that there is a change. Subsequent high and low current measurements confirmed the effect. One source was believed to be located far away from any synchrotron radiation in the middle of a straight (PR12), away from sextupoles and skew quadrupoles and created a dispersion wave of about 70 mm at high current while at low current it is negligible

  15. Can PEP-3 Provide a Cognitive Profile in Children with ASD? A Comparison between the Developmental Ages of PEP-3 and IQ of Leiter-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Cristella, Arcangelo; Terenzio, Vanessa; Buttiglione, Maura; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The assessment of the intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important to plan a detailed therapeutic-educative programme. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) to estimate the general cognitive development of children with ASD.…

  16. Gerbes, M5-brane anomalies and E{sub 8} gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschieri, Paolo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Universita del Piemonte Orientale and INFN, Via Bellini 25/G, 15100 Alessandria (Italy) and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805, Munich (Germany) and Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: aschieri@theorie.physik.uni-muenchen.de; Jurco, Branislav [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foeringer Ring 6, D-80805, Munich (Germany); Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muechen, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Abelian gerbes and twisted bundles describe the topology of the NS 3-form gauge field strength H. We review how they have been usefully applied to study and resolve global anomalies in open string theory. Abelian 2-gerbes and twisted nonabelian gerbes describe the topology of the 4-form field strength G of M-theory. We show that twisted nonabelian gerbes are relevant in the study and resolution of global anomalies of multiple coinciding M5-branes. Global anomalies for one M5-brane have been studied by Witten and by Diaconescu, Freed and Moore. The structure and the differential geometry of twisted nonabelian gerbes (i.e. modules for 2-gerbes) is defined and studied. The nonabelian 2-form gauge potential living on multiple coinciding M5-branes arises as curving (curvature) of twisted nonabelian gerbes. The nonabelian group is in general {omega}-tildeE{sub 8}, the central extension of the E{sub 8} loop group. The twist is in general necessary to cancel global anomalies due to the non-triviality of the 11-dimensional 4-form field strength G and due to the possible torsion present in the cycles the M5-branes wrap. Our description of M5-branes global anomalies leads to the D4-branes one upon compactification of M-theory to Type IIA theory. (author)

  17. The 2017 North Korea M6 seismic sequence: moment tensor, source time function, and aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, S.; Zhan, Z.; Chu, R.; He, X.

    2017-12-01

    On September 3rd, 2017, an M6 seismic event occurred in North Korea, with location near previous nuclear test sites. The event features strong P waves and short period Rayleigh waves are observed in contrast to weak S waves, suggesting mostly explosion mechanism. We performed joint inversion for moment tensor and depth with both local and teleseismic waveforms, and find that the event is shallow with mostly isotropic yet substantial non-isotropic components. Deconvolution of seismic waveforms of this event with respect to previous nuclear test events shows clues of complexity in source time function. The event is followed by smaller earthquakes, as early as 8.5 minutes and lasted at least to October. The later events occurred in a compact region, and show clear S waves, suggesting double couple focal mechanism. Via analyzing Rayleigh wave spectrum, these smaller events are found to be shallow. Relative locations, difference in waveforms of the events are used to infer their possible links and generation mechanism.

  18. Massive splenomegaly in acute erythroid leukaemia (FAB Class-M6): an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherazi, Syed Furqan Haider; Butt, Zeeshan

    2012-09-01

    AML-M6 has a peak incidence in the seventh decade with slight male preponderance, and can also present at a younger age. The usual features are anaemia, thrombocytopenia, malaise, fatigue, easy bruising, epistaxis and petechiae. Splenomegaly may occur in 20-40 % of the cases but massive splenomegaly is rare presentation and have been only reported once in humans and once in animals. A 22 year Asian female, presented with fatigue, pallor, mild jaundice, exertional dyspnoea, epigastric pain, tender right hypochondrium and massive splenomegaly. Investigations revealed anaemia and thrombocytopenia, tear drop cells, basophilic stippling, piokilocytosis and anisochromia; increased uric acid and LDH. Abdominal ultrasound showed enlarged liver (22cm) and spleen (20cm). Bone marrow aspiration revealed 51% erythroid and 24% non-erythroid precursors, depressed leukopoeisis and megakarypoeisis. Erythroblasts were PAS and CD71 positive and also reacted to Antihaemoglobin-Antibody. This report highlights characteristic features and diagnostic criteria of erythroleukaemia, differential diagnosis of massive splenomegaly and their rare association.

  19. Groundwater oxygen isotope anomaly before the M6.6 Tottori earthquake in Southwest Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Satoki; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Kagoshima, Takanori; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Shibata, Tomo; Pinti, Daniele L; Lan, Tefang; Kim, Nak Kyu; Kusakabe, Minoru; Nishio, Yoshiro

    2018-03-19

    Geochemical monitoring of groundwater in seismically-active regions has been carried out since 1970s. Precursors were well documented, but often criticized for anecdotal or fragmentary signals, and for lacking a clear physico-chemical explanation for these anomalies. Here we report - as potential seismic precursor - oxygen isotopic ratio anomalies of +0.24‰ relative to the local background measured in groundwater, a few months before the Tottori earthquake (M 6.6) in Southwest Japan. Samples were deep groundwater located 5 km west of the epicenter, packed in bottles and distributed as drinking water between September 2015 and July 2017, a time frame which covers the pre- and post-event. Small but substantial increase of 0.07‰ was observed soon after the earthquake. Laboratory crushing experiments of aquifer rock aimed to simulating rock deformation under strain and tensile stresses were carried out. Measured helium degassing from the rock and 18 O-shift suggest that the co-seismic oxygen anomalies are directly related to volumetric strain changes. The findings provide a plausible physico-chemical basis to explain geochemical anomalies in water and may be useful in future earthquake prediction research.

  20. Accuracy of an unstructured-grid upwind-Euler algorithm for the ONERA M6 wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batina, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Improved algorithms for the solution of the three-dimensional, time-dependent Euler equations are presented for aerodynamic analysis involving unstructured dynamic meshes. The improvements have been developed recently to the spatial and temporal discretizations used by unstructured-grid flow solvers. The spatial discretization involves a flux-split approach that is naturally dissipative and captures shock waves sharply with at most one grid point within the shock structure. The temporal discretization involves either an explicit time-integration scheme using a multistage Runge-Kutta procedure or an implicit time-integration scheme using a Gauss-Seidel relaxation procedure, which is computationally efficient for either steady or unsteady flow problems. With the implicit Gauss-Seidel procedure, very large time steps may be used for rapid convergence to steady state, and the step size for unsteady cases may be selected for temporal accuracy rather than for numerical stability. Steady flow results are presented for both the NACA 0012 airfoil and the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales M6 wing to demonstrate applications of the new Euler solvers. The paper presents a description of the Euler solvers along with results and comparisons that assess the capability.

  1. Peptide drug stability: The anti-inflammatory drugs Pep19-2.5 and Pep19-4LF in cream formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Nicole; Heinbockel, Lena; Correa, Wilmar; Gutsmann, Thomas; Goldmann, Torsten; Englisch, Uwe; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2018-03-30

    In previous years, we developed anti-infective drugs based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have been shown to effectively block severe infections and inflammation in vitro as well as in vivo. Besides systemic application, the occurrence of severe local infections necessitates a topical application for example in the case of severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Recent investigations show that the synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptide (SALP) Pep19-2.5 (Aspidasept® I) and a variant called Pep19-4LF (Aspidasept® II) are able to supress inflammation reactions also in keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and dendritic cells from the skin. For topical application, a possible formulation represents the drug dispersed into a pharmaceutical cream (DAC base cream). Here, we present investigations on the stability of the peptides using this formulation in dependence on time, which includes the evaluation of the extraction procedure, the quantitative analysis of the peptides after extraction, its sensitivity to protease degradation and its ability to maintain activity against LPS-induced inflammation in vitro. We have developed an extraction procedure for the peptides with an optimum yield and showed that Pep19-2.5 is present as a dimer after extraction from the cream, whereas Pep19-4LF retains its monomeric form. Both peptides show no degradation by chymotrypsin after extraction for at least 1 h, which is indicative for an attachment of constituents of the base cream, inhibiting the cutting into peptidic part structures. The extracted peptides and in particular the dimeric Pep19-2.5 are still able to inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation reaction in human mononuclear cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of beam size and polarization time in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.M.; Rees, J.R.; Wiedemann, H.

    1975-07-01

    In this report we describe a method of controlling beam size in which the focusing functions are not altered with beam energy but the curvature function is drastically altered in a few locations which comprise only a very small fraction of the circumference. As will be described in the following paper we are proposing to control the quantum excitation and radiation damping of the particles by means of special excitation magnets or /open quotes/wigglers/close quotes/. Since the mean square energy deviation and radial beam emittance are proportional approximately to E/sup 2//l angle/G/sup 3//r angle//l angle/G/sup 2//r angle//sup /minus/1 while the damping times are proportional to (E/sup 3//l angle/G/sup 2//r angle/)/sup /minus/1/, it is possible to achieve constant beam size in a constant focusing configuration while the damping times vary roughly as E/sup /minus/2/. In addition, it is possible to reduce the beam polarization time with these devices. A scheme for beam-size and damping control based on the same principle was described by M. Bassetti about a year ago, in which all of the storage-ring bending magnets were involved as wigglers, and a substantial increase in magnet cost resulted. The consequences for polarization times were not explored. The design formulae are derived and two specific applications to the PEP design in which the wigglers are installed in three of the six 5-m straight sections are described with attention given to practical magnet design, synchrotron radiation handling and other matters. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Estimate of spin polarization for PEP using generalized transformation matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1978-04-01

    The spin polarization for PEP has been estimated before by using simplified models. The main difficulty in the previous estimates is that the strength of depolarization effects caused by various electromagnetic field errors could not be specified accurately. To overcome this difficulty, a matrix formalism for depolarization calculation was developed recently. One basic ingredient of this theory is to represent an electron by an 8-dimensional state vector, X = (x,x',y,y',z,δ,α,β) where the first six coordinates are the usual transverse and longitudinal canonical coordinates, while α and β are the two components of the electron's spin vector perpendicular to the equilibrium direction of polarization /cflx n/. The degree of depolarization is specified by 1/2(α 2 + β 2 ). The state vector X will be transformed by an 8 x 8 matrix as the electron passes through a beam-line element such as a bending magnet or an rf cavity. From any position s, one multiplies successively the 8 x 8 matrices around one revolution of the storage ring to obtain the total transformation T(s). Any impulse perturbation ΔX to the electron's state vector occurring at s will be transformed repeatedly by T(s) as the electron circulates around the storage ring. Another basic ingredient is to decompose ΔX into 8 eigenstate components with eigenvectors determined from T(s). Six of these eigenstate components corresponding to the space states will be damped out by the usual radiation damping. The projections of ΔX onto the remaining two spin eigenstates are directly related to the loss of polarization due to the impulse perturbation ΔX. Depolarization effects can thus be calculated directly once all perturbations are specified. 7 refs., 4 figs

  4. Increased amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, sensitization, and accumbal dopamine release in M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lene S; Miller, Anthony D; Lester, Deranda B

    2010-01-01

    showed that M(5) receptor knockout (M (5) (-/-) ) mice are less sensitive to the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we investigate the role of M(5) receptors in the effects of amphetamine and cocaine on locomotor activity, locomotor sensitization, and dopamine release......-induced hyperactivity and dopamine release as well as amphetamine sensitization are enhanced in mice lacking the M(5) receptor. These results support the concept that the M(5) receptor modulates effects of addictive drugs....

  5. Large scale validation of the M5L lung CAD on heterogeneous CT datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Torres, E., E-mail: Ernesto.Lopez.Torres@cern.ch, E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it [CEADEN, Havana 11300, Cuba and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Fiorina, E.; Pennazio, F.; Peroni, C. [Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino 10125, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Saletta, M.; Cerello, P., E-mail: Ernesto.Lopez.Torres@cern.ch, E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Camarlinghi, N.; Fantacci, M. E. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Pisa 56127, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: M5L, a fully automated computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection and segmentation of lung nodules in thoracic computed tomography (CT), is presented and validated on several image datasets. Methods: M5L is the combination of two independent subsystems, based on the Channeler Ant Model as a segmentation tool [lung channeler ant model (lungCAM)] and on the voxel-based neural approach. The lungCAM was upgraded with a scan equalization module and a new procedure to recover the nodules connected to other lung structures; its classification module, which makes use of a feed-forward neural network, is based of a small number of features (13), so as to minimize the risk of lacking generalization, which could be possible given the large difference between the size of the training and testing datasets, which contain 94 and 1019 CTs, respectively. The lungCAM (standalone) and M5L (combined) performance was extensively tested on 1043 CT scans from three independent datasets, including a detailed analysis of the full Lung Image Database Consortium/Image Database Resource Initiative database, which is not yet found in literature. Results: The lungCAM and M5L performance is consistent across the databases, with a sensitivity of about 70% and 80%, respectively, at eight false positive findings per scan, despite the variable annotation criteria and acquisition and reconstruction conditions. A reduced sensitivity is found for subtle nodules and ground glass opacities (GGO) structures. A comparison with other CAD systems is also presented. Conclusions: The M5L performance on a large and heterogeneous dataset is stable and satisfactory, although the development of a dedicated module for GGOs detection could further improve it, as well as an iterative optimization of the training procedure. The main aim of the present study was accomplished: M5L results do not deteriorate when increasing the dataset size, making it a candidate for supporting radiologists on large

  6. Polarization functions for the modified m6-31G basis sets for atoms Ga through Kr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitin, Alexander V

    2013-09-05

    The 2df polarization functions for the modified m6-31G basis sets of the third-row atoms Ga through Kr (Int J Quantum Chem, 2007, 107, 3028; Int J. Quantum Chem, 2009, 109, 1158) are proposed. The performances of the m6-31G, m6-31G(d,p), and m6-31G(2df,p) basis sets were examined in molecular calculations carried out by the density functional theory (DFT) method with B3LYP hybrid functional, Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of the second order (MP2), quadratic configuration interaction method with single and double substitutions and were compared with those for the known 6-31G basis sets as well as with the other similar 641 and 6-311G basis sets with and without polarization functions. Obtained results have shown that the performances of the m6-31G, m6-31G(d,p), and m6-31G(2df,p) basis sets are better in comparison with the performances of the known 6-31G, 6-31G(d,p) and 6-31G(2df,p) basis sets. These improvements are mainly reached due to better approximations of different electrons belonging to the different atomic shells in the modified basis sets. Applicability of the modified basis sets in thermochemical calculations is also discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Influence of the metal ion on the enzyme activity and kinetics of PepA from Lactobacillus delbrueckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Jacob; Glück, Claudia; Strasdeit, Henry; Fischer, Lutz; Stressler, Timo

    2018-03-01

    The aminopeptidase A (PepA; EC 3.4.11.7) belongs to the group of metallopeptidases with two bound metal ions per subunit (M1M2(PepA)) and is specific for the cleavage of N-terminal glutamic (Glu) and aspartic acid (Asp) and, in low amounts, serine (Ser) residues. Our group recently characterized the first PepA from a Lactobacillus strain. However, the characterization was performed using synthetic para-nitroaniline substrates and not original peptide substrates, as was done in the current study. Prior to the characterization using original peptide substrates, the PepA purified was converted to its inactive apo-form and eight different metal ions were tested to restore its activity. It was found that five of the metal ions were able to reactivate apo-PepA: Co 2+ , Cu 2+ , Mn 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ . Interestingly, depending on the metal ion used for reactivation, the activity and the pH and temperature profile differed. Exemplarily, MnMn(PepA), NiNi(PepA) and ZnZn(PepA) had an activity optimum using MES buffer (50mM, pH 6.0) and 60°C, whereas the activity optimum changed to Na/K-phosphate-buffer (50mM, pH 7.0) and 55°C for CuCu(PepA). However, more important than the changes in optimum pH and temperature, the kinetic properties of PepA were affected by the metal ion used. While all PepA variants could release N-terminal Glu or Asp, only CoCo(PepA), NiNi(PepA) and CuCu(PepA) could release Ser from the particular peptide substrate. In addition, it was found that the enzyme efficiency (V max /K M ) and catalytic mechanism (positive cooperative binding (Hill coefficent; n), substrate inhibition (K IS )) were influenced by the metal ion. Exemplarily, a high cooperativity (n>2),K IS value >20mM and preference for N-terminal Glu were detected for CuCu(PepA). In summary, the results suggested that an exchange of the metal ion can be used for tailoring the properties of PepA for specific hydrolysis requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased β-haemolytic group A streptococcal M6 serotype and streptodornase B-specific cellular immune responses in Swedish narcolepsy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, A; Poiret, T; Svahn, B-M; Valentini, D; Khademi, M; Kockum, I; Lima, I; Arnheim-Dahlström, L; Lamb, F; Fink, K; Meng, Q; Kumar, A; Rane, L; Olsson, T; Maeurer, M

    2015-09-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy associated with the HLA allele DQB1*06:02. Genetic predisposition along with external triggering factors may drive autoimmune responses, ultimately leading to the selective loss of hypocretin-positive neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate potential aetiological factors in Swedish cases of postvaccination (Pandemrix) narcolepsy defined by interferon-gamma (IFNγ) production from immune cells in response to molecularly defined targets. Cellular reactivity defined by IFNγ production was examined in blood from 38 (HLA-DQB1*06:02(+) ) Pandemrix-vaccinated narcolepsy cases and 76 (23 HLA-DQB1*06:02(+) and 53 HLA-DQB1*06:02(-) ) control subjects, matched for age, sex and exposure, using a variety of different antigens: β-haemolytic group A streptococcal (GAS) antigens (M5, M6 and streptodornase B), influenza (the pandemic A/H1N1/California/7/09 NYMC X-179A and A/H1N1/California/7/09 NYMC X-181 vaccine antigens, previous Flu-A and -B vaccine targets, A/H1N1/Brisbane/59/2007, A/H1N1/Solomon Islands/3/2006, A/H3N2/Uruguay/716/2007, A/H3N2/Wisconsin/67/2005, A/H5N1/Vietnam/1203/2004 and B/Malaysia/2506/2004), noninfluenza viral targets (CMVpp65, EBNA-1 and EBNA-3) and auto-antigens (hypocretin peptide, Tribbles homolog 2 peptide cocktail and extract from rat hypothalamus tissue). IFN-γ production was significantly increased in whole blood from narcolepsy cases in response to streptococcus serotype M6 (P = 0.0065) and streptodornase B protein (P = 0.0050). T-cell recognition of M6 and streptodornase B was confirmed at the single-cell level by intracellular cytokine (IL-2, IFNγ, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-17) production after stimulation with synthetic M6 or streptodornase B peptides. Significantly, higher (P = 0.02) titres of serum antistreptolysin O were observed in narcolepsy cases, compared to vaccinated controls. β-haemolytic GAS may be

  9. He I D3 OBSERVATIONS OF THE 1984 MAY 22 M6.3 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chang; Xu Yan; Deng Na; Lee, Jeongwoo; Zhang Jifeng; Wang Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Prasad Choudhary, Debi, E-mail: chang.liu@njit.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330-0001 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The He I D3 line has a unique response to a flare impact on the low solar atmosphere and can be a powerful diagnostic tool for energy transport processes. Using images obtained from the recently digitized films of the Big Bear Solar Observatory, we report D3 observations of the M6.3 flare on 1984 May 22, which occurred in an active region with a circular magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL). The impulsive phase of the flare starts with a main elongated source that darkens in D3, inside of which bright emission kernels appear at the time of the initial small peak in hard X-rays (HXRs). These flare cores subsequently evolve into a sharp emission strand lying within the dark halo; this evolution occurs at the same time as the main peak in HXRs, reversing the overall source contrast from -5% to 5%. The radiated energy in D3 during the main peak is estimated to be about 10{sup 30} erg, which is comparable to that carried by nonthermal electrons above 20 keV. Afterward, the flare proceeds along the circular PIL in the counterclockwise direction to form a dark circular ribbon in D3, which apparently mirrors the bright ribbons in H{alpha} and He I 10830 A. All of these ribbons last for over one hour in the late gradual phase. We suggest that the present event resembles the so-called black-light flare that was proposed based on continuum images, and that D3 darkening and brightening features herein may be due to thermal conduction heating and the direct precipitation of high-energy electrons, respectively.

  10. Selective Co-Encapsulation Inside an M6 L4 Cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Stefan H A M; Becker, René; Kumpulainen, Tatu; de Bruin, Bas; Sawada, Tomohisa; Kato, Taito; Fujita, Makoto; Reek, Joost N H

    2016-10-17

    There is broad interest in molecular encapsulation as such systems can be utilized to stabilize guests, facilitate reactions inside a cavity, or give rise to energy-transfer processes in a confined space. Detailed understanding of encapsulation events is required to facilitate functional molecular encapsulation. In this contribution, it is demonstrated that Ir and Rh-Cp-type metal complexes can be encapsulated inside a self-assembled M 6 L 4 metallocage only in the presence of an aromatic compound as a second guest. The individual guests are not encapsulated, suggesting that only the pair of guests can fill the void of the cage. Hence, selective co-encapsulation is observed. This principle is demonstrated by co-encapsulation of a variety of combinations of metal complexes and aromatic guests, leading to several ternary complexes. These experiments demonstrate that the efficiency of formation of the ternary complexes depends on the individual components. Moreover, selective exchange of the components is possible, leading to formation of the most favorable complex. Besides the obvious size effect, a charge-transfer interaction may also contribute to this effect. Charge-transfer bands are clearly observed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry. A change in the oxidation potential of the encapsulated electron donor also leads to a shift in the charge-transfer energy bands. As expected, metal complexes with a higher oxidation potential give rise to a higher charge-transfer energy and a larger hypsochromic shift in the UV/Vis spectrum. These subtle energy differences may potentially be used to control the binding and reactivity of the complexes bound in a confined space. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Assembly mechanism of FCT region type 1 pili in serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Masanobu; Kimura, Keiji Richard; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Wada, Satoshi; Sugauchi, Akinari; Oiki, Eiji; Higashino, Miharu; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Podbielski, Andreas; Okahashi, Nobuo; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Isoda, Ryutaro; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2011-10-28

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes produces diverse pili depending on the serotype. We investigated the assembly mechanism of FCT type 1 pili in a serotype M6 strain. The pili were found to be assembled from two precursor proteins, the backbone protein T6 and ancillary protein FctX, and anchored to the cell wall in a manner that requires both a housekeeping sortase enzyme (SrtA) and pilus-associated sortase enzyme (SrtB). SrtB is primarily required for efficient formation of the T6 and FctX complex and subsequent polymerization of T6, whereas proper anchoring of the pili to the cell wall is mainly mediated by SrtA. Because motifs essential for polymerization of pilus backbone proteins in other Gram-positive bacteria are not present in T6, we sought to identify the functional residues involved in this process. Our results showed that T6 encompasses the novel VAKS pilin motif conserved in streptococcal T6 homologues and that the lysine residue (Lys-175) within the motif and cell wall sorting signal of T6 are prerequisites for isopeptide linkage of T6 molecules. Because Lys-175 and the cell wall sorting signal of FctX are indispensable for substantial incorporation of FctX into the T6 pilus shaft, FctX is suggested to be located at the pilus tip, which was also implied by immunogold electron microscopy findings. Thus, the elaborate assembly of FCT type 1 pili is potentially organized by sortase-mediated cross-linking between sorting signals and the amino group of Lys-175 positioned in the VAKS motif of T6, thereby displaying T6 and FctX in a temporospatial manner.

  12. Postearthquake relaxation after the 2004 M6 Parkfield, California, earthquake and rate-and-state friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J.C.; Langbein, J.

    2008-01-01

    An unusually complete set of measurements (including rapid rate GPS over the first 10 days) of postseismic deformation is available at 12 continuous GPS stations located close to the epicenter of the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake. The principal component modes for the relaxation of the ensemble of those 12 GPS stations were determined. The first mode alone furnishes an adequate approximation to the data. Thus, the relaxation at all stations can be represented by the product of a common temporal function and distinct amplitudes for each component (north or east) of relaxation at each station. The distribution in space of the amplitudes indicates that the relaxation is dominantly strike slip. The temporal function, which spans times from about 5 min to 900 days postearthquake, can be fit by a superposition of three creep terms, each of the form ??l loge(1 + t/??l), with characteristic times ??, = 4.06, 0.11, and 0.0001 days. It seems likely that what is actually involved is a broad spectrum of characteristic times, the individual components of which arise from afterslip on different fault patches. Perfettini and Avouac (2004) have shown that an individual creep term can be explained by the spring-slider model with rate-dependent (no state variable) friction. The observed temporal function can also be explained using a single spring-slider model (i.e., single fault patch) that includes rate-and-state-dependent friction, a single-state variable, and either of the two commonly used (aging and slip) state evolution laws. In the latter fits, the rate-and-state friction parameter b is negative.

  13. PepMapper: a collaborative web tool for mapping epitopes from affinity-selected peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhan Chen

    Full Text Available Epitope mapping from affinity-selected peptides has become popular in epitope prediction, and correspondingly many Web-based tools have been developed in recent years. However, the performance of these tools varies in different circumstances. To address this problem, we employed an ensemble approach to incorporate two popular Web tools, MimoPro and Pep-3D-Search, together for taking advantages offered by both methods so as to give users more options for their specific purposes of epitope-peptide mapping. The combined operation of Union finds as many associated peptides as possible from both methods, which increases sensitivity in finding potential epitopic regions on a given antigen surface. The combined operation of Intersection achieves to some extent the mutual verification by the two methods and hence increases the likelihood of locating the genuine epitopic region on a given antigen in relation to the interacting peptides. The Consistency between Intersection and Union is an indirect sufficient condition to assess the likelihood of successful peptide-epitope mapping. On average from 27 tests, the combined operations of PepMapper outperformed either MimoPro or Pep-3D-Search alone. Therefore, PepMapper is another multipurpose mapping tool for epitope prediction from affinity-selected peptides. The Web server can be freely accessed at: http://informatics.nenu.edu.cn/PepMapper/

  14. Performance of the PEP-II B-Factory Collider at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.J.; Donald, M.H.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.A.; Fisher, A.S.; Fox, J.D.; Heifets, S.A.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Li, N.; Novokhatski, A.; Ross, M.C.; Schuh, P.; Smith, T.J.; Sonnad, K.G.; Stanek, M.; Sullivan, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    PEP-II is an e + e - asymmetric B-Factory Collider located at SLAC operating at the Upsilon 4S resonance (3.1 GeV x 9 GeV). It has reached a luminosity of 9.21 x 10 33 /cm 2 /s and has delivered an integrated luminosity of 710 pb -1 in one day. PEP-II has delivered, over the past six years, an integrated luminosity to the BaBar detector of over 262 fb -1 . PEP-II operates in continuous injection mode for both beams boosting the integrated luminosity. The peak positron current has reached 2.45 A in 1588 bunches. Steady progress is being made in reaching higher luminosity. The goal over the next several years is to reach a luminosity of 2.1 x 10 34 /cm 2 /s. The accelerator physics issues being addressed in PEP-II to reach this goal include the electron cloud instability, beam-beam effects, parasitic beam-beam effects, high RF beam loading, shorter bunches, lower β* y interaction region operation, and coupling control. Figure 1 shows the PEP-II tunnel

  15. Effect of Bio-inoculants Applied to M 5 Mulberry Under Rain-fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out at the department of sericulture, GKVK, UAS, Bangalore, India in 2007 with an objective to determine the effect of three bio-inoculants application to M5 mulberry plant on silkworm (PM x CSR2) growth, development and coocoon traits. The feeding experiment was laid-out in ...

  16. Hidden selection rules, M5-instantons and fluxes in F-theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ‘Galileo Galilei’, Università di Padova, & I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Weigand, Timo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-10-21

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the selection rules governing the contributions of fluxed M5-instantons to the F-theory four-dimensional effective action, with emphasis on the generation of charged matter F-terms. The structure of such couplings is unraveled by exploiting the perturbative and non-perturbative homological relations, introduced in our companion paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2015)198, which encode the interplay between the self-dual 3-form flux on the M5-brane, the background 4-form flux and certain fibral curves. The latter are wrapped by time-like M2-branes representing matter insertions in the instanton path integral. In particular, we clarify how fluxed M5-instantons detect the presence of geometrically massive U(1)s which are responsible for ‘hidden’ selection rules. We discuss how for non-generic embeddings the M5-instanton can probe ‘locally massless’ U(1) symmetries if the rank of its Mordell-Weil group is enhanced compared to that of the bulk. As a phenomenological off-spring we propose a new type of non-perturbative corrections to Yukawa couplings which may change the rank of the Yukawa matrix. Along the way, we also gain new insights into the structure of massive U(1) gauge fluxes in the stable degeneration limit.

  17. Molecular characterization and expression of the M6 gene of grass carp hemorrhage virus (GCHV), an aquareovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, T; Lu, R H; Zhang, J; Zhu, Z Y

    2001-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of M6 gene of grass carp hemorrhage virus (GCHV) was determined. It is 2039 nucleotides in length and contains a single large open reading frame that could encode a protein of 648 amino acids with predicted molecular mass of 68.7 kDa. Amino acid sequence comparison revealed that the protein encoded by GCHV M6 is closely related to the protein mu1 of mammalian reovirus. The M6 gene, encoding the major outer-capsid protein, was expressed using the pET fusion protein vector in Escherichia coli and detected by Western blotting using chicken anti-GCHV immunoglobulin (IgY). The result indicates that the protein encoded by M6 may share a putative Asn-42-Pro-43 proteolytic cleavage site with mu1.

  18. Giant graviton interactions and M2-branes ending on multiple M5-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shinji; Sato, Yuki

    2018-05-01

    We study splitting and joining interactions of giant gravitons with angular momenta N 1/2 ≪ J ≪ N in the type IIB string theory on AdS 5 × S 5 by describing them as instantons in the tiny graviton matrix model introduced by Sheikh-Jabbari. At large J the instanton equation can be mapped to the four-dimensional Laplace equation and the Coulomb potential for m point charges in an n-sheeted Riemann space corresponds to the m-to- n interaction process of giant gravitons. These instantons provide the holographic dual of correlators of all semi-heavy operators and the instanton amplitudes exactly agree with the pp-wave limit of Schur polynomial correlators in N = 4 SYM computed by Corley, Jevicki and Ramgoolam. By making a slight change of variables the same instanton equation is mathematically transformed into the Basu-Harvey equation which describes the system of M2-branes ending on M5-branes. As it turns out, the solutions to the sourceless Laplace equation on an n-sheeted Riemann space correspond to n M5-branes connected by M2-branes and we find general solutions representing M2-branes ending on multiple M5-branes. Among other solutions, the n = 3 case describes an M2-branes junction ending on three M5-branes. The effective theory on the moduli space of our solutions might shed light on the low energy effective theory of multiple M5-branes.

  19. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF INTERMEDIATE-MASS STAR MEMBERS OF THE M6 (NGC 6405) OPEN CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kılıçoğlu, T.; Albayrak, B. [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara (Turkey); Monier, R. [LESIA, UMR 8109, Observatoire de Paris Meudon, Place J. Janssen, Meudon (France); Richer, J. [Département de physique, Université de Montréal, 2900, Boulevard Edouard-Montpetit, Montréal QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Fossati, L., E-mail: tkilicoglu@ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: balbayrak@ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: Richard.Monier@obspm.fr, E-mail: Jacques.Richer@umontreal.ca, E-mail: lfossati@astro.uni-bonn.de [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We present here the first abundance analysis of 44 late B-, A-, and F-type members of the young open cluster M6 (NGC 6405, age about 75 Myr). Low- and medium-resolution spectra, covering the 4500–5840 Å wavelength range, were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the ESO Very Large Telescopes. We determined the atmospheric parameters using calibrations of the Geneva photometry and by adjusting the H{sub β} profiles to synthetic ones. The abundances of up to 20 chemical elements, from helium to mercury, were derived for 19 late B, 16 A, and 9 F stars by iteratively adjusting synthetic spectra to the observations. We also derived a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.03 dex from the iron abundances of the F-type stars. We find that for most chemical elements, the normal late B- and A-type stars exhibit larger star-to-star abundance variations than the F-type stars probably because of the faster rotation of the B and A stars. The abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, and Sc appear to be anticorrelated with that of Fe, while the opposite holds for the abundances of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Y, and Ba as expected if radiative diffusion is efficient in the envelopes of these stars. In the course of this analysis, we discovered five new peculiar stars: one mild Am, one Am, and one Fm star (HD 318091, CD-32 13109, GSC 07380-01211, CP1), one HgMn star (HD 318126, CP3), and one He-weak P-rich (HD 318101, CP4) star. We also discovered a new spectroscopic binary, most likely a SB2. We performed a detailed modeling of HD 318101, the new He-weak P-rich CP star, using the Montréal stellar evolution code XEVOL which self-consistently treats all particle transport processes. Although the overall abundance pattern of this star is properly reproduced, we find that detailed abundances (in particular the high P excess) resisted modeling attempts even when a range of turbulence profiles and mass-loss rates were considered. Solutions are proposed which are

  20. The April 2017 M6.7 Botswana Earthquake: Implications for African Intraplate Seismicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardonio, B.; Calais, E.; Jolivet, R.

    2017-12-01

    The last decades have seen a rapidly increasing number of studies of interplate seismicity, revealing for instance the fundamental relationship between seismic and aseismic slip along plate boundary faults. To the contrary, intraplate earthquakes, occurring far from plate boundaries are still misunderstood and by far less studied. Key questions are the mechanisms through which elastic strain builds up and is released in the seismogenic crust in such contexts, in the absence of (yet) measurable intraplate strain rates. The April 2017 M6.7 Botswana earthquake was a surprise in many ways. This is the largest recorded event that struck this ordinarily seismically quiet region, West to the East-African Rift system where most of the usual southern seismicity occurs. It may also be the largest intraplate event recorded since the 1988 Tennant Creek earthquake in central Australia. No active structure can be mapped at the surface. Active extension related to the east African rifting may occur several hundreds of kilometers to the north-east with low rates of a few mm per year. Closer to the event, the Okavango delta, located at 20° of latitude and 23° of longitude is considered by some as an incipient rift with very low deformation rates, similar to a large part of the southern African continent. Interestingly, seismic activity in the area of the recent Botswana earthquake is more important than the world average intraplate activity, potentially due to rifting to the east and/or large stresses induced by lateral gradients in gravitational potential energy (this part of the world has an altitude of 1000 to 2000 m.). The aim of this study is to better constrain the tectonic setting and the dynamics of the Botswana earthquake area. To do so, we analyze a Sentinel 1 interferogram of the event to constrain the strike, dip, depth, magnitude and location of the earthquake. We also analyze continuous teleseismic signals during two months centered on the mainshock using a template

  1. E-DECIDER Rapid Response to the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Eguchi, R. T.; Huyck, C. K.; Hu, Z.; Chen, Z.; Yoder, M. R.; Rundle, J. B.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    E-DECIDER initiated rapid response mode when the California Earthquake Clearinghouse was activated the morning following the M6 Napa earthquake. Data products, including: 1) rapid damage and loss estimates, 2) deformation magnitude and slope change maps, and 3) aftershock forecasts were provided to the Clearinghouse partners within 24 hours of the event via XchangeCore Web Service Data Orchestration sharing. NASA data products were provided to end-users via XchangeCore, EERI and Clearinghouse websites, and ArcGIS online for Napa response, reaching a wide response audience. The E-DECIDER team helped facilitate rapid delivery of NASA products to stakeholders and participated in Clearinghouse Napa earthquake briefings to update stakeholders on product information. Rapid response products from E-DECIDER can be used to help prioritize response efforts shortly after the event has occurred. InLET (Internet Loss Estimation Tool) post-event damage and casualty estimates were generated quickly after the Napa earthquake. InLET provides immediate post-event estimates of casualties and building damage by performing loss/impact simulations using USGS ground motion data and FEMA HAZUS damage estimation technology. These results were provided to E-DECIDER by their collaborators, ImageCat, Inc. and the Community Stakeholder Network (CSN). Strain magnitude and slope change maps were automatically generated when the Napa earthquake appeared on the USGS feed. These maps provide an early estimate of where the deformation has occurred and where damage may be localized. Using E-DECIDER critical infrastructure overlays with damage estimates, decision makers can direct response effort that can be verified later with field reconnaissance and remote sensing-based observations. Earthquake aftershock forecast maps were produced within hours of the event. These maps highlight areas where aftershocks are likely to occur and can also be coupled with infrastructure overlays to help direct response

  2. Search for highly interacting fractionally charged particles at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodzimierz, G.

    1982-01-01

    Fractionally charged, highly interacting particles produced in e + e - annihilation at 20 GeV c.m. energy have been search for. The experiment was performed at the positron electron storage ring (PEP) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The search used in the innermost part of the two-arm Free Quark Search (FQS) detector. This part was called the Thin Front End (TFE) and it covered 1/3 of the full solid angle. Each of its arms consisted of five multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC's), used for tracking and dE/dx measurement, and three hodoscopes of 0.16 cm thick Pilot F scintillator. The total thickness of the five MWPC's and the beam pipe was 0.007 hadronic collision lengths (lambda/sub c/). No candidates for fractionally charged particles were found. Upper limits on R/sub q anti q/ = sigma(e + e - →q anti q)/sigma(e + e - →μμ) are between: (1) 0.7% to 7% for quark interaction lengths (lambda/sub q/) equal to lambda/sub c/ and between 3% and 33% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ for Q = 1/3e quark charge and for quark masses up to 13 GeV/c 2 ; (2) 2% to 38% for lambda/sub q/ - lambda/sub c/ and from 7% to 160% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ for Q = 2/3e quark charge and for masses up to 8 GeV/c 2 . In the inclusive production channel the upper limits on R/sub q/ = sigma(e + e - →qqX)/sigma(e + e - →μμ) are for charge 1/3e only. R/sub q/ varies from 2% to 11% for lambda/sub q/ = lambda/sub c/ and from 3% to 16% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ and for quark masses up to 6.5 GeV/c 2 . These are the first limits on the production of fractionally charged particles with lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/

  3. Ca 2+ signaling by plant Arabidopsis thaliana Pep peptides depends on AtPepR1, a receptor with guanylyl cyclase activity, and cGMP-activated Ca 2+ channels

    KAUST Repository

    Qia, Zhi; Verma, Rajeev K.; Gehring, Christoph A; Yamaguchi, Yube; Zhao, Yichen; Ryan, Clarence A.; Berkowitz, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    receptor- like kinase receptor AtPepR1 has guanylyl cyclase activity, generating cGMP from GTP, and that cGMP can activate CNGC2- dependent cytosolic Ca 2+ elevation. AtPep-dependent expression of pathogen-defense genes (PDF1.2, MPK3, and WRKY33

  4. First Evidence of pep Solar Neutrinos by Direct Detection in Borexino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Quirk, J.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-02-01

    We observed, for the first time, solar neutrinos in the 1.0-1.5 MeV energy range. We determined the rate of pep solar neutrino interactions in Borexino to be 3.1±0.6stat±0.3systcounts/(day·100ton). Assuming the pep neutrino flux predicted by the standard solar model, we obtained a constraint on the CNO solar neutrino interaction rate of Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle solution to solar neutrino oscillations, these values correspond to solar neutrino fluxes of (1.6±0.3)×108cm-2s-1 and <7.7×108cm-2s-1 (95% C.L.), respectively, in agreement with both the high and low metallicity standard solar models. These results represent the first direct evidence of the pep neutrino signal and the strongest constraint of the CNO solar neutrino flux to date.

  5. Evaluation of the BEAM--BEAM effect in PEP using Myer's simulation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.

    1982-09-01

    The program BEAM BEAM written by Steve Myers for the LEP machine at CERN has given encouraging results in the simulation of the beam-beam effect in electron-positron storage rings. It therefore seemed worthwhile to apply the program to PEP with two main intentions. Firstly, to confirm the validity of the program by comparison with experimental data from previous PEP runs and secondly, to search for an improvement in the operating conditions of PEP. Clearly a successful prediction would also enhance the credibility of the program. The program itself has been extensively described in the literature and will not be repeated here, except for some comments of direct relevance to the present simulation. 14 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  6. BioPepDB: an integrated data platform for food-derived bioactive peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qilin; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Hongjun; Xue, Jitong; Guo, Xiaolei; Liang, Ming; Chen, Ming

    2018-03-12

    Food-derived bioactive peptides play critical roles in regulating most biological processes and have considerable biological, medical and industrial importance. However, a large number of active peptides data, including sequence, function, source, commercial product information, references and other information are poorly integrated. BioPepDB is a searchable database of food-derived bioactive peptides and their related articles, including more than four thousand bioactive peptide entries. Moreover, BioPepDB provides modules of prediction and hydrolysis-simulation for discovering novel peptides. It can serve as a reference database to investigate the function of different bioactive peptides. BioPepDB is available at http://bis.zju.edu.cn/biopepdbr/ . The web page utilises Apache, PHP5 and MySQL to provide the user interface for accessing the database and predict novel peptides. The database itself is operated on a specialised server.

  7. PEP activity and expression of photosynthesis genes required for embryo and seed development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry eKremnev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast biogenesis and function is essential for proper plant embryo and seed development but the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of plastids during embryogenesis are poorly understood. Expression of plastid encoded genes is dependent on two different transcription machineries; a plastid-encoded bacterial-type RNA polymerase (PEP and a nuclear-encoded phage-type RNA polymerase (NEP, which recognize distinct types of promoters. However, the division of labor between PEP and NEP during plastid development and in mature chloroplasts is unclear. We show here that PRIN2 and CSP41b, two proteins identified in plastid nucleoid preparations, are essential for proper plant embryo development. Using Co-IP assays and native PAGE we have shown a direct physical interaction between PRIN2 and CSP41b. Moreover, PRIN2 and CSP41b form a distinct protein complex in vitro that binds DNA. The prin2.2 and csp41b-2 single mutants displayed pale phenotypes, abnormal chloroplasts with reduced transcript levels of photosynthesis genes and defects in embryo development. The respective csp41b-2prin2.2 homo/heterozygote double mutants produced abnormal white colored ovules and shrunken seeds. Thus, the csp41b-2prin2.2 double mutant is embryo lethal. In silico analysis of available array data showed that a large number of genes traditionally classified as PEP dependent genes are transcribed during early embryo development from the pre-globular stage to the mature-green-stage. Taken together, our results suggest that PEP activity and consequently the switch from NEP to PEP activity, is essential during embryo development and that the PRIN2-CSP41b DNA binding protein complex possibly is important for full PEP activity during this process.

  8. The First Year of the BABAR Experiment at PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Barbara

    2000-12-18

    The BABAR detector, situated at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, has been recording data at energies on and around the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance since May 1999. In this paper, we briefly describe the PEP-II B Factory and the BABAR detector. The performance presently achieved by the experiment in the areas of tracking, vertexing, calorimetry and particle identification is reviewed. Analysis concepts that are used in the various papers submitted to this conference are also discussed.

  9. Micellization of symmetric PEP-PEO block copolymers in water molecular weight dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Kaya, H; Allgaier, J; Stellbrink, J; Richter, D

    2002-01-01

    The micellar behaviour of the amphiphilic block copolymer poly-(ethylene-propylene)-poly-(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) in aqueous solution has been studied with small-angle neutron scattering. The polymer was studied over a wide range of molecular weights, always keeping the volume of the blocks equal. The scattering behaviour of the solutions showed that a morphological transition takes place upon lowering the molecular weight. The high molecular weight block copolymers all build spherical, monodisperse micelles with large aggregation numbers. At low molecular weights, however, cylindrical micelles are formed. An interesting intermediate case is represented by the PEP2-PEO2 system, in which a morphological transition occurs upon dilution. (orig.)

  10. Locality at the boundary implies gap in the bulk for 2D PEPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastoryano, Michael J.; Lucia, Angelo; Perez-Garcia, David

    2018-01-01

    Proving that the parent Hamiltonian of a Projected Entangled Pair State (PEPS) is gapped remains an important open problem. We take a step forward in solving this problem by showing that if the boundary state of any rectangular subregion is a quasi-local Gibbs state of the virtual indices, then t...... boundary theories and dynamical properties in an interacting many body system. We show that the proof can be extended to MPO-injective PEPS, and speculate that the assumption on the locality of the boundary Hamiltonian follows from exponential decay of correlations in the bulk....

  11. Vacuum system design for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.; Bostic, D.; Daly, E.

    1994-06-01

    The design of the vacuum system for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring is reviewed. The thermal design and vacuum requirements are particularly challenging in PEP-II due to high stored beam currents up to 3.0 amps in 1658 bunches. The vacuum chambers for the HER arcs are fabricated by electron beam welding extruded copper sections up to 6 m long. Design of these chambers and the vacuum PumPing configuration is described with results from vacuum and thermal analyses

  12. Design features and operational characteristics of the PEP beam-transport and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.; Brown, K.L.; Truher, J.B.

    1981-03-01

    The PEP beam-transport system was designed to transmit 4-to-15 GeV electron and positron beams from the SLAC linac within a +- 0.8% momentum band, to have flexible tuning of the betatron and off-momentum functions for matching into the PEP storage ring, and to have convenient operating characteristics. The transport lines were brought into operation quickly and have operated well. Electron injection has been consistent and efficient and relatively easy to accomplish. Positron injection also has been satisfactory but is variable and more sensitive to ring conditions

  13. τ physics using the TPC/2γ facility at HiLum PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Plans for a TPC/2γ facility program using HiLum PEP for τ physics are presented. The detector and its performance are described in some detail. The possibilities for a τ physics program with an integrated luminosity of 1 fb -1 are discussed. The physics issues are reviewed, particularly the τ'1-prong' problem, and preliminary results on τ → ν τ K +- X + X - + ≥ 0 Neutrals are shown. The performance of HiLum PEP is also presented, and expectations for the future are discussed. (R.P.) 15 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Development of a high-power RF cavity for the PEP-II B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmer, R.A.; Allen, M.A.; Saba, J.; Schwarz, H.

    1995-03-01

    The authors describe the development and fabrication of the first high-power RF cavity for PEP-II. Design choices and fabrication technologies for the first cavity and subsequent production cavities are described. Conditioning and high-power testing of the first and subsequent cavities are discussed, as well as integration of the cavity into modular RF systems for both high-energy and low-energy rings. Plans for installation of the cavity raft assemblies in the RF sections of the PEP tunnel are also considered

  15. Enrofloxacin and Probiotic Lactobacilli Influence PepT1 and LEAP-2 mRNA Expression in Poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlova, Ivelina; Milanova, Aneliya; Danova, Svetla; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2) in chickens can be influenced by food deprivation, pathological conditions and drug administration. Effect of three putative probiotic Lactobacillus strains and enrofloxacin on the expression of PepT1

  16. Evolutionary divergence of the plant elicitor peptides (Peps) and their receptors : interfamily incompatibility of perception but compatibility of downstream signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lori, Martina; van Verk, Marcel C; Hander, Tim; Schatowitz, Hendrik; Klauser, Dominik; Flury, Pascale; Gehring, Christoph A; Boller, Thomas; Bartels, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are potent inducers of pattern-triggered immunity and amplify the immune response against diverse pathogens. Peps have been discovered and studied extensively in Arabidopsis and only recently orthologs in maize were also identified and characterized in more detail.

  17. Phase evolution and microwave dielectric properties of A5M5O17-type ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of A5M5O17 (A = Na, Ca, Sr, La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Yb; B = Ti, Nb, Ta type compounds were prepared by a solid-state sintering route and characterized in terms of structure, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties. The compatibility of rare earths with mixed niobate/tantalate and titanate phases was investigated. The larger ionic radii mismatch resulted in the formation of pyrochlore and/or mixed phases while in other cases, pure A5M5O17 phase was formed. The samples exhibited relative permittivity in the range of 35 to 82, quality factor (Q × fo = 897 GHz to 11946 GHz and temperature coefficient of resonance frequency (τf = -120 ppm/°C to 318 ppm/°C.

  18. N{sup 3} entropy of M5 branes from dielectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatefi, E., E-mail: ehatefi@ictp.it [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste (Italy); Nurmagambetov, A.J., E-mail: ajn@kipt.kharkov.ua [A.I. Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics of NSC KIPT, 1 Akademicheskaya St., Kharkov, UA 61108 (Ukraine); Park, I.Y., E-mail: inyongpark05@gmail.com [Department of Natural and physical Sciences, Philander Smith College, Little Rock, AR 72223 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We observe that the N{sup 3} entropy behavior of near-extremal M5 branes can be reproduced from SYM side with the role of Myers' terms. We start by generalizing the Klebanov-Tseytlin (KT) supergravity solution that displays the N{sup 3} entropy behavior. The new feature of the general solution is visibility of the 'internal' degrees of the M5 branes, i.e., the M0 branes and the M2 branes. With the rationale provided by the supergravity analysis, we consider a D0 brane quantum mechanical setup with Myers' terms. Using localization technique, we show that the leading N{sup 3} behavior of the free energy comes from the 'classical contribution' with the rest subleading.

  19. Newly Identified TLR9 Stimulant, M6-395 Is a Potent Polyclonal Activator for Murine B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Hee; Jung, Yu-Jin; Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun

    2012-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been extensively studied in recent years. However, functions of these molecules in murine B cell biology are largely unknown. A TLR4 stimulant, LPS is well known as a powerful polyclonal activator for murine B cells. In this study, we explored the effect of a murine TLR9 stimulant, M6-395 (a synthetic CpG ODNs) on B cell proliferation and Ig production. First, M6-395 was much more potent than LPS in augmenting B cell proliferation. As for Ig expression, M6-395 facilitated the expression of both TGF-β1-induced germ line transcript α (GLTα) and IL-4-induced GLTγ1 as levels as those by LPS and Pam3CSK4 (TLR1/2 agonist) : a certain Ig GLT expression is regarded as an indicative of the corresponding isotype switching recombination. However, IgA and IgG1 secretion patterns were quite different--these Ig isotype secretions by M6-395 were much less than those by LPS and Pam3CSK4. Moreover, the increase of IgA and IgG1 production by LPS and Pam3CSK4 was virtually abrogated by M6-395. The same was true for the secretion of IgG3. We found that this unexpected phenomena provoked by M6-395 is attributed, at least in part, to its excessive mitogenic nature. Taken together, these results suggest that M6-395 can act as a murine polyclonal activator but its strong mitogenic activity is unfavorable to Ig isotype switching.

  20. Functional dissection of Streptococcus pyogenes M5 protein: the hypervariable region is essential for virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Waldemarsson

    Full Text Available The surface-localized M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes is a major virulence factor that inhibits phagocytosis, as determined ex vivo. Because little is known about the role of M protein in vivo we analyzed the contribution of different M protein regions to virulence, using the fibrinogen (Fg-binding M5 protein and a mouse model of acute invasive infection. This model was suitable, because M5 is required for mouse virulence and binds mouse and human Fg equally well, as shown here. Mixed infection experiments with wild type bacteria demonstrated that mutants lacking the N-terminal hypervariable region (HVR or the Fg-binding B-repeat region were strongly attenuated, while a mutant lacking the conserved C-repeats was only slightly attenuated. Because the HVR of M5 is not required for phagocytosis resistance, our data imply that this HVR plays a major but unknown role during acute infection. The B-repeat region is required for phagocytosis resistance and specifically binds Fg, suggesting that it promotes virulence by binding Fg. However, B-repeat mutants were attenuated even in Fg-deficient mice, implying that the B-repeats may have a second function, in addition to Fg-binding. These data demonstrate that two distinct M5 regions, including the HVR, are essential to virulence during the early stages of an infection. In particular, our data provide the first in vivo evidence that the HVR of an M protein plays a major role in virulence, focusing interest on the molecular role of this region.

  1. State of the eyes in welders of Division M-5, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gos, R.; Stepien, J.; Horowski, P.

    1984-01-01

    Sight organ impairments have been compared in a group of M-5 Division welders, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow, and control group of randomly selected administration workers. In the group of welders statistically more frequent were degenerative changes in the eye macula, melanomatosis and conjunctivitis. Those with changes in the area of the macua lutea and melanosis conjunctivae should undergo periodic ophthalmological control (dispensary groups).

  2. Characterization of the branched antimicrobial peptide M6 by analyzing its mechanism of action and in vivo toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Alessandro; Giuliani, Andrea; Falciani, Chiara; Fabbrini, Monica; Pileri, Silvia; Lelli, Barbara; Bracci, Luisa

    2007-06-01

    We analyzed functional activity of the antimicrobial peptide M6 in vitro and in vivo. The peptide was identified by our group by phage library selection, rational modification and synthesis in a tetrabranched form (Pini et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2005; 49: 2665-72). We found that it binds lipopolysaccharide, causes perforation of cell membranes without destroying external cell morphology and strongly binds DNA. The latter feature suggests that it could inhibit metabolic pathways, blocking DNA replication and/or transcription. We also observed that M6 does not stimulate humoral immune response when repeatedly administered to animals. We also analyzed M6 toxicity when administered to animals by intraperitoneal or by intravenous injection, determining a preliminary LD50 (125 and 37.5 mg/kg, respectively), which suggested that M6 could be used in vivo. These features make the antimicrobial branched peptide M6 a promising candidate for the development of a new antibacterial drug. Copyright (c) 2007 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. BABAR - the detector for the PEP II B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1994-09-01

    BABAR refers to the detector that is being designed for the PEP II B-Factory at SLAC to perform a comprehensive study of CP violation in B meson decays. The design requirements and the principal detector components are briefly described. A summary of the expected physics performance is presented

  4. An Over-damped Cavity Longitudinal Kicker for the PEP-II LER

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, P

    2003-01-01

    Both rings of PEP-II use drift tube kickers in the longitudinal bunch-by-bunch feedback system. Efforts are now underway to increase the stored beam currents and luminosity of PEP-II, and beam-induced heating of these structures, particularly in the Low Energy Ring (LER) is of concern. An alternative kicker design based on the over-damped cavity kicker, first developed by INFN-Frascati is being built for PEP-II. This low loaded Q (or wide bandwidth) structure is fed by a network of ridged waveguides coupled to a simple pill-box cavity. Beam induced RF power is also coupled out of the cavity to external loads, so that the higher order modes (HOMs) excited in the structure are well-damped. This paper details the kicker design for PEP-II and discusses some of the design trade-offs between shunt impedance and bandwidth, as well as the influence of the feedthroughs on the kicker parameters. Estimates of the expected power deposition in the cavity are also provided.

  5. Responses of mRNA expression of PepT1 in small intestine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of circulation small peptides concentration on mRNA expression in small intestine, graded amount of soybean small peptides (SSP) were infused into lactating goats through duodenal fistulas. Peptide-bound amino acid (PBAA) concentration in arterial plasma and the mRNA expression of PepT1 was ...

  6. Effects of a School-Based Sexuality Education Program on Peer Educators: The Teen PEP Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May…

  7. Search for Ne in e−μ+ events at petra and pep energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yamanashi

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a way to check the possible existence of an electron-type neutral heavy lepton Ne which decays into e−μ+νμ. In the region of cosθcoll < 0 eμ signals due to Ne are expected to exceed those due to τ± at PETRA and PEP energies.

  8. Mesomorphic phase behaviour of low molar mass PEP-PDMS diblock copolymers synthesized by anionic polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigild, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    The phase behaviour of low molar mass poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) -poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PEP-PDMS) is investigated in this thesis by the combination of dynamical mechanical spectroscopy (rheology) to measure phase transition temperatures, and small-angle x-ray scattering to identify the morphology of encountered phases. Samples of PEP-PDMS in the range of 0.2-0.7 in volume fraction of PEP are studied. This diblock copolymer system exhibits the three classical phases of lamellar sandwich structure (LAM), hexagonally packed cylinders (HEX), and spheres arranged on a body centered cubic lattice (BCC). Furthermore the gyroid phase (Ia3d symmetry) of two interpenetrating networks was also identified as a stable phase of the PEP-PDMS system. Time resolved measurements of small-angle neutron scattering in tandem with simultaneous in-situ rheological measurements are performed on samples showing transitions between different ordered phases. The identification of especially the BCC and gyroid phases from scattering experiments is treated. By performing mesoscopic crystallographic measurements using a custom built goniometer it was unambiguously shown that the application of shear to an unoriented powder-like sample introduces uniaxial orientation of the gyroid phase. The orientation of the ordered phase is otherwise random, causing a two-dimensional powder. Finally this dissertation presents a discussion of relevant parameters for the description of diblock copolymer phase behaviour together with descriptions of anionic polymerization for the synthesis of copolymers, and various experimental techniques for the characterization of diblocks. (au)

  9. Tests of μ-e universality for weak neutral currents at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.B.; Resvanis, L.K.

    1988-01-01

    Two techniques are proposed to test the universality of the μ/minus/e weak neutral current interaction of large Q 2 . Both techniques require large statistics and some degree of longitudinal e + ,e/sup minus/ polarization but are otherwise feasible at PEP

  10. Pep-up: A review of the Umgeni Valley Project evaulation process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pep-up: A review of the Umgeni Valley Project evaulation process. Tim Wright. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  11. Particle searches in e+e- experiments at PEP and PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.H.

    1982-10-01

    This talk reviews recent results in new particle searches performed by experiments at the high energy e + e - storage rings PEP and PETRA. It concentrates on recent searches for: hadrons with a new quark flavor, spin-1/2 charged heavy leptons, spin-0 charged leptons, spin-0 point-like scalars or pseudoscalars, and neutral heavy leptons

  12. Trigger drift chamber for the upgraded mark II detector at PEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. T.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Weber, P.; White, S. L.; Alvarez, M.; Calviño, F.; Fernandez, E.

    1987-04-01

    A small cylindrical track detector was built as an array of single-wire drift cells with aluminized mylar cathode tubes. Point measurement resolution of ˜ 90 μm was achieved with a drift gas of 50% argon-50% ethane at atmospheric pressure. The chamber construction, electronics, and calibration are discussed. Performance results from PEP colliding-beam data are presented.

  13. Trigger drift chamber for the upgraded Mark II detector at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.T.; Smith, J.G.; Wagner, S.R.; Weber, P.; White, S.L.; Alvarez, M.; Calvino, F.; Fernandez, E.; Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona

    1987-01-01

    A small cylindrical track detector was built as an array of single-wire drift cells with aluminized mylar cathode tubes. Point measurement resolution of ∝90 μm was achieved with a drift gas of 50% argon-50% ethane at atmospheric pressure. The chamber construction, electronics, and calibration are discussed. Performance results from PEP colliding-beam data are presented. (orig.)

  14. Status of E-ELT M5 scale-one demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Pablo; Sedghi, Babak; Dimmler, Martin; Kornweibel, Nick

    2014-07-01

    The fifth mirror of the European Extremely Large Telescope optical train is a field stabilization tip/tilt unit responsible for correcting the dynamical tip and tilt caused mainly by wind load on the telescope. A scale-one prototype including the inclined support, the fixed frame and a basic control system was designed and manufactured by NTE-SENER (Spain) and CSEM (Switzerland) as part of the prototyping and design activities. All interfaces to the mirror have been reproduced on a dummy structure reproducing the inertial characteristics of the optical element. The M5 unit is required to have sufficient bandwidth for tip/tilt reference commands coming from the wavefront control system. Such a bandwidth can be achieved using local active damping loop to damp the low frequency mechanical modes before closing a position loop. Prototyping on the M5 unit has been undertaken in order to demonstrate the E-ELT control system architecture, concepts and development standards and to further study active damping strategies. The control system consists of two nested loops: a local damping loop and a position loop. The development of this control system was undertaken following the E-ELT control system development standards in order to determine their applicability and performance and includes hardware selection, communication, synchronization, configuration, and data logging. In this paper we present the current status of the prototype M5 control system and the latest results on the active damping control strategy, in particular the promising results obtained with the method of positive position feedback.

  15. Zircaloy-4 and M5 high temperature oxidation and nitriding in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duriez, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire, Direction de Prevention des Accidents Majeurs, Centre de Cadarache, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: christian.duriez@irsn.fr; Dupont, T.; Schmet, B.; Enoch, F. [Universite Technologique de Troyes, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2008-10-15

    For the purpose of nuclear power plant severe accident analysis, degradation of Zircaloy-4 and M5 cladding tubes in air at high temperature was investigated by thermo-gravimetric analysis, in isothermal conditions, in a 600-1200 deg. C temperature range. Alloys were investigated either in a 'as received' bare state, or after steam pre-oxidation at 500 {sup o}C to simulate in-reactor corrosion. At the beginning of air exposure, the oxidation rate obeys a parabolic law, characteristic of solid-state diffusion limited regime. Parabolic rate constants compare, for Zircaloy-4 as well as for M5, with recently assessed correlations for high temperature Zircaloy-4 steam-oxidation. A thick layer of dense protective zirconia having a columnar structure forms during this diffusion-limited regime. Then, a kinetic transition (breakaway type) occurs, due to radial cracking along the columnar grain boundaries of this protective dense oxide scale. The breakaway is observed for a scale thickness that strongly increases with temperature. At the lowest temperatures, the M5 alloy appears to be breakaway-resistant, showing a delayed transition compared to Zircaloy-4. However, for both alloys, a pre-existing corrosion scale favours the transition, which occurs much earlier. The post transition kinetic regime is linear only for the lowest temperatures investigated. From 800 deg. C, a continuously accelerated regime is observed and is associated with formation of a strongly porous non-protective oxide. A mechanism of nitrogen-assisted oxide growth, involving formation and re-oxidation of ZrN particles, as well as nitrogen associated zirconia phase transformations, is proposed to be responsible for this accelerated degradation.

  16. The key determinants of perceived external prestige (PEP – Qualitative research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sušanj Šulentić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceived external prestige (PEP is a well-known concept oriented towards describing the way members of a certain organization interpret and assess their organisational reputation. Such perception can significantly affect employees’ identification and loyalty to the organisation as well as their job satisfaction and work performance. According to the social identification theory, people define themselves and others with respect to their belonging to a particular group or organization, and their basic motive is a personal need for self-respect and a sense of pride. Employees’ perception of being members of an important, reputable and significant organisation contributes to the feeling of self-respect, which increases their individual social value and status. According to literature, there are only few objections to the concept of PEP, mainly those related to the determination of its structure and, with it, to its management. Although there is a growing literature on PEP, it is still not clear whether PEP is a one-dimensional or a multidimensional construct. If PEP is a multidimensional concept, it is important to specify its key components, in order to enhance the management of favourable organizational prestige in a real work environment. The purpose of this paper was to determine the structure of PEP and important sources of information, based on which, employees value the prestige of their organisation. Qualitative research was conducted, comprising nine semi-structured interviews with communication experts working for a multinational organisation operating in several European countries. The results of this paper indicate that PEP is a multidimensional construct, with several components, important for its creation and management. Those components can be grouped into three main categories: track record of success and the position of the organisation on the market, social impact of the organisation on the immediate environment and the

  17. Evidence that the rabbit proton-peptide co-transporter PepT1 is a multimer when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitsas, Konstantinos-E; Boyd, C A R; Meredith, David

    2006-04-01

    To test whether the rabbit proton-coupled peptide transporter PepT1 is a multimer, we have employed a combination of transport assays, luminometry and site-directed mutagenesis. A functional epitope-tagged PepT1 construct (PepT1-FLAG) was co-expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with a non-functional but normally trafficked mutant form of the same transporter (W294F-PepT1). The amount of PepT1-FLAG cRNA injected into the oocytes was kept constant, while the amount of W294F-PepT1 cRNA was increased over the mole fraction range of 0 to 1. The uptake of [(3)H]-D: -Phe-L: -Gln into the oocytes was measured at pH(out) 5.5, and the surface expression of PepT1-FLAG was quantified by luminometry. As the mole fraction of injected W294F-PepT1 increased, the uptake of D: -Phe-L: -Gln decreased. This occurred despite the surface expression of PepT1-FLAG remaining constant, and so we can conclude that PepT1 must be a multimer. Assuming that PepT1 acts as a homomultimer, the best fit for the modelling suggests that PepT1 could be a tetramer, with a minimum requirement of two functional subunits in each protein complex. Western blotting also showed the presence of higher-order complexes of PepT1-FLAG in oocyte membranes. It should be noted that we cannot formally exclude the possibility that PepT1 interacts with unidentified Xenopus protein(s). The finding that PepT1 is a multimer has important implications for the molecular modelling of this protein.

  18. Detecting β-thalassaemia mutations from a single cell by PEP and RDB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Ping; LI Li; YAO Hong; ZHOU Yuan-guo; DENG Bing; CHEN Zhu-qin

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the possibility of the technology involving PEP and RDB for detecting β-thalassaemia multipoint mutations from a single cell simultaneously. Methods: A set of allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) probes used for detecting 8 familiar β-thalassaemia mutations (CD41-42, IVS- Ⅱ -654, CD17, TATA box nt-28, CD71-72, TATA box nt-29, CD26, IVS- Ⅰ -5) were immobilized on a strip of nylon membrane. The genome of a individual cell was amplified by primer extension preamplification (PEP) with the mixture of15-base random oligonucleotides. The aliquots from PEP were used to amplify the objective gene fractions of β-thalassaemia gene by nested or semi-nested PCR. The membrane was hybridized with the final amplified products and then treated with Streptavidin-HRP and color development.Results :Totally 30 lymphocytes were picked up from blood samples of 1 healthy female and 4 patients with known β-thalassaemia mutations respectively. Each single lymphocyte was lysed in the proteinase K buffer. The amplification efficacy was 94.0% and alle drop-out(ADO) rate was 8.0%. Revert dot blot (RDB) was applied to the final amplified products from the 5 participants. The results of diagnosis were the same to the expected, and their genotypes were N/N, CD17 (A→T)/N, IVS- Ⅱ -654(C→T)/CD17(A → T), CD41-42 (-CTTT)/N and TATA box nt-28 (A→G)/N, respectively. Conclusion: The technology involving PEP and RDB could detectmultiple β-thalassaemia mutations from a single cell simultaneously,and the research provides experimental evidences for the feasibility of applying PEP and DNA array technology to screening multiple genetic mutations from a single cell, and will be applied to preimplantation genetic diagnosis and non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for β-thalassaemia.

  19. Forecasting Shaharchay River Flow in Lake Urmia Basin using Genetic Programming and M5 Model Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Samadianfard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Precise prediction of river flows is the key factor for proper planning and management of water resources. Thus, obtaining the reliable methods for predicting river flows has great importance in water resource engineering. In the recent years, applications of intelligent methods such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic programming in water science and engineering have been grown extensively. These mentioned methods are able to model nonlinear process of river flows without any need to geometric properties. A huge number of studies have been reported in the field of using intelligent methods in water resource engineering. For example, Noorani and Salehi (23 presented a model for predicting runoff in Lighvan basin using adaptive neuro-fuzzy network and compared the performance of it with neural network and fuzzy inference methods in east Azerbaijan, Iran. Nabizadeh et al. (21 used fuzzy inference system and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system in order to predict river flow in Lighvan river. Khalili et al. (13 proposed a BL-ARCH method for prediction of flows in Shaharchay River in Urmia. Khu et al. (16 used genetic programming for runoff prediction in Orgeval catchment in France. Firat and Gungor (11 evaluated the fuzzy-neural model for predicting Mendes river flow in Turkey. The goal of present study is comparing the performance of genetic programming and M5 model trees for prediction of Shaharchay river flow in the basin of Lake Urmia and obtaining a comprehensive insight of their abilities. Materials and Methods: Shaharchay river as a main source of providing drinking water of Urmia city and agricultural needs of surrounding lands and finally one of the main input sources of Lake Urmia is quite important in the region. For obtaining the predetermined goals of present study, average monthly flows of Shaharchay River in Band hydrometric station has been gathered from 1951 to 2011. Then, two third of mentioned

  20. The ordered network structure of M {>=} 6 strong earthquakes and its prediction in the Jiangsu-South Yellow Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Ke-Pei [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). College of Mathematics and Statistics; Cui, Lei [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Applied Probability and Statistics Dept.

    2013-05-15

    The the Jiangsu-South Yellow Sea region is one of the key seismic monitoring defence areas in the eastern part of China. Since 1846, M {>=} 6 strong earthquakes have showed an obvious commensurability and orderliness in this region. The main orderly values are 74 {proportional_to} 75 a, 57 {proportional_to} 58 a, 11 {proportional_to} 12 a, and 5 {proportional_to} 6 a, wherein 74 {proportional_to} 75 a and 57 {proportional_to} 58 a with an outstanding predictive role. According to the information prediction theory of Wen-Bo Weng, we conceived the M {>=} 6 strong earthquake ordered network structure in the South Yellow Sea and the whole region. Based on this, we analyzed and discussed the variation of seismicity in detail and also made a trend prediction of M {>=} 6 strong earthquakes in the future. The results showed that since 1998 it has entered into a new quiet episode which may continue until about 2042; and the first M {>=} 6 strong earthquake in the next active episode will probably occur in 2053 pre and post, with the location likely in the sea area of the South Yellow Sea; also, the second and the third ones or strong earthquake swarm in the future will probably occur in 2058 and 2070 pre and post. (orig.)

  1. Altered GPM6A/M6 Dosage Impairs Cognition and Causes Phenotypes Responsive to Cholesterol in Human and Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregor, A.; Kramer, J.M.; Voet, M. van der; Schanze, I.; Uebe, S.; Donders, R.; Reis, A.; Schenck, A.; Zweier, C.

    2014-01-01

    Glycoprotein M6A (GPM6A) is a neuronal transmembrane protein of the PLP/DM20 (proteolipid protein) family that associates with cholesterol-rich lipid rafts and promotes filopodia formation. We identified a de novo duplication of the GPM6A gene in a patient with learning disability and behavioral

  2. Altered GPM6A/M6 dosage impairs cognition and causes phenotypes responsive to cholesterol in human and Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Anne; Kramer, Jamie M; van der Voet, Monique; Schanze, Ina; Uebe, Steffen; Donders, Rogier; Reis, André; Schenck, Annette; Zweier, Christiane

    2014-12-01

    Glycoprotein M6A (GPM6A) is a neuronal transmembrane protein of the PLP/DM20 (proteolipid protein) family that associates with cholesterol-rich lipid rafts and promotes filopodia formation. We identified a de novo duplication of the GPM6A gene in a patient with learning disability and behavioral anomalies. Expression analysis in blood lymphocytes showed increased GPM6A levels. An increase of patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells carrying membrane protrusions supports a functional effect of this duplication. To study the consequences of GPM6A dosage alterations in an intact nervous system, we employed Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. We found that knockdown of Drosophila M6, the sole member of the PLP family in flies, in the wing, and whole organism causes malformation and lethality, respectively. These phenotypes as well as the protrusions of patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells with increased GPM6A levels can be alleviated by cholesterol supplementation. Notably, overexpression as well as loss of M6 in neurons specifically compromises long-term memory in the courtship conditioning paradigm. Our findings thus indicate a critical role of correct GPM6A/M6 levels for cognitive function and support a role of the GPM6A duplication for the patient's phenotype. Together with other recent findings, this study highlights compromised cholesterol homeostasis as a recurrent feature in cognitive phenotypes. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  3. Five-year cost-effectiveness of the Patient Empowerment Programme (PEP) for type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jinxiao; McGhee, Sarah M; So, Ching; Chau, June; Wong, Carlos K H; Wong, William C W; Lam, Cindy L K

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the short-term cost-effectiveness of the Patient Empowerment Programme (PEP) for diabetes mellitus (DM) in Hong Kong. Propensity score matching was used to select a matched group of PEP and non-PEP subjects. A societal perspective was adopted to estimate the cost of PEP. Outcome measures were the cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality and diabetic complication over a 5-year follow-up period and the number needed to treat (NNT) to avoid 1 event. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of cost per event avoided was calculated using the PEP cost per subject multiplied by the NNT. The PEP cost per subject from the societal perspective was US$247. There was a significantly lower cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality (2.9% vs 4.6%, P US$14 465, US$19 617 and US$30 796, respectively. The extra amount allocated to managing PEP was small and it appears cost-effective in the short-term as an addition to RAMP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Curcumin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism Disorder by Modification of m6 A RNA Methylation in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Li, Xingmei; Yu, Jiayao; Li, Yi; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian; Zhong, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) regulates gene expression and affects cellular metabolism. In this study, we checked whether the regulation of lipid metabolism by curcumin is associated with m 6 A RNA methylation. We investigated the effects of dietary curcumin supplementation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury and lipid metabolism disorder, and on m 6 A RNA methylation in weaned piglets. A total of 24 Duroc × Large White × Landrace piglets were randomly assigned to control, LPS, and CurL (LPS challenge and 200 mg/kg dietary curcumin) groups (n = 8/group). The results showed that curcumin reduced the increase in relative liver weight as well as the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase induced by LPS injection in the plasma and liver of weaning piglets (p < 0.05). The amounts of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols were decreased by curcumin compared to that by the LPS injection (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin reduced the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA, whereas it increased the p53 mRNA level in the liver (p < 0.05). Curcumin inhibited the enhancement of SREBP-1c and SCD-1 mRNA levels induced by LPS in the liver. Notably, dietary curcumin affected the expression of METTL3, METTL14, ALKBH5, FTO, and YTHDF2 mRNA, and increased the abundance of m 6 A in the liver of piglets. In conclusion, the protective effect of curcumin in LPS-induced liver injury and hepatic lipid metabolism disruption might be due to the increase in m 6 A RNA methylation. Our study provides mechanistic insights into the effect of curcumin in protecting against hepatic injury during inflammation and metabolic diseases. © 2018 AOCS.

  5. Quantitative LC-MS Provides No Evidence for m6 dA or m4 dC in the Genome of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffers, Sarah; Ebert, Charlotte; Rahimoff, René; Kosmatchev, Olesea; Steinbacher, Jessica; Bohne, Alexandra-Viola; Spada, Fabio; Michalakis, Stylianos; Nickelsen, Jörg; Müller, Markus; Carell, Thomas

    2017-09-04

    Until recently, it was believed that the genomes of higher organisms contain, in addition to the four canonical DNA bases, only 5-methyl-dC (m 5 dC) as a modified base to control epigenetic processes. In recent years, this view has changed dramatically with the discovery of 5-hydroxymethyl-dC (hmdC), 5-formyl-dC (fdC), and 5-carboxy-dC (cadC) in DNA from stem cells and brain tissue. N 6 -methyldeoxyadenosine (m 6 dA) is the most recent base reported to be present in the genome of various eukaryotic organisms. This base, together with N 4 -methyldeoxycytidine (m 4 dC), was first reported to be a component of bacterial genomes. In this work, we investigated the levels and distribution of these potentially epigenetically relevant DNA bases by using a novel ultrasensitive UHPLC-MS method. We further report quantitative data for m 5 dC, hmdC, fdC, and cadC, but we were unable to detect either m 4 dC or m 6 dA in DNA isolated from mouse embryonic stem cells or brain and liver tissue, which calls into question their epigenetic relevance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Genome-Wide Maps of m6A circRNAs Identify Widespread and Cell-Type-Specific Methylation Patterns that Are Distinct from mRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available N6-methyladenosine (m6A is the most abundant internal modification of mRNAs and is implicated in all aspects of post-transcriptional RNA metabolism. However, little is known about m6A modifications to circular (circ RNAs. We developed a computational pipeline (AutoCirc that, together with depletion of ribosomal RNA and m6A immunoprecipitation, defined thousands of m6A circRNAs with cell-type-specific expression. The presence of m6A circRNAs is corroborated by interaction between circRNAs and YTHDF1/YTHDF2, proteins that read m6A sites in mRNAs, and by reduced m6A levels upon depletion of METTL3, the m6A writer. Despite sharing m6A readers and writers, m6A circRNAs are frequently derived from exons that are not methylated in mRNAs, whereas mRNAs that are methylated on the same exons that compose m6A circRNAs exhibit less stability in a process regulated by YTHDF2. These results expand our understanding of the breadth of m6A modifications and uncover regulation of circRNAs through m6A modification.

  7. Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 induces increased complexity in Bacillus subtilis 168 colony biofilms via hypoxanthine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Kankel, Stefanie; Götze, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    to identify soil bacteria, which induce architectural changes in biofilm colonies when cocultured with B. subtilis. We identified the soil bacterium Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 as inducer of wrinkle-formation in B. subtilis colonies mediated by a diffusible signaling molecule. This compound was isolated......O, but not PbuG, is necessary for hypoxanthine to induce an increase in wrinkle formation of B. subtilis biofilm colonies. Our results suggest that hypoxanthine-stimulated wrinkle development is not due to a direct induction of biofilm-related gene expression, but rather caused by the excess of hypoxanthine...... within B. subtilis cells, which may lead to cell stress and death. Importance Biofilms are a bacterial lifestyle with high relevance regarding diverse human activities. Biofilms can be favorable, for instance in crop protection. In nature, biofilms are commonly found as multispecies communities...

  8. The DEAD-Box RNA Helicase DDX3 Interacts with m6A RNA Demethylase ALKBH5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available DDX3 is a member of the family of DEAD-box RNA helicases. DDX3 is a multifaceted helicase and plays essential roles in key biological processes such as cell cycle, stress response, apoptosis, and RNA metabolism. In this study, we found that DDX3 interacted with ALKBH5, an m6A RNA demethylase. The ATP domain of DDX3 and DSBH domain of ALKBH5 were indispensable to their interaction with each other. Furthermore, DDX3 could modulate the demethylation of mRNAs. We also showed that DDX3 regulated the methylation status of microRNAs and there was an interaction between DDX3 and AGO2. The dynamics of m6A RNA modification is still a field demanding further investigation, and here, we add a link by showing that RNA demethylation can be regulated by proteins such as DDX3.

  9. Characterization of the radiation environment at the UNLV accelerator facility during operation of the Varian M6 linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, M.; Barzilov, A.; Chen, Y.; Lowe, D.

    2016-10-01

    The bremsstrahlung photon flux from the UNLV particle accelerator (Varian M6 model) was determined using MCNP5 code for 3 MeV and 6 MeV incident electrons. Human biological equivalent dose rates due to accelerator operation were evaluated using the photon flux with the flux-to-dose conversion factors. Dose rates were computed for the accelerator facility for M6 linac use under different operating conditions. The results showed that the use of collimators and linac internal shielding significantly reduced the dose rates throughout the facility. It was shown that the walls of the facility, in addition to the earthen berm enveloping the building, provide equivalent shielding to reduce dose rates outside to below the 2 mrem/h limit.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Ezakiella peruensis Strain M6.X2, a Human Gut Gram-Positive Anaerobic Coccus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Awa; Diop, Khoudia; Tomei, Enora; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2018-03-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Ezakiella peruensis strain M6.X2 T The draft genome is 1,672,788 bp long and harbors 1,589 predicted protein-encoding genes, including 26 antibiotic resistance genes with 1 gene encoding vancomycin resistance. The genome also exhibits 1 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat region and 333 genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Copyright © 2018 Diop et al.

  11. Stem cells. m6A mRNA methylation facilitates resolution of naïve pluripotency toward differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geula, Shay; Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Sharon; Dominissini, Dan; Mansour, Abed AlFatah; Kol, Nitzan; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Hershkovitz, Vera; Peer, Eyal; Mor, Nofar; Manor, Yair S; Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eyal, Eran; Yunger, Sharon; Pinto, Yishay; Jaitin, Diego Adhemar; Viukov, Sergey; Rais, Yoach; Krupalnik, Vladislav; Chomsky, Elad; Zerbib, Mirie; Maza, Itay; Rechavi, Yoav; Massarwa, Rada; Hanna, Suhair; Amit, Ido; Levanon, Erez Y; Amariglio, Ninette; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Novershtern, Noa; Rechavi, Gideon; Hanna, Jacob H

    2015-02-27

    Naïve and primed pluripotent states retain distinct molecular properties, yet limited knowledge exists on how their state transitions are regulated. Here, we identify Mettl3, an N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) transferase, as a regulator for terminating murine naïve pluripotency. Mettl3 knockout preimplantation epiblasts and naïve embryonic stem cells are depleted for m(6)A in mRNAs, yet are viable. However, they fail to adequately terminate their naïve state and, subsequently, undergo aberrant and restricted lineage priming at the postimplantation stage, which leads to early embryonic lethality. m(6)A predominantly and directly reduces mRNA stability, including that of key naïve pluripotency-promoting transcripts. This study highlights a critical role for an mRNA epigenetic modification in vivo and identifies regulatory modules that functionally influence naïve and primed pluripotency in an opposing manner. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. A novel malic enzyme gene, Mime2, from Mortierella isabellina M6-22 contributes to lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Li, Lingyan; Xiong, Xiangfeng; Ji, Xiuling; Wei, Yunlin; Lin, Lianbing; Zhang, Qi

    2018-05-18

    This study was aimed at cloning and characterizing a novel malic enzyme (ME) gene of Mortierella isabellina M6-22 and identifying its relation with lipid accumulation. Mime2 was cloned from strain M6-22. Plasmid pET32aMIME2 was constructed to express ME of MIME2 in Escherichia coli BL21. After purification, the optimal pH and temperature of MIME2, as well as K m and V max for NADP + were determined. The effects of EDTA or metal ions (Mn 2+ , Mg 2+ , Co 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ca 2+ , or Zn 2+ ) on the enzymatic activity of MIME2 were evaluated. Besides, plasmid pRHMIME2 was created to express MIME2 in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae YM25235, and its cell lipid content was measured by the acid-heating method. The optimal pH and temperature of MIME2 are 5.8 and 30 °C, respectively. The act ivity of MIME2 was significantly increased by Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , or Mn 2+ at 0.5 mM but inhibited by Cu 2+ or Zn 2+ (p M6-22 contributes to lipid accumulation in strain YM25235.

  13. The TRPM6 Kinase Domain Determines the Mg·ATP Sensitivity of TRPM7/M6 Heteromeric Ion Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Yu, Haijie; Huang, Junhao; Faouzi, Malika; Schmitz, Carsten; Penner, Reinhold; Fleig, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential melastatin member 7 (TRPM7) and member 6 (TRPM6) are divalent cation channel kinases essential for magnesium (Mg2+) homeostasis in vertebrates. It remains unclear how TRPM6 affects divalent cation transport and whether this involves functional homomeric TRPM6 plasma membrane channels or heteromeric channel assemblies with TRPM7. We show that homomeric TRPM6 is highly sensitive to intracellular free Mg2+ and therefore unlikely to be active at physiological levels of [Mg2+]i. Co-expression of TRPM7 and TRPM6 produces heteromeric TRPM7/M6 channels with altered pharmacology and sensitivity to intracellular Mg·ATP compared with homomeric TRPM7. Strikingly, the activity of heteromeric TRPM7/M6 channels is independent of intracellular Mg·ATP concentrations, essentially uncoupling channel activity from cellular energy status. Disruption of TRPM6 kinase phosphorylation activity re-introduces Mg·ATP sensitivity to the heteromeric channel similar to that of TRPM7. Thus, TRPM6 modulates the functionality of TRPM7, and the TRPM6 kinase plays a critical role in tuning the phenotype of the TRPM7·M6 channel complex. PMID:24385424

  14. The TRPM6 kinase domain determines the Mg·ATP sensitivity of TRPM7/M6 heteromeric ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Yu, Haijie; Huang, Junhao; Faouzi, Malika; Schmitz, Carsten; Penner, Reinhold; Fleig, Andrea

    2014-02-21

    The transient receptor potential melastatin member 7 (TRPM7) and member 6 (TRPM6) are divalent cation channel kinases essential for magnesium (Mg(2+)) homeostasis in vertebrates. It remains unclear how TRPM6 affects divalent cation transport and whether this involves functional homomeric TRPM6 plasma membrane channels or heteromeric channel assemblies with TRPM7. We show that homomeric TRPM6 is highly sensitive to intracellular free Mg(2+) and therefore unlikely to be active at physiological levels of [Mg(2+)]i. Co-expression of TRPM7 and TRPM6 produces heteromeric TRPM7/M6 channels with altered pharmacology and sensitivity to intracellular Mg·ATP compared with homomeric TRPM7. Strikingly, the activity of heteromeric TRPM7/M6 channels is independent of intracellular Mg·ATP concentrations, essentially uncoupling channel activity from cellular energy status. Disruption of TRPM6 kinase phosphorylation activity re-introduces Mg·ATP sensitivity to the heteromeric channel similar to that of TRPM7. Thus, TRPM6 modulates the functionality of TRPM7, and the TRPM6 kinase plays a critical role in tuning the phenotype of the TRPM7·M6 channel complex.

  15. Some schemes for on-line correction of the closed orbit, dispersion and beta functions in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, M.H.R.; Blocker, C.; Chao, A.W.; Hollebeek, R.J.; Lee, M.J.; Linstadt, J.E.; Siegrist, J.L.; Spencer, N.

    1981-02-01

    PEP has been operated successfully under computer control. It is necessary for colliding beam operation that the errors in closed orbits, dispersion and beta functions be corrected. The schemes in the PEP control program for on-line correction of these errors are described in this paper. The orbit control tasks in the PEP control system perform the functions of data gathering, data presentation (color display, printing), calculation and setting of corrector magnets. The tasks are generally small and modular, taking information from the database, processing it, then returning the results to the database. The PEP operator communicates with the tasks through touch panels monitored by the Director program. The display task, which displays orbit and corrector information on a TV color display, provides the main information required by the operator

  16. X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase gene (pepX) is part of the glnRA operon in Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmanen, P; Savijoki, K; Avall, S; Palva, A; Tynkkynen, S

    2000-01-01

    A peptidase gene expressing X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (PepX) activity was cloned from Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1/6 by using the chromogenic substrate L-glycyl-L-prolyl-beta-naphthylamide for screening of a genomic library in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of a 3.5-kb HindIII fragment expressing the peptidase activity revealed one complete open reading frame (ORF) of 2,391 nucleotides. The 797-amino-acid protein encoded by this ORF was shown to be 40, 39, and 36% identical with PepXs from Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Lactococcus lactis, respectively. By Northern analysis with a pepX-specific probe, transcripts of 4.5 and 7.0 kb were detected, indicating that pepX is part of a polycistronic operon in L. rhamnosus. Cloning and sequencing of the upstream region of pepX revealed the presence of two ORFs of 360 and 1,338 bp that were shown to be able to encode proteins with high homology to GlnR and GlnA proteins, respectively. By multiple primer extension analyses, the only functional promoter in the pepX region was located 25 nucleotides upstream of glnR. Northern analysis with glnA- and pepX-specific probes indicated that transcription from glnR promoter results in a 2.0-kb dicistronic glnR-glnA transcript and also in a longer read-through polycistronic transcript of 7.0 kb that was detected with both probes in samples from cells in exponential growth phase. The glnA gene was disrupted by a single-crossover recombinant event using a nonreplicative plasmid carrying an internal part of glnA. In the disruption mutant, glnRA-specific transcription was derepressed 10-fold compared to the wild type, but the 7.0-kb transcript was no longer detectable with either the glnA- or pepX-specific probe, demonstrating that pepX is indeed part of glnRA operon in L. rhamnosus. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis further supported this operon structure. An extended stem-loop structure was identified immediately upstream of pepX in the glnA-pep

  17. Swamp plots for dynamic aperture studies of PEP-II lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.T.; Irwin, J.; Cai, Y.; Chen, T.; Ritson, D.

    1995-01-01

    With a newly developed algorithm using resonance basis Lie generators and their evaluation with action-angle Poisson bracket maps (nPB tracking) the authors have been able to perform fast tracking for dynamic aperture studies of PEP-II lattices as well as incorporate lattice nonlinearities in beam-beam studies. They have been able to better understand the relationship between dynamic apertures and the tune shift and resonance coefficients in the generators of the one-turn maps. To obtain swamp plots (dynamic aperture vs. working point) of the PEP-II lattices, they first compute a one-turn resonance basis map for a nominal working point and then perform nPB tracking by switching the working point while holding fixed all other terms in the map. Results have been spot-checked by comparing with element-by-element tracking

  18. A zero-length bellows for the PEP-II High-Energy Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordby, M.; Daly, E.F.; Kurita, N.; Langton, J.

    1995-08-01

    Due to the beamline space constrictions and the modular design of the vacuum system, a conventional bellows can not be used everywhere in the PEP-II High-Energy Ring (HER) arcs. A zero-length ''Flex Flange'' was developed which actually performs better than a more standard bellows. The Flex Flange fits the space available while still preserving the modularity of the system. Furthermore, the design provides for an accurate match-up between adjoining octagonal copper chambers despite the large fabrication and assembly tolerances and high operational loads. Beam chamber continuity is ensured by an integral RF seal ring which is easy to install and fault-tolerant. Heating from synchrotron radiation and higher-order mode trapping is managed to ensure a robust connection despite the 3,000 mA beam current of the PEP-II HER. The Flex Flange concept is versatile and adaptable to many applications, yet economical both in space needed and cost

  19. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to dissolve solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct steam injection to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally

  20. PepJ is a new extracellular proteinase of Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emri, T; Szilágyi, M; László, K; M-Hamvas, M; Pócsi, I

    2009-01-01

    Under carbon starvation, Aspergillus nidulans released a metallo-proteinase with activities comparable to those of PrtA, the major extracellular serine proteinase of the fungus. The relative molar mass of the enzyme was 19 kDa as determined with both denaturing and renaturing SDS PAGE, while its isoelectric point and pH and temperature optima were 8.6, 5.5 and 65 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme was stable at pH 3.5-10.5 and was still active at 95 degrees C in the presence of azocasein substrate. MALDI-TOF MS analysis demonstrated that the proteinase was encoded by the pepJ gene (locus ID AN7962.3), and showed high similarity to deuterolysin from Aspergillus oryzae. The size of the mature enzyme, its EDTA sensitivity and heat stability also supported the view that A. nidulans PepJ is a deuterolysin-type metallo-proteinase.

  1. Study of an instability of the PEP-II positron beam (Ohmi effect and Multipactoring)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, S A [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The processes defining the density distribution of the photoelectrons are quite complicated. In this study, a simplified model of the instability was used to get a quick estimate of the growth rate of the instability and the relative importance of the parameters, as has been done in Ohmi`s paper. The production rate and dynamics of the photoelectrons are studied for the PEP-II parameters. The growth rate of the transverse instability driven by the primary photoelectrons is of the order of 0.7 msec for the PEP-II parameters. The multipactoring at resonance currents cannot produce large electron density due to the final energy spread caused by the finite bunch length and the intrinsic energy spread of the secondary electrons. Production of the secondary electrons may lead to large average densities. The ion can be produced in electron collisions with the residual gas with density of the order of the electron density. (G.K.)

  2. Radiosynthesis of a new PSMA targeting ligand ([{sup 18}F]FPy-DUPA-Pep)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Noeen, E-mail: noeen.malik@uniklinik-ulm.d [Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Ulm (Germany); Machulla, Hans-Juergen; Solbach, Christoph; Winter, Gordon; Reske, Sven N.; Zlatopolskiy, Boris [Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Due to the specificity of expression of PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen) particularly in prostate cancer cells (e.g. LNCaP), numerous PSMA ligands have been synthesized until now. In the current study, we synthesized DUPA-Pep having 2-[3-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)ureido]pentanedioic acid (DUPA) linked via 8-aminooctanoic acid to two phenylalanine residues and chose 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoronicotinic acid 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl ester [{sup 18}F]FPy-TFP as a prosthetic group for coupling. [{sup 18}F]FPy-DUPA-Pep was obtained in a radiochemical yield of 48{+-}0.9% (decay uncorrected) within 50 min with a chemical purity of >98%.

  3. Radiosynthesis of a new PSMA targeting ligand ([18F]FPy-DUPA-Pep)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Noeen; Machulla, Hans-Juergen; Solbach, Christoph; Winter, Gordon; Reske, Sven N.; Zlatopolskiy, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Due to the specificity of expression of PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen) particularly in prostate cancer cells (e.g. LNCaP), numerous PSMA ligands have been synthesized until now. In the current study, we synthesized DUPA-Pep having 2-[3-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)ureido]pentanedioic acid (DUPA) linked via 8-aminooctanoic acid to two phenylalanine residues and chose 6-[ 18 F]fluoronicotinic acid 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl ester [ 18 F]FPy-TFP as a prosthetic group for coupling. [ 18 F]FPy-DUPA-Pep was obtained in a radiochemical yield of 48±0.9% (decay uncorrected) within 50 min with a chemical purity of >98%.

  4. Radiosynthesis of a new PSMA targeting ligand ([18F]FPy-DUPA-Pep).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Noeen; Machulla, Hans-Jürgen; Solbach, Christoph; Winter, Gordon; Reske, Sven N; Zlatopolskiy, Boris

    2011-07-01

    Due to the specificity of expression of PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen) particularly in prostate cancer cells (e.g. LNCaP), numerous PSMA ligands have been synthesized until now. In the current study, we synthesized DUPA-Pep having 2-[3-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)ureido]pentanedioic acid (DUPA) linked via 8-aminooctanoic acid to two phenylalanine residues and chose 6-[(18)F]fluoronicotinic acid 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl ester [(18)F]FPy-TFP as a prosthetic group for coupling. [(18)F]FPy-DUPA-Pep was obtained in a radiochemical yield of 48±0.9% (decay uncorrected) within 50 min with a chemical purity of >98%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Calibration of the beam-position monitor system for the SLAC PEP-II B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.; Smith, S.; Kurita, N.

    1997-06-01

    The Beam-Position Monitors (BPM) for the PEP-II B Factory consist of four 1.5-cm diameter button style pickups mounted on the diagonals of the quadrupole vacuum chambers. Before installation of the vacuum chambers in the quadrupole assemblies, the electrical center of the BPMs is measured with respect to the mechanical center in a calibration test stand. In this paper the calibration test stand is described and the precision and accuracy of the calibrations are presented. After installation of the quadrupole assemblies in the PEP-II tunnel, the passive attenuation for each channel of the system is measured to preserve the accuracy of the calibration. Finally, the active electronics includes an onboard calibrator. Results for these portions of the calibration are presented

  6. Operator interface for the PEP-II low level RF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.; Claus, R.

    1997-05-01

    This paper focuses on the operational aspects of the low level RF control system being built for the PEP-II storage rings at SLAC. Subsystems requiring major operational considerations include displays for monitor and control from UNIX workstations, slow feedback loops and control sequences residing on microprocessors, and various client applications in the existing SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) control system. Since commissioning of PEP-II RF is currently in-progress, only those parts of the control system used during this phase are discussed in detail. Based on past experience with the SLC control system, it is expected that effort expended during commissioning on a solid user interface will result in smoother transition to full reliable 24-hour-a-day operation

  7. Operation and performance of the PEP-II prototype longitudinal damping system at ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teytelman, D.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.

    1995-05-01

    A modular programmable longitudinal feedback system has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R+D program. This system is based on a family of VME and VXI packaged signal processing functions which implement a general purpose digital feedback controller for accelerators with bunch spacings of 2 ns. A complete PEP-II prototype system has been configured and installed for use at the LBL Advanced Light Source. The system configuration used for tests at the ALS is described and results are presented showing the action of the feedback system. Open and closed loop results showing the detection and calculation of feedback signals from bunch motion are presented and the system is shown to damp coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. Use of the system for accelerator diagnostics is illustrated via measurement of grow-damp transients which quantify growth rates without feedback, damping rates with feedback, and identify unstable modes

  8. The PEP-II Asymmetric B Factory: Design details and R ampersand D results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.; DeStaebler, H.; Dorfan, J.

    1994-06-01

    PEP-II, a 9 GeV x 3.1 GeV electron-positron collider with a design luminosity of 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 has now been approved for construction by SLAC, LBL and LLNL for the purpose of studying CP violation in the B bar B system. This upgrade project involves replacing the vacuum and RF systeum of PEP, which will serve as the high-energy ring (HER), along with the addition of a new low-energy ring (LER) mounted atop the HER. Designs for both rings are described, and the anticipated project construction schedule is indicated. Collider operation will begin at the end of 1998. An aggressive R ampersand D program has been carried out to validate our design choices; key results in the areas of lattice design, vacuum, RF, and multibunch feedback are summarized

  9. Transverse feedback systems for the PEP-II B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.; Barry, W.; Byrd, J.M.; Lambertson, G.; Johnson, J.; Fahmie, M.

    1995-10-01

    Growth rates of coherent beam oscillations are faster than the natural damping mechanisms for the parameters of the PEP-II B-factory storage rings at nominal currents, even with damping of cavity higher order modes (HOM's). With 165 8 bunches separated by 4.2 ns, and a large current of up to 3A (2.14 A nominal in the low energy ring), many coupled-bunch modes are excited by the resistive wall impedance and cavity higher order mode impedance. Fastest growth times of transverse rigid-bunch modes of approximately 300 ps are expected, two orders of magnitude faster than the radiation damping time. We will provide broadband, bunch-by-bunch feedback to suppress this coherent motion of the beam. Experience gained with a prototype system, installed and successfully operating at the LBNL Advanced Light Source (ALS), has been used extensively in developing the design of the PEP-II systems

  10. Letter of intent for the study of CP violation and heavy flavor physics at PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on CP violation and heavy flavor physics experiments: Physics at PEP-II; detector overview; PEP-II and the interaction region; vertex detector; main tracking chamber; particle identification; electromagnetic calorimeter; muon and neutral hadron detector; magnet coil and flux return; electronics, trigger, and data acquisition; computing; CP asymmetry simulations; collaboration issues; project organization and management; and budget and schedule

  11. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic-Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The work described in this report addresses caustic leaching under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. Because gibbsite leaching kinetics are rapid (gibbsite is expected to be dissolved by the time the final leach temperature is reached), boehmite leach kinetics are the main focus of the caustic-leach tests. The tests were completed at the laboratory-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. Two laboratory-scale caustic-leach tests were performed for each of the PEP runs. For each PEP run, unleached slurry was taken from the PEP caustic-leach vessel for one batch and used as feed for both of the corresponding laboratory-scale tests.

  12. Letter of intent for the study of CP violation and heavy flavor physics at PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BaBar Collaboration

    1994-06-18

    This report discusses the following topics on CP violation and heavy flavor physics experiments: Physics at PEP-II; detector overview; PEP-II and the interaction region; vertex detector; main tracking chamber; particle identification; electromagnetic calorimeter; muon and neutral hadron detector; magnet coil and flux return; electronics, trigger, and data acquisition; computing; CP asymmetry simulations; collaboration issues; project organization and management; and budget and schedule.

  13. High-power RF window and coupler development for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.; Fant, K.; Hodgson, J.; Judkins, J.; Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and testing of the RF windows designed to transmit power to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. Design choices to maximize the reliability of the window are discussed. Fabrication technologies for the window are described and finite-element analysis of the assembly process is presented. Conditioning and high-power testing of the window are discussed. Design of the coupler assembly including the integration of the window and other components is reported

  14. Pep2Path: automated mass spectrometry-guided genome mining of peptidic natural products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnix H Medema

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonribosomally and ribosomally synthesized bioactive peptides constitute a source of molecules of great biomedical importance, including antibiotics such as penicillin, immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine, and cytostatics such as bleomycin. Recently, an innovative mass-spectrometry-based strategy, peptidogenomics, has been pioneered to effectively mine microbial strains for novel peptidic metabolites. Even though mass-spectrometric peptide detection can be performed quite fast, true high-throughput natural product discovery approaches have still been limited by the inability to rapidly match the identified tandem mass spectra to the gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of the corresponding compounds. With Pep2Path, we introduce a software package to fully automate the peptidogenomics approach through the rapid Bayesian probabilistic matching of mass spectra to their corresponding biosynthetic gene clusters. Detailed benchmarking of the method shows that the approach is powerful enough to correctly identify gene clusters even in data sets that consist of hundreds of genomes, which also makes it possible to match compounds from unsequenced organisms to closely related biosynthetic gene clusters in other genomes. Applying Pep2Path to a data set of compounds without known biosynthesis routes, we were able to identify candidate gene clusters for the biosynthesis of five important compounds. Notably, one of these clusters was detected in a genome from a different subphylum of Proteobacteria than that in which the molecule had first been identified. All in all, our approach paves the way towards high-throughput discovery of novel peptidic natural products. Pep2Path is freely available from http://pep2path.sourceforge.net/, implemented in Python, licensed under the GNU General Public License v3 and supported on MS Windows, Linux and Mac OS X.

  15. Modeling Lost-Particle Accelerator Backgrounds in PEP-II Using LPTURTLE

    CERN Document Server

    Fieguth, Theodore; Kozanecki, Witold

    2005-01-01

    Background studies during the design, construction, commissioning, operation and improvement of BaBar and PEP-II have been greatly influenced by results from a program referred to as LPTURTLE (Lost Particle TURTLE a modified version of Decay TURTLE) which was originally conceived for the purpose of studying gas background for SLC. This venerable program is still in use today. We describe its use, capabilities and improvements and refer to current results now being applied to BaBar.

  16. Scaling of gain with energy spread and energy in the PEP FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Sag Harbor paper on the PEP FEL discusses the scaling of various FEL parameters with energy spread σ var-epsilon . I will repeat some of this material here and then examine the benefit of increasing the energy spread. How much energy spread can be achieved with damping wigglers is the next topic. Finally, I consider the dependence of gain and saturation length on beam energy and undulator field

  17. The PEP-II Project: Low-Energy Ring Design and Project Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the present status of the PEP-II project. The project comprises four major systems: Injector, High-Energy Ring (HER), Low-Energy Ring (LER), and Interaction Region (IR). We focus in detail on the design of the LER, as its parameters and requirements are most closely related to those required for the Beijing Tau-Charm Factory rings. The PEP-II LER is a high-current, 3.1-GeV positron ring mounted above the 9-GeV HER. The LER uses a wiggler located in one of its six straight sections to provide emittance control and additional damping. We describe the rather complicated IR, which must transport the LER beam into the plane of the HER, focus it to a common beam size, and separate the beams after the head-on collisions. Both permanent magnet and conventional electromagnets are used in this area. The LER lattice has now adopted a simplified non-interleaved sextupole correction scheme that has reduced the required number of sextupoles substantially. We describe the LER vacuum system, one of the most challenging subsystems in PEP-II. It employs several technologies. In the arcs, aluminum extrusions and titanium sublimation pumps are employed; the straight sections use stainless steel chambers with lumped ion pumps. In the wiggler area, an extended copper photon dump with nonevaporable getter (NEG) pumps is employed to handle the very large synchrotron radiation power. The design of the room-temperature RF system, the bunch-by-bunch longitudinal and transverse feedback systems, and some of the special diagnostics will be described briefly. The PEP-II project remains on schedule to begin commissioning of the HER in April 1997, followed by the LER a year later

  18. RF Feedback Analysis for 4 cavities per klystron in PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corredoura, P.; Tighe, R.

    1994-06-01

    Lattice changes in the PEP-II high energy ring have made the concept of driving four cavities with a single klystron an attractive option. This paper examines the topology from a RF feedback point of view. Sources of error are identified and their magnitudes are estimated. The effect on the performance of the longitudinal impedance reducing feedback loops is calculated using control theory and Mathematica

  19. Study of heavy quark production with the Mark II at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, G.; Amidei, D.; Baden, A.

    1983-10-01

    The methods adopted by the Mark II collaboration to study heavy quark production at PEP are described. Two complementary techniques are used: D* tagging using the decay chain D* + . D 0 π + , D 0 → K - π + , and inclusive lepton tagging using the characteristic p/sub T/ distributions to distinguish contributions from b and c quarks. These techniques are used to derive information about heavy quark fragmentation and about the weak coupling of heavy quarks

  20. The key determinants of perceived external prestige (PEP) – Qualitative research approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Sušanj Šulentić; Krešimir Žnidar; Jurica Pavičić

    2017-01-01

    Perceived external prestige (PEP) is a well-known concept oriented towards describing the way members of a certain organization interpret and assess their organisational reputation. Such perception can significantly affect employees’ identification and loyalty to the organisation as well as their job satisfaction and work performance. According to the social identification theory, people define themselves and others with respect to their belonging to a particular group or organization, and th...

  1. Mesomorphic phase behaviour of low molar mass PEP-PDMS diblock copolymers synthesized by anionic polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigild, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    The phase behaviour of low molar mass poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) -poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PEP-PDMS) is investigated in this thesis by the combination of dynamical mechanical spectroscopy (rheology) to measure phase transition temperatures, and small-angle x-ray scattering to identify the morphology of encountered phases. Samples of PEP-PDMS in the range of 0.2-0.7 in volume fraction of PEP are studied. This diblock copolymer system exhibits the three classical phases of lamellar sandwich structure (LAM), hexagonally packed cylinders (HEX), and spheres arranged on a body centered cubic lattice (BCC). Furthermore the gyroid phase (Ia3d symmetry) of two interpenetrating networks was also identified as a stable phase of the PEP-PDMS system. Time resolved measurements of small-angle neutron scattering in tandem with simultaneous in-situ rheological measurements are performed on samples showing transitions between different ordered phases. The identification of especially the BCC and gyroid phases from scattering experiments is treated. By performing mesoscopic crystallographic measurements using a custom built goniometer it was unambiguously shown that the application of shear to an unoriented powder-like sample introduces uniaxial orientation of the gyroid phase. The orientation of the ordered phase is otherwise random, causing a two-dimensional powder. Finally this dissertation presents a discussion of relevant parameters for the description of diblock copolymer phase behaviour together with descriptions of anionic polymerization for the synthesis of copolymers, and various experimental techniques for the characterization of diblocks. (au). 9 tabs., 40 ills., 81 refs.

  2. Observations of static Coulomb stress triggering of the November 2011 M5.7 Oklahoma earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumy, Danielle F.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Keranen, Katie M.; Wei, Maya; Abers, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    In November 2011, a M5.0 earthquake occurred less than a day before a M5.7 earthquake near Prague, Oklahoma, which may have promoted failure of the mainshock and thousands of aftershocks along the Wilzetta fault, including a M5.0 aftershock. The M5.0 foreshock occurred in close proximity to active fluid injection wells; fluid injection can cause a buildup of pore fluid pressure, decrease the fault strength, and may induce earthquakes. Keranen et al. [2013] links the M5.0 foreshock with fluid injection, but the relationship between the foreshock and successive events has not been investigated. Here we examine the role of coseismic Coulomb stress transfer on earthquakes that follow the M5.0 foreshock, including the M5.7 mainshock. We resolve the static Coulomb stress change onto the focal mechanism nodal plane that is most consistent with the rupture geometry of the three M ≥ 5.0 earthquakes, as well as specified receiver fault planes that reflect the regional stress orientation. We find that Coulomb stress is increased, e.g., fault failure is promoted, on the nodal planes of ~60% of the events that have focal mechanism solutions, and more specifically, that the M5.0 foreshock promoted failure on the rupture plane of the M5.7 mainshock. We test our results over a range of effective coefficient of friction values. Hence, we argue that the M5.0 foreshock, induced by fluid injection, potentially triggered a cascading failure of earthquakes along the complex Wilzetta fault system.

  3. Pep1, a secreted effector protein of Ustilago maydis, is required for successful invasion of plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Doehlemann

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize. Colonization of the host plant is initiated by direct penetration of cuticle and cell wall of maize epidermis cells. The invading hyphae are surrounded by the plant plasma membrane and proliferate within the plant tissue. We identified a novel secreted protein, termed Pep1, that is essential for penetration. Disruption mutants of pep1 are not affected in saprophytic growth and develop normal infection structures. However, Deltapep1 mutants arrest during penetration of the epidermal cell and elicit a strong plant defense response. Using Affymetrix maize arrays, we identified 116 plant genes which are differentially regulated in Deltapep1 compared to wild type infections. Most of these genes are related to plant defense. By in vivo immunolocalization, live-cell imaging and plasmolysis approaches, we detected Pep1 in the apoplastic space as well as its accumulation at sites of cell-to-cell passages. Site-directed mutagenesis identified two of the four cysteine residues in Pep1 as essential for function, suggesting that the formation of disulfide bridges is crucial for proper protein folding. The barley covered smut fungus Ustilago hordei contains an ortholog of pep1 which is needed for penetration of barley and which is able to complement the U. maydis Deltapep1 mutant. Based on these results, we conclude that Pep1 has a conserved function essential for establishing compatibility that is not restricted to the U. maydis / maize interaction.

  4. Vertex operator algebras of Argyres-Douglas theories from M5-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaewon; Xie, Dan; Yan, Wenbin

    2017-12-01

    We study aspects of the vertex operator algebra (VOA) corresponding to Argyres-Douglas (AD) theories engineered using the 6d N=(2, 0) theory of type J on a punctured sphere. We denote the AD theories as ( J b [ k], Y), where J b [ k] and Y represent an irregular and a regular singularity respectively. We restrict to the `minimal' case where J b [ k] has no associated mass parameters, and the theory does not admit any exactly marginal deformations. The VOA corresponding to the AD theory is conjectured to be the W-algebra W^{k_{2d}}(J, Y ) , where {k}_{2d}=-h+b/b+k with h being the dual Coxeter number of J. We verify this conjecture by showing that the Schur index of the AD theory is identical to the vacuum character of the corresponding VOA, and the Hall-Littlewood index computes the Hilbert series of the Higgs branch. We also find that the Schur and Hall-Littlewood index for the AD theory can be written in a simple closed form for b = h. We also test the conjecture that the associated variety of such VOA is identical to the Higgs branch. The M5-brane construction of these theories and the corresponding TQFT structure of the index play a crucial role in our computations.

  5. Air oxidation of Zircaloy-4, M5 (registered) and ZIRLOTM cladding alloys at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrueck, M.; Boettcher, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results of isothermal and transient oxidation experiments of the advanced cladding alloys M5 (registered) and ZIRLO TM in comparison to Zircaloy-4 in air at temperatures from 973 to 1853 K. Generally, oxidation in air leads to a strong degradation of the cladding material. The main mechanism of this process is the formation of zirconium nitride and its re-oxidation. From the point of view of safety, the barrier effect of the fuel cladding is lost much earlier than during accident transients with a steam atmosphere only. Comparison of the three alloys investigated reveals a qualitatively similar, but quantitatively varying oxidation behavior in air. The mainly parabolic oxidation kinetics, where applicable, is comparable for the three alloys. Strong differences of up to 500% in oxidation rates were observed after transition to linear kinetics at temperatures below 1300 K. The paper presents kinetic rate constants as well as critical times and oxide scale thicknesses at the point of transition from parabolic to linear kinetics.

  6. Towards an M5-brane model I: A 6d superconformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sämann, Christian; Schmidt, Lennart

    2018-04-01

    We present an action for a six-dimensional superconformal field theory containing a non-abelian tensor multiplet. All of the ingredients of this action have been available in the literature. We bring these pieces together by choosing the string Lie 2-algebra as a gauge structure, which we motivated in previous work. The kinematical data contains a connection on a categorified principal bundle, which is the appropriate mathematical description of the parallel transport of self-dual strings. Our action can be written down for each of the simply laced Dynkin diagrams, and each case reduces to a four-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with corresponding gauge Lie algebra. Our action also reduces nicely to an M2-brane model which is a deformation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) model. While this action is certainly not the desired M5-brane model, we regard it as a key stepping stone towards a potential construction of the (2, 0)-theory.

  7. Measurement of the leptonic structure functions of the photon at PEP [Positron Electron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    At beam energies available at the PEP e + e - storage ring at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center the cross-section for two-photon particle production is sufficiently large to warrant an investigation of this O(α 4 ) process. Of particular interest is the two-photon process ee → eeμμ at non-zero Q 2 . This channel is not only relatively easy to observe experimentally but also serves as a model for the process ee → eeq bar q. For the case of inelastic eγ scattering the cross-section could be parameterized in terms of the photon structure functions F 1 (x,Q 2 ) and F 2 (x,Q 2 ). In this thesis I will present data on the process ee → eeμμ collected by the Two-Photon collaboration (PEP-9) at PEP. For the subset of data which proceeds by inelastic eγ scattering I will present a procedure for extracting the QED photon structure functions and apply this method to the data. 42 refs., 44 figs

  8. SwePep, a database designed for endogenous peptides and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fälth, Maria; Sköld, Karl; Norrman, Mathias; Svensson, Marcus; Fenyö, David; Andren, Per E

    2006-06-01

    A new database, SwePep, specifically designed for endogenous peptides, has been constructed to significantly speed up the identification process from complex tissue samples utilizing mass spectrometry. In the identification process the experimental peptide masses are compared with the peptide masses stored in the database both with and without possible post-translational modifications. This intermediate identification step is fast and singles out peptides that are potential endogenous peptides and can later be confirmed with tandem mass spectrometry data. Successful applications of this methodology are presented. The SwePep database is a relational database developed using MySql and Java. The database contains 4180 annotated endogenous peptides from different tissues originating from 394 different species as well as 50 novel peptides from brain tissue identified in our laboratory. Information about the peptides, including mass, isoelectric point, sequence, and precursor protein, is also stored in the database. This new approach holds great potential for removing the bottleneck that occurs during the identification process in the field of peptidomics. The SwePep database is available to the public.

  9. PepArML: A Meta-Search Peptide Identification Platform for Tandem Mass Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nathan J

    2013-12-01

    The PepArML meta-search peptide identification platform for tandem mass spectra provides a unified search interface to seven search engines; a robust cluster, grid, and cloud computing scheduler for large-scale searches; and an unsupervised, model-free, machine-learning-based result combiner, which selects the best peptide identification for each spectrum, estimates false-discovery rates, and outputs pepXML format identifications. The meta-search platform supports Mascot; Tandem with native, k-score and s-score scoring; OMSSA; MyriMatch; and InsPecT with MS-GF spectral probability scores—reformatting spectral data and constructing search configurations for each search engine on the fly. The combiner selects the best peptide identification for each spectrum based on search engine results and features that model enzymatic digestion, retention time, precursor isotope clusters, mass accuracy, and proteotypic peptide properties, requiring no prior knowledge of feature utility or weighting. The PepArML meta-search peptide identification platform often identifies two to three times more spectra than individual search engines at 10% FDR.

  10. Effect of the Electron Cloud and CSR on the Upgrade of the PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, Samuel A

    2001-01-01

    Effects of the electron cloud and of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the possible upgrade of the PEP-II B-factory are studied. PEP-II B factory operates with parameters shown in Table 1 and already exceeds the design luminosity. Nevertheless, a possibility of upgrading the machine to even higher luminosities is under consideration [1]. Several scenarios are summarized in Table 2. This paper describes effects of the electron cloud and of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the proposed upgrades of the PEP-II B-factory. The first effect was observed [3] and caused [4] the degradation of the emittance at KEK B-factory. The analytic expression for the e-wake [2] is used in calculations of the head-tail instability. Other obvious effects of higher beam currents such as additional heat load are not considered. The short wave length CSR has been recently observed at Brookhaven [6]. Consideration of the effect of such CSR on the beam dynamics is based on our previous paper [7

  11. ARA-PEPs: a repository of putative sORF-encoded peptides in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Rashmi R; De Coninck, Barbara; Yamamoto, Lidia R; Martin, Laura R; Cammue, Bruno P A; van Noort, Vera

    2017-01-17

    Many eukaryotic RNAs have been considered non-coding as they only contain short open reading frames (sORFs). However, there is increasing evidence for the translation of these sORFs into bioactive peptides with potent signaling, antimicrobial, developmental, antioxidant roles etc. Yet only a few peptides encoded by sORFs are annotated in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. To aid the functional annotation of these peptides, we have developed ARA-PEPs (available at http://www.biw.kuleuven.be/CSB/ARA-PEPs ), a repository of putative peptides encoded by sORFs in the A. thaliana genome starting from in-house Tiling arrays, RNA-seq data and other publicly available datasets. ARA-PEPs currently lists 13,748 sORF-encoded peptides with transcriptional evidence. In addition to existing data, we have identified 100 novel transcriptionally active regions (TARs) that might encode 341 novel stress-induced peptides (SIPs). To aid in identification of bioactivity, we add functional annotation and sequence conservation to predicted peptides. To our knowledge, this is the largest repository of plant peptides encoded by sORFs with transcript evidence, publicly available and this resource will help scientists to effortlessly navigate the list of experimentally studied peptides, the experimental and computational evidence supporting the activity of these peptides and gain new perspectives for peptide discovery.

  12. Status of the Object Oriented Program based Graphic User Interface Development for HyPEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Jin; Park, Ji Won; Hwang, Moon Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen is being promoted as the energy-carrier for the future under the proposed hydrogen economy. As large reservoirs of hydrogen molecules do not exist in nature, the hydrogen needs to be produced using other energies such as nuclear, coal, natural gas, etc. The nuclear hydrogen production facility, where nuclear power is used to split water to produce hydrogen molecules, is presented as one of the optimal solutions for the large scale hydrogen production. Compared to other large scale hydrogen production methods, the nuclear hydrogen production can have better overall economics and less damaging environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. In order to assess the overall economics of the hydrogen production, it is important to assess the hydrogen production efficiencies. In the conceptual design stage of the plant, various different plant layouts need to be studied to optimize the production efficiency. The main development aim of the HyPEP (Hydrogen Production Efficiency calculator Program) is the rapid assessment of the overall hydrogen production efficiency of a nuclear hydrogen production facility. The program is being developed with extensive GUI features to enhance the user-friendliness and the rapid model build-ups. This paper presents the current status of the development of HyPEP especially the GUI. HyPEP is being developed under an International Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (I-NERI) Project

  13. A Parallel Controls Software Approach for PEP II: AIDA and Matlab Middle Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmer, W.; Colocho, W.; White, G.

    2007-01-01

    The controls software in use at PEP II (Stanford Control Program - SCP) had originally been developed in the eighties. It is very successful in routine operation but due to its internal structure it is difficult and time consuming to extend its functionality. This is problematic during machine development and when solving operational issues. Routinely, data has to be exported from the system, analyzed offline, and calculated settings have to be reimported. Since this is a manual process, it is time consuming and error-prone. Setting up automated processes, as is done for MIA (Model Independent Analysis), is also time consuming and specific to each application. Recently, there has been a trend at light sources to use MATLAB as the platform to control accelerators using a 'MATLAB Middle Layer' (MML), and so called channel access (CA) programs to communicate with the low level control system (LLCS). This has proven very successful, especially during machine development time and trouble shooting. A special CA code, named AIDA (Accelerator Independent Data Access), was developed to handle the communication between MATLAB, modern software frameworks, and the SCP. The MML had to be adapted for implementation at PEP II. Colliders differ significantly in their designs compared to light sources, which poses a challenge. PEP II is the first collider at which this implementation is being done. We will report on this effort, which is still ongoing

  14. High temperature creep behavior in the (α + β) phase temperature range of M5 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trego, G.

    2011-01-01

    The isothermal steady-state creep behavior of a M5 thin sheet alloy in a vacuum environment was investigated in the (α + β) temperature, low-stress (1-10 MPa) range. To this aim, the simplest approach consists in identifying α and β creep flow rules in their respective single-phase temperature ranges and extrapolating them in the two-phase domain. However, the (α + β) experimental behavior may fall outside any bounds calculated using such creep flow data. Here, the model was improved for each phase by considering two microstructural effects: (i) Grain size: Thermo-mechanical treatments applied on the material yielded various controlled grain size distributions. Creep tests in near-α and near-β ranges evidenced a strong grain-size effect, especially in the diffusional creep regime. (ii) Chemical contrast between the two phases in the (α + β) range: From thermodynamic calculations and microstructural investigations, the β phase is enriched in Nb and depleted in O (the reverse being true for the α phase). Thus, creep tests were performed on model Zr-Nb-O thin sheets with Nb and O concentrations representative of each phase in the considered temperature range. New α and β creep flow equations were developed from this extended experimental database and used to compute, via a finite element model, the creep rates of the two-phase material. The 3D morphology of phases (β grains nucleated at α grain boundaries) was explicitly introduced in the computations. The effect of phase morphology on the macroscopic creep flow was shown using this specific morphology, compared to other typical morphologies and to experimental data. (author) [fr

  15. The kinetics of oocyst shedding and sporulation in two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima, GS and M6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badri, Riadh; Barta, John Robert

    2012-11-01

    The kinetics of oocyst shedding and sporulation of two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima (GS and M6) were compared. Both strains had a prepatent period of approximately 120 h followed by peak oocyst shedding at 144-150 h post inoculation. Mean total oocyst output determined for each strain demonstrated that the fecundity of the M6 strain (12.8 × 10(3) ± 1.95) of E. maxima was roughly twice that of the GS strain (6.9 × 10(3) ± 3.33) when inoculated at the rate of 1,000 infective oocysts per bird. The process of oocyst sporulation was followed by repetitive sampling of sporulating oocysts at 26 °C with aeration over a 138 hour period. Sporulation was divided into five morphologically distinguishable stages whose abundance peaked at the following times during sporulation: unsporulated oocysts at 0 h; sporoblast anlagen at 18 h; sporoblasts without sporocyst walls at 22 h; and sporocysts without mature sporozoites at 38 h. The time to 50 % sporulation of E. maxima oocysts observed in the present study was approximately 53 h for both strains and all viable oocysts had completed sporulation by 60 h. In the present study, the prepatent periods, duration of oocyst shedding, and the relative kinetics of sporulation of the GS and M6 strains of E. maxima were found to be virtually identical despite the immunological distinctiveness of these two parasite strains.

  16. Heterologous expression of Ralp3 in Streptococcus pyogenes M2 and M6 strains affects the virulence characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Siemens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ralp3 is a transcriptional regulator present in a serotype specific fashion on the chromosome of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS. In serotypes harbouring the ralp3 gene either positive or negative effects on important metabolic and virulence genes involved in colonization and immune evasion in the human host were observed. A previous study revealed that deletion of ralp3 in a GAS M49 serotype significantly attenuated many virulence traits and caused metabolic disadvantages. This leads to two questions: (i which kind of consequences could Ralp3 expression have in GAS serotypes naturally lacking this gene, and (ii is Ralp3 actively lost during evolution in these serotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the role of Ralp3 in GAS M2 and M6 pathogenesis. Both serotypes lack ralp3 on their chromosome. The heterologous expression of ralp3 in both serotypes resulted in reduced attachment to and internalization into the majority of tested epithelial cells. Both ralp3 expression strains showed a decreased ability to survive in human blood and exclusively M2::ralp3 showed decreased survival in human serum. Both mutants secreted more active SpeB in the supernatant, resulting in a higher activity compared to wild type strains. The respective M2 and M6 wild type strains outcompeted the ralp3 expression strains in direct metabolic competition assays. The phenotypic changes observed in the M2:ralp3 and M6:ralp3 were verified on the transcriptional level. Consistent with the virulence data, tested genes showed transcript level changes in the same direction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together these data suggest that Ralp3 can take over transcriptional control of virulence genes in serotypes lacking the ralp3 gene. Those serotypes most likely lost Ralp3 during evolution since obviously expression of this gene is disadvantageous for metabolism and pathogenesis.

  17. SELF and VLF electromagnetic emissions that preceded the M6.2 Central Italy earthquake occurred on August 24, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Daniele; Cataldi, Gabriele; Straser, Valentino

    2017-04-01

    On August 24, 2016 at 01:36:32 UTC a destructive earthquake hit Central Italy with a magnitude of M6.2. The authors of this study have recorded some electromagnetic signals that have preceded this strong earthquake. These signals were recorded through two electromagnetic monitoring stations realized by Gabriele Cataldi and Daniele Cataldi, located near the town of Albano Laziale (Rome, Italy) and near the city of Lariano (Rome, Italy) and can monitor the radio spectrum 24h7 between 0.001 Hz and 96 kHz (SELF-LF band). The electromagnetic monitoring allowed to identify two interesting types of electromagnetic anomalies: the first electromagnetic anomaly was recorded on August 18, 2016 between 02:47 UTC and 06:21 UTC, in the VLF band prevalently between 18kHz and 26kHz; the second electromagnetic anomaly was registered between 08:00 UTC on August 23, 2016 and 05:00 UTC on August 24, 2016, prevalently between 0.01 and 0.7Hz: the most intense signals were recorded at 08:50 UTC on August 23, 2016 and approximately 1 hour before the strong earthquake. The Earth's electromagnetic background monitoring in the SELF-VLF band (0HzM6+ earthquakes that occur on a global scale are always preceded by an increase of the solar wind proton density near Earth, the solar and geomagnetic activity monitoring is a seismic prediction method that has proven reliable for understanding when we can expect a recovery of the M6+ global seismic activity and could be used internationally as an indicator of seismic risk in the countries where there are potentially destructive earthquakes and tsunamis.

  18. Heterologous expression of Ralp3 in Streptococcus pyogenes M2 and M6 strains affects the virulence characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Ralp3 is a transcriptional regulator present in a serotype specific fashion on the chromosome of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS). In serotypes harbouring the ralp3 gene either positive or negative effects on important metabolic and virulence genes involved in colonization and immune evasion in the human host were observed. A previous study revealed that deletion of ralp3 in a GAS M49 serotype significantly attenuated many virulence traits and caused metabolic disadvantages. This leads to two questions: (i) which kind of consequences could Ralp3 expression have in GAS serotypes naturally lacking this gene, and (ii) is Ralp3 actively lost during evolution in these serotypes. We investigated the role of Ralp3 in GAS M2 and M6 pathogenesis. Both serotypes lack ralp3 on their chromosome. The heterologous expression of ralp3 in both serotypes resulted in reduced attachment to and internalization into the majority of tested epithelial cells. Both ralp3 expression strains showed a decreased ability to survive in human blood and exclusively M2::ralp3 showed decreased survival in human serum. Both mutants secreted more active SpeB in the supernatant, resulting in a higher activity compared to wild type strains. The respective M2 and M6 wild type strains outcompeted the ralp3 expression strains in direct metabolic competition assays. The phenotypic changes observed in the M2:ralp3 and M6:ralp3 were verified on the transcriptional level. Consistent with the virulence data, tested genes showed transcript level changes in the same direction. Together these data suggest that Ralp3 can take over transcriptional control of virulence genes in serotypes lacking the ralp3 gene. Those serotypes most likely lost Ralp3 during evolution since obviously expression of this gene is disadvantageous for metabolism and pathogenesis.

  19. Anomalies in VLF radio signals prior the Abruzzo earthquake (M=6.3) on 6 April 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Rozhnoi, A.; Solovieva, M.; Molchanov, O.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Boudjada, M.; Biagi, P. F.; Maggipinto, T.; Castellana, L.; Ermini, A.; Hayakawa, M.

    2009-01-01

    The VLF/LF radio signals method for studying preseimic activity is applied to the Abruzzo earthquake (M=6.3, 6 April 2009). The data collected by three receivers located in Moscow (Russia), Graz (Austria) and Bari (Italy) at about 3000 km, 1000 km and 500 km from the epicenter were used. The signals received from the Sardinia (20.27 kHz) and the Sicily (45.9 kHz) transmitters, both located in Italy, were compared with those received from the Iceland (37.5 kHz), the Great Bri...

  20. Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Foreshock-Mainshock-Aftershock Sequence of the 6 July 2017 M5.8 Lincoln, Montana Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, N. D.; Stickney, M.; Aster, R. C.; Yeck, W.; Martens, H. R.; Benz, H.

    2017-12-01

    On 6 July 2017, a Mw 5.8 earthquake occurred 11 km southeast of Lincoln, Montana. The event was widely-felt from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (750 km north), Seattle, Washington (800 km west), the Idaho/Utah and Idaho/Nevada borders (550 km south), and Rapid City, South Dakota (750 km east). This is the largest earthquake to occur in the state since the 1959 M 7.3 Hebgen Lake event 250 km to the southeast. In the three weeks following the 6 July 2017 Mw 5.8 main shock, the U.S. Geological Survey and Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology located more than 300 aftershocks. Preliminary observations show most of these aftershocks form a short NNE zone that suggests that the main shock may have slipped on a NNE left-lateral fault. A smaller number of aftershocks extend along a longer WNW-trending zone. These faults are part of the Lewis and Clark line, a prominent zone of Middle Proterozoic to Holocene age strike-slip, dip slip, and oblique slip faulting trending 400 km east-southeast from northern Idaho to east of Helena, Montana, and terminating southeast of this earthquake. We use identified aftershock waveforms as templates to examine the data from 1 June 2017 through 27 July 2017 with cross-correlation techniques on nearby permanent and temporary seismic stations deployed shortly after the mainshock to identify foreshocks and additional small aftershocks. Locating these events allows us to study subsurface geology, map fault structures, and provide insight on the spatial and temporal evolution of the earthquake sequence, which may continue to produce aftershocks for years. Other notable earthquakes in the region include a damaging M 6.6 earthquake 100 km to the south in June 1925, M 6.2 and M 6.0 earthquakes near Helena, Montana in October 1935 that caused significant damage and four fatalities, and a M 5.6 earthquake 170 km to the south in July 2005 that caused minor damage in Dillon and the surrounding region. We hope this work not only allows us to map the involved

  1. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-08-14

    Testing Summary Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-2, the slurry is

  2. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Huckaby, James L.; Karri, Naveen K.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-13

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed-preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt

  3. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-01-01

    Testing Summary Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.' The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-2, the slurry is concentrated

  4. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Huckaby, James L.; Karri, Naveen K.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed-preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt

  5. M5-brane as a Nambu-Poisson geometry of a multi-D1-brane theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Castro, A.; Garcia del Moral, M.P.; Martin, I.; Restuccia, A.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a Nambu-Poisson bracket in the geometrical description of the D=11 M5-brane. This procedure allows us, under some assumptions, to eliminate the local degrees of freedom of the antisymmetric field in the M5-brane Hamiltonian and to express it as a D=11 p-brane theory invariant under symplectomorphisms. The explicit expression of the Hamiltonian is obtained. The existence of nontrivial physical configurations annihilating the energy density is shown. Finally, a regularization of the M5-brane in terms of a multi D1-brane theory invariant under the SU(N)xSU(N) group in the limit when N→∞ is constructed

  6. AthMethPre: a web server for the prediction and query of mRNA m6A sites in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shunian; Yan, Zhangming; Liu, Ke; Zhang, Yaou; Sun, Zhirong

    2016-10-18

    N 6 -Methyladenosine (m 6 A) is the most prevalent and abundant modification in mRNA that has been linked to many key biological processes. High-throughput experiments have generated m 6 A-peaks across the transcriptome of A. thaliana, but the specific methylated sites were not assigned, which impedes the understanding of m 6 A functions in plants. Therefore, computational prediction of mRNA m 6 A sites becomes emergently important. Here, we present a method to predict the m 6 A sites for A. thaliana mRNA sequence(s). To predict the m 6 A sites of an mRNA sequence, we employed the support vector machine to build a classifier using the features of the positional flanking nucleotide sequence and position-independent k-mer nucleotide spectrum. Our method achieved good performance and was applied to a web server to provide service for the prediction of A. thaliana m 6 A sites. The server also provides a comprehensive database of predicted transcriptome-wide m 6 A sites and curated m 6 A-seq peaks from the literature for query and visualization. The AthMethPre web server is the first web server that provides a user-friendly tool for the prediction and query of A. thaliana mRNA m 6 A sites, which is freely accessible for public use at .

  7. Pep-3D-Search: a method for B-cell epitope prediction based on mimotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan Xin; Bao, Yong Li; Guo, Shu Yan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Chun Guang; Li, Yu Xin

    2008-12-16

    The prediction of conformational B-cell epitopes is one of the most important goals in immunoinformatics. The solution to this problem, even if approximate, would help in designing experiments to precisely map the residues of interaction between an antigen and an antibody. Consequently, this area of research has received considerable attention from immunologists, structural biologists and computational biologists. Phage-displayed random peptide libraries are powerful tools used to obtain mimotopes that are selected by binding to a given monoclonal antibody (mAb) in a similar way to the native epitope. These mimotopes can be considered as functional epitope mimics. Mimotope analysis based methods can predict not only linear but also conformational epitopes and this has been the focus of much research in recent years. Though some algorithms based on mimotope analysis have been proposed, the precise localization of the interaction site mimicked by the mimotopes is still a challenging task. In this study, we propose a method for B-cell epitope prediction based on mimotope analysis called Pep-3D-Search. Given the 3D structure of an antigen and a set of mimotopes (or a motif sequence derived from the set of mimotopes), Pep-3D-Search can be used in two modes: mimotope or motif. To evaluate the performance of Pep-3D-Search to predict epitopes from a set of mimotopes, 10 epitopes defined by crystallography were compared with the predicted results from a Pep-3D-Search: the average Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), sensitivity and precision were 0.1758, 0.3642 and 0.6948. Compared with other available prediction algorithms, Pep-3D-Search showed comparable MCC, specificity and precision, and could provide novel, rational results. To verify the capability of Pep-3D-Search to align a motif sequence to a 3D structure for predicting epitopes, 6 test cases were used. The predictive performance of Pep-3D-Search was demonstrated to be superior to that of other similar programs

  8. Ground motion attenuation during M 7.1 Darfield and M 6.2 Christchurch, New Zealand, earthquakes and performance of global Ppedictive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segou, Margaret; Kalkan, Erol

    2011-01-01

    fault with M 6.2, followed by a second event (M 6.9), releasing the largest portion of the energy on the right-lateral Greendale fault. The third sub-event (M 5.7) is due to a reverse fault with a right-lateral component (Holden et al. 2011). The Christchurch earthquake occurred on an oblique thrust fault. The comparison of spectral acceleration values at stations near Christchurch reveals that the second event produced much larger amplitudes of shaking than the Darfield event due to its proximity to the epicenter. Both events resulted in noticeably large amplitudes of the vertical motion, often exceeding horizontal motion in the near-fault area. The vertical motions, showing asymmetric acceleration traces and pulses, reached 1.26 g during the Darfield earthquake and 2.2 g during the Christchurch event. These events were recorded by more than 100 strong motion stations operated by the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (http://www.geonet.org.nz/). Using the processed data from these stations, peak ground acceleration (PGA) and 5%-damped spectral acceleration values at 0.3, 1, and 3 s are used for performance evaluation of the global ground motion predictive equations (GMPEs). The selected GMPEs are the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models of Abrahamson and Silva (2008), Boore and Atkinson (2008), Campbell and Bozorgnia (2008), and Chiou and Youngs (2008). The Graizer and Kalkan (2007, 2009) model, which is based on the NGA project database, is also included. These GMPEs are abbreviated respectively as AS08, BA08, CB08, CY08, and GK07. Because they have been used widely for seismic hazard analysis for crustal earthquakes, their performance assessment becomes a critical issue especially for immediate response and recovery planning after major events. The occurrence of aftershocks similar to the Christchurch event will most probably control seismic hazard in the broader area, as confirmed by the recent M 6.0 event on June 13, 2011.

  9. [Analysis of the results of total cervical disc arthroplasty using a M6-C prosthesis: a multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byval'tsev, V A; Kalinin, A A; Stepanov, I A; Pestryakov, Yu Ya; Shepelev, V V

    Cervical spondylosis and intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration are the most common cause for compression of the spinal cord and/or its roots. Total IVD arthroplasty, as a modern alternative to surgical treatment of IVD degeneration, is gaining popularity in many neurosurgical clinics around the world. Aim - the study aim was to conduct a multicenter analysis of cervical spine arthroplasty with an IVD prosthesis M6-C ('Spinal Kinetics', USA). The study included 112 patients (77 males and 35 females). All patients underwent single-level discectomy with implantation of the artificial IVD prosthesis M6-C. The follow-up period was up to 36 months. Dynamic assessment of the prosthesis was based on clinical parameters (pain intensity in the cervical spine and upper extremities (visual analog scale - VAS); quality of life (Neck Disability Index - NDI)); and subjective satisfaction with the results of surgical treatment (Macnab scale) and instrumental data (range of motion in the operated spinal motion segment, degree of heterotopic ossification (McAfee-Suchomel classification), and time course of degenerative changes in the adjacent segments).

  10. Characterization of the radiation environment at the UNLV accelerator facility during operation of the Varian M6 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, M.; Barzilov, A.; Chen, Y.; Lowe, D.

    2016-01-01

    The bremsstrahlung photon flux from the UNLV particle accelerator (Varian M6 model) was determined using MCNP5 code for 3 MeV and 6 MeV incident electrons. Human biological equivalent dose rates due to accelerator operation were evaluated using the photon flux with the flux-to-dose conversion factors. Dose rates were computed for the accelerator facility for M6 linac use under different operating conditions. The results showed that the use of collimators and linac internal shielding significantly reduced the dose rates throughout the facility. It was shown that the walls of the facility, in addition to the earthen berm enveloping the building, provide equivalent shielding to reduce dose rates outside to below the 2 mrem/h limit. - Highlights: • A 3/6 MeV electron accelerator equipped with a high energy x-ray target was studied. • Monte Carlo modeling of photon flux was carried out for three accelerator configurations. • Human biological equivalent doses were evaluated within the accelerator facility building.

  11. Dynamic triggering of remote aftershocks of the M=6.6 July 20, 2017 Bodrum-Kos, Turkey, earthquake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. S.; Pollitz, F. F.; Sevilgen, V.

    2017-12-01

    The M=6.6 July 20, 2017 Bodrum-Kos, Turkey, earthquake occurred within Eurasian lithosphere in the back-arc region of the Hellenic trench. This large extensional event on a roughly E-W striking normal fault led to a band of regional aftershocks during the first 24 hours in the European Mediterranean Seismological Centre catalog, with M≤4.2. These events are listed as reviewed in the EMSC catalog, and some have since been re-examined by Aurelie Guilhem Trilla (CEA/DAM/ DIF, F 91297 Arpajon, France). The more distant aftershocks extend north-northwestward up to 500 km from the epicentral region. Because such remote triggering cannot be explained by the pattern of static stress change calculated for the M=6.6 mainshock, we explore how dynamic stresses imparted by the mainshock could have influenced the occurrence of these aftershocks. Measures of triggering potential include the peak dynamic stress, and the duration for which the dynamic stress exceeds a nominal threshold, e.g., 0.1 MPa. Point-source models of the mainshock suggest preferential dynamic stressing from the propagating Rayleigh wave along broad swaths trending north and south from the epicenter, reflecting the source radiation pattern. Finite-fault models are expected to modify the dynamic stressing pattern through directivity effects. In the absence of available finite-source models, we explore suites of such models involving unilateral rupture on either of the two nodal planes admitted by the mainshock focal mechanism solution.

  12. R-2HG Exhibits Anti-tumor Activity by Targeting FTO/m6A/MYC/CEBPA Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rui; Dong, Lei; Li, Chenying; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Wunderlich, Mark; Qing, Ying; Deng, Xiaolan; Wang, Yungui; Weng, Xiaocheng; Hu, Chao; Yu, Mengxia; Skibbe, Jennifer; Dai, Qing; Zou, Dongling; Wu, Tong; Yu, Kangkang; Weng, Hengyou; Huang, Huilin; Ferchen, Kyle; Qin, Xi; Zhang, Bin; Qi, Jun; Sasaki, Atsuo T; Plas, David R; Bradner, James E; Wei, Minjie; Marcucci, Guido; Jiang, Xi; Mulloy, James C; Jin, Jie; He, Chuan; Chen, Jianjun

    2018-01-11

    R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), produced at high levels by mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) enzymes, was reported as an oncometabolite. We show here that R-2HG also exerts a broad anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting leukemia cell proliferation/viability and by promoting cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mechanistically, R-2HG inhibits fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) activity, thereby increasing global N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) RNA modification in R-2HG-sensitive leukemia cells, which in turn decreases the stability of MYC/CEBPA transcripts, leading to the suppression of relevant pathways. Ectopically expressed mutant IDH1 and S-2HG recapitulate the effects of R-2HG. High levels of FTO sensitize leukemic cells to R-2HG, whereas hyperactivation of MYC signaling confers resistance that can be reversed by the inhibition of MYC signaling. R-2HG also displays anti-tumor activity in glioma. Collectively, while R-2HG accumulated in IDH1/2 mutant cancers contributes to cancer initiation, our work demonstrates anti-tumor effects of 2HG in inhibiting proliferation/survival of FTO-high cancer cells via targeting FTO/m 6 A/MYC/CEBPA signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 Induces Increased Complexity in Bacillus subtilis 168 Colony Biofilms via Hypoxanthine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Kankel, Stefanie; Götze, Sebastian; Barnett, Robert; Stallforth, Pierre; Kovács, Ákos T

    2017-11-15

    In recent years, biofilms have become a central subject of research in the fields of microbiology, medicine, agriculture, and systems biology, among others. The sociomicrobiology of multispecies biofilms, however, is still poorly understood. Here, we report a screening system that allowed us to identify soil bacteria which induce architectural changes in biofilm colonies when cocultured with Bacillus subtilis We identified the soil bacterium Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 as an inducer of wrinkle formation in B. subtilis colonies mediated by a diffusible signaling molecule. This compound was isolated by bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation. The elicitor was identified to be the purine hypoxanthine using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We show that the induction of wrinkle formation by hypoxanthine is not dependent on signal recognition by the histidine kinases KinA, KinB, KinC, and KinD, which are generally involved in phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A. Likewise, we show that hypoxanthine signaling does not induce the expression of biofilm matrix-related operons epsABCDEFGHIJKLMNO and tasA-sipW-tapA Finally, we demonstrate that the purine permease PbuO, but not PbuG, is necessary for hypoxanthine to induce an increase in wrinkle formation of B. subtilis biofilm colonies. Our results suggest that hypoxanthine-stimulated wrinkle development is not due to a direct induction of biofilm-related gene expression but rather is caused by the excess of hypoxanthine within B. subtilis cells, which may lead to cell stress and death. IMPORTANCE Biofilms are a bacterial lifestyle with high relevance regarding diverse human activities. Biofilms can be beneficial, for instance, in crop protection. In nature, biofilms are commonly found as multispecies communities displaying complex social behaviors and characteristics. The study of interspecies interactions will thus lead to a better understanding and use of biofilms as they

  14. Design and mechanism of action of a novel bacteria-selective antimicrobial peptide from the cell-penetrating peptide Pep-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W.L.; Lan Hongliang; Park, Il-Seon; Kim, Jae Il; Jin, H.Z.; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Shin, S.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we report the successful design of a novel bacteria-selective antimicrobial peptide, Pep-1-K (KKTWWKTWWTKWSQPKKKRKV). Pep-1-K was designed by replacing Glu-2, Glu-6, and Glu-11 in the cell-penetrating peptide Pep-1 with Lys. Pep-1-K showed strong antibacterial activity against reference strains (MIC = 1-2 μM) of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against clinical isolates (MIC = 1-8 μM) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In contrast, Pep-1-K did not cause hemolysis of human erythrocytes even at 200 μM. These results indicate that Pep-1-K may be a good candidate for antimicrobial drug development, especially as a topical agent against antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Tryptophan fluorescence studies indicated that the lack of hemolytic activity of Pep-1-K correlated with its weak ability to penetrate zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (10:1, w/w) vesicles, which mimic eukaryotic membranes. Furthermore, Pep-1-K caused little or no dye leakage from negatively charged phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylglycerol (7:3, w/w) vesicles, which mimic bacterial membranes but had a potent ability to cause depolarization of the cytoplasmic membrane potential of intact S. aureus cells. These results suggested that Pep-1-K kills microorganisms by not the membrane-disrupting mode but the formation of small channels that permit transit of ions or protons but not molecules as large as calcein

  15. 3-D Dynamic rupture simulation for the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake sequence: Foreshocks and M6 dynamically triggered event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, R.; Aoki, Y.; Uchide, T.; Imanishi, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Nishimura, T.

    2016-12-01

    A couple of interesting earthquake rupture phenomena were observed associated with the sequence of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake sequence. The sequence includes the April 15, 2016, Mw 7.0, mainshock, which was preceded by multiple M6-class foreshock. The mainshock mainly broke the Futagawa fault segment striking NE-SW direction extending over 50km, and it further triggered a M6-class earthquake beyond the distance more than 50km to the northeast (Uchide et al., 2016, submitted), where an active volcano is situated. Compiling the data of seismic analysis and InSAR, we presumed this dynamic triggering event occurred on an active fault known as Yufuin fault (Ando et al., 2016, JPGU general assembly). It is also reported that the coseismic slip was significantly large at a shallow portion of Futagawa Fault near Aso volcano. Since the seismogenic depth becomes significantly shallower in these two areas, we presume the geothermal anomaly play a role as well as the elasto-dynamic processes associated with the coseismic rupture. In this study, we conducted a set of fully dynamic simulations of the earthquake rupture process by assuming the inferred 3D fault geometry and the regional stress field obtained referring the stress tensor inversion. As a result, we showed that the dynamic rupture process was mainly controlled by the irregularity of the fault geometry subjected to the gently varying regional stress field. The foreshocks ruptures have been arrested at the juncture of the branch faults. We also show that the dynamic triggering of M-6 class earthquakes occurred along the Yufuin fault segment (located 50 km NE) because of the strong stress transient up to a few hundreds of kPa due to the rupture directivity effect of the M-7 event. It is also shown that the geothermal condition may lead to the susceptible condition of the dynamic triggering by considering the plastic shear zone on the down dip extension of the Yufuin segment, situated in the vicinity of an

  16. The Alfvén Mission for the ESA M5 Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Berthomier, Matthieu; Pottelette, Raymond; Forsyth, Colin

    2017-04-01

    global impact of particle acceleration on the dynamic coupling between a magnetized object and its plasma environment. Energy can be transported over vast distances in several forms regulated by the magnetic field, including Poynting flux of plasma waves, accelerated particle fluxes, and bulk plasma flows. A key to understanding the coupling between a magnetized object and the surrounding plasma is how the energy converts from one type to another. Dual spacecraft measurements offer the unique opportunity to unambiguously determine which part of the energy flowing into the ionosphere is eventually dissipated in this collisional plasma and which part is transmitted to outflowing ions of ionospheric origin. Alfvén will discover what combination of plasma and magnetic conditions controls the conversion of Poynting flux into particle energy at Earth. These conditions will be compared to those at the outer planets, illuminating the theoretical descriptions of energy deposition in these remote environments. The Alfvén mission design involves use of two simple identical spacecraft, a comprehensive suite of inter-calibrated particles and fields instruments, cutting edge auroral imaging, easily accessible orbits that frequently visit the region of scientific interest and straightforward operations. This has not previously been possible, but is now compelling and timely. It is a low risk mission that is compatible with the M5 cost cap.

  17. Acoustic Emission Precursors of M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Valeri

    2005-02-01

    Two recent strike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault(SAF) in California, the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietaevents, revealed peaks in the acoustic emission (AE) activity in thesurrounding crust several months prior to the main events. Earthquakesdirectly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded from theanalysis. The observed increase in AE is assumed to be a signature of theincreasing stress level in the surrounding crust, while the peak andsubsequent decrease in AE starting several months prior to the mainevents is attributed to damage-induced softening processes as discussedherein. Further, distinctive zones of low seismic activity surroundingthe epicentral regions in the pre-event time period are present for thetwo studied events. Both AE increases in the crust surrounding apotential future event and the development of a low-seismicity epicentralzone can be regarded as promising precursory information that could helpsignal the arrival of large earthquakes.

  18. Estimation of radiation exposure for hot cell workers during DUPIC fuel fabrication process in IMEF M6 cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Yong Bum; Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu

    1997-06-01

    DUPIC(Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU) fuel cycle to utilize the PWR spent fuel in fabricating CANDU fuel, which is expected to reduce not only the total amount of high level radwastes but the energy sources is underway. IMEF M6 cell to be used as DUPIC fuel fabrication facility is refurbished and retrofitted. Radiation exposure for the hot cell worker by dispersion of the radioactive materials during the DUPIC process were estimated on the basis of the hot cell design information. According to the estimation results, DUPIC fuel fabrication process could be run without any severe impacts to the hot cell workers when the ventilation system to maintain the sufficient pressure difference between hotcell and working area and radiation monitoring system is supports the hot cell operation properly. (author). 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  19. Long-term remission in BCR/ABL-positive AML-M6 patient treated with Imatinib Mesylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompetti, Franca; Spadano, Antonio; Sau, Antonella; Mennucci, Antonio; Russo, Rosa; Catinella, Virginia; Franchi, Paolo Guanciali; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Palka, Giandomenico; Fioritoni, Giuseppe; Iacone, Antonio

    2007-04-01

    BCR/ABL-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare disease, characterized by a poor prognosis, with resistance to induction chemotherapy and frequent relapses in responsive patients. Here we report a case of BCR/ABL-positive AML-M6 who, after relapse, was treated with Imatinib Mesylate (600 mg/die) and within 4 months achieved a cytogenetic and molecular complete response. After more than 4 years of continuous Imatinib therapy, nested RT-PCR for BCR/ABL is persistently negative. The case reported shows that the response obtained with Imatinib Mesylate in BCR/ABL-positive AML may be long lasting, offering a chance of successful treatment for this poor prognosis group of patients.

  20. Transduced PEP-1-PON1 proteins regulate microglial activation and dopaminergic neuronal death in a Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jin; Park, Meeyoung; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Son, Ora; Jo, Hyo Sang; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Kim, Duk-Soo; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Kim, Joon; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative disorder caused by selective dopaminergic neuronal death in the midbrain substantia nigra. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a potent inhibitor of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) against oxidation by destroying biologically active phospholipids with potential protective effects against oxidative stress-induced inflammatory disorders. In a previous study, we constructed protein transduction domain (PTD) fusion PEP-1-PON1 protein to transduce PON1 into cells and tissue. In this study, we examined the role of transduced PEP-1-PON1 protein in repressing oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory response in microglial BV2 cells after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, we identified the functions of transduced PEP-1-PON1 proteins which include, mitigating mitochondrial damage, decreasing reactive oxidative species (ROS) production, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and protecting against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, transduced PEP-1-PON1 protein reduced MMP-9 expression and protected against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice model. Taken together, these results suggest a promising therapeutic application of PEP-1-PON1 proteins against PD and other inflammation and oxidative stress-related neuronal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The genome and structural proteome of YuA, a new Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage resembling M6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim; Sykilinda, Nina; Briers, Yves; Roucourt, Bart; Lavigne, Rob; Robben, Johan; Domashin, Artem; Miroshnikov, Konstantin; Volckaert, Guido; Hertveldt, Kirsten

    2008-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage YuA (Siphoviridae) was isolated from a pond near Moscow, Russia. It has an elongated head, encapsulating a circularly permuted genome of 58,663 bp, and a flexible, noncontractile tail, which is terminally and subterminally decorated with short fibers. The YuA genome is neither Mu- nor lambda-like and encodes 78 gene products that cluster in three major regions involved in (i) DNA metabolism and replication, (ii) host interaction, and (iii) phage particle formation and host lysis. At the protein level, YuA displays significant homology with phages M6, phiJL001, 73, B3, DMS3, and D3112. Eighteen YuA proteins were identified as part of the phage particle by mass spectrometry analysis. Five different bacterial promoters were experimentally identified using a promoter trap assay, three of which have a sigma54-specific binding site and regulate transcription in the genome region involved in phage particle formation and host lysis. The dependency of these promoters on the host sigma54 factor was confirmed by analysis of an rpoN mutant strain of P. aeruginosa PAO1. At the DNA level, YuA is 91% identical to the recently (July 2007) annotated phage M6 of the Lindberg typing set. Despite this level of DNA homology throughout the genome, both phages combined have 15 unique genes that do not occur in the other phage. The genome organization of both phages differs substantially from those of the other known Pseudomonas-infecting Siphoviridae, delineating them as a distinct genus within this family.

  2. Evaluation of clinically applied treatment beams with respect to bunker shielding parameters for a Cyberknife M6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzen, Dominik; Schmidhalter, Daniel; Zanella, Claudia Christina; Volken, Werner; Mackeprang, Paul-Henry; Malthaner, Marco; Fix, Michael Karl; Manser, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Compared to a conventional linear accelerator, the Cyberknife (CK) is a unique system with respect to radiation protection shielding and the variety and number of non-coplanar beams are two key components regarding this aspect. In this work, a framework to assess the direction distribution and modulation factor (MF) of clinically applied treatment beams of a CyberKnife M6 is developed. Database filtering options allow studying the influence of different parameters such as collimator types, treatment sites or different bunker sizes. A distribution of monitor units (MU) is generated by projecting treatment beams onto the walls, floor and ceiling of the CyberKnife bunker. This distribution is found to be highly heterogeneous and depending, among other parameters, on the bunker size. For our bunker design, 10%-13% of the MUs are delivered to the right and left wall, each. The floor receives more than 64% of the applied MUs, while the wall behind the patient's head is not hit by primary treatment beams. Between 0% and 5% of the total MUs are delivered to the wall at the patient's feet. This number highly depends on the treatment site, e.g., for extracranial patients no beams hit that wall. Collimator choice was found to have minor influence on the distribution of MUs. On the other hand, the MF depends on the collimator type as well as on the treatment site. The MFs (delivered MU/prescribed dose) for all treatments, all MLC treatments, cranial and extracranial treatments are 8.3, 6.4, 7.7, and 9.9 MU/cGy, respectively. The developed framework allows assessing and monitoring important parameters regarding radiation protection of a CK-M6 using the actually applied treatment beams. Furthermore, it enables evaluating different clinical and constructional situations using the filtering options. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. High-power RF window design for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.; Hodgson, J.; Ng, C.; Schwarz, H.; Skarpaas, K.; Kroll, N.; Rimmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the design of RF windows to transmit up to 500 kW CW to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. RF analysis of the windows using high-frequency simulation codes are described. These provide information about the power loss distribution in the ceramic and tim matching properties of the structure. Finite-element analyses of the resulting temperature distribution and thermal stresses are presented. Fabrication methods including a proposed scheme to compensate for thermal expansion s are discussed and hardware tests to validate this approach are described. The effects of surface coatings (intentional and otherwise) and the application of air cooling are considered

  4. Design of a high-power test model of the PEP-II rf cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Bell, R.A.; Hodgson, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    The design of a normal-conducting high-power test cavity (HPTC) for PEP-II is described. The cavity includes HOM loading waveguides and provisions for testing two alternate input coupling schemes. 3-D electromagnetic field simulations provided input information for the surface power deposition. Finite element codes were utilized for thermal and stress analyses of the cavity to arrive at a suitable mechanical design capable of handling the high power dissipation. The mechanical design approach with emphasis on the cooling channel layout and mechanical stress reduction is described

  5. PEGASYS---A proposed internal target facility for the PEP storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Biber, K.

    1988-07-01

    A proposal for an integral gas-jet target and forward spectrometer for the PEP storage ring is described. The beam structure, allowable, luminosity (L = 10 33 cm/sup /minus/2/s/sup /minus/1/ for H 2 , D 2 ) and energy (E/sub e/ ≤ 15 GeV) make the ring ideal for multiparticle coincidence studies in the scaling regime, and where perturbative QCD may be an apt description of some exclusive and semi-inclusive reactions. 14 refs., 7 figs

  6. Bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system for PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system for the PEP-II B Factory. Bunch spacing down to 2 ns is achieved using 500 Megasamples per second A/D and D/A converters, and AT ampersand T 1610 Digital Signal Processors are integrated to run a downsampled feedback algorithm for each bunch in parallel. This general purpose programmable system, packaged in VXI and VME, is modular and scalable to offer portability to other accelerator rings. The control and monitoring hardware and software architecture have been developed to provide ease of operation as well as diagnostic tools for machine physics

  7. Dynamic Aperture Improvement of PEP-II Lattices Using Resonance Basis Lie Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yiton T

    2003-08-11

    To simplify the engineering efforts of implementing the PEP-II lattices, many modifications have been made to these lattices since the conceptual design report. During the development and evolution of the lattices, changes in a lattice would often result in a significant reduction in the dynamic aperture. At such times, we often relied on a non-linear analysis using the one-turn resonance basis Lie generator to identify the cause of the degradation. In this paper, we will present such examples to facilitate the usage of map for diagnosing the problems in lattice design.

  8. A test of planar spark counters at the PEP storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, W.B.; Bowden, G.B.; Bonneaud, G.R.; Klem, D.E.; Ogawa, A.; Pestov, Yu.N.; Pitthan, R.; Sugahara, R.

    1983-01-01

    A test of planar spar counters (PSCs) at the PEP electron-positron storage ring showed the following. PSCs can be used under harsh experimental conditions without long term degradation of resolution. On-line time-of-flight resolutions were below 200 ps, coordinate resolutions better than 4 mm, both limited to these values by the resistivity of the semiconducting glass and the electronics used. The best single counter time resolution under realistic conditions at the storage ring was 76 ps. Pulse height was a good indicator of the number of particles striking a counter. Subsequent measurements using cosmis rays gave a single counter time resolution of 50 ps. (orig.)

  9. Design of traveling wave windows for the PEP-II RF coupling network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, N.M.; Ng, C.K.; Judkins, J.; Neubauer, M.

    1995-05-01

    The waveguide windows in the PEP-II RF coupling network have to withstand high power of 500 kW. Traveling wave windows have lower power dissipation than conventional self-matched windows, thus rendering the possibility of less stringent mechanical design. The traveling wave behavior is achieved by providing a reflecting iris on each side of the window, and depending on the configuration of the irises, traveling wave windows are characterized as inductive or capacitive types. A numerical design procedure using MAFIA has been developed for traveling wave windows. The relative advantages of inductive and capacitive windows are discussed. Furthermore, the issues of bandwidth and multipactoring are also addressed

  10. Higher order mode damping studies on the PEP-II B-Factory RF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmer, R.; Goldberg, D.; Lambertson, G.; Voelker, F.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Pendleton, R.; Schwarz, H.; Adams, F.; De Jong, M.

    1992-03-01

    We describe studies of the higher-order-mode (HOM) properties of the prototype 476 MHz RF cavity for the proposed PEP-II B-Factory and a waveguide damping scheme to reduce possible HOM-driven coupled-bunch beam instability growth. Numerical studies include modelling of the HOM spectrum using MAFIA and ARGUS, and calculation of the loaded Q's of the damped modes using data from these codes and the Kroll-Yu method. We discuss briefly the experimental investigations of the modes, which will be made in a full-size low-power test cavity, using probes, wire excitation and bead perturbation methods

  11. High-power RF cavity R ampersand D for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmer, R.; Lambertson, G.; Hodgson, J.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the development of a high-power test model of the 476 MHz RF cavity for the PEP-II B Factory. This cavity is designed to demonstrate the feasibility of a high-power design with higher-order mode (HOM) damping waveguides and the fabrication technologies involved, and it can also be used to evaluate aperture or loop couplers and various RF windows. Changes to the RF design to reduce peak surface heating are discussed and results of finite-element analyses of temperature and stress are presented. Fabrication methods for the prototype and subsequent production cavities are discussed

  12. Developing Novel PepT1-Targeted Modulators for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    physiological roles. PepT1 is found in the small intestine where it absorbs dietary degradation products and therapeutic agents such as antibiotics ...results provide a framework for developing more potent ligands in various cellular and animal IBD models, directly addressing Aims 2 and 3 of our... Products …………………………………….………….……………4 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations…….…………….5 8. Special Reporting Requirements…………..………………………5 9

  13. TRACKING SIMULATIONS NEAR HALF-INTEGER RESONANCE AT PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosochkov, Yuri

    2003-01-01

    Beam-beam simulations predict that PEP-II luminosity can be increased by operating the horizontal betatron tune near and above a half-integer resonance. However, effects of the resonance and its synchrotron sidebands significantly enhance betatron and chromatic perturbations which tend to reduce dynamic aperture. In the study, chromatic variation of horizontal tune near the resonance was minimized by optimizing local sextupoles in the Interaction Region. Dynamic aperture was calculated using tracking simulations in LEGO code. Dependence of dynamic aperture on the residual orbit, dispersion and β distortion after correction was investigated

  14. Computational tools and lattice design for the PEP-II B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yunhai; Irwin, John; Nosochkov, Yuri; Yan, Yiton

    1997-01-01

    Several accelerator codes were used to design the PEP-II lattices, ranging from matrix-based codes, such as MAD and DIMAD, to symplectic-integrator codes, such as TRACY and DESPOT. In addition to element-by-element tracking, we constructed maps to determine aberration strengths. Furthermore, we have developed a fast and reliable method (nPB tracking) to track particles with a one-turn map. This new technique allows us to evaluate performance of the lattices on the entire tune-plane. Recently, we designed and implemented an object-oriented code in C++ called LEGO which integrates and expands upon TRACY and DESPOT

  15. Study of coupled-bunch collective effects in the PEP-II B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.

    1993-05-01

    We present an overview of the calculated longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch (CB) growth using the measured RF cavity higher order mode impedance and estimated resistive wall (RW) impedance for the proposed PEP-II B-Factory, a dual-ring electron-positron collider. We also describe a visual method of representing the effective beam impedance and corresponding growth rates which is especially useful for understanding the dependence of growth rate on higher order mode frequency and Q, spread of HOM frequencies between cells, and for determining the requirements of the CB feedback systems

  16. Injection system for the PEP II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieguth, T.; Bloom, E.; Bulos, F.; Davies-White, W.; Donald, M.; Fairfield, K.; Godfrey, G.; Holtzapple, R.; Ronan, M.; Zisman, M.

    1992-01-01

    The asymmetric energy B Factory proposed as an upgrade of PEP at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center will require a highly reliable and efficient injection system. The conceptual design has shown the feasibility of extracting 9 GeV electrons and 3.1 GeV positrons from the existing linac and injecting equal charges into 1658 buckets in each of the two rings of the collider. An injection study group has continued the development and study of this proposal and has generated workable designs for many related systems and subsystems. (author) 3 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. The vacuum system for the PEP II high energy ring straight sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Daly, E.; Heifets, S.A.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Nordby, M.; Perkins, C.; Reuter, E.; Seeman, J.T.; Belser, F.C.; Berg, J.; Holdener, F.R.; Kerns, J.A.; McDaniel, M.R.; Stoeffl, W.

    1995-01-01

    The six straight sections of the PEP II High Energy Ring (HER) serve various functions: lattice tuning, beam injection and abort, providing space for rf cavities, longitudinal and transverse feedback, beam diagnostics and the interaction point. A stainless steel vacuum system has been designed; prototypes are currently being built. Cooling is required due to radiation coming from the last arc dipole and resistive losses in the vacuum chamber. Although the nominal beam current of the HER is 1 A the vacuum system is designed for 3 A to provide margin and an upgrade path. 5 refs., 7 figs

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of transduced PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 in Raw 264.7 cells and a mouse edema model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Soon Won; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Dae Won; Jeong, Hoon Jae; Kim, Mi Jin; Ahn, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Nam; Dutta, Suman; Kim, Duk-Soo; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Recombinant PEP-1 heme oxygenase-1 expression vector was constructed and overexpressed. → We investigated transduction efficiency of PEP-1-HO-1 protein in Raw 264.7 cells. → PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. → PEP-1-HO-1 exerted anti-inflammatory activity in Raw 264.7 cells and in a mice edema model. → PEP-1-HO-1 could be used as a therapeutic drug against inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catalyzes the degradation of free heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron (Fe 2+ ), is up-regulated by several cellular stress and cell injuries, including inflammation, ischemia and hypoxia. In this study, we examined whether fusion of HO-1 with PEP-1, a protein transduction domain that is able to deliver exogenous molecules to living cells or tissues, would facilitate HO-1 delivery to target cells and tissues, and thereby effectively exert a therapeutically useful response against inflammation. Western blot analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners, and were stably maintained in the cells for about 60 h. In addition, fluorescence analysis revealed that only PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were significantly transduced into the cytoplasm of cells, while HO-1 proteins failed to be transduced. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse edema model, transduced PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins effectively inhibited the overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Also, histological analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 remarkably suppressed ear edema. The results suggest that the PEP-1-HO-1 fusion protein can be used as a therapeutic molecule against reactive oxygen species-related inflammatory diseases.

  19. Development of the Positive Emotions Program for Schizophrenia (PEPS: an intervention to improve pleasure and motivation in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eNguyen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The efficacy of drug-based treatments and psychological interventions on the primary negative symptoms of schizophrenia remains limited. Recent literature has distinguished negative symptoms associated with a diminished capacity to experience, from those associated with a limited capacity for expression. The Positive Emotions Program for Schizophrenia (PEPS is a new method that specifically aims to reduce the syndrome of a diminished capacity to experience. Methods: The intervention’s vital ingredients were identified through a literature review of emotion in schizophrenia and positive psychology. The program has been beta-tested on various groups of healthcare professionals. Results: A detailed description of the final version of PEPS is presented here. The French version of the program is freely downloadable. Conclusions: PEPS is a specific, short, easy to use, group-based intervention to improve pleasure and motivation in schizophrenia. It was built considering a recovery-oriented approach to schizophrenia.

  20. The relevance of the M6P/IGF2R status for the tumorigenicity and invasiveness of liver and skin cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puxbaum, V.

    2010-01-01

    The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R), a multifunctional membrane-associated protein, plays a central role in targeting of lysosomal enzymes and controlling of the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). In addition to intracellular sorting and endocytosis of M6P-containing ligands and IGF-II, the receptor also interacts with urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen at the cell surface. M6P/IGF2R is considered a putative tumor suppressor, and its expression may modulate the invasiveness of cancer cells. Importantly, the M6P/IGF2R gene is frequently lost or mutated in a wide range of malignant tumors including hepatocellular and squamous cell carcinomas. However, the impact of the receptor on tumor invasion and metastasis is still poorly understood. FRL14 and SCC-VII cells are M6P/IGF2R deficient and thus secrete large amounts of lysosomal enzymes. Reconstitution of functional M6P/IGF2R expression restores transport of lysosomal enzymes to these compartments and drastically reduces the invasive potential of the cells. In addition, the presence of ectopic M6P/IGF2R compromises the growth of FRL14 and SCC-VII cells both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, M6P/IGF2R knock-down in receptor-positive MIM-1-4 hepatocytes leads to increased lysosomal enzyme secretion and enhanced invasiveness. To assess the relevance of different ligand-binding sites for the biological activities of M6P/IGF2R, several mutant forms of the receptor were stably expressed in FRL14 and SCC-VII cells. Functional M6P-binding sites proved to be important for the anti-invasive potential of M6P/IGF2R, whereas the interactions of the receptor with IGF-II and uPAR/plasminogen were found to be dispensable for its biological activities. These results suggest that the M6P/IGF2R status influences the metastatic propensity of hepatocellular and squamous cell carcinomas, and that functional M6P-binding sites are crucial for the

  1. Vesicles mimicking normal and cancer cell membranes exhibit differential responses to the cell-penetrating peptide Pep-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarwani, Bashiyar; Phambu, Esther Nzuzi; Alexander, Christopher; Nguyen, Ha Aimee T; Phambu, Nsoki; Sunda-Meya, Anderson

    2018-06-01

    The cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) Pep-1 presents a great potential in drug delivery due to its intrinsic property to cross plasma membrane. However, its mechanism of entry into the cell remains unresolved. In this study, we compare the selectivity of Pep-1 towards vesicles mimicking normal and cancer cell membranes. The interaction was performed in a wide range of peptide-to-lipid molar ratios using infrared (IR), fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. At low peptide concentration, fluorescence experiments show that lipid-phosphatidylserine (PS) seems to enable Pep-1 translocation into cancer cell membrane as evidenced by the blue shift of its maximal emission wavelength. DSC data show that Pep-1 induces segregation of lipids. At high peptide concentration, IR data indicate that the interaction of Pep-1 is relatively stronger with normal cell membrane than with cancer cell membrane through the phosphate groups, while the interaction is weaker with normal cell membrane than with cancer cell membrane through the carbonyl groups. TGA and DSC data reveal that vesicles of normal cell membrane are thermally more stable than vesicles of cancer cell membrane. This suggests that the additional lipid PS included in cancer cell membrane has a destabilizing effect on the membrane structure. SEM images reveal that Pep-1 form superstructures including spherical particles and fibrils in the presence of both model membranes. PS seems to enhance peptide transport across cellular membranes. The biophysical techniques in this study provide valuable insights into the properties of CPPs in drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Beam Aborts in PEP-II Rings and Lingering Drift Chamber Currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkat, N.

    2004-01-01

    The BABAR detector at SLAC was designed to study CP-violation in B-meson decays from electron-positron collisions in the PEP-II electron-positron storage rings. Background radiation in the High Energy Ring (HER) and Low Energy Ring (LER) of PEP-II has the potential to damage the sensitive equipment in the BABAR detector. As a result, the beams in the HER and LER can be aborted to prevent such damage. In the span of a few microseconds, the HER and LER currents drop from, for example, 1450 micro Amps and 2300 micro Amps, respectively, to zero. At this time the voltage in the Drift Chamber is rapidly ramped down from a potential of 1930 V to a safe potential of 800 V, thus we would expect the currents in the Drift Chamber to quickly go to zero once the beams are aborted. However, we observe an average 15 second delay in the measured time it takes for all current in the Drift Chamber to fall below 1 micro Amp. This delay has been hypothesized as an instrumentation issue and not as a physical phenomenon. The specific sources of this error are still not completely known, but analysis suggests that it results from the interplay of the CAEN High Voltage supplies and the EPICS system and/or limitations within those systems

  3. PEP-X: An Ultimate Storage Ring Based on Fourth-Order Geometric Achromats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; Bane, Karl; Hettel, Robert; Nosochkov, Yuri; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

    2012-04-06

    We have designed an 'ultimate' storage ring for the PEP-X light source that achieves the diffraction limited emittances (at 1.5 {angstrom}) of 12 pm-rad in both horizontal and vertical planes with a 4.5-GeV beam. These emittances include the contribution of intrabeam scattering at a nominal current of 200 mA in 3300 bunches. This quality beam in conjunction with a conventional 4-m undulator in a straight section can generate synchrotron radiation having a spectral brightness above 10{sup 22} [photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW] at a 10 keV photon energy. The high coherence at the diffraction limit makes PEP-X competitive with 4th generation light sources based on an energy recovery linac. In addition, the beam lifetime is several hours and the dynamic aperture is large enough to allow off-axis injection. The alignment and stability tolerances, though challenging, are achievable. A ring with all these properties is only possible because of several major advances in mitigating the effects of nonlinear resonances.

  4. In Depth Diagnostics for RF System Operation in the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winkle, Daniel; Fox, John; Teytelman, Dmitry; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The PEP-II RF systems incorporate numerous feedback loops in the low-level processing for impedance control and operating point regulation. The interaction of the multiple loops with the beam is complicated, and the systems incorporate online diagnostic tools to configure the feedback loops as well as to record fault files in the case of an RF abort. Rapid and consistent analysis of the RF-related beam aborts and other failures is critical to the reliable operation of the B-Factory, especially at the recently achieved high beam currents. Procedures and algorithms used to extract diagnostic information from time domain fault files are presented and illustrated via example interpretations of PEP-II fault file data. Example faults presented will highlight the subtle interpretation required to determine the root cause. Some such examples are: abort kicker firing asynchronously, klystron and cavity arcs, beam loss leading to longitudinal instability, tuner read back jumps and poorly configured low-level RF feedback loop

  5. PEP-II asymmetric B Factory: Design update and R ampersand D results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.; Bell, R.A.; Dorfan, J.; Schwarz, H.; Barletta, W.A.; Calderon, M.

    1992-07-01

    PEP-II, a 9 GeV x 3.1 GeV e + e - collider with a design luminosity of 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 , was proposed jointly by SLAC, LBL, and LLNL. Recent efforts have continued towards an optimized design. In addition, an aggressive R ampersand D program is under way to validate our design choices. Fabrication of a low-power prototype RF cavity is complete, and impedance measurements are beginning. A 500-kW, 476-MHz klystron has been completed; it will be used for testing both high-power RF windows and a prototype high-power cavity (now under design in collaboration with Chalk River Laboratory). Vacuum studies have demonstrated that chambers with suitable photodesorption properties can be fabricated. A mockup of the two-ring arc area has been completed and used to investigate alignment and stability issues. The PEP-II project is ready to begin construction as soon as funds become available

  6. A unique power supply for the PEP II klystron at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassel, R.; Nguyen, M.N.

    1997-07-01

    Each of the eight 1.2 MW RF klystrons for the PEP-II storage rings require a 2.5 MVA DC power supply of 83 Kv at 23 amps. The design for the supply was base on three factors, low cost, small size to fit existing substation pads, and good protection against damage to the klystron including klystron gun arcs. The supply uses a 12 pulse 12.5 KV primary thyristor star point controller with primary filter inductor to provide rapid voltage control, good voltage regulation, and fast turn off during klystron tube faults. The supply also uses a unique secondary rectifier, filter capacitor configuration to minimize the energy available under a klystron fault. The voltage control is from 0--90 KV with a regulation of < 0.1% and voltage ripple of < 1% P-P, (< 0.2% RMS) above 60 KV. The supply utilizes a thyristor crowbar, which under a klystron tube arc limits the energy in the klystron arc to < 5 joules. If the thyristor crowbar is disabled the energy supplied is < 40 joules into the arc. The size of the supply was reduced small enough to fit the existing PEP transformer yard pads. The cost of the power supply was < $140 per KVA

  7. The PEP-II/BaBar Project-Wide Database using World Wide Web and Oracle*Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.; Crane, G.; MacGregor, I.; Meyer, S.

    1995-12-01

    The PEP-II/BaBar Project Database is a tool for monitoring the technical and documentation aspects of the accelerator and detector construction. It holds the PEP-II/BaBar design specifications, fabrication and installation data in one integrated system. Key pieces of the database include the machine parameter list, components fabrication and calibration data, survey and alignment data, property control, CAD drawings, publications and documentation. This central Oracle database on a UNIX server is built using Oracle*Case tools. Users at the collaborating laboratories mainly access the data using World Wide Web (WWW). The Project Database is being extended to link to legacy databases required for the operations phase

  8. Epidermal growth factor inhibits glycylsarcosine transport and hPepT1 expression in a human intestinal cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C U; Amstrup, J; Steffansen, B

    2001-01-01

    (max) decreased from 2.61 +/- 0.4 to 1.06 +/- 0.1 nmol x cm(-2) x min(-1) (n = 3, P PepT1 mRNA (using glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA as control......) in cells treated with EGF. Western blotting indicated a decrease in hPepT1 protein in cell lysates. We conclude that EGF treatment decreases Gly-Sar transport in Caco-2 cells by decreasing the number of peptide transporter molecules in the apical membrane....

  9. Seismicity Precursors of the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-03-09

    The M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietastrike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) were preceded byseismicity peaks occurring several months prior to the main events.Earthquakes directly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded fromthe analysis because they manifest stress-release processes rather thanstress accumulation. The observed increase in seismicity is interpretedas a signature of the increasing stress level in the surrounding crust,whereas the peaks and the subsequent decrease in seismicity areattributed to damage-induced softening processes. Furthermore, in bothcases there is a distinctive zone of low seismic activity that surroundsthe epicentral region in the pre-event period. The increase of seismicityin the crust surrounding a potential future event and the development ofa low-seismicity epicentral zone can be regarded as promising precursoryinformation that could help signal the arrival of large earthquakes. TheGutenberg-Richter relationship (GRR) should allow extrapolation ofseismicity changes down to seismic noise level magnitudes. Thishypothesis is verified by comparison of seismic noise at 80 Hz with theParkfield M4 1993-1994 series, where noise peaks 5 months before theseries to about twice the background level.

  10. Source parameters of the M 6.5 Skyros Island (North Aegean Sea earthquake of July 26, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiratzi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Teleseismic body wave modelling, time domain moment tensor inversion of regional waveforms and spectral analysis of the far-field P-wave pulses are used to derive the source parameters of the July 26, 2001 Skyros earthquake (M 6.5. Its epicentre is located south of the Sporades Islands in the North Aegean Sea (Greece. Previous focal mechanism solutions indicate motion on strike-slip faults. The time domain moment tensor inversion is applied for the first time to the regional waveforms of the recently established broadband network in Greece. Its application gave results which are highly consistent with teleseismic waveform modelling. The results of this study, in combination with the distribution of aftershocks, indicate left-lateral strike slip motion on a NW-SE striking fault with parameters: fault plane (strike = 151°, dip = 83°, rake = 7° and auxiliary plane (strike = 60°, dip = 84°, rake = 173°, depth 12 km and M 0 = 5.98e18 N m. Moreover, the time domain moment tensor inversion technique yielded a pure double couple source with negligible CLVD. The spectral analysis of the far-field P-wave pulses resulted in a fault length L ~ 32 km, stress drop ~ 9 bars and average displacement u ~ 30 cm.These values are in very good agreement with those estimated from empirical scaling relations applicable to the Aegean area.

  11. Verification Modal Summation Technique for Synthetic and Observation Seismogram for Pidie Jaya Earthquake M6.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwandi, Irwandi; Fashbir; Daryono

    2018-04-01

    Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment (NDSHA) method is a seismic hazard assessment method that has an advantage on realistic physical simulation of the source, propagation, and geological-geophysical structure. This simulation is capable on generating the synthetics seismograms at the sites that being observed. At the regional NDSHA scale, calculation of the strong ground motion is based on 1D modal summation technique because it is more efficient in computation. In this article, we verify the result of synthetic seismogram calculations with the result of field observations when Pidie Jaya earthquake on 7 December 2016 occurred with the moment magnitude of M6.5. Those data were recorded by broadband seismometers installed by BMKG (Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics). The result of the synthetic seismogram calculations verifies that some stations well show the suitability with observation while some other stations show the discrepancies with observation results. Based on the results of the observation of some stations, evidently 1D modal summation technique method has been well verified for thin sediment region (near the pre-tertiary basement), but less suitable for thick sediment region. The reason is that the 1D modal summation technique excludes the amplification effect of seismic wave occurring within thick sediment region. So, another approach is needed, e.g., 2D finite difference hybrid method, which is a part of local scale NDSHA method.

  12. Synthesis of natural urolithin M6, a galloflavin mimetic, as a potential inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupiani, Sebastiano; Guidotti, Laura; Manerba, Marcella; Di Ianni, Lorenza; Giacomini, Elisa; Falchi, Federico; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Roberti, Marinella; Recanatini, Maurizio

    2016-11-22

    Glycolysis is the main route for energy production in tumors. LDH-A is a key enzyme of this process and its inhibition represents an attractive strategy to hamper cancer cell metabolism. Galloflavin is a reliable LDH-A inhibitor as previously identified by us; however, its poor physicochemical properties and chemical tractability render it unsuitable for further development. Therefore, a rational design was undertaken with the aim to reproduce the pharmacophore of galloflavin on simpler, potentially more soluble and synthetic accessible scaffolds. Following a process of structural simplification, natural urolithin M6 (UM6), which is an ellagitannin metabolite produced by gut microbiota, was identified as a putative galloflavin mimetic. In the present study, the synthesis of UM6 is described for the first time. An efficient synthetic pathway has been developed, which involved five steps from readily accessible starting materials. The key reaction steps, a Suzuki coupling and an intramolecular C-H oxygenation, have been optimized to improve the synthetic feasibility and provide the best conditions in terms of reaction time and yield. Moreover, this route would be suitable to obtain other analogs for SAR studies. Preliminary biological tests revealed that UM6 was able to smoothly reproduce the behavior of galloflavin, confirming that our approach was successful in providing a new and accessible structure in the search for new LDH-A inhibitors.

  13. Inhibitory role of acyl homoserine lactones in hemolytic activity and viability of Streptococcus pyogenes M6 S165.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Sunil D; Holmer, Linda; Berengueras, Júlia M; Jonsson, Ann-Beth

    2017-03-17

    Streptococcus pyogenes an adapted human pathogen asymptomatically colonizes the nasopharynx, among other polymicrobial communities. However, information on the events leading to the colonization and expression of virulence markers subject to interspecies and host-bacteria interactions are limited. The interference of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) with the hemolytic activity and viability of S. pyogenes M6 S165 was examined. AHLs, with fatty acid side chains ≥12 carbon atoms, inhibited hemolytic activity by downregulating the expression of the sag operon involved in the production of streptolysin S. Inhibitory AHLs upregulated the expression of transcriptional regulator LuxR. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed the interaction of LuxR with the region upstream of sagA. AHL-mediated bactericidal activity observed at higher concentrations (mM range) was an energy-dependent process, constrained by the requirement of glucose and iron. Ferrichrome transporter FtsABCD facilitated transport of AHLs across the streptococcal membrane. The study demonstrates a previously unreported role for AHLs in S. pyogenes virulence.

  14. Investigation of the Three-Dimensional Hinge Moment Characteristics Generated by the ONERA-M6 Wing with an Aileron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hinge moment characteristics for ONERA-M6 wing with aileron configuration have been investigated numerically based on the different gaps and deflecting angles. The results show that the effects on the wing made by the deflecting aileron are notable. Comparing with the nonaileron case, the chordwise pressure coefficient distribution for the wing with aileron has shown the totally different trends. The small gap can force the air flow through and form the extremely strong spraying flow. It can directly destroy the previously formed leading edge vortex (LEV. Due to the presence of the positive deflecting angle, the trailing edge vortex (TEV will begin to generate at the trailing edge of the aileron. The induced secondary LEV will be mixed with the developing TEVs and form the stronger TEVs at the downstream position. Comparing with the subsonic flow, the curve for the supersonic flow has shown a good linear. The corresponding hinge moments are also extremely sensitive to the changing angle of attack, and the slope of curves is also bigger than that of the subsonic flow. The bigger gap and deflecting angle can result in the curve of hinge moment bending upward at high angle of attack. The corresponding pressure cloud and streamlines have also been obtained computationally and analyzed in detail.

  15. Transduction of PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 into insulin-producing INS-1 cells protects them against cytokine-induced cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su Jin; Kang, Hyung Kyung [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Dong Keun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Eum, Won Sik; Park, Jinseu [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young, E-mail: sychoi@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyeok Yil, E-mail: hykwon@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-05

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, thereby triggering the development of autoimmune diabetes mellitus. We recently developed a cell-permeable fusion protein, PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 (PEP-1-HO-1) and investigated the anti-inflammatory effects in macrophage cells. In this study, we transduced PEP-1-HO-1 into INS-1 insulinoma cells and examined its protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. PEP-1-HO-1 was successfully delivered into INS-1 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner and was maintained within the cells for at least 48 h. Pre-treatment with PEP-1-HO-1 increased the survival of INS-1 cells exposed to cytokine mixture (IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. PEP-1-HO-1 markedly decreased cytokine-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA). These protective effects of PEP-1-HO-1 against cytokines were correlated with the changes in the levels of signaling mediators of inflammation (iNOS and COX-2) and cell apoptosis/survival (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, PARP, JNK, and Akt). These results showed that the transduced PEP-1-HO-1 efficiently prevented cytokine-induced cell death of INS-1 cells by alleviating oxidative/nitrosative stresses and inflammation. Further, these results suggested that PEP-1-mediated HO-1 transduction may be a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent β-cell destruction in patients with autoimmune diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • We showed that PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently delivered into INS-1 cells. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 exerted a protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 inhibited cytokine-induced ROS and NO accumulation. • PEP-1-HO-1 suppressed cytokine-induced expression of iNOS, COX-2, and Bax. • PEP-1-HO-1 transduction may be an efficient tool to prevent β-cell destruction.

  16. Transduction of PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 into insulin-producing INS-1 cells protects them against cytokine-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Su Jin; Kang, Hyung Kyung; Song, Dong Keun; Eum, Won Sik; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young; Kwon, Hyeok Yil

    2015-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, thereby triggering the development of autoimmune diabetes mellitus. We recently developed a cell-permeable fusion protein, PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 (PEP-1-HO-1) and investigated the anti-inflammatory effects in macrophage cells. In this study, we transduced PEP-1-HO-1 into INS-1 insulinoma cells and examined its protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. PEP-1-HO-1 was successfully delivered into INS-1 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner and was maintained within the cells for at least 48 h. Pre-treatment with PEP-1-HO-1 increased the survival of INS-1 cells exposed to cytokine mixture (IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. PEP-1-HO-1 markedly decreased cytokine-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA). These protective effects of PEP-1-HO-1 against cytokines were correlated with the changes in the levels of signaling mediators of inflammation (iNOS and COX-2) and cell apoptosis/survival (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, PARP, JNK, and Akt). These results showed that the transduced PEP-1-HO-1 efficiently prevented cytokine-induced cell death of INS-1 cells by alleviating oxidative/nitrosative stresses and inflammation. Further, these results suggested that PEP-1-mediated HO-1 transduction may be a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent β-cell destruction in patients with autoimmune diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • We showed that PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently delivered into INS-1 cells. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 exerted a protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 inhibited cytokine-induced ROS and NO accumulation. • PEP-1-HO-1 suppressed cytokine-induced expression of iNOS, COX-2, and Bax. • PEP-1-HO-1 transduction may be an efficient tool to prevent β-cell destruction

  17. A serial study of anticardiolipin antibody and antimitochondrial antibody type M5 in a patient with polyarthritis and polymyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, A; Woods, R; Foley-Nolan, D; Roden, D; Coughlan, R; Barry, C

    1989-04-01

    A 22-year-old female presented with polyarthritis and subsequent polymyositis. Initially, she had moderately high levels of anticardiolipin (aCl) and antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) type M5. Following corticosteroid therapy, the anticardiolipin antibody rapidly fell to background levels but reappeared with the onset of two significant clinical events.

  18. M5 model tree based predictive modeling of road accidents on non-urban sections of highways in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gyanendra; Sachdeva, S N; Pal, Mahesh

    2016-11-01

    This work examines the application of M5 model tree and conventionally used fixed/random effect negative binomial (FENB/RENB) regression models for accident prediction on non-urban sections of highway in Haryana (India). Road accident data for a period of 2-6 years on different sections of 8 National and State Highways in Haryana was collected from police records. Data related to road geometry, traffic and road environment related variables was collected through field studies. Total two hundred and twenty two data points were gathered by dividing highways into sections with certain uniform geometric characteristics. For prediction of accident frequencies using fifteen input parameters, two modeling approaches: FENB/RENB regression and M5 model tree were used. Results suggest that both models perform comparably well in terms of correlation coefficient and root mean square error values. M5 model tree provides simple linear equations that are easy to interpret and provide better insight, indicating that this approach can effectively be used as an alternative to RENB approach if the sole purpose is to predict motor vehicle crashes. Sensitivity analysis using M5 model tree also suggests that its results reflect the physical conditions. Both models clearly indicate that to improve safety on Indian highways minor accesses to the highways need to be properly designed and controlled, the service roads to be made functional and dispersion of speeds is to be brought down. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The HtrA-like serine protease PepD interacts with and modulates the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 35-kDa antigen outer envelope protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J White

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant global health concern largely due to its ability to persist for extended periods within the granuloma of the host. While residing within the granuloma, the tubercle bacilli are likely to be exposed to stress that can result in formation of aberrant proteins with altered structures. Bacteria encode stress responsive determinants such as proteases and chaperones to deal with misfolded or unfolded proteins. pepD encodes an HtrA-like serine protease and is thought to process proteins altered following exposure of M. tuberculosis to extra-cytoplasmic stress. PepD functions both as a protease and chaperone in vitro, and is required for aspects of M. tuberculosis virulence in vivo. pepD is directly regulated by the stress-responsive two-component signal transduction system MprAB and indirectly by extracytoplasmic function (ECF sigma factor SigE. Loss of PepD also impacts expression of other stress-responsive determinants in M. tuberculosis. To further understand the role of PepD in stress adaptation by M. tuberculosis, a proteomics approach was taken to identify binding proteins and possible substrates of this protein. Using subcellular fractionation, the cellular localization of wild-type and PepD variants was determined. Purified fractions as well as whole cell lysates from Mycobacterium smegmatis or M. tuberculosis strains expressing a catalytically compromised PepD variant were immunoprecipitated for PepD and subjected to LC-MS/MS analyses. Using this strategy, the 35-kDa antigen encoding a homolog of the PspA phage shock protein was identified as a predominant binding partner and substrate of PepD. We postulate that proteolytic cleavage of the 35-kDa antigen by PepD helps maintain cell wall homeostasis in Mycobacterium and regulates specific stress response pathways during periods of extracytoplasmic stress.

  20. Oral immunization of mice with engineered Lactobacillus gasseri NM713 strain expressing Streptococcus pyogenes M6 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nahla M; Abdelaziz, Sahar A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the effects of a recombinant probiotic strain, Lactobacillus gasseri NM713, which expresses the conserved region of streptococcal M6 protein (CRR6), as an oral vaccine against Streptococcus pyogenes. A dose of 10(9) cells of the recombinant strain in 150 μL PBS buffer was administered orally to a group of mice. One control group received an equivalent dose of Lb. gasseri NM613 (containing the empty plasmid without insert) or and another control group received PBS buffer. Each group contained 30 mice. The immunization protocol was followed on three consecutive days, after which two booster doses were administered at two week intervals. Fecal and serum samples were collected from the mice on Days 18, 32, 46, 58 after the first immunization and Day 0 prior to immunization. Anti-CRR6 IgA and IgG concentrations were measured by ELISA in fecal and sera samples, respectively, to assess immune responses. Vaccination with the recombinant Lb. gasseri NM713 strain induced significant protection after nasal challenge with S. pyogenes, only a small percentage of this group developing streptococcal infection (10%) or dying of it (3.3%) compared with the NM613 and PBS control groups, high percentages of which developed streptococcal infection (43.3% and 46.7%, respectively) and died of it (46.7% and 53%, respectively). These results indicate that recombinant Lb. gasseri NM713 has potential as an oral delivery vaccine against streptococcus group A. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Surface rupture and vertical deformation associated with 20 May 2016 M6 Petermann Ranges earthquake, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan; Clark, Dan; King, Tamarah; Quigley, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Surface-rupturing earthquakes in stable continental regions (SCRs) occur infrequently, though when they occur in heavily populated regions the damage and loss of life can be severe (e.g., 2001 Bhuj earthquake). Quantifying the surface-rupture characteristics of these low-probability events is therefore important, both to improve understanding of the on- and off-fault deformation field near the rupture trace and to provide additional constraints on earthquake magnitude to rupture length and displacement, which are critical inputs for seismic hazard calculations. This investigation focuses on the 24 August 2016 M6.0 Petermann Ranges earthquake, Northern Territory, Australia. We use 0.3-0.5 m high-resolution optical Worldview satellite imagery to map the trace of the surface rupture associated with the earthquake. From our mapping, we are able to trace the rupture over a length of 20 km, trending NW, and exhibiting apparent north-side-up motion. To quantify the magnitude of vertical surface deformation, we use stereo Worldview images processed using NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline software to generate pre- and post-earthquake digital terrain models with a spatial resolution of 1.5 to 2 m. The surface scarp is apparent in much of the post-event digital terrain model. Initial efforts to difference the pre- and post-event digital terrain models yield noisy results, though we detect vertical deformation of 0.2 to 0.6 m over length scales of 100 m to 1 km from the mapped trace of the rupture. Ongoing efforts to remove ramps and perform spatial smoothing will improve our understanding of the extent and pattern of vertical deformation. Additionally, we will compare our results with InSAR and field measurements obtained following the earthquake.

  2. The M6 1799 Vendée intraplate earthquake (France) : characterizing the active fault with a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaub, C.; Perrot, J.; Le Roy, P., Sr.; Authemayou, C.; Bollinger, L.; Hebert, H.; Geoffroy, L.

    2017-12-01

    The coastal Vendee (France) is located to the south of the intraplate Armorican area. This region is affected by a system of dominantly NW-SE trending shear zones and faults inherited from a long and poly-phased tectonic history since Variscan times. This area currently presents a moderate background seismic activity, but was affected by a significant historical earthquake (magnitude M 6) on the 1799 January 25th. This event generated particularly strong site effects in a Neogene basin located along a major onshore/offshore discontinuity bounding the basin, the Machecoul fault. The objective of this study is to identify and qualify active faults potentially responsible for such major seismic event in order to better constrain the seismic hazard of this area. We adopt for this purpose a multidisciplinary approach including an onshore seismological survey, high-resolution low-penetration offshore seismic data (CHIRP echo sounder, Sparker source and single channel streamer), high-resolution interferometric sonar bathymetry (GeoSwath), compilation of onshore drilling database (BSS, BRGM), and quantitative geomorphology In the meantime, the seismicity of the area was characterized by a network of 10 REFTEK stations, deployed since January 2016 around the Bay of Bourgneuf (MACHE network). About 50 local earthquakes, with coda magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 3.1 and local magnitude ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 were identified so far. This new database complement a local earthquake catalog acquired since 2011 from previous regional networks. We surveyed the fault segments offshore, in the Bay of Bourgneuf, analyzing 700 km of high-resolution seismic profiles and 40 km² of high-resolution bathymetry acquired during the RETZ1 (2016) and RETZ2 (2017) campaigns, in addition to HR-bathymetry along the fault scarp. Those data are interpreted in conjunction with onshore wells to determine if (and since when) the Machecoul fault controlled tectonically the Neogene sedimentation.

  3. Structural conservation, variability, and immunogenicity of the T6 backbone pilin of serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Paul G; Moreland, Nicole J; Loh, Jacelyn M; Bell, Anita; Atatoa Carr, Polly; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N

    2014-07-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) is a Gram-positive human pathogen that causes a broad range of diseases ranging from acute pharyngitis to the poststreptococcal sequelae of acute rheumatic fever. GAS pili are highly diverse, long protein polymers that extend from the cell surface. They have multiple roles in infection and are promising candidates for vaccine development. This study describes the structure of the T6 backbone pilin (BP; Lancefield T-antigen) from the important M6 serotype. The structure reveals a modular arrangement of three tandem immunoglobulin-like domains, two with internal isopeptide bonds. The T6 pilin lysine, essential for polymerization, is located in a novel VAKS motif that is structurally homologous to the canonical YPKN pilin lysine in other three- and four-domain Gram-positive pilins. The T6 structure also highlights a conserved pilin core whose surface is decorated with highly variable loops and extensions. Comparison to other Gram-positive BPs shows that many of the largest variable extensions are found in conserved locations. Studies with sera from patients diagnosed with GAS-associated acute rheumatic fever showed that each of the three T6 domains, and the largest of the variable extensions (V8), are targeted by IgG during infection in vivo. Although the GAS BP show large variations in size and sequence, the modular nature of the pilus proteins revealed by the T6 structure may aid the future design of a pilus-based vaccine. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Changing M3G/M6G ratios and pharmacodynamics in a cancer patient during long-term morphine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gertrud; Christrup, Lona Louring; Sjøgren, Per

    2002-01-01

    A cancer patient receiving long-term oral sustained-release morphine treatment and periodically presenting with unusually high plasma M3G/M6G ratios is described. We found the patient's formation of M6G more unstable and perhaps delayed compared to the formation of M3G. There is no apparent...... explanation for this phenomenon and the high M3G/M6G ratios had no implications for the patient's pain experience or side effects from the morphine treatment....

  5. A single methyltransferase YefA (RlmCD) catalyses both m5U747 and m5U1939 modifications in Bacillus subtilis 23S rRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmolaize, Benoit; Fabret, Céline; Brégeon, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli possesses three paralogues. These comprise the methyltransferases TrmA that targets U54 in tRNAs, RlmC that modifies U747 in 23S rRNA and RlmD that is specific for U1939 in 23S rRNA. The tRNAs and rRNAs of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis have the same three m(5)U modifications....... However, as previously shown, the m(5)U54 modification in B. subtilis tRNAs is catalysed in a fundamentally different manner by the folate-dependent enzyme TrmFO, which is unrelated to the E. coli TrmA. Here, we show that methylation of U747 and U1939 in B. subtilis rRNA is catalysed by a single enzyme...

  6. HyPEP-FY 07 Annual Report: A Hydrogen Production Plant Efficiency Calculation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh

    2007-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) coupled to the High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) process is one of two reference integrated systems being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho National Laboratory for the production of hydrogen. In this concept the VHTR outlet temperature of 900 °C provides thermal energy and high efficiency electricity for the electrolysis of steam in the HTSE process. In the second reference system the Sulfur Iodine (SI) process is coupled to the VHTR to produce hydrogen thermochemically. In the HyPEP project we are investigating and characterizing these two reference systems with respect to production, operability, and safety performance criteria. Under production, plant configuration and working fluids are being studied for their effect on efficiency. Under operability, control strategies are being developed with the goal of maintaining equipment within operating limits while meeting changes in demand. Safety studies are to investigate plant response for equipment failures. Specific objectives in FY07 were (1) to develop HyPEP Beta and verification and validation (V&V) plan, (2) to perform steady state system integration, (3) to perform parametric studies with various working fluids and power conversion unit (PCU) configurations, (4) the study of design options such as pressure, temperature, etc. (5) to develop a control strategy and (6) to perform transient analyses for plant upsets, control strategy, etc for hydrogen plant with PCU. This report describes the progress made in FY07 in each of the above areas. (1) The HyPEP code numeric scheme and Graphic User Interface have been tested and refined since the release of the alpha version a year ago. (2) The optimal size and design condition for the intermediate heat exchanger, one of the most important components for integration of the VHTR and HTSE plants, was estimated. (3) Efficiency calculations were performed for a variety of working fluids for

  7. Enrofloxacin and Probiotic Lactobacilli Influence PepT1 and LEAP-2 mRNA Expression in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Ivelina; Milanova, Aneliya; Danova, Svetla; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2016-12-01

    Expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2) in chickens can be influenced by food deprivation, pathological conditions and drug administration. Effect of three putative probiotic Lactobacillus strains and enrofloxacin on the expression of PepT1 and LEAP-2 mRNA was investigated in Ross 308 chickens. One-day-old chicks (n = 24) were allocated to following groups: control (without treatment); group treated with probiotics via feed; group treated with a combination of probiotics and enrofloxacin; and a group given enrofloxacin only. The drug was administered at a dose of 10 mg kg -1 , via drinking water for 5 days. Samples from liver, duodenum and jejunum were collected 126 h after the start of the treatment. Expression levels of PepT1 and LEAP-2 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and were statistically evaluated by Mann-Whitney test. Enrofloxacin administered alone or in combination with probiotics provoked a statistically significant up-regulation of PepT1 mRNA levels in the measured organ sites. These changes can be attributed to a tendency of improvement in utilization of dietary peptide and in body weight gain. LEAP-2 mRNA expression levels did not change significantly in enrofloxacin-treated chickens in comparison with control group.

  8. PEP3 overexpression shortens lag phase but does not alter growth rate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to acetic acid stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Bradford, C. Samuel; Cooley, Ben; Yoshinaga, Allen S.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Abeliovich, Hagai; Penner, Michael H.; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2017-01-01

    In fungi, two recognized mechanisms contribute to pH homeostasis: the plasma membrane proton-pumping ATPase that exports excess protons and the vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) that mediates vacuolar proton uptake. Here, we report that overexpression of PEP3 which encodes a component of the HOPS and CORVET complexes involved in vacuolar biogenesis, shortened lag phase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to acetic acid stress. By confocal microscopy, PEP3-overexpressing cells stained with the vacuolar membrane-specific dye, FM4-64 had more fragmented vacuoles than the wild-type control. The stained overexpression mutant was also found to exhibit about 3.6-fold more FM4-64 fluorescence than the wild-type control as determined by flow cytometry. While the vacuolar pH of the wild-type strain grown in the presence of 80 mM acetic acid was significantly higher than in the absence of added acid, no significant difference was observed in vacuolar pH of the overexpression strain grown either in the presence or absence of 80 mM acetic acid. Based on an indirect growth assay, the PEP3-overexpression strain exhibited higher V-ATPase activity. We hypothesize that PEP3 overexpression provides protection from acid stress by increasing vacuolar surface area and V-ATPase activity and, hence, proton-sequestering capacity. PMID:26051671

  9. Transduced human copper chaperone for Cu,Zn-SOD (PEP-1-CCS) protects against neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Hyun; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, So Young; An, Jae Jin; Lee, Sun Hwa; Choi, Hee Soon; Sohn, Eun Jung; Hwang, Seok-Il; Won, Moo Ho; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Kwon, Hyung Joo; Kang, Jung Hoon; Cho, Sung-Woo; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2005-12-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the development of various human diseases. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one of the major means by which cells counteract the deleterious effects of ROS. SOD activity is dependent upon bound copper ions supplied by its partner metallochaperone protein, copper chaperone for SOD (CCS). In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of PEP-1-CCS against neuronal cell death and ischemic insults. When PEP-1-CCS was added to the culture medium of neuronal cells, it rapidly entered the cells and protected them against paraquat-induced cell death. Moreover, transduced PEP-1-CCS markedly increased endogenous SOD activity in the cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that it prevented neuronal cell death in the hippocampus in response to transient forebrain ischemia. These results suggest that CCS is essential to activate SOD, and that transduction of PEP-1-CCS provides a potential strategy for therapeutic delivery in various human diseases including stroke related to SOD or ROS.

  10. Pizza Parties, Pep Rallies, and Practice Tests: Strategies Used by High School Principals to Raise Percent Proficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Liz; Dude, David J.; Shepherd, Julie K.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores ways high school principals are responding to the demands of education reform to raise student test scores on achievement tests used for accountability purposes. Anecdotal evidence suggests administrators have instituted pizza parties and pep rallies to motivate students to do their best and practice tests to prepare students…

  11. Downregulation of transient receptor potential M6 channels as a cause of hypermagnesiuric hypomagnesemia in obese type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Kaori; Shimizu, Taisuke; Tayama, Yosuke; Ikari, Akira; Anzai, Naohiko; Iwashita, Takatsugu; Asakura, Juko; Hayashi, Keitaro; Mitarai, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Hajime

    2015-06-15

    We assessed the expression profile of Mg(2+)-transporting molecules in obese diabetic rats as a cause of hypermagnesiuric hypomagnesemia, which is involved in the development of insulin resistance, hypertension, and coronary diseases. Kidneys were obtained from male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) obese diabetic rats at the ages of 16, 24, and 34 wk. Expression profiles were studied by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry together with measurements of urine Mg(2+) excretion. Urine Mg(2+) excretion was increased in 24-wk-old OLETF rats and hypomagnesemia was apparent in 34-wk-old OLETF rats but not in LETO rats (urine Mg(2+) excretion: 0.16 ± 0.01 μg·min(-1)·g body wt(-1) in 24-wk-old LETO rats and 0.28 ± 0.01 μg·min(-1)·g body wt(-1) in 24-wk-old OLETF rats). Gene expression of transient receptor potential (TRP)M6 was downregulated (85.5 ± 5.6% in 34-wk-old LETO rats and 63.0 ± 3.5% in 34-wk-old OLETF rats) concomitant with Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter downregulation, whereas the expression of claudin-16 in tight junctions of the thick ascending limb of Henle was not different. The results of the semiquantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry were consistent with these findings (TRPM6: 0.49 ± 0.04% in 16-wk-old LETO rats, 0.10 ± 0.01% in 16-wk-old OLETF rats, 0.52 ± 0.03% in 24-wk-old LETO rats, 0.10 ± 0.01% in 24-wk-old OLETF rats, 0.48 ± 0.02% in 34-wk-old LETO rats, and 0.12 ± 0.02% in 34-wk-old OLETF rats). Gene expression of fibrosis-related proinflammatory cytokines as well as histological changes showed that the hypermagnesiuria-related molecular changes and tubulointerstitial nephropathy developed independently. TRPM6, located principally in distal convoluted tubules, appears to be a susceptible molecule that causes hypermagnesiuric hypomagnesemia as a tubulointerstitial nephropathy-independent altered tubular function in diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological

  12. TH-AB-201-05: Determining the Direction Distribution of the Primary Radiation for a Cyberknife-M6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzen, D; Schmidhalter, D; Volken, W; Mackeprang, P-H; Malthaner, M; K Fix, M; Manser, P; C Zanella, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation protection regulatory differentiates between primary and scatter radiation. Whereas for conventional clinical linear accelerators the solid angle for primary radiation is planar, the Cyberknife (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) may point its beam in all spatial directions. In order to be able to judge on radiation protection calculations for a Cyberknife-M6 vault, the direction distribution for delivered plans was evaluated based on clinical experiences. Methods: The log-files of 121 delivered patient treatment plans were exported, divided into cranial and extra-cranial treatments and the delivered monitor units (MU) together with the corresponding beam directions were analyzed. This MU-weighted spatial distribution was then projected to a 9.5 × 5.9 × 3.9 m 3 vault, generating an “intensity map” using a binning of 50 × 50 cm 2 . The factor of direction (FOD) is reported as a fraction of the total applied MUs to the walls, ceiling and floor in the perspective of a patient lying in head-first-supine position on the couch. In this study, the term intFOD refers to the integral FOD and maxFOD refers to the maximal FOD for a single bin. Results: For all kind of treatments and collimators, intFOD and maxFOD for the wall behind the patient’s head is 0.0. The intFOD for the floor varies between 0.65 and 0.74. For the ceiling, maxFOD is 0.002 and 0.0 for cranial and extra-cranial cases, respectively. The intFOD for the wall at the patient’s feet, is 0.094 for cranial and 0.005 for extra-cranial cases. There is nearly no difference between the maxFOD of the right and left wall for cranial cases, whereas for extra-cranial cases these numbers differ by a factor of 1.75. Conclusion: The varying FODs for the Cyberknife were quantified based on delivered treatment plans. These findings are helpful regarding the design of Cyberknife vaults.

  13. K2 Ultracool Dwarfs Survey. III. White Light Flares Are Ubiquitous in M6-L0 Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Rishi R.; Gizis, John E.; Mullan, D. J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Williams, Peter K. G.; Berger, Edo

    2018-05-01

    We report the white light flare rates for 10 ultracool dwarfs using Kepler K2 short-cadence data. Among our sample stars, two have spectral type M6, three are M7, three are M8, and two are L0. Most of our targets are old low-mass stars. We identify a total of 283 flares in all of the stars in our sample, with Kepler energies in the range log E Kp ∼ (29–33.5) erg. Using the maximum-likelihood method of line fitting, we find that the flare frequency distribution (FFD) for each star in our sample follows a power law with slope ‑α in the range ‑(1.3–2.0). We find that cooler objects tend to have shallower slopes. For some of our targets, the FFD follows either a broken power law, or a power law with an exponential cutoff. For the L0 dwarf 2MASS J12321827-0951502, we find a very shallow slope (‑α = ‑1.3) in the Kepler energy range (0.82–130) × 1030 erg: this L0 dwarf has flare rates which are comparable to those of high-energy flares in stars of earlier spectral types. In addition, we report photometry of two superflares: one on the L0 dwarf 2MASS J12321827-0951502 and another on the M7 dwarf 2MASS J08352366+1029318. In the case of 2MASS J12321827-0951502, we report a flare brightening by a factor of ∼144 relative to the quiescent photospheric level. Likewise, for 2MASS J08352366+1029318, we report a flare brightening by a factor of ∼60 relative to the quiescent photospheric level. These two superflares have bolometric (ultraviolet/optical/infrared) energies 3.6 × 1033 erg and 8.9 × 1033 erg respectively, while the full width half maximum timescales are very short, ∼2 min. We find that the M8 star TRAPPIST-1 is more active than the M8.5 dwarf 2M03264453+1919309, but less active than another M8 dwarf (2M12215066-0843197).

  14. A new perspective on the generation of the 2016 M6.4 Meilung earthquake, southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    In order to investigate the likely generation mechanism of the 2016 M6.4 Meilung earthquake, a large number of high-quality travel times from P- and S-wave source-receiver pairs are used jointly in this study to invert three-dimensional (3-D) seismic velocity (Vp, Vs) and Poisson's ratio structures at high resolution. We also calculated crack density, saturate fracture, and bulk-sound velocity from our inverted Vp, Vs, and s models. In this way, multi-geophysical parameter imaging revealed that the 2016 Meilung earthquake occurred along a distinctive edge portion exhibiting high-to-low variations in these parameters in both horizontal and vertical directions across the hypocenter. We consider that a slow velocity and high-Poisson ratio body that has high-crack density and somewhat high-saturate fracture anomalies above the hypocenter under the coastal plain represents fluids contained in the young fold-and-thrust belt relative to the passive Asian continental margin in southwestern Taiwan. Intriguing, a continuous low Vp and Vs zone with high Poisson ratio, crack density and saturate fracture anomalies across the Laonung and Chishan faults is also clearly imaged in the northwestern upper crust beneath the coastal plain and western foothills as far as the southeastern lower crust under the central range. We therefore propose that this southeastern extending weakened zone was mainly the result of a fluid intrusion either from the young fold-and-thrust belt associated with the passive Asian continental margin in the shallow crust or the subducted Eurasian continental (EC) plate in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. We suggest that fluid intrusion into the upper Oligocene to Pleistocene shallow marine and clastic shelf units of the Eurasian continental crust and/or the relatively thin uppermost part of the transitional Pleistocene-Holocene foreland due to the subduction of the EC plate along the deformation front played a key role in earthquake generation in

  15. A new perspective on the generation of the 2016 M6.7 Kaohsiung earthquake, southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi

    2017-04-01

    In order to investigate the likely generation mechanism of the 2016 M6.7 Kaohsiung earthquake, a large number of high-quality travel times from P- and S-wave source-receiver pairs are used jointly in this study to invert three-dimensional (3-D) seismic velocity (Vp, Vs) and Poisson's ratio structures at high resolution. We also calculated crack density, saturate fracture, and bulk-sound velocity from our inverted Vp, Vs, and σgodels. In this way, multi-geophysical parameter imaging revealed that the 2016 Kaohsiung earthquake occurred along a distinctive edge portion exhibiting high-to-low variations in these parameters in both horizontal and vertical directions across the hypocenter. We consider that a slow velocity and high-σ body that has high ɛ and somewhat high ζ anomalies above the hypocenter under the Coastal Plain represents fluids contained in the young fold-and-thrust belt associated with the passive Asian continental margin in southwestern Taiwan. Intriguing, a continuous low Vp and Vs zone with high Poisson's ratio, crack density and saturate fracturegnomalies across the Laonung and Chishan faults is also clearly imaged in the northwestern upper crust beneath the Coastal Plain and Western Foothills as far as the southeastern lower crust under the Central Range. We therefore propose that this southeastern extending weakened zone was mainly the result of a fluid intrusion either from the young fold-and-thrust belt the shallow crust or the subducted Eurasian continental (EC) plate in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. We suggest that fluid intrusion into the upper Oligocene to Pleistocene shallow marine and clastic shelf units of the Eurasian continental crust and/or the relatively thin uppermost part of the transitional Pleistocene-Holocene foreland due to the subduction of the EC plate along the deformation front played a key role in earthquake generation in southwestern Taiwan. Such fluid penetration would reduce Vp, and Vs while increasing

  16. Progress on the superconducting magnet for the time projection chamber experiment (TPC) at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Eberhard, P.H.; Burns, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    The TPC (Time Projection Chamber) experiment at PEP will have a two meter inside diameter superconducting magnet which creatests a 1.5 T uniform solenoidal field for the TPC. The superconducting magnet coil, cryostat, cooling system, and the TPC gas pressure vessel (which operatests at 11 atm) were designed to be about two thirds of a radiation length thick. As a result, a high current density coil design was chosen. The magnet is cooled by forced flow two phase helium. The TPC magnet is the largest adiabatically stable superconducting magnet built to date. The paper presents the parameters of the TPC thin solenoid and its subsystems. Tests results from the Spring 1980 cryogenic tes are presented. The topics to be dealt with in the paper are cryogenic services and the tests of magnet subsystems such as the folded current leads. Large thin superconducting magnet technology will be important to large detectors to be used on LEP

  17. Vacuum system of the high energy ring of an asymmetric B-factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Calderon, M.O.; Wong, R.; Jenkins, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The multi-ampere currents required for high luminosity operation of an asymmetric B factory leads to extremely stressing requirements on a vacuum system suitable for maintaining long beam-gas lifetimes and acceptable background levels in the detector. We present the design for a Cu alloy vacuum chamber and its associated pumping system for the 9 GeV electron storage ring of the proposed B factory based on PEP. The excellent thermal and photo-desorption properties of Cu allows handling the high proton flux in a conventional, single chamber design with distributed ion pumps. The x-ray opacity of the Cu is sufficiently high that no additional lead shielding is necessary to protect the dipoles from the intense synchrotron radiation generated by the beam. The design allows chamber commissioning in <500 hr of operation. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Meson and baryon correlation studies using the PEP-TPC/2γ Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.

    1991-03-01

    Results on vector meson, and strange and charmed-baryon production are presented for data taken during the period 1982--1986 using the TPC/2γ detector at PEP. Vector mesons (ρ 0 , K * and φ) with 0, 1 and 2 strange quarks are used to obtain redundant measures of strange-quark suppression and of the vector to pseudoscalar ratio in hadronization. Measurements of the production rates of Λ, Ξ - , Ω and Ξ *0 hyperons and for the Λ c and of rapidity correlations between Λ bar Λ pairs provide sensitive tests of baryon production in fragmentation models. In addition, two- and three-particle correlations between like sign pions provide further evidence for the Bose-Einstein effect in e + e - interactions including the relativistic motion of particle sources. 9 refs., 7 figs

  19. Computational tools and lattice design for the PEP-II B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Irwin, J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Yan, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Several accelerator codes were used to design the PEP-II lattices, ranging from matrix-based codes, such as MAD and DIMAD, to symplectic-integrator codes, such as TRACY and DESPOT. In addition to element-by-element tracking, we constructed maps to determine aberration strengths. Furthermore, we have developed a fast and reliable method (nPB tracking) to track particles with a one-turn map. This new technique allows us to evaluate performance of the lattices on the entire tune-plane. Recently, we designed and implemented an object-oriented code in C++ called LEGO which integrates and expands upon TRACY and DESPOT. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Study of an instability of the PEP-II positron beam (Ohmi effect and multipactoring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The paper is organized in the following way. First, Ohmi effect induced by direct flow of primary photoelectrons is studied for the PEP-II parameters. The production rate and kinematics take into account the antechamber of the LER. We discuss the effect of the secondary emission of electrons in the AL chamber, where the yield is larger than one. Resonance multipactoring is considered, and then the average density of the secondary electrons is estimated taking into account the space-charge effect and the interaction with the beam. We show that in the extreme case there is a self-consistent regime similar to the regime of the space-charge dominated cathode. Finally, the rate of ion production by accumulated electrons and the possibility of the ion induced pressure instability is discussed

  1. Status of the PEP-II B-factory high energy ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Reuter, E.; Bellomo, P.; Daly, E.; Fisher, A.; Gracia, J.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Pietryka, M.; Seeman, J.T.; Taylor; Belser, C.; Bertolini, L.; Mugge, M.; Swan, J.

    1996-01-01

    The 9 GeV High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B Factory is an electron storage ring under construction at SLAC. Significant progress has been made in the last year on all systems. As of mid 1996, all 192 dipoles have been installed, with installation of the quadrupoles underway. The vacuum system, for design currents up to 3 A average, is in production using a recently commissioned e-beam welder. Beam instrumentation systems are being fabricated. The interaction region will bring the HER beam into collision with the 3 GeV beam of the Low Energy Ring; design of this section of the HER is in an advanced stage. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. ZAP study of collective effects in PEP: 9 x 9 collider optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    In this note, single and multi-bunch collective instabilities are considered for PEP operating a 9 x 9 bunch configuration. The lattice is based on a vertically separated beam 'pretzel' design which allows for collisions at the TPC (IR2) only. Threshold current levels and linear instability growth rates are calculated with the storage ring design code 'ZAP'. Single bunch instabilities should not be a problem for total circulating currents of 100mA (18 bunches, 5.6mA/bunch). Coupled-bunch growth rate calculations are based on a line broadening technique for the higher-order cavity modes. In the longitudinal case, feedback will be required. For the transverse coupled bunch instabilities, growth rates are about 5 times less. 14 refs., 5 figs

  3. Beam-beam effects for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.; Eden, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    We present a summary of a fairly extensive study of beam-beam issues that arise in the design of PEP-II. Most of these studies are carried out with ''strong-strong'' multiparticle tracking simulations. We focus on: choice of nominal beam-beam parameter, strength of the parasitic collisions, injection issues, performance and tradeoffs with unequal beam-beam parameters. We comment only briefly on beam lifetime. We conclude that: the beams are sufficiently well separated so that the parasitic collisions are effectively weak; that small inequalities in the beam-beam parameters may imply more comfortable performance margins; and that vertical injection with vertical beam separation is more comfortable than horizontal

  4. HOM power propagation and attenuation in PEP-II B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.; Ng, C.K.; Ko, K.

    1997-09-01

    Most of the higher-order-mode (HOM) power that propagates in the PEP-II rings is generated i the RF cavities but its content in terms of TE and TM components has not been accurately determined. For purpose of shielding beamline components such as bellows and BPMs from TE power penetration and determining the heating on the cavity HOM absorber, this HOM power content and its distribution profile around the rings are needed. This paper calculates the TE and TM contributions of the RF cavities to the circulating HOM power and their transmission properties at another cavity downstream. By considering both the generation in, and scattering by the cavities, as well as the attenuation along the vacuum chamber, a complete distribution profile for the TE and TM HOM power can be obtained

  5. Commissioning experience with the PEP-II low-level RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corredoura, P.; Allison, S.; Claus, R.; Ross, W.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Schwarz, H.D.; Tighe, R.; Yee, C.; Ziomek, C.

    1997-05-01

    The low-level RF system for PEP-II is a modular design housed in a VXI environment and supported by EPICS. All signal processing and control is done at baseband using in-phase and quadrature (IQ) techniques. Remotely configurable RF feedback loops are used to control coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the accelerating mode of the RF cavities. A programmable DSP based feedback loop is implemented to control phase variations across the klystron due to the required adjustment of the cathode voltage to limit cathode power dissipation. The DSP loop also adaptively cancels modulations caused by klystron power supply ripple at selected power line harmonics between 60 Hz and 10 kHz. The system contains a built-in baseband network analyzer which allows remote measurement of the RF feedback loop transfer functions and automated configuration of these loops. This paper presents observations and measured data from the system

  6. Measurements of a Fast Vertical Instability in the PEP-II HER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matter, Regina S.

    2000-01-01

    The HER beam current was limited to tens of mA by a strong vertical coupled bunch instability during PEP-II commissioning in July '98. In the absence of transverse feedback, vertical oscillations were seen to be unstable at currents as low as 5 mA. The instability has been observed by using the HER longitudinal feedback electronics to digitize and store the vertical beam signal used for transverse feedback. This note presents measurements of modal growth and damping rates at two different vacuum pressures for 291 bunch uniform fills as well as 100 and 150 bunch train measurements. In some cases the unstable modes maintain a constant residual amplitude when feedback is on, and exhibit nonlinear behavior when feedback is switched off. Knowledge of the shape, speed and spectral location of the modal transients should help in diagnosing the cause of instability

  7. The electron-cloud instability in PEP-II: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

    1997-05-01

    The authors present an update on the estimate of the growth time of the multi-bunch transverse instability in the PEP-II collider arising from the interaction of the positron beam with the accumulated electron cloud. They estimate the contributions to the growth rate arising from the dipole magnets and from the pumping straight sections. They emphasize those quantities upon which the instability is most sensitive. The simulation includes measured data on the secondary emission yield for TiN-coated samples of the actual vacuum chamber. Although the analysis is still in progress, they conclude that the instability risetime is of order 1 ms, which is well within the range controllable by the feedback system

  8. The proposed injection system for an asymmetric B Factory in the PEP tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.; Bulos, F.; Loew, G.; Miller, R.; Sukiennicki, B.; Mattison, T.; Barletta, W.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed asymmetric energy B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel at SLAC will require a highly effective and profuse source of low emittance electron and positron bunches. The B Factory will consist of two rings of equal size, a 9 GeV electron ring and a 3.1 GeV positron ring, each with 1658 bunches with total circulating currents of 1.5 and 2.1 amperes respectively. As the luminosity lifetime of the collider is expected to be about two hours, the injector should be capable of filling the rings in a small fraction of an hour. It turns out that with some simple modifications, the SLC linac with its damping rings and positron source is ideally suited to fulfill this function effectively. The overall injection system is described

  9. Low energy ring lattice of the PEP-II asymmetric B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Donald, M.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Ritson, D.M.; Yan, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Developing a lattice that contains a very low beta value at the interaction point (IP) and has adequate dynamic aperture is one of the major challenges in designing the PEP-II asymmetric B-factory. For the Low Energy Ring (LER) the authors have studied several different chromatic correction schemes since the conceptual design report (CDR). Based on these studies, a hybrid solution with local and semi-local chromatic sextupoles has been selected as the new baseline lattice to replace the local scheme in the CDR. The new design simplifies the interaction region (IR) and reduces the number of sextupoles in the arcs. Arc sextupoles are paired at π phase difference and are not interleaved. In this paper the authors describe the baseline lattice with the emphasis on the lattice changes made since the CDR

  10. Detector solenoid compensation in the PEP-II B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosochkov, Y.; Cai, Y.; Irwin, J.; Sullivan, M.

    1995-01-01

    The PEP-II experimental detector includes a strong 1.5 T solenoid field in the interaction region (IR). With the fringe fields, the solenoid extends over a range of 6 m. Additional complications are that (1) it is displaced longitudinally from the interaction point (IP) by about 40 cm, (2) neither beam is parallel to the solenoid axis, and (3) the solenoid overlaps a dipole and a quadrupole on either side of the IP. In each half IR the correction system includes a set of skew quadrupoles, dipole correctors and normal quadrupoles to independently compensate the coupling, orbit perturbation, dispersion and focusing effect produced by the solenoid. The correction schemes for the Low Energy Ring (LER) and for the High Energy Ring (HER) are described, and the impact on the dynamic aperture is evaluated

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CTIO/DECam photometry of RR Lyrae stars in M5 (Vivas+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, A. K.; Saha, A.; Olsen, K.; Blum, R.; Olszewski, E. W.; Claver, J.; Valdes, F.; Axelrod, T.; Kaleida, C.; Kunder, A.; Narayan, G.; Matheson, T.; Walker, A.

    2017-11-01

    Observations were obtained during 2013 (2013 Jun 7-9, and 2013 Jun 21) and 2014 (2014 Mar 7-9) with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) imager on the 4m Blanco Telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), Chile. Repeated DECam images of a field centered on M5 (R.A.=15:18:33.2, decl.=+02:04:51.7, J2000.0) were obtained using the u,g,r,i, and z filters. The large field of view (FOV) of DECam (2.2°) easily covers the whole globular cluster with only the central CCDs of the camera. A total of 66 RR Lyrae stars and 1 SX Phe were recognized in the field of M5. The individual measurements for the periodic variable stars are provided in Table2. In Table3, we present the list of periodic variable stars. (3 data files).

  12. YebU is a m5C methyltransferase specific for 16 S rRNA nucleotide 1407

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Møller; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    generally require specific enzymes, and only one m5C rRNA methyltransferase, RsmB (formerly Fmu) that methylates nucleotide C967, has previously been identified. BLAST searches of the E.coli genome revealed a single gene, yebU, with sufficient similarity to rsmB to encode a putative m5C RNA...... methyltransferase. This suggested that the yebU gene product modifies C1407 and/or C1962. Here, we analysed the E.coli rRNAs by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and show that inactivation of the yebU gene leads to loss of methylation at C1407 in 16 S rRNA, but does not interfere...

  13. Identification of factors required for m6 A mRNA methylation in Arabidopsis reveals a role for the conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase HAKAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžička, Kamil; Zhang, Mi; Campilho, Ana; Bodi, Zsuzsanna; Kashif, Muhammad; Saleh, Mária; Eeckhout, Dominique; El-Showk, Sedeer; Li, Hongying; Zhong, Silin; De Jaeger, Geert; Mongan, Nigel P; Hejátko, Jan; Helariutta, Ykä; Fray, Rupert G

    2017-07-01

    N6-adenosine methylation (m 6 A) of mRNA is an essential process in most eukaryotes, but its role and the status of factors accompanying this modification are still poorly understood. Using combined methods of genetics, proteomics and RNA biochemistry, we identified a core set of mRNA m 6 A writer proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The components required for m 6 A in Arabidopsis included MTA, MTB, FIP37, VIRILIZER and the E3 ubiquitin ligase HAKAI. Downregulation of these proteins led to reduced relative m 6 A levels and shared pleiotropic phenotypes, which included aberrant vascular formation in the root, indicating that correct m 6 A methylation plays a role in developmental decisions during pattern formation. The conservation of these proteins amongst eukaryotes and the demonstration of a role in writing m 6 A for the E3 ubiquitin ligase HAKAI is likely to be of considerable relevance beyond the plant sciences. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Therapeutical Administration of Peptide Pep19-2.5 and Ibuprofen Reduces Inflammation and Prevents Lethal Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena Varela, Sergio; Ferrer-Espada, Raquel; Reiling, Norbert; Goldmann, Torsten; Gutsmann, Thomas; Mier, Walter; Schürholz, Tobias; Drömann, Daniel; Brandenburg, Klaus; Martinez de Tejada, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is still a major cause of death and many efforts have been made to improve the physical condition of sepsis patients and to reduce the high mortality rate associated with this disease. While achievements were implemented in the intensive care treatment, all attempts within the field of novel therapeutics have failed. As a consequence new medications and improved patient stratification as well as a thoughtful management of the support therapies are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the simultaneous administration of ibuprofen as a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and Pep19-2.5 (Aspidasept), a newly developed antimicrobial peptide. Here, we show a synergistic therapeutic effect of combined Pep19-2.5-ibuprofen treatment in an endotoxemia mouse model of sepsis. In vivo protection correlates with a reduction in plasma levels of both tumor necrosis factor α and prostaglandin E, as a likely consequence of Pep19-2.5 and ibuprofen-dependent blockade of TLR4 and COX pro-inflammatory cascades, respectively. This finding is further characterised and confirmed in a transcriptome analysis of LPS-stimulated human monocytes. The transcriptome analyses showed that Pep19-2.5 and ibuprofen exerted a synergistic global effect both on the number of regulated genes as well as on associated gene ontology and pathway expression. Overall, ibuprofen potentiated the anti-inflammatory activity of Pep19-2.5 both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that NSAIDs could be useful to supplement future anti-sepsis therapies. PMID:26197109

  15. A search for supersymmetric electrons with the Mark II detector at PEP [Positron Electron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClaire, B.W.

    1987-10-01

    An experimental search for selectrons, the supersymmetric partner of the electron, has been performed at the PEP storage ring at SLAC using the Mark II detector. The experimental search done was based upon hypothetical reaction in e + e - interactions at PEP center of mass energies of 29 GeV. In this reaction the selectrons, e, are assumed produced by the interaction of one of initial state electrons with a photon radiated from the other initial state electron. This latter electron is assumed to continue down the beam pipe undetected. The photon and electron then produce a selectron and a photino, γ, in the supersymmetric analog of Compton scattering. The photino is assumed to be the lightest supersymmetric particle, and as such, does not interact in the detector, thereby escaping detection very much like a neutrino. The selectron is assumed to immediately decay into an electron and photino. This electron is produced with large p perpendicular with respect to the beam pipe, since it must balance the transverse momentum carried off by the photinos. Thus, the experimental signature of the process is a single electron in the detector with a large unbalanced tranverse momentum. No events of this type were observed in the original search of 123 pb -1 of data, resulting in a cross section limit of less than 2.4 x 10 -2 pb (at the 95% CL) within the detector acceptance. This cross section upper limit applies to any process which produces anomalous single electron events with missing transverse momentum. When interpreted as a supersymmetry search it results in a lower selectron mass limit of 22.2 GeV/c 2 for the case of massless photinos. Limits for non-zero mass photinos have been calculated. 87 refs., 67 figs., 17 tabs

  16. Harmonic strengths of PEP dipoles and some related effects and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1981-09-01

    The harmonic content of magnets such as the standard PEP bend is (among other things) a function of excitation current, the way the current is set and even the magnetization history. For instance, harmonic strengths generally vary not only with the magnitude of the current but the direction and rate at which the current is approached and set. The field distribution resulting from different procedures can vary markedly depending on both the mechanical and magnetic design and the degree to which eddy current effects are emphasized. Variations among magnets of the same design result from variations in the iron as well as overall magnet fabrication procedures. Because the field distribution may also depend in the previous history of a magnet, all PEP dipoles were subjected to what are called ''magnetization'' and ''standardization'' cycles before measurement---the latter depending on the former and intended to set the initial conditions of the magnet to a reproducible standard. The primary goal of the magnetic measurements was then to determine the dipole strength as a function of current for each magnet based on a practical setting algorithm. The main constraints on the algorithm were reproducibility of the integrated field, speed, power and reduction of higher harmonics. Quadrupole and sextupole strengths were also measured on about one-half of the magnets at one current. This note presents the data and discusses it from the the viewpoint of subsequent measurements with stored beams. The most important conclusion is that inability to fully distribute laminations according to heat number and/or strike number results in ''magnetic personalities'' among the magnets which are quite difficult to deal with afterwards although one can distribute ''non-standard'' magnets to minimize orbit distributions. 26 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Improvement of PEP-II Linear Optics with a MIA-Derived Virtual Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerio, B.; Colgate U.

    2006-01-01

    In several past studies, model independent analysis, in conjunction with a virtual accelerator model, has been successful in improving PEP-II linear geometric optics. In many cases, optics improvement yielded an increase in machine luminosity. In this study, an updated characterization of linear optics is presented. With the PEP-II beam position monitor (BPM) system, four independent beam centroid orbits were extracted and used to determine phase advances and linear Green's functions among BPM locations. A magnetic lattice model was then constructed with a singular value decomposition-enhanced least-square fitting of phase advances and Green's functions, which are functions of quadrupole strengths, sextupole feed-downs, as well as BPM errors, to the corresponding measured quantities. The fitting process yielded a machine model that matched the measured linear optics of the real machine and was therefore deemed the virtual accelerator. High beta beat, as well as linear coupling, was observed in both LER and HER of the virtual accelerator. Since there was higher beta beating in LER, focus was shifted to the improvement of this ring. By adjusting select quadrupoles of the virtual LER and fitting the resulting beta functions and phase advances to those of the desired lattice, the average beta beat of the virtual machine was effectively reduced. The new magnet configuration was dialed into LER on August 10, 2006, and beta beat was reduced by a factor of three. After fine tuning HER to match the improved LER for optimal collision, a record peak luminosity of 12.069 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 was attained on August 16, 2006

  18. A search for supersymmetric electrons with the Mark II detector at PEP (Positron Electron Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeClaire, B.W.

    1987-10-01

    An experimental search for selectrons, the supersymmetric partner of the electron, has been performed at the PEP storage ring at SLAC using the Mark II detector. The experimental search done was based upon hypothetical reaction in e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at PEP center of mass energies of 29 GeV. In this reaction the selectrons, e-tilde, are assumed produced by the interaction of one of initial state electrons with a photon radiated from the other initial state electron. This latter electron is assumed to continue down the beam pipe undetected. The photon and electron then produce a selectron and a photino, ..gamma..-tilde, in the supersymmetric analog of Compton scattering. The photino is assumed to be the lightest supersymmetric particle, and as such, does not interact in the detector, thereby escaping detection very much like a neutrino. The selectron is assumed to immediately decay into an electron and photino. This electron is produced with large p perpendicular with respect to the beam pipe, since it must balance the transverse momentum carried off by the photinos. Thus, the experimental signature of the process is a single electron in the detector with a large unbalanced tranverse momentum. No events of this type were observed in the original search of 123 pb/sup -1/ of data, resulting in a cross section limit of less than 2.4 x 10/sup -2/ pb (at the 95% CL) within the detector acceptance. This cross section upper limit applies to any process which produces anomalous single electron events with missing transverse momentum. When interpreted as a supersymmetry search it results in a lower selectron mass limit of 22.2 GeV/c/sup 2/ for the case of massless photinos. Limits for non-zero mass photinos have been calculated. 87 refs., 67 figs., 17 tabs.

  19. Beam-beam dynamics during the injection process at the PEP-II B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yong Ho.

    1991-10-01

    This paper is concerned with beam-beam effects during the injection process at the proposed asymmetric SLAC/LBL/LLNL B-Factory based on PEP (PEP-2). For symmetric colliders, the primary source of the beam-beam effect is the head-on collision at the interaction point (IP), and this effect can be mitigated by separating the beams during the injection process. For an asymmetric collider, which intrinsically consists of two separate rings, the bunches not only collide at the IP but experience a long-range beam-beam force on the way into and out of the IP region. These collisions are called ''parasitic crossings (PC).'' The parasitic crossings emerge as a potential source of far stronger beam-beam impact during the injection process for the following reason. In the proposed injection scheme of the APIARY-6.3d design, the bunches are injected horizontally into the two rings with large horizontal offset of 8σ Ox sptm where σ Ox sptm is the nominal horizontal storage ring beam size at the end of the septum magnet. Then, the injected beam starts to travel around the ring oscillating horizontally. For the sake of discussion, let us assume that the beam in the other ring has already been fully stored. When the injected beam arrives at the 1st PC, where the two nominal orbits are separated horizontally by about 7.6 times the nominal horizontal beam size of the low energy ring, it may pass through the other beam far more closely than at the nominal separation distance, or it may even strike the other beam head-on

  20. Geology and neotectonism in the epicentral area of the 2011 M5.8 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, William C.; Spears, David B.; Harrison, Richard W.; Evans, Nicholas H.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Counts, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    This fi eld guide covers a two-day west-to-east transect across the epicentral region of the 2011 M5.8 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake, the largest ever recorded in the Central Virginia seismic zone. The fi eld trip highlights results of recent bedrock and surficial geologic mapping in two adjoining 7.5-min quadrangles, the Ferncliff and the Pendleton, which together encompass the epicenter and most of the 2011–2012 aftershocks.