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Sample records for m35 treatment reduced

  1. Comparison of different application strategies of divergicin M35 for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked wild salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, I; Desbiens, M; Kheadr, E; Lacroix, C; Fliss, I

    2009-12-01

    Cold-smoked salmon treated with divergicin M35-producing Carnobacterium divergens M35, C. divergens ATCC 35677 (a non-producer of bacteriocin), purified divergicin M35 or supernatants of C. divergens M35 culture in snow crab hepatopancreas (SCH) medium or MRS broth was challenged with Listeria monocytogenes (up to 10(3) CFU/g). Samples were stored at 4 degrees C for up to four weeks. L. monocytogenes, total bacterial and lactic acid bacterial counts were determined along with changes in total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN) and biogenic amine production as well as texture, color and odor. A 2.6 log CFU/g reduction in L. monocytogenes was obtained for up to 10 days of storage in samples treated with C. divergens M35. Purified divergicin M35 (50 microg/g), SCH supernatant or MRS supernatant brought reductions of 1 log CFU/g at the beginning of storage. However, the anti-listerial activity of the supernatants lasted for 15 days compared to 3 days for purified divergicin M35. Color and texture were affected little in samples containing C. divergens M35 compared to un-inoculated samples. TVBN and biogenic amine production, particularly tyramine, remained below the maximum acceptable level in fish appreciation. These results clearly show the potential of C. divergens M35 culture as well as divergicin M35 bio-ingredient for application to the inactivation of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat seafood.

  2. Mucosal immunization with the Moraxella catarrhalis porin m35 induces enhanced bacterial clearance from the lung: a possible role for opsonophagocytosis

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    Donna eEaston

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Moraxella catarrhalis is a significant cause of respiratory tract infection against which a vaccine is sought. Several outer membrane proteins are currently under investigation as potential vaccine antigens, including the porin M35. We have previously shown that the third external loop of M35 was immunodominant over the remainder of the protein for antibody produced in mice against the refolded recombinant protein. However, as this loop is predicted to fold inside the porin channel we also predicted that it would not be accessible to these antibodies when M35 is expressed on the surface of the bacteria in its native conformation. This study investigated the functional activity of antibodies against M35 and those specific for the loop 3 region of M35 in vitro and in vivo. Antisera from mice immunized with M35 or the loop 3-deletion, M35loop3–, recombinant proteins were not bactericidal but did have enhanced opsonic activity, whereas antibodies raised against the loop 3 peptide were not opsonising indicating that the immunodominant loop 3 of M35 was not accessible to antibody as we had previously predicted. Mucosal immunization with M35, M35 that had an antigenically altered loop 3 (M35(ID78 and M35loop3– enhanced the clearance of M. catarrhalis from the lungs of mice challenged with live M. catarrhalis. The in vivo clearance of bacteria in the mice with the M35-derived protein constructs correlated significantly (p<0.001 with the opsonic activity assessed an in vitro opsonophagocytosis assay. This study has demonstrated that the immunodominat B-cell epitope to loop 3 of the M. catarrhalis outer membrane protein M35 is not associated with immune protection and that M35-specific antibodies are not bactericidal but are opsonising. The opsonising activity correlated with in vivo clearance of the bacteria suggesting that opsonising antibody may be a good correlate of immune protection.

  3. Do manualized treatments for depression reduce insomnia symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Adriana; Scogin, Forrest; DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; McPherron, Jesse; Arean, Patricia A; Bowman, Daniel; Jamison, Christine S; Karpe, Jennifer A; Latour, David; Reynolds, Charles F; Rohen, Noelle; Pardini, Jamie E L; Thompson, Larry W

    2014-07-01

    Researchers evaluated the effect of manualized treatments for depression on comorbid symptoms of insomnia. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze archival data collected from 14 studies (N = 910) examining the efficacy of psychological treatments for depression in adults. Participants receiving a psychological treatment for depression experienced significantly more relief from symptoms of insomnia with overall, early-, middle-, and late-night sleep than those not receiving such treatment. Symptoms of insomnia in those with an average (or lower) level of depression can be reduced through psychological treatment for depression. However, more severe depressive symptoms do not receive great relief from sleep disturbance and may require an additional treatment component targeting symptoms of insomnia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Parasite treatment reduced Flavobacterium columnare infection in tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterium Flavobacterium columnare and parasite Trichodina are common pathogens of cultured fish. The authors conducted a study to evaluate whether treatment of Trichodina parasitized tilapia with formalin would improve fish survival and reduce F. columnare infection in fish. Tilapia parasitized by...

  5. Reducing the treatment gap for mental disorders: a WPA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATEL, VIKRAM; MAJ, MARIO; FLISHER, ALAN J.; DE SILVA, MARY J.; KOSCHORKE, MIRJA; PRINCE, MARTIN; Tempier, Raymond; Riba, Michelle; Sanchez, Mauricio; Delgado Campodonico, Fabrizio; Risco, Luis; Gask, Linda; Wahlberg, Henrik; Roca, Miquel; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Soghoyan, Armen; Moussaoui, Driss; Baddoura, Charles; Adeyemi, Joseph; Rataemane, Solomon; Jalili, S. Ahmed; Mohandas, E; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Freidin, Julian; Stagnaro, Juan Carlos; Puig, Ines Josefina; Kirkby, Kenneth; Musalek, Michael; Ismayilov, Nadir; Harvey, Sharon; Sabbe, Bernard; Noya-Tapia, Nils; Burgic-Radmanovic, Marija; Hetem, Luiz Alberto; Vasconcellos, Fatima; Maass, Juan; Miranda, Carlos; Papaneophytou, Neophytos; Raboch, Jiri; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Okasha, Ahmed; Korkeila, Jyrki; Guelfi, Julien Daniel; Schneider, Frank; Ohene, Sammy; Christodoulou, George; Soldatos, Constantin R.; See King, Emilio Quinto Barrera; Mendoza, Mario; Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham; Gudarzi, Shahrokh S.; Lafta, Mohammed R.; Bassi, Mariano; Clerici, Massimo; Gibson, Roger; Kojima, Takuya; Nurmagambetova, Saltanat; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kadyrova, Tamilla; Mikati, Nabil; Bajraktarov, Sojan; Hoe Yen, Teck; Ayushjav, Bayanhuu; Stevovic, Lidija Injac; Sequeira Molina, José Santiago; Gureje, Oye; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid; Al-Ashhab, Bassam; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander; Prelipceanu, Dan; Krasnov, Valery; Bogdanov, Anatoly; Jasovic-Gasic, Miroslava; Vavrusova, Livia; Pregelj, Peter; Liria, Alberto Fernandez; Abdelrahman, Abdallah; Udomratn, Pichet; Ulas, Halis; Gokalp, Peykan; Kigozi, Fred N.; Richardson, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The treatment gap for people with mental disorders exceeds 50% in all countries of the world, approaching astonishingly high rates of 90% in the least resourced countries. We report the findings of the first systematic survey of leaders of psychiatry in nearly 60 countries on the strategies for reducing the treatment gap. We sought to elicit the views of these representatives on the roles of different human resources and health care settings in delivering care and on the importance of a range of strategies to increase the coverage of evidence-based treatments for priority mental disorders for each demographic stage (childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age). Our findings clearly indicate three strategies for reducing the treatment gap: increasing the numbers of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals; increasing the involvement of a range of appropriately trained non-specialist providers; and the active involvement of people affected by mental disorders. This is true for both high income and low/middle income countries, though relatively of more importance in the latter. We view this survey as a critically important first step in ascertaining the position of psychiatrists, one of the most influential stakeholder communities in global mental health, in addressing the global challenge of scaling up mental health services to reduce the treatment gap. PMID:20975864

  6. Infliximab treatment reduces tensile strength in intestinal anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Sanberg; Petersen, Nacie Bello; Biagini, Matteo;

    2015-01-01

    effect on the healing process in intestinal anastomosis. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of repeated IFX treatment on anastomotic strength and degree of inflammation in the anastomotic line in the small intestine of rabbits. METHODS: Thirty-two rabbits were randomized (2...... as number of sutures in the tested anastomosis (coefficient = 0.51; P = 0.024). The general histologic score was significantly higher in the placebo group (5.00 +/- 1.26 versus 3.31 +/- 1.65, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated high-dose IFX treatment reduces tensile strength significantly in rabbits...

  7. Stroke: ineffective tube securement reduces nutrition and drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Sophie; Taylor, Stephen J; Allan, Kaylee; Clemente, Rowan; Toher, Deirdre

    2017-06-22

    Stroke patients with dysphagia often depend on nutrition, hydration and medication via nasogastric (NG) feeding tubes. Securing tubes using tape is associated with repeated tube loss. In this study, the authors determined cause and effect by auditing tube placement methods, delays incurred, duration and costs. Of 202 NG tube placements in 75 patients, 67 placements occurred in 17 patients over a full course of enteral nutrition (EN) and 40 of these placements were tracked. Tubes were secured by tape in 100%, mittens 31% and special observation 5.4%. However, over an EN course, inadvertent tube loss occurred in 82% of patients and was associated with age (p=0.049) and mitten use (pnutrition, hydration and drug treatments; this may impair recovery. Reducing tube loss is likely to reduce patient distress, treatment cost and enhance recovery.

  8. 670-nm light treatment reduces complement propagation following retinal degeneration

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    Rutar Matt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Complement activation is associated with the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We aimed to investigate whether 670-nm light treatment reduces the propagation of complement in a light-induced model of atrophic AMD. Methods Sprague–Dawley (SD rats were pretreated with 9 J/cm2 670-nm light for 3 minutes daily over 5 days; other animals were sham treated. Animals were exposed to white light (1,000 lux for 24 h, after which animals were kept in dim light (5 lux for 7 days. Expression of complement genes was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. Counts were made of C3-expressing monocytes/microglia using in situ hybridization. Photoreceptor death was also assessed using outer nuclear layer (ONL thickness measurements, and oxidative stress using immunohistochemistry for 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE. Results Following light damage, retinas pretreated with 670-nm light had reduced immunoreactivity for the oxidative damage maker 4-HNE in the ONL and outer segments, compared to controls. In conjunction, there was significant reduction in retinal expression of complement genes C1s, C2, C3, C4b, C3aR1, and C5r1 following 670 nm treatment. In situ hybridization, coupled with immunoreactivity for the marker ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1, revealed that C3 is expressed by infiltrating microglia/monocytes in subretinal space following light damage, which were significantly reduced in number after 670 nm treatment. Additionally, immunohistochemistry for C3 revealed a decrease in C3 deposition in the ONL following 670 nm treatment. Conclusions Our data indicate that 670-nm light pretreatment reduces lipid peroxidation and complement propagation in the degenerating retina. These findings have relevance to the cellular events of complement activation underling the pathogenesis of AMD, and highlight the potential of 670-nm light as a non-invasive anti-inflammatory therapy.

  9. Evaluation of Treatments to Reduce Hardness of Agave americana Core

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, José A.; Gómez-Ayala, Rocio C.; Cuauhtémoc Jacques-Hernández; Manuel Vázquez

    2006-01-01

    Agave americana contains inulin as storage carbohydrate. Therefore, agave is interesting to be used for the extraction of inulin by pressing. The yield of the process is low due to the high hardness of the core. The objective of this work was to evaluate pretreatments to reduce the hardness in the process of obtaining inulin by pressing. Treatments with water, sulphuric acid 1 % (by mass) or sodium hydroxide 1 % (by mass) were tested and optimized. The pretreatment of the core of A. americana...

  10. Evaluation of Treatments to Reduce Hardness of Agave americana Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Ramírez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agave americana contains inulin as storage carbohydrate. Therefore, agave is interesting to be used for the extraction of inulin by pressing. The yield of the process is low due to the high hardness of the core. The objective of this work was to evaluate pretreatments to reduce the hardness in the process of obtaining inulin by pressing. Treatments with water, sulphuric acid 1 % (by mass or sodium hydroxide 1 % (by mass were tested and optimized. The pretreatment of the core of A. americana with sulphuric acid 1 % allowed the reduction of hardness from 30 000 g to 2000 g of breaking force. The mathematical model obtained predicts an optimum processing at 84 °C during 75 min. The treatment with sulphuric acid 1 % also allows white core of A. americana to be obtained, while the other treatments provide yellow core. These results open a good alternative to obtain value added products from this resource.

  11. Oral cryotherapy reduced oral mucositis in patients having cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivakovsky, Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers carried out study assessment and data extraction independently. Treatment effect for continuous data was calculated using mean values and standard deviations and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for dichotomous data. Meta-analysis was performed.ResultsFourteen studies with 1280 participants were included. Subgroup analysis was undertaken according to the main cancer treatment type. Cryotherapy reduced the risk of developing mucositis by 39% (RR = 0.61; 95%CI, 0.52 to 0.72) on patients treated with fluorouracil (5FU). For melphalan-based treatment the risk of developing mucositis was reduced by 41% (RR =0.59; 95%CI, 0.35 to 1.01). Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.ConclusionsThere is confidence that oral cryotherapy leads to a large reduction in oral mucositis in adults treated with 5FU. Although there is less certainty on the size of the reduction on patients treated with melphalan, it is certain there is reduction of severe mucositis.

  12. Compliance to HIV treatment monitoring guidelines can reduce laboratory costs

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    Naseem Cassim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panel tests are a predetermined group of tests commonly requested together to provide a comprehensive and conclusive diagnosis, for example, liver function test (LFT. South African HIV antiretroviral treatment (ART guidelines recommend individual tests for toxicity monitoring over panel tests. In 2008, the National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS request form was redesigned to list individual tests instead of panel tests and removed the ‘other tests’ box option to facilitate efficient ART laboratory monitoring.Objectives: This study aimed to demonstrate changes in laboratory expenditure, for individual and panel tests, for ART toxicity monitoring.Method: NHLS Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW data were extracted for HIV conditional grant accounts to assess ART toxicity monitoring laboratory expenditure between 2010/2011 and 2014/2015. Data were classified based on the tests requested, as either panel (LFT or urea and electrolytes or individual (alanine transaminase or creatinine tests.Results: Expenditure on panel tests reduced from R340 million in 2010/2011 to R140m by 2014/2015 (reduction of R204m and individual test expenditure increased from R34m to R76m (twofold increase. A significant reduction in LFT panel expenditure was noted, reducing from R322m in 2010/2011 to R130m in 2014/2015 (60% reduction.Conclusion: Changes in toxicity monitoring guidelines and the re-engineering of the NHLS request form successfully reduced expenditure on panel tests relative to individual tests. The introduction of order entry systems could further reduce unnecessary laboratory expenditure.Keywords: HIV;ART;Toxicity Monitoring;Expenditure

  13. Sirtinol treatment reduces inflammation in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells.

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    Angela Orecchia

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDAC are key enzymes in the epigenetic control of gene expression. Recently, inhibitors of class I and class II HDAC have been successfully employed for the treatment of different inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, airway inflammation and asthma. So far, little is known so far about a similar therapeutic effect of inhibitors specifically directed against sirtuins, the class III HDAC. In this study, we investigated the expression and localization of endogenous sirtuins in primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC, a cell type playing a key role in the development and maintenance of skin inflammation. We then examined the biological activity of sirtinol, a specific sirtuin inhibitor, in HDMEC response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. We found that, even though sirtinol treatment alone affected only long-term cell proliferation, it diminishes HDMEC inflammatory responses to tumor necrosis factor (TNFα and interleukin (IL-1β. In fact, sirtinol significantly reduced membrane expression of adhesion molecules in TNFã- or IL-1β-stimulated cells, as well as the amount of CXCL10 and CCL2 released by HDMEC following TNFα treatment. Notably, sirtinol drastically decreased monocyte adhesion on activated HDMEC. Using selective inhibitors for Sirt1 and Sirt2, we showed a predominant involvement of Sirt1 inhibition in the modulation of adhesion molecule expression and monocyte adhesion on activated HDMEC. Finally, we demonstrated the in vivo expression of Sirt1 in the dermal vessels of normal and psoriatic skin. Altogether, these findings indicated that sirtuins may represent a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases characterized by a prominent microvessel involvement.

  14. New treatment strategies to reduce burn wound progression

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    Schmauss, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: After a burn injury certain superficial partial-thickness burn wounds spontaneously progress into deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds. This poorly understood phenomenon is called burn wound progression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment strategies using warm water (preservation of microcirculation on the one side and erythropoietin (EPO (molecule with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, vasodilatory and neoangiogenic properties can prevent, delay and/or reduce secondary burn wound progression in a rat model.Methods: We used a burn comb model in 63 rats, creating eight rectangular contact burns (2x1 cm each intercalated by unburned zones (2x0.5 cm prone to burn wound progression. In a first experimental set we treated burn wounds with locally applied warm (37°C or cold (17°C water for 20 minutes.In a second experimental set, animals were treated systemically with EPO at two different dosages of 500 and 2,500 IU/kg bodyweight (bw and initiated at 2 different time-points (45 minutes vs. 6 hours after burn injury. Evaluation of microcirculatory perfusion, interspace necrosis and burn depth was performed using respectively laser Doppler flowmetry, planimetry and histology. For statistical analysis the two-way ANOVA-test followed by an adequate post-hoc test (Bonferroni were used. Results: In untreated control animals a conversion from superficial to full-thickness burns was observed within 24 hours. Warm and cold water treatment significantly delayed burn depth progression, nevertheless after 4 days, burn depth was similar in all three groups. Warm water significantly reduced interspace necrosis compared to untreated controls and cold water with a significantly improved perfusion in the warm water group. Surface extension and particularly burn depth progression were significantly decreased by EPO only if administered at a dosage of bw and initiated 45 minutes after burn injury. EPO

  15. Drug Reduces Cancer Treatment-Related Joint Pain

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    A Cancer Currents blog post about a clinical trial demonstrating that duloxetine (Cymbalta®) may reduce joint pain caused by aromatase inhibitors in women being treated for early-stage breast cancer.

  16. Orthodontic treatment in patients with reduced periodontal insertion

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    Fernanda Labayle Couhat Carraro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review to investigate orthodontic treatment in periodontal patients. Periodontal disease causes loss of attachment that results in pathological dental migration Periodontal disease can affect young persons and adults, with a higher incidence in adults, so that the number of adults seeking orthodontic treatment has increased significantly. The periodontal disease must be controlled before the orthodontic treatment begins, and during the treatment it is important to keep the patient motivated as regards control of oral hygiene, with periodical reviews by the periodontist. With regard to assembly of the fixed appliance, special care is required not to place the accessories close to the gingival margin, in addition to using light forces porportional to the amount of periodontal attachment, and kept within the biological limits of movement. Correction of the poorly positioned teeth and controlled orthodontic movement can favor remodeling of the alveolar process in all directions. After orthodontic treatment it is important plan containment individually. Integrated orthodontic-periodontal teamwork is essential for reestablishing a healthy periodontium and satisfactory occlusion.

  17. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Jürgen; Albers, Peter Hjorth; Altena, R;

    2013-01-01

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. Europe...

  18. Periodontal treatment reduces chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients.

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    Siribamrungwong, Monchai; Yothasamutr, Kasemsuk; Puangpanngam, Kutchaporn

    2014-06-01

    Chronic systemic inflammation, a non traditional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with increasing mortality in chronic kidney disease, especially peritoneal dialysis patients. Periodontitis is a potential treatable source of systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clinical periodontal status was evaluated in 32 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by plaque index and periodontal disease index. Hematologic, blood chemical, nutritional, and dialysis-related data as well as highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, high sensitive C-reactive protein positively correlated with the clinical periodontal status (plaque index; r = 0.57, P chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Treatment of periodontal diseases can improve systemic inflammation, nutritional status and erythropoietin responsiveness in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  19. Reducing resistance to treatment, through group intervention, improves clinical measurements in patients with type 2 diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valinsky, Liora; Mishali, Moshe; Endevelt, Ronit; Preiss, Rachel; Dopelt, Keren; Heymann, Anthony D

    2013-01-01

    .... The Objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of diabetes groups in reducing resistance to treatment and the association between reduced resistance and better management of the disease...

  20. Orthodontic treatment reduces the impact on children and adolescents' oral health-related quality of life

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    Eluza Piassi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Malocclusions treatment reduces the impact on children and adolescents' OHRQoL based on evidence assessed in the literature. The level of evidence was moderate to high to detect changes in the impact after orthodontic treatment.

  1. Treatment and education reduce the severity of schistosomiasis periportal fibrosis

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    Paula Carolina Valenca Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluates the factors associated with the development of severe periportal fibrosis in patients with Schistosoma mansoni. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to December 2012 involving 178 patients infected with S. mansoni who were treated in the Hospital das Clínicas of Pernambuco, Brazil. Information regarding risk factors was obtained using a questionnaire. Based on the patients' epidemiological history, clinical examination, and upper abdomen ultrasound evaluation, patients were divided into 2 groups: 137 with evidence of severe periportal fibrosis and 41 patients without fibrosis or with mild or moderate periportal fibrosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using EpiInfo software version 3.5.5. Results Illiterate individuals (30.1% and patients who had more frequent contact with contaminated water in towns in the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco (33.2% were at greater risk for severe periportal fibrosis. Based on multivariate analysis, it was determined that an education level of up to 11 years of study and specific prior treatment for schistosomiasis were preventive factors for severe periportal fibrosis. Conclusions The prevailing sites of the severe forms of periportal fibrosis are still within the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco, although there has been an expansion to urban areas and the state coast. Specific treatment and an increased level of education were identified as protective factors, indicating the need for implementing social, sanitary, and health education interventions aimed at schistosomiasis to combat the risk factors for this major public health problem.

  2. New regimens for reducing the duration of the treatment of drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Marcus B.; Lapa e Silva, José R.

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important health problem worlwide. The structure necessary for delivering TB treatment and implementing the directly observed treatment accounts for more than two-thirds of its final cost. Furthemore, although with efficacy greater than 90%, the effectiveness of present treatment regimens ranges from 55–85%, depending on the setting, mainly due to poor adherence. Duration of treatment with the current first-line anti-TB drugs is a minimum of 6 months. Reducing the...

  3. Immunotherapy Added to Antibiotic Treatment Reduces Relapse of Disease in a Mouse Model of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourik, Bas C; Leenen, Pieter J M; de Knegt, Gerjo J; Huizinga, Ruth; van der Eerden, Bram C J; Wang, Jinshan; Krois, Charles R; Napoli, Joseph L; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M; de Steenwinkel, Jurriaan E M

    2017-02-01

    Immune-modulating drugs that target myeloid-derived suppressor cells or stimulate natural killer T cells have been shown to reduce mycobacterial loads in tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to determine if a combination of these drugs as adjunct immunotherapy to conventional antibiotic treatment could also increase therapeutic efficacy against TB. In our model of pulmonary TB in mice, we applied treatment with isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide for 13 weeks alone or combined with immunotherapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid, 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3, and α-galactosylceramide. Outcome parameters were mycobacterial load during treatment (therapeutic activity) and 13 weeks after termination of treatment (therapeutic efficacy). Moreover, cellular changes were analyzed using flow cytometry and cytokine expression was assessed at the mRNA and protein levels. Addition of immunotherapy was associated with lower mycobacterial loads after 5 weeks of treatment and significantly reduced relapse of disease after a shortened 13-week treatment course compared with antibiotic treatment alone. This was accompanied by reduced accumulation of immature myeloid cells in the lungs at the end of treatment and increased TNF-α protein levels throughout the treatment period. We demonstrate, in a mouse model of pulmonary TB, that immunotherapy consisting of three clinically approved drugs can improve the therapeutic efficacy of standard antibiotic treatment.

  4. Reducing the Human Burden of Breast Cancer: Advanced Radiation Therapy Yields Improved Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, Adam D; Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy R; Wilson, J Frank

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important modality in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. While its efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer was known shortly after the discovery of x-rays, significant advances in radiation delivery over the past 20 years have resulted in improved patient outcomes. With the development of improved systemic therapy, optimizing local control has become increasingly important and has been shown to improve survival. Better understanding of the magnitude of treatment benefit, as well as patient and biological factors that confer an increased recurrence risk, have allowed radiation oncologists to better tailor treatment decisions to individual patients. Furthermore, significant technological advances have occurred that have reduced the acute and long-term toxicity of radiation treatment. These advances continue to reduce the human burden of breast cancer. It is important for radiation oncologists and nonradiation oncologists to understand these advances, so that patients are appropriately educated about the risks and benefits of this important treatment modality.

  5. An autoclave treatment reduces the solubility and antigenicity of an allergenic protein found in buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Rikio; Yamato, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    The effects of an autoclave treatment of buckwheat flour on a 24-kDa allergenic protein were investigated by measuring reduction in solubility and antibody binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the intensity of the major bands, including that of the 24-kDa allergen, was reduced by the autoclave treatment. The protein solubility in buckwheat flour was variably decreased by the autoclave treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for buckwheat 24-kDa protein showed that the reactivity of protein extracts (10 μg/ml) from buckwheat flour was lowered by the autoclave treatment. The autoclave treatment may reduce the major allergen content of buckwheat. Future studies will determine if autoclaving treatments affect the allergenicity of the 24-kDa buckwheat protein.

  6. A PSF-based approach to Kepler/K2 data. I. Variability within the K2 Campaign 0 star clusters M 35 and NGC 2158

    CERN Document Server

    Libralato, M; Nardiello, D; Piotto, G

    2015-01-01

    Kepler and K2 data analysis reported in the literature is mostly based on aperture photometry. Because of Kepler's large, undersampled pixels and the presence of nearby sources, aperture photometry is not always the ideal way to obtain high-precision photometry and, because of this, the data set has not been fully exploited so far. We present a new method that builds on our experience with undersampled HST images. The method involves a point-spread function (PSF) neighbour-subtraction and was specifically developed to exploit the huge potential offered by the K2 "super-stamps" covering the core of dense star clusters. Our test-bed targets were the NGC 2158 and M 35 regions observed during the K2 Campaign 0. We present our PSF modeling and demonstrate that, by using a high-angular-resolution input star list from the Asiago Schmidt telescope as the basis for PSF neighbour subtraction, we are able to reach magnitudes as faint as Kp~24 with a photometric precision of 10% over 6.5 hours, even in the densest region...

  7. A retrospective study of long-term treatment outcomes for reduced vocal intensity in hypokinetic dysarthria

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Background Reduced vocal intensity is a core impairment of hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson?s disease (PD). Speech treatments have been developed to rehabilitate the vocal subsystems underlying this impairment. Intensive treatment programs requiring high-intensity voice and speech exercises with clinician-guided prompting and feedback have been established as effective for improving vocal function. Less is known, however, regarding long-term outcomes of clinical benefit in speakers with PD...

  8. A retrospective study of long-term treatment outcomes for reduced vocal intensity in hypokinetic dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Reduced vocal intensity is a core impairment of hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD). Speech treatments have been developed to rehabilitate the vocal subsystems underlying this impairment. Intensive treatment programs requiring high-intensity voice and speech exercises with clinician-guided prompting and feedback have been established as effective for improving vocal function. Less is known, however, regarding long-term outcomes of clinical benefit in speakers with PD who receive these treatments. A retrospective cohort design was utilized. Data from 78 patient files across a three year period were analyzed. All patients received a structured, intensive program of voice therapy focusing on speaking intent and loudness. The dependent variable for all analyses was vocal intensity in decibels (dBSPL). Vocal intensity during sustained vowel production, reading, and novel conversational speech was compared at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six month follow-up, and twelve month follow-up periods. Statistically significant increases in vocal intensity were found at post-treatment, 6 months, and 12 month follow-up periods with intensity gains ranging from 5 to 17 dB depending on speaking condition and measurement period. Significant treatment effects were found in all three speaking conditions. Effect sizes for all outcome measures were large, suggesting a strong degree of practical significance. Significant increases in vocal intensity measured at 6 and 12 moth follow-up periods suggested that the sample of patients maintained treatment benefit for up to a year. These findings are supported by outcome studies reporting treatment outcomes within a few months post-treatment, in addition to prior studies that have reported long-term outcome results. The positive treatment outcomes experienced by the PD cohort in this study are consistent with treatment responses subsequent to other treatment approaches which focus on high-intensity, clinician guided motor

  9. Treatment with intranasal iloprost reduces disease manifestations in a murine model of previously established COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammi, Matthew R; Ghonim, Mohamed A; Pyakurel, Kusma; Naura, Amarjit S; Ibba, Salome V; Davis, Christian J; Okpechi, Samuel C; Happel, Kyle I; deBoisblanc, Bennett P; Shellito, Judd; Boulares, A Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary endothelial prostacyclin appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effect of treatment with a prostacyclin analog in animal models of previously established COPD is unknown. We evaluated the short- and long-term effect of iloprost on inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a murine model of COPD. Nineteen mice were exposed to LPS/elastase, followed by either three doses of intranasal iloprost or saline. In the long-term treatment experiment, 18 mice were exposed to LPS/elastase and then received 6 wk of iloprost or were left untreated as controls. In the short-term experiment, iloprost did not change AHR but significantly reduced serum IL-5 and IFN-γ. Long-term treatment with iloprost for both 2 and 6 wk significantly improved AHR. After 6 wk of iloprost, there was a reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) neutrophils, serum IL-1β (30.0 ± 9.2 vs. 64.8 ± 7.4 pg/ml, P = 0.045), IL-2 (36.5 ± 10.6 vs. 83.8 ± 0.4 pg/ml, P = 0.01), IL-10 (75.7 ± 9.3 vs. 96.5 ± 3.5 pg/ml, P = 0.02), and nitrite (15.1 ± 5.4 vs. 30.5 ± 10.7 μmol, P = 0.01). Smooth muscle actin (SMA) in the lung homogenate was also significantly reduced after iloprost treatment (P = 0.02), and SMA thickness was reduced in the small and medium blood vessels after iloprost (P iloprost significantly reduced systemic inflammation in an LPS/elastase COPD model. Long-term iloprost treatment also reduced AHR, serum nitrite, SMA, and BALF neutrophilia. These data encourage future investigations of prostanoid therapy as a novel treatment for COPD patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Let eating disorder patients decide: Providing choice may reduce early drop-out from inpatient treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereycken, Walter; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-05-01

    Premature drop-out from treatment is a highly prevalent phenomenon among eating disorder (ED) patients. In a specialized inpatient treatment unit a major change was made in the admission strategy in 2001, giving a maximum of personal choice to the patients. A quasi-experimental research was carried out comparing 87 patients treated till 2000 ('old' strategy) with 87 patients treated from 2001 on ('new' strategy). The results indicate that the provision of choice at the beginning of treatment significantly reduced drop-out during the first weeks of inpatient treatment. No differences between both strategies on later drop-out and weight change (in anorexia nervosa patients) during inpatient treatment were found. The results are discussed in the light of the importance placed on dynamics of personal choice, autonomy and volition within the framework of the self-determination theory (SDT).

  11. Evaluation of a Behavioral Treatment Package to Reduce Sleep Problems in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keith D.; Kuhn, Brett R.; DeHaai, Kristi A.; Wallace, Dustin P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioral treatment package to reduce chronic sleep problems in children with Angelman Syndrome. Participants were five children, 2-11 years-of-age. Parents maintained sleep diaries to record sleep and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Actigraphy was added to provide…

  12. Copper treatment during storage reduces Phytophthora and Halophytophthora infection of Zostera marina seeds used for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Laura L.; van der Zee, Els M.; Meffert, Johan P.; van Rijswick, Patricia C. J.; Man in ‘t Veld, Willem A.; Heusinkveld, Jannes H. T.; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2017-01-01

    Restoration is increasingly considered an essential tool to halt and reverse the rapid decline of vital coastal ecosystems dominated by habitat-forming foundation species such as seagrasses. However, two recently discovered pathogens of marine plants, Phytophthora gemini and Halophytophthora sp. Zostera, can seriously hamper restoration efforts by dramatically reducing seed germination. Here, we report on a novel method that strongly reduces Phytophthora and Halophytophthora infection of eelgrass (Zostera marina) seeds. Seeds were stored in seawater with three different copper sulphate concentrations (0.0, 0.2, 2.0 ppm) crossed with three salinities (0.5, 10.0, 25.0 ppt). Next to reducing seed germination, infection significantly affected cotyledon colour: 90% of the germinated infected seeds displayed a brown cotyledon upon germination that did not continue development into the seedling stage, in contrast to only 13% of the germinated non-infected seeds. Copper successfully reduced infection up to 86% and the 0.2 ppm copper sulphate treatment was just as successful as the 2.0 ppm treatment. Infection was completely eliminated at low salinities, but green seed germination was also dramatically lowered by 10 times. We conclude that copper sulphate treatment is a suitable treatment for disinfecting Phytophthora or Halophytophthora infected eelgrass seeds, thereby potentially enhancing seed-based restoration success. PMID:28225072

  13. Reducing the pollution risk of pesticide using nano networks induced by irradiation and hydrothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Liu, Zuojun; Zhang, Guilong; Qiu, Guannan; Zhong, Naiqin; Wu, Lifang; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pesticides (TP) often do not adhere tightly to crop foliage. They can easily enter the surrounding environment through precipitation and volatilization. This can result in the pollution of the surrounding soil, water, and air. To reduce pesticide pollution, we developed a loss-control pesticide (LCP) by adding attapulgite with a nano networks structure fabricated using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment to TP. HEEB irradiation effectively dispersed originally aggregated attapulgite through modified thermal, charge, and physical effects. Hydrothermal treatment further enhanced the dispersion of attapulgite to form nano porous networks via thermal and wet expansion effects, which are beneficial for pesticide binding. An LCP has improved retention on crop leaf surfaces. It has a higher adhesion capacity, reduced leaching and volatilization, and extended residual activity compared with the TP formulation. The treatment increases the residual activity of pesticides on crop foliage and decreases environmental pollution.

  14. Additional treatment of wastewater reduces endocrine disruption in wild fish--a comparative study of tertiary and advanced treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Alice; Green, Christopher; Nicol, Elizabeth; Beresford, Nicola; Kanda, Rakesh; Henshaw, Alan; Churchley, John; Jobling, Susan

    2012-05-15

    Steroid estrogens are thought to be the major cause of feminization (intersex) in wild fish. Widely used wastewater treatment technologies are not effective at removing these contaminants to concentrations thought to be required to protect aquatic wildlife. A number of advanced treatment processes have been proposed to reduce the concentrations of estrogens entering the environment. Before investment is made in such processes, it is imperative that we compare their efficacy in terms of removal of steroid estrogens and their feminizing effects with other treatment options. This study assessed both steroid removal and intersex induction in adult and early life stage fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus). Roach were exposed directly to either secondary (activated sludge process (ASP)), tertiary (sand filtrated (SF)), or advanced (chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), granular activated charcoal (GAC)) treated effluents for six months. Surprisingly, both the advanced GAC and tertiary SF treatments (but not the ClO(2) treatment) significantly removed the intersex induction associated with the ASP effluent; this was not predicted by the steroid estrogen measurements, which were higher in the tertiary SF than either the GAC or the ClO(2). Therefore our study highlights the importance of using both biological and chemical analysis when assessing new treatment technologies.

  15. Ultraviolet-ozone treatment reduces levels of disease-associated prion protein and prion infectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.J.; Gilbert, P.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by novel infectious agents referred to as prions. Prions appear to be composed primarily, if not exclusively, of a misfolded isoform of the cellular prion protein. TSE infectivity is remarkably stable and can resist many aggressive decontamination procedures, increasing human, livestock and wildlife exposure to TSEs. Findings. We tested the hypothesis that UV-ozone treatment reduces levels of the pathogenic prion protein and inactivates the infectious agent. We found that UV-ozone treatment decreased the carbon and prion protein content in infected brain homogenate to levels undetectable by dry-ashing carbon analysis or immunoblotting, respectively. After 8 weeks of ashing, UV-ozone treatment reduced the infectious titer of treated material by a factor of at least 105. A small amount of infectivity, however, persisted despite UV-ozone treatment. When bound to either montmorillonite clay or quartz surfaces, PrPTSE was still susceptible to degradation by UV-ozone. Conclusion. Our findings strongly suggest that UV-ozone treatment can degrade pathogenic prion protein and inactivate prions, even when the agent is associated with surfaces. Using larger UV-ozone doses or combining UV-ozone treatment with other decontaminant methods may allow the sterilization of TSE-contaminated materials. ?? 2009 Aiken et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  16. Ultraviolet-ozone treatment reduces levels of disease-associated prion protein and prion infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Debbie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by novel infectious agents referred to as prions. Prions appear to be composed primarily, if not exclusively, of a misfolded isoform of the cellular prion protein. TSE infectivity is remarkably stable and can resist many aggressive decontamination procedures, increasing human, livestock and wildlife exposure to TSEs. Findings We tested the hypothesis that UV-ozone treatment reduces levels of the pathogenic prion protein and inactivates the infectious agent. We found that UV-ozone treatment decreased the carbon and prion protein content in infected brain homogenate to levels undetectable by dry-ashing carbon analysis or immunoblotting, respectively. After 8 weeks of ashing, UV-ozone treatment reduced the infectious titer of treated material by a factor of at least 105. A small amount of infectivity, however, persisted despite UV-ozone treatment. When bound to either montmorillonite clay or quartz surfaces, PrPTSE was still susceptible to degradation by UV-ozone. Conclusion Our findings strongly suggest that UV-ozone treatment can degrade pathogenic prion protein and inactivate prions, even when the agent is associated with surfaces. Using larger UV-ozone doses or combining UV-ozone treatment with other decontaminant methods may allow the sterilization of TSE-contaminated materials.

  17. Reducing the public health risk of cryptosporidiosis by optimizing treatment processes at a military water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steven H

    2011-01-01

    Safe drinking water supplies are critical to public health and mission success. One of the primary goals of water treatment is to effectively reduce the acute health risks posed by pathogenic microorganisms present in our raw, untreated water supplies. As a result of recent drinking water regulations, a military water system identified significant levels of Cryptosporidium in their raw water supply requiring additional or improved treatment to remove. Cryptosporidium, the pathogenic microorganism that causes Cryptosporidiosis, has been indicated in numerous waterborne outbreaks worldwide, including the United States. The US Army Public Health Command conducted a year-long study evaluating the ability of the water system to provide improved treatment by optimizing the existing treatment processes. Study results show that optimizing existing treatment processes and switching to an alternative coagulant chemical will achieve the Cryptosporidium removal required to comply with drinking water regulations, with subsequent reduction in the risk of Cryptosporidiosis. These improvements will also ensure effective treatment in all raw water quality conditions and reduce overall chemical costs without increasing operational and maintenance burdens. The optimization evaluation and techniques used for this water system can be applied to all military-owned water systems to help ensure the protection of public health and mission success.

  18. Effect of Insecticide Seed Treatment on Safening Rice from Reduced Rates of Glyphosate and Imazethapyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effect of insecticide seed treatments on exposure of young conventional rice to reduced rates of glyphosate and imazethapyr. During the two-year study, “Roy J” rice seed was treated with CruiserMaxx® Rice, thiamethoxam plus fungicide, or a fungicide-only treatment. Subsequently, glyphosate (Roundup PowerMax® at 39.42, 78.76, or 157.54 g ae/ha or imazethapyr (Newpath® at 4.39, 8.74, or 17.49 g ai/ha was applied at the 2- to 3-leaf growth stage of rice. Results in 2013 indicated that rice plants from seed treated with CruiserMaxx Rice exhibited significantly less injury 1, 3, and 6 weeks after either imazethapyr or glyphosate was applied in comparison to the plants having fungicide-only treated seed. The addition of an insecticide seed treatment also resulted in higher yields when both herbicides were applied compared to the fungicide-only seed treatment receiving the same herbicide treatments. In 2014, an overall decrease in injury from both herbicides was observed when rice seed was treated with CruiserMaxx Rice compared to receiving a fungicide-only seed treatment. Significant yield loss from low rates of glyphosate or imazethapyr was not observed in 2014, with or without a seed treatment. Based on the positive effects observed from the CruiserMaxx Rice seed treatment in reducing injury and maintaining rice yields, the insecticide seed treatment appears to provide some safening to rice against low rates of glyphosate and imazethapyr.

  19. Treatment with the antipsychotic agent, risperidone, reduces disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, David; Green, Laura; Stone, Sarrabeth; Zareie, Pirooz; Kharkrang, Marie; Fong, Dahna; Connor, Bronwen; La Flamme, Anne Camille

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that atypical antipsychotic agents, which are known to antagonize dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2a receptors, have immunomodulatory properties. Given the potential of these drugs to modulate the immune system both peripherally and within the central nervous system, we investigated the ability of the atypical anti-psychotic agent, risperidone, to modify disease in the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS)4, experimental autoimune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found that chronic oral administration of risperidone dose-dependently reduced the severity of disease and decreased both the size and number of spinal cord lesions. Furthermore, risperidone treatment substantially reduced antigen-specific interleukin (IL)-17a, IL-2, and IL-4 but not interferon (IFN)-γ production by splenocytes at peak disease and using an in vitro model, we show that treatment of macrophages with risperidone alters their ability to bias naïve T cells. Another atypical antipsychotic agent, clozapine, showed a similar ability to modify macrophages in vitro and to reduce disease in the EAE model but this effect was not due to antagonism of the type 1 or type 2 dopamine receptors alone. Finally, we found that while risperidone treatment had little effect on the in vivo activation of splenic macrophages during EAE, it significantly reduced the activation of microglia and macrophages in the central nervous system. Together these studies indicate that atypical antipsychotic agents like risperidone are effective immunomodulatory agents with the potential to treat immune-mediated diseases such as MS.

  20. EPS solubilization treatment by applying the biosurfactant rhamnolipid to reduce clogging in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingpu; Xu, Dong; Trinh, Xuantung; Liu, Shuangyuan; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Junmei; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-10-01

    Application of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) solubilization treatment with biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) to reduce clogging in constructed wetlands was first conducted in this study. The results showed significant improvement in the solubilization and dispersion of clogging matter following the treatment. And RL dosage of 0.09-0.15g/L altered microbial group make-up and had an overall positive effect on the growth of microorganisms. Moreover, RL was found to enhance EPS dissolution and dispersion, which was beneficial for the release of enzymes embedded in the EPS, and resulted in enhanced pollutant removal. The treatment had no apparent detrimental effect on wetland plants. Our results indicate that the optimum dosage of RL is 0.12g/L, and that the approach provides a promising and moderate option to reverse wetland clogging through RL-mediated solubilization treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneous (sc) injection of Oxt suppressed food intake in normal and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Daily sc injection of Oxt for 17 days in DIO mice reduced food intake for 6 days and body weight for the entire treatment period and additional 9 days after terminating Oxt. Oxt infusion by sc implanted osmotic minipumps for 13 days in DIO mice reduced food intake, body weight, and visceral fat mass and adipocyte size. Oxt infusion also decreased respiratory quotient specifically in light phase, ameliorated fatty liver and glucose intolerance, without affecting normal blood pressure in DIO mice. These results demonstrate that peripheral Oxt treatment reduces food intake and visceral fat mass, and ameliorates obesity, fatty liver and glucose intolerance. Peripheral Oxt treatment provides a new therapeutic avenue for treating obesity and hyperphagia.

  2. New, combined, and reduced dosing treatment protocols cure Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Juan M; Craft, Julie M; Crowe, Byron D; Ketchie, Sarah A; Tarleton, Rick L

    2014-01-01

    The development of treatment protocols with reduced toxicity and equivalent or improved efficacy for Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a priority. We tested the effectiveness of benznidazole (BZ), nifurtimox (NFX), other prospective drugs in intermittent and combined treatment protocols to cure T. cruzi infection initiated with susceptible and drug-resistant parasite strains. A 40-day course of BZ, NFX, or the oxaborale AN4169 cured 100% of mice, whereas posaconazole (POS), and NTLA-1 (a nitro-triazole) cured approximately 90% and 20% of mice, respectively. Reducing the overall dosage of BZ or NFX by using an intermittent (once every 5 days) schedule or combining 5 daily doses of POS with 7 intermittent doses of BZ also provided approximately 100% cure. T. cruzi strains resistant to BZ were also found to be resistant to other drugs (POS), and extending the time of treatment or combining drugs did not increase cure rates with these isolates. Thus, dosing schedules for anti-T. cruzi compounds should be determined empirically, and compounds targeting different pathways may be combined to yield effective therapies with reduced toxicity. This work also suggests that standard treatment protocols using BZ and NFX may be significantly overdosing patients, perhaps contributing to the adverse events.

  3. Increased Mindfulness Skills as Predictors of Reduced Trauma-Related Guilt in Treatment-Seeking Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Philip; Owens, Gina P; Monroe, J Richard; Chard, Kathleen M

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined the predictive role of increased self-reported mindfulness skills on reduced trauma-related guilt in a sample of veterans over the course of residential treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; N = 128). The residential treatment consisted of seven weeks of intensive cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for PTSD, as well as additional psychoeducational groups, including seven sessions on mindfulness skills. Increased mindfulness skills describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without judgment were significantly associated with reductions in trauma-related guilt over the course of treatment. Increases in the ability to act with awareness and accept without judgment were significantly associated with reductions in global guilt, R(2) = .26, guilt distress, R(2) = .23, guilt cognitions, R(2) = .23, and lack of justification, R(2) = .11. An increase in the ability to accept without judgment was the only self-reported mindfulness skill that was associated with reductions in hindsight bias, β = -.34 and wrongdoing, β = -.44. Increases in self-reported mindfulness skills explained 15.1 to 24.1% of the variance in reductions in trauma-related guilt, suggesting that mindfulness skills may play a key role in reducing the experience of trauma-related guilt during psychotherapy. Our results provide preliminary support for the use of mindfulness groups as an adjunct to traditional evidence-based treatments aimed at reducing trauma-related guilt, though this claim needs to be tested further using experimental designs. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Topiramate treatment improves hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling and action and reduces obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricilli, Andrea M; Penteado, Erica; de Abreu, Lélia L; Quaresma, Paula G F; Santos, Andressa C; Guadagnini, Dioze; Razolli, Daniella; Mittestainer, Francine C; Carvalheira, Jose B; Velloso, Licio A; Saad, Mario J A; Prada, Patricia O

    2012-09-01

    Topiramate (TPM) treatment has been shown to reduce adiposity in humans and rodents. The reduction in adiposity is related to decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure. However, the molecular mechanisms through which TPM induces weight loss are contradictory and remain to be clarified. Whether TPM treatment alters hypothalamic insulin, or leptin signaling and action, is not well established. Thus, we investigate herein whether short-term TPM treatment alters energy balance by affecting insulin and leptin signaling, action, or neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus of mice fed with a high-fat diet. As expected, short-term treatment with TPM diminished adiposity in obese mice mainly due to reduced food intake. TPM increased anorexigenic signaling by enhancing the leptin-induced leptin receptor/Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway and the insulin-induced insulin receptor substrate/Akt/forkhead box O1 pathway in parallel to reduced phosphatase protein expression in the hypothalamus of obese mice. These effects were independent of body weight. TPM also raised anorexigenic neuropeptides such as POMC, TRH, and CRH mRNA levels in obese mice. In addition, TPM increased the activation of the hypothalamic MAPK/ERK pathway induced by leptin, accompanied by an increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-coactivator α and uncoupling protein 1 protein levels in brown adipose tissue. Furthermore, TPM increased AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase phosphorylation in peripheral tissues, which may help improve energy metabolism in these tissues. Together, these results provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms through which TPM treatment reduces adiposity.

  5. FOXO1 Content Is Reduced in Cystic Fibrosis and Increases with IGF-I Treatment

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    Arianna Smerieri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is to date the most frequent complication in cystic fibrosis (CF. The mechanisms underlying this condition are not well understood, and a possible role of insulin resistance is debated. We investigated insulin signal transduction in CF. Total insulin receptor, IRS1, p85 PI3K, and AKT contents were substantially normal in CF cells (CFBE41o-, whereas winged helix forkhead (FOXO1 contents were reduced both in baseline conditions and after insulin stimulation. In addition, CF cells showed increased ERK1/2, and reduced β2 arrestin contents. No significant change in SOCS2 was observed. By using a CFTR inhibitor and siRNA, changes in FOXO1 were related to CFTR loss of function. In a CF-affected mouse model, FOXO1 content was reduced in the muscle while no significant difference was observed in liver and adipose tissue compared with wild-type. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I increased FOXO1 content in vitro and in vivo in muscle and adipose tissue. In conclusion; we present the first description of reduced FOXO1 content in CF, which is compatible with reduced gluconeogenesis and increased adipogenesis, both features of insulin insensitivity. IGF-I treatment was effective in increasing FOXO1, thereby suggesting that it could be considered as a potential treatment in CF patients possibly to prevent and treat cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.

  6. Treatment of irradiated mice with high-dose ascorbic acid reduced lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohito Sato

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure.

  7. Treatment of irradiated mice with high-dose ascorbic acid reduced lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure.

  8. Current and Potential Treatments for Reducing Campylobacter Colonization in Animal Hosts and Disease in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J.; Shank, Janette M.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance, emergence of post-infectious diseases, and economic burden associated with Campylobacter increases, it is becoming urgent that novel treatments are developed to reduce Campylobacter numbers in commercial poultry and campylobacteriosis in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide the current status of present and proposed treatments to combat Campylobacter infection in humans and colonization in animal reservoirs. These treatments include anti-Campylobacter compounds, probiotics, bacteriophage, vaccines, and anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins, all of which may be successful at reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans and/or colonization loads in poultry. In addition to reviewing treatments, we will also address several proposed targets that may be used in future development of novel anti-Campylobacter treatments. PMID:28386253

  9. Strontium ranelate improved tooth anchorage and reduced root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Wolf, Michael; Reicheneder, Claudia; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Proff, Peter; Roemer, Piero

    2014-12-05

    The anchorage mechanisms currently used in orthodontic treatment have various disadvantages. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the osteoporosis medication strontium ranelate in pharmacologically induced orthodontic tooth anchorage. In 48 male Wistar rats, a constant orthodontic force of 0.25 N was reciprocally applied to the upper first molar and the incisors by means of a Sentalloy(®) closed coil spring for two to four weeks. 50% of the animals received strontium ranelate at a daily oral dosage of 900 mg per kilogramme of body weight. Bioavailability was determined by blood analyses. The extent of tooth movement was measured both optometrically and cephalometrically (CBCT). Relative alveolar gene expression of osteoclastic markers and OPG-RANKL was assessed by qRT-PCR and root resorption area and osteoclastic activity were determined in TRAP-stained histologic sections of the alveolar process. Compared to controls, the animals treated with strontium ranelate showed up to 40% less tooth movement after four weeks of orthodontic treatment. Gene expression and histologic analyses showed significantly less osteoclastic activity and a significantly smaller root resorption area. Blood analyses confirmed sufficient bioavailability of strontium ranelate. Because of its pharmacologic effects on bone metabolism, strontium ranelate significantly reduced tooth movement and root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats. Strontium ranelate may be a viable agent for inducing tooth anchorage and reducing undesired root resorption in orthodontic treatment. Patients under medication of strontium ranelate have to expect prolonged orthodontic treatment times.

  10. Reduced Use of Emergency Care and Hospitalization in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Receiving Acupuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chuan Shih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little research exists on acupuncture treatment’s effect on patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods. Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a cohort study to compare the use of emergency care and hospitalization in TBI patients with and without acupuncture treatment in the first year after TBI. The adjusted relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of high use of emergency care and hospitalization associated with acupuncture treatment were calculated in multivariate Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equation. Results. The means of medical visits of emergency care and hospitalization were lower in TBI patients with acupuncture treatment than in those without acupuncture treatment. After adjustment, acupuncture treatment was associated with decreased risk of high emergency care visits (beta = −0.0611, P=0.0452 and hospitalization (beta = −0.0989, P<0.0001. The RRs of high medical visits and expenditure for hospitalization associated with acupuncture treatment were 0.62 (95% CI = 0.50–0.76 and 0.66 (95% CI = 0.53–0.83, respectively. Conclusion. Patients with TBI who receive acupuncture treatment have reduced the use of emergency care and hospitalization in the first year after injury. The mechanisms of effects of acupuncture on TBI warrant further investigations.

  11. Reducing the Clinical and Socioeconomic Burden of Narcolepsy by Earlier Diagnosis and Effective Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpy, Michael; Morse, Anne Marie

    2017-03-01

    The burden of narcolepsy is likely the result of 2 main aspects: the clinical difficulties and disability incurred as a direct effect of the disorder and the socioeconomic burden. The clinical burden includes the symptoms, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatment, and even mortality that can be associated with narcolepsy. Lifelong therapy is necessary for these patients. Effective treatment results in long-term benefits from both patient and societal perspectives by improving clinical outcomes, potentially enabling improved education and increased employment and work productivity, and quality of life. Thus, reducing the time to appropriate management results in improved outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Yield of Potato as Influenced by Crop Sanitation and Reduced Fungicidal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop sanitation and reduced sprays of "Ridomil plus®" (12 % metalaxyl + 60 % cuprous oxide on the control of potato (Solanum tuberosum late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans were evaluated in two field experiments in 1993 in Dschang, Cameroon. In the first experiment, sanitation (five weekly removals of blighted leaves and two fungicidal treatments were initiated from first symptoms. In the second experiment, both fungicidal sprays were made at varying rates. Marketable yields increased by 50 % in sanitation-treated plots, by 94 % in plots sprayed with Ridomil plus (2.24 kg a. i./ha, or by 55 % in those exposed to both control methods. The fungicide equivalence of the sanitation treatment was two sprays of Ridomil plus at 0.76 kg a. i./ha. These results suggest that proper removal of diseased leaves or reduced fungicidal protection may be an effective late blight control method in potato farming.

  13. Two Novel Treatments to Reduce Overeating in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Zucker, Nancy L.; Peterson, Carol B.; Rydell, Sarah A.; Cafri, Guy; Harnack, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose in this study was to examine 2 treatments targeted at reducing eating in the absence of hunger in overweight and obese children. Method: Thirty-six overweight and obese 8- to 12-year-old children (58% female; mean age = 10.3 years, SD = 1.3), with high scores on eating in the absence of hunger, and their parents were…

  14. Interleukin-33 treatment reduces secondary injury and improves functional recovery after contusion spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeshchik, Yuriy; Kidin, Iurii; Korhonen, Paula; Savchenko, Ekaterina; Jaronen, Merja; Lehtonen, Sarka; Wojciechowski, Sara; Kanninen, Katja; Koistinaho, Jari; Malm, Tarja

    2015-02-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family and highly expressed in the naïve mouse brain and spinal cord. Despite the fact that IL-33 is known to be inducible by various inflammatory stimuli, its cellular localization in the central nervous system and role in pathological conditions is controversial. Administration of recombinant IL-33 has been shown to attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis progression in one study, yet contradictory reports also exist. Here we investigated for the first time the pattern of IL-33 expression in the contused mouse spinal cord and demonstrated that after spinal cord injury (SCI) IL-33 was up-regulated and exhibited a nuclear localization predominantly in astrocytes. Importantly, we found that treatment with recombinant IL-33 alleviated secondary damage by significantly decreasing tissue loss, demyelination and astrogliosis in the contused mouse spinal cord, resulting in dramatically improved functional recovery. We identified both central and peripheral mechanisms of IL-33 action. In spinal cord, IL-33 treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha and promoted the activation of anti-inflammatory arginase-1 positive M2 microglia/macrophages, which chronically persisted in the injured spinal cord for up to at least 42 days after the treatment. In addition, IL-33 treatment showed a tendency towards reduced T-cell infiltration into the spinal cord. In the periphery, IL-33 treatment induced a shift towards the Th2 type cytokine profile and reduced the percentage and absolute number of cytotoxic, tumor necrosis factor-alpha expressing CD4+ cells in the spleen. Additionally, IL-33 treatment increased expression of T-regulatory cell marker FoxP3 and reduced expression of M1 marker iNOS in the spleen. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that IL-33 administration is beneficial after CNS trauma. Treatment with IL33 may offer a novel therapeutic

  15. Oral treatment with Bifidobacterium longum 51A reduced inflammation in a murine experimental model of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A T; Galvão, I; Amaral, F A; Teixeira, M M; Nicoli, J R; Martins, F S

    2015-01-01

    Gout is an acute inflammatory disease characterised by the presence of uric acid crystals in the joint. This event promotes neutrophil infiltration and activation that leads to tissue damage. We investigated here whether the oral administration of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum 5(1A) (BL) could ameliorate monosodium urate crystal (MSU)-induced inflammation in a murine model of gout. Mice received oral administration of BL or saline daily for 7 days and then were injected with MSU in the knee cavity. Treatment with BL significantly alleviated the inflammatory parameters, as seen by reduced hypernociception, reduced neutrophil accumulation in the joint and myeloperoxidase activity in periarticular tissue. There was inhibition of the production of CXCL1 and interleukin(IL)-1β in joints. Levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were significantly higher in the knee tissue of mice treated with than control mice injected with MSU. In conclusion, oral BL treatment reduced the inflammatory response in an experimental murine model of gout, suggesting it may be useful as an adjuvant treatment in patients with gout.

  16. Imatinib treatment reduces brain injury in a murine model of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enming Joe Su

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current therapies for Traumatic brain injury (TBI focus on stabilizing individuals and on preventing further damage from the secondary consequences of TBI. A major complication of TBI is cerebral edema, which can be caused by the loss of blood brain barrier (BBB integrity. Recent studies in several CNS pathologies have shown that activation of latent platelet derived growth factor-CC (PDGF-CC within the brain can promote BBB permeability through PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα signaling, and that blocking this pathway improves outcomes. In this study we examine the efficacy for the treatment of TBI of an FDA approved antagonist of the PDGFRα, Imatinib. Using a murine model we show that Imatinib treatment, begun 45 minutes after TBI and given twice daily for 5 days, significantly reduces BBB dysfunction. This is associated with significantly reduced lesion size 24 hours, 7 days, and 21 days after TBI, reduced cerebral edema, determined from apparent diffusion co-efficient (ADC measurements, and with the preservation of cognitive function. Finally, analysis of CSF from human TBI patients suggests a possible correlation between high PDGF-CC levels and increased injury severity. Thus, our data suggests a novel strategy for the treatment of TBI with an existing FDA approved antagonist of the PDGFRα.

  17. In vivo treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection with liposomal linolenic acid reduces colonization and ameliorates inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Gao, Weiwei; Obonyo, Marygorret; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is marked by a vast prevalence and strong association with various gastric diseases, including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Because of the rapid emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics, current treatment regimens show a rapid decline of their eradication rates. Clearly, novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori are urgently needed. Here, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of liposomal linolenic acid (LipoLLA) for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The LipoLLA formulation with a size of ∼100 nm was prone to fusion with bacterial membrane, thereby directly releasing a high dose of linolenic acids into the bacterial membrane. LipoLLA penetrated the mucus layer of mouse stomach, and a significant portion of the administered LipoLLA was retained in the stomach lining up to 24 h after the oral administration. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated because of the H. pylori infection. Finally, a toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this study indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. PMID:25422427

  18. Reduced Treatment-Emergent Sexual Dysfunction as a Potential Target in the Development of New Antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleasurable sexual activity is an essential component of many human relationships, providing a sense of physical, psychological, and social well-being. Epidemiological and clinical studies show that depressive symptoms and depressive illness are associated with impairments in sexual function and satisfaction, both in untreated and treated patients. The findings of randomized placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that most of the currently available antidepressant drugs are associated with the development or worsening of sexual dysfunction, in a substantial proportion of patients. Sexual difficulties during antidepressant treatment often resolve as depression lifts but can endure over long periods and may reduce self-esteem and affect mood and relationships adversely. Sexual dysfunction during antidepressant treatment is typically associated with many possible causes, but the risk and type of dysfunction vary with differing compounds and should be considered when making decisions about the relative merits and drawbacks of differing antidepressants. A range of interventions can be considered when managing patients with sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressants, including the prescription of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, but none of these approaches can be considered “ideal.” As treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction is less frequent with certain drugs, presumably related to differences in their pharmacological properties, and because current management approaches are less than ideal, a reduced burden of treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction represents a tolerability target in the development of novel antidepressants.

  19. Quetiapine treatment reverses depressive-like behavior and reduces DNA methyltransferase activity induced by maternal deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignácio, Zuleide M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Abelaira, Helena M; Maciel, Amanda L; de Moura, Airam B; Matos, Danyela; Demo, Júlia P; da Silva, Júlia B I; Gava, Fernanda F; Valvassori, Samira S; Carvalho, André F; Quevedo, João

    2017-03-01

    Stress in early life has been appointed as an important phenomenon in the onset of depression and poor response to treatment with classical antidepressants. Furthermore, childhood trauma triggers epigenetic changes, which are associated with the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Treatment with atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine, exerts therapeutic effect for MDD patients and induces epigenetic changes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of chronic treatment with quetiapine (20mg/kg) on depressive-like behavior of rats submitted to maternal deprivation (MD), as well as the activity of histone acetylation by the enzymes histone acetyl transferases (HAT) and deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methylation, through DNA methyltransferase enzyme (DNMT) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus. Maternally deprived rats had a depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and an increase in the HDAC and DNMT activities in the hippocampus and NAc. Treatment with quetiapine reversed depressive-like behavior and reduced the DNMT activity in the hippocampus. This is the first study to show the antidepressant-like effect of quetiapine in animals subjected to MD and a protective effect by quetiapine in reducing epigenetic changes induced by stress in early life. These results reinforce an important role of quetiapine as therapy for MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduced treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction as a potential target in the development of new antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David S; Palazzo, M Carlotta; Masdrakis, Vasilios G

    2013-01-01

    Pleasurable sexual activity is an essential component of many human relationships, providing a sense of physical, psychological, and social well-being. Epidemiological and clinical studies show that depressive symptoms and depressive illness are associated with impairments in sexual function and satisfaction, both in untreated and treated patients. The findings of randomized placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that most of the currently available antidepressant drugs are associated with the development or worsening of sexual dysfunction, in a substantial proportion of patients. Sexual difficulties during antidepressant treatment often resolve as depression lifts but can endure over long periods and may reduce self-esteem and affect mood and relationships adversely. Sexual dysfunction during antidepressant treatment is typically associated with many possible causes, but the risk and type of dysfunction vary with differing compounds and should be considered when making decisions about the relative merits and drawbacks of differing antidepressants. A range of interventions can be considered when managing patients with sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressants, including the prescription of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, but none of these approaches can be considered "ideal." As treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction is less frequent with certain drugs, presumably related to differences in their pharmacological properties, and because current management approaches are less than ideal, a reduced burden of treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction represents a tolerability target in the development of novel antidepressants.

  1. Treatment with the gap junction modifier rotigaptide (ZP123) reduces infarct size in rats with chronic myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Ketil; Marcussen, Niels; Kjølbye, Anne Louise;

    2006-01-01

    Treatment with non-selective drugs (eg, long-chain alcohols, halothane) that reduce gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is associated with reduced infarct size after myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, it has been suggested that gap junction intercellular communication stimulating ...

  2. Early pharmacological treatment of delirium may reduce physical restraint use: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Christopher J; Thomas, Wendy L; McAllen, Karen J

    2014-03-01

    Evidence surrounding pharmacological treatment of delirium is limited. The negative impact of physical restraints on patient outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU), however, is well published. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether initiating pharmacologic delirium treatment within 24 hours of a positive screen reduces the number of days in physical restraints and improves patient outcomes compared with delayed or no treatment. Patients from a mixed ICU with a documented positive delirium score using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist were retrospectively grouped based on having received pharmacologic treatment within 24 hours of the first positive screen or not. Primary end points were number of days spent in physical restraints and time to extubation after delirium onset. Secondary end points included hospital and ICU length of stay (LOS) and survival to discharge. Two hundred intubated patients were either pharmacologically treated (n = 98) or not treated (n = 102) within 24 hours of the first positive delirium score. Patients receiving treatment spent a shorter median time in restraints compared with patients who were not treated (3 vs 6 days; P < .001), and had a shorter median time to extubation (3 vs 6.5 days; P < .001). The treatment group also experienced a shorter ICU LOS (9.5 vs 16 days; P < .001) and hospital LOS (14.5 vs 22 days; P < .001) compared with the no-treatment group. Delirious patients who received pharmacological treatment within 24 hours of the first positive screen spent fewer days in physical restraints and less time receiving mechanical ventilation compared with those who did not. Although delirium management is multifactorial, early pharmacological therapy may benefit patients diagnosed with delirium.

  3. Itraconazole treatment reduces Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and increases overwinter field survival in juvenile Cascades frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bennett M; Pope, Karen L; Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-01-15

    The global spread of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has led to widespread extirpation of amphibian populations. During an intervention aimed at stabilizing at-risk populations, we treated wild-caught Cascades frogs Rana cascadae with the antifungal drug itraconazole. In fall 2012, we collected 60 recently metamorphosed R. cascadae from 1 of the 11 remnant populations in the Cascades Mountains (CA, USA). Of these, 30 randomly selected frogs were treated with itraconazole and the other 30 frogs served as experimental controls; all were released at the capture site. Bd prevalence was low at the time of treatment and did not differ between treated frogs and controls immediately following treatment. Following release, Bd prevalence gradually increased in controls but not in treated frogs, with noticeable (but still non-significant) differences 3 wk after treatment (27% [4/15] vs. 0% [0/13]) and strong differences 5 wk after treatment (67% [8/12] vs. 13% [1/8]). We did not detect any differences in Bd prevalence and load between experimental controls and untreated wild frogs during this time period. In spring 2013, we recaptured 7 treated frogs but none of the experimental control frogs, suggesting that over-winter survival was higher for treated frogs. The itraconazole treatment did appear to reduce growth rates: treated frogs weighed 22% less than control frogs 3 wk after treatment (0.7 vs. 0.9 g) and were 9% shorter than control frogs 5 wk after treatment (18.4 vs. 20.2 mm). However, for critically small populations, increased survival of the most at-risk life stage could prevent or delay extinction. Our results show that itraconazole treatment can be effective against Bd infection in wild amphibians, and therefore the beneficial effects on survivorship may outweigh the detrimental effects on growth.

  4. Options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during wastewater treatment for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fine, Pinchas, E-mail: finep@volcani.agri.gov.il [Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 6, Bet-Dagan 50250 (Israel); Hadas, Efrat, E-mail: efrath@moag.gov.il [Ministry of Agriculture, Investment and Financing Authority, P.O. Box 30, Bet Dagan, 50250 (Israel)

    2012-02-01

    Treatment of primarily-domestic sewage wastewater involves on-site greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to energy inputs, organic matter degradation and biological nutrient removal (BNR). BNR causes both direct emissions and loss of fertilizer value, thus eliminating possible reduction of emissions caused by fertilizer manufacture. In this study, we estimated on-site GHG emissions under different treatment scenarios, and present options for emission reduction by changing treatment methods, avoiding BNR and by recovering energy from biogas. Given a typical Israeli wastewater strength (1050 mg COD l{sup -1}), the direct on-site GHG emissions due to energy use were estimated at 1618 and 2102 g CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup -3}, respectively, at intermediate and tertiary treatment levels. A potential reduction of approximately 23-55% in GHG emissions could be achieved by fertilizer preservation and VS conversion to biogas. Wastewater fertilizers constituted a GHG abatement potential of 342 g CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup -3}. The residual component that remained in the wastewater effluent following intermediate (oxidation ponds) and enhanced (mechanical-biological) treatments was 304-254 g CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup -3} and 65-34 g CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup -3}, respectively. Raw sludge constituted approximately 47% of the overall wastewater fertilizers load with an abatement potential of 150 g CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup -3} (385 kg CO{sub 2}-eq dry tonne{sup -1}). Inasmuch as anaerobic digestion reduced it to 63 g CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup -3} (261 kg CO{sub 2}-eq dry tonne{sup -1}), the GHG abatement gained through renewable biogas energy (approx. 428 g CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup -3}) favored digestion. However, sludge composting reduced the fertilizer value to 17 g CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup -3} (121 kg CO{sub 2}-eq dry tonne{sup -1}) or less (if emissions, off-site inputs and actual phytoavailability were considered). Taking Israel as an example, fully exploiting the wastewater derived GHG abatement potential could reduce the State

  5. Microbial and Oligosaccharides Treatments of Feces and Slurry in Reducing Ammonia of the Poultry Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yusrizal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of Lactobacillus sp and fructooligosaccaride (FOS to reduce the volatile ammonia formation from chicken excreta and layer slurry. For each treatment-replication, 150 g of fecal material were collected from the poultry farm and placed in 500 ml beaker glass. The fecal sample was then treated with 2% Lactobacillus sp (2.6x106 cfu/g and 2% FOS and covered with plastic wraps. The volatile ammonia contents and pH were measured after one hour of standing (0 d and repeated at 48 h intervals for 6 d. For the dropping slurry study, 300 g of each layer dropping slurry sample were used. Results indicated that 2% Lactobacillus sp or FOS supplementations in the feces and dropping slurry after 1 h up to 6 d reduced the ammonia odor formation, fecal pH, and moisture content. The Lactobacillus sp and FOS treated manure resulted in increasing Lactobacillus sp count and reducing in E. coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter in 6 days for both feces and layer dropping slurry. In addition, reducing moisture content was observed in treated manure. It is concluded that Lactobacillus sp and FOS reduced the volatile ammonia formation and pathogenic bacteria from chicken excreta and layer slurry.

  6. Sorafenib treatment during partial hepatectomy reduces tumorgenesis in an inflammation-associated liver cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Asher; Peretz, Tamar; Galun, Eithan; Axelrod, Jonathan H.; Sonnenblick, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The long-term prognosis after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is one of the treatment options for early-stage HCC, remains unsatisfactory as a result of a high incidence of disease recurrence. Recent studies performed in murine models revealed a link between liver regeneration under chronic inflammation and hepatic tumorigenesis. Sorafenib is a potent drug for advanced HCC with multikinase inhibition activity. We propose that inhibition of signal transduction pathways which are activated during hepatectomy, using Sorafenib, will reduce accelerated tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, we studied the Mdr2-knockout (KO) mouse strain, a model of inflammation-associated cancer, which underwent partial hepatectomy (PHx) at three months of age, with or without Sorafenib. Here we show that Sorafenib treatment during PHx inhibited different signal transduction pathways at the multikinase levels, but did not result in increased morbidity or mortality. At the early stages after PHx, Sorafenib treatment had no effect on the course of proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair in the regenerating liver, but resulted in decreased stellate cells activation and inflammatory response. Finally, we show that Sorafenib treatment during PHx at three months of age resulted in decreased fibrosis and tumor formation at 8.5 months. In conclusion our study indicates that short-term Sorafenib treatment during PHx is safe and effective in inhibiting inflammation-associated cancer, and is therefore a potential strategy for recurrence prevention in patients with early-stage HCC treated with PHx. PMID:26695439

  7. Thermal treatment of bentonite reduces aflatoxin b1 adsorption and affects stem cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nones, Janaína; Nones, Jader; Riella, Humberto Gracher; Poli, Anicleto; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves; Kuhnen, Nivaldo Cabral

    2015-10-01

    Bentonites are clays that highly adsorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and, therefore, protect human and animal cells from damage. We have recently demonstrated that bentonite protects the neural crest (NC) stem cells from the toxicity of AFB1. Its protective effects are due to the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition altered by heat treatment. The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize the natural and thermal treatments (125 to 1000 °C) of bentonite from Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil and to investigate their effects in the AFB1 adsorption and in NC cell viability after challenging with AFB1. The displacement of water and mineralogical phases transformations were observed after the thermal treatments. Kaolinite disappeared at 500 °C and muscovite and montmorillonite at 1000 °C. Slight changes in morphology, chemical composition, and density of bentonite were observed. The adsorptive capacity of the bentonite particles progressively reduced with the increase in temperature. The observed alterations in the structure of bentonite suggest that the heat treatments influence its interlayer distance and also its adsorptive capacity. Therefore, bentonite, even after the thermal treatment (125 to 1000 °C), is able to increase the viability of NC stem cells previously treated with AFB1. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of bentonite in preventing the toxic effects of AFB1.

  8. Reducing adolescent clients' anger in a residential substance abuse treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Robert; McGee, Patricia; Power, Robert; Hanson, Cathy

    2005-06-01

    Sundown Ranch, a residential behavioral health care treatment facility for adolescents, tracked the progress and results of treatment by selecting performance measures from a psychosocial screening inventory. The temper scale was one of the two highest scales at admission and the highest scale at discharge. A clinical performance improvement (PI) project was conducted to assess improvements in clients' ability to manage anger after the incorporation of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) into treatment. Eighteen months of baseline data (July 1, 1999 - February 1, 2001) were collected, and 20 months of data (May 1, 2001 - December 31, 2002) were collected after the introduction of the PI activity. In all, data were collected for 541 consecutive admissions. A comparison of five successive quarterly reviews indicated average scores of 1.4 standard deviations (SDs) above the mean on the temper scale before the PI activity and .45 SD above the mean after. The performance threshold of reduction of the average temper scale score to < or =1 SD was met for 17 of 20 months. The fact that the PI activity reduced the temper scale elevations by almost one full SD is highly suggestive of the efficacy of REBT with the treatment population. After the project was completed, REBT was promoted as an additional therapeutic modality within the treatment program.

  9. Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristula, M.A.; Dou, Z.; Toth, J.D.; Smith, B.I.; Harvey, N.; Sabo, M. [University of Penn, Kennett Square, PA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation.

  10. Treatment of asymptomatic carriers with artemether-lumefantrine: an opportunity to reduce the burden of malaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbadoé Adama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased investment and commitment to malaria prevention and treatment strategies across Africa has produced impressive reductions in the incidence of this disease. Nevertheless, it is clear that further interventions will be necessary to meet the international target of a reversal in the incidence of malaria by 2015. This article discusses the prospective role of an innovative malaria control strategy - the community-based treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium falciparum, with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. The potential of this intervention was considered by key scientists in the field at an Advisory Board meeting held in Basel, in April 2009. This article summarizes the discussions that took place among the participants. Presentation of the hypothesis Asymptomatic carriers do not seek treatment for their infection and, therefore, constitute a reservoir of parasites and thus a real public-health risk. The systematic identification and treatment of individuals with asymptomatic P. falciparum as part of a surveillance intervention strategy should reduce the parasite reservoir, and if this pool is greatly reduced, it will impact disease transmission. Testing the hypothesis This article considers the populations that could benefit from such a strategy and examines the ethical issues associated with the treatment of apparently healthy individuals, who represent a neglected public health risk. The potential for the treatment of asymptomatic carriers to impair the development of protective immunity, resulting in a 'rebound' and age escalation of malaria incidence, is also discussed. For policymakers to consider the treatment of asymptomatic carriers with ACT as a new tool in their malaria control programmes, it will be important to demonstrate that such a strategy can produce significant benefits, without having a negative impact on the efficacy of ACT and the health of the target population. Implications

  11. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  12. Treatment with Piribedil and Memantine Reduces Noise-Induced Loss of Inner Hair Cell Synaptic Ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Richard A.; Wys, Noel; Prieskorn, Diane; Martin, Cathy; DeRemer, Susan; Bledsoe, Sanford; Miller, Josef M.

    2016-01-01

    Noise overstimulation can induce loss of synaptic ribbons associated with loss of Inner Hair Cell – Auditory Nerve synaptic connections. This study examined if systemic administration of Piribedil, a dopamine agonist that reduces the sound evoked auditory nerve compound action potential and/or Memantine, an NMDA receptor open channel blocker, would reduce noise-induced loss of Inner Hair Cell ribbons. Rats received systemic Memantine and/or Piribedil for 3 days before and 3 days after a 3 hour 4 kHz octave band noise at 117 dB (SPL). At 21 days following the noise there was a 26% and 38% loss of synaptic ribbons in regions 5.5 and 6.5 mm from apex, respectively, elevations in 4-, 8- and 20 kHz tonal ABR thresholds and reduced dynamic output at higher intensities of stimulation. Combined treatment with Piribedil and Memantine produced a significant reduction in the noise-induced loss of ribbons in both regions and changes in ABR sensitivity and dynamic responsiveness. Piribedil alone gave significant reduction in only the 5.5 mm region and Memantine alone did not reach significance in either region. Results identify treatments that could prevent the hearing loss and hearing disorders that result from noise-induced loss of Inner Hair Cell – Auditory Nerve synaptic connections. PMID:27686418

  13. Reduced serotonin synthesis and regional cerebral blood flow after anxiolytic treatment of social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andreas; Åhs, Fredrik; Appel, Lieuwe; Jonasson, My; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Bani, Massimo; Merlo Pich, Emilio; Bettica, Paolo; Långström, Bengt; Lubberink, Mark; Fredrikson, Mats; Furmark, Tomas

    2016-11-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with increased fear-related neural activity in the amygdala and we recently found enhanced serotonin synthesis rate in the same region. Anxiolytic agents like selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists reduce amygdala activity and may attenuate serotonin formation according to animal studies. Here, we examined the effects of SSRI pharmacotherapy, NK1R antagonism, and placebo on serotonin synthesis rate in relation to neural activity, measured as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and symptom improvement in SAD. Eighteen SAD patients were randomized to receive daily double-blind treatment for six weeks either with the SSRI citalopram (n=6; 40mg), the NK1R antagonist GR205171 (n=6; 5mg; 4 weeks following 2 weeks of placebo), or placebo (n=6). Serotonin synthesis rate at rest and rCBF during stressful public speaking were assessed, before and after treatment, using positron emission tomography with the tracers [(11)C]5-hydroxytryptophan and [(15)O]water respectively. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR) indexed symptom severity. All groups exhibited attenuated amygdala serotonin synthesis rate after treatment, which was associated with reduced amygdala rCBF during public speaking and accompanied by symptom improvement. These results are consistent with the notion that serotonin in the amygdala exerts an anxiogenic influence and, conversely, that anxiolysis is achieved through decreased serotonin formation in the amygdala.

  14. Reducing the price of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis through the Global Drug Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunte, Kaspars; Cordier-Lassalle, Thierry; Keravec, Joel

    2015-04-01

    Many countries have limited experience of securing the best prices for drugs and have little negotiating power. This is particularly true for the complex, lengthy and expensive regimens used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The Stop TB Partnership's Global Drug Facility is dedicated to improving worldwide access to antituberculosis medicines and diagnostic techniques that meet international quality standards. The Global Drug Facility is able to secure price reductions through competitive tendering among prequalified drug manufacturers and by consolidating orders to achieve large purchase volumes. Consolidating the market in this way increases the incentives for suppliers of quality-assured medicines. In 2013 the Global Drug Facility reduced the price of the second-line drugs it supplies for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: the overall cost of the longest and most expensive treatment regimen for a patient decreased by 26% - from 7890 United States dollars (US$) in 2011 to US$ 5822 in 2013. The price of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis supplied by the Global Drug Facility was reduced by consolidating orders to achieve large purchase volumes, by international, competitive bidding and by the existence of donor-funded medicine stockpiles. The rise in the number of suppliers of internationally quality-assured drugs was also important. The savings achieved from lower drug costs could be used to increase the number of patients on high-quality treatment.

  15. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) treatment prevents bone loss and reduces body fat in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearbey, Jeffrey D; Gao, Wenqing; Narayanan, Ramesh; Fisher, Scott J; Wu, Di; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2007-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the bone and body composition effects of S-4, an aryl-propionamide derived Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) in an ovariectomy induced model of accelerated bone loss. One hundred twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats aged to twenty-three weeks were randomly assigned to twelve treatment groups. Drug treatment was initiated immediately following ovariectomy and continued for one hundred twenty days. Whole body bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and lumbar vertebrae BMD were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. More stringent regional pQCT and biomechanical strength testing was performed on excised femurs. We found that S-4 treatment maintained whole body and trabecular BMD, cortical content, and increased bone strength while decreasing body fat in these animals. The data presented herein show the protective skeletal effects of S-4. Our previous reports have shown the tissue selectivity and muscle anabolic activity of S-4. Together these data suggest that S-4 could reduce the incidence of fracture via two different mechanisms (i.e., via direct effects in bone and reducing the incidence of falls through increased muscle strength). This approach to fracture reduction would be advantageous over current therapies in these patients which are primarily antiresorptive in nature.

  16. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) Treatment Prevents Bone Loss and Reduces Body Fat in Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearbey, Jeffrey D.; Gao, Wenqing; Narayanan, Ramesh; Fisher, Scott J.; Wu, Di; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to examine the bone and body composition effects of S-4, an arylpropionamide derived Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) in an ovariectomy induced model of accelerated bone loss. Methods One hundred twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats aged to twenty-three weeks were randomly assigned to twelve treatment groups. Drug treatment was initiated immediately following ovariectomy and continued for one hundred twenty days. Whole body bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and lumbar vertebrae BMD were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. More stringent regional pQCT and biomechanical strength testing was performed on excised femurs. Results We found that S-4 treatment maintained whole body and trabecular BMD, cortical content, and increased bone strength while decreasing body fat in these animals. Conclusions The data presented herein show the protective skeletal effects of S-4. Our previous reports have shown the tissue selectivity and muscle anabolic activity of S-4. Together these data suggest that S-4 could reduce the incidence of fracture via two different mechanisms (i.e., via direct effects in bone and reducing the incidence of falls through increased muscle strength). This approach to fracture reduction would be advantageous over current therapies in these patients which are primarily antiresorptive in nature. PMID:17063395

  17. Options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during wastewater treatment for agricultural use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Pinchas; Hadas, Efrat

    2012-02-01

    Treatment of primarily-domestic sewage wastewater involves on-site greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to energy inputs, organic matter degradation and biological nutrient removal (BNR). BNR causes both direct emissions and loss of fertilizer value, thus eliminating possible reduction of emissions caused by fertilizer manufacture. In this study, we estimated on-site GHG emissions under different treatment scenarios, and present options for emission reduction by changing treatment methods, avoiding BNR and by recovering energy from biogas. Given a typical Israeli wastewater strength (1050mg CODl(-1)), the direct on-site GHG emissions due to energy use were estimated at 1618 and 2102g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively, at intermediate and tertiary treatment levels. A potential reduction of approximately 23-55% in GHG emissions could be achieved by fertilizer preservation and VS conversion to biogas. Wastewater fertilizers constituted a GHG abatement potential of 342g CO(2)-eq m(-3). The residual component that remained in the wastewater effluent following intermediate (oxidation ponds) and enhanced (mechanical-biological) treatments was 304-254g CO(2)-eq m(-3) and 65-34g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively. Raw sludge constituted approximately 47% of the overall wastewater fertilizers load with an abatement potential of 150g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (385kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)). Inasmuch as anaerobic digestion reduced it to 63g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (261kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)), the GHG abatement gained through renewable biogas energy (approx. 428g CO(2)-eq m(-3)) favored digestion. However, sludge composting reduced the fertilizer value to 17g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (121kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)) or less (if emissions, off-site inputs and actual phytoavailability were considered). Taking Israel as an example, fully exploiting the wastewater derived GHG abatement potential could reduce the State overall GHG emissions by almost 1%. This demonstrates the possibility of optional carbon credits which

  18. Chloroquine treatment enhances regulatory T cells and reduces the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Thomé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The modulation of inflammatory processes is a necessary step, mostly orchestrated by regulatory T (Treg cells and suppressive Dendritic Cells (DCs, to prevent the development of deleterious responses and autoimmune diseases. Therapies that focused on adoptive transfer of Treg cells or their expansion in vivo achieved great success in controlling inflammation in several experimental models. Chloroquine (CQ, an anti-malarial drug, was shown to reduce inflammation, although the mechanisms are still obscure. In this context, we aimed to access whether chloroquine treatment alters the frequency of Treg cells and DCs in normal mice. In addition, the effects of the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with CQ on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE, an experimental model for human Multiple Sclerosis, was investigated as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 peptide. C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with chloroquine. Results show that the CQ treatment provoked an increase in Treg cells frequency as well as a decrease in DCs. We next evaluated whether prophylactic CQ administration is capable of reducing the clinical and histopathological signs of EAE. Our results demonstrated that CQ-treated mice developed mild EAE compared to controls that was associated with lower infiltration of inflammatory cells in the central nervous system CNS and increased frequency of Treg cells. Also, proliferation of MOG35-55-reactive T cells was significantly inhibited by chloroquine treatment. Similar results were observed when chloroquine was administrated after disease onset. CONCLUSION: We show for the first time that CQ treatment promotes the expansion of Treg cells, corroborating previous reports indicating that chloroquine has immunomodulatory properties. Our results also show that CQ treatment suppress the inflammation in the CNS of

  19. Drug Treatment Combined with BCG Vaccination Reduces Disease Reactivation in Guinea Pigs Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shaobin; Shanley, Crystal A.; Caraway, Megan L.; Orme, Eileen A.; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Hascall-Dove, Laurel; Ackart, David; Orme, Ian M.; Ordway, Diane J.; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the only human tuberculosis vaccine, primes a partially protective immune response against M. tuberculosis infection in humans and animals. In guinea pigs, BCG vaccination slows the progression of disease and reduces the severity of necrotic granulomas, which harbor a population of drug-tolerant bacilli. The objective of this study was to determine if reducing disease severity by BCG vaccination of guinea pigs prior to M. tuberculosis challenge enhanced the efficacy of combination drug therapy. At 20 days of infection, treatment of vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals with rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrizinamide (RHZ) was initiated for 4 or 8 weeks. On days 50, 80 and 190 of infection (10 weeks after drug were withdrawn), treatment efficacy was evaluated by quantifying clinical condition, bacterial loads, lesion severity, and dynamic changes in peripheral blood and lung leukocyte numbers by flow cytometry. In a separate, long-term survival study, treatment efficacy was evaluated by determining disease reactivation frequency post-mortem. BCG vaccination alone delayed pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease progression, but failed to prevent dissemination of bacilli and the formation of necrotic granulomas. Drug therapy either alone or in combination with BCG, was more effective at lessening clinical disease and lesion severity compared to control animals or those receiving BCG alone. Fewer residual lesions in BCG vaccinated and drug treated animals, equated to a reduced frequency of reactivation disease and improvement in survival even out to 500 days of infection. The combining of BCG vaccination and drug therapy was more effective at resolving granulomas such that fewer animals had evidence of residual infection and thus less reactivation disease. PMID:22244979

  20. Reduced Bone Mineral Density in Children and Adolescents: Causes, Incidence and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Maltsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in children is an urgent problem, since it occurs at different ages. The main risk factors and causes of primary and secondary osteoporosis in children include exogenous and endogenous, modifiable and non-modifiable factors. Critical age periods of childhood characterized by a high risk of reduced bone mineral density and fractures are specified. The article describes the biological effects of calcium, vitamin D and osteotropic trace elements and shows their role in osteogenesis and bone remodeling. It also presents the results of the study of reduced bone mineral density in children, the data on the availability of vitamin D for children at different ages, and provides recommendations for treatment.

  1. Reducing TV watching during adult obesity treatment: two pilot randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Bassett, David R; Thompson, Dixie L; Gorin, Amy A; Bond, Dale S

    2013-12-01

    increasing LPA. Future research should examine the effect of reducing TV watching during obesity treatment over a longer time frame in a larger sample.

  2. Reducing semantic complexity in distributed Digital Libraries: treatment of term vagueness and document re-ranking

    CERN Document Server

    Mayr, Philipp; Petras, Vivien

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to propose models to reduce the semantic complexity in heterogeneous DLs. The aim is to introduce value-added services (treatment of term vagueness and document re-ranking) that gain a certain quality in DLs if they are combined with heterogeneity components established in the project "Competence Center Modeling and Treatment of Semantic Heterogeneity". Empirical observations show that freely formulated user terms and terms from controlled vocabularies are often not the same or match just by coincidence. Therefore, a value-added service will be developed which rephrases the natural language searcher terms into suggestions from the controlled vocabulary, the Search Term Recommender (STR). Two methods, which are derived from scientometrics and network analysis, will be implemented with the objective to re-rank result sets by the following structural properties: the ranking of the results by core journals (so-called Bradfordizing) and ranking by centrality of authors in co-authorship ...

  3. Drug regimens identified and optimized by output-driven platform markedly reduce tuberculosis treatment time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bai-Yu; Clemens, Daniel L.; Silva, Aleidy; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Masleša-Galić, Saša; Nava, Susana; Ding, Xianting; Ho, Chih-Ming; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2017-01-01

    The current drug regimens for treating tuberculosis are lengthy and onerous, and hence complicated by poor adherence leading to drug resistance and disease relapse. Previously, using an output-driven optimization platform and an in vitro macrophage model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, we identified several experimental drug regimens among billions of possible drug-dose combinations that outperform the current standard regimen. Here we use this platform to optimize the in vivo drug doses of two of these regimens in a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. The experimental regimens kill M. tuberculosis much more rapidly than the standard regimen and reduce treatment time to relapse-free cure by 75%. Thus, these regimens have the potential to provide a markedly shorter course of treatment for tuberculosis in humans. As these regimens omit isoniazid, rifampicin, fluoroquinolones and injectable aminoglycosides, they would be suitable for treating many cases of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:28117835

  4. [Measurement units used in treatments to reduce weight and obesity. Systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Hervás, Ana Isabel; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Rizo Baeza, M Mercedes; Cortés Castell, Ernesto; Mur Villar, Norma; Aguilar Cordero, M J

    2014-09-01

    There are different parameters to express the loss of weight in the treatment of overweight and obesity: absolute loss, percentage of loss, decrease in BMI, etc. To determine the magnitudes more used in the bibliography in order to establish criteria for uniformity in the expression of those results. a systematic review of the last five years has made at Proquest, CINHAL, Scopus, with descriptors "body fat distribution" and "diet" and "diet, reducing" and "weight loss". Articles published in English, French and Spanish were selected. Inclusion criteria were used: articles only dietary treatment of overweight in humans, and exclusion criteria: not dietary treatments, metabolic diseases, less than 50 patients and less than 8 weeks of treatment. Title, summary, methodology, results and discussion have been analysed by two researchers independently. 854 items found, only 61 met the criteria. These were grouped into 5 subgroups, as they expressed the weight loss (weight or fat loss in kg; weight and fat loss in kg; weight or fat loss in %; weight loss in % and fat loss in kg or vice versa; weight and far loss in%). The results show a lack of homogeneity in the loss, being the percentage the most used expression. There is great heterogeneity in the expression of results of the treatments for weight loss; the diet is one of the least used tools; the analysis of clinical trials of intervention reflects a high quality in subjects older than 18 years, highlighting the lack of this type of research lines in children under 18 years. Therefore, it should standardize the magnitudes of expression of the success of these treatments and increase the lines of research on this topic. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Vaginal Infections May Reduce the Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Manhart, Lisa E; Lee, Jeannette; Anzala, Omu; Kimani, Joshua; Schwebke, Jane; Shafi, Juma; Rivers, Charles; Kabare, Emanuel; Scott McClelland, R

    2016-06-15

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase women's susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In a randomized trial of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) to reduce vaginal infections, we observed a significant reduction in BV. We further assessed the intervention effect on incident Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma genitalium infection. Nonpregnant, human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected women from the United States and Kenya received intravaginal metronidazole (750 mg) plus miconazole (200 mg) or placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months. Genital fluid specimens were collected every other month. Poisson regression models were used to assess the intervention effect on STI acquisition. Of 234 women enrolled, 221 had specimens available for analysis. Incidence of any bacterial STI (C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, or M. genitalium infection) was lower in the intervention arm, compared with the placebo arm (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], .32-.91). When assessed individually, reductions in STI incidences were similar but not statistically significant (IRRs, 0.50 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .20-1.23] for C. trachomatis infection, 0.56 [95% CI, .19-1.67] for N. gonorrhoeae infection, and 0.66 [95% CI, .38-1.15] for M. genitalium infection). In addition to reducing BV, this PPT intervention may also reduce the risk of bacterial STI among women. Because BV is highly prevalent, often persists, and frequently recurs after treatment, interventions that reduce BV over extended periods could play a role in decreasing STI incidence globally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Early Treatment Critical: Bexarotene Reduces Amyloid-Beta Burden In Silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joseph; Belfort, Georges; Isaacson, David

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptides have long been implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Bexarotene, a drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating a class of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, has been reported to facilitate the removal of amyloid-beta. We have developed a mathematical model to explore the efficacy of bexarotene treatment in reducing amyloid-beta load, and simulate amyloid-beta production throughout the lifespan of diseased mice. Both aspects of the model are based on and consistent with previous experimental results. Beyond what is known empirically, our model shows that low dosages of bexarotene are unable to reverse symptoms in diseased mice, but dosages at and above an age-dependent critical concentration can recover healthy brain cells. Further, early treatment was shown to have significantly improved efficacy versus treatment in older mice. Relevance with respect to bexarotene-based amyloid-beta-clearance mechanism and direct treatment for Alzheimer's disease is emphasized.

  7. Interventions targeting absences increase adherence and reduce abandonment of childhood cancer treatment in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaverria, Carmen; Rossell, Nuria; Hernandez, Angelica; Fuentes Alabi, Soad; Vasquez, Roberto; Bonilla, Miguel; Lam, Catherine G; Ribeiro, Raul C

    2015-09-01

    In El Salvador, about 200 new cases of pediatric cancer are diagnosed each year, and survival rates approach 70%. Although treatment is available at no cost, abandonment of therapy has remained at a steady yearly rate of 13% during the past decade. A time sensitive adherence tracking procedure (TS-ATP) was recently implemented to detect missed appointments, identify their causes, and intervene promptly. Procedure The study team was informed daily of patient/family failure to attend medical appointments in the pediatric oncology unit; the families were contacted and interviewed to ascertain and address the reasons. Patients who did not return after this initial contact were contacted again through local health clinics and municipalities. Law enforcement was a last resort for patients undergoing frontline treatment with a good prognosis., The system was adapted to clinical urgency: families of patients undergoing induction therapy were contacted within 24 hr, those in other therapy phases, within 48 hr, and those who had completed treatment, within one week. Reasons for absence were obtained by telephone or in person. The annual rate of abandonment was reduced from 13-3% during the 2 years period. There were 1,111 absences reported and 1,472 contacts with caregivers and institutions. The three main reasons for absences were financial needs (165, 23%), unforeseen barriers (116, 16%), and domestic needs (86, 12%). Use of the treatment adherence tracking system to locate and communicate with patients/families after missed appointments and the allocated aid stemming from these interviews substantially reduced abandonment and non-adherence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Oxotremorine treatment reduces repetitive behaviors in BTBR T+ tf/J mice

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    Dionisio A. Amodeo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive behaviors with restricted interests is one of the core criteria for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Current pharmacotherapies that target the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems have limited effectiveness in treating repetitive behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that administration of muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR antagonists can exacerbate motor stereotypies while mAChR agonists reduce stereotypies. The present study determined whether the mAChR agonist, oxotremorine affected repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR mouse model of autism. To test the effects of oxotremorine on repetitive behaviors, marble burying and grooming behavior were measured in BTBR mice and compared to that in C57BL/6J (B6 mice. The effects of oxotremorine on locomotor activity was also measured. Thirty minutes before each test, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 0.001 mg or 0.01 mg of oxotremorine methiodide. Saline- treated BTBR mice exhibited increased marble burying and self-grooming behavior compared to that of saline-treated B6 mice. Oxotremorine significantly reduced marble burying and self-grooming behavior in BTBR mice, but had no significant effect in B6 mice. In addition, oxotremorine did not affect locomotor activity in BTBR mice, but significantly reduced locomotor activity in B6 mice at the 0.01 mg dose. These findings demonstrate that activation of mAChRs reduces repetitive behavior in the BTBR mouse and suggest that treatment with a mAChR agonist may be effective in reducing repetitive behaviors in ASD.

  9. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge.

  10. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for spine SBRT patients to reduce treatment time and intrafractional motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Amoush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT is an efficient technique to reduce the treatment time and intrafractional motion to treat spine patients presented with severe back pain. Five patients treated with spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT using 9 beams intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT were retrospectively selected for this study. The patients were replanned using two arcs VMAT technique. The average mean dose was 104% ± 1.2% and 104.1% ± 1.0% in IMRT and VMAT, respectively (p = 0.9. Accordingly, the average conformal index (CI was 1.3 ± 0.1 and 1.5 ± 0.3, respectively (p = 0.5. The average dose gradient (DG distance was 1.5 ± 0.1 cm and 1.4 ± 0.1 cm, respectively (p = 0.3. The average spinal cord maximum dose was 11.6 ± 1.0 Gy and 11.8 ± 1.1 Gy (p = 0.8 and V10Gy was 7.4 ± 1.4 cc and 8.6 ± 1.7 cc (p = 0.4 for IMRT and VMAT, respectively. Accordingly, the average number of monitor units (MUs was 6771.7 ± 1323.3 MU and 3978 ± 576.7 MU respectively (p = 0.02. The use of VMAT for spine SBRT patients with severe back pain can reduce the treatment time and intrafractional motion.

  11. Reducing bioaerosol dispersion from wastewater treatment and its land application: a review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Richard E; Rubin, Robert

    2005-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems and spray irrigation of treated water may spread microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses through dispersion of aerosol particles. A recent review (Brooks, Josephson, Gerba, & Pepper, 2004) identifies appropriate reports. Teltsch and co-authors report findings that suggest effective management controls involve providing buffer zones, irrigating in the daytime and in times of low humidity, reducing microorganism levels in water used for spraying, and testing for multiple types of viruses and bacteria (Teltsch & Katzenelson, 1978; Teltsch, Shuval, & Tadmor, 1980; Teltsch, Kedmi, Bonnet, Borenzstajn-Rotem, & Katzenelson, 1980). Camann, Moore, Harding, and Sorber support these findings. They also note that fecal streptococci are hardier than fecal coliform and appear frequently in background samples, suggesting that this bacterium is a better indicator of background and downwind conditions than are fecal coliform bacteria. In their study, storage prior to spray irrigation reduced microorganism concentrations by 99 percent. Downwind concentrations of sprayed reservoir water were often comparable to background values (Camann, Moore, Harding, & Sorber, 1988). Italian researchers (Brandi, Sisti, & Amagliani, 2000; Carducci, Gemelli, Cantiani, Casini, & Rovini, 1999; Carducci et al., 2000) confirm variable die-away rates of microorganisms, observe a positive association between fecal streptococci and the presence of viruses, and recommend consideration of submerged aeration for sludge digestion at sewage treatment plants. No reports are available that measure dispersion of bioaerosols from wastewater consistently treated to meet contemporary disinfection standards.

  12. Supragingival treatment as an aid to reduce subgingival needs: a 450-day investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Carvalho Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the clinical effects of using a supragingival biofilm control regimen (SUPRA as a step prior to scaling and root planing (SRP. A split-mouth clinical trial was performed in which 25 subjects with periodontitis (47.2 ± 6.5 years underwent treatment (days 0-60 and monitoring (days 90-450 phases. At Day 0 (baseline treatments were randomly assigned per quadrant: SUPRA, SRP and S30SRP (SUPRA 30 days before SRP. The full-mouth visible plaque index (VPI, gingival bleeding index (GBI, periodontal probing depth (PPD, bleeding on probing (BOP, and clinical attachment loss (CAL were examined on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 270, and 450. Baseline data were similar among all groups. From days 0 to 60, the groups showed similar significant decreases in VPI and GBI. Reductions in PPD for the SRP (3.39 ± 0.17 to 2.42 ± 0.16 mm and S30SRP (3.31 ± 0.11 to 2.40 ± 0.07 mm groups were greater (p < 0.05 than those for the SUPRA group. This pattern was also observed for BOP. Attachment gain was similar and greater for the SRP (3.34 ± 0.28 to 2.58 ± 0.26 mm and S30SRP (3.25 ± 0.21 to 2.54 ± 0.19 mm groups compared to the SUPRA group. Results were maintained from day 90 forward. Overall, the S30SRP treatment reduced the subgingival treatment needs in 48.16%. Performance of a SUPRA step before SRP decreased subgingival treatment needs and maintained the periodontal stability over time.

  13. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol treatment during human monocyte differentiation reduces macrophage susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julie C; Appelberg, Sofia; Goldberger, Bruce A; Klein, Thomas W; Sleasman, John W; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2014-06-01

    The major psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), also acts to suppress inflammatory responses. Receptors for THC, CB1, CB2, and GPR55, are differentially expressed on multiple cell types including monocytes and macrophages, which are important modulators of inflammation in vivo and target cells for HIV-1 infection. Use of recreational and medicinal marijuana is increasing, but the consequences of marijuana exposure on HIV-1 infection are unclear. Ex vivo studies were designed to investigate effects on HIV-1 infection in macrophages exposed to THC during or following differentiation. THC treatment of primary human monocytes during differentiation reduced HIV-1 infection of subsequent macrophages by replication competent or single cycle CCR5 using viruses. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with THC immediately prior to or continuously following HIV-1 exposure failed to alter infection. Specific receptor agonists indicated that the THC effect during monocyte differentiation was mediated primarily through CB2. THC reduced the number of p24 positive cells with little to no effect on virus production per infected cell, while quantitation of intracellular viral gag pinpointed the THC effect to an early event in the viral life cycle. Cells treated during differentiation with THC displayed reduced expression of CD14, CD16, and CD163 and donor dependent increases in mRNA expression of selected viral restriction factors, suggesting a fundamental alteration in phenotype. Ultimately, the mechanism of THC suppression of HIV-1 infection was traced to a reduction in cell surface HIV receptor (CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4) expression that diminished entry efficiency.

  14. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment during human monocyte differentiation reduces macrophage susceptibility to HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julie C.; Appelberg, Sofia; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Klein, Thomas W.; Sleasman, John W.; Goodenow, Maureen M.

    2014-01-01

    The major psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), also acts to suppress inflammatory responses. Receptors for THC, CB1, CB2, and GPR55, are differentially expressed on multiple cell types including monocytes and macrophages, which are important modulators of inflammation in vivo and target cells for HIV-1 infection. Use of recreational and medicinal marijuana is increasing, but the consequences of marijuana exposure on HIV-1 infection are unclear. Ex vivo studies were designed to investigate effects on HIV-1 infection in macrophages exposed to THC during or following differentiation. THC treatment of primary human monocytes during differentiation reduced HIV-1 infection of subsequent macrophages by replication competent or single cycle CCR5 using viruses. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with THC immediately prior to or continuously following HIV-1 exposure failed to alter infection. Specific receptor agonists indicated that the THC effect during monocyte differentiation was mediated primarily through CB2. THC reduced the number of p24 positive cells with little to no effect on virus production per infected cell, while quantitation of intracellular viral gag pinpointed the THC effect to an early event in the viral life cycle. Cells treated during differentiation with THC displayed reduced expression of CD14, CD16, and CD163 and donor dependent increases in mRNA expression of selected viral restriction factors, suggesting a fundamental alteration in phenotype. Ultimately, the mechanism of THC suppression of HIV-1 infection was traced to a reduction in cell surface HIV receptor (CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4) expression that diminished entry efficiency. PMID:24562630

  15. Treatment with alpha-lipoic acid reduces asymmetric dimethylarginine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermayer, Friedrich; Pleiner, Johannes; Francesconi, Mario; Wolzt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Elevated asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations predict cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been shown that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) improves endothelial function and oxidative stress in these patients. The present study investigated if ALA reduces ADMA in patients with T2DM. Plasma concentrations of ADMA, L-arginine and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were determined in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in patients with T2DM. Intravenous ALA (n = 16) or placebo (n = 14) was administered daily for 3 weeks. ALA reduced ADMA while no change was observed with placebo (mean change -0.05 micromol/1[95% CI: -0.01; -0.09] vs. 0.01 micromol/1 [95% CI: -0.05; -0.03]; ANOVA p = 0.031). SDMA and L-arginine were not affected by ALA. In conclusion ALA treatment reduces ADMA in patients with T2DM. Long-term studies need to demonstrate if ALA may cause cardiovascular risk reduction.

  16. Reduced uptake of mass treatment for schistosomiasis control in absence of food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne;

    2015-01-01

    the other, in addition to the education messages, received a pre-treatment snack shortly before mass treatment. The uptake of praziquantel in the snack schools was 94 % compared to 79 % in the non-snack schools. During mass treatment in 2014, no snack was provided. We compared the uptake of praziquantel...... effects attributable to praziquantel and prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis infection. Differences in the demographic and descriptive variables between the 2013 and 2014 samples were compared using chi squared tests for categorical variables and student's t-test for geometric mean intensity of S....... mansoni infection. RESULTS: Uptake of praziquantel reduced from 93.9 to 78.0 % (p = 0.002) in the snack schools but was unchanged in the non-schools 78.7 and 70.4 % (p = 0.176). The occurence of side-effects attributable to praziquantel increased from 34.4 to 61.2 % (p = 0.001) in the snack schools...

  17. Neuroprotection of lipoic acid treatment promotes angiogenesis and reduces the glial scar formation after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocamonde, B; Paradells, S; Barcia, J M; Barcia, C; García Verdugo, J M; Miranda, M; Romero Gómez, F J; Soria, J M

    2012-11-01

    After trauma brain injury, a large number of cells die, releasing neurotoxic chemicals into the extracellular medium, decreasing cellular glutathione levels and increasing reactive oxygen species that affect cell survival and provoke an enlargement of the initial lesion. Alpha-lipoic acid is a potent antioxidant commonly used as a treatment of many degenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis or diabetic neuropathy. Herein, the antioxidant effects of lipoic acid treatment after brain cryo-injury in rat have been studied, as well as cell survival, proliferation in the injured area, gliogenesis and angiogenesis. Thus, it is shown that newborn cells, mostly corresponded with blood vessels and glial cells, colonized the damaged area 15 days after the lesion. However, lipoic acid was able to stimulate the synthesis of glutathione, decrease cell death, promote angiogenesis and decrease the glial scar formation. All those facts allow the formation of new neural tissue. In view of the results herein, lipoic acid might be a plausible pharmacological treatment after brain injury, acting as a neuroprotective agent of the neural tissue, promoting angiogenesis and reducing the glial scar formation. These findings open new possibilities for restorative strategies after brain injury, stroke or related disorders.

  18. Luteolin supplementation adjacent to aspirin treatment reduced dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Neamt H A; Said, Usama Z; El-Waseef, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Esraa S A

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that aspirin is used in colon cancer treatment. However, long-term of Aspirin usage is limited to gastric and renal toxicity. Luteolin (LUT) has cancer prevention and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of LUT supplementation and Aspirin treatment in dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis in rats. DMH (20 mg/kg BW/week) treated rats received gavages with Aspirin (50 mg/kg BW/week) and LUT (0.2 mg/kg BW/day) for 15 weeks. DMH injections induce colon polyps and renal bleeding, significantly increasing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), oxidative stress, and kidney function tests and reducing antioxidant markers. Either Aspirin or LUT gavages alone or combined produce a significant decrease in colon polyp number and size, significantly decreasing CEA, COX-2, and oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant markers. In conclusion, the supplementations of LUT adjacent to Aspirin in the treatment of DMH-induced carcinogenesis in rats reflect a better effect than the use of Aspirin alone.

  19. Probiotic treatment reduces depressive-like behaviour in rats independently of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildgaard, Anders; Elfving, Betina; Hokland, Marianne; Wegener, Gregers; Lund, Sten

    2017-05-01

    The gut microbiota has recently emerged as an important regulator of brain physiology and behaviour in animals, and ingestion of certain bacteria (probiotics) therefore appear to be a potential treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, some conceptual and mechanistical aspects need further elucidation. We therefore aimed at investigating whether the habitual diet may interact with the effect of probiotics on depression-related behaviour and further examined some potentially involved mechanisms underlying the microbe-mediated behavioural effects. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD) for ten weeks and treated with either a multi-species probiotic formulation or vehicle for the last five weeks. Independently of diet, probiotic treatment markedly reduced depressive-like behaviour in the forced swim test by 34% (95% CI: 22-44%). Furthermore, probiotic treatment skewed the cytokine production by stimulated blood mononuclear cells towards IFNγ, IL2 and IL4 at the expense of TNFα and IL6. In addition, probiotics lowered hippocampal transcript levels of factors involved in HPA axis regulation (Crh-r1, Crh-r2 and Mr), whereas HFD increased these levels. A non-targeted plasma metabolomics analysis revealed that probiotics raised the level of indole-3-propionic acid, a potential neuroprotective agent. Our findings clearly support probiotics as a potential treatment strategy in MDD. Importantly, the efficacy was not attenuated by intake of a "Western pattern" diet associated with MDD. Mechanistically, the HPA axis, immune system and microbial tryptophan metabolism could be important in this context. Importantly, our study lend inspiration to clinical trials on probiotics in depressed patients.

  20. Altrenogest treatment during late pregnancy did not reduce colostrum yield in primiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foisnet, A; Farmer, C; David, C; Quesnel, H

    2010-05-01

    The decrease in circulating concentrations of progesterone is the lactogenic trigger in many species. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of an orally active progestogen, altrenogest, administered in late gestation, on lactogenesis in sows. Gilts were treated with altrenogest (20 mg/d) from d 109 to 112 of gestation (ALT112, n = 6) or d 113 (ALT113, n = 8) or were not treated (control, n = 9). Colostrum production, estimated from the BW gains of the piglets, was measured during 24 h starting at the onset of parturition. Colostrum samples were collected at the onset of parturition until 48 h later. Jugular blood samples were taken from d -8 prepartum until d 3 postpartum. Altrenogest treatment extended the gestation length of ALT113 sows in comparison with control sows (116.3 vs. 114.7 d; P birth did not differ between groups (P > 0.1). Estimated colostrum yield was not reduced in altrenogest-treated sows compared with control sows (4.20 kg) and tended to be greater in ALT112 (4.73 kg) than in ALT113 sows (3.74 kg; P = 0.09). Altrenogest reduced endogenous progesterone concentrations during the 2 d prepartum in ALT113 relative to control sows (P < 0.05), likely because luteolysis occurred earlier in relation to parturition in ALT113 sows. Altrenogest reduced estradiol-17beta concentrations during the 2 d prepartum in ALT113 (P < 0.05) and ALT112 (P < 0.1) sows. Altrenogest treatment did not influence the timing of the prepartum peak of prolactin in relation to parturition. The ALT113 sows had lesser (P < 0.05) concentrations of lactose in plasma and a lesser Na:K ratio in colostrum after parturition than Control and ALT112 sows, indicating that the junctions between their mammary epithelial cells were tighter. Concentrations of colostral IgG in sows that received altrenogest tended to be less than in control sows (P = 0.08). In conclusion, altrenogest administered from d 109 to 112 or 113 of pregnancy did not affect lactogenesis in sows

  1. Treatment reduces or stabilizes brain imaging abnormalities in patients with MPS I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raymond Y; Cambray-Forker, Elizabeth Jane; Ohanian, Kirk; Karlin, David S; Covault, Kelly K; Schwartz, Philip H; Abdenur, Jose E

    2009-12-01

    utilizing serial brain MR imaging studies, and raises several important observations. Brain MRI abnormalities typically become more pronounced with age; initiation of ERT or HSCT reversed or stabilized this trend in the MPS patients studied. In addition, earlier initiation of treatment resulted in decreased severity of imaging abnormalities. Possible mechanisms for these observations include improved cerebrospinal fluid dynamics, reduced central nervous system glycosaminoglycan storage via efflux through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), repair of damaged BBB, reduction in CNS inflammation, or ERT permeability through the BBB.

  2. Development of a model to assess acoustic treatments to reduce railway noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, H.; Squicciarini, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Ryue, J.

    2016-09-01

    Porous materials have recently been used in absorptive treatments around railway tracks to reduce noise emissions. To investigate the effect of porous materials, a finite element model has been developed. 2D models for porous materials have been considered either as an equivalent fluid or as a poroelastic material based on the Biot theory. The two models have been validated and compared with each other to check the effect of the skeleton vibration. The poroelastic FE model has been coupled with a 2D acoustic boundary element model for use in railway applications. The results show that it may be necessary to include the frame vibration, especially at low frequencies where a frame resonance occurs. A method for the characterization of porous materials is also discussed. From this it is shown that the elastic properties of the material determine the resonance frequency and the magnitude.

  3. Treatment of acid mine drainage by sulfate reducing bacteria with iron in bench scale runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, He; Kang, Yong; Quan, Hongen; Han, Yang; Sun, Jiao; Feng, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In order to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) effectively using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at high concentration of sulfate and heavy metals, Fe(0) was added to enhance the activity of SRB. When AMD was treated by SRB and Fe(0) at 25 °C, more than 61% of sulfate was removed and the effluent pH was improved from 2.75 to 6.20 during the operation. Cu(2+) was removed effectively with the removal efficiency at 99%, while only 86% of Fe(2+) was removed during the AMD treatment, without conspicuous change of Mn(2+) in the effluent in the process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endometrial cancer - reduce to the minimum. A new paradigm for adjuvant treatments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheithauer Heike R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to now, the role of adjuvant radiation therapy and the extent of lymph node dissection for early stage endometrial cancer are controversial. In order to clarify the current position of the given adjuvant treatment options, a systematic review was performed. Materials and methods Both, Pubmed and ISI Web of Knowledge database were searched using the following keywords and MESH headings: "Endometrial cancer", "Endometrial Neoplasms", "Endometrial Neoplasms/radiotherapy", "External beam radiation therapy", "Brachytherapy" and adequate combinations. Conclusion Recent data from randomized trials indicate that external beam radiation therapy - particularly in combination with extended lymph node dissection - or radical lymph node dissection increases toxicity without any improvement of overall survival rates. Thus, reduced surgical aggressiveness and limitation of radiotherapy to vaginal-vault-brachytherapy only is sufficient for most cases of early stage endometrial cancer.

  5. Endometrial cancer - reduce to the minimum. A new paradigm for adjuvant treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Up to now, the role of adjuvant radiation therapy and the extent of lymph node dissection for early stage endometrial cancer are controversial. In order to clarify the current position of the given adjuvant treatment options, a systematic review was performed. Materials and methods Both, Pubmed and ISI Web of Knowledge database were searched using the following keywords and MESH headings: "Endometrial cancer", "Endometrial Neoplasms", "Endometrial Neoplasms/radiotherapy", "External beam radiation therapy", "Brachytherapy" and adequate combinations. Conclusion Recent data from randomized trials indicate that external beam radiation therapy - particularly in combination with extended lymph node dissection - or radical lymph node dissection increases toxicity without any improvement of overall survival rates. Thus, reduced surgical aggressiveness and limitation of radiotherapy to vaginal-vault-brachytherapy only is sufficient for most cases of early stage endometrial cancer. PMID:22118369

  6. ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, Causal Agent of Citrus Huanglongbing, Is Reduced by Treatment with Brassinosteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ingrid; Portieles, Roxana; Rodríguez García, Mayra; López, Yunior; Aranguren, Miguel; Alonso, Eugenio; Delgado, Roger; Luis, Maritza; Batista, Lochy; Paredes, Camilo; Rodríguez, Meilyn; Pujol, Merardo; Ochagavia, María Elena; Falcón, Viviana; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo; Ayra-Pardo, Camilo; Llauger, Raixa; Pérez, María del Carmen; Núñez, Mirian; Borrusch, Melissa S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Silva, Yussuan; Pimentel, Eulogio; Borroto, Carlos; Borrás-Hidalgo, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) constitutes the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide, yet no established efficient management measures exist for it. Brassinosteroids, a family of plant steroidal compounds, are essential for plant growth, development and stress tolerance. As a possible control strategy for HLB, epibrassinolide was applied to as a foliar spray to citrus plants infected with the causal agent of HLB, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’. The bacterial titers were reduced after treatment with epibrassinolide under both greenhouse and field conditions but were stronger in the greenhouse. Known defense genes were induced in leaves by epibrassinolide. With the SuperSAGE technology combined with next generation sequencing, induction of genes known to be associated with defense response to bacteria and hormone transduction pathways were identified. The results demonstrate that epibrassinolide may provide a useful tool for the management of HLB. PMID:26731660

  7. 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', Causal Agent of Citrus Huanglongbing, Is Reduced by Treatment with Brassinosteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Canales

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB constitutes the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide, yet no established efficient management measures exist for it. Brassinosteroids, a family of plant steroidal compounds, are essential for plant growth, development and stress tolerance. As a possible control strategy for HLB, epibrassinolide was applied to as a foliar spray to citrus plants infected with the causal agent of HLB, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. The bacterial titers were reduced after treatment with epibrassinolide under both greenhouse and field conditions but were stronger in the greenhouse. Known defense genes were induced in leaves by epibrassinolide. With the SuperSAGE technology combined with next generation sequencing, induction of genes known to be associated with defense response to bacteria and hormone transduction pathways were identified. The results demonstrate that epibrassinolide may provide a useful tool for the management of HLB.

  8. 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', Causal Agent of Citrus Huanglongbing, Is Reduced by Treatment with Brassinosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Eduardo; Coll, Yamilet; Hernández, Ingrid; Portieles, Roxana; Rodríguez García, Mayra; López, Yunior; Aranguren, Miguel; Alonso, Eugenio; Delgado, Roger; Luis, Maritza; Batista, Lochy; Paredes, Camilo; Rodríguez, Meilyn; Pujol, Merardo; Ochagavia, María Elena; Falcón, Viviana; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo; Ayra-Pardo, Camilo; Llauger, Raixa; Pérez, María del Carmen; Núñez, Mirian; Borrusch, Melissa S; Walton, Jonathan D; Silva, Yussuan; Pimentel, Eulogio; Borroto, Carlos; Borrás-Hidalgo, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) constitutes the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide, yet no established efficient management measures exist for it. Brassinosteroids, a family of plant steroidal compounds, are essential for plant growth, development and stress tolerance. As a possible control strategy for HLB, epibrassinolide was applied to as a foliar spray to citrus plants infected with the causal agent of HLB, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. The bacterial titers were reduced after treatment with epibrassinolide under both greenhouse and field conditions but were stronger in the greenhouse. Known defense genes were induced in leaves by epibrassinolide. With the SuperSAGE technology combined with next generation sequencing, induction of genes known to be associated with defense response to bacteria and hormone transduction pathways were identified. The results demonstrate that epibrassinolide may provide a useful tool for the management of HLB.

  9. Reduced serum dipeptidyl peptidase-IV after metformin and pioglitazone treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, James M; Croom, Dallas K; Minnick, Dana T

    2004-11-05

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) regulates metabolism by degrading incretins involved in nutritional regulation. Metformin and pioglitazone improve insulin sensitivity whereas glyburide promotes insulin secretion. Zucker diabetic rats were treated with these antidiabetic agents for 2 weeks and DPP-IV activity and expression were determined. Serum DPP-IV activity increased whereas tissue activity decreased as the rats aged. Treatment of rats with metformin, pioglitazone, and glyburide did not alter DPP-IV mRNA expression in liver or kidney. Metformin and pioglitazone significantly (PMetformin, pioglitazone, and glyburide had no effect on serum DPP-IV activity in vitro, indicating these are not competitive DPP-IV inhibitors. We propose the in vivo inhibitory effects observed with metformin and pioglitazone on serum DPP-IV activity results from reduced DPP-IV secretion.

  10. Reduced cortical bone compositional heterogeneity with bisphosphonate treatment in postmenopausal women with intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Eve; Meredith, Dennis S; Nguyen, Joseph T; Gladnick, Brian P; Rebolledo, Brian J; Shaffer, Andre D; Lorich, Dean G; Lane, Joseph M; Boskey, Adele L

    2012-03-01

    Reduction of bone turnover with bisphosphonate treatment alters bone mineral and matrix properties. Our objective was to investigate the effect of bisphosphonate treatment on bone tissue properties near fragility fracture sites in the proximal femur in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The mineral and collagen properties of corticocancellous biopsies from the proximal femur were compared in bisphosphonate-naive (-BIS, n = 20) and bisphosphonate-treated (+BIS, n = 20, duration 7 ± 5 years) patients with intertrochanteric (IT) and subtrochanteric (ST) fractures using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). The mean values of the FTIRI parameter distributions were similar across groups, but the widths of the parameter distributions tended to be reduced in the +BIS group relative to the -BIS group. Specifically, the widths of the cortical collagen maturity and crystallinity were reduced in the +BIS group relative to those of the -BIS group by 28% (+BIS 0.45 ± 0.18 versus -BIS 0.63 ± 0.28, p = 0.03) and 17% (+BIS 0.087 ± 0.012 versus -BIS 0.104 ± 0.036, p = 0.05), respectively. When the tissue properties were examined as a function of fracture morphology within the +BIS group, the FTIR parameters were generally similar regardless of fracture morphology. However, the cortical mineral:matrix ratio was 8% greater in tissue from patients with atypical ST fractures (n = 6) than that of patients with typical (IT or spiral ST) fractures (n = 14) (Atypical 5.6 ± 0.3 versus Typical 5.2 ± 0.5, p = 0.03). Thus, although the mean values of the FTIR properties were similar in both groups, the tissue in bisphosphonate-treated patients had a more uniform composition than that of bisphosphonate-naive patients. The observed reductions in mineral and matrix heterogeneity may diminish tissue-level toughening mechanisms.

  11. Lacosamide reduces HDAC levels in the brain and improves memory: Potential for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Shraddha R; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Jagdale, Priti G; Adkar, Prafulla P; Waghmare, Arun B; Ambavade, Prashant D

    2015-07-01

    Lacosamide, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of epilepsy. Some HDAC inhibitors have been proven effective for the treatment of memory disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of lacosamide on memory and brain HDAC levels. The effect on memory was evaluated in animals with scopolamine-induced amnesia using the elevated plus maze, object recognition test, and radial arm maze. The levels of acetylcholinesterase and HDAC in the cerebral cortex were evaluated. Lacosamide at doses of 10 and 30mg/kg significantly reduced the transfer latency in the elevated plus maze. Lacosamide at a dose of 30mg/kg significantly increased the time spent with a familiar object in the object recognition test at the 24h interval and decreased the time spent in the baited arm. Moreover, at this dose, the number of errors in the radial arm maze at 3 and 24h intervals was minimized and a reduction in the level of HDAC1, but not acetylcholinesterase, was observed in the cerebral cortex. These effects of lacosamide are equivalent to those of piracetam at a dose of 300mg/kg. These results suggest that lacosamide at a 30mg/kg dose improves disrupted memory, possibly by inhibiting HDAC, and could be used to treat amnesic symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Enhanced steroid dosing reduces seizures during antiparasitic treatment for cysticercosis and early after

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzales, Isidro; Lescano, Andres G.; Bustos, Javier A.; Pretell, E. Javier; Saavedra, Herbert; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Neurocysticercosis is a major cause of seizures and epilepsy in endemic countries. Antiparasitic treatment of brain cysts leads to seizures due to the host’s inflammatory reaction, requiring concomitant steroids. We hypothesized that increased steroid dosing will reduce treatment-associated seizures. Methods Open-label randomized trial comparing 6 mg/d dexamethasone for 10 days (conventional) with 8 mg/d for 28 days followed by a 2 week taper (enhanced) in neurocysticercosis patients receiving albendazole. Follow up included active seizure surveillance and brain imaging. Study outcomes were seizure days and patients with seizures, both measured in days 11-42. Additional analyses compared days 1-10, 11-21, 22-32, 33-42, 43-60, and 61-180. Results Thirty-two individuals were randomized into each arm, two did not complete follow up. From days 11 to 42, 59 partial and 6 generalized seizure days occurred in 20 individuals, non-significantly fewer in the enhanced arm (12 versus 49, p=0.114). The numbers of patients with seizures in this period showed similar non-significant differences. In the enhanced steroid arm there were significantly fewer days and individuals with seizures during antiparasitic treatment (days 1-10: 4 versus 17, p=0.004, and 1 versus 10, p=0.003, number needed to treat 4.6, relative risk 0.1013, 95%CI: 0.01 – 0.74) and early after dexamethasone cessation (days 11-21: 6 versus 27, p=0.014, and 4 versus 12, p=0.021, NNT 4.0, RR 0.33, 95%CI: 0.12 – 0.92) but not after day 21. There were no significant differences in antiparasitic efficacy or relevant adverse events. Significance Increased dexamethasone dosing results in fewer seizures for the first 21 days during and early after antiparasitic treatment for viable parenchymal neurocysticercosis but not during the first 11-42 days, which was the primary predetermined time of analysis. PMID:25092547

  13. Evaluating proton stereotactic body radiotherapy to reduce chest wall dose in the treatment of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Amini, Arya [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); UC Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA (United States); Ciura, Katherine; Nguyen, Ngoc; Palmer, Matt [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Soh, Hendrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Paolini, Michael; Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bluett, Jaques; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) can produce excellent local control of several types of solid tumor; however, toxicity to nearby critical structures is a concern. We found previously that in SBRT for lung cancer, the chest wall (CW) volume receiving 20, 30, or 40 Gy (V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, or V{sub 40}) was linked with the development of neuropathy. Here we sought to determine whether the dosimetric advantages of protons could produce lower CW doses than traditional photon-based SBRT. We searched an institutional database to identify patients treated with photon SBRT for lung cancer with tumors within < 2.5 cm of the CW. We found 260 cases; of these, chronic grade ≥ 2 CW pain was identified in 23 patients. We then selected 10 representative patients from this group and generated proton SBRT treatment plans, using the identical dose of 50 Gy in 4 fractions, and assessed potential differences in CW dose between the 2 plans. The proton SBRT plans reduced the CW doses at all dose levels measured. The median CW V{sub 20} was 364.0 cm{sup 3} and 160.0 cm{sup 3} (p < 0.0001), V{sub 30} was 144.6 cm{sup 3}vs 77.0 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.0012), V{sub 35} was 93.9 cm{sup 3}vs 57.9 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.005), V{sub 40} was 66.5 cm{sup 3}vs 45.4 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.0112), and mean lung dose was 5.9 Gy vs 3.8 Gy (p = 0.0001) for photons and protons, respectively. Coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) was comparable between the 2 sets of plans (96.4% for photons and 97% for protons). From a dosimetric standpoint, proton SBRT can achieve the same coverage of the PTV while significantly reducing the dose to the CW and lung relative to photon SBRT and therefore may be beneficial for the treatment of lesions closer to critical structures.

  14. Reducing bacterial contamination in fuel ethanol fermentations by ozone treatment of uncooked corn mash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary L; Koziel, Jacek A; Jane, Jay-lin; Pometto, Anthony L

    2015-06-03

    Ozonation of uncooked corn mash from the POET BPX process was investigated as a potential disinfection method for reducing bacterial contamination prior to ethanol fermentation. Corn mash (200 g) was prepared from POET ground corn and POET corn slurry and was ozonated in 250 mL polypropylene bottles. Lactic and acetic acid levels were monitored daily during the fermentation of ozonated, aerated, and nontreated corn mash samples to evaluate bacterial activity. Glycerol and ethanol contents of fermentation samples were checked daily to assess yeast activity. No yeast supplementation, no addition of other antimicrobial agents (such as antibiotics), and spiking with a common lactic acid bacterium found in corn ethanol plants, Lactobacillus plantarum, amplified the treatment effects. The laboratory-scale ozone dosages ranged from 26-188 mg/L, with very low estimated costs of $0.0008-0.006/gal ($0.21-1.6/m(3)) of ethanol. Ozonation was found to decrease the initial pH of ground corn mash samples, which could reduce the sulfuric acid required to adjust the pH prior to ethanol fermentation. Lactic and acetic acid levels tended to be lower for samples subjected to increasing ozone dosages, indicating less bacterial activity. The lower ozone dosages in the range applied achieved higher ethanol yields. Preliminary experiments on ozonating POET corn slurry at low ozone dosages were not as effective as using POET ground corn, possibly because corn slurry samples contained recycled antimicrobials from the backset. The data suggest additional dissolved and suspended organic materials from the backset consumed the ozone or shielded the bacteria.

  15. Shortening delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing proton energy layers during treatment plan optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van de Water (Steven); H.M. Kooy; B.J.M. Heijmen (Ben); M.S. Hoogeman (Mischa)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose To shorten delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing the number of energy layers in the treatment plan. Methods and Materials We have developed an energy layer reduction method, which was implemented into our in-house-developed multicriteria treatment

  16. Shortening delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing proton energy layers during treatment plan optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van de Water (Steven); H.M. Kooy; B.J.M. Heijmen (Ben); M.S. Hoogeman (Mischa)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose To shorten delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing the number of energy layers in the treatment plan. Methods and Materials We have developed an energy layer reduction method, which was implemented into our in-house-developed multicriteria treatment plann

  17. Long-term treatment with cinacalcet and conventional therapy reduces parathyroid hyperplasia in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Mario; Petrucci, Ilaria; Barsotti, Giuliano

    2009-01-01

    Background. The effect of cinacalcet on the structural pattern of hyperplastic parathyroid glands was evaluated, using high-resolution colour Doppler (CD) sonography, in haemodialysis patients with severe, inadequately controlled, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT). Methods. Nine patients (6 males, 3 females; mean age ± SD, 55.5 ± 12.6 years) received cinacalcet, with adaptation of existing concomitant therapies. Biochemical parameters and the morphology and vascular pattern of hyperplastic parathyroid glands were measured at baseline and every 6 months thereafter, for a follow-up period of 24–30 months. Results. At baseline, 28 hyperplastic glands were identified. Cinacalcet led to a reduction in glandular volume during the course of the study: 68% in glands with a baseline volume <500 mm3 and 54% in glands with a baseline volume ≥500 mm3. The mean volume ± SD of glands <500 mm3 changed significantly from the baseline (233 ± 115 mm3) to the end of follow-up (102 ± 132 mm3, P = 0.007). Levels of mean serum phosphorus, calcium and calcium–phosphorus product decreased, but not significantly, whereas there were significant decreases in mean parathyroid hormone ± SD levels (1196 ± 381 pg/ml versus 256 ± 160 pg/ml; P < 0.0001) and alkaline phosphatase ± SD levels (428 ± 294 versus 223 ± 88 IU/l; P = 0.04), accompanied by an improvement in a subjective clinical score. Conclusions. Cinacalcet, in combination with conventional treatments, led to an improvement in biochemical and clinical parameters of sHPT and reduced glandular volume in patients with severe sHPT. Volume reduction was more evident in smaller glands. Longer term, larger, randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings and to further define a more systematic approach in the treatment of sHPT. PMID:19181759

  18. The Synthesis of [gamma]-Aminobutyric Acid in Response to Treatments Reducing Cytosolic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, L. A.; Bown, A. W.; Breitkreuz, K. E.; Guinel, F. C.

    1994-03-01

    [gamma]-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis (L-glutamic acid + H+ -> GABA + CO2) is rapidly stimulated by a variety of stress conditions including hypoxia. Recent literature suggests that GABA production and concomitant H+ consumption ameliorates the cytosolic acidification associated with hypoxia or other stresses. This proposal was investigated using isolated asparagus (Asparagus sprengeri Regel) mesophyll cells. Cell acidification was promoted using hypoxia, H+/L-glutamic acid symport, and addition of butyrate or other permeant weak acids. Sixty minutes of all three treatments stimulated the levels of both intracellular and extracellular GABA by values ranging from 100 to 1800%. At an external pH of 5.0, addition of 5 mM butyrate stimulated an increase in overall GABA level from 3.86 (0.56 [plus or minus] SE) to 20.4 (2.16 [plus or minus] SE) nmol of GABA/106 cell. Butyrate stimulated GABA levels by 200 to 300% within 15 s, and extracellular GABA was observed after 10 min. The acid load due to butyrate addition was assayed by measuring [14C]butyrate uptake. After 45 s of butyrate treatment, H+-consuming GABA production accounted for 45% of the imposed acid load. The cytosolic location of a fluorescent pH probe was confirmed using fluorescent microscopy. Spectrofluorimetry indicated that butyrate addition reduced cytosolic pH by 0.60 units with a half-time of approximately 2 s. The proposal that GABA synthesis ameliorates cytosolic acidification is supported by the data. The possible roles of H+ and Ca2+ in stimulating GABA synthesis are discussed.

  19. Treatment with a low pH processing aid to reduce Campylobacter counts on broiler parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, M A; Cox, N A; Cosby, D E; Berrang, M E; Russell, S M

    2017-04-01

    New regulations and performance standards for Campylobacter have been implemented by the USDA - Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment with a low pH processing aid (CMS1 PoultrypHresh), a formulated low pH processing aid, to reduce numbers of Campylobacter which could help companies meet regulatory requirements. Two experiments (3 replicates each) were conducted. Experiment 1, in each of 3 replicates, skin-on split chicken breasts (n = 15) were obtained from a local grocery and divided into groups of 5. The skin of each part was inoculated with approximately 107 cells of a gentamicin resistant C. coli (CCGR) marker strain in an area of approximately 6.5 cm2. CCGR cells were allowed to attach for 5 min prior to treatment. Ten inoculated breasts were individually placed into separate 6 L plastic storage boxes containing either 3.5 L deionized water or PoultrypHresh solution at a pH of 1.4. Parts were subjected to agitation (bubbled air) for 25 s. After treatment, each part was removed, allowed to drain for 5 s, and placed into a plastic bag prior to mechanical rinsing with 150 mL of buffered peptone water for 60 s. Five inoculated breasts served as controls, were untreated with a dip or agitation and sampled as above. Experiment 2 procedures were repeated using skin-on thighs under the same conditions. Rinsates were collected from each chicken part, serially diluted, and plated onto Campy Cefex agar with 200 ppm gentamicin (CCGen). All plates were incubated microaerobically (5% O2, 10% CO2, 85% N2) for 48 h at 42°C, colonies were counted and the cfu/mL was log transformed. The use of PoultrypHresh on split breast produced a 99.6% reduction compared to untreated controls, while thighs showed a 99.4% reduction. This study demonstrated an approximate 3 log reduction (P Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction.

  1. The role of wastewater treatment in reducing pollution of surface waters with zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromadzka, Karolina; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Świetlik, Joanna; Bocianowski, Jan; Goliński, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species in food and feed. The toxicity of ZEA and its metabolites is related to the chemical structure of the mycotoxin, which is similar to naturally occurring oestrogens. Currently, there is increasing awareness of the presence of fungi and their toxic metabolites in the aquatic environment. One of the sources of these compounds are the effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The average annual efficiency of zearalenone reduction in the Łęczyca plant in our three-year study was in the range from 51.35 to 69.70 %. The threeway analysis of variance (year, month, and kind of wastewater) shows that the main effects of all factors and all interactions between them were significant for zearalenone and dissolved organic carbon content. Our findings suggest that wastewater is not the main source of surface water pollution with zearalenone. Future research should investigate the means to reduce ZEA and its migration from the fields through prevention strategies such as breeding for crops, plant debris management (crop rotation, tillage), and/or chemical and biological control.

  2. Successful treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia with favorable cytogenetics by reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Arita, Kotaro; Sugita, Jun-Ichi; Shigematsu, Akio; Okada, Kohei; Takahata, Mutsumi; Onozawa, Masahiro; Kahata, Kaoru; Takeda, Yukari; Obara, Masato; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Endo, Tomoyuki; Nishio, Mitsufumi; Sato, Norihiro; Tanaka, Junji; Hashino, Satoshi; Koike, Takao; Asaka, Masahiro; Imamura, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with favorable cytogenetics responds well to chemotherapy. If the leukemia relapses, allogenic hematopoietic stem transplantation (allo-HSCT) is considered as a treatment option. Since the efficacy of reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST) for AML with favorable cytogenetics has not been established, we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of allo-HSCT in AML patients according to cytogenetic risks. The outcome of allo-HSCT for AML patients with favorable cytogenetics seemed to be superior to that for AML patients with intermediate cytogenetics. In AML patients with favorable cytogenetics, the 3-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) rates were 88 and 76%, respectively, in the RIST group. Both the 3-year OS and RFS rates were 81% in the conventional stem cell transplantation (CST) group. The outcome of RIST for AML patients with favorable cytogenetics was comparable to that for patients who received CST despite the more advanced age and greater organ dysfunction in RIST group than in CST group. None of the patients died within 90 days after RIST. Moreover, there was no relapse in patients with favorable cytogenetics who were in hematological remission prior to RIST. Thus, RIST for AML patients with favorable cytogenetics in remission is safe and effective.

  3. Strategies for Reducing the Start-up Operation of Microbial Electrochemical Treatments of Urban Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Borjas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs constitute the core of a number of emerging technologies with a high potential for treating urban wastewater due to a fascinating reaction mechanism—the electron transfer between bacteria and electrodes to transform metabolism into electrical current. In the current work, we focus on the model electroactive microorganism Geobacter sulfurreducens to explore both the design of new start-up procedures and electrochemical operations. Our chemostat-grown plug and play cells, were able to reduce the start-up period by 20-fold while enhancing chemical oxygen demand (COD removal by more than 6-fold during this period. Moreover, a filter-press based bioreactor was successfully tested for both acetate-supplemented synthetic wastewater and real urban wastewater. This proof-of-concept pre-pilot treatment included a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC followed in time by a microbial fuel cell (MFC to finally generate electrical current of ca. 20 A·m−2 with a power of 10 W·m−2 while removing 42 g COD day−1·m−2. The effective removal of acetate suggests a potential use of this modular technology for treating acetogenic wastewater where Geobacter sulfurreducens outcompetes other organisms.

  4. The ARBITER 6-HALTS Trial (Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis): final results and the impact of medication adherence, dose, and treatment duration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villines, Todd C; Stanek, Eric J; Devine, Patrick J; Turco, Mark; Miller, Michael; Weissman, Neil J; Griffen, Len; Taylor, Allen J

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the final results of the ARBITER 6-HALTS (Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis) trial...

  5. [Cancer treatment in Skane and in Sjaelland. Do differences concerning examination and treatment explain reduced survival among Danish cancer patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Landberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    if differences in the diagnostic workup and treatment can explain some of this variation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aspects of the diagnostic workup and treatment of the above mentioned four cancer types are examined using data from cancer registry analyses and official reports. These data are seen in the context...... of counts of trained personnel and equipment in cancer diagnostics and treatment in the two countries. RESULTS: With regard to lung and breast cancer, the data seem to indicate that Danish patients are diagnosed later, and that Denmark lags behind in treatment capacity. With regard to rectal cancer......, the data seem to indicate that concentrating operations in fewer hospitals, and improvements in operation technique have been introduced earlier in Sweden than in Denmark. With regard to prostate cancer, however, the data seem to indicate that many more indolent cases that do not need treatment...

  6. The Treatment Train approach to reducing non-point source pollution from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, N.; Reaney, S. M.; Barker, P. A.; Benskin, C.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Haygarth, P.; Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Surridge, B.; Quinn, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    An experimental approach has been applied to an agricultural catchment in NW England, where non-point pollution adversely affects freshwater ecology. The aim of the work (as part of the River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment project) is to develop techniques to manage agricultural runoff whilst maintaining food production. The approach used is the Treatment Train (TT), which applies multiple connected mitigation options that control nutrient and fine sediment pollution at source, and address polluted runoff pathways at increasing spatial scale. The principal agricultural practices in the study sub-catchment (1.5 km2) are dairy and stock production. Farm yards can act as significant pollution sources by housing large numbers of animals; these areas are addressed initially with infrastructure improvements e.g. clean/dirty water separation and upgraded waste storage. In-stream high resolution monitoring of hydrology and water quality parameters showed high-discharge events to account for the majority of pollutant exports ( 80% total phosphorus; 95% fine sediment), and primary transfer routes to be surface and shallow sub-surface flow pathways, including drains. To manage these pathways and reduce hydrological connectivity, a series of mitigation features were constructed to intercept and temporarily store runoff. Farm tracks, field drains, first order ditches and overland flow pathways were all targeted. The efficacy of the mitigation features has been monitored at event and annual scale, using inflow-outflow sampling and sediment/nutrient accumulation measurements, respectively. Data presented here show varied but positive results in terms of reducing acute and chronic sediment and nutrient losses. An aerial fly-through of the catchment is used to demonstrate how the TT has been applied to a fully-functioning agricultural landscape. The elevated perspective provides a better understanding of the spatial arrangement of mitigation features, and how they can be

  7. Bevacizumab treatment reduces retinal neovascularization in a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; Feng; Yan; Cheng; Qing-Huai; Liu

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To evaluate the effect of different bevacizumab concentrations on retinal neovascularization in a retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) mouse model.·METHODS: A total of 60 of C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to 75% ±2% oxygen from postnatal d7 to postnatal d12. Fifteen nonexposed mice served as negative controls(group A). On d12, 30 mice(group C)were injected with 2.5 μg intravitreal bevacizumab(IVB),30 mice(group D) were injected with 1.25 μg IVB in one eye. The contralateral eyes were injected with balanced salt solution(BSS)(control group =group B). The adenosine diphosphatase(ADPase) histochemical technique was used for retinal flat mount to assess the oxygen-induced changes of retinal vessels.Neovascularization was quantified by counting the endothelial cell proliferation on the vitreal side of the inner limiting membrane of the retina. Histological changes were examined by light microscopy. The mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) were quantified by Real-time PCR. Western-blotting analysis was performed to examine the expression of P-VEGFR.· RESULTS: Comparing with the control group B,regular distributions and reduced tortuosity of vessels were observed in our retinal flat mounts in groups C and D. The endothelial cell count per histological section was lower in groups C(P <0.0001) and D(P <0.0001) compared with the control group B. Histological evaluation showed no retinal toxicity in any group. In all oxygen treated groups VEGF mRNA expression was significantly increased as compared to age-matched controls. No significant change in VEGF mRNA expression could be achieved in either of the treatments or the oxygen controls. The results of the Western blot were consistent with that of the Real-time PCR analysis.·CONCLUSION: An intravitreal injection of bevacizumab is able to reduce angioproliferative retinopathy in a mouse model for oxygen-induced retinopathy.

  8. Dextromethorphan interactions with histaminergic and serotonergic treatments to reduce nicotine self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Scott A; Hall, Brandon J; Wells, Corinne; Slade, Susan; Jaskowski, Paul; Morrison, Margaret; Rezvani, Amir H; Rose, Jed E; Levin, Edward D

    2016-03-01

    Combining effective treatments with diverse mechanisms of action for smoking cessation may provide better therapy by targeting multiple points of control in the neural circuits underlying addiction. Previous research in a rat model has shown that dextromethorphan, which has α3β4 nicotinic and NMDA glutamatergic antagonist actions, significantly decreases nicotine self-administration. We have found in the rat model that the H1 histamine antagonist pyrilamine and the serotonin 5HT2C agonist lorcaserin also significantly reduce nicotine self-administration. The current studies were conducted to determine the interactive effects of dextromethorphan with pyrilamine and lorcaserin on nicotine self-administration in rats. Young adult female rats were fitted with jugular IV catheters and trained to self-administer a nicotine infusion dose of 0.03-mg/kg/infusion. In an initial dose-effect function study of dextromethorphan, we found a monotonic decrease in nicotine self-administration over a dose range of 1 to 30-mg/kg with the lowest effective dose of 3-mg/kg. Then, with two separate cohorts of rats, dextromethorphan (0, 3.3, and 10-mg/kg) interactions with pyrilamine (0, 4.43, and 13.3-mg/kg) were investigated as well as interactions with lorcaserin (0, 0.3125 and 0.625-mg/kg). In the pyrilamine-dextromethorphan interaction study, an acute dose of pyrilamine (13.3-mg/kg) as well as an acute dose of dextromethorphan caused a significant decrease in nicotine self-administration. There were mutually augmenting effects of these two drugs. The combination of dextromethorphan (10-mg/kg) and pyrilamine (13.3-mg/kg) significantly lowered nicotine self-administration relative to either 10-mg/kg of dextromethorphan alone (p<0.05) or 13.3-mg/kg of pyrilamine alone (p<0.0005). In the lorcaserin-dextromethorphan study, an acute dose of lorcaserin (0.312-mg/kg) as well as an acute dose of dextromethorphan (10-mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in nicotine self

  9. Use of sulfate reducing cell suspension bioreactors for the treatment of SO2 rich flue gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Gastesi, R.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel bioscrubber concept for biological flue gas desulfurization, based on the recycling of a cell suspension of sulfite/sulfate reducing bacteria between a scrubber and a sulfite/sulfate reducing hydrogen fed bioreactor. Hydrogen metabolism in sulfite/sulfate reducing cell

  10. Use of sulfate reducing cell suspension bioreactors for the treatment of SO2 rich flue gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Gastesi, R.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel bioscrubber concept for biological flue gas desulfurization, based on the recycling of a cell suspension of sulfite/sulfate reducing bacteria between a scrubber and a sulfite/sulfate reducing hydrogen fed bioreactor. Hydrogen metabolism in sulfite/sulfate reducing cell s

  11. Nondermal irritating hyperosmotic nanoemulsions reduce treatment times in a contamination model of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Sean; Li, Jianming; Durkes, Abigail; Zaroura, Mohammed; Shi, Riyi

    2016-07-01

    Increased microbial burden within the wound often complicates wound healing and may lead to subsequent infection or delayed healing. Here, we investigate a novel topical for addressing wound contamination that utilizes hyperosmotic saccharides with a cell membrane disrupting emulsion. These hyperosmotic nanoemulsions (HNE) were administered topically in a full-thickness biopsy model of wound healing. Results show that HNE were well tolerated in noninfected animals with no indications of dermal irritation or acute toxicity. Additionally, HNE was able to reduce bacterial bioburden (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) levels by 3 logs within 24 h when wounds were inoculated with 5 × 10(6) total CFU. These bactericidal values were similar to wounds treated with silver sulfadiazine. Wound closure showed HNE wounds closed in 7.6 ± 0.2 days while SSD and control required 10.2 ± 0.4 and 10.4 ± 0.3 days, respectively. HNE maintained a moist wound environment, were well debrided, and exhibited improved hemostatic response. Further histological examination revealed enhanced granulation tissue as compared to silver sulfadiazine and control cohorts. These results were corroborated with 3D topographical imprints of the wounds at day 14 which qualitatively showed a smoother surface. In contrast, silver sulfadiazine appeared to delay wound closure. Finally, dermal sensitization and irritation studies conducted in guinea pig and rabbits did not reveal any acute dermal side effects from HNE exposure. The cumulative data indicates nonantibiotic-based HNEs may be a promising topical treatment for the management of contaminated wounds.

  12. Antibiotic treatment of the tick vector Amblyomma americanum reduced reproductive fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Zhong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lone star tick Amblyomma americanum is a common pest and vector of infectious diseases for humans and other mammals in the southern and eastern United States. A Coxiella sp. bacterial endosymbiont was highly prevalent in both laboratory-reared and field-collected A. americanum. The Coxiella sp. was demonstrated in all stages of tick and in greatest densities in nymphs and adult females, while a Rickettsia sp. was less prevalent and in lower densities when present. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We manipulated the numbers of both bacterial species in laboratory-reared A. americanum by injecting engorged nymphs or engorged, mated females with single doses of an antibiotic (rifampin or tetracycline or buffer alone. Burdens of the bacteria after molting or after oviposition were estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction with primers and probes specific for each bacterial species or, as an internal standard, the host tick. Post-molt adult ticks that had been treated with rifampin or tetracycline had lower numbers of the Coxiella sp. and Rickettsia sp. and generally weighed less than ticks that received buffer alone. Similarly, after oviposition, females treated previously with either antibiotic had lower burdens of both bacterial species in comparison to controls. Treatment of engorged females with either antibiotic was associated with prolonged time to oviposition, lower proportions of ticks that hatched, lower proportions of viable larvae among total larvae, and lower numbers of viable larvae per tick. These fitness estimators were associated with reduced numbers of the Coxiella sp. but not the Rickettsia sp. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings indicate that the Coxiella sp. is a primary endosymbiont, perhaps provisioning the obligately hematophagous parasites with essential nutrients. The results also suggest that antibiotics could be incorporated into an integrated pest management plan for control of these and other

  13. Antiretroviral treatment effect on immune activation reduces cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Elizabeth; Ronquillo, Rollie; Lollo, Nicole; Deeks, Steven G; Hunt, Peter; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Spudich, Serena; Price, Richard W

    2008-04-15

    To define the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on activation of T cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood, and interactions of this activation with CSF HIV-1 RNA concentrations. Cross-sectional analysis of 14 HIV-negative subjects and 123 neuroasymptomatic HIV-1-infected subjects divided into 3 groups: not on ART (termed "offs"), on ART with plasma HIV-1 RNA >500 copies/mL ("failures"), and on ART with plasma HIV-1 RNA reduced in failures compared to offs across the range of plasma HIV-1, it maintained a coincident relation to CSF HIV-1 in both viremic groups. In addition to correlation with CSF HIV-1 concentrations, CD8 activation in blood and CSF correlated with CSF WBCs and CSF neopterin. Multivariate analysis confirmed the association of blood CD8 T-cell activation, along with plasma HIV-1 RNA and CSF neopterin, with CSF HIV-1 RNA levels. The similarity of CD8 T-cell activation in blood and CSF suggests these cells move from blood to CSF with only minor changes in CD38/HLA-DR expression. Differences in the relation of CD8 activation to HIV-1 concentrations in the blood and CSF in the 2 viremic groups suggest that changes in immune activation not only modulate CSF HIV-1 replication but also contribute to CSF treatment effects. The magnitude of systemic HIV-1 infection and intrathecal macrophage activation are also important determinants of CSF HIV-1 RNA levels.

  14. Hepatic AQP9 expression in male rats is reduced in response to PPARα agonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeck, Janne; Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Skowronski, Mariusz T; Nielsen, Søren; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2015-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator receptor α (PPARα) is a key regulator of the hepatic response to fasting with effects on both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. A role in hepatic glycerol metabolism has also been found; however, the results are somewhat contradictive. Aquaporin 9 (AQP9) is a pore-forming transmembrane protein that facilitates hepatic uptake of glycerol. Its expression is inversely regulated by insulin in male rodents, with increased expression during fasting. Previous results indicate that PPARα plays a crucial role in the induction of AQP9 mRNA during fasting. In the present study, we use PPARα agonists to explore the effect of PPARα activation on hepatic AQP9 expression and on the abundance of enzymes involved in glycerol metabolism using both in vivo and in vitro systems. In male rats with free access to food, treatment with the PPARα agonist WY 14643 (3 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) caused a 50% reduction in hepatic AQP9 abundance with the effect being restricted to AQP9 expressed in periportal hepatocytes. The pharmacological activation of PPARα had no effect on the abundance of GlyK, whereas it caused an increased expression of hepatic GPD1, GPAT1, and L-FABP protein. In WIF-B9 and HepG2 hepatocytes, both WY 14643 and another PPARα agonist GW 7647 reduced the abundance of AQP9 protein. In conclusion, pharmacological PPARα activation results in a marked reduction in the abundance of AQP9 in periportal hepatocytes. Together with the effect on the enzymatic apparatus for glycerol metabolism, our results suggest that PPARα activation in the fed state directs glycerol into glycerolipid synthesis rather than into de novo synthesis of glucose. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Reducing microplastics from facial exfoliating cleansers in wastewater through treatment versus consumer product decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Microplastics (microplastics entering a wastewater stream. Through inquiry, I learned the practices of two local wastewater treatment facilities. My findings show that consumer decisions and treatment protocols both play crucial parts in minimizing microplastic pollution.

  16. Self-administered behavior modification to reduce nail biting: incorporating simple technology to ensure treatment integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Habitual behaviors, such as problematic nail biting, are a common target for self-managed behavior-modification programs. The current self-experiment used self-monitoring in conjunction with a self-managed differential-reinforcement procedure for the treatment of problematic nail biting. A simple picture-comparison procedure allowed an independent observer to assist in monitoring treatment progress and outcomes and to ensure treatment integrity. Results provide support that the overall treatment package was successful in decreasing the occurrence of nail biting. Moreover, the treatment-integrity procedure enabled full-day monitoring to take place with limited requirement of a secondary observer.

  17. Disability, anxiety and depression associated with medication-overuse headache can be considerably reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, L; Munksgaard, Sb; Tassorelli, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate whether headache-related disability, depression and anxiety can be reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment in patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH). METHODS: Patients with MOH were included from six centres in Europe...... and Latin America in a seven-month cohort study. Before and six months after treatment, the degree of disability was measured by the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire, while anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: A total of 694...... to 96 and number of those with anxiety was reduced by 27.1% from 284 to 207 (both P anxiety were considerably reduced in patients with MOH by detoxification and prophylactic treatment. This emphasises the urgent need for increased awareness about...

  18. Efficacy of acidified sodium chlorite treatments in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Bari, Md Latiful; Kawasaki, Susumu; Isshiki, Kenji; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2005-02-01

    Efficacy of acidified sodium chlorite for reducing the population of Escherichia coli O157:H7 pathogens on Chinese cabbage leaves was evaluated. Washing leaves with distilled water could reduce the population of E. coli O157:H7 by approximately 1.0 log CFU/g, whereas treating with acidified chlorite solution could reduce the population by 3.0 log CFU/g without changing the leaf color. A similar level of reduction was achieved by washing with sodium chlorite solution containing various organic acids. However, acidified sodium chlorite in combination with a mild heat treatment reduced the population by approximately 4.0 log CFU/g without affecting the color, but it softened the leaves. Moreover, the efficacy of the washing treatment was similar at low (4 degrees C) and room (25 degrees C) temperatures, indicating that acidified sodium chloride solution could be useful as a sanitizer for surface washing of fresh produce.

  19. Studies Regarding the Set of Actions Needed for Fitosanitary Treatment in Order to Reduce the Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOLNAR A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In general the main objective of phytosanitary treatment is to be at high qualitative level, in high securityconditions and with low environmental impact. From this point of view there are some conditions, which must beaccomplished by the employees and by the agricultural sprayer machineries. This paper studies the order of actionsneeded for phytosanitary treatment of agricultural crops in order to reduce the environment pollution, to assure the foodsecurity and employees’ security.

  20. Estimating Woody Biomass Supply From Thinning Treatments to Reduce Fire Hazard in the U.S. West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; R. James Barbour

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies timberland areas in 12 western states where thinning treatments (1) are judged to be needed to reduce fire hazard and (2) may “pay for themselves” at a scale to make investment in forest product processing a realistic option. A web-based tool - Fuel Treatment Evaluator 3.0 - is used to select high-fire-hazard timberland plots from the Forest...

  1. Enhancement of liquid treatment efficiency by microwave plasma under flow-induced reduced pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Michiko; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Takitou, Sho; Takashima, Seigo; Nomura, Norio; Kitagawa, Tominori; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2017-02-01

    A new microwave plasma device system for in-line solution treatment is developed. In this system, the Venturi effect for pressure reduction is utilized for stable and effective plasma production. The decomposition of phenol solution is tested to verify the efficiency of an in-line plasma treatment system, and such a treatment system is confirmed to have a higher decomposition efficiency than our previously developed batch-type treatment system. Increases in phenol decomposition speed and decomposition energy efficiency with increasing solution flow rate are observed, which suggests the suppression of OH radical recombination and the utilization of OH radicals under flowing solution conditions.

  2. Treatment with the gap junction modifier rotigaptide (ZP123) reduces infarct size in rats with chronic myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, Ketil; Marcussen, Niels; Kjølbye, Anne Louise; Nielsen, Morten Schak; Hennan, James K; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg

    2006-02-01

    Treatment with non-selective drugs (eg, long-chain alcohols, halothane) that reduce gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is associated with reduced infarct size after myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, it has been suggested that gap junction intercellular communication stimulating compounds may increase infarct size. The antiarrhythmic peptide analogue rotigaptide (ZP123) increases cardiac gap junction intercellular communication and the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of rotigaptide treatment on infarct size. Myocardial infarction was induced in male rats by ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Rats (n = 156) were treated with rotigaptide at three dose levels or vehicle from the onset of ischemia and for 3 weeks following LAD occlusion. Infarct size was determined using histomorphometry after 3 weeks treatment. Rotigaptide treatment producing steady state plasma levels of 0.8 +/- 0.1, 5.5 +/- 0.5, and 86 +/- 8 nmol/L had no effect on mortality, but reduced infarct size to 90 +/- 10% (P = 0.41), 67 +/- 7% (P = 0.005), and 82 +/- 7% (P = 0.13), respectively relative to vehicle-treated myocardial infarction rats (100 +/- 12%). In contrast to what was predicted, our data demonstrates that rotigaptide treatment was associated with a significant infarct size reduction. We conclude that whereas treatment with non-selective inhibitors of gap junction intercellular communication cause a reduction in infarct size, this information cannot be extrapolated to the effects of compounds that selectively increase gap junction intercellular communication.

  3. Has increased provision of treatment reduced the prevalence of common mental disorders? Review of the evidence from four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F; Patten, Scott B; Brugha, Traolach S; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2017-02-01

    Many people identified as having common mental disorders in community surveys do not receive treatment. Modelling has suggested that closing this "treatment gap" should reduce the population prevalence of those disorders. To evaluate the effects of reducing the treatment gap in industrialized countries, data from 1990 to 2015 were reviewed from four English-speaking countries: Australia, Canada, England and the US. These data show that the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders and symptoms has not decreased, despite substantial increases in the provision of treatment, particularly antidepressants. Several hypotheses for this lack of improvement were considered. There was no support for the hypothesis that reductions in prevalence due to treatment have been masked by increases in risk factors. However, there was little evidence relevant to the hypothesis that improvements have been masked by increased reporting of symptoms because of greater public awareness of common mental disorders or willingness to disclose. A more strongly supported hypothesis for the lack of improvement is that much of the treatment provided does not meet the minimal standards of clinical practice guidelines and is not targeted optimally to those in greatest need. Lack of attention to prevention of common mental disorders may also be a factor. Reducing the prevalence of common mental disorders remains an unsolved challenge for health systems globally, which may require greater attention to the "quality gap" and "prevention gap". There is also a need for nations to monitor outcomes by using standardized measures of service provision and mental disorders over time.

  4. Probing The Lower Mass Limit for Supernova Progenitors and the High-Mass End of the Initial-Final Mass Relation from White Dwarfs in the Open Cluster M35 (NGC 2168)

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Kurtis A; Koester, Detlev

    2008-01-01

    We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of the white dwarf population of the populous, intermediate-age open cluster M35 (NGC 2168); this study expands upon our previous study of the white dwarfs in this cluster. We spectroscopically confirm 14 white dwarfs in the field of the cluster: 12 DAs, 1 hot DQ, and 1 DB star. For each DA, we determine the white dwarf mass and cooling age, from which we derive the each star's progenitor mass. These data are then added to the empirical initial-final mass relation (IFMR), where the M35 WDs contribute significantly to the high-mass end of the relation. The resulting points are consistent with previously-published linear fits to the IFMR, modulo moderate systematics introduced by the uncertainty in the star cluster age. Based on this cluster alone, the observational lower limit on the maximum mass of white dwarf progenitors is found to be ~5.1-5.2 solar masses at the 95% confidence level; including data from other young open clusters raises this limit as high as ...

  5. Beyond reduced-impact logging: silvicultural treatments to increase growth rates of tropical trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Alarcón, A.; Blate, G.M.; Choque, U.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Mostacedo, B.; Pariona, W.; Villegas, Z.; Putz, F.E.

    2008-01-01

    Use of reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques has repeatedly been shown to reduce damage caused by logging. Unfortunately, these techniques do not necessarily ameliorate the low growth rates of many commercial species or otherwise assure recovery of the initial volume harvested during the next cutt

  6. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  7. Early Detection and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Reduce Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, William H; Ye, Wen; Griffin, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the benefits of screening and early treatment of type 2 diabetes compared with no screening and late treatment using a simulation model with data from the ADDITION-Europe study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used the Michigan Model, a validated computer simulation model, an...

  8. Iloprost donor treatment reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in an isolated extracorporeal pig liver perfusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoening, Wenzel N; Feige, Ines; Schubert, Thomas; Olschewski, Peter; Buescher, Niklas; Helbig, Michael; Schmitz, Volker; Neuhaus, Peter; Pratschke, Johann; Puhl, Gero

    2015-02-01

    Iloprost has the potential to protect the liver transplant graft before and during cold ischemia. We studied iloprost administration during organ procurement and reperfusion in an extracorporeal pig liver perfusion model. German Landrace pigs (n = 7/group; 22-26 kg each) were used as donors. Preservation was performed by aortic perfusion with 2 L Bretschneiders' Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate solution HTK and cold ischemia time (4°C) 20 hours followed by normothermic extracorporeal perfusion for 8 hours. Untreated controls (1) were compared to iloprost (2) donor bolus-treatment (1 μg/kg body weight), (3) addition of iloprost to Bretschneiders' Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate solution HTK (0.0125 μg/mL), (4) continuous infusion during reperfusion (2 ng/kg/min), and (5) combined treatment (2) and (4). Iloprost donor treatment led to significantly higher bile production. Addition of iloprost to the preservation solution significantly improved hepatic artery perfusion and was accompanied by improvements of microcirculation and bile production. Iloprost reperfusion treatment alone significantly improved bile production. Enzyme levels were positively affected by all treatment regimens. Combined use of iloprost before and after ischemia improved hepatic artery flow and microcirculation and showed significantly lower hypoxia staining versus controls. Iloprost donor treatment and use of iloprost in the preservation solution significantly improved graft perfusion and function. The effects of graft treatment seemed greater before than after reperfusion. Combined treatment did not reveal a synergistic advantage.

  9. What Treatments Can Reduce the Chances of Preterm Labor and Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chances of preterm labor & birth? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content If a pregnant woman is showing signs of preterm labor, her doctor will often try treatments to stop labor and prolong the pregnancy until the fetus is more fully developed. Treatments ...

  10. Treatment of Trichodina sp. reduced load of Flavobacterium colummnare and improved survival of hybrid tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasites and bacteria are common inhabitants in water of fish farms. The effect of parasite treatment on Flavobacterium columnare infection in tilapia is currently unknown. This study evaluated whether treatment of Trichodina sp. parasitized hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) would...

  11. Varying effects of recommended treatments for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marius Mark; Lewinter, Christian; Køber, Lars

    2016-01-01

    hospitalization with reductions of 24-37, 22, 60, and 36%, respectively, while ICDs significantly increased the risk with 34%. Ivabradine showed no significant effects on either outcome. As such, the majority of recommended HFREF treatments offered significant treatment benefits. However, many of the included...

  12. Chemotherapeutic treatment reduces circulating levels of surfactant protein-D in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Sorensen, Grith L.; Wehner, Peder S.

    2017-01-01

    with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). PROCEDURE: In a prospective study, 43 children receiving treatment for ALL were monitored for mucosal toxicity from diagnosis through the induction phase of treatment. Serial blood draws were taken to determine the levels of SP-D, interleukin-6 (IL-6), C...

  13. Losartan versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment reduces cardiovascular events especially well in elderly patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Anne Christine H; Westergaard, Bo; Sehestedt, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study has previously demonstrated a beneficial effect of losartan compared to atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment in patients with essential hypertension and left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). However, patient age often...... influences the choice of antihypertensive drugs. Therefore, we investigated the influence of age on the effects of losartan versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment....

  14. Low-dose budesonide treatment reduces severe asthma-related events in patients with infrequent asthma symptoms at baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddel, H. K.; Busse, W. W.; Pedersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are highly effective in low doses for reducing asthma-related exacerbation risk and mortality. Previously, ICS treatment was recommended for patients with 'persistent' asthma, defined by symptoms >2 days/week.1 However, for patients with less frequent...... symptoms, evidence is lacking for the benefit of ICS and safety of bronchodilator-only treatment. We investigated asthma outcomes by baseline symptom frequency in a post-hoc analysis of the multinational inhaled Steroid Treatment As Regular Therapy in early asthma (START) study.2 METHODS: Patients aged 4...

  15. Association between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lyu; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; Zhu, Xiaoming; Li, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy and analyze the associations between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in LT4 therapy. Totally, 195 pregnant women with hypothyroidism receiving routine prenatal care were enrolled. They were categorized into three groups: overt hypothyroidism (OH), subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with negative thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb), and SCH with positive TPOAb. The association between the clinical classification and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment was assessed. The results indicated that reduced TSH was significantly different among the groups according to the clinical classifications (p = 0.043). The result was also significantly different between patients with OH and patients with SCH and negative TPOAb (p = 0.036). Similar result was reported for the comparison between patients with OH and patients with SCH and positive TPOAb (p = 0.016). Multiple variable analyses showed that LT4 supplementation, gestational age and the variable of clinical classifications were associated with reduced TSH independently. Our data suggested that the therapeutic effect of substitutive treatment with LT4 was significantly associated with different clinical classifications of hypothyroidism in pregnancy and the treatment should begin as soon as possible after diagnosis.

  16. Olanzapine reduces physical activity in rats exposed to activity-based anorexia : possible implications for treatment of anorexia nervosa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Kas, Martien J H; van Engeland, Herman; Adan, Roger A H

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients often show extreme hypophagia and excessive physical activity. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model of AN and mimics food restriction and hyperactivity in rats. This study investigated whether treatment with olanzapine (Zyprexa) reduc

  17. Intravenous artesunate reduces parasite clearance time, duration of intensive care, and hospital treatment in patients with severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu;

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous artesunate improves survival in severe malaria, but clinical trial data from nonendemic countries are scarce. The TropNet severe malaria database was analyzed to compare outcomes of artesunate vs quinine treatment. Artesunate reduced parasite clearance time and duration of intensive...

  18. The efficacy of low-level laser treatment in reducing pain and swelling after endodontic surgery: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshari, Amirabbas; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Zakershahrak, Mehrsa

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: LLLT in oral cavity believed to reduce pain after endodontic surgery and wisdom tooth removal, to accelerate wound healing and to have an anti-inflammatory and regenerative effect. The aim of this systematic review therefore was to assess the proof available for the efficacy of low-level laser treatment in reducing pain and swelling after endodontic surgery. Methods: The PubMed service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine was searched with applicable search strategies. No language restriction was applied. The last electronic search was accomplished on August 31, 2015. All randomized clinical trials on the efficiency of low-level laser treatment in reducing pain and swelling after endodontic surgery was considered for the Meta-analysis. Quality consideration of the included randomized clinical trials was appraised according to CONSORT guidelines. Results: Only two randomized clinical trials were attained. These studies clarified that laser treatment could reduce pain and swelling, but the results were not significant. Conclusions: Low-level laser therapy can be advantageous for the reduction of postoperative pain but there is no strong confirmation for its efficiency. Its clinical utility and applicability relating to endodontic surgery, Along with the optimal energy dosage and the number of laser treatments needed after surgery, still, demand further research and experiment.

  19. The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone reduces renal interstitial fibrosis after long-term cyclosporine treatment in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Thomsen; Jensen, Boye L.; Hansen, Pernille B. L.

    2013-01-01

    blood pressure (BP) and GFR (inulin clearance) in conscious, freely moving animals. Plasma was sampled for analysis and kidney tissue was fixed for quantitative stereological analyses. RESULTS: Compared to controls, CsA-treatment reduced relative tubular volume (0.73+/-0.03 vs. 0.85+/-0.01, p...

  20. Olanzapine reduces physical activity in rats exposed to activity-based anorexia : possible implications for treatment of anorexia nervosa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Kas, Martien J H; van Engeland, Herman; Adan, Roger A H

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients often show extreme hypophagia and excessive physical activity. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model of AN and mimics food restriction and hyperactivity in rats. This study investigated whether treatment with olanzapine (Zyprexa) reduc

  1. Chronic Metformin Treatment is Associated with Reduced Myocardial Infarct Size in Diabetic Patients with ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexis, Chris P. H.; Wieringa, Wouter G.; Hiemstra, Bart; van Deursen, Vincent M.; Lipsic, Erik; van der Harst, Pim; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.

    2014-01-01

    Increased myocardial infarct (MI) size is associated with higher risk of developing left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure and mortality. Experimental studies have suggested that metformin treatment reduces MI size after induced ischaemia but human data is lacking. We aimed to investigate the e

  2. Evaluating High Release Rate MCH (3-Methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one) Treatments for Reducing Dendroctonus pseudotsugae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Harrison M; Ross, Darrell W; Strand, Tara M; Thistle, Harold W; Ragenovich, Iral R; Lowrey, Laura L

    2016-12-01

    Current recommendations for applying the antiaggregation pheromone 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH) to protect live trees from Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, infestation are to space individual passive releasers (MCH bubble capsules) on a 12- by 12-m grid throughout areas to be protected. Previous field studies and a theoretical study using a puff dispersion model to predict pheromone concentrations have shown that releasers emitting higher rates of MCH spaced farther apart may be as effective as the established standard treatment. During 2012 and 2013, we tested higher release rates of MCH at correspondingly wider spacings to keep the total amount of MCH released per unit area equal in all treatments. In 2012 near Challis, ID, treatments included the established standard release rate and spacing, four and six times the standard release rate at correspondingly wider spacings, and an untreated control. In 2013 near Ketchum, ID, treatments included the established standard release rate and spacing, five and seven times the standard release rate at correspondingly wider spacings, and an untreated control. Results from both years indicated that all MCH treatments were equally effective in reducing Douglas-fir beetle infestation. Using higher release rate formulations at wider spacings will reduce labor costs of installing MCH treatments, and, in cases where it is necessary, retrieving the releasers as well. In addition to reducing labor costs, the revised treatment protocol may increase the feasibility of treating areas that currently may not be possible due to treatment costs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip...

  4. Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study.

  5. Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Treatment Reduces Exercise Performance in Young Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, K.; Doessing, S.; Nielsen, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    period, they exercised to determine exercise performance and hormonal and metabolic responses. Participants: Twenty healthy males participated in the study. Intervention: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist (n = 10; 10 mg/d) or placebo (n = 10). After the treatment period, they performed...... a maximal oxygen uptake ((V) over dotO(2max)) test and a prolonged exercise test, consisting of 60 min of submaximal cycling followed by exercise to fatigue at 90% of (V) over dotO(2max). Main Outcome Measures: (V) over dotO(2max) was measured before and after the treatment period. Hormonal and metabolic......Context: The effects of GH on exercise performance remain unclear. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of GH receptor (GHR) antagonist treatment on exercise performance. Design: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist pegvisomant or placebo for 16 d. After the treatment...

  6. Cross-sex hormone treatment in male-to-female transsexual persons reduces serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Hellweg, Rainer; Van Caenegem, Eva; Briken, Peer; Stalla, Günter K; T'Sjoen, Guy; Auer, Matthias K

    2015-01-01

    Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are reduced in male-to-female transsexual persons (MtF) compared to male controls. It was hypothesized before that this might reflect either an involvement of BDNF in a biomechanism of transsexualism or to be the result of persistent social stress due to the condition. Here, we demonstrate that 12 month of cross-sex hormone treatment reduces serum BDNF levels in male-to-female transsexual persons independent of anthropometric measures. Participants were acquired through the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). Reduced serum BDNF in MtF thus seems to be a result of hormonal treatment rather than a consequence or risk factor of transsexualism.

  7. Front-end specialists reduce time to a treatment plan for patients with acute abdomen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Helen; Backer Mogensen, Christian; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2013-01-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) are replacing acute specialised wards in Denmark. The aim was to compare time to a treatment plan for patients with acute abdomen at a surgical assessment unit (SAU) and at an ED, respectively.......Emergency departments (EDs) are replacing acute specialised wards in Denmark. The aim was to compare time to a treatment plan for patients with acute abdomen at a surgical assessment unit (SAU) and at an ED, respectively....

  8. Front-end specialists reduce time to a treatment plan for patients with acute abdomen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Helen; Backer Mogensen, Christian; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2013-01-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) are replacing acute specialised wards in Denmark. The aim was to compare time to a treatment plan for patients with acute abdomen at a surgical assessment unit (SAU) and at an ED, respectively.......Emergency departments (EDs) are replacing acute specialised wards in Denmark. The aim was to compare time to a treatment plan for patients with acute abdomen at a surgical assessment unit (SAU) and at an ED, respectively....

  9. Reduced Use of Emergency Care and Hospitalization in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Receiving Acupuncture Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Chuan Shih; Hsun-Hua Lee; Ta-Liang Chen; Chin-Chuan Tsai; Hsin-Long Lane; Wen-Ta Chiu; Chien-Chang Liao

    2013-01-01

    Background. Little research exists on acupuncture treatment's effect on patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods. Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a cohort study to compare the use of emergency care and hospitalization in TBI patients with and without acupuncture treatment in the first year after TBI. The adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of high use of emergency care and hospitalization associated with acupunct...

  10. An evaluation of the PALS after treatment modelling intervention to reduce dental anxiety in child dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Karen E; Freeman, Ruth

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the passivity to activity through live symbolic (PALS) after treatment modelling intervention to reduce child dental anxiety. A convenience sample of consecutive 5- to 10-year-old dental patients were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. Self-reported child dental anxiety was assessed at the start of each visit. At the end of each visit, children in the intervention group were introduced to a glove puppet, which acted as the PALS model. The intervention group children re-enacted the treatment they had just received on the puppet's teeth. At the end of each visit, the control children received motivational rewards only. The change in dental anxiety scores was examined by t-tests and analysis of covariance. The final analysis included 27 intervention children and 26 control children. For the intervention group, there were no statistically significant changes in dental anxiety over a course of treatment, between first and second preventive visits, between first and second invasive treatment visits, or between first attendance and subsequent recall attendance. For the control group, a statistically significant decrease in dental anxiety was observed between the first and second invasive dental treatment visits. The PALS after treatment modelling intervention was ineffective in reducing child dental anxiety.

  11. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu Sivankalyani

    Full Text Available Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags, methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C. A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  12. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  13. Antipsychotic Treatment Reduces Indices of Oxidative Stress in First-Episode Psychosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt Kriisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 38 first-episode psychosis (FEP patients and 37 control subjects were recruited for the study of indices of oxidative stress (OxS. The main purpose of the study was to compare the OxS statuses (serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total level of peroxides (TPX, oxidative stress index (OSI, and ratio oxidized methionine (Met-SO to methionine (Met between antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients and individuals without a history of psychiatric disorders. Subsequently, the impact of 7-month antipsychotic treatment was evaluated on the OxS status in FEP patients. An attempt was made to assess links between OxS signature and inflammation markers. The oxidative stress indices remained generally unchanged in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients compared to control subjects. Despite that, there was a significant correlation between the levels of TPX and EGF (endothelial growth factor in FEP patients. This correlation disappeared after antipsychotic treatment of FEP patients. Moreover, antipsychotic treatment was associated with a significant reduction in OxS indices, including TPX, OSI, and ratio between Met-SO and Met. By contrast, in chronic SCZ patients we established a significant high-grade OxS. In conclusion, the markers of total antioxidative capacity, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation revealed no high-grade OxS in FEP patients. Nevertheless, antipsychotic treatment induced a considerable anti-inflammatory effect. OxS levels were also significantly decreased if compared in FEP patients before and after antipsychotic treatment.

  14. Topiramate treatment is neuroprotective and reduces oligodendrocyte loss after cervical spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Gensel

    Full Text Available Excess glutamate release and associated neurotoxicity contributes to cell death after spinal cord injury (SCI. Indeed, delayed administration of glutamate receptor antagonists after SCI in rodents improves tissue sparing and functional recovery. Despite their therapeutic potential, most glutamate receptor antagonists have detrimental side effects and have largely failed clinical trials. Topiramate is an AMPA-specific, glutamate receptor antagonists that is FDA-approved to treat CNS disorders. In the current study we tested whether topiramate treatment is neuroprotective after cervical contusion injury in rats. We report that topiramate, delivered 15-minutes after SCI, increases tissue sparing and preserves oligodendrocytes and neurons when compared to vehicle treatment. In addition, topiramate is more effective than the AMPA-receptor antagonist, NBQX. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report documenting a neuroprotective effect of topiramate treatment after spinal cord injury.

  15. Familial hypercholesterolaemia reduces the quality of life of patients not reaching treatment targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Gitte Lee; Madsen, Ivan Bredbjerg; Kruse, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common monogenic disorder associated with premature cardiovascular disease. If untreated, life expectancy in heterozygous FH patients is shortened by 20-30 years compared with the general population. Nevertheless, treatment goals...... are only met in approximately 50% of patients. This comparative study examined the quality of life (QoL) impact of FH in patients who had and had not reached the target of treatment. METHODS: Two qualitative focus group interviews were carried out with a total of ten FH patients. A semi......-structured interview guide included questions identified in a preceding literature study. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. RESULTS: While having FH did not have much impact on well-treated patients' QoL, patients who had not reached the treatment target had markedly more concerns...

  16. Ginseng treatment reduces bacterial load and lung pathology in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Faber, V

    1997-01-01

    the inflammation and antibody responses could be changed by treatment with the Chinese herbal medicine ginseng. An aqueous extract of ginseng was injected subcutaneously, and cortisone and saline were used as controls. Two weeks after challenge with P. aeruginosa, the ginseng-treated group showed a significantly...... against P. aeruginosa sonicate and a shift from an acute type to a chronic type of lung inflammation compared to those in the control and cortisone-treated groups were observed. These findings indicate that ginseng treatment of an experimental P. aeruginosa pneumonia in rats promotes a cellular response...

  17. A noninvasive mechanical treatment to reduce the visible appearance of cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubal, Paul J; Busuito, Michael J; Freeman, D Carl; Placzek, Jeffrey D

    2016-12-01

    Cellulite is a cosmetic condition of subcutaneous fat herniation through fibrous connective tissue that results in a dimpled appearance of the skin. Occurring in approximately 85% to 90% of all women worldwide, cellulite has been well studied. The result has been the development of a plethora of treatment protocols yielding little to no success. We describe a noninvasive mechanical treatment for women with cellulite, evaluating the safety and effectiveness of a technique that utilizes a unique patented device for the reduction of the visible appearance of cellulite.

  18. Electrical treatment of reduced consciousness : Experience with coma and Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, EB; Scherder, EJA; Cooper, JB

    2005-01-01

    The right median nerve can be stimulated electrically to help arouse the central nervous system for persons with reduced levels of consciousness. The mechanisms of central action include increased cerebral blood flow and raised levels of dopamine. There is 11 years of experience in the USA of using

  19. Electrical treatment of reduced consciousness : Experience with coma and Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, EB; Scherder, EJA; Cooper, JB

    2005-01-01

    The right median nerve can be stimulated electrically to help arouse the central nervous system for persons with reduced levels of consciousness. The mechanisms of central action include increased cerebral blood flow and raised levels of dopamine. There is 11 years of experience in the USA of using

  20. Brain derived neurotrophic factor treatment reduces inflammation and apoptosis in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Tapas K; Trisler, David; Sura, Karna T; Sultana, Shireen; Patel, Niraj; Bever, Christopher T

    2008-07-15

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which includes a neurodegenerative component. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neuroprotective agent which might be useful in preventing neurodegeneration but its application has been limited because the blood brain barrier restricts its access to the CNS. We have developed a novel delivery system for BDNF using transformed bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and undertook studies of EAE to determine whether the delivery of BDNF could reduce inflammation and apoptosis. Mice receiving BDNF producing BMSC had reduced clinical impairment compared to control mice receiving BMSC that did not produce BDNF. Pathological examination of brain and spinal cord showed a reduction in inflammatory infiltrating cells in treated compared to control mice. Apoptosis was reduced in brain and spinal cord based on TUNEL and cleaved Caspase-3 staining. Consistent with the known mechanism of action of BDNF on apoptosis, Bcl-2 and Akt were increased in treated mice. Further studies suggested that these increases could be mediated by inhibition of both caspase dependent and caspase independent pathways. These results suggest that the BDNF delivered by the transformed bone marrow stem cells reduced clinical severity, inflammation and apoptosis in this model.

  1. Probiotic lactobacilli: a potential prophylactic treatment for reducing pesticide absorption in humans and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinder, M; Bisanz, J E; Burton, J P; Reid, G

    2015-01-01

    Numerous pesticides are used in agriculture, gardening, and wildlife-control. Despite their intended toxicity to pests, these compounds can also cause harm to wildlife and humans due to their ability to potentially bioaccumulate, leach into soils, and persist in the environment. Humans and animals are commonly exposed to these compounds through agricultural practices and consumption of contaminated foods and water. Pesticides can cause a range of adverse effects in humans ranging from minor irritation, to endocrine or nervous system disruption, cancer, or even death. A convenient and cost-effective method to reduce unavoidable pesticide absorption in humans and wildlife could be the use of probiotic lactobacilli. Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive gut commensal bacteria used in the production of functional foods, such as yoghurt, cheese, sauerkraut and pickles, as well as silage for animal feed. Preliminary in vitro experiments suggested that lactobacilli are able to degrade some pesticides. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1-supplemented yoghurt reduced the bioaccumulation of mercury and arsenic in pregnant women and children. A similar study is warranted to test if this approach can reduce pesticide absorption in vivo, given that the lactobacilli can also attenuate reactive oxygen production, enhance gastrointestinal barrier function, reduce inflammation, and modulate host xenobiotic metabolism.

  2. DRα1-MOG-35-55 treatment reduces lesion volumes and improves neurological deficits after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Liu, Zhijia; Ren, Honglei; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Siman; Ren, Li; Chai, Zhi; Meza-Romero, Roberto; Benedek, Gil; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Offner, Halina; Li, Minshu

    2017-03-16

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in severe neurological impairments without effective treatments. Inflammation appears to be an important contributor to key pathogenic events such as secondary brain injury following TBI and therefore serves as a promising target for novel therapies. We have recently demonstrated the ability of a molecular construct comprised of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRα1 domain linked covalently to mouse (m)MOG-35-55 peptide (DRα1-MOG-35-55 construct) to reduce CNS inflammation and tissue injury in animal models of multiple sclerosis and ischemic stroke. The aim of the current study was to determine if DRα1-MOG-35-55 treatment of a fluid percussion injury (FPI) mouse model of TBI could reduce the lesion size and improve disease outcome measures. Neurodeficits, lesion size, and immune responses were determined to evaluate the therapeutic potential and mechanisms of neuroprotection induced by DRα1-MOG-35-55 treatment. The results demonstrated that daily injections of DRα1-MOG-35-55 given after FPI significantly reduced numbers of infiltrating CD74(+) and CD86(+) macrophages and increased numbers of CD206(+) microglia in the brain concomitant with smaller lesion sizes and improvement in neurodeficits. Conversely, DRα1-MOG-35-55 treatment of TBI increased numbers of circulating CD11b(+) monocytes and their expression of CD74 but had no detectable effect on cell numbers or marker expression in the spleen. These results demonstrate that DRα1-MOG-35-55 therapy can reduce CNS inflammation and significantly improve histological and clinical outcomes after TBI. Future studies will further examine the potential of DRα1-MOG-35-55 for treatment of TBI.

  3. Understanding treatment effect mechanisms of the CAMBRA randomized trial in reducing caries increment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J; Chaffee, B W; Cheng, N F; Gansky, S A; Featherstone, J D B

    2015-01-01

    The Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) randomized controlled trial showed that an intervention featuring combined antibacterial and fluoride therapy significantly reduced bacterial load and suggested reduced caries increment in adults with 1 to 7 baseline cavitated teeth. While trial results speak to the overall effectiveness of an intervention, insight can be gained from understanding the mechanism by which an intervention acts on putative intermediate variables (mediators) to affect outcomes. This study conducted mediation analyses on 109 participants who completed the trial to understand whether the intervention reduced caries increment through its action on potential mediators (oral bacterial load, fluoride levels, and overall caries risk based on the composite of bacterial challenge and salivary fluoride) between the intervention and dental outcomes. The primary outcome was the increment from baseline in decayed, missing, and filled permanent surfaces (ΔDMFS) 24 mo after completing restorations for baseline cavitated lesions. Analyses adjusted for baseline overall risk, bacterial challenge, and fluoride values under a potential outcome framework using generalized linear models. Overall, the CAMBRA intervention was suggestive in reducing the 24-mo DMFS increment (reduction in ΔDMFS: -0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.01 to 0.08; P = 0.07); the intervention significantly reduced the 12-mo overall risk (reduction in overall risk: -19%; 95% CI, -7 to -41%;], P = 0.005). Individual mediators, salivary log10 mutans streptococci, log10 lactobacilli, and fluoride level, did not represent statistically significant pathways alone through which the intervention effect was transmitted. However, 36% of the intervention effect on 24-mo DMFS increment was through a mediation effect on 12-mo overall risk (P = 0.03). These findings suggest a greater intervention effect carried through the combined action on multiple aspects of the caries process rather than

  4. Innovative wastewater treatment process with reduced energy consumption and regeneration of nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Fitsios, E.; Angelidaki, Irini

    Treatment of municipal wastewater by anaerobic digestion was investigated. A new process is described here, where anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater is the main step for removal of organic matter, resulting in much lower sludge production. Steps for removal nutrients are also included...

  5. In situ Treatment with Activated Carbon Reduces Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Food Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupryianchyk, D.; Rakowska, M.I.; Roessink, I.; Reichman, E.P.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    In situ activated carbon (AC) amendment is a new direction in contaminated sediment management, yet its effectiveness and safety have never been tested on the level of entire food chains including fish. Here we tested the effects of three different AC treatments on hydrophobic organic chemical (HOC)

  6. Irbesartan treatment reduces biomarkers of inflammatory activity in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Hovind, Peter

    2006-01-01

    (IL)-6, fibrinogen, adhesion molecules, transforming growth factor-beta, and AGE peptides were assessed. Irbesartan treatment yielded significant changes in hs-CRP (based on generalized estimating equation regression coefficient) with a 5.4% decrease per year versus a 10% increase per year...

  7. Passive secondary biological treatment systems reduce estrogens in dairy shed effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Jennifer B; Northcott, Grant L; Tremblay, Louis A

    2010-10-01

    Steroid estrogens are found at high concentrations in untreated dairy shed effluents. Reduction of estrogenic activity and steroid estrogen concentrations was assessed in two systems used to treat dairy shed effluents: the two-pond system and the advanced pond system. Both include anaerobic and aerobic treatment stages. Samples of effluent were collected from the systems and analyzed for free estrogens, conjugated estrogens and total estrogenic activity using E-Screen assay. Both systems showed increases of up to 8000% in aqueous free estrogens and estrogenic activity after anaerobic treatment, followed by decreases after aerobic treatment (36-83%). The complete systems decreased total steroid estrogen concentrations by 50-100% and estrogen activity by 62-100%, with little difference between systems. Removal rates were lower in winter for both systems. Final effluents from the advanced pond system contained total estrogens at <15-1400 ng/L and estrogenic activity at 3.2-43 ng/L. Final effluent from the two-pond system contained total estrogens at <15-300 ng/L and estrogenic activity at 3.3-25 ng/L. At times the final effluent EEQs exceeded guideline values for protection of freshwater fish and suggest further treatment may be required.

  8. Group Treatment of Foster Children to Reduce Separation Conflicts Associated with Placement Breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sally E.

    1990-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that placement stability for foster children would improve if they received help in resolving separation conflicts with their biological families from a group treatment program under the leadership of the child's caseworker. Important lacks in agency practice were revealed. (BB)

  9. Chronic treatment with trimetazidine reduces the upregulation of atrial natriuretic peptide in heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimetazidine (TMZ) is effective for the treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy; however, little is known about the effect of TMZ in established injury-induced heart failure. When rats with established infarct-induced heart failure were treated for 12 weeks with TMZ there was no effect on left ventric...

  10. Treatment of acromegaly increases BMD but reduces trabecular bone score: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godang, Kristin; Olarescu, Nicoleta Cristina; Bollerslev, Jens; Heck, Ansgar

    2016-08-01

    Bone turnover is increased in acromegaly. Despite normalization of bone turnover after treatment, the risk for vertebral fractures remains increased. Gonadal status, but not BMD, is correlated with vertebral fractures. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is related to bone microarchitecture. The aim of this study is to assess the longitudinal change in TBS and BMD following treatment for acromegaly. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This longitudinal study included 48 patients with acromegaly between 2005 and 2015. BMD, TBS, and markers for bone turnover (P1NP and CTX-1) were measured at baseline and following treatment. Following treatment, the mean TBS decreased by 3.0 (±7.0) %, whereas the BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) increased by 3.2 (±4.9) % (both Pacromegaly affects TBS and BMD at LS in different manners. The reduction of bone turnover markers predicts the increase in BMD but not the decrease in TBS. The DXA changes were more pronounced in men. Alterations in trabecular bone architecture may explain the persistent fracture risk despite the increase in BMD after disease control. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. A Cure for Crime: Can Mental Health Treatment Diversion Reduce Crime among Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Alison Evans; McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.

    2006-01-01

    Youth crime is a serious social problem, as is the high proportion of young offenders in the juvenile justice system who have mental disorders. A recent policy innovation applies the theory of therapeutic jurisprudence and diverts youth with mental disorders to treatment in lieu of further court processing. The expansion of mental health diversion…

  12. Ecofriendly hot water treatment reduces postharvest decay and elicits defense response in kiwifruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot water treatment (HWT) of fruit is an effective approach for managing postharvest decay of fruits and vegetables. In the present study, the effects of HWT (45 degrees C for 10 min) on the growth of Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in vitro, and gray (B. cinerea) and blue mold (P. expans...

  13. Mindfulness and relaxation treatment reduce depressive symptoms in individuals with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, S; Cludius, B; Hottenrott, B; Schneider, B C; Saathoff, K; Kuelz, A K; Gallinat, J

    2015-09-01

    Self-help is increasingly accepted for the treatment of mental disorders, including psychosis, as both a provisional first step and a way to bridge the large treatment gap. Though mindfulness-based interventions do not belong to first line treatment strategies in psychosis and randomized controlled trials are lacking, encouraging preliminary findings speak for the usefulness of this approach. For the present study, we examined whether patients with psychosis benefit from mindfulness bibliotherapy. A sample of 90 patients with psychosis (including a subsample with a verified diagnosis of schizophrenia) took part in the study via the Internet. Following baseline assessment, participants were randomized to either a mindfulness group or a Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) control group and received the respective self-help manual including accompanying audio files. Symptom change was measured six weeks after the baseline assessment with self-rating scales including the Paranoia Checklist. The retention rate was 71%. The quality of the online dataset was confirmed by various strategies (e.g., psychosis lie scale; examination of response biases). The trial was registered at the ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN86762253). No changes across time or between groups were noted for the Paranoia Checklist. Both conditions showed a decline in depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms at a medium effect size (per protocol and intention to treat analyses). The study provided partial support for the effectiveness of self-help mindfulness and PMR for depression in psychosis. Whether mindfulness delivered by a licensed therapist might lead to improved treatment adherence and a superior outcome relative to PMR remains to be established. The results underscore that bibliotherapy is a worthwhile approach to narrow the large treatment gap seen in psychosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity is reduced during induction of pituitary tumors by chronic estrogen treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, D.A.; Borgundvaag, B.; Sturtridge, W.C.; George, S.R.

    1987-11-02

    The role that estrogen plays in the regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is not known. A radioimmunoassay specific for rat CRF was utilized to measure the CRF-like immunoreactivity (CRF-ir) in the hypothalamus of ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol for periods up to 12 weeks. Compared to ovariectomized controls, estradiol treatment resulted in significantly reduced CRF-ir after 3 and 12 weeks, although no significant change was seen after 8 weeks. Anterior pituitary (AP) weight was greatly increased by estradiol treatment at all time points studied. Bromocriptine treatment for the last 3 weeks of the 12-week period, or removal of estradiol for 3 weeks after 9 weeks of treatment did not reverse the changes in CRF-ir even though significant regressions of tumor size was achieved. There was no correlation between AP weight and CRF-ir in individual animals. These data show that chronic treatment with estrogen reduced hypothalamic CRF-ir content. Neither a direct estrogenic effect or an indirect effect mediated through alterations in the adenohypophysis could be ruled out. 21 references, 3 figures.

  15. Species composition of larvae cultured after anthelmintic treatment indicates reduced moxidectin susceptibility of immature Cylicocyclus species in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, F N J; van Doorn, D C K; Geurden, T; Mughini-Gras, L; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A

    2016-08-30

    For the control of cyathostomins in horses, the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM) are the most commonly used anthelmintics. However, reduced activity, observed as shortening of the egg reappearance period (ERP) has been described. Shortening of the ERP may be caused by a decreased susceptibility of immature worms for MLs. Alternatively, immature worms may develop faster into egg producing adults as a result of repeated ML treatments. The species composition of the larval cultures obtained shortly after ML and pyrantel (PYR) treatment can confirm the hypothesis of decreased ML susceptibility, as this is often class-specific, whereas faster development would also occur after treatment with anthelmintics with a different mode of action. From 3 farms with a known history of shortened ERP, 8 horses per farm were selected and divided into 2 groups. The MOX-PYR-MOX group was treated twice with MOX (day 0 and 126) and once with PYR (day 84) and the IVM-PYR-IVM group was treated twice with IVM (day 0 and 98) and once with PYR (day 56). Cultured infective larvae (L3s) were counted and differentiated with the reverse line blot on pooled samples. Per cyathostomin species, the number of larvae per gram was calculated. The efficacy of all ML treatments was 100% and a shortened ERP was found on all 3 farms. The species composition of the larval cultures after ML treatment did not differ significantly from that after PYR treatment in the IVM-PYR-IVM group, but it did differ in the MOX-PYR-MOX group. The larval cultures obtained after MOX treatment consisted mostly of Cylicocyclus nassatus, while after PYR treatment Cylicostephanus longibursatus was the most abundant species. In the cultures from 42days after MOX treatment 6 cyathostomin species from 3 genera were found on the farm with the lowest activity (farm 1), while on the farm with the highest activity (farm 3) only 3 species from one genus were found in the same number of examined L3s. The

  16. Effective vitamin B12 treatment can reduce serum antigastric parietal cell antibody titer in patients with oral mucosal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Andy; Chang, Julia Yu-Fong; Wang, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2016-10-01

    Patients with serum antigastric parietal cell antibody (GPCA) positivity may have vitamin B12 deficiency and some oral symptoms. This study assessed the changes of serum GPCA titer in GPCA-positive patients after effective vitamin B12 treatment. Two hundred and ten GPCA-positive oral mucosal disease patients became oral symptom free (complete response) after 1.0-67.1 months of treatment with regular and continuous intramuscular injection of vitamin B12 once per week. The changes of serum GPCA titers after treatment were evaluated in these 210 patients. We found a significant drop of the GPCA positive rate from 100% to 42.9% in our 210 complete response patients after effective vitamin B12 treatment (p vitamin BC capsules (containing 10 μg of vitamin B12) plus deficient hematinic supplements per day after a follow-up period of 2.7-27 months. A maintenance vitamin B12 treatment once a month could retain the GPCA-negative status in 87% of treated-to GPCA-negative patients compared with those (10%) without further maintenance vitamin B12 treatment. Regular and continuous effective vitamin B12 treatment can reduce the relatively higher serum GPCA titers to significantly lower or undetectable levels in GPCA-positive patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Reduced albuminuria during early and aggressive antihypertensive treatment of insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Andersen, A R; Smidt, U M

    1981-01-01

    nephropathy. Mean age of the patients was 30 yr. All patients had a diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mm Hg. Metoprolol, hydralazine, and furosemide or thiazide were used as antihypertensives. During the 12-mo treatment period, BP decreased from 151/104 to 133/85 mm Hg (P less than 0...... hypertension is an early feature of diabetic nephropathy in young insulin-dependent patients. Early and aggressive treatment of that condition decreases albuminuria, probably due to reduced intraglomerular filtration pressure. Whether sustained reduction in arterial blood pressure to near-normal levels during...

  18. Treatment intensification does not reduce residual HIV-1 viremia in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinoso, J B; Kim, S Y; Wiegand, A M; Palmer, S E; Gange, S J; Cranmer, L; O'Shea, A; Callender, M; Spivak, A; Brennan, T; Kearney, M F; Proschan, M A; Mican, J M; Rehm, C A; Coffin, J M; Mellors, J W; Siliciano, R F; Maldarelli, F

    2009-06-09

    In HIV-1-infected individuals on currently recommended antiretroviral therapy (ART), viremia is reduced to controversy over whether the residual viremia results from ongoing cycles of viral replication. To address this question, we conducted 2 prospective studies to assess the effect of ART intensification with an additional potent drug on residual viremia in 9 HIV-1-infected individuals on successful ART. By using an HIV-1 RNA assay with single-copy sensitivity, we found that levels of viremia were not reduced by ART intensification with any of 3 different antiretroviral drugs (efavirenz, lopinavir/ritonavir, or atazanavir/ritonavir). The lack of response was not associated with the presence of drug-resistant virus or suboptimal drug concentrations. Our results suggest that residual viremia is not the product of ongoing, complete cycles of viral replication, but rather of virus output from stable reservoirs of infection.

  19. Treatment with a low pH processing aid to reduce campylobacter counts on broiler parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the low pH processing aid – CMS PoultrypHresh™ (LPPA) to reduce Campylobacter on carcasses (3 groups of 6) collected prior to the chiller that were individually placed into a 38 L container with either 20 L tap water (pH = 7.3) or 20 L of LPPA solution (pH = 1.4) with air agita...

  20. Reduced Bone Mineral Density in Children and Adolescents: Causes, Incidence and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Maltsev; G.Sh. Mansurova

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis in children is an urgent problem, since it occurs at different ages. The main risk factors and causes of primary and secondary osteoporosis in children include exogenous and endogenous, modifiable and non-modifiable factors. Critical age periods of childhood characterized by a high risk of reduced bone mineral density and fractures are specified. The article describes the biological effects of calcium, vitamin D and osteotropic trace elements and shows their role in osteogenesis ...

  1. Chemotaxis Driven Treatment to Reduce Metastasis Post Surgical Resection of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    at the tumor can be elevated, while simultaneously maintaining low plasma levels of the agent thereby reducing toxicity limitations for the therapy... LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U UU...using the Maestro imaging system, and subsequent images were evaluated using custom written image processing codes in MatLab (Figure 6B). The

  2. Can we improve service efficiency in CAMHS using the CAPA approach without reducing treatment effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuggle, Peter; McHugh, Annie; Gore, Lucy; Dixon, Emily; Curran, Daniel; Cutinha, Darren

    2016-06-01

    Health-care systems are under increasing pressure to deliver more care with similar or even less resources and there is concern that this may be achieved at the cost of reduced clinical effectiveness. In Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), the Choice and Partnership Approach (CAPA) has been widely adopted as a way of increasing the efficient use of limited service resources. Some evaluations have reported increased patient flow and reduced waiting times, but it remains unknown whether such changes have been achieved at a cost of clinical effectiveness. This article describes a pragmatic multi-method evaluation of a CAMHS service reporting service outcomes (client satisfaction, waiting times, and patient flow) and clinical outcomes (clinician-rated clinical outcomes and goals achieved by families). Results showed improved service outcomes (high levels of client satisfaction and reduced waiting times) and an increase in patient flow (49 cases increased to 72 cases over an equivalent time period). Clinical outcomes showed no reduction in effectiveness and a significant improvement against the agreed goals of the intervention. The evaluation suggested that a well-structured goal-focused patient flow system may improve services by increasing patient flow while maintaining high satisfaction levels, without negatively impacting clinical effectiveness.

  3. Innovative wastewater treatment process with reduced energy consumption and regeneration of nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Fitsios, E.; Angelidaki, Irini

    volatile fatty acids (VFA) monitoring and control will ensure optimum utilization of VFA's for P removal and biogas production. 4) Thermal hydrolysis for treatment of residual sludge will be used for further decreasing the amount of excess sludge. Batch experiments showed that sewage could be inhibitoy......Treatment of municipal wastewater by anaerobic digestion was investigated. A new process is described here, where anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater is the main step for removal of organic matter, resulting in much lower sludge production. Steps for removal nutrients are also included....... The suggested process contains the following steps: 1) The organic matter is primarily removed through anaerobic degradation using high-rate reactors. 2) For nitrogen removal. the Anammox process or physico-chemical methods will be applied. 3) For phosphorus removal, bilogical process will be used. 4) On-line...

  4. Does post-exercise massage treatment reduce delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a frequent problem after unaccustomed exercise. No universally accepted treatment exists. Massage therapy is often recommended for this condition but uncertainty exists about its effectiveness. AIM: To determine whether post-exercise massage alleviates the symptoms of DOMS after a bout of strenuous exercise. METHOD: Various computerised literature searches were carried out and located seven controlled trials. RESULTS: Most of the trials were burdened with serious methodological flaws, and their results are far from uniform. However, most suggest that post-exercise massage may alleviate symptoms of DOMS. CONCLUSIONS: Massage therapy may be a promising treatment for DOMS. Definitive studies are warranted. 


 PMID:9773168

  5. Early life treatment with vancomycin propagates Akkermansia muciniphila and reduces diabetes incidence in the NOD mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Krych, Lukasz; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris;

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Increasing evidence suggests that environmental factors changing the normal colonisation pattern in the gut strongly influence the risk of developing autoimmune diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate, both during infancy and adulthood, whether treatment with vancomycin...... received vancomycin from 8 weeks of age until onset of diabetes. Pyrosequencing of the gut microbiota and flow cytometry of intestinal immune cells was used to investigate the effect of vancomycin treatment. Results: At the end of the study, the cumulative diabetes incidence was found to be significantly...... lower for the neonatally treated group compared with the untreated group, whereas the insulitis score and blood glucose levels were significantly lower for the mice treated as adults compared with the other groups. Mucosal inflammation was investigated by intracellular cytokine staining of the small...

  6. Preoperative analgesia for children and adolescents to reduce pain associated with dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS, ISI Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled clinical trials of analgesics given before dental treatment versus placebo or no analgesics in children and adolescents up to 17 years of age. Children and adolescents having dental treatment under sedation (including nitrous oxide/oxygen) or general anaesthesia were excluded.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently selected studies, abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Standard Cochrane methodological approaches were used.ResultsFive trials involving 190 patients were included. None of the studies were at low risk of bias. Three trials involved dental treatment and two involved orthodontic treatment. Three of the included trials compared paracetamol with placebo. Meta-analysis of the two trials showed no evidence of a benefit in taking paracetamol preoperatively; (RR) for postoperative pain of 0.81 (95%CI; 0.53 to 1.22). Four trials compared ibuprofen with placebo. Pooled data from two studies showed a statistically significant mean difference in severity of postoperative pain of -13.44 (95%CI; -23.01 to -3.88) on a visual analogue scale (0 to 100), which indicated a probable benefit. Both trials were at high risk of bias and the quality of the evidence is low.ConclusionsFrom the available evidence, we cannot determine whether or not preoperative analgesics are of benefit in paediatric dentistry for procedures under local anaesthetic. There is probably a benefit in using preoperative analgesics prior to orthodontic separator placement. The quality of the evidence is low. Further randomised clinical trials should be completed with appropriate sample sizes and well defined outcome measures.

  7. The effectiveness of conventional trickling filter treatment plants at reducing concentrations of copper in wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Ziolko, D; Hala, D.; Lester, JN; Scrimshaw, MD

    2009-01-01

    This is the post-print version of the final paper published in Science of the Total Environment. The published article is available from the link below. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. Copyright @ 2009 Elsevier B.V. Eight different sewage treatment works we...

  8. Treatment with Evasin-3 reduces atherosclerotic vulnerability for ischemic stroke, but not brain injury in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Copin, Jean-Christophe; da Silva, Rafaela F.; Rodrigo A. Fraga-Silva; Capettini, Luciano; Quintao, Silvia; Lenglet, Sébastien; Pelli, Graziano; Galan, Katia; Burger, Fabienne; Braunersreuther, Vincent; Schaller, Karl; Deruaz, Maud; Proudfoot, Amanda E; Dallegri, Franco; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophilic inflammation might have a pathophysiological role in both carotid plaque rupture and ischemic stroke injury. Here, we investigated the potential benefits of the CXC chemokine-binding protein Evasin-3, which potently inhibits chemokine bioactivity and related neutrophilic inflammation in two mouse models of carotid atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke, respectively. In the first model, the chronic treatment with Evasin-3 as compared with Vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)) wa...

  9. Which strategies reduce breast cancer mortality most? Collaborative modeling of optimal screening, treatment, and obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien; Schechter, Clyde; Chang, Yaojen; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee M; de Koning, Harry; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-07-15

    US breast cancer mortality is declining, but thousands of women still die each year. Two established simulation models examine 6 strategies that include increased screening and/or treatment or elimination of obesity versus continuation of current patterns. The models use common national data on incidence and obesity prevalence, competing causes of death, mammography characteristics, treatment effects, and survival/cure. Parameters are modified based on obesity (defined as BMI  ≥  30 kg/m(2) ). Outcomes are presented for the year 2025 among women aged 25+ and include numbers of cases, deaths, mammograms and false-positives; age-adjusted incidence and mortality; breast cancer mortality reduction and deaths averted; and probability of dying of breast cancer. If current patterns continue, the models project that there would be about 50,100-57,400 (range across models) annual breast cancer deaths in 2025. If 90% of women were screened annually from ages 40 to 54 and biennially from ages 55 to 99 (or death), then 5100-6100 fewer deaths would occur versus current patterns, but incidence, mammograms, and false-positives would increase. If all women received the indicated systemic treatment (with no screening change), then 11,400-14,500 more deaths would be averted versus current patterns, but increased toxicity could occur. If 100% received screening plus indicated therapy, there would be 18,100-20,400 fewer deaths. Eliminating obesity yields 3300-5700 fewer breast cancer deaths versus continuation of current obesity levels. Maximal reductions in breast cancer deaths could be achieved through optimizing treatment use, followed by increasing screening use and obesity prevention. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  10. Psychosocial Interventions in Reducing Cannabis Use in Early Phase Psychosis: A Canadian Survey of Treatments Offered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cristina; Tibbo, Philip G; Ursuliak, Zenovia

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis use in people with early phase psychosis (EPP) can have a significant impact on long-term outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to describe current cannabis use treatment practices in English-speaking early intervention services (EISs) in Canada and determine if their services are informed by available evidence. Thirty-five Canadian English-speaking EISs for psychosis were approached to complete a survey through email, facsimile, or online in order to collect information regarding their current cannabis use treatment practices. Data were acquired from 27 of the 35 (78%) programs approached. Only 12% of EISs offered formal services that targeted cannabis use, whereas the majority (63%) of EISs offered informal services for all substance use, not specifically cannabis. In programs with informal services, individual patient psychoeducation (86%) was slightly more common than individual motivational interviewing (MI) (76%) followed by group patient psychoeducation (52%) and information handouts (52%). Thirty-seven percent of EISs offered formal services for substance use, and compared to programs with informal services, more MI, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and family services were offered, with individual treatment modalities more common than groups. No EISs used contingency management, even though it has some preliminary evidence in chronic populations. Evidence-based service implementation barriers included appropriate training and administrative support. While most English-speaking Canadian EIS programs offer individual MI and psychoeducation, which is in line with the available literature, there is room for improvement in cannabis treatment services based on current evidence for both people with EPP and their families. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Intensive Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Infection-Related Hospitalization in Hemodialysis Population

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Periodontal disease (PD) is prevalent and correlated with malnutrition and inflammation in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Periodontal therapy improves systemic inflammatory and nutritional markers in HD population. The relationship between intensive PD therapy and clinical infectious outcomes in patients on HD remains unclear. In total, 4451 patients who underwent HD and intensive PD treatment between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2010 were selected from the National Health Insura...

  12. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass

    OpenAIRE

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneou...

  13. Salinomycin treatment reduces metastatic tumor burden by hampering cancer cell migration

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp, Florian; Hermawan, Adam; Oak, Prajakta Shirish; Herrmann, Annika; Wagner, Ernst; Roidl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tumor spreading is the major threat for cancer patients. The recently published anti-cancer drug salinomycin raised hope for an improved treatment by targeting therapy-refractory cancer stem cells. However, an unambiguous role of salinomycin against cancer cell migration and metastasis formation remains elusive. Findings: We report that salinomycin effectively inhibits cancer cell migration in a variety of cancer types as determined by Boyden chamber assays. Additionally, cells we...

  14. Potential cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis treatment for reducing HIV transmission in Africa--the case of Zimbabwean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martial L Ndeffo Mbah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data from Zimbabwe suggests that genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium may increase the risk of HIV infection in young women. Therefore, the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium with praziquantel could be a potential strategy for reducing HIV infection. Here we assess the potential cost-effectiveness of praziquantel as a novel intervention strategy against HIV infection. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS and HIV infections in Zimbabwe that we fitted to cross-sectional data of FGS and HIV prevalence of 1999. We validated our epidemic projections using antenatal clinic data on HIV prevalence. We simulated annual praziquantel administration to school-age children. We then used these model predictions to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of annual administration of praziquantel as a potential measure to reduce the burden of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. FINDINGS: We showed that for a variation of efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the enhanced risk of HIV transmission per sexual act due to FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children in Zimbabwe could result in net savings of US$16-101 million compared with no mass treatment of schistosomiasis over a ten-year period. For a variation in efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the acquisition of FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children could result in net savings of US$36-92 million over a ten-year period. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to reducing schistosomiasis burden, mass praziquantel administration may be a highly cost-effective way of reducing HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Program costs per case of HIV averted are similar to, and under some conditions much better than, other interventions that are currently implemented in Africa to reduce HIV transmission. As a cost-saving strategy, mass

  15. Antiretroviral treatment reduces increased CSF neurofilament protein (NFL) in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellgren, A; Price, R W; Hagberg, L; Rosengren, L; Brew, B J; Gisslén, M

    2007-10-09

    Increased levels of the light-chain neurofilament protein (NFL) in CSF provide a marker of CNS injury in several neurodegenerative disorders and have been reported in the AIDS dementia complex (ADC). We examined the effects of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) on CSF NFL in HIV-1-infected subjects with and without ADC who underwent repeated lumbar punctures (LPs). NFL was measured by ELISA (normal reference value NFL at baseline, with a median level of 780 ng/L and an intraquartile range (IQR) of 480 to 7300. After 3 months of treatment, NFL concentrations had fallen to normal in 48% (10/21), and the median decreased to 340 ng/L (IQR NFL levels. Thirty-two subjects had normal NFL at baseline, and all but one remained normal at follow-up. These effects on CSF NFL were seen in association with clinical improvement in ADC patients, decreases in plasma and CSF HIV-1 RNA and CSF neopterin, and increases in blood CD4 T cell counts. HAART seems to halt the neurodegenerative process(es) caused by HIV-1, as shown by the significant decrease in CSF NFL after treatment initiation. CSF NFL may serve as a useful marker in monitoring CNS injury in HIV-1 infection and in evaluating CNS efficacy of antiretroviral therapy.

  16. Effect of ultrasound treatment on functional properties of reduced-salt chicken breast meat batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Kang, Zhuang-Li; Zou, Yu-Feng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ultrasound treatments (40 kHz, 300 W) for different times (10, 20, 30 and 40 min) combined with different salt contents (1.0 %, 1.5 % and 2.0 %) on gel properties and water holding capacity (WHC) of chicken breast meat batter were investigated. Results showed salt level significantly (p  0.05) on texture, cooking loss or WHC. However, longer ultrasound (40 min) treatment resulted in a decrease in hardness, G' value and WHC. Microstructural analysis revealed that gels treated with ultrasound for 20 min had a compact structure whereas those treated for 40 min contained more protein aggregations and more cavities. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) indicated that ultrasound treatment for 20 min lowered the values of spin-spin relaxation time (T2) and increased the proportion of myofibillar water. Overall, high power ultrasound technology is a promising process which can improve the gelation properties and thereby allowing for a partial reduction in the salt levels in chicken meat gels.

  17. Livestock waste treatment systems for reducing environmental exposure to hazardous enteric pathogens: some considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, E; Scott, A; Lapen, D R; Lyautey, E; Duriez, P

    2009-11-01

    Intensive livestock production systems produce significant quantities of excreted material that must be managed to protect water, air, and crop quality. Many jurisdictions mandate how livestock wastes are managed to protect adjacent water quality from microbial and chemical contaminants that pose an environmental and human health challenge. Here, we consider innovative livestock waste treatment systems in the context of multi-barrier strategies for protecting water quality from agricultural contamination. Specifically, we consider some aspects of how enteric bacterial populations can evolve during manure storage, how their fate following land application of manure can vary according to manure composition, and finally the challenge of distinguishing enteric pathogens of agricultural provenance from those of other sources of fecal pollution at a policy-relevant watershed scale. The beneficial impacts of livestock waste treatment on risk to humans via exposure to manured land are illustrated using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) scenarios. Overall, innovative livestock treatment systems offer a crucially important strategy for making livestock wastes more benign before they are released into the broader environment.

  18. Reducing time-to-treatment in underserved Latinas with breast cancer: the Six Cities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Penedo, Frank; Talavera, Gregory; Carrillo, J Emilio; Fernández, María; Holden, Alan; Munoz, Edgar; San Miguel, Sandra; Gallion, Kipling

    2014-03-01

    The interaction of clinical and patient-level challenges following a breast cancer diagnosis can be a significant source of health care disparities. Failure to address specific cultural features that create or exacerbate barriers can lead to less-than optimal navigation results, specifically in Hispanic/Latino women. To address these disparities, the study leaders in San Antonio, Texas, and 5 other regional partners of the federally-funded Redes En Acción: The National Latino Cancer Research Network developed a culturally-tailored patient navigation intervention model for Latinas with breast cancer. Compared with control patients, a higher percentage of navigated subjects initiated treatment within 30 days (69.0% versus 46.3%, P = .029) and 60 days (97.6% versus 73.1%, P = .001) following their cancer diagnosis. Time from cancer diagnosis to first treatment was lower in the navigated group (mean, 22.22 days; median, 23.00 days) than controls (mean, 48.30 days; median, 33.00 days). These results were independent of cancer stage at diagnosis and numerous characteristics of cancer clinics and individual participants. Successful application of patient navigation increased the percentage of Latinas initiating breast cancer treatment within 30 and 60 days of diagnosis. This was achieved through navigator provision of services such as accompaniment to appointments, transportation arrangements, patient telephone support, patient-family telephone support, Spanish-English language translation, and assistance with insurance paperwork. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of treatments reducing coronary heart disease mortality in Ireland, 2000 to 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is associated with a large burden of disease in Ireland and is responsible for more than 6000 deaths annually. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of specific CHD treatments in Ireland. METHODS: Irish epidemiological data on patient numbers and median survival in specific groups, plus the uptake, effectiveness, and costs of specific interventions, all stratified by age and sex, were incorporated into a previously validated CHD mortality model, the IMPACT model. This model calculates the number of life-years gained (LYGs) by specific cardiology interventions to generate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) per LYG for each intervention. RESULTS: In 2000, medical and surgical treatments together prevented or postponed approximately 1885 CHD deaths in patients aged 25 to 84 years, and thus generated approximately 14,505 extra life-years (minimum 7270, maximum 22,475). In general, all the cardiac interventions investigated were highly cost-effective in the Irish setting. Aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, spironolactone, and warfarin for specific conditions were the most cost-effective interventions (< euro 3000\\/LYG), followed by the statins for secondary prevention (< euro 6500\\/LYG). Revascularization for chronic angina and primary angioplasty for myocardial infarction, although still cost-effective, had the highest ICER (between euro 12,000 and euro 20,000\\/LYG). CONCLUSIONS: Using a comprehensive standardized methodology, cost-effectiveness ratios in this study clearly favored simple medical treatments for myocardial infarction, secondary prevention, angina, and heart failure.

  20. Reducing Heavy Metal Element from Coal Bottom Ash by Using Citric Acid Leaching Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ahmad Asyari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal ash is the residue that is produced during coal combustion for instance fly ash, bottom ash or boiler slag which was primarily produced from the combustion of coal. With growth in coal burning power station, huge amount of coal bottom ash (CBA considered as hazardous material which are normally disposed in an on-site disposal system without any commercialization purpose. Previous researchers have studied the extraction of silica from agricultural wastes such as palm ash and rice husk ash (RHA and CBA by using leaching treatment method. In this study, the weaker acid, citric acid solution was used to replace the strong acid in leaching treatment process. Result showed that the heavy metal content such as Copper (Cu, Zinc (Zn and Lead (Pb can be decrease. Meanwhile the silica can be extracted up to 44% from coal bottom ash using citric acid leaching treatment under the optimum reaction time of 60 minutes with solution temperature of 60°C and concentration of citric acid more than 2%.

  1. Reduced frontal brain volume in non-treatment seeking cocaine dependent individuals: exploring the role of impulsivity, depression and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleo Lina Crunelle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In cocaine-dependent patients, grey matter (GM volume reductions have been observed in the frontal lobes that are associated with duration of cocaine use. Studies are mostly restricted to treatment-seekers and studies in non-treatment seeking cocaine abusers are sparse. Here, we assessed GM volume differences between 30 non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals and 33 non drug using controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Additionally, within the group of non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals, we explored the role of frequently co-occurring features such as of trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Score, BIS, smoking, depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, as well as the role of cocaine use duration, on frontal GM volume. Smaller GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals were observed in the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, within the group of cocaine users, trait impulsivity was associated with reduced GM volume in the right OFC, the left precentral gyrus and the right superior frontal gyrus, whereas no effect of smoking severity, depressive symptoms or duration of cocaine use was observed on regional GM volumes. Our data show an important association between trait impulsivity and frontal GM volumes in cocaine-dependent individuals. In contrast to previous studies with treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent patients, no significant effects of smoking severity, depressive symptoms or duration of cocaine use on frontal GM volume were observed. Reduced frontal GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent subjects are associated with trait impulsivity and are not associated with co-occurring nicotine dependence or depression.

  2. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Depression and Obsessive Rumination among Women under Methadone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S taimory

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was an attempt to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy in reducing depression and obsessive rumination among women under methadone treatment. Method: A quasi-experimental research design along with pretest-posttest design and a control group were employed to conduct this study. Considering inclusion criteria, a total of 24 female substance abusers who were under methadone treatment were selected from Omide Farda and Javeneh Sabz clinics in Mashhad via purposive sampling method. The experimental group received eight training sessions of mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy, while the control group did not receive any intervention. Two scales, namely obsessive rumination scale and Beck’s depression questionnaire were used for data collection purposes. Results: Results of analysis of covariance showed that mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy has reduced obsessive rumination and depression scores. Conclusion: Mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy can be included in intervention programs for substance abusers.

  3. Inhibition of gamma-secretase activity reduces Abeta production, reduces oxidative stress, increases mitochondrial activity and leads to reduced vulnerability to apoptosis: Implications for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Baiyang; Gong, Kai; Niu, Ying; Liu, Lingling; Yan, Yufang; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Lihai; Hu, Min; Zhao, Nanming; Zhang, Xiufang; Tang, Peifu; Gong, Yandao

    2009-05-15

    It has been argued that gamma-secretase should be considered as a pharmacological target, as there are few mechanism-based experimental and clinical studies on gamma-secretase treatment. In this study, we found that N2a cells bearing APP695 or its Swedish mutant exhibited increased basal levels of ROS, nitric oxide (NO), protein carbonyls, MDA and intracellular calcium, as well as reduced level of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP. When the activity of gamma-secretase was inhibited by expression of the D385A PS1 variant, cells (N2a/Swe.D385A) showed reduced basal levels of ROS, nitric oxide (NO), protein carbonyls, MDA and intracellular calcium, as well as increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP level. In addition, N2a/Swe.D385A cells showed reduced vulnerability to H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. The Bcl-2 and JNK/ERK pathways were proven to be involved in the change of vulnerability to H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we discovered that inhibition of gamma-secretase by DAPT would lead to a reduction of ROS levels and stabilization of mitochondrial function in APP (N2a/APP695) and APP Swedish mutant (N2a/APPswe) transfected cells. At last, it was shown that Abeta antibody and antiserum prevented increase of ROS and reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential in N2a/Swe.DeltaE9 cells but not in N2a/Swe.D385A cells, which indicated that reduced formation of Abeta was the reason for reduction of ROS formation and increase of mitochondrial membrane potential when PS-1 activity was impaired in N2a/Swe.D385A cells. We concluded that neurotoxicity was positively correlated with the activity of gamma-secretase, which suggested inhibition of gamma-secretase is a rational pharmacological target for Alzheimer's disease treatment.

  4. Nifedipine treatment reduces resting calcium concentration, oxidative and apoptotic gene expression, and improves muscle function in dystrophic mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Francisco; Valladares, Denisse; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Casas, Mariana; López, Jose R; Allen, Paul D; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. DMD is characterized in humans and in mdx mice by a severe and progressive destruction of muscle fibers, inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death. In mdx muscle fibers, we have shown that basal ATP release is increased and that extracellular ATP stimulation is pro-apoptotic. In normal fibers, depolarization-induced ATP release is blocked by nifedipine, leading us to study the potential therapeutic effect of nifedipine in mdx muscles and its relation with extracellular ATP signaling. Acute exposure to nifedipine (10 µM) decreased [Ca(2+)]r, NF-κB activity and iNOS expression in mdx myotubes. In addition, 6-week-old mdx mice were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of nifedipine, 1 mg/Kg for 1 week. This treatment lowered the [Ca(2+)]r measured in vivo in the mdx vastus lateralis. We demonstrated that extracellular ATP levels were higher in adult mdx flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibers and can be significantly reduced after 1 week of treatment with nifedipine. Interestingly, acute treatment of mdx FDB fibers with apyrase, an enzyme that completely degrades extracellular ATP to AMP, reduced [Ca(2+)]r to a similar extent as was seen in FDB fibers after 1-week of nifedipine treatment. Moreover, we demonstrated that nifedipine treatment reduced mRNA levels of pro-oxidative/nitrosative (iNOS and gp91(phox)/p47(phox) NOX2 subunits) and pro-apoptotic (Bax) genes in mdx diaphragm muscles and lowered serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. In addition, nifedipine treatment increased muscle strength assessed by the inverted grip-hanging test and exercise tolerance measured with forced swimming test in mdx mice. We hypothesize that nifedipine reduces basal ATP release, thereby decreasing purinergic receptor activation, which in turn reduces [Ca(2+)]r in mdx skeletal muscle cells. The results in this work open new perspectives

  5. Nifedipine treatment reduces resting calcium concentration, oxidative and apoptotic gene expression, and improves muscle function in dystrophic mdx mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Altamirano

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is a recessive X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. DMD is characterized in humans and in mdx mice by a severe and progressive destruction of muscle fibers, inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death. In mdx muscle fibers, we have shown that basal ATP release is increased and that extracellular ATP stimulation is pro-apoptotic. In normal fibers, depolarization-induced ATP release is blocked by nifedipine, leading us to study the potential therapeutic effect of nifedipine in mdx muscles and its relation with extracellular ATP signaling. Acute exposure to nifedipine (10 µM decreased [Ca(2+]r, NF-κB activity and iNOS expression in mdx myotubes. In addition, 6-week-old mdx mice were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of nifedipine, 1 mg/Kg for 1 week. This treatment lowered the [Ca(2+]r measured in vivo in the mdx vastus lateralis. We demonstrated that extracellular ATP levels were higher in adult mdx flexor digitorum brevis (FDB fibers and can be significantly reduced after 1 week of treatment with nifedipine. Interestingly, acute treatment of mdx FDB fibers with apyrase, an enzyme that completely degrades extracellular ATP to AMP, reduced [Ca(2+]r to a similar extent as was seen in FDB fibers after 1-week of nifedipine treatment. Moreover, we demonstrated that nifedipine treatment reduced mRNA levels of pro-oxidative/nitrosative (iNOS and gp91(phox/p47(phox NOX2 subunits and pro-apoptotic (Bax genes in mdx diaphragm muscles and lowered serum creatine kinase (CK levels. In addition, nifedipine treatment increased muscle strength assessed by the inverted grip-hanging test and exercise tolerance measured with forced swimming test in mdx mice. We hypothesize that nifedipine reduces basal ATP release, thereby decreasing purinergic receptor activation, which in turn reduces [Ca(2+]r in mdx skeletal muscle cells. The results in this work open new

  6. Reducing the Cost of Proton Radiation Therapy: The Feasibility of a Streamlined Treatment Technique for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhauser, Wayne D., E-mail: newhauser@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Zhang, Rui [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Jones, Timothy G. [Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Physics, Abilene Christian University, ACU Box 27963, Abilene, TX 79699 (United States); Giebeler, Annelise; Taddei, Phillip J. [Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Stewart, Robert D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 356043, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lee, Andrew [Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Vassiliev, Oleg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States)

    2015-04-24

    Proton radiation therapy is an effective modality for cancer treatments, but the cost of proton therapy is much higher compared to conventional radiotherapy and this presents a formidable barrier to most clinical practices that wish to offer proton therapy. Little attention in literature has been paid to the costs associated with collimators, range compensators and hypofractionation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cost-saving modifications to the present standard of care for proton treatments for prostate cancer. In particular, we quantified the dosimetric impact of a treatment technique in which custom fabricated collimators were replaced with a multileaf collimator (MLC) and the custom range compensators (RC) were eliminated. The dosimetric impacts of these modifications were assessed for 10 patients with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and confirmed with corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. We assessed the impact on lifetime risks of radiogenic second cancers using detailed dose reconstructions and predictive dose-risk models based on epidemiologic data. We also performed illustrative calculations, using an isoeffect model, to examine the potential for hypofractionation. Specifically, we bracketed plausible intervals of proton fraction size and total treatment dose that were equivalent to a conventional photon treatment of 79.2 Gy in 44 fractions. Our results revealed that eliminating the RC and using an MLC had negligible effect on predicted dose distributions and second cancer risks. Even modest hypofractionation strategies can yield substantial cost savings. Together, our results suggest that it is feasible to modify the standard of care to increase treatment efficiency, reduce treatment costs to patients and insurers, while preserving high treatment quality.

  7. Reducing the Cost of Proton Radiation Therapy: The Feasibility of a Streamlined Treatment Technique for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D. Newhauser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proton radiation therapy is an effective modality for cancer treatments, but the cost of proton therapy is much higher compared to conventional radiotherapy and this presents a formidable barrier to most clinical practices that wish to offer proton therapy. Little attention in literature has been paid to the costs associated with collimators, range compensators and hypofractionation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cost-saving modifications to the present standard of care for proton treatments for prostate cancer. In particular, we quantified the dosimetric impact of a treatment technique in which custom fabricated collimators were replaced with a multileaf collimator (MLC and the custom range compensators (RC were eliminated. The dosimetric impacts of these modifications were assessed for 10 patients with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS and confirmed with corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. We assessed the impact on lifetime risks of radiogenic second cancers using detailed dose reconstructions and predictive dose-risk models based on epidemiologic data. We also performed illustrative calculations, using an isoeffect model, to examine the potential for hypofractionation. Specifically, we bracketed plausible intervals of proton fraction size and total treatment dose that were equivalent to a conventional photon treatment of 79.2 Gy in 44 fractions. Our results revealed that eliminating the RC and using an MLC had negligible effect on predicted dose distributions and second cancer risks. Even modest hypofractionation strategies can yield substantial cost savings. Together, our results suggest that it is feasible to modify the standard of care to increase treatment efficiency, reduce treatment costs to patients and insurers, while preserving high treatment quality.

  8. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  9. Metallothionein treatment reduces proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha and apoptotic cell death during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkowa, M; Hidalgo, J

    2001-07-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for the human autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are considered important for induction and pathogenesis of EAE/MS disease, which is characterized by significant inflammation and neuroglial damage. We have recently shown that the exogenous administration of the antioxidant protein zinc-metallothionein-II (Zn-MT-II) significantly decreased the clinical symptoms, mortality, and leukocyte infiltration of the CNS during EAE. However, it is not known how EAE progression is regulated nor how cytokine production and cell death can be reduced. We herewith demonstrate that treatment with Zn-MT-II significantly decreased the CNS expression of IL-6 and TNF-alpha during EAE. Zn-MT-II treatment could also significantly reduce apoptotic cell death of neurons and oligodendrocytes during EAE, as judged by using TUNEL and immunoreactivity for cytochrome c and caspases 1 and 3. In contrast, the number of apoptotic lymphocytes and macrophages was less affected by Zn-MT-II treatment. The Zn-MT-II-induced decrease in proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis during EAE could contribute to the reported diminution of clinical symptoms and mortality in EAE-immunized rats receiving Zn-MT-II treatment. Our results demonstrate that MT-II reduces the CNS expression of proinflammatory cytokines and the number of apoptotic neurons during EAE in vivo and that MT-II might be a potentially useful factor for treatment of EAE/MS.

  10. Treatment with the C5a receptor antagonist ADC-1004 reduces myocardial infarction in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Håkan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, stimulated by the activated complement factor C5a, have been implicated in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. ADC-1004 is a competitive C5a receptor antagonist that has been shown to inhibit complement related neutrophil activation. ADC-1004 shields the neutrophils from C5a activation before they enter the reperfused area, which could be a mechanistic advantage compared to previous C5a directed reperfusion therapies. We investigated if treatment with ADC-1004, according to a clinically applicable protocol, would reduce infarct size and microvascular obstruction in a large animal myocardial infarct model. Methods In anesthetized pigs (42-53 kg, a percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 minutes, followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. Twenty minutes after balloon inflation the pigs were randomized to an intravenous bolus administration of ADC-1004 (175 mg, n = 8 or saline (9 mg/ml, n = 8. Area at risk (AAR was evaluated by ex vivo SPECT. Infarct size and microvascular obstruction were evaluated by ex vivo MRI. The observers were blinded to the treatment at randomization and analysis. Results ADC-1004 treatment reduced infarct size by 21% (ADC-1004: 58.3 ± 3.4 vs control: 74.1 ± 2.9%AAR, p = 0.007. Microvascular obstruction was similar between the groups (ADC-1004: 2.2 ± 1.2 vs control: 5.3 ± 2.5%AAR, p = 0.23. The mean plasma concentration of ADC-1004 was 83 ± 8 nM at sacrifice. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood-gas data. Conclusions ADC-1004 treatment reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and represents a novel treatment strategy of myocardial infarct with potential clinical applicability.

  11. Long-term treatment with nebivolol improves arterial reactivity and reduces ventricular hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Estela; Voces, Felipe; Ardanaz, Noelia; Montero, María José; Arévalo, Miguel; Sevilla, María Angeles

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of long-term nebivolol therapy on high blood pressure, impaired endothelial function in aorta, and damage observed in heart and conductance arteries in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). For this purpose, SHR were treated for 9 weeks with nebivolol (8 mg/kg per day). Untreated SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats were used as hypertensive and normotensive controls, respectively. The left ventricle/body weight ratio was used as an index of cardiac hypertrophy, and to evaluate vascular function, responses induced by potassium chloride, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside were tested on aortic rings. Aortic morphometry and fibrosis were determined in parallel by a quantitative technique. Systolic blood pressure, measured by the tail-cuff method, was lower in treated SHR than in the untreated group (194 +/- 3 versus 150 +/- 4 mm Hg). The cardiac hypertrophy index was significantly reduced by the treatment. In aortic rings, treatment with nebivolol significantly reduced the maximal response to both KCl and NA in SHR. In vessels precontracted with phenylephrine relaxant, activity due to acetylcholine was higher in normotensive rats than in SHR and the treatment significantly improved this response. The effect of sodium nitroprusside on aortic rings was similar in all groups. Medial thickness and collagen content were significantly reduced in comparison with SHR. In conclusion, the chronic antihypertensive effect of nebivolol in SHR was accompanied by an improvement in vascular structure and function and in the cardiac hypertrophy index.

  12. Increasing efficacy and reducing side effects in treatment of chronic anal fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Minh Tuan H.; Smith, Betsy E.; Keck, Carson; Keshavarzian, Ali; Sedghi, Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This is a single institution nonexperimental study intended to analyze the therapeutic efficacy of topical diazepam in treating symptoms of chronic anal fissures. Anal fissures are a common cause of anal pain. Conventional treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical creams, such as nitroglycerin and nifedipine, and surgery. However, these treatments are usually suboptimally efficacious or have deterring side effects. Patients at an outpatient community center with a diagnosis of a chronic anal fissure were prescribed either topical 2% (n = 19) or 4% (n = 18) diazepam cream between January 2013 and February 2015. We retrospectively analyzed their responses to treatment. All 19 patients using 2% diazepam cream experienced a positive response in pain, whereas 47.4% experienced a complete response, with a numerical rating scale (NRS) score of 0 (0–10). Eighty-eight percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in pain, whereas 23.5% experienced a complete response. Ninety-four percent of patients using 2% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 68.8% experienced a complete response with an anal bleeding score (ABS) of 2 (2–9). Ninety-four percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 64.7% experienced a complete response. Only 1 patient reported a side effect from diazepam cream—perianal pruritus. Both 2% and 4% topical diazepam provided significant pain and bleeding relief from chronic anal fissures that were refractory to conventional therapies. There were insignificant differences when assessing independent comparisons for pain and bleeding between the doses. PMID:28514300

  13. Ataxia-telangiectasia and wilms tumor: reduced treatment but early relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Villena, Ana; Cormenzana, María; de Prada, Inmaculada; Pérez-Martínez, Antonio; Aleo, Esther

    2013-05-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, immunodeficiency, a high incidence of lymphoreticular tumors, and an increased sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy-induced DNA damage. The appropriate cancer therapy remains unknown because of high toxicity rates with full-dose conventional protocols. We present a patient with A-T and nephroblastoma, who received an adapted treatment regimen. To our knowledge this is the second report on nephroblastoma in a patient with A-T but the first with confirmed premortem studies. Although the patient tolerated the chemotherapy regimen well, the patient relapsed and died a year after initial diagnosis.

  14. Reducing treatment by means of physical rehabilitation after lower limb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Dugina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main approaches to the assignment of physical rehabilitation restorative treatment after lower limb amputations. Material and Methods: theoretical analysis and synthesis of modern scientific and methodological literature data on methods of comprehensive rehabilitation after lower limb amputations. Results: the features of the application of physical rehabilitation after lower limb amputations, tasks and presents the main approaches to the appointment of medical physical training, therapeutic massage and physical therapy in preparation for prosthetics. Conclusions: demonstrated that therapeutic physical training, therapeutic massage and physical therapy are effective means of physical rehabilitation of patients after lower limb amputations.

  15. Combined Tin-Containing Fluoride Solution and CO2 Laser Treatment Reduces Enamel Erosion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Witulski, Nadine; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Apel, Christian; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of combined CO2 laser and tin-containing fluoride treatment on the formation and progression of enamel erosive lesions. Ninety-six human enamel samples were obtained, stored in thymol solution and, after surface polishing, randomly divided into 6 different surface treatment groups (n = 16 in each group) as follows: no treatment, control (C); one CO2 laser irradiation (L1); two CO2 laser irradiations (L2); daily application of fluoride solution (F); combined daily fluoride solution + one CO2 laser irradiation (L1F), and combined daily fluoride solution + two CO2 laser irradiations (L2F). Laser irradiation was performed at 0.3 J/cm2 (5 µs/226 Hz/10.6 µm) on day 1 (L1) and day 6 (L2). The fluoride solution contained AmF/NaF (500 ppm F), and SnCl2 (800 ppm Sn) at pH 4.5. After surface treatment the samples were submitted to an erosive cycling over 10 days, including immersion in citric acid (2 min/0.05 M/pH = 2.3) 6 times daily and storage in remineralization solution (≥1 h) between erosive attacks. At the end of each cycling day, the enamel surface loss (micrometers) was measured using a 3D laser profilometer. Data were statistically analyzed by means of a 2-level mixed effects model and linear contrasts (α = 0.05). Group F (-3.3 ± 2.0 µm) showed significantly lower enamel surface loss than groups C (-27.22 ± 4.1 µm), L1 (-18.3 ± 4.4 µm) and L2 (-16.3 ± 5.3 µm) but higher than L1F (-1.0 ± 4.4 µm) and L2F (1.4 ± 3.2 µm, p surface loss, while its combination with CO2 laser irradiation at 0.3 J/cm2 hampered erosive loss almost completely. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Familial hypercholesterolaemia reduces the quality of life of patients not reaching treatment targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Gitte Lee; Madsen, Ivan Bredbjerg; Kruse, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    . They had experienced severe side-effects and worried about their own and their relatives' health. They were concerned about the long-term impact of not being effectively treated including the risk that coronary heart disease could cause their premature death or disability and inability to care...... for their children, in particular. The women had issues with stigma and self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: The QoL impact of FH is related to treatment efficacy. These findings need to be addressed in the management of FH patients. Particular attention should be paid to those who are not presently reaching the target...

  17. Treatment with some anti-inflammatory drugs reduces germ tube formation in Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rusu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus that inhabits various host mucosal sites. It can cause both superficial and serious systemic disease. Conversion from the yeast to the hyphal form has been associated with increased virulence and mucosal invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium diclofenac and aspirin on germs tube formation of different Candida albicans strains. Prostaglandins may play an important role in fungal colonization. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. These drugs specifically block the biosynthesis of mammalian prostaglandins by inhibiting one or both of cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. In tests for germ tube formation sodium diclofenac reduced the filamentation to the 12.5%- 5.1%. In the presence of aspirin the filamentation was reduced up to 85-45% depending on the tested strain. Our results suggest that cyclooxygenase-depending synthesis of fungal prostaglandins is important for morphogenesis and fungal virulence. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase isoensymes (aspirin and diclofenac are effective in decreasing germ tube formation of Candida albicans.

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFMG A-905 treatment reduces intestinal damage in a murine model of irinotecan-induced mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, R W; Pedroso, S H S P; Vieira, A T; Moreira, L M C; França, C S; Cartelle, C T; Arantes, R M E; Generoso, S V; Cardoso, V N; Neves, M J; Nicoli, J R; Martins, F S

    2016-09-01

    Indigenous microbiota plays a crucial role in the development of several intestinal diseases, including mucositis. Gastrointestinal mucositis is a major and serious side effect of cancer therapy, and there is no effective therapy for this clinical condition. However, some probiotics have been shown to attenuate such conditions. To evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFMG A-905 (Sc-905), a potential probiotic yeast, we investigated whether pre- or post-treatment with viable or inactivated Sc-905 could prevent weight loss and intestinal lesions, and maintain integrity of the mucosal barrier in a mucositis model induced by irinotecan in mice. Only post-treatment with viable Sc-905 was able to protect mice against the damage caused by chemotherapy, reducing the weight loss, increase of intestinal permeability and jejunal lesions (villous shortening). Besides, this treatment reduced oxidative stress, prevented the decrease of goblet cells and stimulated the replication of cells in the intestinal crypts of mice with experimental mucositis. In conclusion, Sc-905 protects animals against irinotecan-induced mucositis when administered as a post-treatment with viable cells, and this effect seems to be related with the reduction of oxidative stress and preservation of intestinal mucosa.

  19. Improving high temperature creep resistance of reduced activation steels by addition of nitrogen and intermediate heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. B.; Zhang, C.; Xia, Z. X.; Yang, Z. G.

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we report an enhanced high-temperature creep resistance in reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steels, by introducing nitrogen (0.035 wt%, M3 steel) and employing a novel intermediate heat treatment I-Q-T (intermediate treatment, quenching and tempering). In comparison with all the control groups, the uniaxial tests of the I-Q-T treated M3 steel showed significant increase in rupture time and decrease in elongation. The microstructures of the samples were further characterized to elucidate the origin of the enhanced creep resistance. It is found that, by introducing nitrogen, the primary TaC particles were refined; by employing the I-Q-T heat treatment, the dispersed fine secondary MX precipitates, as well as the lath subgrains containing high-density dislocations, were increased: all are responsible for the improved creep resistance.

  20. Improving high temperature creep resistance of reduced activation steels by addition of nitrogen and intermediate heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, C., E-mail: chizhang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xia, Z.X. [Shagang School of Iron and Steel, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Yang, Z.G. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-15

    In the present study, we report an enhanced high-temperature creep resistance in reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steels, by introducing nitrogen (0.035 wt%, M3 steel) and employing a novel intermediate heat treatment I–Q–T (intermediate treatment, quenching and tempering). In comparison with all the control groups, the uniaxial tests of the I–Q–T treated M3 steel showed significant increase in rupture time and decrease in elongation. The microstructures of the samples were further characterized to elucidate the origin of the enhanced creep resistance. It is found that, by introducing nitrogen, the primary TaC particles were refined; by employing the I–Q–T heat treatment, the dispersed fine secondary MX precipitates, as well as the lath subgrains containing high-density dislocations, were increased: all are responsible for the improved creep resistance.

  1. Reduced anterior cingulate gray matter volume in treatment-naïve clinically depressed adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Nienke Pannekoek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is associated with increased risk for suicidality, social and educational impairment, smoking, substance use, obesity, and depression in adulthood. It is of relevance to further our insight in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder in the developing brain, as this may be essential to optimize treatment and prevention of adolescent depression and its negative clinical trajectories. The equivocal findings of the limited number of studies on neural abnormalities in depressed youth stress the need for further neurobiological investigation of adolescent depression. We therefore performed a voxel-based morphometry study of the hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in 26 treatment-naïve, clinically depressed adolescents and 26 pair-wise matched healthy controls. Additionally, an exploratory whole-brain analysis was performed. Clinically depressed adolescents showed a volume reduction of the bilateral dorsal ACC compared to healthy controls. However, no association was found between gray matter volume of the ACC and clinical severity scores for depression or anxiety. Our finding of a smaller ACC in clinically depressed adolescents is consistent with literature on depressed adults. Future research is needed to investigate if gray matter abnormalities precede or follow clinical depression in adolescents.

  2. Reduced anterior cingulate gray matter volume in treatment-naïve clinically depressed adolescents☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Justine Nienke; van der Werff, Steven J.A.; van den Bulk, Bianca G.; van Lang, Natasja D.J.; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent depression is associated with increased risk for suicidality, social and educational impairment, smoking, substance use, obesity, and depression in adulthood. It is of relevance to further our insight in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder in the developing brain, as this may be essential to optimize treatment and prevention of adolescent depression and its negative clinical trajectories. The equivocal findings of the limited number of studies on neural abnormalities in depressed youth stress the need for further neurobiological investigation of adolescent depression. We therefore performed a voxel-based morphometry study of the hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in 26 treatment-naïve, clinically depressed adolescents and 26 pair-wise matched healthy controls. Additionally, an exploratory whole-brain analysis was performed. Clinically depressed adolescents showed a volume reduction of the bilateral dorsal ACC compared to healthy controls. However, no association was found between gray matter volume of the ACC and clinical severity scores for depression or anxiety. Our finding of a smaller ACC in clinically depressed adolescents is consistent with literature on depressed adults. Future research is needed to investigate if gray matter abnormalities precede or follow clinical depression in adolescents. PMID:24501702

  3. Modern treatment of infection and ischaemia to reduce major amputation in the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic patients suffer a high rate of amputation. There are two main reasons; infection which can spread rapidly leading to overwhelming tissue destruction and severe peripheral arterial disease. Studies that have stratified patients according to the presence or absence of both peripheral arterial disease and infection have shown significantly worse outcomes in patients with both peripheral arterial disease and infection. There have been two crucial significant advances in diabetic foot care to improve the outlook of these diabetic patients. First, there has been the realisation that diabetic foot patients experience repeated crises from the rapid onset infection and need a special form of easily accessible care within a multidisciplinary diabetic foot service to provide prompt treatment of infection before it progresses to necrosis. Secondly, within such a service, prompt diagnosis of ischaemia and urgent revascularisation has been established as a further important aspect of successful management. The critical factor in saving limbs is making a rapid diagnosis of infection and ischaemia and administering the appropriate treatment early. In this way speedy healing can be achieved and this can prevent patients from needing amputations.

  4. Multi-objective optimisation of wastewater treatment plant control to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-05-15

    This study investigates the potential of control strategy optimisation for the reduction of operational greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment in a cost-effective manner, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be realised. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to derive sets of Pareto optimal operational and control parameter values for an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with objectives including minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs and effluent pollutant concentrations, subject to legislative compliance. Different problem formulations are explored, to identify the most effective approach to emissions reduction, and the sets of optimal solutions enable identification of trade-offs between conflicting objectives. It is found that multi-objective optimisation can facilitate a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions without the need for plant redesign or modification of the control strategy layout, but there are trade-offs to consider: most importantly, if operational costs are not to be increased, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to incur an increase in effluent ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations. Design of control strategies for a high effluent quality and low costs alone is likely to result in an inadvertent increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so it is of key importance that effects on emissions are considered in control strategy development and optimisation.

  5. Strontium ranelate reduces the risk of nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis (TROPOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginster, J Y; Seeman, E; De Vernejoul, M C; Adami, S; Compston, J; Phenekos, C; Devogelaer, J P; Curiel, M Diaz; Sawicki, A; Goemaere, S; Sorensen, O H; Felsenberg, D; Meunier, P J

    2005-05-01

    Strontium ranelate, a new oral drug shown to reduce vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, was studied in the Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis (TROPOS) study to assess its efficacy and safety in preventing nonvertebral fractures also. Strontium ranelate (2 g/d) or placebo were randomly allocated to 5091 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in a double-blind placebo-controlled 5-yr study with a main statistical analysis over 3 yr of treatment. In the entire sample, relative risk (RR) was reduced by 16% for all nonvertebral fractures (P = 0.04), and by 19% for major fragility fractures (hip, wrist, pelvis and sacrum, ribs and sternum, clavicle, humerus) (P = 0.031) in strontium ranelate-treated patients in comparison with the placebo group. Among women at high risk of hip fracture (age > or = 74 yr and femoral neck bone mineral density T score < or = -3, corresponding to -2.4 according to NHANES reference) (n = 1977), the RR reduction for hip fracture was 36% (P = 0.046). RR of vertebral fractures was reduced by 39% (P < 0.001) in the 3640 patients with spinal x-rays and by 45% in the subgroup without prevalent vertebral fracture. Strontium ranelate increased bone mineral density throughout the study, reaching at 3 yr (P < 0.001): +8.2% (femoral neck) and +9.8% (total hip). Incidence of adverse events (AEs) was similar in both groups. This study shows that strontium ranelate significantly reduces the risk of all nonvertebral and in a high-risk subgroup, hip fractures over a 3-yr period, and is well tolerated. It confirms that strontium ranelate reduces vertebral fractures. Strontium ranelate offers a safe and effective means of reducing the risk of fracture associated with osteoporosis.

  6. Treatment of reduced sulphur compounds and SO2 by Gas Phase Advanced Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meusinger, Carl; Bluhme, Anders Brostrøm; Ingemar, Jonas L.

    2017-01-01

    Reduced sulphur compounds (RSCs) emitted from pig farms are a major problem for agriculture, due to their health and environmental impacts and foul odour. This study investigates the removal of RSCs, including H2S, and their oxidation product SO2 using Gas Phase Advanced Oxidation (GPAO). GPAO is...... compounds. The study demonstrates the ability of GPAO to control RSC emissions with a low energy input relative to many currently available techniques. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved......., assuming the observed particles were made of sulphuric acid. In a second set of experiments a range of RSCs at mixing ratios typically found in pig farms were treated using a larger industry-scale system (Q = 600-1200 m3/h) that included a wet scrubber. Removal efficiencies >90% were found for all...

  7. Treatment of reduced sulphur compounds and SO2 by Gas Phase Advanced Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meusinger, Carl; Bluhme, Anders Brostrøm; Ingemar, Jonas L.

    2017-01-01

    Reduced sulphur compounds (RSCs) emitted from pig farms are a major problem for agriculture, due to their health and environmental impacts and foul odour. This study investigates the removal of RSCs, including H2S, and their oxidation product SO2 using Gas Phase Advanced Oxidation (GPAO). GPAO...... is a novel air cleaning technique which utilises accelerated atmospheric chemistry to oxidise pollutants before removing their oxidation products as particles. Removal efficiencies of 24.5% and 3.9% were found for 461 ppb of H2S and 714 ppb of SO2 in a laboratory system (volumetric flow Q = 75 m3/h...... compounds. The study demonstrates the ability of GPAO to control RSC emissions with a low energy input relative to many currently available techniques. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Do marmosets care to share? Oxytocin treatment reduces prosocial behavior toward strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Harnisch, April M; Thompson, Breanna E; French, Jeffrey A

    2015-05-01

    Cooperatively-breeding and socially-monogamous primates, like marmosets and humans, exhibit high levels of social tolerance and prosociality toward others. Oxytocin (OXT) generally facilitates prosocial behavior, but there is growing recognition that OXT modulation of prosocial behavior is shaped by the context of social interactions and by other motivational states such as arousal or anxiety. To determine whether prosociality varies based on social context, we evaluated whether marmoset donors (Callithrix penicillata) preferentially rewarded pairmates versus opposite-sex strangers in a prosocial food-sharing task. To examine potential links among OXT, stress systems, and prosociality, we evaluated whether pretrial cortisol levels in marmosets altered the impact of OXT on prosocial responses. Marmosets exhibited spontaneous prosociality toward others, but they did so preferentially toward strangers compared to their pairmates. When donor marmosets were treated with marmoset-specific Pro(8)-OXT, they exhibited reduced prosociality toward strangers compared to marmosets treated with saline or consensus-mammalian Leu(8)-OXT. When pretrial cortisol levels were lower, marmosets exhibited higher prosociality toward strangers. These findings demonstrate that while marmosets show spontaneous prosocial responses toward others, they do so preferentially toward opposite-sex strangers. Cooperative breeding may be associated with the expression of prosociality, but the existence of a pair-bond between marmoset partners appears to be neither necessary nor sufficient for the expression of spontaneous prosocial responses. Furthermore, high prosociality toward strangers is significantly reduced in marmosets treated with Pro(8)-OXT, suggesting that OXT does not universally enhance prosociality, but, rather OXT modulation of prosocial behavior varies depending on social context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of hypothyroidism reduces low-density lipoproteins but not lipoprotein(a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, I C; Nielsen, F E; Hegedüs, L

    1992-01-01

    (a) concentrations in plasma are inversely correlated. LDL and apo B levels are often elevated in untreated hypothyroidism and lowered by thyroxine (T4) treatment, probably due to an increase in LDL receptors. We measured plasma concentrations of LDL, apo B, and Lp(a) in 13 patients with symptomatic primary...... hypothyroidism before and during T4 therapy. The mean concentration of LDL decreased significantly (P = .006) from 6.05 mmol/L to 4.07 mmol/L, and the mean concentration of apo B decreased significantly (P = .005) from 1.42 g/L to 1.12 g/L. Median Lp(a) concentrations remained unchanged (P = .77); they were 17...

  10. An intensive self care training programme reduces admissions for the treatment of plantar ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, H; Newcombe, L

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes, in detail, an intensive 14 day Self Care Training Programme that is conducted at Lalgadh Leprosy Services Centre in Nepal. An evaluation of the programme was undertaken in which hospital admission for infected plantar ulceration was the outcome measure. It was found that those who had undertaken the programme were less likely to have been admitted for hospital treatment in a 3-month follow-up period (chi 2 = 5.1, P = 0.02). An odds ratio of 1:1.8 (95% CI = 0.15-0.01) was also calculated. This paper presents an overview of the issues related to impairment, a description of the Self Care Training Programme, an analysis of the evaluation results and a discussion of the findings.

  11. Gamma-Ray Treatment of Echinococcus Protoscoleces prior to Implantation in Mice Reduces Echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a serious parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus tapeworms. Protoscoleces are sometimes released during surgical treatment for hydatid cysts, causing the recurrence of echinococcosis. Protoscoleces may be susceptible to radiation therapy. In this study Echinococcus protoscoleces were cultured in vitro and then divided into four different γ-ray irradiation dose groups (10 Gy, 20 Gy, 40 Gy, and 80 Gy and a blank group. The protoscoleces were then implanted into the abdominal cavity of mice. Four months later, we observed that the incidence and weight of cysts declined with the increase of irradiation dose. γ-ray irradiation can suppress the generation of Echinococcus originated from protoscolex, the reason of which is due to the damaging to the structure of Echinococcus. Irradiation may prevent echinococcosis recurrence after surgical removal of hydatid cysts.

  12. Treatment of leachate from MSWI bottom ash landfilling with anaerobic sulphate-reducing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivula, Leena J; Väisänen, Ari O; Rintala, Jukka A

    2007-02-01

    Removal of sulphate and toxic elements from the leachate of a field landfill lysimeter (112m(3)), containing municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash, was studied. The leachate was treated in two parallel laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors without and with ethanol as additional carbon source. With ethanol more than 65% of sulphate was removed, while without ethanol removal was negligible. The treatment removed Ba, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn of the studied 35 trace and other elements. The sequential extraction of the reactor sludge at the end of runs confirmed that with a few exceptions (Ba, Ca, and Cu) the main mechanism by which the elements were removed was precipitation as sulphides.

  13. Chronic treatment with epigallocatechin gallate reduces motor hyperactivity and affects in vitro tested intestinal motility of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Assunta Potenza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea catechins seem to contribute toward reducing body weight and fat. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether chronic administration of (–-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the most abundant catechin of green tea, reduces weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, an animal model of metabolic syndrome, by increasing motor activity and/or by altering gastrointestinal motility. Design: Nine-week-old SHR were randomly assigned to two groups and treated by gavage for 3 weeks with vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide or EGCG (200 mg/kg/day. Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY control rats were treated with vehicle alone. The effect of chronic administration of EGCG was evaluated on open-field motor activity and on ex vivo colonic and duodenal motility. Moreover, in vitro acute effect of 20-min incubation with EGCG (100 µM or vehicle was evaluated in colonic and duodenal specimens from untreated WKY rats and SHR. Results: Vehicle-treated SHR were normoglycemic and hyperinsulinemic, and showed a reduction of plasma adiponectin when compared to vehicle-treated WKY rats. In addition, consistent with fasting glucose and insulin values, vehicle-treated SHR were more insulin resistant than age-matched vehicle-treated WKY rats. Chronic treatment for 3 weeks with EGCG improved insulin sensitivity, raised plasma adiponectin levels, and reduced food intake and weight gain in SHR. Vehicle-treated SHR showed increased open-field motor activity (both crossings and rearings when tested after each week of treatment. The overall hyperactivity of vehicle-treated SHR was significantly reduced to the levels of vehicle-treated WKY rats after 2 and 3 weeks of EGCG treatment. Colonic and duodenal preparations obtained from SHR chronically treated in vivo with EGCG showed reduced responses to carbachol (0.05–5 µM and increased inhibitory response to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 1–10 Hz, 13 V, 1 msec, 10-sec train duration, respectively. In vitro

  14. Chronic treatment with epigallocatechin gallate reduces motor hyperactivity and affects in vitro tested intestinal motility of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Maria Assunta; Montagnani, Monica; Nacci, Carmela; De Salvia, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins seem to contribute toward reducing body weight and fat. We aimed to investigate whether chronic administration of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin of green tea, reduces weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of metabolic syndrome, by increasing motor activity and/or by altering gastrointestinal motility. Nine-week-old SHR were randomly assigned to two groups and treated by gavage for 3 weeks with vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide or EGCG (200 mg/kg/day). Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats were treated with vehicle alone. The effect of chronic administration of EGCG was evaluated on open-field motor activity and on ex vivo colonic and duodenal motility. Moreover, in vitro acute effect of 20-min incubation with EGCG (100 µM) or vehicle was evaluated in colonic and duodenal specimens from untreated WKY rats and SHR. Vehicle-treated SHR were normoglycemic and hyperinsulinemic, and showed a reduction of plasma adiponectin when compared to vehicle-treated WKY rats. In addition, consistent with fasting glucose and insulin values, vehicle-treated SHR were more insulin resistant than age-matched vehicle-treated WKY rats. Chronic treatment for 3 weeks with EGCG improved insulin sensitivity, raised plasma adiponectin levels, and reduced food intake and weight gain in SHR. Vehicle-treated SHR showed increased open-field motor activity (both crossings and rearings) when tested after each week of treatment. The overall hyperactivity of vehicle-treated SHR was significantly reduced to the levels of vehicle-treated WKY rats after 2 and 3 weeks of EGCG treatment. Colonic and duodenal preparations obtained from SHR chronically treated in vivo with EGCG showed reduced responses to carbachol (0.05-5 µM) and increased inhibitory response to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 1-10 Hz, 13 V, 1 msec, 10-sec train duration), respectively. In vitro acute EGCG incubation (100 µM, 20 min) of colonic and

  15. Venlafaxine treatment after endothelin-1-induced cortical stroke modulates growth factor expression and reduces tissue damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Rodrigo; Contreras, Valentina; Pissani, Claudia; Stack, Katherine; Vargas, Macarena; Owen, Gareth I; Lazo, Oscar M; Bronfman, Francisca C

    2016-08-01

    Neuromodulators, such as antidepressants, may contribute to neuroprotection by modulating growth factor expression to exert anti-inflammatory effects and to support neuronal plasticity after stroke. Our objective was to study whether early treatment with venlafaxine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, modulates growth factor expression and positively contributes to reducing the volume of infarcted brain tissue resulting in increased functional recovery. We studied the expression of BDNF, FGF2 and TGF-β1 by examining their mRNA and protein levels and cellular distribution using quantitative confocal microscopy at 5 days after venlafaxine treatment in control and infarcted brains. Venlafaxine treatment did not change the expression of these growth factors in sham rats. In infarcted rats, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were reduced, while the mRNA and protein levels of FGF2 and TGF-β1 were increased. Venlafaxine treatment potentiated all of the changes that were induced by cortical stroke alone. In particular, increased levels of FGF2 and TGF-β1 were observed in astrocytes at 5 days after stroke induction, and these increases were correlated with decreased astrogliosis (measured by GFAP) and increased synaptophysin immunostaining at twenty-one days after stroke in venlafaxine-treated rats. Finally, we show that venlafaxine reduced infarct volume after stroke resulting in increased functional recovery, which was measured using ladder rung motor tests, at 21 days after stroke. Our results indicate that the early oral administration of venlafaxine positively contributes to neuroprotection during the acute and late events that follow stroke.

  16. Apyrase treatment of myocardial infarction according to a clinically applicable protocol fails to reduce myocardial injury in a porcine model

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    Otto Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectonucleotidase dependent adenosine generation has been implicated in preconditioning related cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, and treatment with a soluble ectonucleotidase has been shown to reduce myocardial infarct size (IS when applied prior to induction of ischemia. However, ectonucleotidase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration only after induction of ischemia, has not previously been evaluated. We therefore investigated if treatment with the ectonucleotidase apyrase, according to a clinically applicable protocol, would reduce IS and microvascular obstruction (MO in a large animal model. Methods A percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 min, in 16 anesthetized pigs (40-50 kg. The pigs were randomized to 40 min of 1 ml/min intracoronary infusion of apyrase (10 U/ml, n = 8 or saline (0.9 mg/ml, n = 8, twenty minutes after balloon inflation. Area at risk (AAR was evaluated by ex vivo SPECT. IS and MO were evaluated by ex vivo MRI. Results No differences were observed between the apyrase group and saline group with respect to IS/AAR (75.7 ± 4.2% vs 69.4 ± 5.0%, p = NS or MO (10.7 ± 4.8% vs 11.4 ± 4.8%, p = NS, but apyrase prolonged the post-ischemic reactive hyperemia. Conclusion Apyrase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration of apyrase after induction of ischemia, does not reduce myocardial infarct size or microvascular obstruction.

  17. Hot water treatment to reduce incidence of black foot pathogens in young grapevines grown in cool climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn BLEACH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Black foot disease causes death of infected grapevines but management of this soil-borne disease by preventative measures such as pre-planting fungicide dips has not been totally effective. Hot water treatment (HWT; 50°C for 30 min of young dormant grapevine plants has been shown to significantly reduce infection. However, it has been reported to cause unacceptable damage to young vines in cooler climate countries like New Zealand, so this study examined the effects of different HWT protocols on the New Zealand black foot isolates. In vitro testing of different HWT protocols was conducted on conidia, mycelium and detached, inoculated grapevine canes using three isolates each of the species I. liriodendri (“C”. liriodendri and the complexes, I. radicicola (“C”. destructans and I. macrodidyma (“C”. macrodidymum. Heat treatments greater than 40°C for 5 min killed all conidia (P<0.001, and treatments greater than 47°C for 30 min inhibited (P≤0.003 further growth of treated mycelium plugs for all but one isolate. Within cane pieces, infection by Ilyonectria (“Cylindrocarpon” isolates was significantly reduced (P<0.001 by 30 min at 48.5 and 50°C. Additionally, these studies showed different responses to the different treatments for the three isolates of each species complex and differences between species. In field trials, HWT of 48.5 and 50°C for 30 min significantly reduced disease incidence in dormant plants to 0% (P≤0.001. This study confirmed that HWT of 48.5°C for 30 min could be used to eliminate black foot disease in dormant nursery grapevines grown in New Zealand prior to their use for establishing new vineyards.

  18. Can reinforcement-based interventions to reduce drug use successfully be adapted to routine opioid maintenance treatment?

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    Michael Specka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Comorbid substance related disorders are a major health problem for patients in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT. It was investigated whether a reinforcement scheme adapted to the regulatory and financial restrictions of routine treatment reduces concomitant drug use. METHODS: OMT patients from 7 clinics who were using cocaine, benzodiazepines, heroin or amphetamines were randomly allocated to either treatment as usual (n = 64 or treatment with an additional escalating reinforcement scheme (n = 72 in which a patient's number of weekly take-home dosages was increased after 1, 4, 8 and 12 consecutive weeks with drug-free urine specimens. Trial duration was 26 weeks. RESULTS: Completion rates were 64% for controls and 62.5% in the experimental group. Mean number of drug-free weeks was 11.3 (SD 8.5 for the control group and 9.8 (8.9 for the experimental group (p = 0.30. CONCLUSION: The intervention was not effective compared to routine treatment. Additional features might be necessary to achieve an effect, e.g. a higher frequency of urine sampling or use of other reinforcers. It has to be further investigated how interventions which have been proven effective in experimental studies can successfully be adapted to routine care conditions.

  19. A comprehensive multimodal pain treatment reduces opioid consumption after multilevel spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, Benny; Thomsen, Berit A

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Major spine surgery with multilevel instrumentation is followed by large amount of opioid consumption, significant pain and difficult mobilization in a population of predominantly chronic pain patients. This case-control study investigated if a standardized comprehensive pain and postope......PURPOSE: Major spine surgery with multilevel instrumentation is followed by large amount of opioid consumption, significant pain and difficult mobilization in a population of predominantly chronic pain patients. This case-control study investigated if a standardized comprehensive pain...... in a post-intervention group of 41 consecutive patients undergoing multilevel (median 10) instrumented spinal fusions and compared with 44 patients in a pre-intervention group. RESULTS: Compared to patients in the pre-intervention group, patients treated according to the new protocol consumed less opioid...... and dizziness on POD 1-6. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of patients scheduled for multilevel spine surgery, it was demonstrated that compared to a historic group of patients receiving usual care, a comprehensive and standardized multimodal pain and PONV protocol significantly reduced opioid consumption, improved...

  20. New treatments using alginate in order to reduce the calcification of bovine bioprosthetic heart valve tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, C; Rao, K P

    1997-01-01

    Calcification limits the functional lifetime of cardiac valve substitutes fabricated from glutaraldehyde preserved bovine pericardium. Host factors, mainly younger age, and implant factors, mainly glutaraldehyde cross-linking, are implicated in the calcification process. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking is believed to activate the potential sites in the tissues for biocalcification. In the present work, we investigated the possibility of using alginate azide (AA) instead of glutaraldehyde for the preservation of pericardial tissues in order to enhance the durability of bioprosthetic heart valves. Grafting with poly(GMA-BA) copolymer to the alginate azide cross-linked pericardial (AACPC) tissue was carried out to obtain better stability, strength, and anticalcification properties. The strength property and thermal stability of the AA cross-linked tissues were studied. Calcification studies in rat subdermal models reveal that AA cross-linking reduces the calcification to negligible levels. After 30 days implantation, the calcium content was found to be 10.4 +/- 1.2 and 6.1 +/- 0.3 micrograms mg-1 for untreated AACPC and polymer grafted AACPC, respectively, compared to a value of 100 +/- 1.2 micrograms mg-1 calcium recorded for control glutaraldehyde cross-linked pericardial (GCPC) tissues.

  1. Treatment of serum with supernatants from cultures of Candida albicans reduces its serum-dependent phagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Aderbal Antonio dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a potent activator of the complement system, and heat labile opsonins produced by activation of C3 (C3b and iC3b enhance phagocytosis of C. albicans mediated by complement receptors. In this study we treated mouse serum with supernatants from cultures of a protease producer strain of C. albicans and evaluated the ability of this serum to enhance phagocytosis of C. albicans. Cell-free supernatants from cultures of C. albicans were concentrated 5 fold and added to mouse serum for 30 min at 37ºC, before using this serum for opsonization of glutaraldehyde-fixed yeast cells. We observed that normal mouse serum increased about 3 fold the phagocytosis of C. albicans by mice peritoneal macrophages, whereas supernatant-treated serum did not increase phagocytosis. This effect of supernatants on serum was prevented by addition of pepstatin (5 µg/ ml; an inhibitor of C. albicans acid proteases to the medium. Serum treated with supernatants from cultures of a protease-deficient mutant of C. albicans also increased about 3 fold phagocytosis of the yeast. These results suggest that a protease produced by C. albicans causes proteolysis of serum opsonins, thereby reducing the phagocytosis of the yeast.

  2. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A

    2016-05-05

    This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  3. Melatonin treatment reduces astrogliosis and apoptosis in rats with traumatic brain injury

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    Abdolreza Babaee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Melatonin is known as an anti-inflammatory agent, and it has been proven to exert neuroprotection through inhibition of cell death (apoptosis in several models of brain injury.Secondary injury following the primary traumatic brain injury (TBI results in glial cells activation, especially astrocytes. In fact, astrocyte activation causes the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that may lead to secondary injury. Since most TBI research studies have focused on injured neurons and paid little attention to glial cells, the aim of current study was to investigate the effects of melatonin against astrocytes activation (astrogliosis, as well as inhibition of apoptosis in brain tissue of male rats after TBI. Materials and Methods: The animals were randomly allocated into five groups: sham group, TBI+ vehicle group (1% ethanol in saline and TBI+ melatonin groups (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg. All rats were intubated and then exposed to diffuse TBI, except for the sham group. Immunohistochemical methods were conducted using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP marker and TUNEL assay to evaluate astrocyte reactivity and cell death, respectively. Results: The results showed that based on the number of GFAP positive astrocytes in brain cortex, astrogliosis was reduced significantly (P

  4. Reduced plasma taurine level in Parkinson's disease: association with motor severity and levodopa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yuan, Yongsheng; Tong, Qing; Jiang, Siming; Xu, Qinrong; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Lian; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the level of taurine in plasma, and its association with the severity of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) and chronic levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). Plasma taurine level was measured in treated PD (tPD), untreated PD (ntPD) and control groups. Motor symptoms and NMS were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease for Autonomic Symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Longtime exposure to levodopa was indicated by its approximate cumulative dosage. The plasma taurine levels of PD patients were decreased when compared with controls and negatively associated with motor severity but not NMS. Moreover, tPD patients exhibited lower levels of plasma taurine than ntPD patients. Interestingly, plasma taurine levels negatively correlated with cumulative levodopa dosage in tPD. After controlling for potential confounders, the association between taurine and levodopa remained significant. Our study supports that taurine may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PD and the disturbances caused by chronic levodopa administration.

  5. Reducing the chlorine dioxide demand in final disinfection of drinking water treatment plants using activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Crotti, Barbara Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide is one of the most widely employed chemicals in the disinfection process of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the adsorption process with granular activated carbon (GAC) on the chlorine dioxide consumption in final oxidation/disinfection. A first series of tests was performed at the laboratory scale employing water samples collected at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter of Cremona (Italy). The adsorption process in batch conditions with seven different types of GAC was studied. A second series of tests was performed on water samples collected at the outlet of four GAC columns installed at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter. The results showed that the best chlorine dioxide demand (ClO2-D) reduction yields are equal to 60-80% and are achieved in the first 30 min after ClO2 addition, during the first 16 days of the column operation using a mineral, coal-based, mesoporous GAC. Therefore, this carbon removes organic compounds that are more rapidly reactive with ClO2. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the ClO2-D and UV absorbance at wavelength 254 nm using mineral carbons; therefore, the use of a mineral mesoporous GAC is an effective solution to control the high ClO2-D in the disinfection stage of a DWTP.

  6. Longer treatment time and slower ultrafiltration in hemodialysis: associations with reduced mortality in the DOPPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, R; Bragg-Gresham, J L; Levin, N W; Twardowski, Z J; Wizemann, V; Saito, A; Kimata, N; Gillespie, B W; Combe, C; Bommer, J; Akiba, T; Mapes, D L; Young, E W; Port, F K

    2006-04-01

    Longer treatment time (TT) and slower ultrafiltration rate (UFR) are considered advantageous for hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study included 22,000 HD patients from seven countries in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). Logistic regression was used to study predictors of TT > 240 min and UFR > 10 ml/h/kg bodyweight. Cox regression was used for survival analyses. Statistical adjustments were made for patient demographics, comorbidities, dose of dialysis (Kt/V), and body size. Europe and Japan had significantly longer (P V increased concomitantly with TT in all three regions with the largest absolute difference observed in Japan. TT > 240 min was independently associated with significantly lower relative risk (RR) of mortality (RR = 0.81; P = 0.0005). Every 30 min longer on HD was associated with a 7% lower RR of mortality (RR = 0.93; P V and TT (P = 0.007) toward mortality reduction. UFR > 10 ml/h/kg was associated with higher odds of intradialytic hypotension (odds ratio = 1.30; P = 0.045) and a higher risk of mortality (RR = 1.09; P = 0.02). Longer TT and higher Kt/V were independently as well as synergistically associated with lower mortality. Rapid UFR during HD was also associated with higher mortality risk. These results warrant a randomized clinical trial of longer dialysis sessions in thrice-weekly HD.

  7. Reducing treatment delay for early intervention: evaluation of a community based crisis helpline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Amresh K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A limited number of studies have assessed the pathways to care of patients experiencing psychosis for the first time. Helpline/clinic programs may offer patients who are still functional but have potential for crisis an alternative that is free from judgment. Methods In this study we report on patient calling a round-the-clock crisis helpline for suicide prevention supported by psychiatric facilities in Mumbai, India. Chi-square and test of mean differences were used to compare outcomes between first-episode patients and those with a previous history. Results Within five years, the helpline received 15,169 calls. Of those callers, 2341 (15.4% experienced suicidal ideation. Two hundred and thirty four patients opting for counseling lasting 12 months agreed to a psychiatric assessment. Of those, 32 were fist time psychosis sufferers, whereas, 54 had previously been psychotic. Of all psychiatric assessments, the clinic received 94 patients with ‘first-episode psychosis’. We found that the duration of illness was significantly shorter (17 vs. 28 months and suicide attempts were fewer (16 vs. 21 in first-time psychosis sufferers compared to those with a treatment history. Conclusions We conclude that some first-episode patients of schizophrenia and other disorders do access services by using helplines. We also argue that helplines may be somewhat immune to stigma, allowing patients a safe alternative when finding help.

  8. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery - a clinical recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahr, Thor; Ersbøll, Anne S; Karlsen, Mona A; Svare, Jens; Sneider, Kirstine; Hee, Lene; Weile, Louise K; Ziobrowska-Bech, Agnes; Østergaard, Claus; Jensen, Jørgen S; Helmig, Rikke B; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota with a depletion of Lactobacillus spp. In pregnancy, prevalence's between 7 and 30% have been reported depending on the study population and the definition. BV may be associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD). However, it is controversial whether or not BV-positive pregnant women will benefit from treatment to reduce the risk of sPTD. We could not identify any good-quality guideline addressing this issue. Consequently we aimed to produce this clinical recommendation based on GRADE. Systematic literature searches were conducted in the following databases: Guidelines International Network: G-I-N, Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov from 1999 to 3 October 2014. Hence, nine guidelines, 34 reviews, 18 randomized controlled trials and 12 observational studies were included. The GRADE quality of evidence was consistently low or very low, primarily because none of the risk ratios (RR) for the risk of sPTD at treatment with metronidazole, RR was 1.11 (95% CI 0.93-1.34) in low-risk pregnancies and 0.96 (95% CI 0.78-1.18) in high risk pregnancies. Concerning treatment with clindamycin at any gestational age, the RR was 0.87 (95% CI 0.73-1.05). This systematic review gives a strong recommendation against treatment with metronidazole and a weak recommendation against treatment with clindamycin to reduce the sPTD rate in both high-risk and low-risk pregnancies with BV. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Reducing iron in the brain: a novel pharmacologic mechanism of huperzine A in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Tian; Qian, Zhong-Ming; He, Xuan; Gong, Qi; Wu, Ka-Chun; Jiang, Li-Rong; Lu, Li-Na; Zhu, Zhou-Jing; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Yung, Wing-Ho; Ke, Ya

    2014-05-01

    Huperzine A (HupA), a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase derived from a plant, is a licensed anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug in China and a nutraceutical in the United States. In addition to acting as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, HupA possesses neuroprotective properties. However, the relevant mechanism is unknown. Here, we showed that the neuroprotective effect of HupA was derived from a novel action on brain iron regulation. HupA treatment reduced insoluble and soluble beta amyloid levels, ameliorated amyloid plaques formation, and hyperphosphorylated tau in the cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic AD mice. Also, HupA decreased beta amyloid oligomers and amyloid precursor protein levels, and increased A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease Domain 10 (ADAM10) expression in these treated AD mice. However, these beneficial effects of HupA were largely abolished by feeding the animals with a high iron diet. In parallel, we found that HupA decreased iron content in the brain and demonstrated that HupA also has a role to reduce the expression of transferrin-receptor 1 as well as the transferrin-bound iron uptake in cultured neurons. The findings implied that reducing iron in the brain is a novel mechanism of HupA in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Can guidelines for the treatment of respiratory infections lead to reduced rates of antibiotic resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederman, M S

    2001-09-01

    Guidelines have been developed for the therapy of both community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), and, potentially, if applied appropriately, could lead to a containment or reduction in the frequency of antibiotic resistance. In the therapy of CAP, guidelines could minimize the use of excessive antibiotic therapy, and if they also improve the accuracy of therapy, they could minimize the emergence of resistant organisms in the community. However, the impact of such guidelines on resistance remains to be shown. In the near future, CAP guidelines could help contain the growing problem of quinolone-resistant pneumococci by advocating the use of the most effective of the new agents, administered at the optimal dosages. When managing HAP, the use of guidelines could improve outcome by leading to a greater percentage of patients receiving adequate empiric antibiotic therapy. It remains uncertain whether such an approach can minimize the emergence of antibiotic resistance, particularly in the intensive care unit (ICU), but it is clear that if guidelines are to be accurate, they must account for the resistance patterns that are unique to each individual hospital setting. To date, the use of computer-assisted guidelines for the therapy of nosocomial infections has been successful in minimizing the frequency of inadequate therapy, with no negative impact on antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic restriction policies have been proposed as a way to have an impact on resistance, with variable effects. In the future, antibiotic rotation is likely to be studied as a way to reduce resistance, particularly in the ICU, but a number of practical issues may limit the efficacy of such an approach.

  11. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A., E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  12. Investigating VMAT planning technique to reduce rectal and bladder dose in prostate cancer treatment plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B Rana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: RapidArc is a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT technique that can deliver conformal dose distribution to the target while minimizing dose to critical structures. The main purpose of this study was to compare dosimetric quality of full double arc (full DA, full single arc (full SA, and partial double arc (partial DA techniques in RapidArc planning of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of prostate cancer involving seminal vesicles were selected for this retrospective study. For each case, RapidArc plans were created using full DA (two full arcs, full SA (one full arc, and partial DA (two partial arcs with anterior and posterior avoidance sectors techniques. For planning target volume (PTV, the maximum and mean doses, conformity, and inhomogeneity indices were evaluated. For bladder and rectum, volumes that received 70, 50, 40, and 20 Gy (V 70Gy , V 50Gy , V 40Gy and V 20Gy , respectively, and mean dose were compared. For femoral heads, V 40Gy , V 20Gy , and mean dose were evaluated. Additionally, an integral dose and monitor units (MUs were compared for each treatment plan. Results: In comparison to full DA and full SA techniques, the partial DA technique was better in sparing of rectum and bladder but delivered higher femoral head dose, which was nonetheless within the planning criteria. No clear dosimetric differences were found between full DA and partial DA plans for dose conformity and target homogeneity. The number of MUs and integral dose were largest with the partial DA technique and lowest with the full SA technique. Conclusion: The partial DA technique provides an alternative RapidArc planning approach for low risk prostate cancer.

  13. Treatment with gelsolin reduces brain inflammation and apoptotic signaling in mice following thermal injury

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    Sheng Zhi-Yong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burn survivors develop long-term cognitive impairment with increased inflammation and apoptosis in the brain. Gelsolin, an actin-binding protein with capping and severing activities, plays a crucial role in the septic response. We investigated if gelsolin infusion could attenuate neural damage in burned mice. Methods Mice with 15% total body surface area burns were injected intravenously with bovine serum albumin as placebo (2 mg/kg, or with low (2 mg/kg or high doses (20 mg/kg of gelsolin. Samples were harvested at 8, 24, 48 and 72 hours postburn. The immune function of splenic T cells was analyzed. Cerebral pathology was examined by hematoxylin/eosin staining, while activated glial cells and infiltrating leukocytes were detected by immunohistochemistry. Cerebral cytokine mRNAs were further assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, while apoptosis was evaluated by caspase-3. Neural damage was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of neuron-specific enolase (NSE and soluble protein-100 (S-100. Finally, cerebral phospho-ERK expression was measured by western blot. Results Gelsolin significantly improved the outcomes of mice following major burns in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rate was improved by high dose gelsolin treatment compared with the placebo group (56.67% vs. 30%. Although there was no significant improvement in outcome in mice receiving low dose gelsolin (30%, survival time was prolonged against the placebo control (43.1 ± 4.5 h vs. 35.5 ± 5.0 h; P Conclusion Exogenous gelsolin infusion improves survival of mice following major burn injury by partially attenuating inflammation and apoptosis in brain, and by enhancing peripheral T lymphocyte function as well. These data suggest a novel and effective strategy to combat excessive neuroinflammation and to preserve cognition in the setting of major burns.

  14. Eligibility for Statin Treatment in Korean Subjects with Reduced Renal Function: An Observational Study

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    Byung Sub Moon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between statin eligibility and the degree of renal dysfunction using the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III and the American College of Cardiology (ACC/American Heart Association (AHA guidelines in Korean adults.MethodsRenal function was assessed in 18,746 participants of the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study from January 2011 to December 2012. Subjects were divided into three groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR: stage 1, eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 2, eGFR 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2; and stages 3 to 5, eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Statin eligibility in these groups was determined using the ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, and the risk for 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS and Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE.ResultsThere were 3,546 (18.9% and 4,048 (21.5% statin-eligible subjects according to ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, respectively. The proportion of statin-eligible subjects increased as renal function deteriorated. Statin eligibility by the ACC/AHA guidelines showed better agreement with the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO recommendations compared to the ATP III guidelines in subjects with stage 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD (κ value, 0.689 vs. 0.531. When the 10-year ASCVD risk was assessed using the FRS and PCE, the mean risk calculated by both equations significantly increased as renal function declined.ConclusionsThe proportion of statin-eligible subjects significantly increased according to worsening renal function in this Korean cohort. ACC/AHA guideline showed better agreement for statin eligibility with that recommended by KDIGO guideline compared to ATP III in subjects with CKD.

  15. Leukocyte-Reduced Platelet-Rich Plasma Treatment of Basal Thumb Arthritis: A Pilot Study

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    Markus Loibl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A positive effect of intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP injection has been discussed for osteoarthritic joint conditions in the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PRP injection into the trapeziometacarpal (TMC joint. We report about ten patients with TMC joint osteoarthritis (OA that were treated with 2 intra-articular PRP injections 4 weeks apart. PRP was produced using the Double Syringe System (Arthrex Inc., Naples, Florida, USA. A total volume of 1.47±0.25 mL PRP was injected at the first injection and 1.5±0.41 mL at the second injection, depending on the volume capacity of the joint. Patients were evaluated using VAS, strength measures, and the Mayo Wrist score and DASH score after 3 and 6 months. VAS significantly decreased from 6.2±1.6 to 5.4±2.2 at six-month follow-up (P<0.05. The DASH score was unaffected; however, the Mayo Wrist score significantly improved from 46.5±18.6 to 67.5±19.0 at six-month follow-up (P=0.05. Grip was unaffected, whereas pinch declined from 6.02±2.99 to 3.96±1.77 at six-month follow-up (P<0.05. We did not observe adverse events after the injection of PRP, except one occurrence of a palmar wrist ganglion, which resolved without treatment. PRP injection for symptomatic TMC OA is a reasonable therapeutic option in early stages TMC OA and can be performed with little to no morbidity.

  16. Tempol treatment reduces anxiety-like behaviors induced by multiple anxiogenic drugs in rats.

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    Gaurav Patki

    Full Text Available We have published that pharmacological induction of oxidative stress (OS causes anxiety-like behavior in rats. Using animal models, we also have established that psychological stress induces OS and leads to anxiety-like behaviors. All evidence points towards the causal role of OS in anxiety-like behaviors. To fully ascertain the role of OS in anxiety-like behaviors, it is reasonable to test whether the pro-anxiety effects of anxiogenic drugs caffeine or N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142 can be mitigated using agents that minimize OS. In this study, osmotic pumps were either filled with antioxidant tempol or saline. The pumps were attached to the catheter leading to the brain cannula and inserted into the subcutaneous pocket in the back pocket of the rat. Continuous i.c.v. infusion of saline or tempol in the lateral ventricle of the brain (4.3 mmol/day was maintained for 1 week. Rats were intraperitoneally injected either with saline or an anxiogenic drug one at a time. Two hours later all groups were subjected to behavioral assessments. Anxiety-like behavior tests (open-field, light-dark and elevated plus maze suggested that tempol prevented anxiogenic drug-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats. Furthermore, anxiogenic drug-induced increase in stress examined via plasma corticosterone and increased oxidative stress levels assessed via plasma 8-isoprostane were prevented with tempol treatment. Protein carbonylation assay also suggested preventive effect of tempol in the prefrontal cortex brain region of rats. Antioxidant protein expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels indicate compromised antioxidant defense as well as an imbalance of inflammatory response.

  17. EVALUATION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY OZONATION FOR REDUCING THE TOXICITY OF CONTAMINANTS OF EMERGING CONCERN TO RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Nicholas; Evans, Jaden; Nasuhoglu, Deniz; Isazadeh, Siavash; Yargeau, Viviane; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2017-08-16

    While conventional wastewater treatment technologies are effective at removing many contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) from municipal wastewater, some contaminants are not removed efficiently. Ozonation may be a treatment option for reducing the concentrations of recalcitrant CECs in wastewater, but this process may generate toxic transformation-products. In the present study, we conducted semi-batch experiments to ozonate municipal wastewater effluent (WWE) spiked with 5 commonly detected CECs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether ozonation increased or decreased biological responses indicative of sublethal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracts prepared from ozonated and non-ozonated WWE. Blood, liver and brain tissues were collected from the fish at 72 h post-injection for analysis of a battery of biomarkers. In fish i.p. injected with the extracts from non-ozonated WWE, significant induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) was observed, but ozonation of the MWWE spiked with CECs significantly reduced this estrogenic response. However, in fish injected with extracts from spiked MWWE after ozonation, the balance of hepatic glutathione in its oxidized (i.e. GSSG) form was altered, indicating oxidative stress. Levels of the neurotransmitter, serotonin, were significantly elevated in brain tissue from trout injected with the extracts from ozonated spiked MWWE; a biological response that has not been previously reported in fish. Other in vivo biomarkers showed no significant changes across treatments. These results indicate that ozonation reduces the estrogenicity of wastewater, but may increase other sublethal responses. The increase in biomarker responses after ozonation may be due to the formation of biologically active products of transformation of CECs, but further work is needed to confirm this conclusion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article

  18. HEAT INPUT AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON REDUCED-ACTIVATION FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEEL FRICTION STIR WELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wei [ORNL; Chen, Gaoqiang [ORNL; Chen, Jian [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are an important class of structural materials for fusion reactor internals developed in recent years because of their improved irradiation resistance. However, they can suffer from welding induced property degradations. In this paper, a solid phase joining technology friction stir welding (FSW) was adopted to join a RAFM steel Eurofer 97 and different FSW parameters/heat input were chosen to produce welds. FSW response parameters, joint microstructures and microhardness were investigated to reveal relationships among welding heat input, weld structure characterization and mechanical properties. In general, FSW heat input results in high hardness inside the stir zone mostly due to a martensitic transformation. It is possible to produce friction stir welds similar to but not with exactly the same base metal hardness when using low power input because of other hardening mechanisms. Further, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is a very effective way to reduce FSW stir zone hardness values.

  19. Changing the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: clinical use of sacubitril-valsartan combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinsky, Edgardo

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant therapeutic advances, patients with chronic heart failure (HF) remain at high risk of morbidity and mortality. Sacubitril valsartan (previously known as LCZ696) is a new oral agent approved for the treatment of symptomatic chronic heart failure in adults with reduced ejection fraction. It is described as the first in class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) since it incorporates the neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril and the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, valsartan. Neprilysin is an endopeptidase that breaks down several vasoactive peptides including natriuretic peptides (NPs), bradykinin, endothelin and angiotensin II (Ang-II). Therefore, a natural consequence of its inhibition is an increase of plasmatic levels of both, NPs and Ang-II (with opposite biological actions). So, a combined inhibition of these both systems (Sacubitril / valsartan) may enhance the benefits of NPs effects in HF (natriuresis, diuresis, etc) while Ang-II receptor is inhibited (reducing vasoconstriction and aldosterone release). In a large clinical trial (PARADIGM-HF with 8442 patients), this new agent was found to significantly reduce cardiovascular and all cause mortality as well as hospitalizations due to HF (compared to enalapril). This manuscript reviews clinical evidence for sacubitril valsartan, dosing and cautions, future directions and its considered place in the therapy of HF with reduced ejection fraction. PMID:28133468

  20. Treatment with selectin blocking antibodies after lengthening contractions of mouse muscle blunts neutrophil accumulation but does not reduce damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Darcée D; Brooks, Susan V

    2016-01-01

    P- and E-selectins are expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and may contribute to neutrophil recruitment following injurious lengthening contractions of skeletal muscle. Blunting neutrophil, but not macrophage, accumulation after lengthening contractions may provide a therapeutic benefit as neutrophils exacerbate damage to muscle fibers, while macrophages promote repair. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P- and E-selectins contribute to neutrophil, but not macrophage, accumulation in muscles after contraction-induced injury, and that reducing neutrophil accumulation by blocking the selectins would be sufficient to reduce damage to muscle fibers. To test our hypothesis, we treated mice with antibodies to block P- and E-selectin function and assessed leukocyte accumulation and damage in muscles 2 days after lengthening contractions. Treatment with P/E-selectin blocking antibodies reduced neutrophil content by about half in muscles subjected to lengthening contractions. In spite of the reduction in neutrophil accumulation, we did not detect a decrease in damage 2 days after lengthening contractions. We conclude that P- and/or E-selectin contribute to the neutrophil accumulation associated with contraction-induced muscle damage and that only a portion of the neutrophils that typically accumulate following injurious lengthening contractions is sufficient to induce muscle fiber damage and force deficits. Thus, therapeutic interventions based on blocking the selectins or other adhesion proteins will have to reduce neutrophil numbers by more than 50% in order to provide a benefit.

  1. Fatal deep vein thrombosis after allogeneic reduced intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of metastatic gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitsuji, Yuri; Mori, Shin-Ichiro; Kami, Masahiro; Yamada, Hirofumi; Shirakawa, Kazuo; Kishi, Yukiko; Murashige, Naoko; Kim, Sung-Won; Heike, Yuji; Takaue, Yoichi

    2004-08-01

    A 61-year-old man received reduced intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST) for the treatment of metastatic gastric cancer. The cytoreductive course of RIST was uneventful until day 0, when fever suddenly developed and his performance status deteriorated. Edema developed in the bilateral lower extremities by day 7, which was diagnosed by Doppler ultrasonography as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) involving the femoral veins to the inferior vena cava. While the edema improved with anticoagulation treatment, gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) followed on day 13. Diarrhea subsided spontaneously, but hypoalbuminemia persisted, with the subsequent development of oliguria and jaundice on day 18. He died of sepsis on day 30, without any evidence of cancer progression. This case demonstrates that DVT is a potentially significant problem following RIST for solid tumors.

  2. EFFICACIOUS PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENTS FOR REDUCING FATIGUE IN CANCER SURVIVORS: THE STATE OF THE QUESTION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

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    Francisco García Torres

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains a major health problem worldwide. Due to the efficacy of the treatments and the improvements in healthcare systems, however, the number of cancer survivors has increased significantly over the years. Fatigue is one of the consequences of cancer that appears most frequently, causing significant changes in the lives of survivors. Different psychological treatments have been used to reduce fatigue in this patient group. Cognitive-behavioural techniques and mindfulness therapies are the ones that have the most data supporting their effectiveness, ahead of psycho-educational type interventions. The majority of studies, however, have been conducted with breast cancer survivors, and it would be desirable to test the effectiveness of these techniques with a greater variability of cancer types.

  3. Comparative reduction of Giardia cysts, F+ coliphages, sulphite reducing clostridia and fecal coliforms by wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Abidelfatah M; Benisti, Neta-Lee; Ofer, Naomi; Hovers, Sivan; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

    2017-01-28

    Advanced wastewater treatment processes are applied to prevent the environmental dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms. Giardia lamblia causes a severe disease called giardiasis, and is highly prevalent in untreated wastewater worldwide. Monitoring the microbial quality of wastewater effluents is usually based on testing for the levels of indicator microorganisms in the effluents. This study was conducted to compare the suitability of fecal coliforms, F+ coliphages and sulfide reducing clostridia (SRC) as indicators for the reduction of Giardia cysts in two full-scale wastewater treatment plants. The treatment process consists of activated sludge, coagulation, high rate filtration and either chlorine or UV disinfection. The results of the study demonstrated that Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in raw wastewater at an average concentration of 3600 cysts/L. Fecal coliforms, F+ coliphages and SRC were also detected at high concentrations in raw wastewater. Giardia cysts were efficiently removed (3.6 log10) by the treatment train. The greatest reduction was observed for fecal coliforms (9.6 log10) whereas the least reduction was observed for F+ coliphages (2.1 log10) following chlorine disinfection. Similar reduction was observed for SRC by filtration and disinfection by either UV (3.6 log10) or chlorine (3.3 log10). Since F+ coliphage and SRC were found to be more resistant than fecal coliforms for the tertiary treatment processes, they may prove to be more suitable as indicators for Giardia. The results of this study demonstrated that advanced wastewater treatment may prove efficient for the removal of Giardia cysts and may prevent its transmission when treated effluents are applied for crop irrigation or streams restoration.

  4. Clinical outcome of patients who reduced sunitinib or pazopanib during first-line treatment for advanced kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Roberto; Cossu Rocca, Maria; Galli, Luca; De Giorgi, Ugo; Sabbatini, Roberto; Santoni, Matteo; Mosca, Alessandra; Fornarini, Giuseppe; Massari, Francesco; Masini, Cristina; Bersanelli, Melissa; Biasco, Elisa; Lolli, Cristian; Guida, Annalisa; Berardi, Rossana; Terrone, Carlo; Pastorino, Alessandro; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Pinto, Carmine; Buti, Sebastiano; Nolè, Franco; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the different outcomes in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who receive a reduced first-line dose of sunitinib or pazopanib compared to those who continue at the standard dose. All the patients treated in 11 oncological centers in Italy for mRCC who started first-line treatment with sunitinib or pazopanib at the standard dose. Descriptive statistical tests were used to highlight differences among groups. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared across the groups using log-rank tests, the Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for statistically significant variables was also done. A total of 591 patients were included in the study. Of these, 45.7% received a reduced dose of sunitinib or pazopanib after a median treatment time of 3.6 months at the standard dose. The median overall survival in the patients who continued to receive the standard dose was 24.0 months compared to 49.4 months for those who received a reduced dose (hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.42-2.29; P<0.001). Only 45% of the patients received second-line therapy: 42.5% had an mTOR and 54.1% a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Second-line overall survival was 19.8 and 11.8 months, respectively, in the patients who received, or did not, a reduced dose during first-line therapy (P = 0.007). Toxicity-related dose reduction is a common event in mRCC patients who have started first-line therapy with either sunitinib or pazopanib. This is positively related to the outcomes of both first- and second-line therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant Treatment and Induction of Autophagy Cooperate to Reduce Desmin Aggregation in a Cellular Model of Desminopathy.

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    Eva Cabet

    Full Text Available Desminopathies, a subgroup of myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs, the progressive muscular diseases characterized by the accumulation of granulofilamentous desmin-positive aggregates, result from mutations in the desmin gene (DES, encoding a muscle-specific intermediate filament. Desminopathies often lead to severe disability and premature death from cardiac and/or respiratory failure; no specific treatment is currently available. To identify drug-targetable pathophysiological pathways, we performed pharmacological studies in C2C12 myoblastic cells expressing mutant DES. We found that inhibition of the Rac1 pathway (a G protein signaling pathway involved in diverse cellular processes, antioxidant treatment, and stimulation of macroautophagy reduced protein aggregation by up to 75% in this model. Further, a combination of two or three of these treatments was more effective than any of them alone. These results pave the way towards the development of the first treatments for desminopathies and are potentially applicable to other muscle or brain diseases associated with abnormal protein aggregation.

  6. Long-term melatonin treatment reduces ovarian mass and enhances tissue antioxidant defenses during ovulation in the rat

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    L.G.A. Chuffa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin regulates the reproductive cycle, energy metabolism and may also act as a potential antioxidant indoleamine. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether long-term melatonin treatment can induce reproductive alterations and if it can protect ovarian tissue against lipid peroxidation during ovulation. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats, 60 days old (± 250-260 g, were randomly divided into two equal groups. The control group received 0.3 mL 0.9% NaCl + 0.04 mL 95% ethanol as vehicle, and the melatonin-treated group received vehicle + melatonin (100 µg·100 g body weight-1·day-1 both intraperitoneally daily for 60 days. All animals were killed by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4:00 am. Body weight gain and body mass index were reduced by melatonin after 10 days of treatment (P < 0.05. Also, a marked loss of appetite was observed with a fall in food intake, energy intake (melatonin 51.41 ± 1.28 vs control 57.35 ± 1.34 kcal/day and glucose levels (melatonin 80.3 ± 4.49 vs control 103.5 ± 5.47 mg/dL towards the end of treatment. Melatonin itself and changes in energy balance promoted reductions in ovarian mass (20.2% and estrous cycle remained extensive (26.7%, arresting at diestrus. Regarding the oxidative profile, lipid hydroperoxide levels decreased after melatonin treatment (6.9% and total antioxidant substances were enhanced within the ovaries (23.9%. Additionally, melatonin increased superoxide dismutase (21.3%, catalase (23.6% and glutathione-reductase (14.8% activities and the reducing power (10.2% GSH/GSSG ratio. We suggest that melatonin alters ovarian mass and estrous cyclicity and protects the ovaries by increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-reductase activities.

  7. An enriched environment reduces the stress level and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine treatment and by saline after chronic morphine treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Sun, Jinling; Xue, Zhaoxia; Li, Xinwang

    2014-06-18

    This study investigated the relationships among an enriched environment, stress levels, and drug addiction. Mice were divided randomly into four treatment groups (n=12 each): enriched environment without restraint stress (EN), standard environment without restraint stress (SN), enriched environment with restraint stress (ES), and standard environment with restraint stress (SS). Mice were reared in the respective environment for 45 days. Then, the ES and SS groups were subjected to restraint stress daily (2 h/day) for 14 days, whereas the EN and SN groups were not subjected to restraint stress during this stage. The stress levels of all mice were tested in the elevated plus maze immediately after exposure to restraint stress. After the 2-week stress testing period, mice were administered acute or chronic morphine (5 mg/kg) treatment for 7 days. Then, after a 7-day withdrawal period, the mice were injected with saline (1 ml/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg) daily for 2 days to observe locomotor activity. The results indicated that the enriched environment reduced the stress and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine administration or saline after chronic morphine treatment. However, the enriched environment did not significantly inhibit locomotor activity induced by morphine challenge. In addition, the stress level did not mediate the effect of the enriched environment on drug-induced locomotor activity after acute or chronic morphine treatment.

  8. Optimally timing primaquine treatment to reduce Plasmodium falciparum transmission in low endemicity Thai-Myanmar border populations

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    Hungerford Laura L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective malaria control has successfully reduced the malaria burden in many countries, but to eliminate malaria, these countries will need to further improve their control efforts. Here, a malaria control programme was critically evaluated in a very low-endemicity Thai-Myanmar border population, where early detection and prompt treatment have substantially reduced, though not ended, Plasmodium falciparum transmission, in part due to carriage of late-maturing gametocytes that remain post-treatment. To counter this effect, the WHO recommends the use of a single oral dose of primaquine along with an effective blood schizonticide. However, while the effectiveness of primaquine as a gametocidal agent is widely documented, the mismatch between primaquine's short half-life, the long-delay for gametocyte maturation and the proper timing of primaquine administration have not been studied. Methods Mathematical models were constructed to simulate 8-year surveillance data, between 1999 and 2006, of seven villages along the Thai-Myanmar border. A simple model was developed to consider primaquine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, gametocyte carriage, and infectivity. Results In these populations, transmission intensity is very low, so the P. falciparum parasite rate is strongly linked to imported malaria and to the fraction of cases not treated. Given a 3.6-day half-life of gametocyte, the estimated duration of infectiousness would be reduced by 10 days for every 10-fold reduction in initial gametocyte densities. Infectiousness from mature gametocytes would last two to four weeks and sustain some transmission, depending on the initial parasite densities, but the residual mature gametocytes could be eliminated by primaquine. Because of the short half-life of primaquine (approximately eight hours, it was immediately obvious that with early administration (within three days after an acute attack, primaquine would not be present when

  9. Salmeterol/fluticasone treatment reduces circulating C-reactive protein level in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yong-jiang; WANG Ke; YUAN Tao; QIU Ting; XIAO Jun; YI Qun; FENG Yu-lin

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that systemic inflammation may play an important role in the progression and morbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It remains controversial whether inhaled corticosteroid in combination with a long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist can attenuate systemic inflammation. We evaluated the effect of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate on circulating C-reactive protein level in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.Methods An open-label clinical trial was conducted to recruit 122 outpatients with stable moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from department of respiratory medicine in two teaching hospitals between June 2007 and March 2008. Patients were randomized into two groups (1:1) to receive either the combination of 50 ug salmeterol and 500 ug fluticasone twice daily (n=61), or the combination of 206 ug albuterol and 36 ug ipratropium q.i.d (n=61) over 6 months. Circulating C-reactive protein concentrations were measured before randomization and during the follow-up. The efficacy of treatment was also assessed by spirometry, as well as health status and dyspnea score at baseline and after 6-month treatment.Results Baseline characteristics of two groups were similar. Compared with ipratropium/albuterol, the combination of salmeterol/fluticasone significantly reduced circulating level of C-reactive protein (-1.73 vs. 0.08 mg/L, respectively, P <0.05) after 6-month treatment. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and health status also improved significantly in salmeterol/fluticasone group compared with ipratropium/albuterol. Salmeterol/fluticasone treatment subjects who had a decrease of circulating C-reactive protein level had a significant improvement in FEV1 and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total scores compared with those who did not (185 vs. 83 ml and -5.71 vs. -1.79 units, respectively, both P<0.01).Conclusion Salmeterol/fluticasone treatment reduced circulating C

  10. Heat-treatment reduces anti-nutritional phytochemicals and maintains protein quality in genetically improved hulled soybean flour

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    Ariela Werneck de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The soybean is a protein source of high biological value. However, the presence of anti-nutritional factors affects its protein quality and limits the bioavailability of other nutrients. The effect of heat-treatment, 150 ºC for 30 minutes, on hulled and hull-less soybean flour from the cultivar UFVTN 105AP on urease, trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility, amino acid profile, and in vivo protein quality was investigated. The treatment reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity and urease, but it did not affect protein solubility. Protein Efficiency Coefficient (PER values of the flours were similar, and the PER of the hull-less soybean flour did not differ from casein. The Net Protein Ratio (NPR did not differ between the experimental groups. The True Digestibility (TD of the flours did not differ, but both were lower in casein and the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCCAS was lower than the TD, due to limited valine determined by the chemical score. Therefore, the flours showed reduced anti-nutritional phytochemicals and similar protein quality, and therefore the whole flours can be used as a source of high quality protein.

  11. A Modified method for reducing renal injury in zoledronic acid treatment of hypercalcemia and adverse skeletal events

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    Jiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this paper, we have reported a previously undescribed risk factor of deterioration of renal function in zoledronic acid treatment of skeletal metastasis - high serum calcium level. Based on this consideration, a modified method of treatment of hypercalcemia (HCM with zoledronic acid is suggested in this paper. Material and Methods: Bone scan findings of 1090 cancer patients were analyzed, of which 26 had intense renal parenchymal uptake as a result of HCM or bone metastases. Subsequently, a total of 56 bone metastases patients with zoledronic acid treatment were divided into three groups: HCM group who were pre-treated to normal serum calcium level (13 patients, HCM group (19 patients, and normal serum calcium group (24 patients. Results: More patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were hyperglycemic, statistically significantly (18/26 versus 19/1064, P = 2.1, E-78. No more patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were associated with bone metastases (14/26 versus 438/1064, P = 0.20. Subsequently, more HCM patients receiving zoledronic acid treatment showed renal injury compared to patients with normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 2/24, P < 0.05 and HCM patients with pre-treatment to normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 1/17, P < 0.05. Conclusions: Intense renal parenchymal uptake of bisphosphonates is closely related to HCM rather than to bone metastases in cancer patients. The serum calcium should be measured and reduced to normal level before zoledronic acid is used in managements of adverse skeletal events in order to decrease the risk of renal injury.

  12. Lives Saved Tool supplement detection and treatment of syphilis in pregnancy to reduce syphilis related stillbirths and neonatal mortality

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    Berman Stuart

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally syphilis is an important yet preventable cause of stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity. Objectives This review sought to estimate the effect of detection and treatment of active syphilis in pregnancy with at least 2.4MU benzathine penicillin (or equivalent on syphilis-related stillbirths and neonatal mortality. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of multiple databases to identify relevant studies. Data were abstracted into standardised tables and the quality of evidence was assessed using adapted GRADE criteria. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were undertaken. Results Moderate quality evidence (3 studies supports a reduction in the incidence of clinical congenital syphilis of 97% (95% c.i 93 – 98% with detection and treatment of women with active syphilis in pregnancy with at least 2.4MU penicillin. The results of meta-analyses suggest that treatment with penicillin is associated with an 82% reduction in stillbirth (95% c.i. 67 – 90% (8 studies, a 64% reduction in preterm delivery (95% c.i. 53 – 73% (7 studies and an 80% reduction in neonatal deaths (95% c.i. 68 – 87% (5 studies. Although these effect estimates were large and remarkably consistent across studies, few of the studies adjusted for potential confounding factors and thus the overall quality of the evidence was considered low. However, given these large observed effects and a clear biological mechanism for effectiveness the GRADE recommendation is strong. Conclusion Detection and appropriate, timely penicillin treatment is a highly effective intervention to reduce adverse syphilis-related pregnancy outcomes. More research is required to identify the most cost-effective strategies for achieving maximum coverage of screening for all pregnant women, and access to treatment if required.

  13. Shortening Delivery Times of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy by Reducing Proton Energy Layers During Treatment Plan Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de, E-mail: s.vandewater@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kooy, Hanne M. [F. H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To shorten delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing the number of energy layers in the treatment plan. Methods and Materials: We have developed an energy layer reduction method, which was implemented into our in-house-developed multicriteria treatment planning system “Erasmus-iCycle.” The method consisted of 2 components: (1) minimizing the logarithm of the total spot weight per energy layer; and (2) iteratively excluding low-weighted energy layers. The method was benchmarked by comparing a robust “time-efficient plan” (with energy layer reduction) with a robust “standard clinical plan” (without energy layer reduction) for 5 oropharyngeal cases and 5 prostate cases. Both plans of each patient had equal robust plan quality, because the worst-case dose parameters of the standard clinical plan were used as dose constraints for the time-efficient plan. Worst-case robust optimization was performed, accounting for setup errors of 3 mm and range errors of 3% + 1 mm. We evaluated the number of energy layers and the expected delivery time per fraction, assuming 30 seconds per beam direction, 10 ms per spot, and 400 Giga-protons per minute. The energy switching time was varied from 0.1 to 5 seconds. Results: The number of energy layers was on average reduced by 45% (range, 30%-56%) for the oropharyngeal cases and by 28% (range, 25%-32%) for the prostate cases. When assuming 1, 2, or 5 seconds energy switching time, the average delivery time was shortened from 3.9 to 3.0 minutes (25%), 6.0 to 4.2 minutes (32%), or 12.3 to 7.7 minutes (38%) for the oropharyngeal cases, and from 3.4 to 2.9 minutes (16%), 5.2 to 4.2 minutes (20%), or 10.6 to 8.0 minutes (24%) for the prostate cases. Conclusions: Delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy can be reduced substantially without compromising robust plan quality. Shorter delivery times are likely to reduce treatment uncertainties and costs.

  14. Neonatal Exendin-4 Reduces Growth, Fat Deposition and Glucose Tolerance during Treatment in the Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Saidatul N. B.; De Blasio, Miles J.; Harland, M. Lyn; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Owens, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background IUGR increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in later life, due to reduced insulin sensitivity and impaired adaptation of insulin secretion. In IUGR rats, development of T2DM can be prevented by neonatal administration of the GLP-1 analogue exendin-4. We therefore investigated effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration on insulin action and β-cell mass and function in the IUGR neonate in the sheep, a species with a more developed pancreas at birth. Methods Twin IUGR lambs were injected s.c. daily with vehicle (IUGR+Veh, n = 8) or exendin-4 (1 nmol.kg-1, IUGR+Ex-4, n = 8), and singleton control lambs were injected with vehicle (CON, n = 7), from d 1 to 16 of age. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were measured in vivo during treatment (d 12–14). Body composition, β-cell mass and in vitro insulin secretion of isolated pancreatic islets were measured at d 16. Principal Findings IUGR+Veh did not alter in vivo insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity or β-cell mass, but increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 treatment of the IUGR lamb impaired glucose tolerance in vivo, reflecting reduced insulin sensitivity, and normalised glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 also reduced neonatal growth and visceral fat accumulation in IUGR lambs, known risk factors for later T2DM. Conclusions Neonatal exendin-4 induces changes in IUGR lambs that might improve later insulin action. Whether these effects of exendin-4 lead to improved insulin action in adult life after IUGR in the sheep, as in the PR rat, requires further investigation. PMID:23424667

  15. Intermittent preventive treatment using artemisinin-based combination therapy reduces malaria morbidity among school-aged children in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Breanna; Maiga, Hamma; Traore, Oumar Bila; Tekete, Mamadou; Tembine, Intimbeye; Dara, Antoine; Traore, Zoumana Isaac; Gantt, Soren; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) against malaria in school-aged children. METHODS This was an open randomized controlled trial of seasonal IPT among school children (IPTsc) aged 6–13 years in Kollé, Mali. The study began in September 2007 and completed follow-up in May 2008. Students were randomized to one of three study arms: Sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine plus artesunate (SP/AS), amodiaquine plus artesunate (AQ/AS) or vitamin C. All students received two full treatment doses, given 2 months apart during the season of high transmission from September to December. Groups were compared with respect to incidence of clinical malaria, asymptomatic parasitemia and haemoglobin concentration. RESULTS A total of 296 students were randomized, and retention in the study was 99.3%. Clinical malaria incidence in the SP/AS and AQ/AS arms was reduced by 66.6% and 46.5%, respectively, vs. vitamin C (P < 0.001). There were fewer clinic visits for any cause among the children receiving SP/AS or AQ/AS (P = 0.024). The prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia was fivefold higher in the vitamin C arm than either SP/AS or AQ/AS at each post-treatment evaluation (P < 0.001). At the end of the transmission period, children treated with IPT had lower rates of anaemia (SP/AS, 17.7%; AQ/AS, 16.0%; vitamin C, 29.6%; P = 0.039). CONCLUSION IPT among school children reduced the rates of clinical malaria, all-cause acute clinic visits, asymptomatic parasitemia and anaemia among school-aged children. PMID:19497079

  16. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infected mice with Bryophyllum pinnatum, a medicinal plant with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, reduces bacterial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouitcheu Mabeku, Laure Brigitte; Eyoum Bille, Bertrand; Tchouangueu, Thibau Flaurant; Nguepi, Eveline; Leundji, Hubert

    2017-12-01

    Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz (Crassulaceae) is a plant known for its antiulcer properties. This study evaluates the anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Bryophyllum pinnutum methanol extract with a mouse model and its antioxidant properties. Dried leaves of Bryophyllum pinnutum were extracted with methanol and ethyl acetate. Broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the anti-Helicobacter activity of extract samples in vitro. Swiss mice were inoculated with a suspension of Helicobacter pylori and divided into control group and four others that received 125, 250, 500 mg/kg of methanol extract or ciprofloxacin (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 7 days. Helicobacter pylori colonization and bacterial load of mouse stomach was assessed on day 1 and 7 post-treatment. The antioxidant activity of Bryophyllum pinnutum was evaluated through DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and reducing power assay. Methanol extract showed a significant anti-Helicobacter activity with MIC and MBC values of 32 and 256 μg/mL, respectively. Bryophyllum pinnatum and ciprofloxacin reduced H. pylori colonization of gastric tissue from 100% to 17%. Bryophyllum pinnatum extract (85.91 ± 52.91 CFU) and standard (25.74 ± 16.15 CFU) also reduced significantly (p pylori growth, and may also acts as an antioxidant to protect gastric mucosa against reactive oxygen species.

  17. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W; Coleman, S; Love, A; Reynolds, J; O' Brien, K; Gammon, S

    2004-09-22

    Rapid deployment and the use of objective force aggressively reduce logistic footprints and replenishment demands. Maneuver Sustainment requires that Future Combat Systems be equipped with water systems that are lightweight, have small footprints, and are highly adaptable to a variety of environments. Technologies employed in these settings must be able to meet these demands. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed and previously field tested nano-engineered materials for the treatment of water. These materials have been either based on silica aerogel materials or consist of composites of these aerogels with granular activated carbon (GAC). Recent tests have proven successful for the removal of contaminants including uranium, hexavalent chromium, and arsenic. Silica aerogels were evaluated for their ability to purify water that had been spiked with the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate). These results demonstrated that silica aerogels were able to remove the VX from the supply water and were nearly 30 times more adsorbent than GAC. This performance could result in REDUCING CHANGEOUT FREQUENCY BY A FACTOR OF 30 or DECREASING the VOLUME of adsorbent BY A FACTOR OF 30; thereby significantly reducing logistic footprints and replenishment demands. The use of the nano-engineered Silica Aerogel/GAC composites would provide a water purification technology that meets the needs of Future Combat Systems.

  18. (18)F-FDG PET/CT Optimizes Treatment in Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteremia and Is Associated with Reduced Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrevoets, Marvin A H; Kouijzer, Ilse J E; Aarntzen, Erik H J G; Janssen, Marcel J R; De Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Oever, Jaap Ten; Oyen, Wim J G; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P

    2017-09-01

    Metastatic infection is an important complication of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). Early diagnosis of metastatic infection is crucial, because specific treatment is required. However, metastatic infection can be asymptomatic and difficult to detect. In this study, we investigated the role of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in patients with SAB for detection of metastatic infection and its consequences for treatment and outcome. Methods: All patients with SAB at Radboud University Medical Center were included between January 2013 and April 2016. Clinical data and results of (18)F-FDG PET/CT and other imaging techniques, including echocardiography, were collected. Primary outcomes were newly diagnosed metastatic infection by (18)F-FDG PET/CT, subsequent treatment modifications, and patient outcome. Results: A total of 184 patients were included, and (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 105 patients, of whom 99 had a high-risk bacteremia. (18)F-FDG PET/CT detected metastatic infectious foci in 73.7% of these high-risk patients. In 71.2% of patients with metastatic infection, no signs and symptoms suggesting metastatic complications were present before (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed. (18)F-FDG PET/CT led to a total of 104 treatment modifications in 74 patients. Three-month mortality was higher in high-risk bacteremia patients without (18)F-FDG PET/CT performed than in those in whom (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed (32.7% vs. 12.4%, P = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, (18)F-FDG PET/CT was the only factor independently associated with reduced mortality (P = 0.005; odds ratio, 0.204; 95% confidence interval, 0.066-0.624). A higher comorbidity score was independently associated with increased mortality (P = 0.003; odds ratio, 1.254; 95% confidence interval, 1.078-1.457). Conclusion:(18)F-FDG PET/CT is a valuable technique for early detection of metastatic infectious foci, often leading to treatment modification. Performing (18)F-FDG PET/CT is associated with significantly reduced

  19. Antioxidant Treatment Reduces Formation of Structural Cores and Improves Muscle Function in RYR1Y522S/WT Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Michelucci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Central core disease (CCD is a congenital myopathy linked to mutations in the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RYR1, the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel of skeletal muscle. CCD is characterized by formation of amorphous cores within muscle fibers, lacking mitochondrial activity. In skeletal muscle of RYR1Y522S/WT knock-in mice, carrying a human mutation in RYR1 linked to malignant hyperthermia (MH with cores, oxidative stress is elevated and fibers present severe mitochondrial damage and cores. We treated RYR1Y522S/WT mice with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidant provided ad libitum in drinking water for either 2 or 6 months. Our results show that 2 months of NAC treatment starting at 2 months of age, when mitochondrial and fiber damage was still minimal, (i reduce formation of unstructured and contracture cores, (ii improve muscle function, and (iii decrease mitochondrial damage. The beneficial effect of NAC treatment is also evident following 6 months of treatment starting at 4 months of age, when structural damage was at an advanced stage. NAC exerts its protective effect likely by lowering oxidative stress, as supported by the reduction of 3-NT and SOD2 levels. This work suggests that NAC administration is beneficial to prevent mitochondrial damage and formation of cores and improve muscle function in RYR1Y522S/WT mice.

  20. Optimization of Bromelain Treatment pH with Wool for Antifelting and Reduced Pilling Behaviour: Objective Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wool fabric possesses unique properties like resiliency, warmth, wide aesthetic qualities, and comfort. However, felting-shrinkage and pilling tendency of wool after wear and repeated launderings are its inherent limitations. Proteolytic enzymes are extensively used as biocatalysts for eco-friendly wool antifelting treatments. However, uncontrolled wool protein hydrolysis by protease may lead to excessive weight loss leading to weakening of fiber and reduction in its tensile value, which further have detrimental effect on the pilling propensity of protease treated wool during use of woolen textiles. Optimum selection of protease treatment parameters like concentration, pH, temperature, and so forth can help in controlled reaction to achieve the desired effect, which generally involves cumbersome sampling and analysis. Optimization for pH of bromelain (proteolytic enzyme having activity in acidic conditions treatment with wool has been done while aiming at the desired areawise shrinkage value, minimum weight loss, and reduced pilling by using standard methods and objective fast Fourier transformation technique for pilling evaluation specifically.

  1. Intensive Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Infection-Related Hospitalization in Hemodialysis Population: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Ting; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Wu, Ming-Ju; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-08-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is prevalent and correlated with malnutrition and inflammation in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Periodontal therapy improves systemic inflammatory and nutritional markers in HD population. The relationship between intensive PD therapy and clinical infectious outcomes in patients on HD remains unclear.In total, 4451 patients who underwent HD and intensive PD treatment between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2010 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database as the case cohort. The comparison cohort was selected by matching a patient without PD with each PD treated patient at a 1:1 ratio according to a propensity score. The rates of hospitalizations for infectious diseases for both cohorts were analyzed and compared.Compared with the comparison cohort, the hazard ratio (HR) of hospitalization for overall infectious diseases was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66-0.78, P intensive PD treatment cohort. The intensive PD treated cohort had a significantly lower risk of acute and subacute infective endocarditis (HR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.35-0.84, P intensive PD treatment of patients with HD was associated with reduced risks of overall infectious diseases, acute and subacute infective endocarditis, pneumonia, and osteomyelitis. Our study concurs the role of a conventional intervention in enhancing infectious diseases outcomes.

  2. Effect of heat treatment and irradiation temperature on impact behavior of irradiated reduced-activation ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Charpy tests were conducted on eight normalized-and-tempered reduced-activation ferritic steels irradiated in two different normalized conditions. Irradiation was conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility at 393 C to {approx}14 dpa on steels with 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% Cr (0.1% C) with varying amounts of W, V, and Ta. The different normalization treatments involved changing the cooling rate after austenitization. The faster cooling rate produced 100% bainite in the 2.25 Cr steels, compared to duplex structures of bainite and polygonal ferrite for the slower cooling rate. For both cooling rates, martensite formed in the 5 and 9% Cr steels, and martensite with {approx}25% {delta}-ferrite formed in the 12% Cr steel. Irradiation caused an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and a decrease in the upper-shelf energy. The difference in microstructure in the low-chromium steels due to the different heat treatments had little effect on properties. For the high-chromium martensitic steels, only the 5 Cr steel was affected by heat treatment. When the results at 393 C were compared with previous results at 365 C, all but a 5 Cr and a 9 Cr steel showed the expected decrease in the shift in DBTT with increasing temperature.

  3. Antidepressant treatment reduces Fos-like immunoreactivity induced by swim stress in different columns of the periaqueductal gray matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino-de-Oliveira, Cilene; de Oliveira, Rúbia M W; Pádua Carobrez, Antonio; de Lima, Thereza C M; del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2006-10-16

    Antidepressant treatment attenuates behavioral changes induced by uncontrollable stress. The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is proposed to be a brain site involved in the behavioral responses to uncontrollable stress and antidepressant effects. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of antidepressant treatment on the pattern of neural activation of the PAG along its mediolateral and rostrocaudal subregions after a forced swim stress episode. Male Wistar rats were sub-acutely treated with desipramine (a selective noradrenaline re-uptake blocker, three injections of 10 mg/kg in 24 h) or clomipramine (a non-selective serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake blocker, three injections of 10 mg/kg in 24 h) and submitted to the forced swimming test (FST). Two hours after the test their brain were removed for Fos immunohistochemistry. Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in rostral, intermediate and caudal portions of dorsomedial (dmPAG), dorsolateral (dlPAG), lateral (lPAG) and ventrolateral (vlPAG) PAG were quantified by a computerized system. The FST session increased FLI in most parts of the PAG. Previous treatment with desipramine or clomipramine reduced FLI in all columns of the PAG. FLI in the PAG correlated positively with to the immobility time and negatively with to climbing behavior scored during the test. These results indicate that neurons in the PAG are activated by uncontrollable stress. Moreover, inhibitory action of antidepressants on this activity may be associated with the anti-immobility effects of these drugs in the FST.

  4. Pioglitazone treatment reduces adipose tissue inflammation through reduction of mast cell and macrophage number and by improving vascularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Spencer

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue in insulin resistant subjects contains inflammatory cells and extracellular matrix components. This study examined adipose pathology of insulin resistant subjects who were treated with pioglitazone or fish oil.Adipose biopsies were examined from nine insulin resistant subjects before/after treatment with pioglitazone 45 mg/day for 12 weeks and also from 19 subjects who were treated with fish oil (1,860 mg EPA, 1,500 mg DHA daily. These studies were performed in a clinical research center setting.Pioglitazone treatment increased the cross-sectional area of adipocytes by 18% (p = 0.01, and also increased capillary density without affecting larger vessels. Pioglitazone treatment decreased total adipose macrophage number by 26%, with a 56% decrease in M1 macrophages and an increase in M2 macrophages. Mast cells were more abundant in obese versus lean subjects, and were decreased from 24 to 13 cells/mm(2 (p = 0.02 in patients treated with pioglitazone, but not in subjects treated with FO. Although there were no changes in total collagen protein, pioglitazone increased the amount of elastin protein in adipose by 6-fold.The PPARγ agonist pioglitazone increased adipocyte size yet improved other features of adipose, increasing capillary number and reducing mast cells and inflammatory macrophages. The increase in elastin may better permit adipocyte expansion without triggering cell necrosis and an inflammatory reaction.

  5. Significant change of local atomic configurations at surface of reduced activation Eurofer steels induced by hydrogenation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greculeasa, S. G.; Palade, P.; Schinteie, G.; Kuncser, A.; Stanciu, A.; Lungu, G. A.; Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C. P.; Kuncser, V.

    2017-04-01

    Reduced-activation steels such as Eurofer alloys are candidates for supporting plasma facing components in tokamak-like nuclear fusion reactors. In order to investigate the impact of hydrogen/deuterium insertion in their crystalline lattice, annealing treatments in hydrogen atmosphere have been applied on Eurofer slabs. The resulting samples have been analyzed with respect to local structure and atomic configuration both before and after successive annealing treatments, by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The corroborated data point out for a bcc type structure of the non-hydrogenated alloy, with an average alloy composition approaching Fe0.9Cr0.1 along a depth of about 100 nm. EDS elemental maps do not indicate surface inhomogeneities in concentration whereas the Mössbauer spectra prove significant deviations from a homogeneous alloying. The hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the surface layer and decreases their oxidation, with considerable influence on the surface properties of the steel. The hydrogenation treatment is therefore proposed as a potential alternative for a convenient engineering of the surface of different Fe-Cr based alloys.

  6. High-dose rifampicin kills persisters, shortens treatment duration, and reduces relapse rate in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanmin; Liu, Alexander; Ortega-Muro, Fatima; Alameda-Martin, Laura; Mitchison, Denis; Coates, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Although high-dose rifampicin holds promise for improving tuberculosis control by potentially shortening treatment duration, these effects attributed to eradication of persistent bacteria are unclear. The presence of persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis was examined using resuscitation promoting factors (RPFs) in both in vitro hypoxia and in vivo murine tuberculosis models before and after treatment with incremental doses of rifampicin. Pharmacokinetic parameters and dose-dependent profile of rifampicin in the murine model were determined. The Cornell mouse model was used to test efficacy of high-dose rifampicin in combination with isoniazid and pyrazinamide and to measure relapse rate. There were large numbers of RPF-dependent persisters in vitro and in vivo. Stationary phase cultures were tolerant to rifampicin while higher concentrations of rifampicin eradicated plate count positive but not RPF-dependent persistent bacteria. In murine infection model, incremental doses of rifampicin exhibited a dose-dependent eradication of RPF-dependent persisters. Increasing the dose of rifampicin significantly reduced the risk of antibiotic resistance emergence. In Cornell model, mice treated with high-dose rifampicin regimen resulted in faster visceral clearance; organs were M. tuberculosis free 8 weeks post-treatment compared to 14 weeks with standard-dose rifampicin regimen. Organ sterility, plate count and RPF-dependent persister negative, was achieved. There was no disease relapse compared to the standard dose regimen (87.5%). High-dose rifampicin therapy results in eradication of RPF-dependent persisters, allowing shorter treatment duration without disease relapse. Optimizing rifampicin to its maximal efficacy with acceptable side-effect profiles will provide valuable information in human studies and can potentially improve current tuberculosis chemotherapy.

  7. High dose rifampicin kills persisters, shortens treatment duration and reduces relapse rate in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin eHu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although high-dose rifampicin holds promise for improving tuberculosis control by potentially shortening treatment duration, these effects attributed to eradication of persistent bacteria are unclear. The presence of persistent M. tuberculosis was examined using resuscitation promoting factors (RPF in both in vitro hypoxia and in vivo murine tuberculosis models before and after treatment with incremental doses of rifampicin. Pharmacokinetic parameters and dose-dependent profile of rifampicin in the murine model were determined. The Cornell mouse model was used to test efficacy of high-dose rifampicin in combination with isoniazid and pyrazinamide and to measure relapse rate. There were large numbers of RPF-dependent persisters in vitro and in vivo. Stationary phase cultures were tolerant to rifampicin while higher concentrations of rifampicin eradicated plate count positive but not RPF-dependent persistent bacteria. In murine infection model, incremental doses of rifampicin exhibited a dose-dependent eradication of RPF-dependent persisters. Increasing the dose of rifampicin significantly reduced the risk of antibiotic resistance emergence. In Cornell model, mice treated with high-dose rifampicin regimen resulted in faster visceral clearance; organs were M. tuberculosis free 8 weeks post-treatment compared to 14 weeks with standard-dose rifampicin regimen. Organ sterility, plate count and RPF-dependent persister negative, was achieved. There was no disease relapse compared to the standard dose regimen (87.5%. High-dose rifampicin therapy results in eradication of RPF-dependent persisters, allowing shorter treatment duration without disease relapse. Optimising rifampicin to its maximal efficacy with acceptable side-effect profiles will provide valuable information in human studies and can potentially improve current tuberculosis chemotherapy.

  8. Modifying optical properties of reduced/graphene oxide with controlled ozone and thermal treatment in aqueous suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir Hasan, Md; Senger, Brian J.; Mulford, Price; Ryan, Conor; Doan, Hung; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Naumov, Anton V.

    2017-02-01

    Graphene possesses a number of advantageous properties, however, does not exhibit optical emission, which limits its use in optoelectronics. Unlike graphene, its functional derivative, graphene oxide (GO) exhibits fluorescence emission throughout the visible. Here, we focus on controlled methods for tuning the optical properties of GO. We introduce ozone treatment of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in order to controllably transform it from non-emissive graphene-like material into GO with a specific fluorescence emission response. Solution-based treatment of RGO for 5-45 min with ˜1.2 g l-1 ozone/oxygen gas mixture yields a drastic color change, bleaching of the absorption in the visible and the stepwise increase in fluorescence intensity and lifetime. This is attributed to the introduction of oxygen-containing functional groups to RGO graphitic platform as detected by the infrared spectroscopy. A reverse process: controllable quenching of this fluorescence is achieved by the thermal treatment of GO in aqueous suspension up to 90 °C. This methodology allows for the wide range alteration of GO optical properties starting from the dark-colored non-emissive RGO material up to nearly transparent highly ozone-oxidized GO showing substantial fluorescence emission. The size of the GO flakes is concomitantly altered by oxidation-induced scission. Semi-empirical PM3 theoretical calculations on HyperChem models are utilized to explore the origins of optical response from GO. Two models are considered, attributing the induced emission either to the localized states produced by oxygen-containing addends or the islands of graphitic carbon enclosed by such addends. Band gap values calculated from the models are in the agreement with experimentally observed transition peak maxima. The controllable variation of GO optical properties in aqueous suspension by ozone and thermal treatments shown in this work provides a route to tune its optical response for particular optoelectronics

  9. Acute ivabradine treatment reduces heart rate without increasing atrial fibrillation inducibility irrespective of underlying vagal activity in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazunori; Inagaki, Masashi; Zheng, Can; Kawada, Toru; Li, Meihua; Fukumitsu, Masafumi; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2017-04-01

    Ivabradine, a bradycardic agent, has been shown to stably reduce patient's heart rate (HR) in the setting of acute cardiac care. However, an association between atrial fibrillation (AF) risk and acute ivabradine treatment remains a controversial clinical issue, and has not been thoroughly investigated. Bradycardia and abnormal atrial refractoriness induced by ivabradine treatment may enhance vulnerability to AF induction, especially when vagal nerve is concurrently activated. We aimed to experimentally investigate the effects of acute ivabradine treatment with/without concurrent vagal activation on AF inducibility. In 16 anesthetized dogs, cervical vagal nerves were prepared for electrical stimulation (VS). AF induction rate (AFIR) was determined by atrial burst pacing. HR, atrial action potential duration (APD), atrial effective refractory period (ERP), and AFIR were obtained consecutively at baseline, during delivery of VS (VS alone), after intravenous injection of ivabradine 0.5 mg/kg (n = 8, ivabradine group) or saline (n = 8, saline group), and again during VS delivery (drug+VS). In the ivabradine group, ivabradine alone significantly lowered HR compared to baseline, while ivabradine+VS significantly lowered HR compared to VS alone. Contrary to expectations, there were no significant differences in trends of APD, temporal dispersion of APD, ERP, and AFIR between ivabradine and saline groups. Irrespective of whether ivabradine or saline was injected, VS significantly shortened APD and ERP, and increased AFIR. Interestingly, although bradycardia in response to ivabradine injection was more intense than that to VS alone, AFIR was significantly lower after ivabradine injection than during VS alone. We conclude that, despite its intense bradycardic effect, acute ivabradine treatment does not increase AF inducibility irrespective of underlying vagal activity. This study may constitute support for the safety of using ivabradine in the setting of acute cardiac

  10. In vivo treatment with M8, a highly diluted tinctures complex, reduced the malignancy of a mouse melanoma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorly F Buchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is a class of disease responsible for 13% of death cause worldwide. Among all types of cancers, one of the most aggressive and with the highest death rate is melanoma. It is highly metastatic and current treatments with chemotherapeutic drugs do not yield satisfactory results. Therefore, the interest on new therapeutics for cancer treatment has been increasing on research. Highly diluted tinctures (HDT are intended to enhance immune system responses resulting in reduced frequency of various diseases, and often present no risk of serious side-effects due to its low toxicity. Previous results have demonstrated in vitro inhibition of invasion ability and in vivo anti-metastatic potential of B16F10 lung metastasis model after mice treatment with M8 inhalation. Aims: Now we have evaluated M8 effects on hyaluronic acid and its specific melanoma cell surface receptor (CD44 expression on lungs after inhalation by mice. Methodology: M8 compounds include Aconitum napellus 20dH, Arsenicum album 18dH, Asa foetida 20dH, Calcarea carbonica 16dH, Conium maculatum 17dH, Ipecacuanha 13dH, Phosphorus 20dH, Rhus toxicodendron 17H, Silicea 20dH, Sulphur 24dH, and Thuja occidentalis 19dH. B16F10 Melanoma cells were inoculated into C57B/L6 mouse lateral tail vein. Treatment started 24 hours after inoculation, and was repeated after each 12 hours during 14 days on an inhalation chamber that is adapted to little rodents. Mice were subjected to euthanasia by intraperitoneal injection of thiopental followed by decapitation. Lungs were surgically removed and analyzed under a stereomicroscope for the presence of metastatic foci. They were formaldehyde fixed, dehydrated and paraffin embedded. Histological sections were processed for hematoxilin/eosin (HE, Fontana-Masson and immunohistochemistry staining methods. Images were captured and blindly analysed by ImageJ (NIH software. Results: HE and Fontana-Masson showed a reduction in number and size

  11. Adenosine A2A receptor activation reduces recurrence and mortality from Clostridium difficile infection in mice following vancomycin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuesheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR decreases production of inflammatory cytokines, prevents C. difficile toxin A-induced enteritis and, in combination with antibiotics, increases survival from sepsis in mice. We investigated whether A2AAR activation improves and A2AAR deletion worsens outcomes in a murine model of C. difficile (strain VPI10463 infection (CDI. Methods C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with an antibiotic cocktail prior to infection and then treated with vancomycin with or without an A2AAR agonist. A2AAR-/- and littermate wild-type (WT mice were similarly infected, and IFNγ and TNFα were measured at peak of and recovery from infection. Results Infected, untreated mice rapidly lost weight, developed diarrhea, and had mortality rates of 50-60%. Infected mice treated with vancomycin had less weight loss and diarrhea during antibiotic treatment but mortality increased to near 100% after discontinuation of antibiotics. Infected mice treated with both vancomycin and an A2AAR agonist, either ATL370 or ATL1222, had minimal weight loss and better long-term survival than mice treated with vancomycin alone. A2AAR KO mice were more susceptible than WT mice to death from CDI. Increases in cecal IFNγ and blood TNFα were pronounced in the absence of A2AARs. Conclusion In a murine model of CDI, vancomycin treatment resulted in reduced weight loss and diarrhea during acute infection, but high recurrence and late-onset death, with overall mortality being worse than untreated infected controls. The administration of vancomycin plus an A2AAR agonist reduced inflammation and improved survival rates, suggesting a possible benefit of A2AAR agonists in the management of CDI to prevent recurrent disease.

  12. Routine delivery of artemisinin-based combination treatment at fixed health facilities reduces malaria prevalence in Tanzania: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib Rashid A

    2012-04-01

    fixed health facilities only modestly reduced asexual parasitaemia prevalence. ACT is effective for treatment of uncomplicated malaria and should have substantial public health impact on morbidity and mortality, but is unlikely to reduce malaria transmission substantially in much of sub-Saharan Africa where individuals are rapidly re-infected.

  13. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Based Silver Nanoparticle-Containing Composite Hydrogel as Highly Efficient Dye Catalysts for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Tifeng; Guo, Haiying; Zhang, Qingrui; Peng, Qiuming; Tang, Yongfu; Yan, Xuehai; Li, Bingbing

    2015-07-01

    New reduced graphene oxide-based silver nanoparticle-containing composite hydrogels were successfully prepared in situ through the simultaneous reduction of GO and noble metal precursors within the GO gel matrix. The as-formed hydrogels are composed of a network structure of cross-linked nanosheets. The reported method is based on the in situ co-reduction of GO and silver acetate within the hydrogel matrix to form RGO-based composite gel. The stabilization of silver nanoparticles was also achieved simultaneously within the gel composite system. The as-formed silver nanoparticles were found to be homogeneously and uniformly dispersed on the surface of the RGO nanosheets within the composite gel. More importantly, this RGO-based silver nanoparticle-containing composite hydrogel matrix acts as a potential catalyst for removing organic dye pollutants from an aqueous environment. Interestingly, the as-prepared catalytic composite matrix structure can be conveniently separated from an aqueous environment after the reaction, suggesting the potentially large-scale applications of the reduced graphene oxide-based nanoparticle-containing composite hydrogels for organic dye removal and wastewater treatment.

  14. The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone reduces renal interstitial fibrosis after long-term cyclosporine treatment in rat: antagonizing cyclosporine nephrotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic cyclosporine-(CsA)-mediated loss of kidney function is a major clinical problem in organ transplantation. We hypothesized that the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone (EPL) prevents chronic CsA-induced renal interstitial volume increase, tubule loss, and functional impairment in a rat model. Methods Sprague–Dawley rats received CsA alone (15 mg/kg/d p.o.), CsA and EPL (approximately 100 mg/kg/day p.o.) or vehicle (control) for 12 weeks. At 11 weeks, chronic indwelling arterial and venous catheters were implanted for continuous measurements of arterial blood pressure (BP) and GFR (inulin clearance) in conscious, freely moving animals. Plasma was sampled for analysis and kidney tissue was fixed for quantitative stereological analyses. Results Compared to controls, CsA-treatment reduced relative tubular volume (0.73±0.03 vs. 0.85±0.01, pcyclosporine rat nephropathy model, EPL reduces renal tissue injury, hypofiltration, hypertension, and growth impairment. MR antagonists should be tested for their renoprotective potential in patients treated with calcineurin inhibitors. PMID:23425330

  15. Laser treatment of port-wine stains: reduced pain and shorter duration of purpura by epidermal cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskerstrand, Elisanne J.; Norvang Nilsen, Lill T.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    1996-12-01

    The pulsed dye laser is the most efficient laser to treat port wine stains. Mathematical modeling predicts that the incident optical fluence required to coagulate small sized and/or deeply located vessels is larger than the threshold value for epidermal damage. Dynamic cooling has been reported to prevent epidermal damage caused by the absorption of laser energy in melanin. Further on, this cooling technique has proved to reduce the pain associated with laser therapy. The aim of our study was to examine possible clinical advantages of dynamic cooling. A flash lamp pumped dye laser emitting at 585 nm wavelength with pulse duration of 0.45 ms and a 5 mm diameter spot-size was used. In 12 port wine stains pairs of test sites were exposed to laser pulses with incident fluences of 6.0 to 10.0 J/cm2. In all stains one of the sites in each pair received 20 ms cryogen spurts immediately prior to laser admission. In the cooled areas laser induced pain was significantly reduced, and the time period with skin discoloration was shortened by an average of 5 days. Post treatment hyperpigmentation was not prevented. Future studies will aim at improving the cooling technique in order to achieve optical protection of the epidermis.

  16. Binge Abstinence is Associated with Reduced Energy Intake After Treatment in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M.; Dorflinger, Lindsey M.; Rolls, Barbara J.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Binge eating disorder (BED) is strongly associated with obesity and related medical and psychiatric morbidities. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has consistently been shown to reduce binge eating frequency and improve psychological functioning, as well as to produce abstinence rates of roughly 50%. This study examined the relationship between binge abstinence and dietary and psychological outcomes after CBT for BED. Methods Fifty adult patients with BED received 6-month treatments using a combination of CBT and dietary counseling. Trained interviewers conducted two 24-hour dietary recall interviews on randomly selected days at baseline and at 6 months. Results Participants had significant reductions in energy, macronutrient, and sugar intake and an increase in fruit intake. They reported significant reductions in BMI and binge eating frequency (from mean = 14.24 to mean = 1.90 binge eating episodes during the previous 28 days), as well as improvements in psychological functioning. Those who became binge abstinent reported eating roughly 400 fewer calories per day and experienced greater improvements in psychological functioning than those who did not. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that individuals who achieve complete cessation from binge eating have significantly improved dietary and psychological outcomes that could potentially improve weight status, compared with those who continue to binge eat post-treatment. PMID:27797154

  17. Treatment with aqueous extract from Croton cajucara Benth reduces hepatic oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Eder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery.

  18. [Improved Blood Pressure Control to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity and Mortality: The Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pragna; Ordunez, Pedro; DiPette, Donald; Escobar, María Cristina; Hassell, Trevor; Wyss, Fernando; Hennis, Anselm; Asma, Samira; Angell, Sonia

    2017-06-08

    Hypertension is the leading remediable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affecting more than 1 billion people worldwide, and is responsible for more than 10 million preventable deaths globally each year. While hypertension can be successfully diagnosed and treated, only one in seven persons with hypertension have controlled blood pressure. To meet the challenge of improving the control of hypertension, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the authors developed the Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project, which involves a health systems-strengthening approach that advocates for standardized hypertension management using evidence-based interventions. These interventions include the use of standardized treatment protocols, a core set of medications along with improved procurement mechanisms to increase the availability and affordability of these medications, registries for cohort monitoring and evaluation, patient empowerment, team-based care (task shifting), and community engagement. With political will and strong partnerships, this approach provides the groundwork to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality.

  19. Binge abstinence is associated with reduced energy intake after treatment in patients with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Dorflinger, Lindsey M; Rolls, Barbara J; Mitchell, Diane C; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-12-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is strongly associated with obesity and related medical and psychiatric morbidities. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has consistently been shown to reduce binge eating frequency and improve psychological functioning, as well as to produce abstinence rates of roughly 50%. This study examined the relationship between binge abstinence and dietary and psychological outcomes after CBT for BED. Fifty adult patients with BED received 6-month treatments using a combination of CBT and dietary counseling. Trained interviewers conducted two 24-hour dietary recall interviews on randomly selected days at baseline and at 6 months. Participants had significant reductions in energy, macronutrient, and sugar intake and an increase in fruit intake. They reported significant reductions in BMI and binge eating frequency (from mean = 14.24 to mean = 1.90 binge eating episodes during the previous 28 days), as well as improvements in psychological functioning. Those who became binge abstinent reported eating roughly 400 fewer calories per day and experienced greater improvements in psychological functioning than those who did not. Findings from this study suggest that individuals who achieve complete cessation from binge eating have significantly improved dietary and psychological outcomes that could potentially improve weight status, compared with those who continue to binge eat post-treatment. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  20. Treatments for hematologic malignancies in contrast to those for solid cancers are associated with reduced red cell alloimmunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Dorothea; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Tijmensen, Janneke; Middelburg, Rutger A.; de Haas, Masja; de Vooght, Karen M.K.; van de Kerkhof, Daan; Visser, Otto; Péquériaux, Nathalie C.V.; Hudig, Francisca; van der Bom, Johanna G.

    2017-01-01

    Red cell alloimmunization may induce severe hemolytic side effects. Identification of risk-modifying conditions will help tailor preventative strategies. This study aims to quantify the associations of hematologic malignancies and solid cancers with red cell alloimmunization in patients receiving red cell transfusions. We performed a nested multicenter case-control study in a source population of 24,063 patients receiving their first and subsequent red cell transfusions during an 8-year follow-up period. Cases (n=505), defined as patients developing a first transfusion-induced red cell alloantibody, were each compared with 2 non-alloimmunized controls (n=1010) who received a similar number of red cell units. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, we evaluated the association of various malignancies and treatment regimens with alloimmunization during a delineated 5-week risk period. The incidence of alloimmunization among patients with acute (myeloid or lymphoid) leukemia and mature (B- or T-cell) lymphoma was significantly reduced compared to patients without these malignancies: adjusted relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36 (range 0.19–0.68) and 0.30 (range 0.12–0.81). Associations were primarily explained by immunosuppressive treatments [RR for (any type of) chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy 0.27 (95%CI: 0.09–0.83)]. Alloimmunization risks were similarly diminished in allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplanted patients (RR 0.34, 95%CI: 0.16–0.74), at least during the six months post transplant. Alloimmunization risks of patients with other hematologic diseases or solid cancers, and their associated treatment regimens were similar to risks in the general transfused population. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to malignancies in general, hemato-oncological patients treated with dose-intensive regimens have strongly diminished risk of red cell alloimmunization. PMID:27634204

  1. Cyclosporine treatment reduces oxygen free radical generation and oxidative stress in the brain of hypoxia-reoxygenated newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richdeep S Gill

    Full Text Available Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It has previously been shown in traumatic brain injury animal models that treatment with cyclosporine reduces brain injury. However, the potential neuroprotective effect of cyclosporine in asphyxiated neonates has yet to be fully studied. Using an acute newborn swine model of hypoxia-reoxygenation, we evaluated the effects of cyclosporine on the brain, focusing on hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 production and markers of oxidative stress. Piglets (1-4 d, 1.4-2.5 kg were block-randomized into three hypoxia-reoxygenation experimental groups (2 h hypoxia followed by 4 h reoxygenation (n = 8/group. At 5 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. saline (placebo, controls or cyclosporine (2.5 or 10 mg/kg i.v. bolus in a blinded-randomized fashion. An additional sham-operated group (n = 4 underwent no hypoxia-reoxygenation. Systemic hemodynamics, carotid arterial blood flow (transit-time ultrasonic probe, cerebral cortical H(2O(2 production (electrochemical sensor, cerebral tissue glutathione (ELISA and cytosolic cytochrome-c (western blot levels were examined. Hypoxic piglets had cardiogenic shock (cardiac output 40-48% of baseline, hypotension (mean arterial pressure 27-31 mmHg and acidosis (pH 7.04 at the end of 2 h of hypoxia. Post-resuscitation cyclosporine treatment, particularly the higher dose (10 mg/kg, significantly attenuated the increase in cortical H(2O(2 concentration during reoxygenation, and was associated with lower cerebral oxidized glutathione levels. Furthermore, cyclosporine treatment significantly attenuated the increase in cortical cytochrome-c and lactate levels. Carotid blood arterial flow was similar among groups during reoxygenation. Conclusively, post-resuscitation administration of cyclosporine significantly attenuates H(2O(2 production and minimizes oxidative stress in newborn piglets following hypoxia-reoxygenation.

  2. Cyclosporine Treatment Reduces Oxygen Free Radical Generation and Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Hypoxia-Reoxygenated Newborn Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang-Qin; Chaudhary, Hetal; Brocks, Dion R.; Bigam, David L.; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It has previously been shown in traumatic brain injury animal models that treatment with cyclosporine reduces brain injury. However, the potential neuroprotective effect of cyclosporine in asphyxiated neonates has yet to be fully studied. Using an acute newborn swine model of hypoxia-reoxygenation, we evaluated the effects of cyclosporine on the brain, focusing on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and markers of oxidative stress. Piglets (1–4 d, 1.4–2.5 kg) were block-randomized into three hypoxia-reoxygenation experimental groups (2 h hypoxia followed by 4 h reoxygenation)(n = 8/group). At 5 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. saline (placebo, controls) or cyclosporine (2.5 or 10 mg/kg i.v. bolus) in a blinded-randomized fashion. An additional sham-operated group (n = 4) underwent no hypoxia-reoxygenation. Systemic hemodynamics, carotid arterial blood flow (transit-time ultrasonic probe), cerebral cortical H2O2 production (electrochemical sensor), cerebral tissue glutathione (ELISA) and cytosolic cytochrome-c (western blot) levels were examined. Hypoxic piglets had cardiogenic shock (cardiac output 40–48% of baseline), hypotension (mean arterial pressure 27–31 mmHg) and acidosis (pH 7.04) at the end of 2 h of hypoxia. Post-resuscitation cyclosporine treatment, particularly the higher dose (10 mg/kg), significantly attenuated the increase in cortical H2O2 concentration during reoxygenation, and was associated with lower cerebral oxidized glutathione levels. Furthermore, cyclosporine treatment significantly attenuated the increase in cortical cytochrome-c and lactate levels. Carotid blood arterial flow was similar among groups during reoxygenation. Conclusively, post-resuscitation administration of cyclosporine significantly attenuates H2O2 production and minimizes oxidative stress in newborn piglets following hypoxia

  3. Twice Weekly Fluticasone Propionate Added To Emollient Maintenance Treatment To Reduce Risk Of Relapse In Atopic Dermatitis: Randomised, Double Blind, Parallel Group Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Berth-Jones; Robert J. Damstra; Stefan Golsch; John K. Livden; Oliver Van Hooteghem; Fulvio Allegra; Christine A. Parker

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate, cream and ointment, applied twice weekly in addition to maintenance treatment with emollients, in reducing the risk of relapse...

  4. Short communication: Effect of whey protein addition and transglutaminase treatment on the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, Erfan; Goudarzi, Mostafa; Jooyandeh, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    The effects of whey protein addition and transglutaminase treatment, alone and in combination, on the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream were investigated. Adding whey protein with or without enzyme treatment decreased melting rate, overrun, and hardness of the reduced-fat ice cream; however, the enzyme-treated sample had a higher melting rate and overrun and softer texture. Whey protein-fortified samples showed higher melting resistance, but lower overrun and firmer texture compared with the enzyme-treated sample without added whey protein. Whey protein addition with or without transglutaminase treatment caused an increase in apparent viscosity and a decrease in flow index of the reduced-fat ice cream; nevertheless, the flow behavior of full-fat sample was most similar to the enzyme-treated reduced-fat sample with no added whey protein. Descriptive sensory analyses showed that neither whey protein addition nor transglutaminase treatment significantly influenced the flavor and odor of reduced-fat ice cream, but they both noticeably improved the color and texture of the final product. The results of this study suggest that whey protein addition with transglutaminase treatment improves the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream more favorably than does whey protein addition or transglutaminase treatment alone. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment with a human recombinant monoclonal IgG antibody against oxidized LDL in atherosclerosis-prone pigs reduces cathepsin S in coronary lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian Bo; Al-Mashhadi, Ahmed Ludvigsen; von Wachenfeldt, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunization with oxidized LDL (oxLDL) reduces atherosclerosis in rodents. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with a human recombinant monoclonal antibody against oxLDL will reduce the burden or composition of atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic minipigs. METHODS AND ...

  6. Efficacy of intramuscular treatment of beef cows with oxytetracycline to reduce mastitis and to increase calf growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, C A; Wettemann, R P; Paape, M J; Vizcarra, J A; Looper, M L; Buchanan, D S; Lusby, K S

    2002-06-01

    Spring-calving multiparous Angus x Hereford cows were used to determine the efficacy of intramuscular treatment with oxytetracycline to reduce the incidence of mastitis-causing bacteria, decrease milk somatic cell counts (SCC), and increase calf growth. During 2 yr, milk samples were collected from each quarter from a total of 319 cows at 8 to 14 d after calving and at weaning, to determine the presence of bacteria and SCC. A California mastitis test (CMT) was performed on milk from each quarter of each cow at the initial sample collection. Cows with a CMT score of 1, 2, or 3 in at least one quarter, were randomly assigned to receive either an intramuscular injection of oxytetracycline (n = 63) or the control vehicle (n = 60), and cows with a CMT score of 0 or trace in all four quarters were not treated (n = 196). Calf weights were determined at birth, early lactation, and weaning. The number of somatic cells in milk and the percentage of quarters that were infected increased as CMT score increased (P mastitis-causing bacteria at calving increased (P mastitis-causing bacteria at weaning was associated with increased SCC for quarters and average SCC for cows (P 0.10) the percentage of cows or quarters infected with mastitis-causing bacteria or SCC of cows or quarters at weaning. Average SCC per cow was negatively correlated (P 0.10) calf weights at early lactation or at weaning. Cows with one or more dry quarters after calving had calves that weighed less at early lactation and weaning than cows with four functional quarters (P CMT scores of 1 or greater after calving did not reduce intramammary infection rates or increase calf weights at weaning.

  7. Pharmacological Treatment with Annexin A1 Reduces Atherosclerotic Plaque Burden in LDLR-/- Mice on Western Type Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis H M Kusters

    Full Text Available To investigate therapeutic effects of annexin A1 (anxA1 on atherogenesis in LDLR-/- mice.Human recombinant annexin A1 (hr-anxA1 was produced by a prokaryotic expression system, purified and analysed on phosphatidylserine (PS binding and formyl peptide receptor (FPR activation. Biodistribution of 99mTechnetium-hr-anxA1 was determined in C57Bl/6J mice. 12 Weeks old LDLR-/- mice were fed a Western Type Diet (WTD during 6 weeks (Group I or 12 weeks (Group P. Mice received hr-anxA1 (1 mg/kg or vehicle by intraperitoneal injection 3 times per week for a period of 6 weeks starting at start of WTD (Group I or 6 weeks after start of WTD (Group P. Total aortic plaque burden and phenotype were analyzed using immunohistochemistry.Hr-anxA1 bound PS in Ca2+-dependent manner and activated FPR2/ALX. It inhibited rolling and adherence of neutrophils but not monocytes on activated endothelial cells. Half lives of circulating 99mTc-hr-anxA1 were <10 minutes and approximately 6 hours for intravenously (IV and intraperitoneally (IP administered hr-anxA1, respectively. Pharmacological treatment with hr-anxA1 had no significant effect on initiation of plaque formation (-33%; P = 0.21(Group I but significantly attenuated progression of existing plaques of aortic arch and subclavian artery (plaque size -50%, P = 0.005; necrotic core size -76% P = 0.015, hr-anxA1 vs vehicle (Group P.Hr-anxA1 may offer pharmacological means to treat chronic atherogenesis by reducing FPR-2 dependent neutrophil rolling and adhesion to activated endothelial cells and by reducing total plaque inflammation.

  8. Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Chagas, Marcos Hortes Nisihara; de Oliveira, Danielle Chaves Gomes; De Martinis, Bruno Spinosa; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João; Roesler, Rafael; Schröder, Nadja; Nardi, Antonio E; Martín-Santos, Rocio; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-05-01

    Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety conditions with impairment in social life. Cannabidiol (CBD), one major non-psychotomimetic compound of the cannabis sativa plant, has shown anxiolytic effects both in humans and in animals. This preliminary study aimed to compare the effects of a simulation public speaking test (SPST) on healthy control (HC) patients and treatment-naïve SAD patients who received a single dose of CBD or placebo. A total of 24 never-treated patients with SAD were allocated to receive either CBD (600 mg; n=12) or placebo (placebo; n=12) in a double-blind randomized design 1 h and a half before the test. The same number of HC (n=12) performed the SPST without receiving any medication. Each volunteer participated in only one experimental session in a double-blind procedure. Subjective ratings on the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) and Negative Self-Statement scale (SSPS-N) and physiological measures (blood pressure, heart rate, and skin conductance) were measured at six different time points during the SPST. The results were submitted to a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, and significantly decreased alert in their anticipatory speech. The placebo group presented higher anxiety, cognitive impairment, discomfort, and alert levels when compared with the control group as assessed with the VAMS. The SSPS-N scores evidenced significant increases during the testing of placebo group that was almost abolished in the CBD group. No significant differences were observed between CBD and HC in SSPS-N scores or in the cognitive impairment, discomfort, and alert factors of VAMS. The increase in anxiety induced by the SPST on subjects with SAD was reduced with the use of CBD, resulting in a similar response as the HC.

  9. Reduced neural response to reward following 7 days treatment with the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist rimonabant in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horder, Jamie; Harmer, Catherine J; Cowen, Philip J; McCabe, Ciara

    2010-09-01

    Reduced subjective experience of reward (anhedonia) is a key symptom of major depression. The anti-obesity drug and cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB(1)) antagonist, rimonabant, is associated with significant rates of depression and anxiety in clinical use and was recently withdrawn from the market because of these adverse effects. Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) model of reward we hypothesized that rimonabant would impair reward processing. Twenty-two healthy participants were randomly allocated to receive rimonabant (20 mg), or placebo, for 7 d in a double-blind, parallel group design. We used fMRI to measure the neural response to rewarding (sight and/or flavour of chocolate) and aversive (sight of mouldy strawberries and/or an unpleasant strawberry taste) stimuli on the final day of drug treatment. Rimonabant reduced the neural response to chocolate stimuli in key reward areas such as the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex. Rimonabant also decreased neural responses to the aversive stimulus condition in the caudate nucleus and ventral striatum, but increased lateral orbitofrontal activations to the aversive sight and taste of strawberry condition. Our findings are the first to show that the anti-obesity drug rimonabant inhibits the neural processing of rewarding food stimuli in humans. This plausibly underlies its ability to promote weight loss, but may also indicate a mechanism for inducing anhedonia which could lead to the increased risk of depressive symptomatology seen in clinical use. fMRI may be a useful method of screening novel agents for unwanted effects on reward and associated clinical adverse reactions.

  10. Treatment of EBV-associated nodular sclerosing Hodgkin lymphoma in a patient with ataxia telangiectasia with brentuximab vedotin and reduced COPP plus rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Michael T; Voss, Sandra; Schwabe, Dirk

    2015-11-01

    Patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) with malignancies face poor prognosis due to increased treatment-related toxicity. Here, we report a 14-year-old male with AT and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) who received brentuximab vedotin and reduced COPP plus rituximab courses. This treatment resulted in complete remission and showed no severe toxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Removal of sulphite-reducing clostridia spores by full-scale water treatment processes as a surrogate for protozoan (oo)cysts removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Willemsen-Zwaagstra, J.; Hiemstra, P.; Medema, Gerriet Jan; Kooij, D. van der

    2000-01-01

    At eight full-scale water treatment plants in the Netherlands the removal of spores of sulphite-reducing clostridia (SSRC) was determined. By sampling and processing large volumes of water (1 up to 500 litres) SSRC were detected after each stage of the treatment. This enabled the assessment of the

  12. Reduced risk of malaria parasitemia following household screening and treatment: a cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine G Sutcliffe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In regions of declining malaria transmission, new strategies for control are needed to reduce transmission and achieve elimination. Artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT is active against immature gametocytes and can reduce the risk of transmission. We sought to determine whether household screening and treatment of infected individuals provides protection against infection for household members. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was conducted in two areas in Southern Province, Zambia in 2007 and 2008/2009. To determine the impact of proactive case detection, households were randomly selected either to join a longitudinal cohort, in which participants were repeatedly screened throughout the year and those infected treated with artemether-lumefantrine, or a cross-sectional survey, in which participants were visited only once. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted throughout the year. The prevalence of RDT positivity was compared between the longitudinal and cross-sectional households at baseline and during follow-up using multilevel logistic regression. In the 2007 study area, 174 and 156 participants enrolled in the cross-sectional and longitudinal groups, respectively. In the 2008/2009 study area, 917 and 234 participants enrolled in the cross-sectional and longitudinal groups, respectively. In both study areas, participants and households in the longitudinal and cross-sectional groups were similar on demographic characteristics and prevalence of RDT positivity at baseline (2007: OR = 0.97; 95% CI:0.46, 2.03 | 2008/2009: OR = 1.28; 95% CI:0.44, 3.79. After baseline, the prevalence of RDT positivity was significantly lower in longitudinal compared to cross-sectional households in both study areas (2007: OR = 0.44; 95% CI:0.20, 0.96 | 2008/2009: OR = 0.16; 95% CI:0.05, 0.55. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Proactive case detection, consisting of screening household members with an RDT and treating those positive with

  13. Reduced bacterial growth and increased osteoblast proliferation on titanium with a nanophase TiO2 surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj G

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Garima Bhardwaj, Thomas J Webster Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Background: The attachment and initial growth of bacteria on an implant surface dictates the progression of infection. Treatment often requires aggressive antibiotic use, which does not always work. To overcome the difficulties faced in systemic and local antibiotic delivery, scientists have forayed into using alternative techniques, which includes implant surface modifications that prevent initial bacterial adhesion, foreign body formation, and may offer a controlled inflammatory response.Objective: The current study focused on using electrophoretic deposition to treat titanium with a nanophase titanium dioxide surface texture to reduce bacterial adhesion and growth. Two distinct nanotopographies were analyzed, Ti-160, an antimicrobial surface designed to greatly reduce bacterial colonization, and Ti-120, an antimicrobial surface with a topography that upregulates osteoblast activity while reducing bacterial colonization; the number following Ti in the nomenclature represents the atomic force microscopy root-mean-square roughness value in nanometers.Results: There was a 95.6% reduction in Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive bacteria for the Ti-160-treated surfaces compared to the untreated titanium alloy controls. There was a 90.2% reduction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram-negative bacteria on Ti-160-treated surfaces compared to controls. For ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli, there was an 81.1% reduction on the Ti-160-treated surfaces compared to controls. Similarly for surfaces treated with Ti-120, there was an 86.8% reduction in S. aureus, an 82.1% reduction in P. aeruginosa, and a 48.6% reduction in ampicillin-resistant E. coli. The Ti-120 also displayed a 120.7% increase at day 3 and a 168.7% increase at day 5 of osteoblast proliferation over standard titanium alloy control surfaces.Conclusion: Compared to untreated surfaces

  14. Aerobic exercise training reduces cannabis craving and use in non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej S Buchowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise. AIMS: To examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions. DESIGN: Participants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using heart rate (HR monitoring (60-70% HR reserve over 2 weeks. Exercise sessions were conducted by exercise physiologists under medical oversight. PARTICIPANTS: Sedentary or minimally active non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults (n = 12, age 25±3 years, 8 females met criteria for primary cannabis dependence using the Substance Abuse module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported drug use was assessed for 1-week before, during, and 2-weeks after the study. Participants viewed visual cannabis cues before and after exercise in conjunction with assessment of subjective cannabis craving using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF. FINDINGS: Daily cannabis use within the run-in period was 5.9 joints per day (SD = 3.1, range 1.8-10.9. Average cannabis use levels within the exercise (2.8 joints, SD = 1.6, range 0.9-5.4 and follow-up (4.1 joints, SD = 2.5, range 1.1-9.5 periods were lower than during the run-in period (both P<.005. Average MCQ factor scores for the pre- and post-exercise craving assessments were reduced for compulsivity (P  = .006, emotionality (P  = .002, expectancy (P  = .002, and purposefulness (P  = .002. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this pilot study warrant larger, adequately powered controlled trials to test the efficacy of prescribed moderate aerobic exercise as a component of cannabis dependence treatment. The neurobiological mechanisms that account for these

  15. [Successful treatment with reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia with complete tetraploidy (92, XXXX)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Junko; Onozawa, Masahiro; Takahashi, Shojiro; Okada, Kohei; Takahata, Mutsumi; Shigematsu, Akio; Kahata, Kaoru; Kondo, Takeshi; Hashino, Satoshi; Imamura, Masahiro; Asaka, Masahiro

    2011-03-01

    A 56-year-old female was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (FAB: AML-M1). G-banding karyotype of her bone marrow showed complete tetraploidy (92, XXXX [24/24]). Although she achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy and maintained CR during consolidation therapy, relapse occurred only 2 months after discharge. When the relapse occurred, bone marrow karyotypic analysis showed complete tetraploidy again. The patient received reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation (RI-CBT), which induced CR for the second time. The patient is currently alive 24 months after transplantation and there have not been any signs of recurrence to date. There have been a few reports of AML with near-tetraploidy, but cases of AML with complete tetraploidy are extremely rare. Tetraploid AML has been reported to have a poor prognosis and there have been very few cases maintaining CR over the long term after chemotherapy alone. This is the first case of complete tetraploid AML successfully treated by RI-CBT. The clinical course of this case suggests that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation during the first CR phase should be considered a treatment option for tetraploid AML.

  16. dsrAB-based analysis of sulphate-reducing bacteria in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kristi; Taylor, Michael W; Turner, Susan J

    2014-08-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are important members of the sulphur cycle in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, we investigate the diversity and activity of SRB within the developing and established biofilm of two moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems treating municipal wastewater in New Zealand. The larger of the two WWTPs (Moa Point) generates high levels of sulphide relative to the smaller Karori plant. Clone libraries of the dissimilatory (bi)sulphite reductase (dsrAB) genes and quantitative real-time PCR targeting dsrA transcripts were used to compare SRB communities between the two WWTPs. Desulfobulbus (35-53 % of total SRB sequences) and genera belonging to the family Desulfobacteraceae (27-41 %) dominated the SRB fraction of the developing biofilm on deployed plastic carriers at both sites, whereas Desulfovibrio and Desulfomicrobium were exclusively found at Moa Point. In contrast, the established biofilms from resident MBBR carriers were largely dominated by Desulfomonile tiedjei-like organisms (58-100 % of SRB sequences). The relative transcript abundance of dsrA genes (signifying active SRBs) increased with biofilm weight yet remained low overall, even in the mature biofilm stage. Our results indicate that although SRB are both present and active in the microbial community at both MBBR study sites, differences in the availability of sulphate may be contributing to the observed differences in sulphide production at these two plants.

  17. Treatment with CB2 Agonist JWH-133 Reduces Histological Features Associated with Erectile Dysfunction in Hypercholesterolemic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Araujo Fraga-Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for erectile dysfunction, mostly due to the impairment of oxidative stress and endothelial function in the penis. The cannabinoid system might regulate peripheral mechanisms of sexual function; however, its role is still poorly understood. We investigated the effects of CB2 activation on oxidative stress and fibrosis within the corpus cavernosum of hypercholesterolemic mice. Apolipoprotein-E-knockout mice were fed with a western-type diet for 11 weeks and treated with JWH-133 (selective CB2 agonist or vehicle during the last 3 weeks. CB2 receptor expression, total collagen content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS production within the penis were assessed. In vitro corpus cavernosum strips preparation was performed to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. CB2 protein expression was shown in cavernosal endothelial and smooth muscle cells of wild type and hypercholesterolemic mice. Treatment with JWH-133 reduced ROS production and NADPH-oxidase expression in hypercholesterolemic mice penis. Furthermore, JWH-133 increased endothelial NO synthase expression in the corpus cavernosum and augmented NO bioavailability. The decrease in oxidative stress levels was accompanied with a reduction in corpus cavernosum collagen content. In summary, CB2 activation decreased histological features, which were associated with erectile dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic mice.

  18. Reduced white matter integrity and its correlation with clinical symptom in first-episode, treatment-naive generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qian, Shaowen; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Li, Min; Xin, Kuolin; Sun, Gang

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore white matter microstructural alterations in the patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique, and to assess neural associations with the symptom severity. Twenty-eight first-episode, treatment-naive GAD patients without co-morbidities and 28 matched healthy controls underwent DTI acquisition and clinical symptom assessments. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to analyze white matter microstructural abnormalities in patients with GAD, as well as their associations with clinical symptom scores in a voxel-wise manner. Compared to controls, patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in 7 clusters of white matter in bilateral uncinate fasciculus, body of corpus callosum, left middle cingulum (cingulate gyrus), bilateral anterior thalamic radiation and corona radiate, right anterior limb of internal capsule, bilateral inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity in widespread white matter regions. Reduced FA values in right uncinate fasciculus, left cingulum bundle showed significantly negative correlations with clinical symptom severity for Hamilton anxiety Rating Scale scores. Our findings suggest microstructural abnormalities in uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle play key roles in the underlying neural basis of GAD.

  19. Energy savings by reduced mixing in aeration tanks: Results from a full scale investigation and long term implementation at Avedoere wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Guildal, T.; Thomsen, H.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the potential of reducing number of mixers in the biological treatment process and thereby achieve energy and economical savings and contribute to cleaner environment. The project was carried out at Avedoere wastewater treatment plant and a full scale...... investigation was conducted to study the effect of reduced mixing on flow velocity, suspended solid sedimentation, concentration gradients of oxygen and SS with depth and treatment efficiency. The only negative effect observed was on flow velocity; however the velocity was above the critical velocity. The plant...... has been operating with 50% of its designed number of mixers since September 2007 and long term results also confirm that reduced mixing did not have any negative effect on treatment efficiency. The estimated yearly electricity saving is 0.75 GWh/year. © IWA Publishing 2011....

  20. Palmitoylethanolamide treatment reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats: involvement of cytochrome p450-derived eicosanoids and renin angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Mattace Raso

    Full Text Available Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist, has been demonstrated to reduce blood pressure and kidney damage secondary to hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR. Currently, no information is available concerning the putative effect of PEA on modulating vascular tone. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underpinning PEA blood pressure lowering effect, exploring the contribution of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, CYP-dependent arachidonic acid metabolites, as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF, and renin angiotensin system (RAS modulation. To achieve this aim SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated with PEA (30 mg/kg/day for five weeks. Functional evaluations on mesenteric bed were performed to analyze EDHF-mediated vasodilation. Moreover, mesenteric bed and carotid were harvested to measure CYP2C23 and CYP2J2, the key isoenzymes in the formation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, and the soluble epoxide hydrolase, which is responsible for their degradation in the corresponding diols. Effect of PEA on RAS modulation was investigated by analyzing angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin receptor 1 expression. Here, we showed that EDHF-mediated dilation in response to acetylcholine was increased in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR. Western blot analysis revealed that the increase in CYP2C23 and CYP2J2 observed in SHR was significantly attenuated in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR, but unchanged in the carotids. Interestingly, in both vascular tissues, PEA significantly decreased the soluble epoxide hydrolase protein level, accompanied by a reduced serum concentration of its metabolite 14-15 dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, implying a reduction in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid hydrolisis. Moreover, PEA treatment down-regulated angiotensin receptor 1 and angiotensin converting enzyme expression, indicating a reduction in angiotensin II-mediated effects. Consistently, a damping of the

  1. Palmitoylethanolamide treatment reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats: involvement of cytochrome p450-derived eicosanoids and renin angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Pirozzi, Claudio; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Simeoli, Raffaele; Santoro, Anna; Lama, Adriano; Di Guida, Francesca; Russo, Roberto; De Caro, Carmen; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Calignano, Antonio; Meli, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist, has been demonstrated to reduce blood pressure and kidney damage secondary to hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Currently, no information is available concerning the putative effect of PEA on modulating vascular tone. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underpinning PEA blood pressure lowering effect, exploring the contribution of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, CYP-dependent arachidonic acid metabolites, as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF), and renin angiotensin system (RAS) modulation. To achieve this aim SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated with PEA (30 mg/kg/day) for five weeks. Functional evaluations on mesenteric bed were performed to analyze EDHF-mediated vasodilation. Moreover, mesenteric bed and carotid were harvested to measure CYP2C23 and CYP2J2, the key isoenzymes in the formation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, and the soluble epoxide hydrolase, which is responsible for their degradation in the corresponding diols. Effect of PEA on RAS modulation was investigated by analyzing angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin receptor 1 expression. Here, we showed that EDHF-mediated dilation in response to acetylcholine was increased in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR. Western blot analysis revealed that the increase in CYP2C23 and CYP2J2 observed in SHR was significantly attenuated in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR, but unchanged in the carotids. Interestingly, in both vascular tissues, PEA significantly decreased the soluble epoxide hydrolase protein level, accompanied by a reduced serum concentration of its metabolite 14-15 dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, implying a reduction in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid hydrolisis. Moreover, PEA treatment down-regulated angiotensin receptor 1 and angiotensin converting enzyme expression, indicating a reduction in angiotensin II-mediated effects. Consistently, a damping of the activation of

  2. Comparative study of different treatment options of grade III and IV diabetic foot ulcers to reduce the incidence of amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poras Chaudhary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the efficacy of antiseptic dressings, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and recombinant human platelet derived growth factor (rhPDGF for two reasons: i to reduce the incidence of lower limb amputations in diabetic foot ulcer; ii to limit the duration of stay in the hospital. A prospective randomized trial was conducted on 60 patients with stage III and IV diabetic foot ulcers (International Association of Enterostomal Therapy classification and patients were divided randomly in three different therapy groups - antiseptics, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, recombinant platelet derived growth factor, with 20 patients in each group. Patients were managed initially on inpatient and then on outpatient basis till the ulcer healed completely. Results among three groups were compared using unpaired T test and the level of significance was set at P<0.05 using ANOVA. This study compares the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, antiseptic dressings, and rhPDGF in grade III and IV diabetic foot ulcers. P value (0.0348 was significant for complete wound contraction while p value healing time (0.6534 and ulcer size (0.0593 in the groups was not significant. PDGF is safe, effective and easy to apply. Results are comparable with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy and cost of treatment is lower than other therapies. Diabetic foot ulcer management requires multidisciplinary and aggressive approach. PDGF should be recommended for all grade III and IV diabetic foot ulcer at least 8 weeks old. HBO is equally good an option but has limitations and side effects.

  3. Evidence that treatment with monophasic oral contraceptive formulations containing ethinylestradiol plus gestodene reduces bone resorption in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, A M; Orrù, M; Floris, S; Mannias, M; Vacca, A M; Ajossa, S; Guerriero, S; Melis, G B

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if a pill containing the same dose of the same type of progestin compound (gestodene, GES, 75 microg) but different doses of ethinylestradiol (EE2) (20 or 30 microg) differently influences specific markers of bone resorption (urinary levels of pyridinoline (PYR) and dexoxypyridinoline (D-PYR)). During the 12 months of the study a significant decrease of urinary levels of PYR and D-PYR was found in 2 groups of young post-adolescent women taking the pills with 20 and 30 microg of EE2 in comparison with control women (subjects of the same age group with normal menstrual cycle who did not use contraception). In women taking pills with 20 or 30 microg EE2, the levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) significantly increased during treatment in comparison with baseline, whereas in the same time period no changes occurred in control women. These findings suggest that similar to the pill containing 30 microg EE2, the lower dosage of the EE2 pill (20 microg) is also capable of reducing bone resorption. Twenty and 30 microg EE2 pills exert the same biological estrogenic effect. In fact, SHBG levels significantly increased with both pills. However, an additional effect of the progestin compound that could act directly on progestin or estrogen receptors of bone cannot be excluded. Since contraception with a pill containing the lowest estrogen dose is associated with the lowest incidence of side effects, these findings further suggest a pill containing 20 microg EE2 for young post-adolescent women would be the best choice.

  4. Chronic intrahypothalamic rather than subcutaneous liraglutide treatment reduces body weight gain and stimulates the melanocortin receptor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaineder, K; Birngruber, T; Rauter, G

    2017-01-01

    liraglutide treatment (PP4r gene (P....01) accompanied by a significant increase in circulating thyroxine (T4) levels (P...BACKGROUND: The GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide is marketed for obesity treatment where it induces body weight reduction possibly via the hypothalamus, which regulates energy homeostasis. In animal studies, acute liraglutide treatment triggers satiety, weight loss and activates thermogenesis...

  5. Oral treatment with laquinimod augments regulatory T-cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and reduces injury in the CNS of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, Rina; Saada, Ravit; Eilam, Raya; Hayardeny, Liat; Sela, Michael; Arnon, Ruth

    2012-10-15

    Laquinimod is an orally active molecule that showed efficacy in clinical trials in multiple sclerosis. We studied its effects in the CNS, when administered by therapeutic regimen to mice inflicted with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Laquinimod reduced clinical and inflammatory manifestations and elevated the prevalence of T-regulatory cells in the brain. In untreated mice, in the chronic disease stage, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression was impaired. Laquinimod treatment restored BDNF expression to its level in healthy controls. Furthermore, CNS injury, manifested by astrogliosis, demyelination and axonal damages, was significantly reduced following laquinimod treatment, indicating its immunomodulatory and neuroprotective activity.

  6. Design and optimization of neutron beam for the treatment of deep brain tumors by BNCT with Reducing damage to skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ahmadi Ganjeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is an effective method for treatment of deep seated brain tumors. This method consists of two stages: injection of boron compound in the patient body, and then irradiation of the region tumors with the neutron beam. It allows for delivery of high linear energy transfer (LET radiation (particles 4He and 7Li nuclei to tumors at the cellular level whilst avoiding unnecessary dose deposition to healthy tissue. The proper neutron energies for BNCT is 1eV–10keV, namely epithermal energy range. Neutrons can slow down to the thermal energies via passing through the different tissue before reaching the tumor. Neutrons with higher or lower energies and &gamma-radiation are extremely undesirable and should be avoided as much as possible of the spectrum. Therefore, a good spectrum shaping is an essential requirement for BNCT. The following neutron-producing charged particles reactions are considered mainly for use in accelerator based neutron capture therapy: 7Li(p,n7Be, 9Be(p,n9B, 9Be(d,n10B and 13C(d,n13N. The 7Li(p,n7Be reaction is excellent for producing neutron. Neutrons from this reaction have a relatively narrow energy spectrum which requires less moderation than those generated from other reactions. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using 7Li(p,n7Be reaction with irradiation of 2.5MeV-20mA proton beam for neutron production in order to treatment deep seated brain tumors. the serious drawback of this source is the low melting point of Li target (180 °C and its low thermal conductivity (84.7 W/m °k. To overcome this problem, a cooling system was optimized and a beam shaping assembly (BSA was proposed for decreasing of the flux of fast neutrons (E>10 keV. The proposed BSA based on 7Li(p,n7Be reaction contains: BeO as moderator, graphite as reflector, Cd as thermal neutron filter and BeO as collimator. Our results show 1.08×109 n/cm2s epithermal neutron flux at the beam port of the proposed BSA

  7. Prospective study evaluating the radiosensitizing effect of reduced doses of temozolomide in the treatment of Egyptian patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaber M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available May Gaber, Hanan Selim, Tamer El-NahasDepartment of Clinical Oncology, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: In view of the documented toxicity of continuous daily radiosensitizer doses of temozolomide concomitant with radiation in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, we aimed to compare it with a different schedule of abbreviated radiosensitizer dosing.Patients and methods: This was a randomized prospective study comparing toxicity and survival in 60 Egyptian patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Patients in arm I received temozolomide at a dose of 75 mg/m2 daily with radiotherapy for 42 days, starting 4 weeks after surgery and reaching to a total radiation dose of 60 Gy/30 Fractions/6 weeks, while patients in arm II received temozolomide at a dose of 75 mg/m2 concomitantly with the same radiotherapy schedule daily in the first and last weeks of the same radiotherapy program.Results: Common grade 1–2 adverse events were malaise in 28 patients (46.7%, followed by alopecia (40% and nausea (26.7%. Grade 3–4 convulsion and decreased level of consciousness was seen in only four patients who were all from arm I. The median progression-free survival (PFS for the entire study population was 10.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.3–14, and PFS at 12 months was 32%. The median PFS in arm I was 8.8 months (95% CI 5.9–11.7 and in arm II 11.5 months (95% CI 8.9–14.2, and PFS at 12 months for both arms was 32% and 30% respectively (P=0.571. The median overall survival (OS of the whole group of patients was 14.2 months (95% CI 13–15.5, and OS was 70% at 12 months and 25% at 18 months. The median OS for patients in arm I was 12.3 months (95% CI 7.7–16.9, whereas in arm II it was 14.3 months (95% CI 14–14.7 (P=0.83.Conclusion: Reduced radiosensitizer dosing of temozolomide concomitant with radiotherapy in glioblastoma multiforme exhibited comparable efficacy with a classic continuous daily schedule, though with better tolerability

  8. Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Adverse Respiratory Events in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-05-01

    Treatment of periodontal diseases has been associated with benefit outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no population-based cohort study has been conducted. We evaluated this relationship by retrospective cohort study using a large population data.Using the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 5562 COPD patients with periodontal diseases who had received periodontal treatment as the treatment group. The comparison group was selected at a 1:1 ratio matched by the propensity score estimated with age, sex, date of COPD diagnosis and periodontal treatment, and comorbidities. Both groups were followed up for 5 years to compare risks of acute exacerbation, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure.The incidence rates of adverse respiratory events were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the comparison group: 3.79 versus 4.21 per 100 person-years for emergency room visits, 2.75 versus 3.65 per 100 person-years for hospitalizations, and 0.66 versus 0.75 per 100 person-years for intensive care unit admissions. The treatment group also had a 37% reduced risk of deaths (1.81 vs 2.87 per 100 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.52-0.62).Periodontal treatment for COPD patients could reduce the risk of adverse respiratory events and mortality. The adequate periodontal health care is important for COPD patients with periodontal diseases.

  9. Treatment failure in a typhoid patient infected with nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi with reduced susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin: a case report from Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asonganyi Etienne DN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins are the drugs of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. Treatment failure with fluoroquinolones has been reported in Asia and Europe. We report a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure in typhoid fever in Cameroon. Case presentation A 29-year-old female patient with suspected typhoid fever from Kumba, Cameroon, yielded growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in blood culture. The isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid but sensitive to ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion test. However, the patient did not respond to treatment with ciprofloxacin, although the isolate was apparently susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Treatment failure with ciprofloxacin in our case indicates the presence of nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi (NARST with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Cameroon (Central Africa.

  10. Reduced-intensity conditioning lowers treatment-related mortality of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia : a population-matched analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreger, P; Brand, R; Milligan, D; Corradini, P; Finke, J; Deliliers, GL; Martino, R; Russell, N; van Biezen, A; Michallet, M; Niederwieser, D

    2005-01-01

    To elucidate whether reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) decreases treatment-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we retrospectively compared 73 RIC cases from a recent EBMT survey with 82 patients from the EBMT databa

  11. ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT TO REDUCE RESIDUAL HALOGEN-BASED OXIDANTS PRIOR TO THE DETERMINATION OF HALOGENATED DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN POTABLE WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment of potable water samples with ascorbic acid has been investigated as a means for reducing residual halogen-based oxidants (disinfectants)i.e., HOCl, Cl2, Brw and BrCl, prior to determination of EPA Method 551.1A and 551.1B analytes. These disinfection byproducts include...

  12. Attraction and mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis to STATIC Spinosad ME weathered under operational conditions in California and Florida: A reduced-risk male annihilation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in 2013 in Hawaii, USA, to quantify attraction, feeding, and mortality of male oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), to a reduced risk male annihilation treatment(MAT)formulation consisting of an amorphous polymer matrix in combination with...

  13. Efficacy and safety of procalcitonin guidance in reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment in critically ill patients : a randomised, controlled, open-label trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Evelien; van Oers, Jos A; Beishuizen, Albertus; Vos, Piet; Vermeijden, Wytze J; Haas, Lenneke E; Loef, Bert G; Dormans, Tom; van Melsen, Gertrude C; Kluiters, Yvette C; Kemperman, Hans; van den Elsen, Maarten J; Schouten, Jeroen A; Streefkerk, Jörn O; Krabbe, Hans G; Kieft, Hans; Kluge, Georg H; van Dam, Veerle C; van Pelt, Joost; Bormans, Laura; Otten, Martine Bokelman; Reidinga, Auke C; Endeman, Henrik; Twisk, Jos W; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W; de Smet, Anne Marie G A; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Girbes, Armand R; Nijsten, Maarten W; de Lange, Dylan W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients, antibiotic therapy is of great importance but long duration of treatment is associated with the development of antimicrobial resistance. Procalcitonin is a marker used to guide antibacterial therapy and reduce its duration, but data about safety of this reduct

  14. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  15. Combined steam and ultrasound treatment of broilers at slaughter: a promising intervention to significantly reduce numbers of naturally occurring campylobacters on carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Krebs, Niels H; Nonboe, Ulf; Corry, Janet E L; Purnell, Graham

    2014-04-17

    Steam or hot water decontamination treatment of broiler carcasses is hampered by process limitations due to prolonged treatment times and adverse changes to the epidermis. In this study, a combination of steam with ultrasound (SonoSteam®) was investigated on naturally contaminated broilers that were processed at conventional slaughter speeds of 8,500 birds per hour in a Danish broiler plant. Industrial-scale SonoSteam equipment was installed in the evisceration room, before the inside/outside carcass washer. The SonoSteam treatment was evaluated in two separate trials performed on two different dates. Numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. and TVC were determined from paired samples of skin excised from opposite sides of the breast of the same carcass, before and after treatments. Sampling was performed at two different points on the line: i) before and after the SonoSteam treatment and ii) before the SonoSteam treatment and after 80 min of air chilling. A total of 44 carcasses were examined in the two trials. Results from the first trial showed that the mean initial Campylobacter contamination level of 2.35 log₁₀ CFU was significantly reduced (n=12, psignificant reduction (n=11, psignificant reductions (n=10, pSignificant reductions (n=11, pnumbers analyzed before the SonoSteam treatment (2.02 log₁₀ CFU) and after the air chilling treatment (1.37 log₁₀ CFU). The effect of air chilling without SonoSteam treatment was determined using 12 carcasses pre- and postchill. Results showed insignificant reductions of 0.09 log₁₀ from a mean initial level of 2.19 log₁₀ CFU. Numbers of TVC before treatments ranged between 3.47 and 4.79 log₁₀ CFU. In all cases, TVC was significantly (psignificantly reduce numbers of Campylobacter on naturally contaminated broilers.

  16. In-treatment reduced left atrial diameter during antihypertensive treatment is associated with reduced new-onset atrial fibrillation in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: The LIFE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P;

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether improvement of left atrial (LA) and ventricular (LV) structure results in reduction in new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of the present study was to examine whether changes in-treatment LA diameter were related to changes in risk of new-onset AF.......It is unclear whether improvement of left atrial (LA) and ventricular (LV) structure results in reduction in new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of the present study was to examine whether changes in-treatment LA diameter were related to changes in risk of new-onset AF....

  17. In-treatment reduced left atrial diameter during antihypertensive treatment is associated with reduced new-onset atrial fibrillation in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: The LIFE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether improvement of left atrial (LA) and ventricular (LV) structure results in reduction in new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of the present study was to examine whether changes in-treatment LA diameter were related to changes in risk of new-onset AF.......It is unclear whether improvement of left atrial (LA) and ventricular (LV) structure results in reduction in new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of the present study was to examine whether changes in-treatment LA diameter were related to changes in risk of new-onset AF....

  18. Randomized double-blind factorial trial of three treatments to reduce the prevalence of precancerous gastric lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    You, Wei-cheng; Brown, Linda M; Zhang, Lian; Li, Ji-you; Jin, Mao-lin; Chang, Yun-shen; Ma, Jun-ling; Pan, Kai-feng; Liu, Wei-dong; Hu, Yuanreng; Crystal-Mansour, Susan; Pee, David; Blot, William J; Fraumeni, Jr, Joseph F; Xu, Guang-wei; Gail, Mitchell H

    2006-01-01

    Randomized trials have yielded mixed results on the effects of treatment for Helicobacter pylori and little information on the effects of vitamins or garlic supplements on precancerous gastric lesions...

  19. Baseline Psychological Treatment Reduces the Effect of Coaching in a Randomised Trial of a Depression Self-Care Intervention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin; Lambert, Sylvie; Yaffe, Mark; Ciampi, Antonio; Belzile, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of baseline psychological and antidepressant medication treatment in a trial of lay telephone coaching in a low-intensity, supported depression self-care intervention. Method...

  20. Field triage reduces treatment delay and improves long-term clinical outcome in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune H; Galatius, Soren; Hansen, Peter R

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the independent impact of field triage on treatment delay and long-term clinical outcome in a large contemporary, consecutive population of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). BACKGROUND......: Reduction of treatment delay is crucial for patients with STEMI. METHODS: From January 2005 to July 2008, 1,437 STEMI patients were treated with pPCI at a single high-volume invasive center. We present the 1-year outcome in this observational registry study. RESULTS: A total of 616 patients were admitted...... triage had a reduced risk of reaching the combined end point of all-cause mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction (hazard ratio: 0.67; 95% confidence interval: 0.46 to 0.97; p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that field triage of STEMI patients to pPCI significantly reduces treatment delay...

  1. Escitalopram or novel herbal mixture treatments during or following exposure to stress reduce anxiety-like behavior through corticosterone and BDNF modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Doron

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a major public health concern worldwide. Studies indicate that repeated exposure to adverse experiences early in life can lead to anxiety disorders in adulthood. Current treatments for anxiety disorders are characterized by a low success rate and are associated with a wide variety of side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of a novel herbal treatment, in comparison to treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram. We recently demonstrated the anxiolytic effects of these treatments in BALB mice previously exposed to one week of stress. In the present study, ICR mice were exposed to post natal maternal separation and to 4 weeks of unpredictable chronic mild stress in adolescence, and treated during or following exposure to stress with the novel herbal treatment or with escitalopram. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in the elevated plus maze. Blood corticosterone levels were evaluated using radioimmunoassay. Brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that (1 exposure to stress in childhood and adolescence increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood; (2 the herbal treatment reduced anxiety-like behavior, both when treated during or following exposure to stress; (3 blood corticosterone levels were reduced following treatment with the herbal treatment or escitalopram, when treated during or following exposure to stress; (4 brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus of mice treated with the herbal treatment or escitalopram were increased, when treated either during or following exposure to stress. This study expands our previous findings and further points to the proposed herbal compound's potential to be highly efficacious in treating anxiety disorders in humans.

  2. Adjunctive treatment of decompression illness with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (tenoxicam) reduces compression requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M; Mitchell, S; Dominguez, A

    2003-01-01

    We report a randomized trial examining adjunctive administration of the NSAID, tenoxicam, to divers suffering with DCI. 180 subjects were graded for severity on admission and randomized according to a stratified random number schedule. Subjects were recompressed and treatment continued daily until symptom stabilization or complete resolution. Tenoxicam 20 mg or a placebo preparation was administered at the first air break during the initial recompression and continued daily for seven days. The subjects were assessed using a recovery status score at the completion of treatment and at 4-6 weeks. The proportion of patients with mild residual symptoms at discharge and final follow-up was not significantly different (discharge placebo 30% versus tenoxicam 37%, P=0.41; six weeks placebo 20% versus tenoxicam 17%, P=0.58). There was a significant reduction in the number of treatments required to achieve discharge (median treatments placebo 3, tenoxicam 2, P=0.01). 61% of patients in the tenoxicam group required less than 3 compressions, versus 40% in the placebo group (P=0.01, RRR 33 % [95%CI 9%-56%], NNT=5 [95%CI 3-18]). There was no evidence of increased complications of treatment in the tenoxicam group. When given this NSAID, patients with DCI require fewer hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) sessions to achieve a standard clinical end-point and there is likely to be an associated cost saving.

  3. Successful Treatment with Atomoxetine of an Adolescent Boy with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Extreme Obesity, and Reduced Melanocortin 4 Receptor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Pott

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent case reports suggest a link between reduced melanocortinergic tone and both obesity and attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. We present the case of a 13-year-old, male, obese MC4R mutation carrier with ADHD. Case Report: The boy carries a heterozygous mutation in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R; Met281Val, that leads to a reduced receptor function. Dominant mutations of this type represent major gene effects for obesity. He participated in a lifestyle intervention program for obesity and received treatment with the selective norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor atomoxetine for 31 months. The boy markedly reduced his BMI from 47.2 to 29.6 kg/m². Conclusion: Atomoxetine proved to efficiently reduce weight in a severely obese MC4R mutation carrier with ADHD. We briefly discuss possible mechanisms for our observation, including evidence for the functional connectivity between melanocortinergic, dopaminergic, and norepinephrinergic brain circuitries.

  4. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, J; Albers, P; Altena, R; Aparicio, J; Bokemeyer, C; Busch, J; Cathomas, R; Cavallin-Stahl, E; Clarke, N W; Claßen, J; Cohn-Cedermark, G; Dahl, A A; Daugaard, G; De Giorgi, U; De Santis, M; De Wit, M; De Wit, R; Dieckmann, K P; Fenner, M; Fizazi, K; Flechon, A; Fossa, S D; Germá Lluch, J R; Gietema, J A; Gillessen, S; Giwercman, A; Hartmann, J T; Heidenreich, A; Hentrich, M; Honecker, F; Horwich, A; Huddart, R A; Kliesch, S; Kollmannsberger, C; Krege, S; Laguna, M P; Looijenga, L H J; Lorch, A; Lotz, J P; Mayer, F; Necchi, A; Nicolai, N; Nuver, J; Oechsle, K; Oldenburg, J; Oosterhuis, J W; Powles, T; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Rick, O; Rosti, G; Salvioni, R; Schrader, M; Schweyer, S; Sedlmayer, F; Sohaib, A; Souchon, R; Tandstad, T; Winter, C; Wittekind, C

    2013-04-01

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol 2004; 15: 1377-1399; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 478-496; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part II. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 497-513]. A panel of 56 of 60 invited GCC experts from all across Europe discussed all aspects on diagnosis and treatment of GCC, with a particular focus on acute and late toxic effects as well as on survivorship issues. The panel consisted of oncologists, urologic surgeons, radiooncologists, pathologists and basic scientists, who are all actively involved in care of GCC patients. Panelists were chosen based on the publication activity in recent years. Before the meeting, panelists were asked to review the literature published since 2006 in 20 major areas concerning all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of GCC patients, and to prepare an updated version of the previous recommendations to be discussed at the conference. In addition, ∼50 E-vote questions were drafted and presented at the conference to address the most controversial areas for a poll of expert opinions. Here, we present the main recommendations and controversies of this meeting. The votes of the panelists are added as online supplements.

  5. The addition of a goal-based motivational interview to standardised treatment as usual to reduce dropouts in a service for patients with personality disorder: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitham Diane

    2010-10-01

    -structured interviews, will be analysed using thematic analysis. Discussion The Personal Concerns Interview as a preparation for treatment of people with personality has the potential to maximise treatment uptake, reduce unfilled places in treatment programmes, and prevent group treatments faltering through non-attendance. Most importantly, it has the potential to improve patient outcomes, helping them to function better and reduce hospitalisation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov.UK Identifier - NCT01132976

  6. Adjuvant treatment with tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R reduces recurrence and increases survival after liver metastasis resection in an orthotopic nude mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takashi; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-12-01

    Colon cancer liver metastasis is often the lethal aspect of this disease. Well-isolated metastases are candidates for surgical resection, but recurrence is common. Better adjuvant treatment is therefore needed to reduce or prevent recurrence. In the present study, HT-29 human colon cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were used to establish liver metastases in nude mice. Mice with a single liver metastasis were randomized into bright-light surgery (BLS) or the combination of BLS and adjuvant treatment with tumor-targeting S. typhimurium A1-R. Residual tumor fluorescence after BLS was clearly visualized at high magnification by fluorescence imaging. Adjuvant treatment with S. typhimurium A1-R was highly effective to increase survival and disease-free survival after BLS of liver metastasis. The results suggest the future clinical potential of adjuvant S. typhimurium A1-R treatment after liver metastasis resection.

  7. Species composition of larvae cultured after anthelmintic treatment indicates reduced moxidectin susceptibility of immature Cylicocyclus species in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooyman, F N J; van Doorn, D C K; Geurden, T; Mughini-Gras, L; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A

    2016-01-01

    For the control of cyathostomins in horses, the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM) are the most commonly used anthelmintics. However, reduced activity, observed as shortening of the egg reappearance period (ERP) has been described. Shortening of the ERP may be caused b

  8. Natalizumab treatment reduces fatigue in multiple sclerosis. Results from the TYNERGY trial; a study in the real life setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsson, Anders; Falk, Eva; Celius, Elisabeth G;

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is a significant symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. First-generation disease modifying therapies (DMTs) are at best moderately effective to improve fatigue. Observations from small cohorts have indicated that natalizumab, an antibody targeting VLA-4, may reduce MS-related fatigue...

  9. Ethanol vapor and saprophytic yeast treatments reduce decay and maintain quality of intact and fresh-cut cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of an ethanol vapor release pad and a saprophytic yeast (Cryptococcus infirmo-miniatum) to reduce decay and maintain postharvest quality of intact or fresh-cut sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) cv. Lapins and Bing. Intact or fresh-cut fruit were pac...

  10. Impact on the gait time cycle of ischemic stroke in the treatment with yinyang respiratory reinforcing and reducing needling technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旗

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference in the efficacy on gait time cycle of ischemic stroke between yin-yang respiratory reinforcing and reducing needling technique(yin-yang needling)and the conventional acupuncture.Methods Sixty cases of ischemic stroke between yin-yang

  11. GENTAMICIN REDUCES BACTEREMIA AND MORTALITY-RATES ASSOCIATED WITH THE TREATMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL PERITONITIS WITH RECOMBINANT TISSUE-PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; de Graaf, JS; KOOI, K; BLEICHRODT, RP

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), administered intraperitoneally, reduces intra-abdominal abscess formation in rats with fecal peritonitis at the costs of increased mortality and early Escherichia coli bacteremia. It was determined whether or not mortality and bacteremia

  12. Treatment, risk factors, and outcome of adults with relapsed AML after reduced intensity conditioning for allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Schmid (Christoph); M. Labopin (Myriam); A. Nagler (Arnon); D. Niederwieser (Dietger); L. Castagna (Luca); R. Tabrizi (Reza); M. Stadler (Michael); J. Kuball (Jürgen); J.J. Cornelissen (Jan); J. Vorlicek (Jiri); G. Socié (Gerard); M. Falda (M.); L. Vindelov (Lars); P. Ljungman (Per); G. Jackson (Graham); N. Kröger; A. Rank (Andreas); E. Polge (Emmanuelle); V. Rocha (Vanderson); M. Mohty (Mohamad)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBecause information on management and outcome of AML relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) is scarce, a retrospective registry study was performed by the Acute LeukemiaWorking Party of EBMT. Among 2815 RIC

  13. Treatment, risk factors, and outcome of adults with relapsed AML after reduced intensity conditioning for allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Christoph; Labopin, Myriam; Nagler, Arnon

    2012-01-01

    Since information on management and outcome of adults with AML relapsing after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC HSCT) is scarce, a retrospective registry study was performed by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of EBMT. Among 2815 RIC tran...

  14. Effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculum treatments in increasing pH and reducing sulfur-total of acid sulfate soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufieq, Nur Anny Suryaningsih; Rahim, Sahibin Abdul; Jamil, Habibah

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness ofsulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in using bran as a source of food and energy, and to see the effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculums treatments for pH and sulfur-total of acid sulfate reduction insoils. This study used two factors in group random designs with four treatments for bacteria inoculum of B1 (1%), B2 (5%), B3 (10%), B4 (15%) and two treatments for organic media (bran) of D1 (1:1) and D2 (1:19). Based on three replications, the combination resulted in a total of 24 treatments. Soil pH was measured using the Duddridge and Wainright method and determination of sulfate content in soil was conducted by the spectrophotometry method. The data obtained was analyzed for significance by Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The pH of the initial acid sulfate soils ranged from 3 to 4 and the soil sulfur-total ranged from 1.4% to 10%. After mixing sulfate reducing bacteria with the bran mediaand incubated for four days, the pH of the acid sulfate soils increased from 3.67 to 4.20, while the soil sulfur-total contents had been reduced by 2.85% to 0.35%. This experiment has proven that an acid sulfate soil with low pH is a good growth medium for the sulfate reducing bacteria. The bestincubation period to achieve an effective bioremediation resultthrough sulfate percentage reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria was 10 days, while the optimum bran media dose was 1:19, and the bacteria inoculums dose was 10%.

  15. Combined treatment with acupuncture reduces effective dose and alleviates adverse effect of L-dopa by normalizing Parkinson's disease-induced neurochemical imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Nam; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Ji-Yeun; Choo, Hyunwoo J; Shim, Insop; Park, Jongbae J; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Bena; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon

    2014-01-28

    This study first showed the behavioural benefits of novel combination therapy of L-dopa with acupuncture on Parkinson's disease, and its underlying mechanisms within basal ganglia. The previous study reported that acupuncture may improve the motor function of a Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model by increasing the dopamine efflux and turnover ratio of dopamine. Hence, we hypothesised that combining L-dopa with acupuncture would have a behavioural benefit for those with PD. We performed unilateral injections of 6-OHDA into the striatum of C57Bl/6 mice to model hemi-Parkinsonian attributes. To test motor function and dyskinetic anomalies, we examined cylinder behaviour and abnormal involuntary movement (AIM), respectively. We found that (1) a 50% reduced dose of L-dopa (7.5 mg/kg) combined with acupuncture showed an improvement in motor function that was comparable to mice given the standard dose of L-dopa treatment (15 mg/kg) only, and that (2) the combination treatment (L-dopa +acupuncture) was significantly superior in reducing AIM scores when equivalent doses of L-dopa were used. The combination treatment also significantly reduces the abnormal increase of GABA contents in the substantia nigra compared to the standard L-dopa treatment. Furthermore, abnormal expression of FosB, the immediate early gene of L-dopa induced dyskinesia (LID), was mitigated in the striatum by the combination treatment. All of these results indicate that acupuncture enhances the benefits of L-dopa on motor function with reduced dose of L-dopa and alleviating LID by normalising neurochemical imbalance within the basal ganglia.

  16. Treatment of fresh poultry carcases with emulsions of glycerol monocaprate (monocaprin) to reduce contamination with Campylobacter and psychrotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormar, H; Hilmarsson, H; Thrainsson, J H; Georgsson, F; Gunnarsson, E; Dadadottir, S

    2011-02-01

    1. A previous study has shown that emulsions of monocaprin in citrate lactate buffer at pH 4·1-4·3 are highly active in killing Campylobacter in water, where they reduce viable bacterial counts by more than 6 log(10) colony forming units (cfu) in 1 min at a concentration of 1·25 mM (0·03%). 2. The present study was carried out to evaluate whether monocaprin emulsions could be used to kill Campylobacter on raw poultry. 3. It was shown that immersion of naturally contaminated chicken legs in 20 mM (0·5%) monocaprin emulsion at pH 4·1 for 1 min at 20°C reduced the number of Campylobacter by 2·0 to 2·7 log(10) cfu. Pre-chill dipping of whole carcases into 20 mM monocaprin emulsion in the slaughterhouse also caused a significant reduction in Campylobacter contamination. 4. Immersion in monocaprin emulsions at pH 4·1 was also assessed as a means to reduce the number of psychrotrophic spoilage bacteria. There were lower psychrotrophic bacteria counts on treated chicken parts than on untreated controls after storage at 3°C for up to 14 d. 5. Immersion in emulsions of monocaprin, which is a natural lipid classified as GRAS, may be a feasible method to reduce the number of Campylobacter and spoilage bacteria on raw poultry. This method could reduce the risk of human exposure to Campylobacter, and at the same time increase the shelf-life of poultry products.

  17. Enhancing Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter II. Reducing Bullying through Role-Playing and Self-Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William P.; Yaruss, J. Scott; Quesal, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes several treatment strategies that clinicians can use to help children who stutter who are experiencing bullying and other negative reactions from their peers. Specific strategies include problem-solving activities designed to help the child develop appropriate responses to bullying and a classroom presentation designed to…

  18. Chronic treatment with myo-inositol reduces white adipose tissue accretion and improves insulin sensitivity in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Marine L; Vella, Roxane E; Pillon, Nicolas J; Soula, Hédi A; Hadji, Lilas; Guichardant, Michel; Soulage, Christophe O

    2013-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease characterized by a state of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue or liver. Some inositol isomers have been reported to possess insulin-mimetic activity and to be efficient in lowering blood glucose level. The aim of the present study was to assess in mice the metabolic effects of a chronic treatment with myo-inositol, the most common stereoisomer of inositol. Mice given myo-inositol treatment (0.9 or 1.2 mg g(-1) day(-1), 15 days, orally or intraperitoneally) exhibited an improved glucose tolerance due to a greater insulin sensitivity. Mice treated with myo-inositol exhibited a decreased white adipose tissue accretion (-33%, Padipose tissue deposition was due to a decrease in adipose cell volume (-33%, Pinsulin-stimulated conditions, suggesting a synergistic action of myo-inositol treatment and insulin on proteins of the insulin signalling pathway. Myo-inositol could therefore constitute a viable nutritional strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced chance of hearing loss associated with Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Aminoglycosides in the treatment of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Altena, R; Dijkstra, J.A.; van der Meer, M E; Borjas Howard, J F; Kosterink, J G W; van Soolingen, D; van der Werf, T S; Alffenaar, J W C

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss and nephrotoxicity are associated with prolonged treatment duration and higher dosage of amikacin and kanamycin. In our Tuberculosis Center, we have employed therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) targeting pre-set pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) surrogate endpoints in an attempt to

  20. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys With a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G. van Manen; P.J.M. Prins; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was presented

  1. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys With a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, T.G.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was

  2. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship : highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, J.; Albers, P.; Altena, R.; Aparicio, J.; Bokemeyer, C.; Busch, J.; Cathomas, R.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Clarke, N. W.; Classen, J.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Dahl, A. A.; Daugaard, G.; De Giorgi, U.; De Santis, M.; De Wit, M.; De Wit, R.; Dieckmann, K. P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S. D.; Germa Lluch, J. R.; Gietema, J. A.; Gillessen, S.; Giwercman, A.; Hartmann, J.T.; Heidenreich, A.; Hentrich, M.; Honecker, F.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R. A.; Kliesch, S.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Krege, S.; Laguna, M. P.; Looijenga, L. H. J.; Lorch, A.; Lotz, J. P.; Mayer, F.; Necchi, A.; Nicolai, N.; Nuver, J.; Oechsle, K.; Oldenburg, J.; Oosterhuis, J.W.; Powles, T.; Rajpert-De Meyts, E.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Schrader, M.; Schweyer, S.; Sedlmayer, F.; Sohaib, A.; Souchon, R.; Tandstad, T.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. European

  3. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: Highlights from the third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Beyer (Jörg); P. Albers (Peter); R. Altena (Renske); J. Aparicio (Jorge); C. Bokemeyer; J. Busch (Jamie); R. Cathomas (Richard); E. Cavallin-Stahl (Eva); N.W. Clarke (Noel); J. Claßen (Johannes); G. Cohn-Cedermark (Gabriella); A.A. Dahl; G. Daugaard (Gedske); U. de Giorgi (Ugo); M. de Santis (Maria); M. De Wit (Meike); R. de Wit (Ronald); K.P. Dieckmann; M. Fenner (Martin); K. Fizazi (Karim); A. Flechon (Aude); S.D. Fossa (Sophie); J.R. Germá Lluch (José Ramón); J.A. Gietema (Jourik); S. Gillessen (Silke); A. Giwercman (Aleksander); J.T. Hartmann; A. Heidenreich (Axel); M. Hentrich (Marcus); F.U. Honecker (Friedemann); A. Horwich; R.A. Huddart (Robbert); S. Kliesch (Sabine); C. Kollmannsberger (Christian); S. Krege (Susanne); M.P. Laguna (Maria Pilar); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert); A. Lorch (Anja); J.P. Lotz (Jean Pierre); F. Mayer; A. Necchi (Andrea); N. Nicolai (Nicola); J. Nuver (Janine); K. Oechsle (Karin); J. Oldenburg (Jan); J.W. Oosterhuis (Wolter); T. Powles (Tom); E. Rajpert-De Meyts (Ewa); O. Rick (Oliver); G. Rosti (Giovanni); R. Salvioni (Roberto); C. Winter (Christopher); C. Wittekind (Christian)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et a

  4. Highly reduced current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors by combined application of oxygen plasma treatment and field plate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asubar, Joel T.; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tokuda, Hirokuni; Kuzuhara, Masaaki

    2016-04-01

    We report on the highly reduced current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) by combined application of pre-passivation oxygen (O2) plasma treatment and gate field plate (FP) structures schemes. Four different devices were fabricated in this work: (1) conventional HEMT as reference device, (2) field-plated HEMT, (3) O2 plasma-treated HEMT, (4) both field-plated and O2 plasma-treated HEMT. Analysis of dependence of normalized dynamic R on (NDR) on gate pulse on-time (t on) revealed that gate-FP reduces the emission time constant (τ i ) of trapped electrons while O2-plasma treatment decreases the density of traps. For all measurement conditions, the device with both FP and O2 plasma treatment exhibited the least NDR compared to devices with either FP or O2 plasma treatment only, demonstrating for the first time the compatibility of both O2 plasma treatment and FP schemes in mitigating current collapse.

  5. Potential Impact of a Free Online HIV Treatment Response Prediction System for Reducing Virological Failures and Drug Costs after Antiretroviral Therapy Failure in a Resource-Limited Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Revell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Antiretroviral drug selection in resource-limited settings is often dictated by strict protocols as part of a public health strategy. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine if the HIV-TRePS online treatment prediction tool could help reduce treatment failure and drug costs in such settings. Methods. The HIV-TRePS computational models were used to predict the probability of response to therapy for 206 cases of treatment change following failure in India. The models were used to identify alternative locally available 3-drug regimens, which were predicted to be effective. The costs of these regimens were compared to those actually used in the clinic. Results. The models predicted the responses to treatment of the cases with an accuracy of 0.64. The models identified alternative drug regimens that were predicted to result in improved virological response and lower costs than those used in the clinic in 85% of the cases. The average annual cost saving was $364 USD per year (41%. Conclusions. Computational models that do not require a genotype can predict and potentially avoid treatment failure and may reduce therapy costs. The use of such a system to guide therapeutic decision-making could confer health economic benefits in resource-limited settings.

  6. Systemic and cerebral vascular endothelial growth factor levels increase in murine cerebral malaria along with increased Calpain and caspase activity and can be reduced by erythropoietin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Hoyer, Nils; Kildemoes, Anna

    2014-01-01

    increased levels of VEGF in brain and plasma and decreased plasma levels of soluble VEGF receptor 2. EPO treatment normalized VEGF receptor 2 levels and reduced brain VEGF levels. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly upregulated whereas cerebral HIF-2α and EPO levels remained unchanged....... Furthermore, we noticed increased caspase-3 and calpain activity in terminally ill mice, as measured by protease-specific cleavage of α-spectrin and p35. In conclusion, we detected increased cerebral and systemic VEGF as well as HIF-1α, which in the brain were reduced to normal in EPO-treated mice. Also...

  7. Optimization of Treatment Geometry to Reduce Normal Brain Dose in Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases with Single–Isocenter Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qixue; Snyder, Karen Chin; Liu, Chang; Huang, Yimei; Zhao, Bo; Chetty, Indrin J.; Wen, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of patients with multiple brain metastases using a single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has been shown to decrease treatment time with the tradeoff of larger low dose to the normal brain tissue. We have developed an efficient Projection Summing Optimization Algorithm to optimize the treatment geometry in order to reduce dose to normal brain tissue for radiosurgery of multiple metastases with single-isocenter VMAT. The algorithm: (a) measures coordinates of outer boundary points of each lesion to be treated using the Eclipse Scripting Application Programming Interface, (b) determines the rotations of couch, collimator, and gantry using three matrices about the cardinal axes, (c) projects the outer boundary points of the lesion on to Beam Eye View projection plane, (d) optimizes couch and collimator angles by selecting the least total unblocked area for each specific treatment arc, and (e) generates a treatment plan with the optimized angles. The results showed significant reduction in the mean dose and low dose volume to normal brain, while maintaining the similar treatment plan qualities on the thirteen patients treated previously. The algorithm has the flexibility with regard to the beam arrangements and can be integrated in the treatment planning system for clinical application directly. PMID:27688047

  8. [Presurgical treatment of axitinib reduced operation risk by downsizing the vena cava tumor thrombus in advanced renal cell carcinomas: two case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Akihiro; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Negoro, Hiromitsu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Terada, Naoki; Sugino, Yoshio; Matsui, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Takahiro; Kamba, Tomomi; Yoshimura, Koji; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    In cases of advanced renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus, surgical resection of both tumor and thrombus contributes to the improvement of patient's prognosis, but the risk of perioperative complication is still high. We experienced two cases of advanced renal tumors with IVC tumor thrombus down-sized by presurgical treatment of axitinib. Axitinib treatment showed a marked tumor reduction effect without any severe adverse event. We could remove both tumor and thrombus without perioperative complications. In these two cases, downsizing of IVC thrombus enabled us to reduce the extent of the surgery.

  9. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, J.; Albers, P.; Altena, R.; Aparicio, J.; Bokemeyer, C.; Busch, J.; Cathomas, R.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Clarke, N. W.; Claßen, J.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Dahl, A. A.; Daugaard, G.; De Giorgi, U.; De Santis, M.; De Wit, M.; De Wit, R.; Dieckmann, K. P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S. D.; Germá Lluch, J. R.; Gietema, J. A.; Gillessen, S.; Giwercman, A.; Hartmann, J. T.; Heidenreich, A.; Hentrich, M.; Honecker, F.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R. A.; Kliesch, S.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Krege, S.; Laguna, M. P.; Looijenga, L. H. J.; Lorch, A.; Lotz, J. P.; Mayer, F.; Necchi, A.; Nicolai, N.; Nuver, J.; Oechsle, K.; Oldenburg, J.; Oosterhuis, J. W.; Powles, T.; Rajpert-De Meyts, E.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Schrader, M.; Schweyer, S.; Sedlmayer, F.; Sohaib, A.; Souchon, R.; Tandstad, T.; Winter, C.; Wittekind, C.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol 2004; 15: 1377–1399; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 478–496; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part II. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 497–513]. A panel of 56 of 60 invited GCC experts from all across Europe discussed all aspects on diagnosis and treatment of GCC, with a particular focus on acute and late toxic effects as well as on survivorship issues. The panel consisted of oncologists, urologic surgeons, radiooncologists, pathologists and basic scientists, who are all actively involved in care of GCC patients. Panelists were chosen based on the publication activity in recent years. Before the meeting, panelists were asked to review the literature published since 2006 in 20 major areas concerning all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of GCC patients, and to prepare an updated version of the previous recommendations to be discussed at the conference. In addition, ∼50 E-vote questions were drafted and presented at the conference to address the most controversial areas for a poll of expert opinions. Here, we present the main recommendations and controversies of this meeting. The votes of the panelists are added as online supplements. PMID:23152360

  10. Prototype composite membranes of partially reduced graphene oxide/TiO2 for photocatlalytic ultrafiltration water treatment under visible light.

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasekou, Chrysoula P.; Sérgio Morales Torres; Vlassis Likodimos; George Em. Romanos; Luisa M. Pastrana-Martínez; Polycarpos Falaras; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Joaquim Luís Faria; José Luis Figueiredo; Silva, Adrián M. T.

    2014-01-01

    A highly efficient hybrid photocatalytic/ultrafiltration process is demonstrated for water purificationusing visible light. The process relies on the development of partially reduced graphene oxide/TiO2 compositemembranes and their incorporation into an innovative water purification device that combinesmembrane filtration with semiconductor photocatalysis. Composites consisting of graphene oxide sheetsdecorated with TiO2 nanoparticles were deposited and stabilized into the pores of ultrafiltr...

  11. [Effect of treatment with diet on reducing levels of sex hormones in perimenopausal women with overweight and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokieć, Katarzyna; Błońska, Aleksandra; Walecka-Kapica, Ewa; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, fight against obesity is a big challenge for the developed countries. Perimenopausal women are especially prone to becoming overweight and obese. This is due to changes in hormone levels and alterations in the sex hormones synthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of sex hormones in overweight and obese women during menopause following the three month period of reducing diet. The study involved women aged 55±4,75 years. Group I - 33 overweight women (BMI 28,06±1,00 kg/m(2)). Group II - 32 obese women (BMI 34,22±3,79 kg/m(2)). Anthropometric measurements, body composition tested with Bodystat QuadScan 4000 analyzer and levels of sex hormones in the blood was determined before and after the three-months of reducing diet in both groups. Statistical data analysis was performed. After three-months of reducing diet it was noticed that levels of BMI, body fat, FSH, DHEA-S and androstenedione were decreased in a statistically significant manner. A significant increase in estradiol levels after reduction of visceral adipose tissue in both groups, overweight and obese women, was observed. However, only in the group of obese women, a decrease in BMI correlated with a significant increase in estradiol levels. Application of appropriate reducing diet in perimenopausal overweight and obese women has positive impact on visceral adipose tissue distribution and causes an increase in sex hormones levels. Perimenopausal overweight and obese women should pursue weight reduction to improve their chances of contracting cardiovascular diseases. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance and Reduced Susceptibility in Clostridium difficile: Potential Consequences for Induction, Treatment, and Recurrence of C. difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Simon D.; Wilcox, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a substantial burden on healthcare systems and is likely to remain so given our reliance on antimicrobial therapies to treat bacterial infections, especially in an aging population in whom multiple co-morbidities are common. Antimicrobial agents are a key component in the aetiology of CDI, both in the establishment of the infection and also in its treatment. The purpose of this review is to summarise the role of antimicrobial agents in primary and recurrent CDI; assessing why certain antimicrobial classes may predispose to the induction of CDI according to a balance between antimicrobial activity against the gut microflora and C. difficile. Considering these aspects of CDI is important in both the prevention of the infection and in the development of new antimicrobial treatments. PMID:27025625

  13. Antioxidant treatment ameliorates experimental diabetes-induced depressive-like behaviour and reduces oxidative stress in brain and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Titus, Stephanie E; Carlessi, Anelise S; Matias, Beatriz I; Bruchchen, Livia; Florentino, Drielly; Vieira, Andriele; Petronilho, Fabricia; Ceretta, Luciane B; Zugno, Alexandra I; Quevedo, João

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the development of major depressive disorder. Alterations in oxidative stress are associated with the pathophysiology of both diabetes mellitus and major depressive disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine on behaviour and oxidative stress parameters in diabetic rats. To this aim, after induction of diabetes by a single dose of alloxan, Wistar rats were treated with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine for 14 days, and then depressive-like behaviour was evaluated. Oxidative stress parameters were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas. Diabetic rats displayed depressive-like behaviour, and treatment with N-acetylcysteine reversed this alteration. Carbonyl protein levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and pancreas of diabetic rats, and both N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine reversed these alterations. Lipid damage was increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and pancreas; however, treatment with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine reversed lipid damage only in the hippocampus and pancreas. Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas of diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, there was a decrease in catalase enzyme activity in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas, but an increase in the hippocampus. Treatment with antioxidants did not have an effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, animal model of diabetes produced depressive-like behaviour and oxidative stress in the brain and periphery. Treatment with antioxidants could be a viable alternative to treat behavioural and biochemical alterations induced by diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Risk of brain metastasis reduced after erlotinib treatment in advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients with sensitive EGFR mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Jing Liu,* Ligang Xing,* Xue Meng, Jinbo Yue, Xiangjiao Meng, Peng Xie, Xiaolin Li, Li Kong, Jinming YuDepartment of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: Brain metastasis (BM is associated with impaired quality of life and increased mortality. The study aimed to compare BM risk after erlotinib administration and chemotherapy in stage IIIB/IV pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation.Patients and methods: Eligible patients underwent match pair process with matching factors, including age, sex, performance status score, first-line or second-line treatment, first-line chemotherapy regimen (for the second-line treatment subgroup, stage IIIB or IV, and genotypes of EGFR mutation. BM and mortality risk of both groups were recorded and compared.Results: In total 129 matched pairs were included for analysis. During a median follow-up of 21.5 months, time to BM risk was longer and incidences of BM within 2 years were lower in patients who received erlotinib than chemotherapy in total population, as well as subgroups of first-line treatment, second-line treatment, stage IIIB, stage IV, exon 19 deletion mutation, and exon 21 L858R mutation. Similar overall survival time and 2-year survival rates were seen in two groups totally or in any subgroup. Multivariate analysis showed that BM was retarded in patients who received erlotinib administration (hazard ratio, 1.695; P=0.001 and in patients who were in stage IIIB (hazard ratio, 1.751; P=0.001.Conclusion: Erlotinib administration decreases BM risk in advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients harboring sensitive EGFR mutations.Keywords: pulmonary adenocarcinoma, brain metastasis, epidermal growth factor receptor, erlotinib, match pair analysis

  15. Rock gabion, rock armoring, and culvert treatments contributing to and reducing erosion during post-wildfire flooding - Schultz Fire 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Karen A. Koestner; Ann Youberg

    2011-01-01

    The Schultz Fire burned 6,100 ha on the eastern slopes of the San Francisco Peaks of the Coconino National Forest in north-central Arizona. The fire burned between June 20th and 30th, 2010, across moderate to very steep ponderosa pine and mixed conifer watersheds. One of the Burned Area Emergency Response treatments on Coconino National Forest lands consisted of the...

  16. D-amino acids reduce Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro and in the presence of antimicrobials used for root canal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Kidd, Stephen P.; Edwards, Suzanne; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2017-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the most frequent species present in post-treatment disease and plays a significant role in persistent periapical infections following root canal treatment. Its ability to persist in stressful environments is inter alia, due to its ability to form biofilms. The presence of certain D-amino acids (DAAs) has previously been shown to reduce formation of Bacillus subtilis biofilms. The aims of this investigation were to determine if DAAs disrupt biofilms in early and late growth stages for clinical E. faecalis strains and to test their efficacy in disrupting E. faecalis biofilms grown in sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of commonly used endodontic biocides. From thirty-seven E. faecalis strains, the ten “best” biofilm producers were used to test the ability of a mixture containing D-leucine, D-methionine, D-tyrosine and D-tryptophan to reduce biofilm growth over a period of 24, 72 and 144 hours and when compared to their cognate L-Amino Acids (LAAs). We have previously shown that sub-MIC levels of tetracycline and sodium hypochlorite promotes biofilm growth in clinical strains of E. faecalis. DAAs were therefore tested for their effectiveness to reduce biofilm growth in the presence of sub-minimal concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl-0.031%) and Odontocide™ (0.25% w/v), and in the presence of Odontopaste™ (0.25% w/v). DAAs significantly reduced biofilm formation for all strains tested in vitro, while DAAs significantly reduced biofilm formation compared to LAAs. The inhibitory effect of DAAs on biofilm formation was concentration dependent. DAAs were also shown to be effective in reducing E. faecalis biofilms in the presence of Odontopaste™ and sub-MIC levels of NaOCl and Odontocide™. The results suggest that the inclusion of DAAs into current endodontic procedures may reduce E. faecalis biofilms. PMID:28151960

  17. Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita A. Condorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT. The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: α (Group A = 20 patients, recombinant FSH-β (Group B = 20 patients, and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients. All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology, but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment.

  18. Consecutive salinomycin treatment reduces doxorubicin resistance of breast tumor cells by diminishing drug efflux pump expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, Adam; Wagner, Ernst; Roidl, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Chemoresistance is a major challenge for the successful therapy of breast cancer. The discovery of salinomycin as an anticancer stem cell drug provides progress in overcoming chemoresistance. However, it remains to be elucidated whether salinomycin treatment is able to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. In the present study, we consecutively treated epithelial MCF-7 and BT-474 breast cancer cells as well as mesenchymal MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 436 cells with salinomycin, and analyzed the gene expression of the two prominent multiple drug resistance (MDR) genes, MDR1 and BCRP1. We found that repeated treatment with salinomycin generated resistance against this drug in all cell lines and increased the chemosensitivity towards doxorubicin. Drug efflux pump gene expression and pump activity of MDR1 and BCRP1 were downregulated in almost all cell lines, except for MDR1 in the MDA-MB 231 cells. Consequently, the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation was increased compared to the respective parental cells. Our findings suggest a novel treatment option for MDR tumors by sensitizing these tumors via salinomycin pretreatment.

  19. Treatment with synthetic lipophilic tyrosyl ester controls Leishmania major infection by reducing parasite load in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Rabiaa M; Aissa, Imen; Attia, Hanène; Bali, Aymen; Leon Martinez, Pablo A; Mkannez, Ghada; Guerfali, Fatma Z; Gargouri, Youssef; Laouini, Dhafer

    2016-10-01

    Synthesized lipophilic tyrosyl ester derivatives with increasing lipophilicity were effective against Leishmania (L.) major and Leishmania infantum species in vitro. These findings prompted us to test in vivo leishmanicidal properties of these molecules and their potential effect on the modulation of immune responses. The experimental BALB/c model of cutaneous leishmaniasis was used in this study. Mice were infected with L. major parasites and treated with three in vitro active tyrosyl esters derivatives. Among these tested tyrosylcaprate (TyC) compounds, only TyC10 exhibited an in vivo anti-leishmanial activity, when injected sub-cutaneously (s.c.). TyC10 treatment of L. major-infected BALB/c mice resulted in a decrease of lesion development and parasite load. TyC10 s.c. treatment of non-infected mice induced an imbalance in interferon γ/interleukin 4 (IFN-γ/IL-4) ratio cytokines towards a Th1 response. Our results indicate that TyC10 s.c. treatment improves lesions' healing and parasite clearance and may act on the cytokine balance towards a Th1 protective response by decreasing IL-4 and increasing IFN-γ transcripts. TyC10 is worthy of further investigation to uncover its mechanism of action that could lead to consider this molecule as a potential drug candidate.

  20. Treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: grand rounds discussion from the beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittleman, Murray A; Taylor, William C; Smetana, Gerald; Burns, Risa B

    2015-08-18

    In November 2013, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association released a clinical practice guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in adults. The recommendation identifies 4 patient groups with strong evidence that the benefits of reduction in ASCVD events from statin therapy exceed adverse events. For these patients, initiating statin therapy of an appropriate intensity to reduce ASCVD risk and minimize adverse effects is recommended. A new risk estimator based on a pooled cohort equation is presented for estimating 10-year ASCVD risk. There is also a recommendation to engage in a clinician-patient discussion before initiating a statin, especially for primary prevention of ASCVD. This paper summarizes a discussion between a cardiologist and an internist about how each clinician would balance these factors and what treatment they would suggest for an individual patient.

  1. Melatonin-Mediated Intracellular Insulin during 2-Deoxy-d-glucose Treatment Is Reduced through Autophagy and EDC3 Protein in Insulinoma INS-1E Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Sung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 2-DG triggers glucose deprivation without altering other nutrients or metabolic pathways and then activates autophagy via activation of AMPK and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. We investigated whether 2-DG reduced intracellular insulin increased by melatonin via autophagy/EDC3 in insulinoma INS-1E cells. p-AMPK and GRP78/BiP level were significantly increased by 2-DG in the presence/absence of melatonin, but IRE1α level was reduced in 2-DG treatment. Levels of p85α, p110, p-Akt (Ser473, Thr308, and p-mTOR (Ser2481 were also significantly reduced by 2-DG in the presence/absence of melatonin. Mn-SOD increased with 2-DG plus melatonin compared to groups treated with/without melatonin alone. Bcl-2 was decreased and Bax increased with 2-DG plus melatonin. LC3II level increased with 2-DG treatment in the presence/absence of melatonin. Intracellular insulin production increased in melatonin plus 2-DG but reduced in treatment with 2-DG with/without melatonin. EDC3 was increased by 2-DG in the presence/absence of melatonin. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, increased GRP78/BiP and EDC3 levels in a dose-dependent manner and subsequently resulted in a decrease in intracellular production of insulin. These results suggest that melatonin-mediated insulin synthesis during 2-DG treatment involves autophagy and EDC3 protein in rat insulinoma INS-1E cells and subsequently results in a decrease in intracellular production of insulin.

  2. Chronic Anatabine Treatment Reduces Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-Like Pathology and Improves Socio-Behavioral Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Megha; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Li, Rena; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anatabine is a minor tobacco alkaloid, which is also found in plants of the Solanaceae family and displays a chemical structure similarity with nicotine. We have shown previously that anatabine displays some anti-inflammatory properties and reduces microgliosis and tau phosphorylation in a pure mouse model of tauopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic oral treatment with anatabine in a transgenic mouse model (Tg PS1/APPswe) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) which displays pathological Aβ deposits, neuroinflammation and behavioral deficits. In the elevated plus maze, Tg PS1/APPswe mice exhibited hyperactivity and disinhibition compared to wild-type mice. Six and a half months of chronic oral anatabine treatment, suppressed hyperactivity and disinhibition in Tg PS1/APPswe mice compared to Tg PS1/APPswe receiving regular drinking water. Tg PS1/APPswe mice also elicited profound social interaction and social memory deficits, which were both alleviated by the anatabine treatment. We found that anatabine reduces the activation of STAT3 and NFκB in the vicinity of Aβ deposits in Tg PS1/APPswe mice resulting in a reduction of the expression of some of their target genes including Bace1, iNOS and Cox-2. In addition, a significant reduction in microgliosis and pathological deposition of Aβ was observed in the brain of Tg PS1/APPswe mice treated with anatabine. This is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic anatabine treatment on AD-like pathology and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Overall, our data show that anatabine reduces β-amyloidosis, neuroinflammation and alleviates some behavioral deficits in Tg PS1/APPswe, supporting further exploration of anatabine as a possible disease modifying agent for the treatment of AD.

  3. Chronic Anatabine Treatment Reduces Alzheimer's Disease (AD-Like Pathology and Improves Socio-Behavioral Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of AD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Verma

    Full Text Available Anatabine is a minor tobacco alkaloid, which is also found in plants of the Solanaceae family and displays a chemical structure similarity with nicotine. We have shown previously that anatabine displays some anti-inflammatory properties and reduces microgliosis and tau phosphorylation in a pure mouse model of tauopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic oral treatment with anatabine in a transgenic mouse model (Tg PS1/APPswe of Alzheimer's disease (AD which displays pathological Aβ deposits, neuroinflammation and behavioral deficits. In the elevated plus maze, Tg PS1/APPswe mice exhibited hyperactivity and disinhibition compared to wild-type mice. Six and a half months of chronic oral anatabine treatment, suppressed hyperactivity and disinhibition in Tg PS1/APPswe mice compared to Tg PS1/APPswe receiving regular drinking water. Tg PS1/APPswe mice also elicited profound social interaction and social memory deficits, which were both alleviated by the anatabine treatment. We found that anatabine reduces the activation of STAT3 and NFκB in the vicinity of Aβ deposits in Tg PS1/APPswe mice resulting in a reduction of the expression of some of their target genes including Bace1, iNOS and Cox-2. In addition, a significant reduction in microgliosis and pathological deposition of Aβ was observed in the brain of Tg PS1/APPswe mice treated with anatabine. This is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic anatabine treatment on AD-like pathology and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Overall, our data show that anatabine reduces β-amyloidosis, neuroinflammation and alleviates some behavioral deficits in Tg PS1/APPswe, supporting further exploration of anatabine as a possible disease modifying agent for the treatment of AD.

  4. Efficacy of plant-derived antimicrobials as antimicrobial wash treatments for reducing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Upadhyaya, Indu; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Roshni Amalaradjou, Mary Anne; Schreiber, David; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of 3 GRAS-status, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), carvacrol (CR), and β-resorcylic acid (BR) applied as an antimicrobial wash for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apples. "Red delicious" apples inoculated with a 5 strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 were subjected to washing in sterile deionized water containing 0% PDA (control), 0.15% TC, 0.35% TC, 0.15% CR, 0.30% CR, 0.5% BR, or 1% BR for 1, 3, and 5 min at 23 °C in the presence and absence of 1% soil, and surviving pathogen populations on apples were enumerated at each specified time. All PDAs were more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 compared to the water wash treatment (P reduced the pathogen by 4- to 5-log CFU/apple in 5 min. Chlorine (1%) was the most effective treatment reducing the pathogen on apples to undetectable levels in 1 min (P water and treatment solutions containing TC and chlorine, in the presence of 1% soil (P usage. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Increasing efficacy and reducing side effects in treatment of chronic anal fissures: A study of topical diazepam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Minh Tuan H; Smith, Betsy E; Keck, Carson; Keshavarzian, Ali; Sedghi, Shahriar

    2017-05-01

    This is a single institution nonexperimental study intended to analyze the therapeutic efficacy of topical diazepam in treating symptoms of chronic anal fissures.Anal fissures are a common cause of anal pain. Conventional treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical creams, such as nitroglycerin and nifedipine, and surgery. However, these treatments are usually suboptimally efficacious or have deterring side effects.Patients at an outpatient community center with a diagnosis of a chronic anal fissure were prescribed either topical 2% (n = 19) or 4% (n = 18) diazepam cream between January 2013 and February 2015. We retrospectively analyzed their responses to treatment.All 19 patients using 2% diazepam cream experienced a positive response in pain, whereas 47.4% experienced a complete response, with a numerical rating scale (NRS) score of 0 (0-10). Eighty-eight percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in pain, whereas 23.5% experienced a complete response. Ninety-four percent of patients using 2% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 68.8% experienced a complete response with an anal bleeding score (ABS) of 2 (2-9). Ninety-four percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 64.7% experienced a complete response. Only 1 patient reported a side effect from diazepam cream-perianal pruritus.Both 2% and 4% topical diazepam provided significant pain and bleeding relief from chronic anal fissures that were refractory to conventional therapies. There were insignificant differences when assessing independent comparisons for pain and bleeding between the doses.

  6. Metallothionein treatment reduces proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha and apoptotic cell death during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Hidalgo, J

    2001-01-01

    , which is characterized by significant inflammation and neuroglial damage. We have recently shown that the exogenous administration of the antioxidant protein zinc-metallothionein-II (Zn-MT-II) significantly decreased the clinical symptoms, mortality, and leukocyte infiltration of the CNS during EAE...... apoptotic cell death of neurons and oligodendrocytes during EAE, as judged by using TUNEL and immunoreactivity for cytochrome c and caspases 1 and 3. In contrast, the number of apoptotic lymphocytes and macrophages was less affected by Zn-MT-II treatment. The Zn-MT-II-induced decrease in proinflammatory...

  7. A pilot study linking reduced fronto-striatal recruitment during reward processing to persistent bingeing following treatment for binge-eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, Iris M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; White, Marney A.; Stevens, Michael C.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary purpose of this study was to examine neurobiological underpinnings of reward processing that may relate to treatment outcome for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method Prior to starting treatment, nineteen obese persons seeking treatment for BED performed a monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses examined how the neural correlates of reward processing related to binge-eating status after four-month of treatment. Results Ten individuals continued to report binge- eating (BEpost-tx) following treatment and nine individuals did not (NBEpost-tx). The groups did not differ in body mass index. The BEpost-tx group relative to the NBEpost-tx group showed diminished recruitment of the ventral striatum and the inferior frontal gyrus during the anticipatory phase of reward processing and reduced activity in the medial prefrontal cortex during the outcome phase of reward processing. Discussion These results link brain reward circuitry to treatment outcome in BED and suggest that specific brain regions underlying reward processing may represent important therapeutic targets in BED. PMID:24729034

  8. A Pilot Study of Brief Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback to Reduce Craving in Young Adult Men Receiving Inpatient Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddie, D.; Kim, C.; Lehrer, P.; Deneke, E.; Bates, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present pilot study investigated the implementation feasibility, and efficacy for reducing alcohol and drug craving, of a brief, 3-session heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV BFB) intervention added to a traditional 28-day substance abuse disorder (SUD) inpatient treatment program. Forty-eight young adult men received either treatment as usual (TAU) plus three sessions of HRV BFB training over three weeks, or TAU only. Participants receiving HRV BFB training were instructed to practice daily using a handheld HRV BFB device. HRV BFB training was well tolerated by participants and supported by treatment staff. Men receiving TAU + HRV BFB demonstrated a greater, medium effect size reduction in alcohol and drug craving compared to those receiving TAU only, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. In addition, an interaction effect was observed in analyses that accounted for baseline craving levels, wherein heart rate variability (HRV) levels at treatment entry were predictive of changes in craving in the TAU group only. Low baseline levels of HRV were associated with increases in craving, whereas higher baseline HRV levels were associated with greater decreases in craving from start to end of treatment. In the TAU + HRV BFB group, however, there was no such association. That is, HRV BFB appeared to dissociate individual differences in baseline HRV levels from changes in craving. Given that alcohol and drug craving often precipitates relapse, HRV BFB merits further study as an adjunct treatment to ameliorate craving experienced by persons with substance use disorders. PMID:25179673

  9. A pilot study of brief heart rate variability biofeedback to reduce craving in young adult men receiving inpatient treatment for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddie, D; Kim, C; Lehrer, P; Deneke, E; Bates, M E

    2014-12-01

    The present pilot study investigated the implementation feasibility, and efficacy for reducing alcohol and drug craving, of a brief, 3-session heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV BFB) intervention added to a traditional 28-day substance abuse disorder inpatient treatment program. Forty-eight young adult men received either treatment as usual (TAU) plus three sessions of HRV BFB training over 3 weeks, or TAU only. Participants receiving HRV BFB training were instructed to practice daily using a hand-held HRV BFB device. HRV BFB training was well tolerated by participants and supported by treatment staff. Men receiving TAU + HRV BFB demonstrated a greater, medium effect size reduction in alcohol and drug craving compared to those receiving TAU only, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. In addition, an interaction effect was observed in analyses that accounted for baseline craving levels, wherein heart rate variability (HRV) levels at treatment entry were predictive of changes in craving in the TAU group only. Low baseline levels of HRV were associated with increases in craving, whereas higher baseline HRV levels were associated with greater decreases in craving from start to end of treatment. In the TAU + HRV BFB group, however, there was no such association. That is, HRV BFB appeared to dissociate individual differences in baseline HRV levels from changes in craving. Given that alcohol and drug craving often precipitates relapse, HRV BFB merits further study as an adjunct treatment to ameliorate craving experienced by persons with substance use disorders.

  10. A pilot study linking reduced fronto-Striatal recruitment during reward processing to persistent bingeing following treatment for binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, Iris M; Grilo, Carlos M; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D; White, Marney A; Stevens, Michael C; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine neurobiological underpinnings of reward processing that may relate to treatment outcome for binge-eating disorder (BED). Prior to starting treatment, 19 obese persons seeking treatment for BED performed a monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses examined how the neural correlates of reward processing related to binge-eating status after 4-months of treatment. Ten individuals continued to report binge-eating (BEpost-tx ) following treatment and 9 individuals did not (NBEpost-tx ). The groups did not differ in body mass index. The BEpost-tx group relative to the NBEpost-tx group showed diminished recruitment of the ventral striatum and the inferior frontal gyrus during the anticipatory phase of reward processing and reduced activity in the medial prefrontal cortex during the outcome phase of reward processing. These results link brain reward circuitry to treatment outcome in BED and suggest that specific brain regions underlying reward processing may represent important therapeutic targets in BED. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Population densities and tree diameter effects associated with verbenone treatments to reduce mountain pine beetle-caused mortality of lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progar, R A; Blackford, D C; Cluck, D R; Costello, S; Dunning, L B; Eager, T; Jorgensen, C L; Munson, A S; Steed, B; Rinella, M J

    2013-02-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is among the primary causes of mature lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia mortality. Verbenone is the only antiaggregant semiochemical commercially available for reducing mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine. The success of verbenone treatments has varied greatly in previous studies because of differences in study duration, beetle population size, tree size, or other factors. To determine the ability of verbenone to protect lodgepole pine over long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks, we applied verbenone treatments annually for 3 to 7 yr at five western United States sites. At one site, an outbreak did not develop; at two sites, verbenone reduced lodgepole pine mortality in medium and large diameter at breast height trees, and at the remaining two sites verbenone was ineffective at reducing beetle infestation. Verbenone reduced mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine trees in treated areas when populations built gradually or when outbreaks in surrounding untreated forests were of moderate severity. Verbenone did not protect trees when mountain pine beetle populations rapidly increase.

  12. The Effect of KOH Treatment on the Chemical Structure and Electrocatalytic Activity of Reduced Graphene Oxide Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Choi, Kwangrok; Shim, Yeonjun; Lee, Seungjun; Park, Sungjin

    2016-08-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rG-O)-based materials have great potential as metal-free electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) owing to their electrical and electrochemical properties and large surface area. Long-term durability and chemical stability of the catalysts in the presence of electrolytes such as aqueous KOH solution are important for their use in practical applications. In this study, three types of rG-O and rG-O-K (rG-O after reaction with KOH) materials were synthesized. The chemical structures, surface areas, and catalytic ORR performances of the rG-O materials were compared with those of the corresponding rG-O-K materials. The onset potentials of the rG-O materials for electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen are almost the same as those of the corresponding rG-O-K materials; however, the current density and the number of transferred electrons are significantly reduced. These data show that the catalytic ORR performance of rG-O-based materials can be altered by KOH.

  13. Short-term, high-dose glucocorticoid treatment does not contribute to reduced bone mineral density in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, Ditte Bang; Sørensen, P S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD). A contributing factor might be treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to assess bone mass in patients with MS and evaluate the importa......BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD). A contributing factor might be treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to assess bone mass in patients with MS and evaluate...... the importance of short-term, high-dose GC treatment and other risk factors that affect BMD in patients with MS. METHODS: A total of 260 patients with MS received short-term high-dose GC treatment and had their BMD measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. BMD was compared to a healthy age-matched reference...... population (Z-scores). Data regarding GCs, age, body mass index (BMI), serum 25(OH)D, disease duration and severity were collected retrospectively and analysed in a multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the association between each risk factor and BMD. RESULTS: Osteopenia was present in 38...

  14. Treatment with a Ca(2+) channel blocker, barnidipine, reduces platelet-derived growth factor B-chain mRNA in glomeruli of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, M; Yamauchi, T; Ogura, T; Oishi, T; Mimura, Y; Otsuka, F; Kashihara, N; Makino, H

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effect of barnidipine hydrochloride, a Ca(2+) channel blocker, on the glomerular level of mRNA expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-chain and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. Thirteen-week-old SHR were provided with food containing barnidipine (0.6 mg/g of food, average dose during treatment: 53 mg/kg of body mass/day) for 3 weeks. A stable reduction in systolic blood pressure relative to that of age-matched control SHR was recorded after week 1 of therapy. Although no renal histological changes were observed after 3 weeks of treatment with barnidipine, the level of expression of PDGF B-chain mRNA in glomeruli was significantly reduced relative to that in control SHR. The glomerular level of TGF-beta(1) mRNA expression was not affected by the treatment. Treatment with barnidipine significantly reduced the excretion of urinary protein. Thus, the stable reduction in systemic blood pressure by barnidipine is associated with a reduction in PDGF B-chain mRNA expression in the glomerulus and reduction in urinary protein excretion in SHR.

  15. Combination of N-(3'4'-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranilic acid with cyclosporin A treatment preserves immunosuppressive effect and reduces the side effect of cyclosporin A in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Gang, Xu; Ming-Zhe, Weng; Jin-Yan, Zhang; Zhi-Hai, Peng; Jun-Ming, Xu

    2014-04-05

    Cyclosporin A (CsA), one of the most fundamental immunosuppressive drugs, is routinely used in clinics for the treatment of liver and other organ rejections. However, one of the major challenges of the application of CsA is the occurrence of the serious adverse effects, namely, acute and chronic nephrotoxicity, severe hypertension and neurotoxicity. Although N-(3'4'-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranilic acid (3,4-DAA) plays an important role in apoptosis of activated T cells, and is therapeutically used as an orally active anti-allergic drug for the treatment of allergy, it has not been tested for use in the treatment of organ rejection. In this study, we used the dark agouti (DA)-Lewis rat orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) model to investigate whether the combination of 3,4-DAA with CsA is a promising and useful strategy to lower CsA dosage for reducing CsA side effect and preserve therapeutic effect of CsA. Here, we document that the combination treatment effectively inhibits acute liver rejection in OLT model with only half the normally suggested dosage of CsA that has much less side effect in rats than that of the full dosage. These results indicate that 3,4-DAA may serve as an effective adjunct for a CsA-based immunosuppressive regimen to treat transplant recipients for reducing CsA side effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal dipyrone treatment during lactation in mice reduces maternal behavior and increases anxiety-like behavior in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Vanessa Barbosa; Batista, Tatiane Helena; Ribeiro, Ana Cláudia Alves Freire; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre; Vilela, Fabiana Cardoso

    2017-05-01

    Dipyrone (metamizole), a powerful drug, is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic; however, the safety of its use during lactation and the potential impact on the offspring are not well established. This study aimed to determine the effect of maternal dipyrone treatment during lactation on offspring development and emotional behavior and on the dam's maternal behavior. Hence, on postnatal day (PND) 2, drinking water only or drinking water containing dipyrone at doses of 100, 300, and 500mg/kg/day, were offered to lactating mothers up to PND9. Thereafter, all mice were provided regular drinking water. On PND2, all litters were culled to 8 pups (4 males and 4 females). Maternal behavior was evaluated at PND3, 6, 9, and 12, and at PND7 we evaluated locomotor activity in the open field. Reflex parameters and physical development of offspring were evaluated during lactation. At PND7, analysis of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) was performed. When the animals reached adolescence, we evaluated their performance in the open field, elevated plus maze (EPM), and marble burying. Our data demonstrated that maternal dipyrone treatment during lactation not only altered maternal behavior and the onset of physical and neurodevelopmental landmarks but also had an impact on anxiety-like behavior in offspring. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinesiology Taping reduces lymphedema of the upper extremity in women after breast cancer treatment: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Malicka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Secondary lymphedema affects approximately 40% of women treated for breast cancer and is recognized as a major problem associated with the therapy of malignant tumors. Consequently, new therapeutic methods are constantly being sought to effectively eliminate the condition. One of the new forms of edema management, especially in the initial stages of edematous development, is Kinesiology Taping (KT. Aim of the study : The aim of the study was to assess the effects of KT applications on the extent of lymphedema of the upper extremity in women post cancer treatment. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 28 women after axillary lymphadenectomy due to breast cancer. All the patients were diagnosed with grade I secondary lymphedema. Kinesiology Taping was applied to a total of 14 randomly selected women. The remaining 14 patients constituted a control group. The extent of lymphedema was measured using a centimeter tape and Limb Volumes Professional 5.0 software. Results : A significant reduction in the extent of lymphedema (p = 0.0009 was achieved in the KT group between baseline and post-treatment assessments. No such reduction, however, was found in the control group (p = 0.36. Conclusions : Kinesiology Taping applications are an effective method of early-stage edema management. Kinesiology Taping may be a safe new therapeutic option in patients who are contraindicated for the use of other methods.

  18. Indomethacin treatment reduces microglia activation and increases numbers of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone and ischaemic striatum after focal ischaemia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ROSANA S LOPES; MARCELO M CARDOSO; ARTHUR O SAMPAIO; MARIO SANTOS BARBOSA Jr; CELICE C SOUZA; MICHELLE C DA SILVA; ELANE MAGNO N FERREIRA; MARCO AURELIOM FREIRE; RAFAEL RODRIGUES LIMA; WALACE GOMES-LEAL

    2016-09-01

    Neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate to striatum following stroke, but most of them die inthe ischaemic milieu and this can be related to exacerbated microglial activation. Here, we explored theeffects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory indomethacin on microglial activation, neuronal preservation andneuroblast migration following experimental striatal stroke in adult rats. Animals were submitted toendothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced focal striatal ischaemia and were treated with indomethacin or sterile saline(i.p.) for 7 days, being perfused after 8 or 14 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess neuronalloss (anti-NeuN), microglial activation (anti-Iba1, ED1) and migrating neuroblasts (anti-DCX) by countingNeuN, ED1 and DCX-positive cells in the ischaemic striatum or SVZ. Indomethacin treatment reducedmicroglia activation and the number of ED1^{+} cells in both 8 and 14 days post injury as compared withcontrols. There was an increase in the number of DCX^{+} cells in both SVZ and striatum at the same survivaltimes. Moreover, there was a decrease in the number of NeuN^{+} cells in indomethacin-treated animals ascompared with the control group at 8 days but not after 14 days post injury. Our results suggest thatindomethacin treatment modulates microglia activation, contributing to increased neuroblast proliferation inthe SVZ and migration to the ischaemic striatum following stroke.

  19. The contributions of eye movements to the efficacy of brief exposure treatment for reducing fear of public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, M H; Levis, D J

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to isolate the effects of the eye-movement component of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) procedure in the treatment of fear of public speaking. Seventy-one undergraduate psychology students who responded in a fearful manner on the Fear Survey Schedule II and on a standardized, self-report measure of public speaking anxiety (Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker; PRCS) were randomly assigned to one of four groups in a 2x2 factorial design. The two independent variables assessed were treatment condition (imagery plus eye movements vs. imagery alone) and type of imagery (fear-relevant vs. relaxing). Dependent variables assessed were self-reported and physiological anxiety during exposure and behavioral indices of anxiety while giving a speech. Although process measures indicated exposure to fear-relevant imagery increased anxiety during the procedure, no significant differences among groups were found on any of the outcome measures, except that participants who received eye movements were less likely to give a speech posttreatment than participants who did not receive eye movements. Addition of the eye movements to the experimental procedure did not result in enhancement of fear reduction. It was concluded, consistent with the results of past research, that previously reported positive effects of the EMDR procedure may be largely due to exposure to conditioned stimuli.

  20. Reduced occurrence of programmed cell death and gliosis in the retinas of juvenile rabbits after shortterm treatment with intravitreous bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Fusco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Bevacizumab has been widely used as a vascular endothelial growth factor antagonist in the treatment of retinal vasoproliferative disorders in adults and, more recently, in infants with retinopathy of prematurity. Recently, it has been proposed that vascular endothelial growth factor acts as a protective factor for neurons and glial cells, particularly in developing nervous tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bevacizumab on the developing retinas of juvenile rabbits. METHODS: Juvenile rabbits received bevacizumab intravitreously in one eye; the other eye acted as an untreated control. Slit-lamp and fundoscopic examinations were performed both prior to and seven days after treatment. At the same time, retina samples were analyzed using immunohistochemistry to detect autophagy and apoptosis as well as proliferation and glial reactivity. Morphometric analyses were performed, and the data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: No clinical abnormalities were observed in either treated or untreated eyes. However, immunohistochemical analyses revealed a reduction in the occurrence of programmed cell death and increases in both proliferation and reactivity in the bevacizumab-treated group compared with the untreated group. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab appears to alter programmed cell death patterns and promote gliosis in the developing retinas of rabbits; therefore, it should be used with caution in developing eyes

  1. Early Treatment with Intranasal Neostigmine Reduces Mortality in a Mouse Model of Naja naja (Indian Cobra Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Lewin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Most snakebite deaths occur prior to hospital arrival; yet inexpensive, effective, and easy to administer out-of-hospital treatments do not exist. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can be therapeutic in neurotoxic envenomations when administered intravenously, but nasally delivered drugs could facilitate prehospital therapy for these patients. We tested the feasibility of this idea in experimentally envenomed mice. Methods. Mice received intraperitoneal injections of Naja naja venom 2.5 to 10 times the estimated LD50 and then received 5 μL neostigmine (0.5 mg/mL or 5 μL normal saline by nasal administration. Animals were observed up to 12 hours and survivors were euthanized. Results. 100% of control mice died. Untreated mice injected with 2.5× LD50 Naja naja died at average 193 minutes after injection, while 10 of 15 (67% of treated mice survived and were behaviorally normal by 6 hours (P<0.02. In the 5× LD50 group, survival was prolonged from 45 minutes to 196 minutes (P=0.01 and for 10× LD50 mice, survival increased from 30 to 175 minutes (P<0.02. Conclusion. This pilot suggests that intranasal drugs can improve survival and is the first direct demonstration that such an approach is plausible, suggesting means by which treatment could be initiated before reaching the hospital. Further investigation of this approach to neurotoxic and other types of envenomation is warranted.

  2. Kinesiology Taping reduces lymphedema of the upper extremity in women after breast cancer treatment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicka, Iwona; Rosseger, Agnieszka; Hanuszkiewicz, Justyna; Woźniewski, Marek

    2014-09-01

    Secondary lymphedema affects approximately 40% of women treated for breast cancer and is recognized as a major problem associated with the therapy of malignant tumors. Consequently, new therapeutic methods are constantly being sought to effectively eliminate the condition. One of the new forms of edema management, especially in the initial stages of edematous development, is Kinesiology Taping (KT). The aim of the study was to assess the effects of KT applications on the extent of lymphedema of the upper extremity in women post cancer treatment. The study group consisted of 28 women after axillary lymphadenectomy due to breast cancer. All the patients were diagnosed with grade I secondary lymphedema. Kinesiology Taping was applied to a total of 14 randomly selected women. The remaining 14 patients constituted a control group. The extent of lymphedema was measured using a centimeter tape and Limb Volumes Professional 5.0 software. A significant reduction in the extent of lymphedema (p = 0.0009) was achieved in the KT group between baseline and post-treatment assessments. No such reduction, however, was found in the control group (p = 0.36). Kinesiology Taping applications are an effective method of early-stage edema management. Kinesiology Taping may be a safe new therapeutic option in patients who are contraindicated for the use of other methods.

  3. Effect of Toys and Preoperative Visit on Reducing Children’s Anxiety and their Parents before Surgery and Satisfaction with the Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghabeli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital anxiety and surgery has an unpleasant and disturbing feeling for a child and his/her family. This study aimed to determine the effect of toys and visit in reducing children’s anxiety before the surgery and their mothers and satisfaction with the treatment process. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study in posttest design with a control group. 60 children aged 3 to 8 years, who were undergoing ear, nose and throat surgery in Tabriz Amiralmomenin hospital, were chosen, and regarding their age and gender, were recruited into the control or experiment group. For the experiment group, the interventions before surgery were applied. The level of anxiety in children and parents was evaluated by Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD-R and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI. The level of parental satisfaction with the treatment process before being discharged from the hospital was evaluated by the process of treatment satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ-18. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13. Results: Mean anxiety scores of the children and mothers in the experimental group were lower than the control group. Mean maternal satisfaction score of the treatment process in the experimental group was higher than the mean scores of the control group. However, in the subscales of general satisfaction, interpersonal behavior, and financial aspects of satisfaction with treatment, no statistical significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: Based on the findings, providing toys for children and informing the parents about medical information has a major effect in reducing children’s and other’s anxiety and increasing maternal satisfaction with the treatment process.

  4. Treatment with low-dose cytokines reduces oxidative-mediated injury in perilesional keratinocytes from vitiligo skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barygina, Victoria; Becatti, Matteo; Lotti, Torello; Moretti, Silvia; Taddei, Niccolò; Fiorillo, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Vitiligo is a systemic dermatological disorder characterized by the loss of skin pigmentation due to melanocyte injury or aberrant functioning. Recent data underline its multifactorial etiology with significant involvement of autoimmune and redox alterations. The major role in vitiligo cellular immunity is displayed by augmented Th1 and Th17 and suppressed TREGs and Th2 lymphocyte populations. Our previous studies indicate a marked redox imbalance in perilesional ("PL", i.e. obtained from visibly unaffected skin surrounding the depigmented area in vitiligo patients) keratinocytes where the massive infiltration of inflammatory cells takes place. No defined therapy exists for vitiligo. Although a number of approaches have been used for the induction of TREGs and Th2 cells, they may be associated with significant off-target effects. In order to identify a targeted approach for vitiligo treatment we, first, aimed to investigate the possible source of ROS overproduction in PL keratinocytes. Second, we tested the effect of low-dose selected cytokines, on intra- and extracellular ROS production, cell viability and cell cycle of PL keratinocytes. The in vitro study was conducted on primary PL keratinocytes obtained from the skin of vitiligo patients in our previous studies. The activity of NADPH oxidase was measured on intact PL and control keratinocytes, treated or not with cytokines, by luminometric assay. The following cytokines were selected for PL keratinocytes treatment: IL-10 and IL-4 (produced by TREGs and Th2, respectively), basic fibroblasts growth factor (bFGF) and neuropeptide β-endorphin (modulating the cellular resistance to oxidative stress and the immune response, respectively). All cytokines were used at concentration of 10fg/ml and were prepared by sequential-kinetic-activation (SKA). Intracellular ROS production and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry using H2DCFDA and propidium iodide dyes, respectively. Cell viability was measured by

  5. Unified treatment of quantum coherent and incoherent hopping dynamics in electronic energy transfer: reduced hierarchy equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Akihito; Fleming, Graham R

    2009-06-21

    A new quantum dynamic equation for excitation energy transfer is developed which can describe quantum coherent wavelike motion and incoherent hopping in a unified manner. The developed equation reduces to the conventional Redfield theory and Forster theory in their respective limits of validity. In the regime of coherent wavelike motion, the equation predicts several times longer lifetime of electronic coherence between chromophores than does the conventional Redfield equation. Furthermore, we show quantum coherent motion can be observed even when reorganization energy is large in comparison to intersite electronic coupling (the Forster incoherent regime). In the region of small reorganization energy, slow fluctuation sustains longer-lived coherent oscillation, whereas the Markov approximation in the Redfield framework causes infinitely fast fluctuation and then collapses the quantum coherence. In the region of large reorganization energy, sluggish dissipation of reorganization energy increases the time electronic excitation stays above an energy barrier separating chromophores and thus prolongs delocalization over the chromophores.

  6. Largely Reduced Grid Densities in a Vibrational Self-Consistent Field Treatment Do Not Significantly Impact the ResultingWavenumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver M. D. Lutz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Especially for larger molecules relevant to life sciences, vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF calculations can become unmanageably demanding even when only first and second order potential coupling terms are considered. This paper investigates to what extent the grid density of the VSCF’s underlying potential energy surface can be reduced without sacrificing accuracy of the resulting wavenumbers. Including single-mode and pair contributions, a reduction to eight points per mode did not introduce a significant deviation but improved the computational efficiency by a factor of four. A mean unsigned deviation of 1.3% from the experiment could be maintained for the fifteen molecules under investigation and the approach was found to be applicable to rigid, semi-rigid and soft vibrational problems likewise. Deprotonated phosphoserine, stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds, was investigated as an exemplary application.

  7. SU-E-T-625: Potential for Reduced Radiation Induced Toxicity for the Treatment of Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using RapidArc Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, D; Sood, S; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Saleh, H; Wang, F [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using RapidArc (RA) treatment planning to reduce irradiation volume of normal lung and other organs at risk (OARs) in the treatment of inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods: A retrospective treatment planning and delivery study was performed to compare target coverage and the volumes of the normal lung, spinal cord, heart and esophagus on 4D-CT scan above their dose tolerances delivered by RA vs. IMRT for ten inoperable NSCLC patients (Stage I-IIIB). RA plans consisted of either one-full or two-partial co-planar arcs used to treat 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) with 6MV beam to a prescription of 66Gy in 33 fractions. IMRT plans were generated using 5–7 co-planar fields with 6MV beam. PTV coverage, dose-volume histograms, homogeneity/conformity indices (CI), total number of monitor units(MUs), beam-on time and delivery accuracy were compared between the two treatment plans. Results: Similar target coverage was obtained between the two techniques. RA (CI=1.02) provided more conformal plans without loss of homogeneity compared to IMRT plans (CI=1.12). Compared to IMRT, RA achieved a significant median dose reduction in V10 (3%), V20 (8%), and mean lung dose (3%) on average, respectively. On average, V5 was comparable between the two treatment plans. RA reduced mean esophagus (6%), mean heart (18%), and maximum spinal cord dose (7%), on average, respectively. Total number of MUs and beam-on time were each reduced almost by a factor of 2 when compared to IMRT-patient comfort, reduced intra-fraction-motion and leakage dose. The average IMRT and RA QA pass rate was about 98% for both types of plans for 3%/3mm criterion. Conclusion: Compared to IMRT plans, RA provided not only comparable target coverage, but also improved conformity, treatment time, and significant reduction in irradiation of OARs. This may potentially allow for target dose escalation without increase in normal tissue toxicity.

  8. Treatment with Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) Inhibitors to Reduce Cardiovascular Inflammation and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberale, Luca; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Camici, Giovanni G; Dallegri, Franco; Vecchie, Alessandra; Carbone, Federico; Bonaventura, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease involved in cholesterol homeostasis. After binding to the complex low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor, PCSK9 induces its intracellular degradation, thus reducing serum LDL clearance. PCSK9 is mainly secreted by the liver, but it is also expressed to a lesser extent in other organs. Apart from the well-known activity concerning hepatic LDL receptor-mediated pathway, PCSK9 has been supposed to potentially interfere with vascular inflammation in atherogenesis. Vascular smooth muscle cells have been demonstrated to produce higher amounts of PCSK9 as compared to endothelial cells especially in an inflammatory microenvironment. Low shear stress regions increase PCSK9 expression within SMCs, while higher shear stress gradually reduced PCSK9 expression. Moreover, a crosstalk between PCSK9 and reactive oxygen species has been also described. Oxidized LDL was shown to up regulate the expression of PCKS9 by influencing dose-dependently the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. After the identification of gene loss-of-function mutations and no detectable circulating protein levels, PCSK9 has attracted a great interest as an effective target for cholesterol-lowering therapies. Different strategies have been implemented to block the effects of both intracellular and circulating PCSK9. In particular, monoclonal antibodies represent the most promising approach and two of these, alirocumab and evolocumab, have been approved for clinical use in patients affected by familial hypercholesterolemia with encouraging results. In the next future, the improvement of the knowledge of the "pleiotropic" effects of PCSK9 inhibitors might unveil therapeutic potential on cardiovascular outcome independently on the cholesterol lowering activity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Delayed treatment with intravenous basic fibroblast growth factor reduces infarct size following permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M; Meadows, M E; Do, T; Weise, J; Trubetskoy, V; Charette, M; Finklestein, S P

    1995-11-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a polypeptide that supports the survival of brain cells (including neurons, glia, and endothelia) and protects neurons against a number of toxins and insults in vitro. This factor is also a potent dilator of cerebral pial arterioles in vivo. In previous studies, we found that intraventricularly administered bFGF reduced infarct volume in a model of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. In the current study, bFGF (45 micrograms/kg/h) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was infused intravenously for 3 h, beginning at 30 min after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by intraluminal suture in mature Sprague-Dawley rats. After 24 h, neurological deficit (as assessed by a 0- to 5-point scale, with 5 = most severe) was 2.6 +/- 1.0 in vehicle-treated and 1.5 +/- 1.3 in bFGF-treated rats (mean +/- SD; N = 12 vs. 11; p = 0.009). Infarct volume was 297 +/- 65 mm3 in vehicle- and 143 +/- 135 mm3 in bFGF-treated animals (p = 0.002). During infusion, there was a modest decrease in mean arterial blood pressure but no changes in arterial blood gases or core or brain temperature in bFGF-treated rats. Autoradiography following intravenous administration of 111In-labeled bFGF showed that labeled bFGF crossed the damaged blood-brain barrier to enter the ischemic (but not the nonischemic) hemisphere. Whether the infarct-reducing effects of bFGF depend on intraparenchymal or intravascular mechanisms requires further study.

  10. Astaxanthin treatment confers protection against oxidative stress in U937 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide reducing O2- production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Franceschelli

    Full Text Available Recently, astaxanthin (ASTA studies have focused on several biological functions such as radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, anti-carcinogenesis, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, anti-melanogenesis, and immune enhancement activities. In this study, we investigated the potential role protective of ASTA, an antioxidant marine carotenoid, in restoring physiological conditions in U937 cells stimulated with LPS (10 µg/ml. Our results show that pre-treatment with ASTA (10 µM for 1 h attenuates the LPS-induced toxicity and ROS production. The beneficial effect of ASTA is associated with a reduction intracellular O2 (- production by restoring the antioxidant network activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, which influence HO-1 expression and activity by inhibiting nuclear translocation of Nrf2. We accordingly hypothesize that ASTA has therapeutic properties protecting U937 cells from LPS-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress.

  11. Activation of mitochondrial STAT-3 and reduced mitochondria damage during hypothermia treatment for post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hua; Tsai, Min-Shan; Chiang, Chih-Yen; Su, Yu-Jen; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Chang, Wei-Tien; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Wen-Jone

    2015-11-01

    While therapeutic hypothermia improves the outcomes of individuals in cardiac arrest, the hemodynamic responses and mechanisms which underlie hypothermia-induced cardioprotection are not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism by which induced hypothermia preserves cardiac function and protects against mitochondrial damage following cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest was induced in adult male Wistar rats by asphyxiation for 8.5 min. Following resuscitation, the animals were randomly assigned to a hypothermia (32 °C) or normothermia (37 °C) group. Monitoring results showed that cardiac output at the fourth hour after resuscitation was significantly better in rats treated with hypothermia when compared to rats treated with normothermia (P mitochondrial permeability transition pores occurred less frequently in the hypothermic group. While complex I/III activity in the electron transport reaction was damaged after cardiac arrest and resuscitation, the degree of injury was ameliorated by hypothermia treatment (P mitochondrial integrity and electron transport activity.

  12. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    bone mass reductions. DESIGN: Randomized control study. SETTING: Out-patient research hospital clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven healthy obese women. BMI 34±0.5 kg/m(2), age 46±2 years. INTERVENTION: After a low-calorie diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment...... with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2mg/day) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be substituted with a low-calorie diet product in order to maintain the weight loss. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total, pelvic and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone......% and prevented bone loss after weight loss obtained through a low calorie-diet, supporting its role as a safe weight-lowering agent....

  13. Mild heat treatment does not reduce the colitis-protective effects of bovine colostrum in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Sangild, Per Torp; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    dried and pasteurized BC. Methods: Preterm pigs were fed total parenteral nutrition for 2 d, followed by two boluses of milk formula (15 mL/kg/3h) and continued enteral feeding with milk formula (FORM, n = 14), fresh BC (COLOS, n = 14), spray dried, powdered BC (POW, n = 8), or spray dried, pasteurized...... BC (POWPAS, n = 9). Pigs were euthanized after two days of enteral feeding and NEC lesions, intestinal structure, digestive and absorptive functions, microbiota, and tissue protein and mRNA levels of immune factors were analyzed. Finally, we determined the concentrations of some bioactive proteins...... in the colostrum products and studied treatment-related aggregation of proteins. Results: POW and POWPAS pigs showed lowered gut NEC severity, IL-1β and IL-8 levels and lactic acid levels, and higher intestinal villus heights, hexose absorption, hydrolase activities (lactase, maltase, peptidases) than FORM pigs...

  14. Aerobic exercise training reduces cannabis craving and use in non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchowski, Maciej S; Meade, Natalie N; Charboneau, Evonne; Park, Sohee; Dietrich, Mary S; Cowan, Ronald L; Martin, Peter R

    2011-03-08

    Cannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise. To examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions. Participants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using heart rate (HR) monitoring (60-70% HR reserve) over 2 weeks. Exercise sessions were conducted by exercise physiologists under medical oversight. Sedentary or minimally active non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults (n = 12, age 25±3 years, 8 females) met criteria for primary cannabis dependence using the Substance Abuse module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Self-reported drug use was assessed for 1-week before, during, and 2-weeks after the study. Participants viewed visual cannabis cues before and after exercise in conjunction with assessment of subjective cannabis craving using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF). Daily cannabis use within the run-in period was 5.9 joints per day (SD = 3.1, range 1.8-10.9). Average cannabis use levels within the exercise (2.8 joints, SD = 1.6, range 0.9-5.4) and follow-up (4.1 joints, SD = 2.5, range 1.1-9.5) periods were lower than during the run-in period (both Ptreatment. The neurobiological mechanisms that account for these beneficial effects on cannabis use may lead to understanding of the physical and emotional underpinnings of cannabis dependence and recovery from this disorder. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00838448].

  15. Prolonged treatment with pramipexole promotes physical interaction of striatal dopamine D3 autoreceptors with dopamine transporters to reduce dopamine uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hernández, Javier; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Salas-Hernández, Josmar; Barroso-Chinea, Pedro; Moratalla, Rosario; Millan, Mark J; González-Hernández, Tomás

    2015-02-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), a membrane glycoprotein expressed in dopaminergic neurons, clears DA from extracellular space and is regulated by diverse presynaptic proteins like protein kinases, α-synuclein, D2 and D3 autoreceptors. DAT dysfunction is implicated in Parkinson's disease and depression, which are therapeutically treated by dopaminergic D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) agonists. It is, then, important to improve our understanding of interactions between D3R and DAT. We show that prolonged administration of pramipexole (0.1mg/kg/day, 6 to 21 days), a preferential D3R agonist, leads to a decrease in DA uptake in mouse striatum that reflects a reduction in DAT affinity for DA in the absence of any change in DAT density or subcellular distribution. The effect of pramipexole was absent in mice with genetically-deleted D3R (D3R(-/-)), yet unaffected in mice genetically deprived of D2R (D2R(-/-)). Pramipexole treatment induced a physical interaction between D3R and DAT, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assay. Furthermore, it promoted the formation of DAT dimers and DAT association with both D2R and α-synuclein, effects that were abolished in D3R(-/-) mice, yet unaffected in D2R(-/-) mice, indicating dependence upon D3R. Collectively, these data suggest that prolonged treatment with dopaminergic D3 agonists provokes a reduction in DA reuptake by dopaminergic neurons related to a hitherto-unsuspected modification of the DAT interactome. These observations provide novel insights into the long-term antiparkinson, antidepressant and additional clinical actions of pramipexole and other D3R agonists.

  16. Amylin Treatment Reduces Neuroinflammation and Ameliorates Abnormal Patterns of Gene Expression in the Cerebral Cortex of an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erming; Zhu, Haihao; Wang, Xiaofan; Gower, Adam C.; Wallack, Max; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Kowall, Neil; Qiu, Wei Qiao

    2017-01-01

    Our recent study has demonstrated that peripheral amylin treatment reduces the amyloid pathology in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse models, and improves their learning and memory. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of amylin for AD was beyond reducing the amyloids in the brain, and have now directly tested the actions of amylin on other aspects of AD pathogenesis, especially neuroinflammation. A 10-week course of peripheral amylin treatment significantly reduced levels of cerebral inflammation markers, Cd68 and Iba1, in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. Mechanistic studies indicated the protective effect of amylin required interaction with its cognate receptor because silencing the amylin receptor expression blocked the amylin effect on Cd68 in microglia. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we discovered that amylin treatment influenced two gene modules linked with amyloid pathology: 1) a module related to proinflammation and transport/vesicle process that included a hub gene of Cd68, and 2) a module related to mitochondria function that included a hub gene of Atp5b. Amylin treatment restored the expression of most genes in the APP cortex toward levels observed in the wild-type (WT) cortex in these two modules including Cd68 and Atp5b. Using a human dataset, we found that the expression levels of Cd68 and Atp5b were significantly correlated with the neurofibrillary tangle burden in the AD brain and with their cognition. These data suggest that amylin acts on the pathological cascade in animal models of AD, and further supports the therapeutic potential of amylin-type peptides for AD. PMID:27911303

  17. Attraction and mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to STATIC Spinosad ME weathered under operational conditions in California and Florida: a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Hoffman, Kevin; Mercogliano, Juan; Smith, Trevor R; Hammond, Jack; Davis, Bobbie J; Brodie, Matt; Dripps, James E

    2014-08-01

    Studies were conducted in 2013-2014 to quantify attraction, feeding, and mortality of male oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to STATIC Spinosad ME a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment (MAT) formulation consisting of an amorphous polymer matrix in combination with methyl eugenol (ME) and spinosad compared with the standard treatment of Min-U-Gel mixed with ME and naled (Dibrom). Our approach used a behavioral methodology for evaluation of slow-acting reduced-risk insecticides. ME treatments were weathered for 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d under operational conditions in California and Florida and shipped to Hawaii for bioassays. In field tests using bucket traps to attract and capture wild males, and in toxicity studies conducted in 1-m(3) cages using released males of controlled ages, STATIC Spinosad ME performed equally as well to the standard formulation of Min-U-Gel ME with naled for material aged up to 28 d in both California and Florida. In laboratory feeding tests in which individual males were exposed for 5 min to the different ME treatments, mortality induced by STATIC Spinosad ME recorded at 24 h did not differ from mortality caused by Min-U-Gel ME with naled at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d in California and was equal to or higher for all weathered time periods in Florida during two trials. Spinosad has low contact toxicity, and when mixed with an attractant and slow release matrix, offers a reduced-risk alternative for eradication of B. dorsalis and related ME attracted species, without many of the potential negative effects to humans and nontargets associated with broad-spectrum contact insecticides such as naled.

  18. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duu-Jong, E-mail: cedean@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chin-Yu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Center for Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  19. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment reduces both rate and duration of hospitalization for acute bronchiolitis in infants: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ju; Lee, Wen-Li; Wang, Chuang-Ming; Chou, Hsin-Hsu

    2014-12-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment reduced the length of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in a previous meta-analysis. However, there was no reduction in the admission rate. We hypothesized that nebulized HS treatment might significantly decrease both the duration and the rate of hospitalization if more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) without a language restriction. A meta-analysis was performed based on the efficacy of nebulized HS treatment in infants with acute bronchiolitis. We used weighted mean difference (WMD) and risk ratio as effect size metrics. Eleven studies were identified that enrolled 1070 infants. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased the duration and rate of hospitalization compared with nebulized normal saline (NS) [duration of hospitalization: WMD = -0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.38 to -0.54, p bronchiolitis infants post-treatment (Day 1: WMD = -0.77, 95% CI = -1.30 to -0.24, p = 0.005; Day 2: WMD = -0.85, 95% CI = -1.30 to -0.39, p bronchiolitis in infants.

  20. Facilitated saliva secretion and reduced oral inflammation by a novel artificial saliva system in the treatment of salivary hypofunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minkyung; Park, Hyounggeun; Jun, Joon-Ho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2017-01-01

    Saliva substitutes and/or lubricants are commonly employed to lessen dry mouth symptoms by stimulating and/or substituting for the secretion of saliva. In this study, a novel artificial saliva containing inorganic salts, including sodium chloride and potassium chloride, and bactericidal agents, including potassium thiocyanate and lactoperoxidase, was formulated in the form of a solution (DM-sol) or gel (DM-gel). Those in vivo therapeutic efficacies were assessed in terms of saliva secretion and anti-inflammatory activity in rats and mice, respectively. Salivary secretion was promoted by mucosal application of DM-formulations in normal rats. In particular, DM-gel resulted in 2.5- and 1.9-fold greater salivary flow rates compared to normal saline and DM-sol, respectively. In an in vivo efficacy evaluation in diabetic mice with salivary hypofunction, repeated application of DM-formulations alleviated histopathological changes in the buccal mucosa in terms of atrophy and thinning of the epithelium, compared to vehicle, after 4 weeks. Moreover, the DM-sol and DM-gel were comparably effective for relieving periodontal gingivitis, reducing infiltration of inflammatory cells, and normalizing the neutrophil level in the gingival gingiva, after 4 weeks. Therefore, the novel artificial saliva is expected to facilitate salivary secretion and restore physiological conditions in the mouth of patients with salivary hypofunction. PMID:28138222

  1. Does Regular Exercise Counter T Cell Immunosenescence Reducing the Risk of Developing Cancer and Promoting Successful Treatment of Malignancies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Turner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate intensity aerobic exercise training or regular physical activity is beneficial for immune function. For example, some evidence shows that individuals with an active lifestyle exhibit stronger immune responses to vaccination compared to those who are inactive. Encouragingly, poor vaccine responses, which are characteristic of an ageing immune system, can be improved by single or repeated bouts of exercise. In addition, exercise-induced lymphocytosis, and the subsequent lymphocytopenia, is thought to facilitate immune surveillance, whereby lymphocytes search tissues for antigens derived from viruses, bacteria, or malignant transformation. Aerobic exercise training is anti-inflammatory and is linked to lower morbidity and mortality from diseases with infectious, immunological, and inflammatory aetiologies, including cancer. These observations have led to the view that aerobic exercise training might counter the age-associated decline in immune function, referred to as immunosenescence. This article summarises the aspects of immune function that are sensitive to exercise-induced change, highlighting the observations which have stimulated the idea that aerobic exercise training could prevent, limit, or delay immunosenescence, perhaps even restoring aged immune profiles. These potential exercise-induced anti-immunosenescence effects might contribute to the mechanisms by which active lifestyles reduce the risk of developing cancer and perhaps benefit patients undergoing cancer therapy.

  2. Mirtazapine treatment of diabetic gastroparesis as a novel method to reduce tube-feed residual: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gooden Janelle Y

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gastroparesis is a common motility disorder that is characterized by delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Diabetes, along with other neuromuscular and infiltrating disorders, can predispose individuals to an increased risk of developing gastroparesis. Gastroparesis can be easily diagnosed through gastric emptying studies but is usually difficult to successfully treat. Therapy usually begins with pro-kinetic and anti-emetic agents. Case presentation Our patient was an 87-year-old African-American woman who was a nursing home resident, with a history of diabetes mellitus type 2 and subarachnoid hemorrhage leading to aphasia, hemiplegia, seizures and dysphagia requiring percutaneous gastric feeds. While at the nursing home, she had recurrent aspiration pneumonia and large tube-feed residuals consistent with a diagnosis of underlying gastroparesis. Her management included metoclopramide and reduced tube-feeding rates, which improved her symptoms. However, within months the aspiration and increased residuals returned. After trials of different medication therapies without success, she started mirtazapine and her residual volume and aspirations decreased with a dose of 15mg nightly. Conclusion In patients with gastroparesis recalcitrant to first line therapies such as metoclopramide, off-label use of mirtazapine may provide adequate non-invasive management of gastroparetic symptoms.

  3. 让垂体瘤的治疗更趋完善%Reducing the imperfection of pituitary adenoma treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓蕙

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of pituitary function makes hormone replacement more timely for hypopituitarism after surgical procedure in patients with pituitary adenoma.However,there were only less than 50% patients receiving this assessment in the current clinical practice.Only by means of the cooperation between endocrinologists and neurosurgeons and the close contact between doctors from both tertiary and primary hospitals will reach the goal of the patient-centered treatment and appropriately improve the defective therapy of the pituitary adenoma.%垂体瘤患者术后进行垂体功能的评估可以及时地对垂体功能减退者进行合适的替代治疗.但我们当前的临床现实是能够接受恰当的术后评估的患者还不到50%.只有加强内分泌科与神经外科医师的技术互补协作以及三级医院医师和基层医院医师的密切联系,提供以患者为中心的治疗才能弥补当前垂体瘤治疗存在的缺陷.

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial of Hospital-Based Hygiene and Water Treatment Intervention (CHoBI7) to Reduce Cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Mahmud, Toslim; Rahman, Zillur; Mustafiz, Munshi; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Zhang, Xiaotong; Jung, Danielle; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    The risk for cholera infection is >100 times higher for household contacts of cholera patients during the week after the index patient seeks hospital care than it is for the general population. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which promotes hand washing with soap and treatment of water. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 219 intervention household contacts of 82 cholera patients and 220 control contacts of 83 cholera patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during 2013-2014. Intervention contacts had significantly fewer symptomatic Vibrio cholerae infections than did control contacts and 47% fewer overall V. cholerae infections. Intervention households had no stored drinking water with V. cholerae and 14 times higher odds of hand washing with soap at key events during structured observation on surveillance days 5, 6, or 7. CHoBI7 presents a promising approach for controlling cholera among highly susceptible household contacts of cholera patients.

  5. Review of Interventions to Reduce Ultraviolet Tanning: Need for Treatments Targeting Excessive Tanning, an Emerging Addictive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Hillhouse, Joel; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Manne, Sharon L

    2017-06-22

    Millions of Americans engage in tanning each year, defined as intentional ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in the form of sunbathing or the use of indoor tanning beds. An emerging body of research suggests that UVR has addictive properties and some tanners engage in excessive tanning. This article provides an overview of the evidence of tanning addiction and a systematic review of existing tanning interventions with the goal of evaluating their potential to impact addicted tanners. Our search identified 24 intervention studies that were summarized and discussed according to 3 primary themes. First, there is a dearth of tanning interventions that target excessive tanning or are designed as treatments for tanning addiction. Second, tanning interventions are primarily educational interventions designed to increase knowledge of the risks of tanning. Third, there are notable aspects of existing tanning interventions that are relevant to addiction science, including the use of brief motivational and cognitive-behavioral-based interventions. Future directions are considered including recommendations for utilizing the existing evidence base to formulate interventions targeting excessive tanners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. An acidosis-sparing ketogenic (ASK) diet to improve efficacy and reduce adverse effects in the treatment of refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Alan W C; Walcutt, Isabel A; Sander, Josemir W

    2017-09-01

    Diets that increase production of ketone bodies to provide alternative fuel for the brain are evolving from the classic ketogenic diet for epilepsy devised nearly a century ago. The classic ketogenic diet and its more recent variants all appear to have similar efficacy with approximately 50% of users showing a greater than 50% seizure reduction. They all require significant medical and dietetic support, and there are tolerability issues. A review suggests that low-grade chronic metabolic acidosis associated with ketosis is likely to be an important contributor to the short term and long term adverse effects of ketogenic diets. Recent studies, particularly with the characterization of the acid sensing ion channels, suggest that chronic metabolic acidosis may increase the propensity for seizures. It is also known that low-grade chronic metabolic acidosis has a broad range of negative health effects and an increased risk of early mortality in the general population. The modified ketogenic dietary treatment we propose is formulated to limit acidosis by measures that include monitoring protein intake and maximizing consumption of alkaline mineral-rich, low carbohydrate green vegetables. We hypothesize that this acidosis-sparing ketogenic diet is expected to be associated with less adverse effects and improved efficacy. A case history of life-long intractable epilepsy shows this diet to be a successful long-term strategy but, clearly, clinical studies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reversal of reduced parvalbumin neurons in hippocampus and amygdala of Angelman syndrome model mice by chronic treatment of fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavarthi, Swetha K; Sharma, Ankit; Jana, Nihar Ranjan

    2014-08-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by autism, intellectual disability and motor disturbances. The disease is primarily caused by the loss of function of maternally inherited UBE3A. Ube3a maternal-deficient mice recapitulates many essential feature of AS. These AS mice have been shown to be under chronic stress and exhibits anxiety-like behaviour because of defective glucocorticoid receptor signalling. Here, we demonstrate that chronic stress in these mice could lead to down-regulation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala from early post-natal days. Down-regulation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons number could be because of decrease in the expression of parvalbumin in these neurons. We also find that treatment with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, results in restoration of impaired glucocorticoid signalling, elevated serum corticosterone level, parvalbumin-positive interneurons and anxiety-like behaviours. Our findings suggest that impaired glucocorticod signalling in hippocampus and amygdala of AS mice is critical for the decrease in parvalbumin interneurons number, emergence of anxiety and other behavioural deficits and highlights the importance of fluoxetine in the recovery of these abnormalities.

  8. Gestational diabetes mellitus treatment reduces obesity-induced adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: the St. Carlos gestational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf-Balut, Carla; Familiar, Cristina; García de la Torre, Nuria; Rubio, Miguel A; Bordiú, Elena; del Valle, Laura; Lara, Miriam; Ruiz, Teresa; Ortolá, Ana; Crespo, Irene; Duran, Alejandra; Herraiz, Miguel A; Izquierdo, Nuria; Perez, Noelia; Torrejon, Maria J; Runkle, Isabelle; Montañez, Carmen; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increase the morbidity of the mother and newborn, which could increase further should they coexist. We aimed to determine the risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes associated with excess weight (EW), and within this group identify potential differences between those with and without GDM. Methods We carried out a post-hoc analysis of the St. Carlos Gestational Study which included 3312 pregnant women, arranged in 3 groups: normal-weight women (NWw) (2398/72.4%), overweight women (OWw) (649/19.6%) and obese women (OBw) (265/8%). OWw and OBw were grouped as EW women (EWw). We analyzed variables related to adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Results The relative risk (95% CI) for GDM was 1.82 (1.47 to 2.25; p90th centile, newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), instrumental delivery and cesarean delivery (all p<0.005). Multivariate analysis, adjusted for parity and ethnicity, showed that EW increased the risk of prematurity, admission to NICU, cesarean and instrumental delivery, especially in EWw without GDM. NWw with GDM had a significantly lower risk of admission to NICU and cesarean delivery, compared with NWw without GDM. Conclusions EW is detrimental for pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, and treatment of GDM contributes to lowering the risk in EWw and NWw. Applying the same lifestyle changes to all pregnant women, independent of their weight or GDM condition, could improve these outcomes. PMID:28074143

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial of Hospital-Based Hygiene and Water Treatment Intervention (CHoBI7) to Reduce Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A.; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K.M.; Mahmud, Toslim; Rahman, Zillur; Mustafiz, Munshi; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J.; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Zhang, Xiaotong; Jung, Danielle; Sack, R. Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-01-01

    The risk for cholera infection is >100 times higher for household contacts of cholera patients during the week after the index patient seeks hospital care than it is for the general population. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which promotes hand washing with soap and treatment of water. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 219 intervention household contacts of 82 cholera patients and 220 control contacts of 83 cholera patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during 2013–2014. Intervention contacts had significantly fewer symptomatic Vibrio cholerae infections than did control contacts and 47% fewer overall V. cholerae infections. Intervention households had no stored drinking water with V. cholerae and 14 times higher odds of hand washing with soap at key events during structured observation on surveillance days 5, 6, or 7. CHoBI7 presents a promising approach for controlling cholera among highly susceptible household contacts of cholera patients. PMID:26811968

  10. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-06-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel-group, superiority, multi-centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post-treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow-up, the mean 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity.

  11. Nebulized Hypertonic Saline Treatment Reduces Both Rate and Duration of Hospitalization for Acute Bronchiolitis in Infants: An Updated Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ju Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS treatment reduced the length of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in a previous meta-analysis. However, there was no reduction in the admission rate. We hypothesized that nebulized HS treatment might significantly decrease both the duration and the rate of hospitalization if more randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL without a language restriction. A meta-analysis was performed based on the efficacy of nebulized HS treatment in infants with acute bronchiolitis. We used weighted mean difference (WMD and risk ratio as effect size metrics. Eleven studies were identified that enrolled 1070 infants. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased the duration and rate of hospitalization compared with nebulized normal saline (NS [duration of hospitalization: WMD = −0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI = −1.38 to −0.54, p < 0.001; rate of hospitalization: risk ratio = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37–0.93, p = 0.02]. Furthermore, nebulized HS treatment had a beneficial effect in reducing the clinical severity (CS score of acute bronchiolitis infants post-treatment (Day 1: WMD = −0.77, 95% CI = −1.30 to −0.24, p = 0.005; Day 2: WMD = −0.85, 95% CI = −1.30 to −0.39, p < 0.001; Day 3: WMD = −1.14, 95% CI = −1.69 to −0.58, p < 0.001. There was no decrease in the rate of readmission (risk ratio = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.68–1.73, p = 0.74. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased both the rate and the duration of hospitalization. Due to the efficacy and cost-effectiveness, HS should be considered for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in infants.

  12. Oral Lactobacillus reuteri GMN-32 treatment reduces blood glucose concentrations and promotes cardiac function in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2014-02-01

    Impaired regulation of blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and the associated elevation of blood glucose levels are known to increase the risk of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). In the present study, a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus reuteri GMN-32, was evaluated for its potential to reduce blood glucose levels and to provide protection against DC risks in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM rats. The blood glucose levels of the STZ-induced DM rats when treated with L. reuteri GMN-32 decreased from 4480 to 3620 mg/l (with 10⁷ colony-forming units (cfu)/d) and 3040 mg/l (with 10⁹ cfu/d). Probiotic treatment also reduced the changes in the heart caused by the effects of DM. Furthermore, the Fas/Fas-associated protein with death domain pathway-induced caspase 8-mediated apoptosis that was observed in the cardiomyocytes of the STZ-induced DM rats was also found to be controlled in the probiotic-treated rats. The results highlight that L. reuteri GMN-32 treatment reduces blood glucose levels, inhibits caspase 8-mediated apoptosis and promotes cardiac function in DM rats as observed from their ejection fraction and fractional shortening values. In conclusion, the administration of L. reuteri GMN-32 probiotics can regulate blood glucose levels, protect cardiomyocytes and prevent DC in DM rats.

  13. The effect of reduced disclusion time in the treatment of myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome using immediate complete anterior guidance development protocol monitored by digital analysis of occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumati, Prafulla; Manwani, Rakhi; Mahantshetty, Minal

    2014-10-01

    Chronic myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) has been a nightmare for patients suffering from it, who have been treated with various treatment options with varied outcomes. This population of patients has been neglected, due to nagging revisits to a clinician and decreased percentage of success. T-Scan-based immediate complete anterior guidance development (ICAGD) has been shown by a researcher to reduce the muscle hyperactivity consistent with MPDS. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of reduced disclusion time in lateral excursions in treating the MPDS symptoms. Fifty-one myofascial pain patients with symptoms in the area of the head and neck region were treated with ICAGD. The quantified force and time data from T-Scan records were used to correct the prolonged disclusion time, and the subjects were assessed for the symptom relief. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was used for statistical analysis (P<0·05 denotes significant changes). The changes in disclusion time and intensity of various symptoms were found to be statistically significant (P<0·05) from Day 1 onwards, and patients were relieved of their symptoms after reduction of disclusion time of less than 0·5 seconds. The results clearly indicated that ICAGD protocol reduces musculoskeletal-based symptoms of MPDS patients, and this protocol can prove beneficial for the clinical treatment success.

  14. Reduced membrane fouling in a novel bio-entrapped membrane reactor for treatment of food and beverage processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Kwang; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Andy Hong, Pui-Kwan; Yang, Ping-Yi

    2011-08-01

    A novel Bio-Entrapped Membrane Reactor (BEMR) packed with bio-ball carriers was constructed and investigated for organics removal and membrane fouling by soluble microbial products (SMP). An objective was to evaluate the stability of the filtration process in membrane bioreactors through backwashing and chemical cleaning. The novel BEMR was compared to a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) on performance, with both treating identical wastewater from a food and beverage processing plant. The new reactor has a longer sludge retention time (SRT) and lower mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) content than does the conventional. Three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6, 9, and 12 h were studied. The results show faster rise of the transmembrane pressure (TMP) with decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) in both reactors, where most significant membrane fouling was associated with high SMP (consisting of carbohydrate and protein) contents that were prevalent at the shortest HRT of 6 h. Membrane fouling was improved in the new reactor, which led to a longer membrane service period with the new reactor. Rapid membrane fouling was attributed to increased production of biomass and SMP, as in the conventional reactor. SMP of 10-100 kDa from both MBRs were predominant with more than 70% of the SMP <100 kDa. Protein was the major component of SMP rather than carbohydrate in both reactors. The new reactor sustained operation at constant permeate flux that required seven times less frequent chemical cleaning than did the conventional reactor. The new BEMR offers effective organics removal while reducing membrane fouling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metformin treatment to reduce central adiposity after prenatal growth restraint: a placebo-controlled pilot study in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Marta; Bassols, Judit; López-Bermejo, Abel; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2015-11-01

    Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) who experience rapid postnatal catch-up in weight are at risk for central adiposity and hyperinsulinemia. To study the effects of prepubertal metformin intervention over 24 months on the body composition and endocrine-metabolic profile of catch-up SGA children. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study including 23 post-catch-up non-obese prepubertal SGA children [age, 7.7 yr; body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) >50th and 75th for age]. Patients were randomized to receive either placebo or metformin (425 mg/d) for 24 months. Clinical, biochemical [IGF-I, glucose, insulin, lipids, androgens, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and high-molecular-weight (HMW)-adiponectin] and imaging [body composition (absorptiometry and MRI; carotid intima-media thickness (ultrasonography)] variables were assessed at baseline, and at 6, 12, and 24 months. After 24 months, metformin-treated children were leaner, had higher SHBG levels, and less total and abdominal fat than placebo-treated children (all p ≤ 0.05). Longitudinal analyses showed that metformin had a significant effect on anthropometric (weight, BMI, and waist) and biochemical variables [glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides] (all p ≤ 0.05); and in total and abdominal fat (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02). Prepubertal intervention with metformin reduces central adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity in non-obese catch-up SGA children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation as a potential treatment method for high nitrogen-content wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikmann, Ergo; Zekker, Ivar; Tomingas, Martin; Tenno, Taavo; Menert, Anne; Loorits, Liis; Tenno, Toomas

    2012-07-01

    After sulfate-reducing ammonium oxidation (SRAO) was first assumed in 2001, several works have been published describing this process in laboratory-scale bioreactors or occurring in the nature. In this paper, the SRAO process was performed using reject water as a substrate for microorganisms and a source of NH(4) (+), with SO(4) (2-) being added as an electron acceptor. At a moderate temperature of 20°C in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) sulfate reduction along with ammonium oxidation were established. In an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) the SRAO process took place at 36°C. Average volumetric TN removal rates of 0.03 kg-N/m³/day in the MBBR and 0.04 kg-N/m³/day in the UASBR were achieved, with long-term moderate average removal efficiencies, respectively. Uncultured bacteria clone P4 and uncultured planctomycete clone Amx-PAn30 were detected from the biofilm of the MBBR, from sludge of the UASBR uncultured Verrucomicrobiales bacterium clone De2102 and Uncultured bacterium clone ATB-KS-1929 were found also. The stoichiometrical ratio of NH(4) (+) removal was significantly higher than could be expected from the extent of SO(4) (2-) reduction. This phenomenon can primarily be attributed to complex interactions between nitrogen and sulfur compounds and organic matter present in the wastewater. The high NH(4) (+) removal ratio can be attributed to sulfur-utilizing denitrification/denitritation providing the evidence that SRAO is occurring independently and is not a result of sulfate reduction and anammox. HCO(3) (-) concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/l were found to have an inhibiting effect on the SRAO process. Small amounts of hydrazine were naturally present in the reaction medium, indicating occurrence of the anammox process. Injections of anammox intermediates, hydrazine and hydroxylamine, had a positive effect on SRAO process performance, particularly in the case of the UASBR.

  17. Facilitated saliva secretion and reduced oral inflammation by a novel artificial saliva system in the treatment of salivary hypofunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Minkyung Kang,1 Hyounggeun Park,1 Joon-Ho Jun,1 Miwon Son,1 Myung Joo Kang2 1Pharmaceutical Product Research Laboratories, Dong-A ST Research Institute, Gyeonggi, 2Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam, Korea Abstract: Saliva substitutes and/or lubricants are commonly employed to lessen dry mouth symptoms by stimulating and/or substituting for the secretion of saliva. In this study, a novel artificial saliva containing inorganic salts, including sodium chloride and potassium chloride, and bactericidal agents, including potassium thiocyanate and lactoperoxidase, was formulated in the form of a solution (DM-sol or gel (DM-gel. Those in vivo therapeutic efficacies were assessed in terms of saliva secretion and anti-inflammatory activity in rats and mice, respectively. Salivary secretion was promoted by mucosal application of DM-formulations in normal rats. In particular, DM-gel resulted in 2.5- and 1.9-fold greater salivary flow rates compared to normal saline and DM-sol, respectively. In an in vivo efficacy evaluation in diabetic mice with salivary hypofunction, repeated application of DM-formulations alleviated histopathological changes in the buccal mucosa in terms of atrophy and thinning of the epithelium, compared to vehicle, after 4 weeks. Moreover, the DM-sol and DM-gel were comparably effective for relieving periodontal gingivitis, reducing infiltration of inflammatory cells, and normalizing the neutrophil level in the gingival gingiva, after 4 weeks. Therefore, the novel artificial saliva is expected to facilitate salivary secretion and restore physiological conditions in the mouth of patients with salivary hypofunction. Keywords: saliva substitute, carbopol gel, hypothiocyanite–hydrogen peroxide mixture, antimicrobial activity, diabetic rats

  18. A Comparison of Three Approaches to the Reduced-Scaling Coupled Cluster Treatment of Non-Resonant Molecular Response Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlexander, Harley R; Crawford, T Daniel

    2016-01-12

    We have investigated the performance of the reduced-scaling coupled cluster method based on projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), pair natural orbitals (PNOs), and orbital specific virtuals (OSVs) for the prediction of linear response properties. These methods introduce different degrees of controllable sparsity in the ground-state and perturbed coupled cluster wave functions, leading to localization errors in properties such as dynamic polarizabilities and specific optical rotations. Using a series of chiral test compounds, we find that the inherent costs associated with computing response properties are significantly greater than those for determining the ground-state energy. As the dimensionality of the molecular system increases-from (pseudo)linear structures, such as fluoroalkanes, to cagelike structures, such as β-pinene-the crossover point between canonical-orbital and localized-orbital algorithms increases substantially. Furthermore, both the OSV and PNO methods provide greater reduction in cost (as measured by the size of the double-excitation space) than do PAOs, and PNOs provide the greatest level of sparsity for the systems examined here. Single-excitation truncation induces much larger errors than corresponding doubles truncation due to the fact that the first-order contribution to the one-electron perturbed wave function appears in the singles amplitudes. Both the PNO and OSV methods perform reasonably well for frequency-dependent polarizabilities provided appropriate thresholds are used for the occupation-number and weak-pair cutoffs on which each method depends. Specific rotations, however, are very sensitive to wave function truncation, to the extent that aggressive thresholds can yield the incorrect sign of the rotation, due to the delicate balance of positive and negative wave function contributions to the mixed electric-/magnetic-field response.

  19. Testing road surface treatments to reduce erosion in forest roads in Honduras [Tratamientos de la superficie de rodadura para reducir la erosion en caminos forestales en Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Samuel; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2009-01-01

    Testing road surface treatments to reduce erosion in forest roads in Honduras. Cien. Inv. Agr. 36(3):425-432. Using forest roads produces more erosion and sedimentation than any other forest or agricultural activity. This study evaluated soil losses from a forest road in central Honduras over two consecutive years. We divided a 400-m segment of road into 8 experimental units, each 50 m in length. Four units were treated with Best Management Practices (BMPs) and four were left untreated. The BMP treatments included reshaping the road prism, installing culverts and reshaping of road ditches, compacting 20-cm layers of the road tread, crowning the road surface (3% slope, double drainage), longitudinal sloping (less than 12%), and adding a 10-cm layer of gravel (crush size = 0.63 cm). Soil movement was measured daily during the rainy seasons. The highest soil loss occurred in the control road, around 500 m3 km-1 per year, while the road treated with BMP lost approximately 225 m3km-1 per year. These results show that road surface erosion can be reduced up to 50% with the implementation of surface treatments.

  20. High Serum Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein Level in Chronic Hepatitis C Viral Infection Is Reduced by Anti-Viral Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Hsiao-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Jer; Su, Tung-Hung; Yang, Po-Jen; Sheu, Jin-Chuan; Wang, Jin-Town; Chow, Lu-Ping; Chen, Chi-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Background Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) has been reported to associate with metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Since chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with metabolic derangements, the relationship between LBP and HCV deserves additional studies. This study aimed to determine the serum LBP level in subjects with or without HCV infection and investigate the change of its level after anti-viral treatments with or without interferon. Methods and Findings We recruited 120 non-HCV subjects, 42 and 17 HCV-infected subjects respectively treated with peginterferon α-2a/ribavirin and direct-acting antiviral drugs. Basic information, clinical data, serum LBP level and abdominal ultrasonography were collected. All the subjects provided written informed consent before being enrolled approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the National Taiwan University Hospital. Serum LBP level was significantly higher in HCV-infected subjects than non-HCV subjects (31.0 ± 8.8 versus 20.0 ± 6.4 μg/mL; p-value < 0.001). After multivariate analyses, LBP at baseline was independently associated with body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HCV infection. Moreover, the baseline LBP was only significantly positively associated with ALT and inversely with fatty liver in HCV-infected subjects. The LBP level significantly decreased at sustained virologic response (27.4 ± 6.6 versus 34.6 ± 7.3 μg/mL, p-value < 0.001; 15.9 ± 4.4 versus 22.2 ± 5.7 μg/mL, p-value = 0.001), regardless of interferon-based or -free therapy. Conclusions LBP, an endotoxemia associated protein might be used as an inflammatory biomarker of both infectious and non-infectious origins in HCV-infected subjects. PMID:28107471

  1. Community screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium falciparum with artemether-lumefantrine to reduce malaria disease burden: a modelling and simulation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubben David

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium falciparum serve as a reservoir of parasites for malaria transmission. Identification and treatment of asymptomatic carriers within a region may reduce the parasite reservoir and influence malaria transmission in that area. Methods Using computer simulation, this analysis explored the impact of community screening campaigns (CSC followed by systematic treatment of P. falciparum asymptomatic carriers (AC with artemether-lumefantrine (AL on disease transmission. The model created by Okell et al (originally designed to explore the impact of the introduction of treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy on malaria endemicity was modified to represent CSC and treatment of AC with AL, with the addition of malaria vector seasonality. The age grouping, relative distribution of age in a region, and degree of heterogeneity in disease transmission were maintained. The number and frequency of CSC and their relative timing were explored in terms of their effect on malaria incidence. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the factors with the greatest impact on the model predictions. Results The simulation showed that the intervention that had the largest effect was performed in an area with high endemicity (entomological inoculation rate, EIR > 200; however, the rate of infection returned to its normal level in the subsequent year, unless the intervention was repeated. In areas with low disease burden (EIR Conclusions Community screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers with AL may reduce malaria transmission significantly. The initial level of disease intensity has the greatest impact on the potential magnitude and duration of malaria reduction. When combined with other interventions (e.g. long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, rapid diagnostic tests, prompt diagnosis and treatment, and, where appropriate, indoor residual spraying the effect of this intervention can be

  2. A managed protocol for treatment of deceased potential donors reduces the incidence of cardiac arrest before organ explant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; Zaclikevis, Viviane Renata; Vieira, Kalinca Daberkow; Cordeiro, Rodrigo de Brito; Horner, Marina Borges W.; de Oliveira, Thamy Pellizzaro; Duarte, Robson; Sperotto, Geonice; da Silveira, Georgiana; Caldeira, Milton; Coll, Elisabeth; Yus-Teruel, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of the application of a managed protocol for the maintenance care of deceased potential multiple organ donors at two hospitals. Methods A before (Phase 1)/after (Phase 2) study conducted at two general hospitals, which included consecutively potential donors admitted to two intensive care units. In Phase 1 (16 months), the data were collected retrospectively, and the maintenance care measures of the potential donors were instituted by the intensivists. In Phase 2 (12 months), the data collection was prospective, and a managed protocol was used for maintenance care. The two phases were compared in terms of their demographic variables, physiological variables at diagnosis of brain death and the end of the process, time to performance of brain death confirmatory test and end of the process, adherence to bundles of maintenance care essential measures, losses due to cardiac arrest, family refusal, contraindications, and the conversion rate of potential into actual donors. Student's t- and chi-square tests were used, and p-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results A total of 42 potential donors were identified (18 in Phase 1 and 24 in Phase 2). The time interval between the first clinical assessment and the recovery decreased in Phase 2 (Phase 1: 35.0±15.5 hours versus Phase 2: 24.6±6.2 hours; p = 0.023). Adherence increased to 10 out of the 19 essential items of maintenance care, and losses due to cardiac arrest also decreased in Phase 2 (Phase 1: 27.8 versus 0% in Phase 2; p = 0.006), while the convertion rate increased (Phase 1: 44.4 versus 75% in Phase 2; p = 0.044). The losses due to family refusal and medical contraindication did not vary. Conclusion The adoption of a managed protocol focused on the application of essential measures for the care of potential deceased donors might reduce the loss of potential donors due to cardiac arrest. PMID:23917929

  3. Chronic treatment with Vitamin D lowers arterial blood pressure and reduces endothelium-dependent contractions in the aorta of the SHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Michael S K; Delansorne, Remi; Svenningsen, Per

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D has cardiovascular protective effects besides regulating calcium homeostasis. To examine the chronic in vivo effect of a physiological dose 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the occurrence of endothelium-dependent contractions, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY......) were treated with the vitamin D derivative for six weeks. The serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 level of both treated WKY and SHR was significantly higher than in untreated rats while the mean arterial blood pressure of the treated SHR was significantly lower than that of control SHR. Aortic rings...... that chronic treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates vascular tone and this modulation is accompanied by a lowered blood pressure, reduced expression of COX-1 mRNA and protein and reduced ROS level in SHR. The reduction in endothelium-dependent contractions does not involve the surge in endothelial...

  4. Endogenous interferon-β-inducible gene expression and interferon-β-treatment are associated with reduced T cell responses to myelin basic protein in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnsen, Lars; Christensen, Jeppe Romme; Ratzer, Rikke;

    2015-01-01

    patients with an increased expression of interferon-β-inducible genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and interferon-β-treated multiple sclerosis patients had decreased CD4+ T-cell reactivity to the autoantigen myelin basic protein ex vivo. Interferon-β-treated multiple sclerosis patients had...... increased IL10 and IL27 gene expression levels in monocytes in vivo. In vitro, neutralization of interleukin-10 and monocyte depletion increased CD4+ T-cell reactivity to myelin basic protein while interleukin-10, in the presence or absence of monocytes, inhibited CD4+ T-cell reactivity to myelin basic...... protein. Our findings suggest that spontaneous expression of interferon-β-inducible genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from untreated multiple sclerosis patients and treatment with interferon-β are associated with reduced myelin basic protein-induced T-cell responses. Reduced myelin basic protein...

  5. Four weeks of treatment with liraglutide reduces insulin dose without loss of glycemic control in type 1 diabetic patients with and without residual beta-cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielgast, Urd; Holst, Jens Juul; Madsbad, Sten

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of 4 weeks of treatment with liraglutide on insulin dose and glycemic control in type 1 diabetic patients with and without residual ß-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ten type 1 diabetic patients with residual ß-cell function (C-peptide positive) and 19.......1]; P type 1 diabetic patients reduces insulin dose with improved or unaltered glycemic control.......-peptide-positive patients and from 0.72 ± 0.08 to 0.59 ± 0.06 units/kg per day (P correlated with ß...

  6. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  7. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: Development of bacteriophage treatments to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of beef products and produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Pan, Y; Ebner, P D

    2014-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 remains a foodborne pathogen of concern with infections associated with products ranging from ground beef to produce to processed foods. We previously demonstrated that phage-based technologies could reduce foodborne pathogen colonization in live animals. Here, we examined if a 3-phage cocktail could reduce E. coli O157:H7 in experimentally contaminated ground beef, spinach, and cheese. The 3 phages were chosen from our E. coli O157:H7 phage library based on their distinct origins of isolation, lytic ranges, and rapid growth (40- to 50-min life cycle). Two phages belonged to the Myoviridae family and the other phage belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The phage cocktail was added to ground beef, spinach leaves, and cheese slices contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) cfu) at a multiplicity of infection of 1. Phage treatment reduced (P refrigeration (4 °C), and 0.56 log10 cfu/mL in undercooked condition (internal temperature of 46 °C). Likewise, phage treatment reduced (P adsorption assays indicated that phage resistance in strains 309-PR4 and 502-PR5 was mediated, at least in part, by prevention of phage adsorption. Phage resistance in strain 309-PR1 was the result of limited phage proliferation. Phage resistance was stably maintained in vitro throughout a 4-d subculture period in the absence of phage. No significant reductions in bacterial growth or cell adhesion were observed in resistant strains. Taken together, our results provide additional support for the use of phage to control E. coli O157:H7 in food products; however, the emergence of phage-resistant bacteria could limit the efficacy of phage products. Therefore, further studies are needed to develop resistance mitigation strategies to optimize phage-based technologies.

  8. Salicylic acid treatment reduces the rot of postharvest citrus fruit by inducing the accumulation of H2O2, primary metabolites and lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Chen, Jiajing; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Mingfei; Yun, Ze; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-09-15

    To comprehensively analyze the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the storability of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), fruits were treated with 2mM SA. The disease incidence of control/SA-treated fruit at 50d and 120d after treatment was 23.3%/10% and 67.3%/23.3%, respectively, suggesting that SA treatment can significantly reduce the rot rate of postharvest citrus fruit. Fruit quality assays revealed that the treatment can maintain fruit firmness without affecting the inner quality. Furthermore, the contents of H2O2 and some defense-related metabolites, such as ornithine and threonine, in citrus pericarp, were significantly increased by SA treatment. Moreover, it was lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones, rather than flavanone glycosides, that accumulated in SA-treated fruits and these can directly inhibit pathogen development. These results suggest that the effects of SA on postharvest citrus fruit may be attributed to the accumulation of H2O2 and defense-related metabolites.

  9. Beneficial Effect of Post-Deposition Treatment in High-Efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells through Reduced Potential Fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Soren A.; Glynn, Stephen; Kanevce, Ana; Dippo, Pat; Li, Jian V.; Levi, Dean H.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2016-08-14

    World-record power conversion efficiencies for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells have been achieved via a post-deposition treatment with alkaline metals, which increases the open-circuit voltage and fill factor. We explore the role of the potassium fluoride (KF) post-deposition treatment in CIGS by employing energy- and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy and electrical characterization combined with numerical modeling. The bulk carrier lifetime is found to increase with post-deposition treatment from 255 ns to 388 ns, which is the longest charge carrier lifetime reported for CIGS, and within ~40% of the radiative limit. We find evidence that the post-deposition treatment causes a decrease in the electronic potential fluctuations. These potential fluctuations have previously been shown to reduce the open-circuit voltage and the device efficiency in CIGS. Additionally, numerical simulations based on the measured carrier lifetimes and mobilities show a diffusion length of ~10 um, which is ~4 times larger than the film thickness. Thus, carrier collection in the bulk is not a limiting factor for device efficiency. By considering differences in doping, bandgap, and potential fluctuations, we present a possible explanation for the voltage difference between KF-treated and untreated samples.

  10. Does pharmacogenetic testing for CYP450 2D6 and 2C19 among patients with diagnoses within the schizophrenic spectrum reduce treatment costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbild, Louise; Andersen, Stig E; Werge, Thomas; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Jürgens, Gesche

    2013-10-01

    The effect of pharmacogenetic testing for CYP450 2D6 and 2C19 on treatment costs have not yet been documented. This study used Danish patient registers to calculate healthcare costs of treating patients with diagnoses within the schizophrenic spectrum for 1 year with or without pharmacogenetic testing for polymorphisms in the genes for the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 enzymes. In a randomized, controlled trial, stratified with respect to metabolizer genotype, 104 patients were assigned to treatment based on pharmacogenetic testing and 103 patients to treatment as usual. Random exclusion of extensive and intermediate metabolizers was used to increase the frequency of extreme metabolizers (poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers for CYP2D6) to 20% in both groups. Cost differences were analysed at several levels including (i) overall healthcare expenditure, (ii) psychiatric hospital cost (iii) nonpsychiatric hospital cost, (iv) primary care spending and (v) pharmaceuticals. Statistically significant differences in costs