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Sample records for m2solar water heater

  1. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  2. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective April 16, 2015....

  4. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  5. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than...

  6. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  7. Shared savings gets realtor new water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, R.

    1983-08-08

    The Grenadier Realty Co. of New York is financing four energy-efficient water heaters for apartment buildings with a shared savings arrangement. The arrangement allows Grenadier to avoid front-end costs, which were paid by Independent Water Heaters Inc. in exchange for a decreasing share of the savings. Grenadier will own the heaters when the five-year contract expires. By allowing a shutdown of boilers during the summer months, the heaters will further increase energy savings. (DCK)

  8. Space Station solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  9. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  10. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  11. Solar Water-Heater Design Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

  12. Intelligent annunciator for solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    The solar water heater has advantages of low cost, no pollution, safety, energy conservation and is very suitable for users in rural area. But many now used solar water heater has no alarm device resulting water and resource wasting because of forgetting to turn off the valve after water sailing upstream. To overcome this defect, an intelligent annunciator for solar water heater installed at the end of the return pipe is presented and designed in order to remind the user. Firstly, the advantages and disadvantages of automatic and manual sailing upstream are compared concluding that manual sailing upstream is more trustiness. Then an annunciator for solar water heater is studied and ameliorated. Its principle, parameters index and functions are introduced. The annunciator uses CD4069 chip as the core circuit with very little assistant circuit. It can provide sound and light alarm at the same time. This annunciator for solar water heater water is very simple in production, low cost, the use of safe and convenient. The annunciator is applicable to all solar power products, including various types of early installation of solar power water heaters and water tanks without changing their structures. It can meet family and industrial environmental applications.

  13. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  14. Measure Guideline. Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rapport, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This measure guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

  15. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  16. Water heaters subject to new regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alan

    2014-06-01

    On 26 September 2015 the Ecodesign and Energy Labelling Directives for water heaters (Lot 2) come into force, meaning that water-heating products sold in the UK and other countries in the European Economic Area will need to meet minimum energy performance criteria in order to be legally placed on the market, and will require an energy label. Here Alan Clarke, technical support manager at Heatrae Sadia, explains more.

  17. Improving the Gas Instantaneous Water Heaters Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Kloub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a study of a theoretical and practical investigation of the gas Instantaneous (Tankless water Heaters performance. The results allow us to obtain realistic values of the control system in the various capacities gaseous flowing water heaters. The objective of this work is to study the operation of the plans in the field of controlling and checking low capacity gaseous flowing water in order to choose the proper plan of the logical values and measures for these equipments that may be used in industrial conditions. Also results of the work proved to be accurate. A design of the control system was made. The results of the practical experiment of the control system were similar to the arithmetic results.

  18. AWSWAH - the heat pipe solar water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyurt, M.

    1986-01-01

    An all weather heat pipe solar water heater (AWSWAH) comprising a collector of 4 m/sup 2/ (43 ft/sup 2/) and a low profile water tank of 160 liters (42 gal.) was developed. A single heat pipe consisting of 30 risers and two manifolds in the evaporator and a spiral condenser was incorporated into the AWSWAH. Condensate metering was done by synthetic fiber wicks. The AWSWAH was tested alongside two conventional solar water heaters of identical dimensions, an open loop system and a closed loop system. It was found that the AWSWAH was an average of 50% more effective than the open system in the temperature range 30-90 /sup 0/C (86-194 /sup 0/F). The closed loop system was the least efficient of the three systems.

  19. Analysis Approach to Improve Star Rating Of Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Dabhade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric Water Heaters are widely used all over the world that can be categorized in two types i.e. Instant Water Heaters & Storage type Water Heaters. The energy consumption for 6 liter water heaters is much higher in the storage type of water heater. As energy is an important factor for economic development of country, therefore there is need to save the energy which implies the focus to use Storage type Water Heaters. In 6 Liter water heater, Existing model converting from 4 star rating to 5 star rating by thermal analysis & insulation. After the theoretical calculation of thickness of glass wool is the practical testing of product with BEE norms & got results for 5 Star Calculation. Finally we are doing the thermal analysis for theoretical & practical verification of the product

  20. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  1. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  2. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads.

  3. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  4. 78 FR 2340 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... also questionable whether thermal efficiency is an appropriate metric for smaller storage water heaters... that the test procedure for residential water heaters utilized the thermal efficiency and standby loss..., particularly for heat pump water heaters and gas instantaneous water heaters. 3. Revised Thermal Efficiency...

  5. The Industrial Design of Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌萌

    2014-01-01

    The design was inspired by the understanding to the fine life understanding of life, relaxed requirement and under-standing of fashion. Each link of easy life present in the water heater design. The principle of"artappliances, life"brand phi-losophy, refined and understated elegance is the core essence, is also the brand logo. In the"draw the fine life inspiration, the core brand design language create eternal artistic quality", every product tothe interpretation of home life art trend, to embody the elegant life style annotation and experience, committed to the urban elites to create exquisitelife style.

  6. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  7. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... attached. Thermal efficiency for an instantaneous water heater, a storage water heater or a hot water... the amount of energy consumed by the water heater as measured during the thermal efficiency test... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot...

  8. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation; Weitzel, E. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation

    2017-03-03

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  9. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  10. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters (V3.1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective April 16, 2015....

  12. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

    1999-08-18

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  13. Comparative Study and Design of Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sainath,Y.krishna, Mohd Salahuddin, Mohammed Siddique Ahmed, Md Ismail, Syed Rahman,Mohammed Noman, Mohd Khaleel Ullah, Faraz Ur Rehman Azhar, Mohd Moizuddin,Mohd Riyaz Uddin.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A solar water heater design is made from the plastic bottles of thumps up & plastic pipe(p.v.c run up by the centre of each solar heater in a row of bottles, these bottles act as glazing & hold reflectors made from the black paint. Solar water heaters are made of two basic parts: a solar collector that gathers radiant energy and a storage tank for the hot water inside. These systems are used to heat water for swimming pools, as well as for domestic cooking and cleaning needs. A system in which the sun’s heat is gathered by a solar collector and used to increase the temperature of a heat-transfer fluid , which flows through the pipes in the collector; the heat contained in this fluid then is conveyed and transferred to the water to be heated. Solar water heaters use the solar energy from the sun to generate heat (not electricity which can then be used to heat water for showering, space heating, industrial processes or even solar cooling. However, the research shows that the electric water spends about the 25% of its home energy costs on heating water. If we make a water heater without the collector then we can save a lot of money solar water heater do not polluted if one investing on SWH avoids carbon dioxide nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide and the other air pollution wastes and the utility generates power on your bum fuel to heat your household water when SWH replaces the an electric water heater. This electric displaced over 20 years replaced more than 50 tones avoided c02 emissions alone co2 traps heat in the upper most atmosphere thus, contributing to the ‘Green House Effect

  14. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  15. Engineering solutions for polymer composites solar water heaters production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, S. E.; Arsatov, A. V.; Oshchepkov, M. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of engineering solutions aimed at a considerable decrease of solar water heaters cost via the use of polymer composites in heaters construction and solar collector and heat storage integration into a single device representing an integrated unit results are considered. Possibilities of creating solar water heaters of only three components and changing welding, soldering, mechanical treatment, and assembly of a complicate construction for large components molding of polymer composites and their gluing are demonstrated. Materials of unit components and engineering solutions for their manufacturing are analyzed with consideration for construction requirements of solar water heaters. Optimal materials are fiber glass and carbon-filled plastics based on hot-cure thermosets, and an optimal molding technology is hot molding. It is necessary to manufacture the absorbing panel as corrugated and to use a special paint as its selective coating. Parameters of the unit have been optimized by calculation. Developed two-dimensional numerical model of the unit demonstrates good agreement with the experiment. Optimal ratio of daily load to receiving surface area of a solar water heater operating on a clear summer day in the midland of Russia is 130‒150 L/m2. Storage tank volume and load schedule have a slight effect on solar water heater output. A thermal insulation layer of 35‒40 mm is sufficient to provide an efficient thermal insulation of the back and side walls. An experimental model layout representing a solar water heater prototype of a prime cost of 70‒90/(m2 receiving surface) has been developed for a manufacturing volume of no less than 5000 pieces per year.

  16. Performance of Thermosyphon Solar Water Heaters in Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsong-Sheng Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available More than a single thermosyphon solar water heater may be employed in applications when considerable hot water consumption is required. In this experimental investigation, eight typical Taiwanese solar water heaters were connected in series. Degree of temperature stratification and thermosyphon flow rate in a horizontal tank were evaluated. The system was tested under no-load, intermittent and continuous load conditions. Results showed that there was stratification in tanks under the no-load condition. Temperature stratification also redeveloped after the draw-off. Analysis of thermal performance of the system was conducted for each condition.

  17. Water inflow into boreholes during the Stripa heater experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.H.; Rachiele, R.; Remer, J.S.; Carlsson, H.

    1981-04-01

    During the operation of three in-situ heater experiments at Stripa, Sweden, groundwater flowed into many of the instrumentation and heater boreholes. These flows were recovered and measured routinely. The records of water inflow indicate two origins: inflow attributed to local hydrological pressure gradients, and water migration from cracks closing under the rapidly increasing, thermal-induced stress changes. The latter component appeared as a main pulse that occurred when the heaters were turned on, and lasted about 30 to 40 days, steadily declining over the next several months, and decreasing sharply when heater power was decreased or stopped. The magnitude of the total inflow per hole ranged over more than five decades, from 0.1 to over 10,000 liters over the 500 to 600 day time periods. When plotted against the logarithm of total volume, the frequency distribution displays a normal curve dependence with a mean of approximately 10 liters. Of this amount, 1 to 2 liters of flow into 38-mm-diam boreholes accompanied an increase in applied heat load. These amounts are compatible with rock porosities of a fraction of one percent. Inflow into the 3.6 and 5.0 kW heater holes peaked within 3 to 6 days after heater turn on, then declined to zero inflow, with no further inflow measured for the remainder of the experiments. In the heater holes of the time-scaled experiment, which operated at 1.125 kW or less, the initial pulse of inflow took much longer to decay, and 7 of 8 heater holes continued to flow throughout the experiment. The packing off and isolation of a borehole some 40 m distant in the ventilation drift dramatically increased the inflow into the heater holes in one of the three heater experiments. This demonstrated the existence of permeable flow paths among a number of boreholes. The records of water inflow demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of the nature of fluid flow and storage in fractured crystalline rock.

  18. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... discretion, this direct measurement procedure is optional for vented heaters without thermal stack dampers... efficiency is calculated for vented heaters with manual controls and thermal dampers. For all other vented... Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of...

  19. 76 FR 56347 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... of the pool heater as: E OUT = BOH Where: BOH = as defined in 5.2 of this appendix E t = thermal... defined in 5.3 of this appendix 5.4.3 Calculate the pool heater integrated thermal efficiency (TE I ) (in... Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters (Standby Mode and Off Mode)...

  20. Development of heat pipes for solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyurt, M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerous heat pipes were designed, manufactured, and filled on a specially developed filling rig. Each heat pipe was incorporated into a prototype solar water heater developed for this purpose, and was tested under actual insolation conditions. An extensive testing program lasting for more than a year revealed that the heat pipes perform satisfactorily as heat transfer elements in solar water heaters. A special heat pipe featuring a compact and effective condenser configuration was also tested. It was observed to likewise exhibit isothermal behavior and hence promised potential for large scale solar applications.

  1. Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the 1/2 inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  2. Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the 1/2 inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  3. Solar water heaters in China: A new day dawning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal utilization, especially the application of solar water heater technology, has developed rapidly in China in recent decades. Manufacturing and marketing developments have been especially strong in provinces such as Zhejiang, Shandong and Jiangsu. This paper takes Zhejiang, a relatively

  4. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  5. Thermomechanics of the granular bed T-joint water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitskii, Yu. S.; Belonovich, D. G.

    2012-11-01

    On the basis of the heat transfer model taking into account the radiative transport the temperature distribution and the resistance of the water heater with a granular packing having two independent air inlets have been investigated. The generalized dependence for calculating the resistance of the granular bed has been obtained.

  6. an automatic safety control for immersion water heater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    heater in the Nigerian market in its current form is depicted ... the comparator used is an open collector type. It is instructive to take a close look at the operation of the Schmitt trigger. The equivalent .... additional advantage of keeping the water.

  7. Evaluation of the Demand Response Performance of Electric Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chassin, Forrest S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    The purpose of this project is to verify or refute many of the concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large tank HPWHs to perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. This project was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of week-long laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate technical feasibility of individual large-tank HPWHs in providing DR services compared to large-tank ERWHs. In Phase 2, the individual behaviors of the water heaters were then extrapolated to a population by first calibrating readily available water heater models developed in GridLAB-D simulation software to experimental results obtained in Phase 1. These models were used to simulate a population of water heaters and generate annual load profiles to assess the impacts on system-level power and residential load curves. Such population modeling allows for the inherent and permanent load reduction accomplished by the more efficient HPWHs to be considered, in addition to the temporal DR services the water heater can provide by switching ON or OFF as needed by utilities. The economic and emissions impacts of using large-tank water heaters in DR programs are then analyzed from the utility and consumer perspective, based on National Impacts Analysis in Phase 3. Phase 1 is discussed in this report. Details on Phases 2 and 3 can be found in the companion report (Cooke et al. 2014).

  8. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  9. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  10. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, William P. [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Buescher, Tom [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  11. Thermal injuries caused by ignition of volatile substances by gas water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, R L; Desai, M H; Herndon, D N

    1993-01-01

    Based on the cumulative data of this tertiary care facility over the past 25 years, one out of every 70 pediatric patients admitted to our institution sustained their injuries during an explosive event instigated by the ignition of volatile substances from gas water heaters. The majority of injuries related to gas water heaters can be prevented by decreasing the temperature setpoint of the heater, by protecting the heater element itself, and by elevating the water heater to 18 inches above the floor. The first two issues have been adequately addressed; however, gas-fueled water heaters continue to be installed at floor level. Current national guidelines are too rigid and do not adequately address water-heater installation in private residences. Although general prevention campaigns target appropriate storage of volatile substances, they rarely address the explosive potential of gas water heaters in combination with combustible fumes.

  12. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publically available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(TM), A.O. Smith Voltex(R), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(R) 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  13. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  14. Control and Coordination of Frequency Responsive Residential Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2016-07-31

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This paper presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  15. Constant delivery temperature solar water heater - an integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [C.A.S. Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India); Kumar, N. [D.C.E. Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology, Bihar (India)

    1997-05-01

    An integrated model of a constant delivery temperature solar water heat-cum-active regenerative distillation system has been developed. The water used for the regenerative effect in the distiller of the proposed system is subsequently fed to the basin-cum-storage tank of the still through the heat exchanger (connected to the collector). The model varies the water mass flow rate in order to maintain a constant outlet temperature. With minor modifications in the solar water heater, the extra energy stored in the water mass due to non-utilization of capacity and/or non-linear utilization of capacity can be efficiently utilized for distillation purposes. In this process, the latent heat of vaporization is used for preheating the inlet water supply to the heat exchanger. The effect of insulation on maintaining the hot water temperature and distillate output is also presented. (Author)

  16. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  17. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Building Energy Efficient Housing for America (BEEHA)Team; Walters, R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Building Energy Efficient Housing for America (BEEHA)Team; Dwiantoro, D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Building Energy Efficient Housing for America (BEEHA)Team

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida.The gas-fired tank type water heaters in the housing units were replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  18. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  19. Heat Pump Water Heater Durabliltiy Testing - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAND.

    2004-05-29

    Ten heat pump water heaters (HPWH) were placed in an environmentally controlled test facility and run through a durability test program of approximately 7300 duty cycles (actual cycles accumulated ranged from 6640 to 8324 for the ten units). Five of the units were upgraded integral types (HPWH mounted on storage tank, no pump) from the same manufacturer as those tested in our first durability program in 2001 (Baxter and Linkous, 2002). The other five were ''add-on'' type units (HPWH with circulation pump plumbed to a separate storage tank) from another manufacturer. This durability test was designed to represent approximately 7-10 years of normal operation to meet the hot water needs of a residence. The integral units operated without incident apart from two control board failures. Both of these were caused by inadvertent exposure to very hot and humid (>135 F dry bulb and >120 F dew point) conditions that occurred due to a test loop failure. It is not likely that any residential water heater would be installed where such conditions were expected so these failures are not considered a long-term reliability concern. Two of the integral HPWHs featured a condensate management system (CMS) option that effectively eliminated any need for an evaporator condensate drain, but imposed significant efficiency penalties when operating in high humidity ambient conditions. The add-on units experienced no operational failures (breakdowns with loss of hot water production) during the course of the testing. However, their control systems exhibited some performance degradation under the high temperature, high humidity test conditions--HPWHs would shut off with tank water temperatures 15-20 F lower than when operating under moderate ambient conditions. One unit developed a refrigerant leak during the test program and lost about 50% of its charge resulting in reduced efficiency. Efficiency measurements on all the integral units and four of the add-on units showed

  20. Evaluation of Tube Wall Thickness of Feed Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikura, Takahisa; Morisaki, Koichi; Hamada, Seiichi

    With regard to the high pressure (HP) feed water heater of thermal power plant at Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) sites, inspection of feed water (FW) tubes wall thickness are conducted whenever required such that frequent tube leak occurs. As a standard inspection methodology, FW heater is disassembled during planned outage, tube wall thickness is measured by the ultrasonic pulse techique (UT), then plugs are installed at the both ends of FW tube if its measured wall thickness is found below calculated threshold. However, the root causes of wall thinning of FW tube are various such as erosion and corrosion, based on wall thinning condition, the above threshold is not applied but utilizing the other technically well-grounded evaluation method is sometimes more rational. Therefore, TEPCO classified wall-thinning condition based on inspection data and established technically well-grounded and rational evaluation methodologies of FW tube wall thickness to suite each wall thinning condition. Moreover, with recent improvement of inspection technique, technology enabled faster, larger amount, and more accurate data acquisition, TEPCO has developed the systematized evaluation methodology that can transact data acquisition and evaluation simultaneously. This article introduces the logic of evaluation methods and examined algorithms to make them systematized.

  1. Analysis of thermal stresses in horizontal delivery water heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, A. V.; Plotnikov, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of thermal stresses in tubes and a compensator, taking into account water heating in each heater bunch and temperature at which its mounting is implemented, and of stresses on pressure is presented. The 3D-model of the horizontal delivery water heater of PSG-4900-0.3-1.14 type is used. The tube plate is represented as the 3D-body with 6863 holes with offset center of the perforated area, the steam space shell is represented as a cylindrical casing, the bottoms of water chambers are considered as elliptical casings, the four-lens compensator is represented in the form of toroidal casings, and the tubes are considered as beams operating in tensile-compression and bending in two planes. Calculations were carried out for different temperatures of superheated steam and a steam space shell, respectively, as well as designs with compensator and without it. Various temperature values of the tubes on the passes were calculated and set. The studies were carried out taking into account nonaxis-symmetrical spacing the tube plate and compensator deformation. The calculation results of tensile-compression stresses in the tubes are presented. Furthermore, the central tubes experience compressive stresses, whose maximal values take place on the border between the tubes of the fourth and of the first passes. For its decrease, it is recommended to increase the distance between the tubes of these passes. The tension stresses in the peripheral tubes are the maximal stresses. To reduce the stresses and, therefore, increase service life of the delivery water heater at using wet or superheated (not more than by 30-50°C) steam in it (the larger value refers to the brass tubes and the water pressure of 1.6-2.5 MPa), it is necessary to recommend the noncompensatory design at using the steam superheated by more than 30-50°C (at Ural Turbine Works, it is the turbines of T-250/300-23.5 and T-113/145-12.4 types with intermediate superheating) and to recommend the installation of the

  2. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Instantaneous Water Heaters and Hot Water Supply Boilers* Thermal Efficiency ANSI Z21.10.3-1998, § 2.9** A. For... Instantaneous Water Heaters and Hot Water Supply Boilers* Thermal Efficiency ANSI Z21.10.3-1998, § 2.9** (2) Oil...) Assume that the thermal efficiency (Et) of electric water heaters with immersed heating elements is...

  3. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    High-performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  4. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-28

    High performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  5. THE HEAT AND FLUID FLOW ANALYSIS FOR WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Nan Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer and fluid flow are studied for the water heater of RV cars, in which the hot water is heated by the combustion energy of liquefied petroleum gases. Three types of combustion tubes are performed in this investigation, which are circular tube, elliptic tube and elliptic tube with screwed wire inserted. The heat transfer performances of numerical simulation results are compared with those of the experimental works; they are in good trend agreement. The elliptic combustion tube performs better than the circular one, which indicates the average 7% energy saving for the elliptic combustion tube and 12% energy saving for the elliptic combustion tube with screwed wire under static heating.

  6. CFD Study of Fluid Flow in an All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yumin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar thermal technologies. The aim of the paper is to investigate fluid flow in the solar water heater by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was carried out with a focus...

  7. Demonstration of a heat pump water heater. Volume 3. Design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloane, B.D.; Krise, R.C.; Kent, D.D.

    1979-12-01

    Work performed during the pilot run manufacturing and laboratory testing stages of a heat pump water heater for residential installations is described. A general description of the heat pump water heater is provided, as are detailed discussions of individual components. Also included is a description of the pilot run manufacturing facility and experience, laboratory operations, and laboratory test data.

  8. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  9. Tankless water heaters fill the bill at fast-food restaurants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    This article explains why Kentucky Fried Chicken has installed a PH-24 water heater. The tankless water heater meets the restaurant's criteria for space spacing, flow rates, certification and availability, and money saving efficiency. This article describes the system and its advantages.

  10. Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-02-01

    The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.

  11. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning...

  12. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; CHAN, Peter

    2010-01-01

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment....

  13. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment....

  14. An efficient water flow control approach for water heaters in direct load control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belov, Alexander; Meratnia, Nirvana; Zwaag, van der Berend Jan; Havinga, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Tank water heaters (WHs) are present in a prevailing number of European households. Serving as energy buffers WHs have come under the spotlight of various direct load control (DLC) programs over the last few decades. Although DLC has proven to be an efficient measure towards daily peak demand shavin

  15. Energetic Performances Study of an Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Helal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although that the interest attributed to the solar energy remains relatively limited, we attend today to the conception of several installations using the sun as energy source among which we quote the solar water heater. Approach: A study of energetic performances was taken on an integrated collector/storage solar water heater made in the National School of Engineers of Gabes. This water heater is equipped with a concentration system containing a reflector composed of three parabolic branches favorating a better absorption of solar radiance. Results: The comparison between this system and two other systems of solar water heater, composed of a storage ball with asymmetrical CPC and symmetrical CPC, showed important energetic performances despite the simplicity and the little cost of the collector. Conclusion: Several improvements are necessary to increase the direct flow whilst decrease the thermal losses and therefore make the system simpler to be installed on the building roof.

  16. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  17. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  18. PREDICTION OF OPTIMUM ANGLE OF SOLAR WATER HEATER FOR COIMBATORE LOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sekar; DR M. SAKTHIVEL; O. MANIYARASU; N.ALAGU MURUGAN

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate ways to enhance the performance of solar water heater system to encourage many households using it. The integrated collector storage is the type of solar water heater that has retained its existence for well over a century. The flat absorber plate integrated collector storage type is a relatively recent addition. Being effective, low cost and simple to manufacture, their importance has been further enhanced by the recent upsurge in efforts to effe...

  19. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  20. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM)

    OpenAIRE

    Miqdam T. Chaichan; Hussein A. Kazem

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temp...

  1. A novel domestic electric water heater model for a multi-objective demand side management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paull, Liam; Li, Howard; Chang, Liuchen [University of New Brunswick, Department of Electrical Engineering, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a novel domestic hot water heater model to be used in a multi-objective demand side management program. The model incorporates both the thermal losses and the water usage to determine the temperature of the water in the tank. Water heater loads are extracted from household load data and then used to determine the household water usage patterns. The benefits of the model are: (1) the on/off state of the water heater and temperature of the water in the tank can be accurately predicted, and (2) it enables the development of water usage profiles so that users can be classified based on usage behaviour. As a result, the amount of ancillary services and peak shaving that can be achieved are accurately predictable and can be maximized without adversely affecting users. (author)

  2. Experimental studies on PCM filled Flat Plate Solar Water Heater without and with Fresnel lens glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sivakumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flat Plate Solar Water Heater (FPSWH is commonly used to harvest solar energy. Solar concentration techniques help to achieve higher temperatures of energy. The aim of this article is to compare the performance of a Fresnel lens glazed Flat Plate Solar Water Heater with Phase Change Material (PCM with that provided with an ordinary glazing. The effect of solar concentration using Fresnel lens on energy storage in PCM and heat gained by water are studied and compared with that having an ordinary glazing. Experiments showed 47% improvements in the heat gained by water.

  3. PREDICTION OF OPTIMUM ANGLE OF SOLAR WATER HEATER FOR COIMBATORE LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SEKAR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate ways to enhance the performance of solar water heater system to encourage many households using it. The integrated collector storage is the type of solar water heater that has retained its existence for well over a century. The flat absorber plate integrated collector storage type is a relatively recent addition. Being effective, low cost and simple to manufacture, their importance has been further enhanced by the recent upsurge in efforts to effectively tap renewable energy resources. Having different inclinations based on latitude, the design of flat plate heaters can benefit from extensive amount of research on the topic of natural convection in inclined cavities. The thermal performance of the heater is recorded experimentally at angles 0°–30° from horizontal, in 10° intervals. It was found that for any given constant value of heat flux, the performance of the heater is a strong function of the angle of inclination. The optimum configuration of the heater for Coimbatore location is also evaluated.

  4. Building America Case Study: Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Schirber, B. Schoenbauer

    2017-06-01

    High-performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high-performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high-performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high-efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands.

  5. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel, C. Backman

    2017-06-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements.

  6. Preliminary Modeling, Testing, and Analysis of a Gas Tankless Water Heater: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Rudd, A.

    2008-05-01

    Today's gas tankless water heaters offer significant energy savings over conventional gas storage tank water heaters, but savings depends on the draw pattern. A one-node model incorporating heat exchanger mass is used to address this and other issues. Key model parameters are determined from least-squares regression on short-term data, including burner efficiency, thermal capacitance, and thermal loss coefficient. The calibrated model agrees with data to ~5% on Qgas, with temperature RMS deviation of ~4..deg..C. Efficiency with a standard realistic draw is 71%, compared to 81% predicted from standard energy-factors. Adding a small tank controlled by the tankless heater solves issues of oscillations with solar pre-heat, low-flow and hot-water-delay issues. Future work includes model refinements and developing optimal data protocols for model parameter extraction.

  7. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  8. 16 CFR Appendix D2 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Electric D2 Appendix D2 to... PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. D2 Appendix D2 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Electric Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of...

  9. One-year assessment of a solar space/water heater--Clinton, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Unit called "System 4" integrated into space-heating and hot-water systems of dormitory satisfied 32 percent of building heat load. System 4 includes flat-plate air collectors, circulation blowers, rock storage bed with heat exchanger, two hot water tanks, and auxiliary heaters. Report describes performance of system and subsystems, operating-energy requirements and savings, and performance parameters.

  10. 16 CFR Appendix D3 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Oil D3 Appendix D3 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Water Heaters—Oil Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of Estimated...

  11. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of...

  12. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC

  13. Experimental comparison of alternative convection suppression arrangements for concentrating integral collector storage solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M.; McGarrigle, P.; Eames, P.C. [Ulster Univ., School of the Built Environment, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Norton, B. [Dublin Inst. of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-02-01

    An experimental investigation of an inverted absorber integrated collector storage solar water heater mounted in the tertiary cavity of a compound parabolic concentrator with a secondary cylindrical reflector has been performed under simulated solar conditions. The solar water heaters performance was determined with the aperture parallel to the simulator for a range of transparent baffles positioned at different locations within the collector cavity. Results indicate that glass baffles located at the upper portion of the exit aperture of the CPC can reduce thermal losses through convection suppression without significantly increasing optical losses. (Author)

  14. Feed-water heaters alternative design comparison; Comparacion de disenos alternativos de calentadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Toledano, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    A procedure is presented for the alternative design comparison of feed water heaters, based in the failure records of damaged tubes during operation. The procedure is used for cases in which non-continuous or random inspections are made to the feed-water heaters. [Espanol] Se presenta un procedimiento para comparar disenos alternativos de calentadores, basandose en los registros de fallas de los tubos rotos acumuladas durante su operacion. El procedimiento se emplea para casos en los que se realizan inspecciones a los calentadores no continuas, ya sea periodicas o al azar.

  15. Building America Case Study: Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-12

    High performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  16. Performance analysis of air——water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZeShao; TAO WenQuan; ZHU YanWen; HU Peng

    2012-01-01

    A new air-water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery is proposed.The heat pump system can heat water by using a single air source,a single water source,or air-water dual sources.The water is first pre-heated by waste hot water,then heated by the heat pump.Waste heat is recovered by first preheating the cold water and as water source of the heat pump.According to the correlated formulas of the coefficient of performance of air-source heat pump and water-source heat pump,and the gain coefficient of heat recovery-preheater,the formulas for the coefficient of performance of heat pump in six operating modes are obtained by using the dimensionless correspondence analysis method.The system characteristics of heat absorption and release associated with the heat recovery-preheater are analyzed at different working conditions.The developed approaches can provide reference for the optimization of the operating modes and parameters.The results of analysis and experiments show that the coefficient of performance of the device can reach 4-5.5 in winter,twice as much as air source heat pump water heater.The utilization of waste heat in the proposed system is higher than that in the system which only uses waste water to preheating or as heat source.Thus,the effect of energy saving of the new system is obvious.On the other hand,the dimensionless correspondence analysis method is introduced to performance analysis of the heat pump,which also has theoretical significance and practical value.

  17. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-19

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  18. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  19. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  20. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  1. Water loss from the skin of term and preterm infants nursed under a radiant heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjartansson, S; Arsan, S; Hammarlund, K; Sjörs, G; Sedin, G

    1995-02-01

    The rate of evaporation from the skin (g/m2/h) was measured in 12 full-term and 16 preterm infants (gestational age 25-34 wk) both during incubator care and when nursed under a radiant heater. The method for evaporation rate measurement is noninvasive and based on determination of the water vapor pressure gradient close to the skin surface. Measurements were first made with the infant nursed in an incubator with a controlled environment with respect to humidity, temperature, and air velocity. The measurements in the term infants were performed at an ambient relative humidity (RH) of 50%, and in the preterm infants first at 50% and subsequently at 30-40%. Evaporation rate was then measured with the infant nursed under a radiant heater. In term infants, mean evaporation rate was 3.3 g/m2/h during incubator care (RH 50%) and 4.4 g/m2/h during care under the radiant heater. In preterm infants, the corresponding values were 15.5 g/m2/h in the incubator at RH 50%, 16.7 g/m2/h at RH 30-40%, and 17.9 g/m2/h under the radiant heater. It is concluded that the evaporative water loss from the skin depends on the ambient water vapor pressure, irrespective of whether the infant is nursed in an incubator or under a radiant heater. The higher rate of evaporation during care under a radiant heater is due to the lower ambient water vapor pressure and not to any direct effect of the nonionizing radiation on the skin.

  2. Summer Indoor Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation in a Hot-Dry Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matthew [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water energy savings.

  3. Rate of heat transfer in polypropylene tubes in solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, J.; Mahmoodi, M. [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Riazi, M.R. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2003-06-01

    A heat transfer rate was determined for polypropylene tubes in solar water heaters for the Reynolds number range 800-5600. Experiments were conducted in ambient temperatures of 34 to 37 {sup o}C. Data were correlated in the form of Nusselt numbers as: Nu=0.0015 Re{sup 0.75}Pr{sup 1/3} with correlation coefficient of 0.95. Such data can be used to predict heat transfer rates in a polypropylene solar heater in Tehran where the experiments were performed. An application of the results is shown in an example. (author)

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, T. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  5. A figure of merit for selective absorbers in flat plate solar water heaters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive from first principles an analytical expression for a figure of merit (FM) for a selective solar absorber in a single glazed flat plate water heater. We first show that the efficiency of a collector with an absorber with absorptance α...

  6. 78 FR 7394 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters), Louisville, KY GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C, submitted a notification of proposed production activity for its facility in Louisville, Kentucky. The notification conforming to the...

  7. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Owens, Douglas [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  8. Local Adaptive Control of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Water Heaters for Real-time Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    , such as electric vehicles, electric water heaters (EWHs) etc. An adaptive control using only local measurements for the EWHs and PVs is proposed in this study to alleviate OV as well as UV issues. The adaptive control is designed such that it monitors the voltage at the point of connection and adjusts active...

  9. Increasing reliability of system water heaters for steam-turbine installations at the design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    A system for designing water heaters of steam-turbine installations based on uniting standards, reference information, and some numerical procedures with design procedures via wide use of parameterization is considered. The developed design system is based on extensive application of modern information technologies.

  10. Acceptability of the integral solar water heater by householders in the low income urban community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, FA

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and demonstration project on the use and performance of low cost integral solar water heaters in urban low-income dwellings was carried out in 1982/83. The project involved technical and socio-economic components. This report summarises...

  11. Guidebook for the Development of a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action for Solar Water Heaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Lütken, Søren E.; Sharma, Sudhir

    This guidebook provides an introduction to designing government-led interventions to scale up investment in solar water heater (SWH) markets, showing how these interventions can be packaged as Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAS). Reflecting the changing balance in global greenhouse...

  12. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  13. Static Characteristics of Absorption Chiller-Heater Supplying Cold and Hot Water Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Irie, Tomoyoshi

    Absorption chiller-heaters which can supply both chilled water and hot water at the same time, are used for cooling and heating air conditioning systems. In this paper, we classified absorption cold and hot water generating cycles and control methods, studied these absorption cycles by cycle simulation. In economizer cycle, condensed refrigerant which heats hot water is transported to cooling cycle and used effectively for cooling chilled water, Concerning with transported condensed refrigerant, there are two methods, all condensed refrigerant or required refrigerant for cooling are transported to cooling cycle, and required refrigerant method is better for energy saving. Adding improvement of solution control to this economizer cycle, simultaneous cold and hot water supplying chiller-heaters have good characteristics of energy saving in the all region.

  14. Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

    1980-01-01

    Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

  15. Effect of Installation of Solar Collector on Performance of Balcony Split Type Solar Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of surface orientation and slope of solar collectors on solar radiation collection of balcony split type solar water heaters for six cities in China were analyzed by employing software TRNSYS. The surface azimuth had greater effect on solar radiation collection in high latitude regions. For deviation of the surface slope angle within ±20° around the optimized angle, the variation of the total annual collecting solar radiation was less than 5%. However, with deviation of 70° to 90°, the variation was up to 20%. The effects of water cycle mode, reverse slope placement of solar collector, and water tank installation height on system efficiency were experimentally studied. The thermal efficiencies of solar water heater with single row horizontal arrangement all-glass evacuated tubular collector were higher than those with vertical arrangement at the fixed surface slope angle of 90°. Compared with solar water heaters with flat-plate collector under natural circulation, the system thermal efficiency was raised up to 63% under forced circulation. For collector at reverse slope placement, the temperature-based water stratification in water tank deteriorated, and thus the thermal efficiency became low. For improving the system efficiency, an appropriate installation height of the water tank was suggested.

  16. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, M. Seitzler

    2017-06-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners.

  17. Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with/without phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarhan, Sefa; Yardim, M. Hakan [Department of Farm Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Yerleskesi, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Sari, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Yerleskesi, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    Built in storage solar water heaters (BSSWHs) have been recognized for their more compact constructions and faster solar gain than conventional solar water heaters, however, their water temperatures quickly go down during the cooling period. A trapezoidal BSSWH without PCM storage unit was used as the control heater (reference) to investigate the effect of two differently configured PCM storage units on the temperature distributions in water tanks. In the first design, myristic acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as an absorbing plate. In the second design, lauric acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as a baffle plate. The water temperature changes were followed by five thermocouples placed evenly and longitudinally into each of the three BSSWHs. The effects of the PCMs on the water temperature distributions depended on the configuration of the PCM storage unit and the longitudinal position in the water tanks. The use of lauric acid lowered the values of the peak temperatures by 15% compared to the control heater at the upper portion of the water tanks because of the low melting temperature of lauric acid, but it did not have any consistent effect on the retention of the water temperatures during the cooling period. The ability of the myristic acid storage unit to retain the water temperatures got more remarkable, especially at the middle portion of the water tank. The myristic acid storage increased the dip temperatures by approximately 8.8% compared to the control heater. In conclusion, lauric acid storage can be used to stabilize the water temperature during the day time, while the myristic acid storage unit can be used as a thermal barrier against heat loss during the night time because of its relatively high melting temperature and low heat conduction coefficient in its solid phase. The experimental results have also indicated that the thermal characteristics of the PCM and the configuration of the PCM storage

  18. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  19. Modeling of a split type air conditioner with integrated water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techarungpaisan, P.; Theerakulpisut, S.; Priprem, S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, 123 Mittrapab Rd., Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a steady state simulation model to predict the performance of a small split type air conditioner with integrated water heater. The mathematical model consists of submodels of system components such as evaporator, condenser, compressor, capillary tube, receiver and water heater. These submodels were built based on fundamental principles of heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, empirical relationships and manufacturer's data as necessary. The model was coded into a simulation program and used to predict system parameters of interest such as hot water temperature, condenser exit air temperature, evaporator exit air temperature, mass flow rate of refrigerant, heat rejection in the condenser and cooling capacity of the system. The simulation results were compared with experimental data obtained from an experimental rig built for validating the mathematical model. It was found that the experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. (author)

  20. Energy Efficiency Modelling of Residential Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Toan Tran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater is one of the most energy efficient technologies for heating water for household use. The present work proposes a simplified model of coefficient of performance and examines its predictive capability. The model is based on polynomial functions where the variables are temperatures and the coefficients are derived from the Australian standard test data, using regression technics. The model enables to estimate the coefficient of performance of the same heat pump water heater under other test standards (i.e. US, Japanese, European and Korean standards. The resulting estimations over a heat-up phase and a full test cycle including a draw off pattern are in close agreement with the measured data. Thus the model allows manufacturers to avoid the need to carry out physical tests for some standards and to reduce product cost. The limitations of the methodology proposed are also discussed.

  1. Experimental Investigation of a Natural Circulation Solar Domestic Water Heater Performance under Standard Consumption Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Taherian, H.; Ganji, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports experimental studies on the performance of a natural circulation solar water heater considering the weather condition of a city in north of Iran. The tests are done on clear and partly cloudy days. The variations of storage tank temperature due to consumption from the tank, daily...... consumption influence on the solar water heater efficiency, and on the input temperature of the collector are studied and the delivered daily useful energy has been obtained. The results show that by withdrawing from storage tank, the system as well as its collector efficiency will increase. Considering...... the value of the coefficient FRUL and τα, which are obtained experimentally as 6.03 and 0.83 respectively, average. monthly total load that is covered by this solar water heating system is estimated....

  2. A high turndown, ultra low emission low swirl burner for natural gas, on-demand water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Robert K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Therkelsen, Peter L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Previous research has shown that on-demand water heaters are, on average, approximately 37% more efficient than storage water heaters. However, approximately 98% of water heaters in the U.S. use storage water heaters while the remaining 2% are on-demand. A major market barrier to deployment of on-demand water heaters is their high retail cost, which is due in part to their reliance on multi-stage burner banks that require complex electronic controls. This project aims to research and develop a cost-effective, efficient, ultra-low emission burner for next generation natural gas on-demand water heaters in residential and commercial buildings. To meet these requirements, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are adapting and testing the low-swirl burner (LSB) technology for commercially available on-demand water heaters. In this report, a low-swirl burner is researched, developed, and evaluated to meet targeted on-demand water heater performance metrics. Performance metrics for a new LSB design are identified by characterizing performance of current on-demand water heaters using published literature and technical specifications, and through experimental evaluations that measure fuel consumption and emissions output over a range of operating conditions. Next, target metrics and design criteria for the LSB are used to create six 3D printed prototypes for preliminary investigations. Prototype designs that proved the most promising were fabricated out of metal and tested further to evaluate the LSB’s full performance potential. After conducting a full performance evaluation on two designs, we found that one LSB design is capable of meeting or exceeding almost all the target performance metrics for on-demand water heaters. Specifically, this LSB demonstrated flame stability when operating from 4.07 kBTU/hr up to 204 kBTU/hr (50:1 turndown), compliance with SCAQMD Rule 1146.2 (14 ng/J or 20 ppm NOX @ 3% O2), and lower CO emissions than state

  3. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing that shed light on how real-world water usage affects energy saving estimates of high-efficiency water heating systems.

  4. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; BushPE, John D [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2016-01-01

    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.

  5. Experimental Study of Thermoelectric Heat Pump Water Heater with Exhaust Heat Recovery from Kitchens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhong-bing; ZHANG Ling; YANG Zhang; XU Ming; HAN Tian-he

    2009-01-01

    A new kind of thermoelectric heat pump water heater for kitchens exhaust heat recovery was pre-sented,and its performances were investigated under different operating voltages.The experiment results show that the coefficient of performance decreases and the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides be-comes larger with the increase of the operating voltage,but the heating time becomes short.The higher the temperature of water,the greater the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides,leading to a smaller eoeffieient of performance.Under an exhaust temperature of 36℃,the coefficient of performance decreases from 1.66 tO 1.22 when the temperature of water increases from 28℃to 46℃with operating voltage 16 V.Performance tests illustrate that,compared with the conventional electrical water heaters,the new kind of ther-moelectric heat pump water heater is more coefficient.

  6. Application of a Linear Input/Output Model to Tankless Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher T.; Schoenbauer, B.

    2011-12-31

    In this study, the applicability of a linear input/output model to gas-fired, tankless water heaters has been evaluated. This simple model assumes that the relationship between input and output, averaged over both active draw and idle periods, is linear. This approach is being applied to boilers in other studies and offers the potential to make a small number of simple measurements to obtain the model parameters. These parameters can then be used to predict performance under complex load patterns. Both condensing and non-condensing water heaters have been tested under a very wide range of load conditions. It is shown that this approach can be used to reproduce performance metrics, such as the energy factor, and can be used to evaluate the impacts of alternative draw patterns and conditions.

  7. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  8. Assessment of the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaidajis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to life cycle thinking, the environmental burden deriving from different life cycle stages of a product or a system, such as manufacturing, transportation, maintenance and landfilling should be taken into consideration while assessing its environmental performance. In that aspect, the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater (SWH in Greece are analyzed and assessed with the application of relative life cycle assessment (LCA software in this study. In order to examine various impact categories such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity and so forth, the IMPACT2002+ method is applied. The aim of this study is to examine the life cycle stages, processes and materials that significantly affect the system under examination and to provide a discussion regarding the environmental friendliness of solar water heaters.

  9. Effect of Installation of Solar Collector on Performance of Balcony Split Type Solar Water Heaters

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Ji; Ming Li; Weidong Lin; Tufeng Zheng; Yunfeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    The influences of surface orientation and slope of solar collectors on solar radiation collection of balcony split type solar water heaters for six cities in China were analyzed by employing software TRNSYS. The surface azimuth had greater effect on solar radiation collection in high latitude regions. For deviation of the surface slope angle within ±20° around the optimized angle, the variation of the total annual collecting solar radiation was less than 5%. However, with deviation of 70° to ...

  10. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam T. Chaichan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temperature measured in a definite interval of time. Four cases were studied: using water as storage material with and without solar tracker. Also, PCM was as thermal storage material with and without solar tracker.The system working time was increased to about 5 h with sun tracker by concentrating dish and adding PCM to the system. The system concentrating efficiency, heating efficiency, and system productivity, has increased by about 64.07%, 112.87%, and 307.54%, respectively. The system working time increased to 3 h when PCM added without sun tracker. Also, the system concentrating efficiency increased by about 50.47%, and the system heating efficiency increased by about 41.63%. Moreover, the system productivity increased by about 180%.

  11. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  12. Thermal performance of solar water heater system in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulla Aziz, G.M.; Mukbel, M.A. (Aden Univ., (Yemen, Republic of). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    A thermosyphonic solar water heating system was designed and fabricated from available materials. The risers of galvanized iron are fixed to an aluminium absorber plate by using an Omiga-in and Omiga-out technique. The collector absorber has an aperture area of 127 cm x 91 cm and is connected to a storage tank with 124 l capacity. The system was then tested under the climatical conditions of Aden city. The performance of characteristics of the system, under 'nondrawn off' and ''drawoff'' hot water conditions, are experimentally determined and then compared with the theoretical results. The results are quite satisfactory. The maximum efficiency reached 79%, with mean storage tank temperature of 60[sup o]C. (author)

  13. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... 46,000 65 Table II.3--Current Federal Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters Thermal efficiency as of Product class January 1, 1990 Gas-Fired Pool Heater Thermal Efficiency = 78% ] 2. History of... Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No....

  14. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  15. Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radcliff, Thomas D; Sienel, Tobias; Huff, Hans-Joachim; Thompson, Adrian; Sadegh, Payman; Olsommer, Benoit; Park, Young

    2006-12-31

    Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could

  16. Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

    2013-08-01

    Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

  17. Scheduling of Domestic Water Heater Power Demand for Maximizing PV Self-Consumption Using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2013-01-01

    to predict the future temperature of the water and it manages its state (on and off) according to the forecasted PV production, which are computed starting from forecast of the solar irradiance. Simulations for the proof of concept and for validating the proposed control strategy are proposed. Results......This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) strategy for maximizing photo-voltaic (PV) selfconsumption in a household context exploiting the flexible demand of an electric water heater. The predictive controller uses a water heater model and forecast of the hot Water consumption in order...... of the control approach are compared with a traditional thermostatic controller using historical measurements of a 10 kW PV installation. Economic results based on the Italian self consumption tariffs are also reported. The model of the water heater complex is a mixed grey and white box and its parameters have...

  18. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  19. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Francisco, A. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Roberts, S. G. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas.

  20. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, Arvind; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank, resp

  1. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank, resp

  2. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank,

  3. Solar water heaters. A review of systems research and design innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland). Dublin Energy Lab.

    2011-07-01

    Solar water heating can be considered to be an established mature technology. The achievement of this status is the outcome of over a century of system development that culminated with a flourish of innovation in the last thirty years. Drivers for research and development have been achieving economic viability by devising systems that, for specific applications in particular climate contexts produced more hot water per unit cost. Reductions in both initial capital and installation costs have been achieved as well as in those associated with subsequent operation and maintenance. Research on solar water heating is discussed with the emphasis on overall systems though some key aspects of component development are also outlined. A comprehensive taxonomy is presented of the generic types of solar water heater that have emerged and their features, characteristics and performance are discussed. (orig.)

  4. 77 FR 74559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... descriptors (i.e., thermal efficiency and pool heater heating seasonal efficiency), as well as seasonal energy... thermal efficiency metric for pool heaters, but did not propose an integrated annual fuel utilization... states that for pool heaters, the descriptor shall be thermal efficiency. (42 U.S.C....

  5. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... descriptors (i.e., thermal efficiency and pool heater heating seasonal efficiency), as well as seasonal energy... ``efficiency descriptor,'' EPCA specifies that for pool heaters, the efficiency descriptor shall be ``thermal efficiency.'' (42 U.S.C. 6291(22)(E)) Further, EPCA defines the ``thermal efficiency of pool heaters'' as...

  6. THERMODYNAMICAL ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PRESSURE FEED WATER HEATER IN STEAM PROPULSION SYSTEM DURING EXPLOITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poljak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays diesel engines prevail as ship propulsion. However, steam propulsion is still primary drive for LNG carriers. In the presented paper high-pressure feed water heater was analyzed, as one of the essential components in LNG carrier steam propulsion system. Measurements of all operating parameters (fluid streams at the analyzed heat exchanger inlets and outlets were performed. Change of the operating parameters was measured at different steam system loads, not at full load as usual. Through these measurements was enabled the insight into the behaviour of the heat exchanger operating parameters during the whole exploitation. The numerical analysis was performed, based on the measured data. The changes in energy and exergy efficiency of the heat exchanger were analyzed. Energetic and exergetic power inputs and outputs were also calculated, which enabled an insight into the change of energetic and exergetic power losses of the heat exchanger at different steam system loads. Change in energetic and exergetic power losses and operating parameters, which have the strongest influence on the high-pressure feed water heater losses, were described. Analyzed heat exchanger was compared with similar heat exchangers in the base loaded conventional steam power plants. From the conducted analysis, it is concluded that the adjustment and control modes of these high-pressure heat exchangers are equal, regardless of whether they were mounted in the base loaded conventional steam power plants or marine steam systems, while their operating parameters and behaviour patterns differ greatly.

  7. Performance of polypropylene and steel tubes in solar water heaters with natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riazi, M.R. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Razavi, J. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1997-02-01

    Performance of solar water heaters in thermosyphonic flow with polypropylene and steel tubes was studied experimentally. An experimental apparatus consisting of 36 south-facing parallel tubes was designed and built especially for this study. Experiments were performed at Sharif University of Technology in Tehran during July--August 1994 from 0900 to 1700, when the ambient temperature varied from 29 to 36 C. Overall, 30 experiments were conducted for both types of tubes. At first, it was found that the best collector slope for both types of tubes was 36{degree} and it is independent of tube type. Generally, it was found that polypropylene tubes under similar conditions can increase water temperature by 10 C more than steel tubes. Based on the results shown in this study, use of polypropylene tubes in solar water heating systems is recommended.

  8. Theoretical and experimental study of solar water heater with internal exchanger using thermosiphon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffi, P.M.E.; Andoh, H.Y.; Gbaha, P. [Laboratoire d' Energies Nouvelles et Renouvelables, Institut National Polytechnique Felix Houphoeuet-Boigny, B.P. 1526 Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast); Toure, S. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, Universite de Cocody, 22 B.P. 582, Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Ado, G. [Laboratoire des Procedes, Industriels de Syntheses de l' Environnement et de l' Energie Nouvelle, INP-HB 22, B.P. 1093 Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast)

    2008-08-15

    This study presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the thermal performance of a solar water heater prototype with an internal exchanger using a thermosiphon system. The heat exchanger made of a rolled copper tube is placed diagonally in the storage tank so that the hot fluid crosses a significant mass of stored water. The results focus mainly on the levels of the heat fluxes, temperatures recorded, mass flow rate and efficiency of the collector. During the main insulation period, one obtains satisfactory qualitative and quantitative agreement between the experimental and theoretical results of mass flow rate and temperatures. Those indicate heat fluxes whose peak reaches 989 W/m{sup 2}, collector outlet water temperature levels of more than 85.5 C and a collector thermal effectiveness around 58%. (author)

  9. Relationship between Organic Carbon and Opportunistic Pathogens in Simulated Glass Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlling organic carbon levels in municipal water has been hypothesized to limit downstream growth of bacteria and opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing (OPPPs. Here, the relationships between influent organic carbon (0–15,000 µg ozonated fulvic acid /L and the number of total bacteria [16S rRNA genes and heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs] and a wide range of OPPPs (gene copy numbers of Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Vermamoeba vermiformis, Legionella pneumophila, and Mycobacterium avium were examined in the bulk water of 120-mL simulated glass water heaters (SGWHs. The SGWHs were operated at 32–37 °C, which is representative of conditions encountered at the bottom of electric water heaters, with water changes of 80% three times per week to simulate low use. This design presented advantages of controlled and replicated (triplicate conditions and avoided other potential limitations to OPPP growth in order to isolate the variable of organic carbon. Over seventeen months, strong correlations were observed between total organic carbon (TOC and both 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and HPC counts (avg. R2 > 0.89. Although M. avium gene copies were occasionally correlated with TOC (avg. R2 = 0.82 to 0.97, for 2 out of 4 time points and over a limited TOC range (0–1000 µg/L, no other correlations were identified between other OPPPs and added TOC. These results suggest that reducing organic carbon in distributed water is not adequate as a sole strategy for controlling OPPPs, although it may have promise in conjunction with other approaches.

  10. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  11. Movement and evaporation of water droplets under conditions typical for heat-exchange chambers of contact water heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, R. S.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-09-01

    The macroscopic regularities and integrated characteristics of the motion and evaporation of sprayed water droplets in the field of high-temperature (1100 K) combustion products under the conditions typical for water heaters of contact type (economizers) were studied using a cross-correlation complex working on the basis of panoramic optical methods (particle image velocimetry, particle tracking velocimetry, shadow photography) and high-speed (105 fps) Phantom video cameras. High-speed video recording devices with specialized software were used for continuously monitoring the motion and evaporation of droplets. Titanium dioxide nanopowder tracer particles were introduced to determine the rate of high-temperature gases. The characteristic distances covered by water droplets before their full retardation in the counter-flow of high-temperature combustion products were determined. The integrated dependences were obtained, and the main characteristics of evaporation were determined, which allow one to predict the intensity of the phase transformations of droplets (with sizes of 0.05-0.5 mm) and the distances covered by them before they completely turn in the opposite direction under the conditions corresponding to the heat-exchange chambers of contact water heaters: the vapor-droplet rate 1-5 m/s, gas flow rate 0.5-2 m/s, and gas temperature ~1100 K. Approximating expressions were derived to predict the characteristics of the processes. The performance of the economizers under study can be significantly increased by using the obtained experimental dependences, the corresponding approximating expressions, and the resulting conclusions. Conditions were determined under which the influence of phase transformations on retardation exceeds the contribution of the counter-motion and active retardation and evaporation of water droplets occur in the heat-exchange chambers of contact water heaters of typical sizes.

  12. Research and development of a heat-pump water heater. Volume 2. R and D task reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, R.L.; Amthor, F.R.; Doyle, E.J.

    1978-08-01

    The heat pump water heater is a device that works much like a window air conditioner except that heat from the home is pumped into a water tank rather than to the outdoors. The objective established for the device is to operate with a Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 3 or, an input of one unit of electric energy would create three units of heat energy in the form of hot water. With such a COP, the device would use only one-third the energy and at one-third the cost of a standard resistance water heater. This Volume 2 contains the final reports of the three major tasks performed in Phase I. In Task 2, a market study identifies the future market and selects an initial target market and channel of distribution, all based on an analysis of the parameters affecting feasibility of the device and the factors that will affect its market acceptance. In the Task 3 report, the results of a design and test program to arrive at final designs of heat pumps for both new water heaters and for retrofitting existing water heaters are presented. In the Task 4 report, a plan for an extensive field demonstration involving use in actual homes is presented. Volume 1 contains a final summary report of the information in Volume 2.

  13. In-situ tuff water migration/heater experiment: experimental plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    Tuffs on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are currently under investigation as a potential isolation medium for heat-producing nuclear wastes. The National Academy of Sciences has concurred in our identification of the potentially large water content ({le}40 vol %) of tuffs as one of the important issues affecting their suitability for a repository. This Experimental Plan describes an in-situ experiment intended as an initial assessment of water generation/migration in response to a thermal input. The experiment will be conducted in the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff in Tunnel U12g (G-Tunnel) located in the north-central region of the NTS. While the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff is not a potential repository medium, it has physical, thermal, and mechanical properties very similar to those tuffs currently under consideration and is accessible at depth (400 m below the surface) in an existing facility. Other goals of the experiment are to support computer-code and instrumentation development, and to measure in-situ thermal properties. The experimental array consists of a central electrical heater, 1.2 m long x 10.2 cm diameter, surrounded by three holes for measuring water-migration behavior, two holes for measuring temperature profiles, one hole for measuring thermally induced stress in the rock, and one hole perpendicular to the heater to measure displacement with a laser. This Experimental Plan describes the experimental objectives, the technical issues, the site, the experimental array, thermal and thermomechanical modeling results, the instrumentation, the data-acquisition system, posttest characterization, and the organizational details.

  14. In-situ tuff water migration/heater experiment: experimental plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    Tuffs on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are currently under investigation as a potential isolation medium for heat-producing nuclear wastes. The National Academy of Sciences has concurred in our identification of the potentially large water content ({le}40 vol %) of tuffs as one of the important issues affecting their suitability for a repository. This Experimental Plan describes an in-situ experiment intended as an initial assessment of water generation/migration in response to a thermal input. The experiment will be conducted in the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff in Tunnel U12g (G-Tunnel) located in the north-central region of the NTS. While the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff is not a potential repository medium, it has physical, thermal, and mechanical properties very similar to those tuffs currently under consideration and is accessible at depth (400 m below the surface) in an existing facility. Other goals of the experiment are to support computer-code and instrumentation development, and to measure in-situ thermal properties. The experimental array consists of a central electrical heater, 1.2 m long x 10.2 cm diameter, surrounded by three holes for measuring water-migration behavior, two holes for measuring temperature profiles, one hole for measuring thermally induced stress in the rock, and one hole perpendicular to the heater to measure displacement with a laser. This Experimental Plan describes the experimental objectives, the technical issues, the site, the experimental array, thermal and thermomechanical modeling results, the instrumentation, the data-acquisition system, posttest characterization, and the organizational details.

  15. Thermal modeling of a combined system of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Swapnil; Tiwari, G.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, an integrated combined system of a photovoltaic (glass-glass) thermal (PV/T) solar water heater of capacity 200 l has been designed and tested in outdoor condition for composite climate of New Delhi. An analytical expression for characteristic equation for photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) flat plate collector has been derived for different condition as a function of design and climatic parameters. The testing of collector and system were carried out during February-April, 2007. It is observed that the photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) flat plate collector partially covered with PV module gives better thermal and average cell efficiency which is in accordance with the results reported by earlier researchers. (author)

  16. Numerical and experimental study on heat pump water heater with PCM for thermal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jian-You; Zhu, Dong-Sheng [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education, Academy of Chemistry and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2008-07-01

    An air source heat pump water heater with phase change material (PCM) for thermal storage was designed to take advantage of off-peak electrical energy. The heat transfer model of PCM was based upon a pure conduction formulation. Quasi-steady state method was used to calculate the temperature distribution and phase front location of PCM during thermal storage process. Temperature and thermal resistance iteration approach has been developed for the analysis of temperature variation of heat transfer fluid (HTF) and phase front location of PCM during thermal release process. To test the physical validity of the calculational results, experimental studies about storing heat and releasing heat of PCM were carried. Comparison between the calculational results and the experimental data shows good agreement. Graphical results including system pressure and input power of heat pump, time-wise variation of stored and released thermal energy of PCM were presented and discussed. (author)

  17. An experimental investigation with artificial sunlight of a solar hot-water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal performance measurements were made of a commercial solar hot water heater in a solar simulator to determine basic performance characteristics of a traditional type of flat plate collector, with and without side reflectors (to increase the solar flux). Information on each of the following was obtained; (1) the effect of flow and incidence angle on the efficiency of a flat plate collector (but only without side reflectors); (2) transient performance under flow and nonflow conditions; (3) the effectiveness of reflectors to increase collector efficiency for a zero radiation angle at fluid temperatures required for solar air conditioning; and (4) the limits of applicability of a collector efficiency correlation based on the Hottel Whillier equation.

  18. Theoretical heating coefficient of a heat pump water heater with heat recovery applied in household bathing room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOUGuangxiao; WANGHanqing; GUWeili; KOUJianguo

    2003-01-01

    Presents the components and flow diagram of a heat pump water heater with heat reclaim applied In household bathing room, analyzes its characteristics from thermodynamical principle, calculates its theoretical heating coefficient under different operating conditions. The result shows that the maximum value of its heating coefficient is 12.9 under a typical operating condition.

  19. Experimental validation of dynamic simulation of the flat plate collector in a closed thermosyphon solar water heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taherian, H.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Sadeghi, S.;

    2011-01-01

    This work studies the dynamic simulation of thermosyphon solar water heater collector considering the weather conditions of a city in north of Iran. The simulation was done for clear and partly cloudy days. The useful energy, the efficiency diagrams, the inlet and the outlet of collector, center...

  20. Analysis of solar water heater with parabolic dish concentrator and conical absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, G.; Kumar, P.; Anwar, M.; Mohanraj, T.

    2017-06-01

    This research focuses on developing novel technique for a solar water heating system. The novel solar system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, conical absorber and water heater. In this system, the conical absorber tube directly absorbs solar radiation from the sun and the parabolic dish concentrator reflects the solar radiations towards the conical absorber tube from all directions, therefore both radiations would significantly improve the thermal collector efficiency. The working fluid water is stored at the bottom of the absorber tubes. The absorber tubes get heated and increases the temperature of the working fluid inside of the absorber tube and causes the working fluid to partially evaporate. The partially vaporized working fluid moves in the upward direction due to buoyancy effect and enters the heat exchanger. When fresh water passes through the heat exchanger, temperature of the vapour decreases through heat exchange. This leads to condensation of the vapour and forms liquid phase. The working fluid returns to the bottom of the collector absorber tube by gravity. Hence, this will continue as a cyclic process inside the system. The proposed investigation shows an improvement of collector efficiency, enhanced heat transfer and a quality water heating system.

  1. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost

  2. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-10-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  3. Experimental analysis of distinct design of a batch solar water heater with integrated collector storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Jaji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new design of batch solar water heater has been studied. In this system, the collector and storage were installed in one unit. Unlike the conventional design consisting of small diameter water tubes, it has a single large diameter drum which serves the dual purpose of absorber tube and storage tank. In principle it is a compound parabolic collector. The drum is sized to have a storage capacity of 100 liter to serve a family of four persons. The tests were carried out with a single glass cover and two glass covers. The tests were repeated for several days. Performance analysis of the collector has revealed that it has maximum mean daily efficiency with two glass covers as high as 37.2%. The maximum water temperature in the storage tank of 60°C has been achieved for a clear day operation at an average solar beam radiation level of 680 W/m2 and ambient temperature of 32°C. To judge the operating characteristics and to synchronize utility pattern of the collector, the different parameters such as efficiency, mean plate temperature and mass flow rate has been investigated.

  4. Numerical analysis of using hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar water heater in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi Sarduei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electrical performance of solar cells decreases with increasing cell temperature, basically because of growth of the internal charge carrier recombination rates, caused by increased carrier concentrations. Hybrid Photovoltaic/thermal (PVT systems produce electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. PVT solar collectors convert the heat generated in the solar cells to low temperature useful heat energy and so they provide a lower working temperature for solar cells which subsequently leads to a higher electrical efficiency. Recently, in Iran, the reforming government policy in subsidy and increasing fossil fuels price led to growing an interest in use of renewable energies for residual and industrial applications. In spite of this, the PV power generator investment is not economically feasible, so far. Hybrid PVT devices are well known as an alternative method to improve energy performance and therefore economic feasibility of the conventional PV systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of a PVT solar water heater in four different cities of Iran using TRNSYS program. Materials and Methods The designed PVT solar water system consists of two separate water flow circuits namely closed cycle and open circuit. The closed cycle circuit was comprised of a solar PVT collector (with nominal power of 880 W and area of 5.6 m2, a heat exchanger in the tank (with volume of 300 L, a pump and connecting pipes. The water stream in the collector absorbs the heat accumulated in the solar cells and delivers it to the water in the tank though the heat exchanger. An on/off controller system was used to activate the pump when the collector outlet temperature was higher than that of the tank in the closed cycle circuit. The water in the open circuit, comes from city water at low temperature, enters in the lower part of the storage tank where the heat transfer occurs between the two separate circuits. An auxiliary heater, connected

  5. Dimensioning of a solar water heater made from PET bottles; Dimensionamento de um aquecedor solar de agua feito com garrafas PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoleti, Pedro Henrique Fonseca; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis

    2008-07-01

    This document show the solar water heater made of PET bottles, a simple-construction solar water heater that try to give us two important solutions, water heating using solar energy and reutilization of the PET bottles left in the nature. Also, it will be showed how to do the dimensioning of it. Based on the showed dimensioning a application / software is developed and after that simulations are made using the application to provide how is the economy if it's used this kind of solar water heater and their environmental contribution by reutilization of the PET bottles abandoned in the nature. For example, in a common home the economy is about 45% of the electricity bill considering that the warmed water is used just to take a shower. So, the conclusion is: the solar water heater made by PET bottles is a very relevant equipment to the use of the solar energy, to useful applications and environmental contribution. (author)

  6. Modelling of an ICS solar water heater using artificial neural networks and TRNSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souliotis, M.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y. [Physics Department, University of Patras, Patras 26504, ACHAIA (Greece); Kalogirou, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, P.O. Box 50329, Limassol 3603 (Cyprus)

    2009-05-15

    A study, in which a suitable artificial neural network (ANN) and TRNSYS are combined in order to predict the performance of an Integrated Collector Storage (ICS) prototype, is presented. Experimental data that have been collected from outdoor tests of an ICS solar water heater with cylindrical water storage tank inside a CPC reflector trough were used to train the ANN. The ANN is then used through the Excel interface (Type 62) in TRNSYS to model the annual performance of the system by running the model with the values of a typical meteorological year for Athens, Greece. In this way the specific capabilities of both approaches are combined, i.e., use of the radiation processing and modelling power of TRNSYS together with the 'black box' modelling approach of ANNs. The details of the calculation steps of both methods that aim to perform an accurate prediction of the system performance are presented and it is shown that this new method can be used effectively for such predictions. (author)

  7. Development and application of engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Xiufeng; Feng Shiyu; Hu Wei; Zheng Feifei [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China); Wang Huiyu; Luo Cong [Yangzhou Sunleada Co, Ltd, Yangzhou (China); Wang Jianguo; Fan Guiyou [TongLing Real Estate Co. Ltd, TongLing (China)

    2008-07-01

    An engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump was developed based on a modularized structure. The subunits of modularized system include vacuum solar energy collectors, air source heat pump, heat storage and supplying system and control panel. All devices could be controlled and monitored centrally. Energy source of this system was composed of solar energy (70%), air thermal energy (20%) and electric power (10%). The system has advantages of high average annual comprehensive energy efficiency and elementary energy utilization efficiency. The product can be employed in central heat water supplying project with a capacity of more than 6 ton, in such facilities as residential districts, hotels, restaurants, dormitories, bathing centers and so on. The economical efficiency is better as the scale is bigger. The project has been supported by innovation funds of Science and Technology of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), being applied in a residential district successfully as a demonstration project of renewable and new energy by Chinese Ministry of Construction. (orig.)

  8. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  9. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  10. Comparative Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Systems With and Without a Mini-Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC Reflector(C < 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehong Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evacuated tube solar water heater systems are widely used in China due to their high thermal efficiency, simple construction requirements, and low manufacturing costs. CPC evacuated tube solar water heaters with a geometrical concentration ratio C of less than one are rare. A comparison of the experimental rig of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector was set up, with a series of experiments done in Hefei (31°53'N, 117°15'E, China. The first and second laws of thermodynamics were used to analyze and contrast their thermal performance. The water in the tank was heated from 26.9 to 55, 65, 75, 85, and 95 °C. Two types of solar water heater systems were used, and the data gathered for two days were compared. The results show that when attaining low temperature water, the evacuated tube solar water heater system without a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the system with a mini-CPC reflector, including the average and immediate values. On the other hand, when attaining high temperature water, the system with a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the other one. The comparison presents the advantages of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector, which can be offered as a reference when choosing which solar water system to use for actual applications.

  11. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-08

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  12. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  13. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other

  14. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patel, Viral K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mandel, Bracha T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The two objectives of this project were to 1.demonstrate an affordable path to an ENERGY STAR qualified electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on low-global warming potential (GWP) CO2 refrigerant, and 2.demonstrate an affordable path to a gas-fired absorption-based heat pump water heater with a gas energy factor (EF) greater than 1.0. The first objective has been met, and the project has identified a promising low-cost option capable of meeting the second objective. This report documents the process followed and results obtained in addressing these objectives.

  15. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, A.; Roberts, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  16. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  17. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-15

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored. May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored.

  18. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  19. Effect of heat recovery water heater system on the performance of residential split air conditioner using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A.; Thalal; Amri, I.; Herisiswanto; Mainil, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This This paper presents the performance of residential split air conditioner (RSAC) using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22) as the effect on the use of heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). In this study, RSAC was modified with addition of dummy condenser (trombone coil type) as heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). This HRWHS is installed between a compressor and a condenser by absorbing a part of condenser waste heat. The results show that RSAC with HRWHS is adequate to generate hot water with the temperature range about 46.58˚C - 48.81˚C when compared to without HRWHS and the use of dummy condenser does not give significant effect to the split air conditioner performance. When the use of HRWHS, the refrigerant charge has increase about 19.05%, the compressor power consumption has slightly increase about 1.42% where cooling capacity almost the same with slightly different about 0.39%. The condenser heat rejection is lower about 2.68% and the COP has slightly increased about 1.05% when compared to without HRWHS. The use of HRWHS provide free hot water, it means there is energy saving for heating water without negative impact to the system performance of RSAC.

  20. COMBINED UNCOVERED SHEET-AND-TUBE PVT-COLLECTOR SYSTEM WITH BUILT-IN STORAGE WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and investigation of a simple combined uncovered sheet-and-tube photo-voltaic-thermal (PVT collector system. The PVT-collector system consists of a support, standard PV module (1.22x0.305m, area=0.37m2, fill factor=0.75, sheet-and-tube water collector and storage tank-heater. The collector was fixed under PV module. Inclination angle of the PVT-collector to the horizontal plane was 45 degree. The storage tank-heater played double role i.e. for storage of hot water and for water heating. The PVT-collector system could work in the fixed and tracking modes of operation. During investigations of PVT-collector in natural conditions, solar irradiance, voltage and current of PV module, ambient temperature and water temperature in storage tank were measured. Average thermal and electrical powers of the PVT-collector system at the tracking mode of operation observed were 39W and 21W, with efficiencies of 15% and 8% respectively at the input power of 260W. The maximum temperature of the water obtained was 42oC. The system was observed efficient for low-temperature applications. The PVT-collector system may be used as a prototype for design of PVT-collector system for domestic application, teaching aid and for demonstration purposes.

  1. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  2. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equiment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaowei Wang; Zhenyan Liu [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Mechanical and Power Engineering; Yuan Li; Keke Zhao; Zhigang Wang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd. (China)

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users. (author)

  3. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shaowei [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: wswtop@sjtu.edu.cn; Liu Zhenyan [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li Yuan [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Zhao Keke [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Wang Zhigang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China)

    2005-11-15

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users.

  4. TOWARDS A UTAUT-BASED MODEL FOR THE INTENTION TO USE SOLAR WATER HEATERS BY LIBYAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the most fundamental features to ensure the success of a new technology introduction is citizen acceptance. Based on a unified model, called the Unified Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology (UTAUT, this paper provides new insights into predicting adoption and identifying of the factors that may prompt people to accept and use of Solar Water Heaters as a concrete step toward using Renewable Energy Resources, and offer guidelines for energy saving for the Libyan government and that will contribute to the economy of the country.

  5. PERFORMANCE DETERIORATION OF THERMOSIPHON SOLAR FLAT PLATE WATER HEATER DUE TO SCALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arunachala umesh chandavar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 340 1943 International Islamic University 16 4 2279 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The performance of Flat plate Solar Water Heater deteriorates within five to twelve years of their installation due to factors related to manufacturing, operating conditions, lack of maintenance etc. Especially, problem due to scaling is significant as it is based on quality of water used. The remaining factors are system dependent and could be overcome by quality production. Software is developed by incorporating Hottel Whillier Bliss (H-W-B equation to ascertain the effect of scaling on system efficiency in case of thermosiphon system. In case of clean thermosiphon system, the instantaneous efficiency calculated at 1000 W/m2 radiation is 72 % and it drops to 46 % for 3.7 mm scale thickness. The mass flow rate is reduced by 90 % for 3.7 mm scale thickness. Whereas, the average temperature drop of water in the tank is not critical due to considerable heat content in water under severe scaled condition.  But practically in case of major scale growth, some of the risers are likely to get blocked completely which leads to negligible temperature rise in the tank. ABSTRAK: Prestasi plat rata pemanas air suria merosot selepas lima hingga dua belas tahun  pemasangannya disebabkan faktor-faktor yang berkaitan dengan pembuatannya, cara kendaliannya, kurangnya penyelenggaraan dan sebagainya.  Terutama sekali, masalah disebabkan scaling (tembunan endapan mineral perlu diambil berat kerana ianya bergantung kepada kualiti air yang digunakan. Faktor-faktor selebihya bersandarkan sistem dan ia

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Power Plant with Double Reheat and Feed Water Heaters

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A steam cycle with double reheat and turbine extraction is presented. Six heaters are used, three of them at high pressure and the other three at low pressure with deaerator. The first and second law analysis for the cycle and optimization of the thermal and exergy efficiencies are investigated. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. The exergy and irreversibility analyses of each component of the cycle are determined. Effects of turbine inlet p...

  7. Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Karlsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with different system configurations and control strategies were simulated and analysed in the study. A comparison with a standard solar thermal system was also presented based on the annual solar fraction. The simulation results indicate that the retrofitting configuration achieving the highest annual performance consists of a system where the existing tank is used as storage for the solar heat and a smaller tank with a heater is added in series to make sure that the required outlet temperature can be met. An external heat exchanger is used between the collector circuit and the existing tank. For this retrofitted system an annual solar fraction of 50.5% was achieved. A conventional solar thermal system using a standard solar tank achieves a comparable performance for the same total storage volume, collector area and reference conditions.

  8. Experimental study on depth of paraffin wax over floating absorber plate in built-in storage solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sivakumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the effect of depth of phase change material over the absorber surface of an integrated collector-storage type flat plate solar water heater. Flat plate solar water heaters are extensively used all over the world to utilize the natural source of solar energy. In order to utilize the solar energy during off-sunshine hours, it is inevitable to store and retain solar thermal energy as long as possible. Here, phase change material is not used for heat storage, but to minimize losses during day and night time only. The depth of phase change material over a fixed depth of water in a solar thermal collector is an important geometric parameter that influences the maximum temperature rise during peak solar irradiation and hence the losses. From the results of the studies for different masses of paraffin wax phase change material layers, the optimum depth corresponding to the maximum heat gain till evening is found to be 2 mm, and the heat retention till the next day morning is found to be 4 mm.

  9. 1000 solar water heaters in the newly built area Woudhuis in Apeldoorn, Netherlands. 1000 zonneboilers in een nieuwbouwwijk Woudhuis, Apeldoorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croonen, M.J.E. (PGEM Energiemaatschappij voor Gelderland en Flevoland, Arnhem (Netherlands)); Van der Leun, C.J. (Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1993-07-01

    In the end of 1990 a large scale solar boiler project was initiated for the title area. The aim of the project is to gain experience in project planning of the implementation of solar water heaters in newly built areas and to investigate to what extent this could contribute to a cost reduction of the solar boilers. The target was a total of 1,000 solar boilers in the Woudhuis area, in which 1,700 houses will be built in the period 1993-1995. A cost reduction of 10-20% is estimated. Descriptions of the project, the Woudhuis area and the planning method are given. It is expected that the installation of 1,000 solar water heaters and the estimated cost reduction will be realized. The Woudhuis project will be a part of the European Community research program THERMIE and provided much knowledge on how to plan such a project in newly built areas. It also has very positive effects on other similar follow-up projects. 2 figs.

  10. 电热水器的原理与检修%Principle and Maintenance About the Electric Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭占苗

    2011-01-01

    详细分析储水式电热水嚣的电路原理,以鲁斌牌QZD-1型热水器为饲介绍电热水器的电源电路,水位显示电路,防止干烧电路和防止漏电电路.重点介绍水位显示电路和防止干烧电路,水位显示电路主要以ICl(MC4069)反相器为核心,可以检测注水到莱一位置;防止干烧电路主要以IC2(LM339)比较器为棱心,实现当水箱水位低于2/6位置时断电.最后,就该电热水器可能出现的故障,给出针对故障进行检修的方法,为初学电热水器设计与检修者提供参考.%In this article,the author mainly analyzed circuit of storage-type electric water heater. Furthermore, detailed analysis about the water heater named Lu Bin QZD-1 were introduced , including power circuit, level display circuit, prevention of dry circuit and preventing leakage circuit. Especially, the last two parts of the circuit were very important. IC1 (MCA069) comparator is core component of level display circuit, which can detect the position of water in the liner; simultaneously, IC2(LM339) is considered as a key device of prevention of dry circuit ,which could cut off the power if the water level is lower than 2/6 location in the water tank. Finally, the author proposed appropriate methods of examination and repairs for possible faults of the storage-type electric water heater, which can provide reference to beginners who learn design and maintenance.

  11. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  12. Shabbes burn, a burn that occurs solely among Jewish orthodox children; due to accidental shower from overhead water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoufani, A; Golan, J

    2003-02-01

    From January 1990 to January 2000, 35 children were treated in our department for Shabbes burn, a unique scald burn that occurred mainly among orthodox Jews during the Sabbath. A retrospective review was conducted to determine the extent of the problem, to understand the burn mechanism and to suggest a prevention program. A shower of hot water from the Sabbath heater is the cause of this burn. Among the Shabbes burn cases, 27 patients were female (77%) and 17 children (48%) were between 3 and 6 years old. It is suggested that this is a common burn that occurs among orthodox Jewish families and affects mainly females. Education programs using the media directed to the Jewish orthodox population have been conducted, this combined with redesigned of the heater, have reduced significantly the incidence of the burn as seen in our institute. However, even though efforts have been supported widely, there remains a need for educational and governmental regulations on a national level. This could aid orthodox Jews not only in Israel but globally, as well.

  13. Exergy Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater%二氧化碳热泵热水器的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱开鼎; 陈海峰; 窦丹; 李九良

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the operating principle of Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater is explained;by constructing the exergy model and providing the initial conditions,an exergy analysis of working process of carbon dioxide heat pump water heater is made;which results in the ratio of exergy consumption from different part of the heater,and indicates the method of improving the ratio of utilizing the exergy.%介绍了二氧化碳热泵热水器的工作原理,通过建立模型,给出初始条件,对二氧化碳热泵热水器的工作过程进行了分析,得出了各部分所占的消耗比重,指出了提高利用率的方法。

  14. Experimental studies of operating characteristics of a downhole electric heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simkin, E.M.; Sergeev, A.I.; Sheinman, A.B.

    1967-06-01

    A new type of electric downhole heater for deparaffinization and heating of formations in oil wells is described. The heater is a hollow hermetic cylinder, which contains an electrode insulated from the body of the heater. The cylinder contains a predetemined volume of water of fixed electrical resistance. Resistance of this water is adjusted by addition of salt. A cable supplying the electrode with electric current also ground the heater by body. The current passes through the water, heats it, and produces steam. The steam heats up the hermetically sealed body of the heater, and heat flows to the well fluid around the heater. A schematic diagram of the heater is shown. Thermal output of the heater depends on current supplied, dimension of heater and components, resistance and volume of water in heater, and other parameters. All these factors are correlated with heat output by a series of graphs and equations.

  15. Assessment of global environmental impacts by utilizing methodology of LCA on solar water heater for dwellings; LCA shuho ni yoru taiyonetsu onsuiki no kankyo fuka hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, S. [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    CO2 emission was quantified through the life cycle of a solar water heater to assess its environment impact. Although LCA (life cycle assessment) originally sums up I/O of all materials and energy through the whole life cycle of a product to examine environment impact, this assessment was carried out for only CO2. Calculation of CO2 emission assumed a natural circulating solar water heater of 200 l in effective hot water capacity, 2.78m{sup 2} in effective collecting area, and 0.5 in average annual collecting efficiency of total solar radiation, and an auxiliary city gas heat source for compensating insufficient heat quantity. The total CO2 emission in the life cycle of a solar water heater was obtained from an industrial association table assuming the life cycles of 10 and 20 years. CO2 emission was estimated to be 5407.1kg-CO2 and 10665.2kg-CO2 for 10 and 20 years, respectively. CO2 emission due to city gas was largest in the total CO2 emission in the life cycle. As a result, for reduction of CO2 emission due to a solar water heater, improvement of equipment efficiency was most important. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkanshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, S.; Mizuno, T. [Yazaki Resources Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the purpose of satisfying demands for qualitative improvement on tapwater temperature and pressure, an indirect-type solar water heater using solar cells, in which a closed type hot water storage tank connected directly to the water supply is integrated with a solar collector, was examined for its characteristics and performance. The heat collecting medium is a water solution of polypropylene glycol, which circulates through the solar collector pump, cistern, solar collector, and heat exchanger (hot water storage tank). The results of the test are summarized below. When comparison is made between the two solar collector pump control methods, the solar cells direct connection method and the differential thermo method utilizing temperature difference between the solar collector and the hot water storage tank, they are alike in collecting heat on clear days, but on cloudy days the latter collects 5% more than the former. In winter, when the heat exchanger heat transfer area is 0.4m{sup 2} large, a further increase in the area improves but a little the heat collecting efficiency. An increase in the medium flow rate and temperature, or in the Reynolds number, enhances the heat collecting efficiency. 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.B.; Smetana, F.O.

    1977-03-01

    The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using insolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in insolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

  18. An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1977-01-01

    The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using isolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in isolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

  19. Passively operated spool valve for drain-down freeze protection of thermosyphon water heaters. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-04-30

    The work done to extend the existing drain-down valve technology to provide passive drain-down freeze protection for thermosyphon-based solar water heaters is described. The basic design of the existing valve model is that of a spool valve, employing a cylindrical spool which moves axially in a mating cartridge to open and close o-rings at the two operating extremes (drain and operate) to perform the valving function. Three passive actuators to drive the basic valving mechanism were designed, fabricated, and tested. Two piping configurations used to integrate the spool valve with the thermosyphon system are described, as are the passive actuators. The three actuator designs are: photovoltaic driven, refrigerant-based bellows, and heat motor cable-drive designs. Costs are compared for the alternative actuator designs, and operating characteristics were examined for the thermosyphon system, including field tests. The market for the valve for thermosyphon systems is then assessed. (LEW)

  20. Saving cost in solar water heaters by means of integration of the solar equipment in an existing hot water circulation loop; Kosteneinsparungen bei solaren Warmwasseranlagen durch Einbindung in die Warmwasserzirkulation. Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitzmann, B.

    2001-07-01

    The implementation of solar water heaters in hot-water circulations for apartment buildings was examined. Models as well as investigations at 6 water supply systems in existing buildings show technically and economically opportunities for the proposed installation. Beside a reduction of the solar-piping length the proposed system shows higher opportunities for using existing hot water storage devices for solar energy storage. This is because of the energy transfer at the hot water storage devices from the existing in- and outlets instead of a heat exchanger. Today the proposed installation can be already classified as economic useful if the investment for piping and additional hot water storage device can be reduced in comparison to conventional solar water heaters. Further optimisation can be seen in the simple installation of the solar water heater to improve the economic efficiency of the proposed system. (author)

  1. 住宅太阳热水器的技术经济性分析%TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL SOLAR WATER HEATERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓明; 罗清海; 解晓蕾; 王衍金; 刘泽华

    2011-01-01

    以福州地区典型气象年逐时气象数据为基础,对平板型太阳热水器的热性能进行逐时模拟.利用综合能源价格法,分析集热器面积对太阳热水器经济性的影响,并比较各类热水器的技术经济性.在当前能源价格体系下,集热器面积为8.5m时,系统的年平均太阳能保证率最大(为67.72%);集热器面积为4m时,综合能源价格现值最小(为0.283$/kWh),此时系统的年平均太阳能保证率为62.65%.%Based on hourly meteorological data of typical meteorological years in Fuzhou, the thermal performance of flat plate solar water heater has been hourly simulated. By synthetic energy price, the effect of collector area on the economy of solar water heater was analyzed; also the economic comparisons of various types of water heaters were discussed. Under the current energy price system, the maximum annual average solar fraction of 67.72% was obtained when the collector area is 8.5m2; the minimum present value of synthetic energy price of 0.283 ¥/kWh was obtained when the collector area is 4m2, with the annual average solar fraction of 62.25 %. With the increase of energy price, the economic superiority of solar water heater is more significant. The simulation and analysis results have important reference value for optimizing the design of solar water heater and guiding the technical progress of water heateis.

  2. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Design, Production and Management, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Sodha, M.S. [Department of Education and Physics, Lucknow University, Lucknow 226007 (India); Anwar, S.I. [Indian Institute of Sugar-cane Research, Lucknow, U.P. (India)

    2009-12-15

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank, respectively, in the terms of design and climatic parameters. Further, an analysis has also been extended for hot water withdrawal at constant collection temperature. Numerical computations have been carried out for the design and climatic parameters of the system used by Huang et al. [Huang BJ, Lin TH, Hung WC, Sun FS. Performance evaluation of solar photovoltaic/thermal systems. Sol Energy 2001; 70(5): 443-8]. It is observed that the daily overall thermal efficiency of IPVTS system increases with increase constant flow rate and decrease with increase of constant collection temperature. The exergy analysis of IPVTS system has also been carried out. It is further to be noted that the overall exergy and thermal efficiency of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar system (IPVTS) is maximum at the hot water withdrawal flow rate of 0.006 kg/s. The hourly net electrical power available from the system has also been evaluated. (author)

  3. Situation of China's solar water heater industry, related national standards, testing and the Golden Sun certification program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; H.Druck; H.Muller-Steinhagen

    2008-01-01

    China is the largest solar water heater producer and market in the world. Despite the fast growth and an installed capacity that accounts for the majority of the global gross, China's per capita solar hot water capacity is still very low, implying a huge margin of market potential; and the recognition of the industry in the global market is handicapped by the scattered scale of production and inconsistent product quality. To ensure continued growth of China's solar water heating (SWH) industry, Chinese Government has established a series of national SWH standards, three national testing centers, and a certification program to lay the foundation for the development of the Golden Sun product labeling system. China General Certification Center (CGC) developed the Golden Sun product certification and labeling system on a pass/fail basis evaluating with established criteria. The system was designed to help manufacturers acclimate to explicit consistent requirements and to identify and fix the deficiencies in the design and execution of the program itself. Timely revision and integration of the national standards are recommended to accommodate the test procedures and requirements to new technologies and the evolving SWH market. Strict implementation of the Golden Sun certification and labeling system are suggested to avail improving the quality control and forging internationally reputable brands of Chinese solar water heating products.

  4. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Power Plant with Double Reheat and Feed Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A steam cycle with double reheat and turbine extraction is presented. Six heaters are used, three of them at high pressure and the other three at low pressure with deaerator. The first and second law analysis for the cycle and optimization of the thermal and exergy efficiencies are investigated. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. The exergy and irreversibility analyses of each component of the cycle are determined. Effects of turbine inlet pressure, boiler exit steam temperature, and condenser pressure on the first and second laws' efficiencies are investigated. Also the best turbine extraction pressure on the first law efficiency is obtained. The results show that the biggest exergy loss occurs in the boiler followed by the turbine. The results also show that the overall thermal efficiency and the second law efficiency decrease as the condenser pressure increases for any fixed outlet boiler temperature, however, they increase as the boiler temperature increases for any condenser pressure. Furthermore, the best values of extraction pressure from high, intermediate, and low pressure turbine which give the maximum first law efficiencies are obtained based on the required heat load corresponding to each exit boiler temperature.

  5. Self-construction of a solar water heater; Calentador solar de agua de auto-construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz Herrera, Alvaro E.; Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a flat receiver of self construction is shown with relatively low cost and easy manufacture, but with a thermal efficiency superior to 40% for applications at temperatures less than 60 degrees Celsius, that allows satisfying international standards in this respect. The heater has been matter of study in open courses distributed in the Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) oriented to that the participants construct their own system, in addition to its installation and tests. The obtained results have been excellent. The massive use of efficient solar receivers of self-construction can truly help to the decreasing of the gas discharges of greenhouse effect. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un captador plano de auto construccion con relativamente bajo costo y facil manufactura, pero con un rendimiento termico superior a 40% para aplicaciones a temperatura menos de 60 grados centigrados que le permite satisfacer estandares internacionales a este respecto. El calentador ha sido materia de estudio en cursos abiertos impartidos en la Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) orientados a que los participantes construyan su propio sistema, ademas de su instalacion y pruebas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido excelentes. El uso masivo de captadores solares eficientes de autoconstruccion puede en verdad coadyuvar a la disminucion de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

  6. Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) on DHP copper by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus megaterium strains in media simulating heater waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumelzu, E.; Cabezas, C.; Schoebitz, R.; Ugarte, R.; Rodriguez, E.D.; Rios, J. [Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)

    2003-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of microbial populations in water heating systems of steam generators make it necessary to study the magnitude of the metabolic activity of bacteria and biofilm development that may lead to degradation of metal components through microbial induced corrosion (MIC). Electrolytes simulating the conditions found in heater water networks were used to induce biofilm formation on DHP copper coupons by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSMZ and Bacillus megaterium C10, a commercial strain and an isolate from these waters, respectively. In order to enhance their action, industrial waters enriched with the minimum nutrient content such as sodium lactate and sodium sulphite for the DSMZ strain and glucose, proteose peptone and starch for the C10 strain were employed. Biofilm formation was studied under controlled temperature, time, shaking, pH and concentrations of the media used in this study. Then, the samples were electrochemically tested in an artificial solution of sea water as control medium, based on the hypothesis that the action of an aggressive biofilm/electrolyte medium generates damaged and non-damaged areas on the metal surface, and assuming that the sea water trial can detect the latter. Hence, a higher anodic current was associated with a lower degradation of the metal surface by the action of one of the media under study. All these trials were performed along with bacterial count, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Furthermore, it was possible to identify under which conditions MIC on DHP copper occurred and complex mechanisms from retention of cations to diffusion processes at the biofilm/tested media interface level were proposed. Surface corrosion by MIC took place on DHP copper; therefore, greater control on the treatment of industrial waters is highly desirable. (author)

  7. Experimental study of a novel CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater%CPC热管真空管式热水器实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静娟; 朱跃钊; 陈海军; 王银峰; 郭丹丹; 蒋金柱; 廖传华

    2012-01-01

    研制了一种CPC(复合抛物面聚焦)热管真空管式太阳能热水器.该热水器在普通玻璃真空管热水器的基础上耦合热管技术,并增加了CPC聚光板.对该热水器与全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器进行了热性能对比实验研究.结果表明,在300 W/m2~800 W/m2日照条件下,该新型热水器单位面积集热功率最高可达610 W/m2;平均集热效率约为80%,比全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器的瞬时效率高10%~20%;导热介质的最高温度达到103℃.证明增加CPC聚光板及运用导热油可有效提高集热品位,利用热管技术可解决严寒地区的抗冻问题,所以,CPC热管真空管式太阳能热水器将具有较广阔的市场前景.%A novel CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater was developed combined with heat pipe and CPC light gathering tabula on the basis of all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater. Comparative thermal performance tests on two different types of solar water heaters were carried out. A CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater and an all -glass evacuated tube solar water heater were installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions. The results show that, the maximum heat collecting power of this solar water heater can reach 610 W/m2 during solar radiation ranging from 300W/m2~800W/m2. Average heat collecting efficiency of this solar water heater can be improved effectively by using CPC, to 80%, which is 10%-20% higher than the all-glass vacuum solar water heater. The highest temperature of heat conducting oil in the vacuum tube can reach 1031. It proved that CPC light gathering tabula and the heat conducting oil is beneficial to improve the collector grade, and heat pipes can overcome the problem of the tube broken during working at subzero temperature. Therefore, the CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater will have a bright prospect of application.

  8. Desempenho de um aquecedor de água a biogás Performance of a water heater by biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio M. da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos foram desenvolvidos para dimensionar e adaptar o injetor do queimador principal de um aquecedor de água tipo acumulação de 75 L. O diâmetro do injetor foi redimensionado em função da pressão de serviço de 100 mm H2O e poder calorífico inferior do biogás de 21.600 kJ m-3 n, garantindo a manutenção da potência calorífica do equipamento de 20.900 kJ h-1. Os resultados demonstraram que o queimador adaptado operou com biogás adequadamente, com chama estável. A eficiência média do aquecedor foi de 68%, para ganho térmico de 36,7 ºC, correspondendo à temperatura final da água igual a 62,7 ºC, sendo consumido 0,796 m³n de biogás, aquecendo 75 L de água em 72 minutos.Studies had been developed to project and to adapt the injector of the main burner of water heater accumulated type of 75 L. The diameter of the injector was project in function of the pressure of service of 100 mm H2O and inferior calorific power of biogas of 21,600 kJ m-3 n, having guaranteed the maintenance of the calorific power of the equipment of 20,900 of kJ h-1 .The results had demonstrated that the adapted burner to operate with biogas operated adequately with a steady flame. The average efficiency of the heater was of 68%, for a thermal profit of 36.7 ºC, corresponding the final temperature of the water of 62.7 ºC being consumed 0.796 m³ n of biogas, heating 75 L of water in 72 minutes.

  9. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkahshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, S.; Mizuno, T. [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Optimal operation control was discussed on a forced-circulation solar water heater using solar cells not only as the power supply of a heat collecting pump, but also for controlling operation of the heat collecting pump. With this system, when the amount of power generated by solar cells reaches a sufficient level for operating the heat collecting pump, the heat collecting pump starts operation, wherein the heat collecting medium circulates in the system. The discussion was given by using simulation based on experimental expressions such as the relation expression between insolation and heat collecting medium flow rate as derived from the result of the system`s heat collecting performance test. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: optimal insolation for activating the discussed system is from 50 to 100 W/m {sup 2}, and the heat collected within this range is within -1.5% of the collected heat amount at an optimum value; optimal activating insolation for the case of 1000 to 2000 W/m {sup 2} with low daily cumulative insolation is from 0 to 50 W/m {sup 2}, whereas the optimal activating insolation amount increases as the daily cumulative insolation amount increases; and the optimal activating insolation amount increases as water to be supplied requires higher temperature. 1 ref., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Determination of inorganic compounds in drinking water on the basis of house water heater scale, part 1: Determination of heavy metals and uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of scale originated from drinking water on the house water heater, showed that scale is basically calcium carbonate that crystallizes hexagonally in the form of calcite. Scale taken as a sample from different spots in Belgrade – upper town of Zemun (sample 1 and Pančevo (sample 2 showed different configuration although it came from the same waterworks. That indicates either that the water flowing through waterworks pipes in different parts of the city is not the same or the waterworks net is not the same (age, maintaining, etc. All the elements which are dominant in drinking water (Ca, Mg, K, and Na, and which could be found in water by natural processes, are by their content far below the values regulated by law. The analysis also showed the presence of many metals: Ti, Pb, Zn, Cu Li, Sr, Cd, and Cr in the first sample, which are not found in the scale taken near Pančevo. The results obtained by calculating the mass concentration in drinking water on the basis of scale content, showed that both waters belonged to the category of low mineral waters. Contents of inorganic substances in these waters (117.85 mg/dm3 for sample 1 or 80.83 mg/dm3 for sample 2 are twice lower than the values predicted by the legislation. Gammaspectrometric analysis indicates the presence of radioactive elements – uranium and strontium which can influence human health.

  11. European Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Keinath, Chris [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Garrabrant, Michael A. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    High efficiency gas-burning hot water heating takes advantage of a condensing heat exchanger to deliver improved combustion efficiency over a standard non-condensing configuration. The water heating is always lower than the gas heating value. In contrast, Gas Absorption Heat Pump (GAHP) hot water heating combines the efficiency of gas burning with the performance increase from a heat pump to offer significant gas energy savings. An ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system can maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. In this work, a GAHP commercial water heating system was compared to a condensing gas storage system for a range of locations and climate zones across Europe. The thermodynamic performance map of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system was used in a building energy modeling software that could also incorporate the changing ambient air temperature and water mains temperature for a specific location, as well as a full-service restaurant water draw pattern.

  12. WHY IS CHINA THE WORLD’S LEADER OF SOLAR WATER HEATER PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy programs in developing countries face many challenges. The purpose of this research is to examine why China has been successful as the world’s leader of Solar Water Heater (SWH production and consumption. The study is based on field work in China in the past two years in areas where SWHs are widely used. The results may help provide a better understanding of the main drivers for the rapid growth of renewable and sustainable energy and develop associated policies. The research is based on data from current reports on SWH production and consumption in China and field investigations in Chinese cities and rural areas where SWHs are widely used. The findings are limited by the availability of data and the varied physical and cultural conditions in China. The research finds that several factors may have contributed to China’s leadership in this area: governmental policies, innovations in technology, low costs of labor, low interest rates, government incentives, a large market, a new installation, shortage of electricity and social acceptance. China’s SWH production and consumption is mainly due to economic incentives and cultural appeal instead of consumer environmental concerns. The Chinese SWH experience confirms earlier findings that low levels of development should not prevent countries from having effective environmental institutions and policies. In addition to technological innovations, policies for renewable and sustainable energy need to pay more attention to economic, political and cultural factors.

  13. Hourly use profiles for solar domestic hot water heaters in the National Solar Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvir, E. J.; Doak, L. G.; Waterman, R. E.; Gervasio, C.

    Daily hot water rates of consumption and the Hourly Profiles of Daily Hot Water Consumption for single and multiple family dwellings are provided in this paper. These new statistics obtained from the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) are significantly different from the statistics currently being used in TRNSYS, SOLCOST and F-Chart. The NSDN statistics suggest that both the daily demand and hourly use profiles used in performance models should be revised.

  14. The sun as hot water source. Answers to questions on the solar water heater; Le soleil source d'eau chaude. Les reponses a vos questions sur le chauffe-eau solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This guide answers to the main questions concerning a water heating system for domestic use. It aims to help the people who want to buy a solar water heater, to better estimate the advantages and the limits, in providing information on the operating and the use. (A.L.B.)

  15. Solar air heaters and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  16. Study of the distribution of the absorbed solar radiation on the performance of a CPC-type ICS water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souliotis, M.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y. [Physics Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2008-05-15

    An Integrated Collector Storage (ICS) solar water heater was designed, constructed and studied with an emphasis on its optical and thermal performance. The ICS system consists of one cylindrical horizontal tank properly mounted in a stationary symmetrical Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC) reflector trough. The main objective was the design and the construction of a low cost solar system with improved thermal performance based on the exploitation of the non-uniform distribution of the absorbed solar radiation on the cylindrical storage tank surface. A ray-tracing model was developed to gauge the distribution of the incoming solar radiation on the absorber surface and the results were compared with those from a theoretical optical model based on the average number of reflections. The variation of the optical efficiency as function of the incident angle of the incoming solar radiation along with its dependence on the month during annual operation of ICS system is presented. The ICS device was experimentally tested outdoors during a whole year in order to correlate the observed temperature rise and stratification of the stored water with the non-uniform distribution of the absorbed solar radiation. The results show that the upper part of the tank surface collects the larger fraction of the total absorbed solar radiation for all incident angles throughout the year. This is found to have a significant effect on the overall thermal performance of the ICS unit. In addition, the presented results can be considered important for the design and the operation of ICS systems consisting of cylindrical tank and CPC reflectors. (author)

  17. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Wang, Zhongying

    2006-01-01

    China is the world's largest market for solar water heating systems, installing 13 million square meters of new systems in 2004, mostly in large cities. Municipal authorities, however, are sensitive to quality and visual impact issues created by this technology deployment. Therefore, there is currently a trend toward developing building integrated…

  18. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Wang, Zhongying

    2006-01-01

    China is the world's largest market for solar water heating systems, installing 13 million square meters of new systems in 2004, mostly in large cities. Municipal authorities, however, are sensitive to quality and visual impact issues created by this technology deployment. Therefore, there is currently a trend toward developing building integrated…

  19. Improved Design of the Crude Oil Heater with Water Jacket%水套加热炉的改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于庆波; 秦勤; 杨宗山; 周洪敏

    2000-01-01

    采用蓄热式燃烧技术对原有的水套加热炉进行了改进设计。改进后的蓄热式水套加热炉,运行热效率可达80%以上,与原有加热炉相比,具有自动化程度高,节能效果显著的特点。%he design of crude oil heater with water jacket is improved by use of regenerative combustion technoloy. The improved heater can be operated with the thermal efficiency of more than 80% ,high automation and obvious energy-saving compared with traditional ones.

  20. An analysis on Free Convection Cooling of a 3×3 Heater Array in Rectangular Enclosure using Cu-EG-Water Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimanyu Purusothaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of natural convection cooling of a discrete heater array in Cu-EG-water nanofluid filled rectangular enclosure. A 3 × 3 array of non-protruding heat sources is embedded on one of the vertical walls of the enclosure while the top horizontal and opposite vertical walls are assumed to be isothermally cold. The remaining portions in which the heaters are mounted and all other walls are insulated. The above setup is modeled into a system of partial differential equations which are solved numerically using finite volume method based on the Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equation (SIMPLE algorithm and power law scheme. The wide range of parameters for computation are the aspect ratio of the enclosure, the mixture proportion of Ethylene glycol-water, the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticle along with two different thermal conductivity models. It is observed that the proper choice of the computation parameters and thermal conductivity models could be able to maximize the heat transfer rate from the heater array. Also, the results obtained in this study will provide new guidelines in the field of electronic equipment cooling.

  1. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... all hot water and steam heater systems shall be specifically designed and constructed for that purpose... when used for heating the cargo of tank motor vehicles. (3) Heaters permitting fuel leakage. Any type... air, heated or to be heated, from the engine compartment or from direct contact with any portion...

  2. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARABOLIC SOLAR COLLECTOR WATER HEATER SYSTEM FITTED WITH NAIL TWISTED TAPES ABSORBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SYED JAFAR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the experimental heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance data for water flowing through the absorber tube fitted with two different twisted tape configurations in parabolic trough collector (PTC are presented. In the present work, a relative experimental study is carried out to investigate the performance of a PTC influenced by heat transfer through fluidabsorber wall mixing mechanism. The major findings of this experiment show that heat transport enhancement in the nail twisted tape collector perform significantly better than plain twisted tapes and also show that the smallest twisted tape ratio enhances the system performance remarkably maximizing the collector efficiency. The results suggest that the twisted tape and nail twisted tape would be a better option for high thermal energy collection in laminar region of the PTC system.

  3. Bounding Limitations in the Practical Design of Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The boundary temperatures for any sorption-based technology can be estimated on the basis of Trouton s hypothesis that isosteres, extrapolated to infinite pressure (or analogously to infinite temperature) meet at a single point. In this paper we discuss the consequences of this hypothesis for many sorption devices that are thermally operated, suitable for exploiting renewable energy resources, or making better use of high or low level thermal energy. Trouton s hypothesis is independent of the working fluids making it particularly useful to both liquid-vapor and solid-vapor systems. We exemplify the use of the derived boundary temperatures derived from Trouton s hypothesis to important processes such as ice making, space cooling in hot climates, deep freezing, and residential hot water production. The boundary temperatures help determine which sorption or solar heating technology may be better suited to serve the given application, or whether it is beyond the scope of sorption systems.

  4. Double-diffusive natural convection of Cu-water nanofluid in a window shaped cavity containing multiple obstacles with a heater on bottom wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Raju; Parvin, Salma; Khan, Md. Abdul Hakim

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, natural convective heat and mass transfer and fluid flow inside a window shaped cavity filled with Cu-water nanofluid and containing multiple obstacles with a finite size heater placed in its horizontal wall is numerically investigated. Sinusoidal temperature distribution is maintained by the heater. The left and right inclined walls of the cavity are maintained at a relatively low temperature while the vertical walls are insulated. The governing equations are transformed to the dimensionless form and solved numerically using Galerkin weighted residual technique of finite element method. The influence of pertinent parameters such as thermal Rayleigh number, location of the heater and solid volume fraction of nanoparticles on the heat and mass transfer and fluid flow is studied. The results are obtained in terms of streamlines, isotherms, isoconcentrations, average Sherwood number and average Nueeslt number for the considered parameters and it is observed that the flow pattern, temperature and concentration fields are affected by the variation of the mentioned parameters.

  5. Performance of facade balcony type solar water heaters%立面阳台式太阳能热水器的性能特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 郑土逢; 季旭; 魏生贤

    2011-01-01

    This paper experimentally studied the thermal performances of the flat-plate solar water heater and the all-glass vacuum tube solar water heater. The effects of the placement of the collector (southern facade horizontal row and vertical row), and the circulation type (natural circulation and forced circulation) on the system thermal performance and the tank stratification were achieved. The results showed that for the southern facade balcony-style all-glass vacuum tube solar water heaters, the water circulation was faster when the collector was placed horizontally, and the thermal efficiency increased by 12%. For the southern facade balcony flat-plate type solar water heater, when the system run under natural circulation, whether the collector was placed horizontally or vertically, liquid circulation is not smooth, and the thermal efficiency of the system was less than 30%. Forced circulation could effectively improve the circulation. The average inlet and outlet temperatures kept stable, and the system efficiency was 63% approximately when the system run under forced circulation.%以阳台平板太阳能热水器和全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器为对象,研究太阳能集热器南立面横排和竖排放置,自然循环和强制循环对系统热性能和水箱分层的影响.结果表明,对于立面阳台式全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器,集热器横排放置比竖排放置系统循环快,热效率提高12%.对于立面阳台式平板太阳能热水器,自然循环时无论是横排放置还是竖排放置,液体循环不流畅,系统热效率均小于30%;采用强制循环能有效改善循环状况,平均进出口温差稳定,系统热效率约为63%.

  6. Model based control and optimization of a feed-water heater train; Modellbaserad reglering och optimering av en foervaermarekedja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velut, Stephane; Raaberg, Martin; Wendel, Hans (Grontmij AB (SE))

    2007-12-15

    Thermal power plants are complex processes in which many variables must be monitored and controlled in real-time for a safe and economic operation. The complex interactions between actuators and controlled variables as well as the load dependent dynamics make the design and tuning of all controllers a challenging task. A mathematical model of the process that describes critical characteristics such as dynamics, interactions, and nonlinearities might greatly facilitate the task of the control engineer. Such controllers can be designed in a rather systematic way to achieve good performance in terms of response time and robustness. This enables the operator to run the process closer to its limits while minimizing damage risks. The goal of the project was threefold. The first objective was to describe the available methods to compute process models directly from experimental data and illustrate how those models can be used for control design. The second objective was to apply some of the fore mentioned methods on a specific process, namely a feed water heater train to control the level in each preheater. The third objective was to analyze how the level in each preheater affects the thermal efficiency of the plant and derive adequate set-points for the model-based controllers. The project started at the end of the production season, which resulted in a tight schedule for the planning and the realization of experiments. Informative data could however be collected and models could be derived for some specific loads. Unfortunately the effect of the changes in the level set point could not be verified because of the limited length of the experiments. The project results can be summarized as follows: The way the condensate level should be chosen in every preheater has been formulated as a simple optimization problem that aims as maximizing the thermal efficiency of the plant. Even though the model used in the optimization was simple, the results were pretty intuitive. The

  7. Design of a unit to produce hot distilled water for the same power consumption as a water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    Unit recovers 97% of water contained in pretreated waste water. Some factors are: cleansing agent prevents fouling of heat transfer surface by highly concentrated waste; absence of dynamic seals reduces required purge gas flow rate; and recycle loop maintains constant flushing process to carry cleansing agent across evaporation surface.

  8. Cost effectiveness analysis for the substitution of the electrical shower to gas water heaters; Estudo de viabilidade para substituicao do chuveiro eletrico por aquecedores a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]. E-mail: cbermann@iee.usp.br; Monteiro, Jorge Venancio de Freitas [Companhia de Gas de Sao Paulo (COMGAS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: venanciocomgas@uol.com.br

    2000-07-01

    The hydropower natural resources for generation of electrical energy at the south part of Brazil has been extinguished at the last years and as a consequence large investments should be made in order to attend the electrical energy demand at this part of country. These paper purposes a comparison between the use gas water heater and the traditional electrical shower largely applied at the Brazilian residences. It will be focused not only the consumer point of view but also the construction enterprise position as well as the advantages for the overall country due to this substitution. (author)

  9. Development of an Ultra-Low-Cost Solar Water Heater: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-487

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-17

    NREL and RhoTech will collaborate to bring long-lived, ultra-low-cost, high-performance solar water heaters (SWH) to market readiness. An existing RhoTech design uses seam-welded polymer thin films to make an unglazed thermosiphon, and this design will be modified to improve durability through ultraviolet and overheat protection, and to improve performance by adding a glazing to the collector. Two generations of the new glazed systems will be tested in the field, resulting in a robust market-ready SWH design that can be installed for under $1,000 without rebates.

  10. Development of Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater Performance Test Rig%空气源热泵热水器性能测试系统实验台的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘笑笑; 丁强

    2015-01-01

    为了满足空气源热泵热水器性能测试的需要,基于对空气源热泵热水器原理、工作特点、热工测试技术、工业控制技术、上位机编写技术等基础,严格参照空气源热泵热水器的相关国家标准设计了一套空气源热泵热水器性能测试系统。该系统不仅能自动计算出被测空气源热泵热水器的性能参数,且具有良好的人机交互界面、可操作性强、性能可靠等优点。%In order to meet the needs of the air source heat pump water heater performance test,according to the work-ing principle of the air source heat pump water heater,working characteristics,thermal testing technology,industrial control technology,computer technology and other related technology,strictly according to the air source heat pump water heater national standards to design a set of water heater performance of air source heat pump test system,it can calculate the performance parameters of the tested air source heat pump water heater automatical y.

  11. Energy Efficient Shower Bath-gas Water Heater With Heat Recovery%燃气热水器淋浴节能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文赋

    2000-01-01

    Shower bath is a main factor in domestic hot water consumption. An energy efficient strategy—a gas water heater shower bath with heat recovery is presented. Based on detailed analysis of the various indices, it is concluded that the system is able to recover up 40% of the heat energy while the water heater capacity requirement is decreased and the comfort within the bath space is improved.%针对淋浴是生活热水的主要消耗对象,提出了一种“燃气热水器-淋浴房”的节能型淋浴系统.通过对淋浴时各种参数指标的分析比较,证明这种系统可以有效地回收热量,并因此降低淋浴时对热水器的需用功率,同时可以使淋浴环境的舒适性能得到更佳保障.

  12. 二氧化碳家用热泵热水器试验研究%Experimental study on CO2 house-hold heat pump water heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李廷勋; 王冬; 钟家淞; 黄逊青

    2013-01-01

    CO2 is one of the research focuses in the refrigeration field due to its environmental protection and unique thermodynamic properties. The hermetical CO2 compressor for house-hold appliance is a big challenge because of its high pressure. In order to verify the superiority of CO2 application in the heat pump water heater and test the operation law of the system, a new CO2 heat pump water heater prototype with hermetical compressor developed in China was tested. Keeping the inlet water 15-50 ℃ and the outlet hot water 65-90 ℃ ,the key characters such as the heating capacity, COP and the exhaust temperature with different evaporating temperature, inlet and outlet water temperature, and exhaust pressure were measured. The results show that the CO2 heat pump water heater can steadily provide hot water above 90℃, having obvious advantages in heating at high temperature. The system can still run smoothly when the evaporation temperature is - 20 ℃, showing better advantages in heating at low temperature.%CO2因为环保及独特的热力学优势,一直是制冷空调领域的研究热点,然而由于其工作压力较高,用于家用热泵热水器的全封闭式CO2压缩机开发较困难.为了验证CO2在热泵热水器上应用的优势以及研究其系统的运行规律,以国产全封闭式CO2压缩机为基础,设计并搭建了空气源CO2热泵热水器测试系统,在进水温度15-50℃,出水温度65-90℃范围内,测试了不同进、出水温度、不同蒸发温度以及不同排气压力条件下,热泵系统的制热量、COP以及排气温度等关键特征,发现CO2能够稳定提供90℃以上热水,在高温制热上优势明显.同时,即使在蒸发温度为-20℃,系统仍然能够平稳运行,表现出较好的低温运行优势.

  13. Transparent electric convection heater

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, A.; Luck, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    An optically transparent electrically heated convection heater for use as a space heater in homes, offices, shops. Typically, said convection heater consists of a transparent layer 1 upon which is deposited a layer of a transparent electrically conductive material 2 such as indium-tin-oxide, electrodes 3 and 3a are formed on opposite edges of the transparent electrically conductive layer 2 and electrical wires 4 and 4a are connected to the electrodes. The transparent electrically conductive l...

  14. The Electronic Thermostatic Water Heater Technology Research and Testing%电子恒温热水器技术研究与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      本文基于目前国内电热水器市场背景和需求,通过电子恒温热水器技术研究与试验过程,较详细地介绍了电子恒温热水器设计目标、总体结构、装配工艺、工作原理、主要功能、控制面板操作指引,以及性能检验方法和检验结果,为推进项目实施做好了先期技术准备工作。%Summary: Based on the background and demands of the domestic electric water heater market at pres-ent, with electronic thermostatic water heater technology research and testing process, in detail the article in-troduces the design objectives, overall structure, the assembly process, the working theory, the main func-tion, control panel operating instructions, and performance test methods and test results, and it has done the early preparatory work to promote the implementation of the project.

  15. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Coit, William George [Bellaire, TX; Griffin, Peter Terry [Brixham, GB; Hamilton, Paul Taylor [Houston, TX; Hsu, Chia-Fu [Granada Hills, CA; Mason, Stanley Leroy [Allen, TX; Samuel, Allan James [Kular Lumpar, ML; Watkins, Ronnie Wade [Cypress, TX

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  16. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  17. 基于4P理论的太阳能热水器农村市场营销策略分析%Analysis on Solar Water Heaters Marketing Strategy of the Rural Based on the 4P Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建成

    2011-01-01

    As a green product,there is a huge market opportunity for solar water heaters in the countryside.This paper analyzes the rural market potential of solar water heaters,combined with McKinsey 4P marketing theory,and proposes marketing strategy of developing the rural market for the solar water heater business.%作为一种绿色环保产品,太阳能热水器在农村市场存在巨大的商机。文章分析了太阳能热水器的农村市场潜力,并结合麦肯锡的营销4P理论,从产品、价格、促销和渠道四个方面提出了太阳能热水器企业开拓农村市场的营销策略。

  18. The equivalent enthalpy drop theory calculation of the ejector heaters applied for low-pressure feed water heater system of thermal power unit%引射式加热器替代低压回热系统等效焓降分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳; 冉景煜

    2011-01-01

    There is much exergy loss in low-pressure feed water heater system of the thermal unit.The thermo-economic characters by the equivalent enthalpy drop method while the low-pressure heater was replaced with the ejector heater.At the same time,the thermo-economic characters formulas for the different factors were also gotten.Based on these results,the thermo-economic changing features were analyzed for the low pressure heaters replaced with the ejector heaters of the N600-165/535/535 units,and the results were compared with the normal heat balance method.The results show that the ejector heaters can reduce the exergy loss efficiently,and the thermo-economic effects is the best for replacing the all low-pressure heaters with the ejector heaters,and its efficiency can be increased by 0.263%.The given equations of this paper can be used for analyzing the thermal economic effects.%火电机组低压回热系统中的面式加热器普遍存在较大损。应用等效焓降方法,深入分析采用引射式加热器替代面式低压加热器下机组热经济性的变化,并得到各个变化因素的数学计算式。在此基础上,对N600-165/535/535型机组低压回热系统进行实例计算,并与常规热平衡法计算进行了比较,结果表明:引射式加热器替代面式低压加热器,可以有效减小损,替代全部四级面式低压加热器,可使机组经济性提升最大,达0.263%;文中分析推导得出的计算表达式可用于机组热经济性分析计算。

  19. Thermal storage heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, K.H.; Broadbent, J.T.

    1991-02-27

    A storage heater, providing heat by radiation, comprises an internal circuit for the passage of heated air. The heater comprises: a heat storage core, comprising heat storage rods heated by resistance wiring, and an air space around the rods, the air space forming an inner pathway of circuit; heat insulation around the core; and outer pathways adjacent outer walls of the heater. A damper is arranged at the top of the inner and outer pathways to control the communication between. The damper may be movably supported on a support part by robust bi-metallic strips wound with heater wires to control the bending of the strips. The storage heater may be supplied in kit form for the purchaser to assemble and to this end the heat storage rods may comprise particulate material poured into tubes, or liftable core units. Further heat insulation may be selectively positioned in the outer pathways to provide an even heat distribution. (author).

  20. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Keinath, Christopher M. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Garrabrant, Michael A. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  1. Near-surface heater experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, L.D.; Cuderman, J.F.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Lappin, A.

    1978-12-31

    Full-scale near-surface heater experiments are presently being conducted by Sandia Laboratories in the Conasauga Formation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and in the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purposes of these experiments are: (1) to determine if argillaceous media can withstand thermal loads characteristic of high level waste; (2) to provide data for improvement of themomechanical modeling of argillaceous rocks; (3) to identify instrumentation development needed for further in situ testing; and (4) to identify unexpected general types of behavior, if any. The basic instrumentation of these tests consists of a heater in a central hole, surrounded by arrays of holes containing various instrumentation. Temperatures, thermal profiles, vertical displacements, volatile pressurization, and changes in in situ stresses are measured in each experiment as a function of time, and compared with pretest modeling results. Results to date, though in general agreement with modeling results assuming conductive heat transfer within the rock, indicate that the presence of even small amounts of water can drastically affect heat transfer within the heater hole itself, and that small amounts of upward convection of water may be occurring in the higher temperature areas of the Conasauga experiments.

  2. Explosives tester with heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  3. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  4. Controller of heat pump water heater based on WinCE%基于WinCE的热泵热水机控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宇明; 姜周曙; 黄国辉; 徐平

    2011-01-01

    针对目前市场上大型热泵热水机控制器价格高、硬件模块多及远程监控性能不足等问题,研制了一种基于ARM9和WinCE操作系统的热泵热水机控制器.以S3C2410A和STM32F103VC为硬件平台核心,设计了人机交互单元和数据采集控制单元;以嵌入式Windows CE 5.0为操作系统,利用EVC开发应用软件,并重点阐述了系统结构、各主要模块的硬件电路及工作原理和应用程序的设计方法及编程要点.实际应用结果表明,该控制系统操作简便、功能完善、性能稳定,控制精度达到了使用要求.%Aiming at high cost,more hardware modules and the poor performance of remote monitoring of large heat pump water heater controller in the current market,a new heat pump water heater controller based on ARM9 and WinCE operating system was developed. Human-computer interaction,data acquisition and control unit were designed,taking S3C2410A and STM32F103VC as the cores of hardware platform. Application software was developed using EVC under Windows CE 5.0 embedded operating system. And the overall structure of the controller, the working principle of main modules and the method of applications design and programming essentials were elaborated. Practical application result indicates that the control system is easy for operation,has perfect function and stable in performance,and the control precision meets the requirements of needs.

  5. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  6. 关于燃气热水器在高海拔地区使用的试验分析%Test Analysis on the Gas Water Heater Used in High Altitude Locality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李罗标; 潘泽林

    2015-01-01

    海拔高度对燃气热水器运行存在重要的影响,结合高原实地试验统计数据分析了燃气热水器在高原地区的热负荷、热效率、燃烧烟气、排烟温度等方面的变化及影响因素。%Altitude has important effect on the operation of gas water heater. Combined with the statistical data from the tests in plateau, this paper analyzes the changes and influence factors of heat load, heat efficiency, combustion smoke, exhaust smoke temperature and other related aspects of gas water heater in high altitude locality.

  7. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Heater-Type Appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziller, T.

    One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum (see CE 027 767), this course covers minor and major heater-type appliances. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Irons, (2) Roasters, (3) Space Heaters, (4) Water Heaters, (5) Electric Ranges, and (6) Gas Ranges. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience…

  8. CO2热泵热水器的实验室评估%Laboratory Assessment of CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周子成

    2015-01-01

    本文叙述一台带有室外热交换器的变速CO2热泵热水器的实验室测定结果。测试包括在室外环境温度为-8.3℃至35℃下进行的标准24小时和第1小时的额定等级试验的热泵效率;室外机的噪声水平测定;和对输送水量测定以及室外机组在10℃环境条件下运行时的高效率淋浴水量测定。%This paper describes the results of a CO 2 Heat pump water heaters test with an outdoor heat exchang-er.The project conducted lab tests of a variable -speed, CO2 refrigerant HPWH with the heat exchanger located in the outdoor unit.The testing plan included observing heat pump efficiency at a range of outdoor ambient temperatures from -8.3℃to 35℃; conducting the standard 24-hour and 1-hour rating tests; measuring outdoor unit noise levels; and quantifying the number of efficient showers delivered with the outdoor unit operating at 10℃ ambient conditions.

  9. 空气能热泵热水机不锈钢内胆焊接工艺优化研究%Optimization of Stainless Steel Tank Welding Procedure in Air-source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树清; 余文鹏

    2015-01-01

    The stainless steel tank in air-source heat pump water heater was an container which bear pressure and heat. It is the key component of the air-source heat pump water heater and suffered sever environment at working condition. Welding joint corrosion is the Achilles' heel of stainless tank service life at existing welding procedure. This condition restricted air-source heat pump water heater putting into use and popularize widely. Optimization of stainless steel tank welding procedure in air-source heat pump water heater has been applied several aspect and enhance the service life obviously.%空气能热泵热水器保温水箱的不锈钢内胆是一个承压承热的容器,是热水机产品的关键构件,其工作环境较为恶劣。在现有的焊接工艺条件下,不锈钢内胆的各个焊缝处的腐蚀失效是整个水箱寿命的短板,严重影响了空气能热泵热水机这种新型的节能减排产品的使用和发展。因此对空气能热泵热水机的焊接工艺作了几个方面的优化调整,使得不锈钢内胆的使用寿命得到了较大幅度的提高,取得了良好的效果。

  10. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... develop a thermal or mechanical seal to minimize the recirculation of water due to thermal convection... from calibrated thermocouple wire taken from a single spool. Extension wires to the recording...

  11. The Fuzzy-PID Control Method for Temperature of Gas-fired Water Heater Based on Dahllin Algorithm%基于大林算法的燃气热水器温度Fuzzy-PID控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜福银

    2012-01-01

    Based on the mathematical model of gas-fired water heater temperature control system, proposed using Dahlin algorithm and Fuzzy-PID controllers to handle the pure delay inertial link of gas-fired water heater temperature control system. Through the detailed design process of Dahlin Fuzzy-PID controller and the example simulations of the gas-fired water heater temperature control system, the control method proposed in this paper has better robust property and higher susceptibility, which is foundation for more study.%在燃气热水器温度控制的数学模型基础上,提出利用大林算法来处理燃气热水器温度控制系统纯滞后的惯性环节,利用Fuzzy-PID算法实现给定燃气流量的控制.通过对大林控制器的详细设计过程和对燃气热水器温度控制系统的实例仿真可以看出,该控制方法具有良好的鲁棒性和较高的灵敏度,这为以后进一步研究奠定了基础.

  12. Design for solar-tracking dual-axis water heater of wall hanging type%一种基于墙体安装的双轴跟踪太阳能热水器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈金荣; 熊志刚

    2011-01-01

    针对普通太阳能热水器一般只能安装屋顶、新型平板太阳能热水器固定安装有效采光面积的余弦效应导致太阳能利用效率偏低等问题,提出了一种基于墙体壁挂式安装、全自动跟踪太阳能热水器的设计方案,以适应各种楼层用户的使用,且能在较小的面积获得较大的太阳能能量.对基于安装方式的跟踪原理、系统的整体设计、安全性设计做了全面详细的介绍.在实验论证的基础上,得出该设计方案有效地提高了太阳能的利用效率的结论.%It proposes a new design of wall hanging automatic solar-tracking water heater since ordinary solar water heater could only be installed on the roof and the efficiency of utilizing solar energy for new flat-panel solar water heater is low because of cosine effect of light area caused by fixed installation and so on.While the new designed heater to be hanged on wall can receive more solar energy in a smaller area, that is suitable for households at all floors.The tracking principles ,system design,and design for safety has been expounded based on mounting means.The design based on testing experiment has been approved to enhance the utilizing efficiency of solar energy effectively.

  13. Numerical simulation and experimental research on aeroacoustics of steam-water j et mixing heater%喷管式汽水混合加热器气动噪声数值模拟与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟湘; 夏冰; 连晶红; 尹业彬

    2016-01-01

    热交换器是供热系统乃至动力系统中常见的重要设备之一,其中汽水混合加热器是一种直接将蒸汽与水混合以加热水的热交换装置。利用宽频噪声源模型对喷管式汽水混合加热器进行气动噪声数值模拟,获得了加热器的声场分布。在相同工况下实验测量了加热器表面噪声声压级,模拟值与实验值相比,误差为4.6%,说明宽频噪声源模型在模拟混合加热器表面噪声声压级方面有较好的精度,对喷管式汽水混合加热器的降噪改进设计具有重要的参考价值。%Heat exchanger is one of the common and important equipment of heating systems and power systems.Steam-water mixing heater is a kind of heat transfer equipment,which heats water by directly mixing water and steam.The broadband noise source model was applied to numerically simulate the aeroacoustics of j et pipe steam-water mixing heater in this paper and accoustic field distribution was obtained.The surface accoustic pressure level of the heater was also measured experimentally under the same conditions.The error of the numerical predictions compared to the measurments is within 4.6%.It reveals that broadband noise source model has the better accuracy in respect of simulating the surface sound pressure level of mixing heater,which has an important reference value for improving the design of noise reduction of the j et pipe steam-water mixing heater.

  14. Research on a Household Dual Heat Source Heat Pump Water Heater with Preheater Based on ASPEN PLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a dual heat source heat pump bathroom unit with preheater which is feasible for a single family. The system effectively integrates the air source heat pump (ASHP and wastewater source heat pump (WSHP technologies, and incorporates a preheater to recover shower wastewater heat and thus improve the total coefficient of performance (COP of the system, and it has no electric auxiliary heating device, which is favorable to improve the security of the system operation. The process simulation software ASPEN PLUS, widely used in the design and optimization of thermodynamic systems, was used to simulate various cases of system use and to analyze the impact of the preheater on the system. The average COP value of a system with preheater is 6.588 and without preheater it is 4.677. Based on the optimization and analysis, under the standard conditions of air at 25 °C, relative humidity of 70%, wastewater at 35 °C, wastewater flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, tap water at 15 °C, and condenser outlet water temperature at 50 °C, the theoretical COP of the system can reach 9.784 at an evaporating temperature of 14.96 °C, condensing temperature of 48.74 °C, and preheated water temperature of 27.19 °C.

  15. Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

    1980-06-01

    A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

  16. A New Type of Complex System of Solar Energy Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater%一种新型的太阳能——空气源复合热泵热水器系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军军

    2011-01-01

    基于太阳能热利用技术、空气源热泵热水器理论,介绍了一种将太阳能与空气源相结合的双热源热泵热水器系统。该系统可充分利用太阳能加热生活用热水,辅以空气源热泵来满足太阳辐射照度不足时的用热水需求,同时用太阳能辅助加热来解决低温环境下空气源热泵运行工况恶劣的问题。系统充分利用了低品位的太阳能,保证稳定性,又可提高夏季阴雨天气、过渡季节及冬季太阳能热水器的热水温度,对于节约能源和环境保护具有重要意义。%Based on the technology of solar thermal and the theory of air-source heat pump water heater, a combined water heater system about solar and air source heat pump was introduced. The system Could make full use of solar energy to heat domestic hot water, combined with air-source heat pump to meet the shortage of solar irradiance when the hot water demand, and the auxiliary heating with solar energy to solve the problems of air source heat pump operating conditions in low temperature. The system took full use of the low-grade solar energy, and stability could be assured. And it could improve the temperature of the water in solar water heaters in rainy summers, transition seasons and winters. The system had significance for energy conservation and environmental protection.

  17. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  18. Design of Control System of Parallel Solar Assisted Heat Pump Water Heater%并联式太阳能热泵热水器控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建成; 吴永明; 苗文凭

    2012-01-01

    阐述了并联式太阳热泵热水器是最易受推广使用的太阳能热泵热水器类型;针对23目前并联式太阳能热泵热水器存在的集成化控制问题,分析了并联式太阳热泵热水器控制系统的控制要求,采用水位、温差与时间相结合的控制方法,以ATmega48单片机为核心,研究了控制系统的工作原理、硬件结构及控制数据流程;系统能够根据天气、水温等不同情况自动选择太阳能机组或空气能热泵机组来制取热水,并且具有主要设备的故障自诊断功能、压缩机延时保护功能及智能化霜功能,提高了该热水器的稳定性和低温制热效率;测试结果表明:使用该集成系统后,系统平均能源利用率提高了约23%.%Among all the solar assisted heat pump water heater, the paralle type is the most easily promoted. According to the integrated problem that exists in the control of the parallel solar assisted heat pump water heater, on the basis of analyzing requirements of the control system of the parallel solar assisted heat pump water heater, the control method associating with water-level, difference in temperature and time is applied. The realization principle, hardware structure and controlling data flow of the control system are studied based on AT-mega48. The system can select automatically solar-energy or air-energy heat -pump to make hot water according to weather and water temperature. Combined with the functions of fault self -diagnosis for key facilities, delay protection for compressor and automatically defrosting, the control system can improve the stability and thermal efficiency of the water heater under the low temperature. The results show that 23%of the average energy efficiency have been improved by using the integrated control system.

  19. 分体承压阳台壁挂式太阳热水器的热性能分析%Thermal performance of solar water heater hanged on balcony wall with separate pressure bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁祥; 高文峰; 刘滔; 林文贤

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis has been conducted on an indirect forced circulation solar water heater which is hanged on the balcony wall with separate pressure bearing, a mathematical model was established for this heater, and experiments and calculations have been carried out to obtain the useful heat, daily average thermal efficiency, transient thermal efficiency, heat loss coefficient of the heater, etc., under clear day conditions in winter in Kunming, China. The results show that the thermal performance of such a solar heater is superior, it meets the requirements of the national standards and the residential water usage, and is suitable for utilization integrated with buildings; Solar radiation is the most profound parameter to dictate the thermal performance of the heater; The insulation performance of the storage tank with separate pressure bearing is superior. Nevertheless, the results also demonstrate that further studies are needed to explore in-depth the temperature stratification in the heat storage tank.%通过对在昆明地区搭建的一种间接式强制循环分体承压阳台壁挂式平板型太阳热水器的分析,建立了热水器系统的数学模型,并对冬季晴天天气情况下的得热量、平均日效率、瞬时效率、贮热水箱热损系数、系统平均热损因数等热水器热性能参数进行了多天测试和分析.结果表明,这种太阳热水器的热性能良好,符合家庭生活用水的要求,适合与建筑进行一体化设计;太阳辐照量是影响太阳热水器热性能最显著的因素;分体承压立式贮热水箱的保温性能良好,但还需继续对这种贮热水箱的温度分层情况作进一步研究.

  20. Substrate heater for the growth of epitaxial silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Matthew; Varhue, Walter; Adams, Edward; Lavoie, Mark

    1999-03-01

    The single wafer processing of epitaxial Si films requires that special attention be paid to the design of the substrate heater assembly. This document describes the evolution and testing of an in situ heater used to deposit epitaxial Si films at temperatures as high as 700 °C. One problem encountered was the production of excessive levels of ultraviolet radiation which contributed to the desorption of water vapor from the vacuum chamber walls during the in situ cleaning process. A second problem involved the formation of a molybdenum containing film that poisoned epitaxial growth. A final proven in situ heater design is presented which avoids these problems.

  1. 基于微热管阵列的平板太阳能热水器的性能试验%Performance experiments for flat plate solar water heater based on micro heat pipe array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓月超; 全贞花; 赵耀华; 王林成; 叶三宝

    2013-01-01

      为了检验一种新型平板太阳能热水器的性能,该文对其核心部件—基于微热管阵列的集热器及其组成的热水器进行了热性能试验.集热器热性能测试结果表明,微热管阵列平板太阳能集热器瞬时效率的斜率为4.7,截距为0.80,分别优于国家标准要求值11.0%和22.3%.在满足测试要求的天气情况下,对微热管阵列平板太阳能热水器进行的多次热性能测试结果表明,热水器的日有效得热量均高于国家标准要求值,日平均集热效率均高于60%.同时,该热水器具有承压能力强、无炸裂、轻巧、成本低、无需焊接、抗冻性能好、易于建筑一体化等优势.基于微热管阵列的平板太阳能热水器由于性能优异,并能克服现有太阳能热水器的缺点,具有广阔的应用前景.%A novel flat plate solar water heater based on the micro heat pipe array (MHPA) was invented, and the experiments were carried out on the MHPA heat collector and water heater to test their thermal performance. Owing to its distinctive structure, the MHPA has good heat transfer ability, high reliability, high compressive strength and low cost. The structure and character of the novel collector with MHPA as the high-efficiency heat transfer element are as follows. First, the contact surface between the absorber and the MHPA is so large that the heat resistance is smaller than the traditional one, thus its thermal transfer capability is greatly improved. Second, the condenser section of the MHPA is connected closely to the heat exchanger with dry type. The heat pipes do not contact with water, which precludes scaling and leakage in the collector. Third, the MHPA uses low freezing points of the refrigerants, which makes the collector more suitable for extremely cold areas. Fourth, the MHPA is made of aluminum instead of copper, which could reduce the fabrication cost significantly. Fifth, the unique heat exchanger could exclude water easily

  2. Low Cost Solar Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Bostic

    2005-12-16

    This project was directed by NREL to pursue development of an all polymer solar thermal collector. The proposed design utilized a dual sheet thermoform process to coincidentally form the absorber as well as the containment structure to support the glazing. It utilized ventilation to overcome stagnation degradation of the polymer materials.

  3. Design of Thermal Performance Test Facility for Domestic Solar Energy Water Heater%家用太阳能热水器热性能测试台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘业凤; 张斌; 赵惠麟

    2015-01-01

    The development of thermal performance test facility for domestic solar water heater is introduced .This test board consists of power cabinet ,water treatment equipment and six testing beds .This facility can test the energy efficiency grades of domestic solar energy water heaters according to the national standard GB26969‐2011 Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems Minimum Allowable Values and Energy Ef ficiency .Experimental results show that the test facility can meet the requirements of the above standard .%介绍了家用太阳能热水器热性能测试台的设计方法。该测试台由动力柜、水处理设备和6个工位构成。该测试台可按照国家标准GB26969-2011《家用太阳能热水系统能效限定值及能效等级》对家用太阳能热水器进行能效等级测试。实验结果证明,该测试台满足上述测试标准的要求。

  4. 直热式热泵热水器冷凝器结构优化试验研究%Experimental Research on Structure Optimization of Condenser of Directly-heated Type Heat-pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛瑞萍

    2015-01-01

    搭建了空气源热泵热水器试验台。在标准工况下,分别比较了普通套管式冷凝器,3套管式冷凝器和板式冷凝器对热泵系统运行性能的影响。结果表明,板式换热器在热泵热水器系统中换热性能大大优于另外两种常规换热器,其性能系数达到4.1,比使用其他两种冷凝器性能系数提高20%左右。试验结果为如何提高热泵热水器性能提供了依据。%The air source heat pump water heater test rig was set up. Under the standard operating conditions, the influence of the ordinary casing type condenser, the 3 tube condenser and the plate condenser on the operating perfor-mance of the heat pump system are compared. The results show that the plate heat exchanger in heat pump water heater system in heat transfer performance is much better than other two conventional heat exchangers. Its coefficient of per-formance reached 4.1, which higher than the performance coefficient of other two condensers increased by about 20%. The experimental results provided the basis for improving the performance of the heat pump water heater.

  5. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  6. Analysis of Leak and Plugging Condition for Feedwater Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansul; Kang, Yeon Kwan; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seok Yoon; Oh, Seung Hwan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Tube damage in feedwater heater occurs from damaged pressure boundary, inflow of foreign substances, erosion and corrosion. Once a heat tube is damaged, the water jet from the damaged spot is spread out to surrounding tubes. Since a feedwater heater is operated under 2-phase flow condition and has physically complicated structure, it cannot be approached on shell side. Therefore, test and inspection to check tube degradation is relatively difficult. Even though tube leak does not affect surrounding tubes, it obviously affects efficiency of turbine cycle and reduces economic feasibility in the long run. For this reason, systematic management is required on thermal performance for feedwater heaters. In this paper, PEPSE (Performance Evaluation of Power System Efficiency), one of the generic-purpose power plant simulation program, was used to construct a heat balance model for turbine cycle. The model was used to analyze the effect of change in key variables related to thermal performance of feedwater heater on turbine cycle, thereby preparing a thermal performance management strategy for feedwater heaters. Study was conducted on 6 units that represent each reactor type among domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation, but this paper described the results of high pressure feedwater heaters in a Korean standard NPP, which shows high possibility of tube damage due to large shell-tube pressure difference. In this paper, the heat balance models for turbine cycle were constructed as a part of effort to develop the thermal performance management system for feedwater heaters in NPPs.

  7. R32用于泳池热泵热水器的性能实验探究%Research on the Performance of R32 in Heat Pump Water Heaters for Swimming Pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      本文对R22、R410A和R32用于泳池热泵热水器中的性能进行了理论分析和实验验证。结果表明,在相同的工况下,R32在热泵热水器中作为R22的替代物制热能力提高约9.4%,水循环一次循环出水温度提高0.3℃。 R32在热泵热水器领域的应用具有十分广阔的前景。%This paper provides theoretical calculations and experiments to test the performances of R32, R410A and R22 in heat pump water heaters. The results show that under the same working condition, the heat-ing capacity of R32 is about 9. 4% higher than that of R22;temperature rise of water circle in R32 prototype in-creases 0. 3℃ than that of R22. In a word, R32 is a promising alternative to R22 in heat pump water heater.

  8. 不同结构的平板式阳台壁挂太阳能热水系统性能分析%Performance analysis of balcony hanging flat panel solar water heaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立峰; 孙艺霞; 张敏; 何茂涛; 杨荣昆

    2012-01-01

    We perform comparative tests for vertical and horizontal flow solar collectors. We further calculate and comparatively analyze the heat performance of these two water heaters. Results show that the horizontal flat panel solar water heater is superior to the vertical one in instantaneous efficiency, average daily efficiency, daily useful energy and warming performance.%针对竖直式和水平式两种流道结构的集热器进行对比试验,根据相关参数对两种热水系统的热性能进行了计算和对比分析,结果表明水平式流道的平板热水系统在瞬时效率、El平均效率、El有用得热量和升温性能4个方面均优于竖直式流道的平板太阳能热水系统。

  9. Correct selection and technology points of maintaining environmentally friendly and efficient solar water heater insulation%正确选用及维护环保型高效保温太阳能热水器的技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马昭键; 林成刚; 陆俊行

    2013-01-01

    我国在国际上太阳能热水器使用量最大,这对太阳能光热产业的发展有重要的促进作用。文章结合新开发的环保型高效保温太阳能热水器的特点,对太阳能热水器选购、安装、使用、维护的技术性探讨具有较大的社会意义。%China uses the largest solar water heater in the world. It has an important role in promoting solar thermal industry. In combination with newly developed environmentally and efficient solar water heater insulation characteristics, it has important social significance to do the research for the solar water heater purchase, installation, use, maintenance technical.

  10. Thermal behavior of a porous electric heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji, M.; Al-Nimr, M.A. [Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-03-01

    The performance of a proposed porous electric heater is investigated. The porous heater exchanges heat with the working fluid through its large volumetric surface area. As a result, it produces lower surface temperature as compared with the conventional heater for the same imposed heating power. Two mathematical models are presented to describe the thermal behavior of both heaters. Axial diffusion is included in the governing equation of the solid conventional heater. The predictions of both models are compared at different operating conditions where it is found that porous heaters have much better thermal performance than the conventional heaters. (author)

  11. Heater head for stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  12. Experimental Study on Performances of Heat Pump Water Heater Based on Heat Recovery of Domestic Wastewater%生活浊水热泵热水器性能的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敏东; 金苏敏

    2011-01-01

    针对目前生活、洗浴热水的需求不断上涨以及生活洗浴热水废水热存在巨大浪费的现状,介绍了一套新型的回收废水热的热泵热水器及其主要的设备构成.通过对该试验机组进行相关的试验研究,得到组合分离式热管蒸发器废热回收热量与污水质量流量、污水进口温度的变化关系;热泵平均制热量与污水质量流量、污水进口温度变化关系;压缩机吸排气压力及其功率随出热水温度的变化曲线;出热水温度与时间的变化曲线;系统能效比随出热水温度的变化,其平均能效比达到了3.01.与传统的电热水器、燃气热水器以及电辅助加热的热水器产品相比更节能环保.%In order to solve the present situation of unceasing demand for hot water and severe loss of quantity of heat from wastewater, a new type of heat pump water heater was developed based on heat recovery of domestic wastewater. In this paper, the relation curves of waste heat recovery of combined separate heat pipe evaporator, average heating capacity of heat pump, power of compressor, suction and discharge pressure of compressor, outlet temperature of hot water, and energy efficiency ratio of system are investigated experimentally. The average EER of system reaches 3.01, which shows that this type of heat pump water heater is more energy-efficient compared with traditional electric and gas water heater.

  13. Statistical Modeling of Controllable Heat Pump Water Heaters Considering Customers' Convenience and Uncertainty and its Application to Frequency Control in Power System with a Large Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Gunjikake, Yasutoshi; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Tada, Yasuyuki

    Nowadays, electric power systems confront many problems, such as environmental issues, aging infrastructures, energy security, and quality of electricity supply. The smart grid is a new concept of a better future grid, which enables us to solve the mentioned problems with Information and Communication Technology (ICT). In this research, a number of Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs), one of the energy efficient-use customer equipment, and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) are considered as controllable equipment for the frequency control. The utilization of customer equipment such as HPWH for power system control is one of the key elements in the concept of Ubiquitous Power Grid, which was proposed by our research group as a smart grid in Japanese context. The frequency control using a number of HPWHs with thermal storage of hot water tank is evaluated. Moreover, a novel statistical modeling of controllable HPWHs taking into account customers' convenience and uncertainty is proposed.

  14. 环保型高效保温太阳能热水器主要部件的设计%The design of Major component of Environmentally Efficient insulation solar water heaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马昭键; 谢刚; 陆俊行

    2013-01-01

    人们专注于太阳能热水器集热管的高效集热及保温技术的开发,而易忽视储水及送水过程中尤其是储水箱热的损失以及保温层加工中氟利昂问题和报废后聚氨酯保温层“白色污染”的处理。文章针对目前这些问题以及南方地处亚热带和阴天、雷雨气候较多的问题,介绍了环保型高效保温太阳能热水器的集热管、储水箱等主要部件的筛选设计,以及据此设计制造的整机实验效果。%People focus on solar water heater collector tube solar collector efficiency and insulation technology development, Obviousness ignored during storage and bottled water, especially hot water tank insulation layer processing losses and problems and scrapped Freon polyurethane insulation layer of"white pollution"processing. This article is aiming at these problems and the southern subtropical and cloudy, thunderstorm climate. This paper introduces environmentally friendly and efficient insulation collector tube solar water heater, storage tanks and other major components of the screening design, as well as the design and manufacture of the machine accordingly experimental effect.

  15. Retrofitting Conventional Electric Domestic Hot Water Heaters to Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses—Model Validation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Bernardo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available System cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. In this study, the TRNSYS simulation models of the retrofitting solar thermal system were validated against measurements. Results show that the validated models are in good agreement with measurements. On an annual basis a deviation of 2.5% out of 1099 kWh was obtained between the auxiliary energy from results and from the simulation model for a complete system. Using the validated model a system optimization was carried out with respect to control strategies for auxiliary heating, heat losses and volume of auxiliary storage. A sensitivity analysis was carried out regarding different volumes of retrofitted hot water boiler, DHW profiles and climates. It was estimated that, with adequate improvements, extended annual solar fractions of 60%, 78% and 81% can be achieved for Lund (Sweden, Lisbon (Portugal and Lusaka (Zambia, respectively. The correspondent collector area was 6, 4 and 3 m2, respectively. The studied retrofitted system achieves a comparable performance with conventional solar thermal systems with the potential to reduce the investment cost.

  16. Experimental Study on the Transient Thermal Performance of A Heat Pump Water Heater with Dehumidify Function%具除湿功能的空气源热泵热水器动态性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭辉平

    2009-01-01

    A new type Heat Pump Water Heater with dehumidify function built by us were introduced. Many experiments under different application models were carried out. The experimental results indicated that the system could be established to satisfy with not only hot water supply but also dehumidification requirements simultaneously under the related national standards. When it was operated as a dehumidifier, its dehumidification capacity could achieve 1.2kg/h, which was the limit of nation standard GB/T 19411-2003. Moreover, the system operated as heat water heater was tested under two surrounding conditions, one was dry bulb temperature 20℃/ wet bulb was 15℃, and another is dry bulb temperature 25℃/ wet bulb 20℃. The results showed its coefficient of performance (COP) was 3.33 and 3.60 respectively. The device was estimated to cost just 26% of electric heater when they supply the same thermal energy, so it has the unique superiority in the energy conservation and function%介绍了设计的具有除湿功能的热泵热水器,通过焓差试验室对该系统的多种运行模式进行了试验研究.试验研究的结果表明:该系统在运行独立除湿模式时,其除湿性能可达到国家标准要求的性能指标(1.60kg/h·kW).在两种测试工况下(工况1:室外环境干球温度为20℃、湿球温度为15℃;工况2: 室外环境干球温度为25℃、湿球温度为20℃)运行独立供热模式,其系统COP分别可达到3.33、3.60.该装置相较于传统电热水器,在节能与功能方面均具有独特的优势.

  17. 蓄能型太阳能热泵热水器性能系数的分析%Coefficient of performance of solar heat pump water heater with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴薇; 卫梁彦; 程清; 王玲珑

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem that solar heat pump water heater was prone to be affected by weather, a novel water heater integrated with collection, storage and evaporation was proposed. The principle, characteristics, operating modes and structure of the collector-storage-evaporator system were investigated. Using phase change material of decanoic acid to store solar radiation in sunny days as low-temperature source, hot water was produced at night or in continuous rainy days. Thermal efficiency of heat pump system was increased significantly, and the operating unstableness of the heat pump system caused by interval solar energy was also solved. Experiments under different conditions and operating modes in spring were conducted, and the coefficient of performance ( COP) of the system was analyzed. The results indicate that COP of this novel solar heat pump water heater with energy storage is higher than that of ordinary solar heat pump water heater at the same weather condition. The average COP of this system is 7. 56 with maximum of 8. 9 for average solar radiation of 592 W·m-2. COP can also reach 6.4 even at night, which means that weather has slight influence on COP.%针对太阳能热泵热水器受天气变化影响的问题,提出了一种新型的集热-蓄能-蒸发一体化太阳能热泵热水器,给出了系统的原理、特点、运行模式和集热-蓄能-蒸发器的结构形式,以癸酸为相变材料储存晴天的太阳辐射能,作为热泵在夜间和连续阴雨天时的低温热源制得热水,提高了热泵的制热效率,解决了太阳能间歇性所造成的系统运行不稳定的问题.进行了春季不同工况、不同工作模式的试验,分析了系统的性能系数COP,得出该系统的平均COP为7.56.太阳辐射强度均值为592 W·m-2的天气条件下,COP可达8.9;即使在夜间,COP仍能达到6.4,均高于相同天气条件下普通太阳能热泵热水器的COP,该系统的COP受天气变化影响较小.

  18. 真空管式太阳热水器得热量的实验研究%Experimental study of heat gained of evacuated tube solar water heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超; 秦朝葵; 马飞; 杨贤潮

    2011-01-01

    The thermal performance of one evacuated tube solar water heater was tested, and the energy equation has been obtained by the least-squares fitting method. The error and sensitivity analysis has been done to provide guidance for the design of experiment.%对某型号真空管式太阳热水器进行多天的热性能测试,采用最小二乘法拟合出太阳热水系统能量方程系数,求出该型号太阳热水器的能量方程,同时进行误差和敏感性分析,指导试验设计.

  19. 欧盟空气源热泵(静态)热水器生态设计测试研究%Study of the Test about Ecodesign of Air Source Heat Pump (Static) Water Heater in European Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁丹; 臧松彦

    2015-01-01

    本文结合法规EU No.812/2013、 EU No.814/2013和标准EN 16147:2011对空气源热泵热水器的ERP测试方法和要求进行分析和总结,并提出测试过程中的各个注意事项,以便读者更好了解新法规对热泵能效的测试要求。%This paper analyzed and summarized the ERP test of Air source heat pump water heater, with the code of EU No.812/2013, EU No.814/2013 and the standard of EN 16147: 2011, and brought forward notice of the test, for the reader knowing more about the energy efficiency test of heat pump.

  20. Operation and Management of Water-jacket Heater in Yulin and Zizhou Gas Field%榆林和子洲气田水套加热炉的运行与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青; 田喜军; 韩东兴; 高亮; 常霞

    2016-01-01

    榆林气田南区和子洲气田使用的水套加热炉在运行过程中,逐渐暴露出腐蚀结垢严重、进加热炉单井管线布局不合理和燃烧系统缺少熄火保护等问题,造成加热炉壁厚减薄甚至穿孔、热效率降低以及安全隐患突出.针对上述问题,通过现场调研、分析日常管理漏洞,采用腐蚀监测、试剂防腐、安装隔氧除尘装置和电子除垢仪等措施,降低了加热炉在各层的腐蚀速率,使其低于国家行业标准(0.076 mm/a);对加热炉定期清洗除垢以及合理调整进加热炉单井管线,提高了加热炉的能效,可节约燃料气5%~15%;在加热炉燃烧系统中增设熄火联锁保护,预计可将炉膛熄火引发的安全事故发生概率从10-3/a降低至10-5/a,降低加热炉的运行风险.%The water-jacket heaters installed in Yulin and Zizhou gas field have the problem of serious corrosion and scaling, unreasonable pipelines arrangement, lack of flameout pro-tection, which results in thinner wall and even perforations, lower energy efficiency, and high security risks. To solve the above problems, effective measures have been taken based on the field investigation and management analysis. By using methods of corrosion monitor-ing,corrosion inhibitor injection,oxygen isolators and electronic scalers installation,corro-sion rates of the heaters have reduced under national industry standard (0.076 mm/a). To enhance the heaters energy efficiency, regular chemical cleaning and gas pipelines rearrange-ment have been taken,which can save fuel gas of 5%~15%. Moreover,through flameout in-terlock protection installation, the contingency occurrence probability caused by flameout can be reduced from 10-3/a to 10-5/a.

  1. Quench Heater Studies for the LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Mateos, F

    2001-01-01

    About 2000 LHC (CERN's Large Hadron Collider) superconducting magnets will be protected with quench heaters against development of excessive voltage and overheating after a resistive transition. The quench heater strips are powered by capacitor bank discharge power supplies. The strips are made of stainless steel partially plated with copper to reduce their resistance and to allow for the connection of quench heaters in series. The strips are embedded in between two polyimide foils. The initial power density and the current decay time determine the quench heater effectiveness. Since only one type of heater power supply will be available, the copper plating cycle is adapted for the various magnet types to keep the resistance of the heater circuit constant. Different quench heater designs have been tested on various prototype magnets to optimise the copper-plating cycle and the electric insulation of the heater strip. This paper summarises the experimental results and computations that allowed to finalise the h...

  2. The performance of porous electric heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Nimr, M.A.; Naji, M.

    2003-03-01

    The performance of a proposed porous electric heater is investigated. The porous heater exchanges heat with the working fluid through its large volumetric surface area. As a result, it produces lower surface temperature as compared with the conventional heater for the same imposed heating power. Two mathematical models are presented to describe the thermal behavior of both heaters and the predictions of both models are compared at different operating conditions. (author)

  3. 14 CFR 27.833 - Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heaters. 27.833 Section 27.833 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Heaters. Each combustion heater must be approved. Fire Protection ...

  4. 14 CFR 29.833 - Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heaters. 29.833 Section 29.833 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Heaters. Each combustion heater must be approved. Fire Protection ...

  5. Heater-Integrated Cantilevers for Nano-Samples Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Toffoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and characteristics of a micro-system for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA in which heater, temperature sensor and mass sensor are integrated into a single device are presented. The system consists of a suspended cantilever that incorporates a microfabricated resistor, used as both heater and thermometer. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to define the structure parameters. TGA sensors were fabricated by standard microlithographic techniques and tested using milli-Q water and polyurethane microcapsule. The results demonstrated that our approach provides a faster and more sensitive TGA with respect to commercial systems.

  6. Failure Analysis of Water Box of NPP High Pressure Heater%核电站高压加热器水室隔板穿孔原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊; 张维; 刘忠; 张忠伟; 刘春波; 郑玉贵

    2012-01-01

    某核电站在运行8年以后,高压加热器水室隔板发生腐蚀穿孔.本文从失效有关的因素如水室结构、水室用材料和水化学等入手,分析了发生穿孔的原因,同时采用有限元方法分析流体相关因素,得出发生失效的原因是流动加速腐蚀.%After 8 years operation, a clapboard in water box of high pressure heater experienced perforation corrosion in a nuclear power plant. The structure, water chemistry and material of the water box are analyzed so that to trace out the mechanism of corrosion failure. In the meanwhile, the finite element method is used to ascertain the factors influencing corrosion failure. At last, the reason for failure is given, which is flow accelerated corrosion.

  7. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, James Louis

    2010-03-09

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  8. Starch gelatinization in coiled heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelder, J D H; Ptasinski, K J; Kerkhof, P J A M

    2004-01-01

    A gelatinizing model food derived from a 5% w/w cross-linked waxy maize starch suspension was simulated in coiled heaters to assess the impact of centrifugal forces on flow and heat transfer. For four coil diameters (D = 0.25, 1, 2.5, and infinity m) and three flow rates (w = 0.5, 1, and 2 m/s), heat transfer, viscous development, and the severity of channeling were evaluated. Increasing curvature proved to suppress channeling as a result of more uniform heating and gelatinization. The maximum attainable viscosity was also higher, implying a lower starch consumption for a target viscosity. Higher flow rates necessitated longer heaters, and the maximum viscosity decreased. Moderate product velocities are therefore recommended.

  9. REFINED METHOD OF COMPUTING MODES OF OPERATING OF CAPACITY-TYPE SOLAR HEATERS OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuratschii Vl.V.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The refined method procedure of thermal modes of solar heaters of water of the capacity type, based on use of an electro-thermal equivalent circuit and a method of central potentials is presented.

  10. Experimental characteristics of vortex heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piralishvili, Sh. A.; Novikov, N. N.

    The performance of a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is investigated experimentally for the case where the tube operates as a heater, with the mass of the heated gas remaining constant. The results obtained indicate that energy separation zones with sufficiently high (50 percent) relative heating effects can be achieved for a gas flow ratio of unity. A nomogram is presented for calculating the relative and absolute heating effects as a function of the tube geometry.

  11. Graphite/Epoxy Deicing Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Dillehay, Michael E.; Stahl, Mark

    1988-01-01

    Heat applied close to surface protected. One ply of highly electrically- and thermally-conductive brominated-graphite fiber composite laminated between two plies of electrically-insulating composite material, with michel foil making contact with end portions of graphite fibers. Part of foil exposed beyond composite to serve as electrical contact. Graphite/Epoxy composite heater developed to prevent and reverse formation of ice on advanced composite surfaces of aircraft.

  12. 基于STC89C52的红外遥控智能太阳能热水器控制系统%An Infrared Remote Intelligent Control System for Solar Water Heater Based on STC89C52

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽丽; 赵建平

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of solar energy water heater existed in current solar water heater, such as complex circuit, high cost, protection function, easy to occur pipeline cracking due to freezing, easy to cause fire due to heater-belt, and complicated operation, this paper designs an infrared remote control system for solar water heater, the system chooses STC89C52 as main central processor to control temperature and water level, and uses ADC0832 for dual channel A/D chip, externally connecting clock chip DS1302 and relay executive circuit. And some measures, such as automatic water-feeding, automatic emptying, infrared remote control, are adopted to solve the current problems. The experiment proves the feasibility of the system.%针对现在的太阳能热水器普遍存在如:电路复杂、成本较高、不具有防护功能、易引起管道冻裂、伴热带容易引起火灾、操作繁琐等的问题,文章设计了红外遥控太阳能控制系统,系统选用STC89C52作为系统主要中心处理器进行温度和水位的控制,采用ADC0832为双通道A/D芯片,外接DS1302时钟芯片和继电器执行电路。采用自动上水、自动排空、红外遥控等解决了目前存在的问题,实验证明此系统方案准确可行。

  13. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh S Karimov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were also included in the calculations. The biogas digester consisted of a methane tank with built-in solar reverse absorber heater to harness the radiant solar energy for heating the slurry comprising of different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc.. The methane tank was initially filled to 70% of its volume with organic wastes from the GIK institute’s sewage. The remaining volume was filled with sewage and cow dung from other sources. During a three month period (October-December, 2009 and another two month period (February-March, 2010, the digester was investigated. The effects of solar radiation on the absorber, the slurry’s temperature, and the ambient temperature were all measured during these investigations. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung in the slurry resulted in retention times of four and two weeks, respectively. The corresponding biogas produced was 0.4 m3 and 8.0 m3, respectively. Finally, this paper also elaborates on the upgradation of biogas through the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapour, and also the process of conversion of biogas energy into electric powerABSTRAK: Kajian ini membentangkan rekabentuk, fabrikasi dan penyelidikan tentang pencerna biogas dengan pemanas solar ringkas. Sebagai pemanas solar, ia dilengkapkan dengan penyerap pemanas beralik. Suhu maksimum(50oC di dalam tangki metana telah diambil sebagai parameter utama rekabentuk pencerna. Dengan menggunakan

  14. Experimental investigation of the performance of an elbow-bend type heat exchanger with a water tube bank used as a heater or cooler in alpha-type Stirling machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ehwany, A.A.; Hennes, G.M. [Mech. Power Dept., Faculty of Eng., Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Eid, E.I. [Mech. Dept., Faculty of Ind. Education, Suez Canal University, Suez 43515 (Egypt); El-Kenany, E. [The Specialized Studies Academy, Workers University, Tech. Dept., Mansura (Egypt)

    2011-02-15

    In this work the effect of the elbow-bend geometry and the effect of the tube arrangement on the performance of air-to-water heat exchanger is studied experimentally. In elbow-bend heat exchanger, the direction of the working fluid is bended at 90 degrees to its inlet direction. The heating or cooling fluid flows inside straight tubes while the working fluid flows past the tubes along an elbow pass. Three different types of the geometry of the elbow with three different tube bank arrangements were studied. The results were plotted and analyzed to clarify the effects of the elbow-bend geometry, the tube bank arrangements and the dead volume in the heat exchanger on the heat transfer and pressure drop. Two empirical correlations were deduced for each design, one to predict the relation between Nusselt and Reynolds numbers, while the other relation is between the friction factor and Reynolds number. This work was done to select the more suitable design to be used as a heater or a cooler in Stirling machines. (author)

  15. Building America Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4, LaFayette, Georgia (CZ4), and Savannah, Georgia (CZ2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  16. 电话远程控制智能家用电热水器控制器设计%Design of intel l igent water-heater control ler by using a remote telephone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱应国

    2014-01-01

    The system can remotely control household electric water-heater by using a telephone or mobile phone.It mainly consists of STC89C52 single chip,DTMF decode chip MT8870,voice chip ISD4004.The system can directly switch electrical appliances,and automatic voice prompt.Users can use it when they go out to cause someone to illusion at home,so it can improve the home furnishing safety.Have been ex-tended,it can also remotely control air conditioning,lights,electric rice cookers,televisions and other ap-pliances.%一种利用电话或手机远程控制家用电热水器系统,该系统主要由 STC89 C52单片机、DT-MF解码芯片MT8870、语音芯片ISD4004组成。该系统可以直接开关电器,并且有自动语音提示功能,用户外出时可用此远程控制系统来造成有人在家的假象,提高居家安全。该系统扩展后,还可以远程控制空调、电灯、电饭煲、电视机等其他电器。

  17. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  18. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied

  19. 一体化太阳能热泵热水器运行特性的实验研究%Experimental Study on the Operating Characteristics of Solar Heat Pump Water Heater Integrated With Collector, Storage and Evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫梁彦; 王玲珑; 吴薇

    2011-01-01

    A novel solar heat pump water heater integrated with collector, storage and evaporation (SHPWHICSE) is presented and analyzed. By adding phase-changing materials into the collector/storage/evaporator, the solar energy can be absorbed and storied as latent heat. Calculating the storied energy according to temperature variation of the phasechange material which is chosen as paraffin, the result is that the storied energy can meet the heat load of this system. Solar got efficiency of this system is defined and compared with the direct expansion solar heat pump water heater. Experimental studies of SHPWHICSE with 150L water heating capacity are done at typical weather conditions in spring. The results indicate the system's COP is 5.63 on sunny days. Although on overcast or rainy days, the system's COP can reach 4. 13. Moreover, solar radiation intensity's unstable change has little influerace on the solar got efficiency and COP. Therefore, SHPWHICSE can be operating highly efficiently and stably at various weather conditions for domestic hot water.%介绍并研究了一种新型集热/蓄能/蒸发一体化太阳能热泵热水器系统(SHPWHICSE).该装置将真空管集热器、蓄能容器和蒸发器集于一体,通过相变潜热吸收并储存大量太阳能.根据相变材料(石蜡)在吸、放热过程中温度的变化计算蓄热量,确定相变材料中储存的热量能够满足系统热负荷.定义了一体化太阳能热泵系统的得热效率,并和直膨式太阳能热泵热水器得热效率进行比较.在春季典型工况下对容量为150L的SHPWHICSE进行实验研究,结果表明:晴天工况下,系统COP可达5.63;即使阴雨天,COP也可达4.13;太阳辐射强度的不稳定变化对热泵系统得热效率和COP的影响不大.因此,该系统在各种天气条件下都可以高效稳定地制取生活热水.

  20. SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An exploratory study was performed to assess the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emission rates from unvented kerosene space heaters. A well-tuned radiant heater and maltuned convective heater were tested for semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emiss...

  1. Input/output test results and long-term performance prediction of a domestic thermosiphon solar water heater in Algiers, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerrouki, A.; Said, N.; Tedjiza, B. [CDER, Route de l' Observatoire BP, Algiers (Algeria); Boumedien, A. [USTHB, Algiers (Algeria). Institut de Genie-Mecanique

    2002-01-01

    Experimental tests have been conducted following the recommended CSTG guidelines in outdoor conditions, in order to evaluate a thermosiphon Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. This thermosiphonic solar system tested represents a good sample of various characteristics for SDHW systems manufactured by the Algerian industry. Heating of water utilising solar energy is a well-known and established technology in many parts of Algeria. With increasing number of solar heating systems on the market, a need was felt to adopt a standard testing and rating procedure for them. The introduction of test procedures should provide an equitable basis for competition amongst manufacturers and an essential criterion for design and selection of the equipment. (author)

  2. Three-dimensional temperature field in a line-heater embedded by a spiral electric resistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, S.Y.; Wei, P.S.; Wang, Z.P. [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

    2006-06-15

    In this study, three-dimensional temperature fields induced by AC and DC through a spiral electric resistor in a line-heater are numerically investigated. Electric heaters have been widely found, for example, in houses as dryers, stoves, and water heaters, and in industrial and research institutions as elements of equipments. The line-heater in the present model is realistically considered to have multiple regions composed of a spiral electric resistor, electrically insulated region, covering outer layer, and two terminal pins with distinct thermal and electrical properties. Solving unsteady three-dimensional heat conduction equations in distinct regions, the surface temperatures predicted as a function of time in this model are confirmed by the measured data. The calculated results quantitatively show that high surface temperatures of the heater can be reached by increasing dimensionless joule heat parameter, radius of the spiral electric resistor or pins, thermal diffusivity of the insulation region, and decreasing Biot number and radius of insulation region. The effects of the pins on surface temperature are also studied. Aside from showing that DC produces higher temperature than AC, the results indicate that the effects of current frequency on temperature fields are insignificant. The findings can be generalized to a curved heater, because any local location can be considered as a small line-segment. The present work provides general and quantitative data valuable for designing an efficient heater/furnace. [Author].

  3. "Starfish" Heater Head For Stirling Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, N.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed "starfish" heater head for Stirling engine enables safe use of liquid sodium as heat-transfer fluid. Sodium makes direct contact with heater head but does not come in contact with any structural welds. Design concept minimizes number of, and simplifies nonstructural thermal welds and facilitates inspection of such welds.

  4. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-28

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  5. 基于ANSYS Workbench的太阳能热水器支架优化设计%Optimization Design of Solar Energy Water Heater's Support Based on ANSYS Workbench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静敏; 范云霄

    2011-01-01

    The mechanics analysis model of solar energy water heater's support was set up. Using special CAE software ANSYS Workbench, setting the target of getting minimum maximum equivalent stresses, and taking the location of connecting rode as variable, the paper proceeded analysis comparing and optimization design, to assure the optimal plan of the support and reasonable location of the connecting rode. The three dimensional model of the support was finished by Design modeler in AWE, with the help of this modeling, proceeding the meshed dividing adding restricted loading in design simulation and based on it,proceeded the stress strain of the support in the static condition parallely. At last the optimal design was completed in DesignXplorer.%建立了某型号太阳能热水器安装支架力学分析模型,并针对其2种改进方案,利用专业大型CAE软件ANSYSWorkbench,以最大等效应力最小为优化设计目标,以增加的连接杆的位置为设计变量,进行了分析对比和优化设计,确定了该支架的优化方案及连接杆最合理的位置.在AWE环境下Design Modeler模块中对支架进行三维建模;借助于这个模型,在AWE的Design Simulations模块中进行网格划分和约束载荷的施加;在此基础上并行地对支架进行了静力条件下的应力应变求解,最后在DesignXplorer完成优化设计.

  6. 太阳能热水器与住宅建筑一体化案例分析%A case study of integration of solar water heaters and residential construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏琰琰; 门艳红

    2011-01-01

    太阳能热水器与建筑一体化设计的具体实施和操作有利于提高建筑设计水平,促成建成环境的经济灵活性.适应建筑一体化的太阳能热水器技术在行业中发展迅速,技术的支持为太阳能热水器与建筑一体化设计提供了可能性.本文界定了太阳能热水器与住宅建筑一体化的定义及其设计方法,通过对热水器系统及机器本身的各项技术参数进行对比,作为选择依据和数据参照,业已建成的建大花园项目在具体实施的过程中,将建筑一体化的实现从造型、结构和设备三方面进行探讨,并分析验证了其措施的可行性和实际的建成效果.%The integration of solar water heaters (SWH) and residential construction can enhance the architectural quality and the economic viability of the built environment. SWH technology development of building-integrated applications is one of the fastest growing areas in the SWH industry. Application to apartment buildings in Jianda Districts is used as an example to demonstrate the whole building integration approach. Project parameters of the system and the equipment are analyzed. The realization of building integration is explored from the aspects of shape, structure & equipment, and the thermal performance and the built environment is discussed.

  7. 温和地区阳台壁挂式平板型太阳能热水器水量配比优化%Optimization of tank-volume-to-collector-area ratio for balcony wall-mounted flat-plate solar water heater in mild region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏生贤; 胡粉娥; 晏翠琼

    2016-01-01

    基于温和地区9城市的典型气象数据,利用所建数学模型对阳台壁挂式平板型太阳能热水器的水量配比和太阳能保证率进行了计算,并讨论了方位角对水量配比的影响。结果显示,南向阳台壁挂式太阳能热水器春、夏、秋、冬4季和全年水量配比的取值范围分别为28~51、21~41、31~53、37~57和31~47 kg/m2。为便于应用,给出了南向阳台壁挂式太阳能热水器季均和年均水量配比与倾角间相关系数大于0.99的线性回归关系式。对于非南向阳台壁挂式太阳能热水器,季均和年均水量配比的方位角因子随方位角的增大而逐渐减小。倾角为60°~90°、方位角为10°~90°时,季均和年均水量配比的方位角因子分别位于0.57~1.00和0.72~1.00之间。方位角分别小于20°和30°时,方位角对冬季水量配比和春、夏、秋3季及年均水量配比的影响约为5%;方位角分别小于30°和40°时,方位角对上述水量配比的影响约为10%。进一步讨论发现,温和地区南向阳台壁挂式太阳能热水器的年均太阳能保证率位于0.55~0.70之间,推广应用潜力较大。%Solar water heaters are widely used in urban and rural China. The Home Appliances to the Countryside program from government further expands its application in rural areas. In the end of 2010, there were 168 million square meters of installed solar heaters, with an annual primary energy saving of 20 Mtce. The total installation is very likely to reach 250 million square meters in 2015 and at least 600 million square meters in 2020. In the 2009 Copenhagen UN Climate Change Summit, president Hu Jintao pledged to the international community to reduce the CO2 intensity of the economy by 40% to 45% by 2020 on the baseline level of 2005. Meanwhile, the share of non-fossil energy is also expected to rise to 15%. Application of solar water heaters will help to achieve this goal. The

  8. Effects of heated seat and foot heater on thermal comfort and heater energy consumption in vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Hajime; Yanagi, Kotaro; Tabata, Koji; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    Subjective experiments involving 12 different conditions were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal sensation and thermal comfort. The experimental conditions involved various combinations of the operative temperature in the test room (10 or 20°C), a heated seat (on/off) and a foot heater (room operative temperature +10 or +20°C). The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. The room operative temperature at which the occupants felt a 'neutral' overall thermal sensation was decreased by about 3°C by using the heated seat or foot heater and by about 6°C when both devices were used. Moreover, the effects of these devices on vehicle heater energy consumption were investigated using simulations. As a result, it was revealed that heated seats and foot heaters can reduce the total heater energy consumption of vehicles. Statement of Relevance: Subjective experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal comfort. The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. These devices can reduce the total heater energy consumption in vehicles.

  9. Natural Convection of Nanofluids in a Square Enclosure with a Protruding Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guiet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a numerical study on natural convection from a protruding heater located at the bottom of a square cavity filled with a copper-water nanofluid. The vertical walls of the cavity are cooled isothermally; the horizontal ones are adiabatic, and the heater is attached to the bottom wall. The heat source is assumed either to be isothermal or to have a constant heat flux. The effective viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nanofluid are modeled according to Brinkman and Patel, respectively. Numerical solutions of the full-governing equations, based on the lattice Boltzmann method, are obtained for a wide range of the governing parameters: the Rayleigh number, Ra; the Prandtl number, Pr; the geometrical parameters specifying the heater; the volume fraction of nanoparticles, Φ. For a particular geometry, it has been found that, for a given Ra, heat transfer is enhanced with increasing Φ, independently of the thermal boundary condition applied on the heater.

  10. Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Waste heat from co-generation systems are usually recovered by hot water or steam, those are used to drive absorption refrigerators at cooling time, and those are used for heating via heat exchangers at heating time. However waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to absorption chiller-heaters. In the first report we studied cooling cycle, and this second paper, we evaluated various absorption heating cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption chiller-heaters, and adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine. Also, we experimented with the prototype for wide range condition and got the heating characteristics. Based on the experimental data, we developed a simulation model of the static characteristics, and then studied how to increase the output by limited exhaust gas.

  11. Design of high-pressure direct contact heater for promising power supply units: Experimental substantiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, E. V.; Shvarts, A. L.; Turkin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The results of experimental studies of superheated steam condensation on feed water jets in a highpressure, direct-contact heat exchanger are presented. Direct contact feed water heater (DCFWH) can be used in a dual-flow diagram of a steam-power unit with ultrasupercritical steam parameters (35 MPa, 700/720°C). The direct contact feed water heater is included in the flow diagram of the II circuit in a promising power unit; it provides feed water heating to 340°C in all maintenance and emergency operation modes of the unit. The reliability of the high-pressure direct contact heater operation in this flow diagram is of major importance in relation to the danger of lead solidification in the tube space of the steam generator. Technical requirements to the design of the high-pressure direct contact heater for increasing the heat exchange efficiency are formulated based on the results of earlier studies with steam-water mixture as the heating medium. The results of studies of superheated steam condensation on jets presented in this study testify that feed water is additionally heated to the required temperature at the output of the installation. The influence of initial feed water parameters (outflow velocity and temperature) on the jet heating length is elucidated. The numerical approximation of the experimental data for determination of the jet heating length in the nominal and partial power unit loads is obtained. The results of the calculations are used to simplify the design of the water-supplying element for the direct contact feed water heater. The proposed design of direct contact feed water heater is characterized by simplicity and low metal intensity, which provides the installation reliability at the considered pressure level due to the minimum number of structural elements.

  12. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    OpenAIRE

    Kh S Karimov; Muhammad Abid

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C) inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tan...

  13. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  14. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15... Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be designed...) Each fired thermal fluid heater must be fitted with a control which prevents the heat transfer...

  15. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thermal units per hour) or greater. (ii) A boiler or process heater into which the vent stream is... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment...

  16. 46 CFR 63.25-5 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 63.25-5 Section 63.25-5... heaters. (a) Construction. Fired thermal fluid heaters must meet the requirements of part 52 of this chapter, as applicable. (b) Controls. Fired thermal fluid heaters must have a low fluid level...

  17. Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Ginestra, Jean Charles (Richmond, TX)

    2011-07-26

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

  18. Slat Heater Boxes for Thermal Vacuum Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Slat heater boxes have been invented for controlling the sink temperatures of objects under test in a thermal vacuum chamber, the walls of which are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. A slat heater box (see Figure 1) includes a framework of struts that support electrically heated slats that are coated with a high-emissivity optically gray paint. The slats can be grouped together into heater zones for the purpose of maintaining an even temperature within each side. The sink temperature of an object under test is defined as the steady-state temperature of the object in the vacuum/ radiative environment during the absence of any internal heat source or sink. The slat heater box makes it possible to closely control the radiation environment to obtain a desired sink temperature. The slat heater box is placed inside the cold thermal vacuum chamber, and the object under test is placed inside (but not in contact with) the slat heater box. The slat heaters occupy about a third of the field of view from any point on the surface of the object under test, the remainder of the field of view being occupied by the cold chamber wall. Thus, the radiation environment is established by the combined effects of the slat heater box and the cold chamber wall. Given (1) the temperature of the chamber wall, (2) the fractions of the field of view occupied by the chamber wall and the slat heater box, and (3) the emissivities of the slats, chamber wall, and the surface of object under test, the slat temperature required to maintain a desired sink temperature can be calculated by solving the equations of gray-body radiation for the steady-state adiabatic case (equal absorption and emission by the object under test). Slat heater boxes offer an important advantage over the infrared lamps that have been previously used to obtain desired sink temperatures: In comparison with an infrared lamp, a slat heater box provides a greater degree of sink temperature uniformity for a test

  19. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  20. Note: Improved wire-wound heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm(2) and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  1. Note: Improved wire-wound heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G.; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm2 and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  2. Conasauga near-surface heater experiment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, J.L.

    1979-11-01

    The Conasauga Experiment was undertaken to begin assessment of the thermomechanical and chemical response of a specific shale to the heat resulting from emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Canister-size heaters were implanted in Conasauga shale in Tennessee. Instrumentation arrays wee placed at various depths in drill holes around each heater. The heaters operated for 8 months and, after the first 4 days, were maintained at 385/sup 0/C. Emphasis was on characterizing the thermal and mechanical response of the formation. Conduction was the major mode of heat transport; convection was perceptible only at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Despite dehydration of the shale at higher temperatures, in situ thermal conductivity was essentially constant and not a function of temperature. The mechanical response of the formation was a slight overall expansion, apparently resulting in a general decrease in permeability. Metallurgical observations were made, the stability of a borosilicate glass wasteform simulant was assessed, and changes in formation mineralogy and groundwater composition were documented. In each of these areas, transient nonequilibrium processes occur that affect material stability and may be important in determining the integrity of a repository. In general, data from the test reflect favorably on the use of shale as a disposal medium for nuclear waste.

  3. A rhetorical investigation of energy-related environmental issues and a proposed modeling of variables influencing the employment of domestic solar water heaters with a focus on mobilizing information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Lilla Gayle

    how the variables and information identified in the rhetorical investigation might be actualized in the construction of messages related to a particular consumer energy behavior, the proposed modeling of variables is used as a framework for a heuristic experimental study. This experimental study is designed to test the influence of one particular variable found at the beliefs level---action strategies and skills, or mobilizing information---on consumers' attitudes and intentions to behave toward a specific energy-related topic, the employment of domestic solar water heaters.

  4. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  5. Effect of Position of Upper Connecting Pipe on the Tank on Thermal Performance of Domestic Solar Water Heaters with a Vertical Storage Tank and Flat-plate Collectors%上循环管位置对平板型家用太阳能热水器性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海威; 高文峰; 林文贤; 刘滔; 李泽东

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the domestic solar water heater with a vertical storage tank and a flat-plat collector,which is commercially available and popular in the market,was experimentally in-vestigated.Firstly, natural circulation experiment platform of flat plate domestic solar water heater was set up.The effect of two different positions of upper connecting pipe on temperature variation in the water tank during the heating stage in the daytime and thermal performances was measured.Through the analysis of test data,The difference of temperature stratification in the water tank with upper connecting pipe at high position and at low position were studied re-spectively.Also the instantaneous efficiency in 10 minutes was defined and compared.The results showed that there was better temperature stratification in the water tank when it’s upper con-necting pipe at high position during heating stage.In addition,the instantaneous efficiency of so-lar water heater,which water tank with upper connecting pipe at high location under the natural circulation condition was superior to the water tank with upper circulation pipe at low position.%对一种常见的平板型立式储热水箱家用太阳能热水器进行试验分析。搭建了自然循环平板型家用太阳能热水器的实验平台。测量了两种不同位置的上循环管对白天加热阶段储热水箱温度变化及对热性能的影响,通过测试数据分析对比了高、低位上循环管循环时,水箱内温度变化、分层状况,定义了十分钟内的平均效率,并进行了比较。结果表明:储热水箱升温阶段采用高位上循环管的水箱内部出现较好的水温分层;高位上循环管热水器的自然循环瞬时效率比低位上循环管热水器的瞬时效率高。

  6. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  7. Dielectric Heaters for Testing Spacecraft Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert; Bitteker, Leo; Godfroy, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A document proposes the development of radio-frequency-(RF)-driven dielectric heaters for non-nuclear thermal testing of the cores of nuclear-fission reactors for spacecraft. Like the electrical-resistance heaters used heretofore for such testing, the dielectric heaters would be inserted in the reactors in place of nuclear fuel rods. A typical heater according to the proposal would consist of a rod of lossy dielectric material sized and shaped like a fuel rod and containing an electrically conductive rod along its center line. Exploiting the dielectric loss mechanism that is usually considered a nuisance in other applications, an RF signal, typically at a frequency .50 MHz and an amplitude between 2 and 5 kV, would be applied to the central conductor to heat the dielectric material. The main advantage of the proposal is that the wiring needed for the RF dielectric heating would be simpler and easier to fabricate than is the wiring needed for resistance heating. In some applications, it might be possible to eliminate all heater wiring and, instead, beam the RF heating power into the dielectric rods from external antennas.

  8. A modernized high-pressure heater protection system for nuclear and thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svyatkin, F. A.; Trifonov, N. N.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Tren'kin, V. B.; Koltunov, V. A.; Borovkov, A. I.; Klyavin, O. I.

    2013-09-01

    Experience gained from operation of high-pressure heaters and their protection systems serving to exclude ingress of water into the turbine is analyzed. A formula for determining the time for which the high-pressure heater shell steam space is filled when a rupture of tubes in it occurs is analyzed, and conclusions regarding the high-pressure heater design most advisable from this point of view are drawn. A typical structure of protection from increase of water level in the shell of high-pressure heaters used in domestically produced turbines for thermal and nuclear power stations is described, and examples illustrating this structure are given. Shortcomings of components used in the existing protection systems that may lead to an accident at the power station are considered. A modernized protection system intended to exclude the above-mentioned shortcomings was developed at the NPO Central Boiler-Turbine Institute and ZioMAR Engineering Company, and the design solutions used in this system are described. A mathematical model of the protection system's main elements (the admission and check valves) has been developed with participation of specialists from the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, and a numerical investigation of these elements is carried out. The design version of surge tanks developed by specialists of the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute for excluding false operation of the high-pressure heater protection system is proposed.

  9. Hollow cathode heater development for the Space Station plasma contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulas, George C.

    1993-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor has been selected for use on the Space Station. During the operation of the plasma contactor, the hollow cathode heater will endure approximately 12000 thermal cycles. Since a hollow cathode heater failure would result in a plasma contactor failure, a hollow cathode heater development program was established to produce a reliable heater design. The development program includes the heater design, process documents for both heater fabrication and assembly, and heater testing. The heater design was a modification of a sheathed ion thruster cathode heater. Three heaters have been tested to date using direct current power supplies. Performance testing was conducted to determine input current and power requirements for achieving activation and ignition temperatures, single unit operational repeatability, and unit-to-unit operational repeatability. Comparisons of performance testing data at the ignition input current level for the three heaters show the unit-to-unit repeatability of input power and tube temperature near the cathode tip to be within 3.5 W and 44 degrees C, respectively. Cyclic testing was then conducted to evaluate reliability under thermal cycling. The first heater, although damaged during assembly, completed 5985 ignition cycles before failing. Two additional heaters were subsequently fabricated and have completed 3178 cycles to date in an on-going test.

  10. Primary helium heater for propellant pressurization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmuth, D. M.; Nguyen, T. V.; Pieper, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary helium heater is a unique design that provides direct heating of pressurant gas for large pressure fed propulsion systems. It has been conceptually designed to supply a heated (800-1000 R) pressurization gas to both a liquid oxygen and an RP-1 propellant tank. This pressurization gas is generated within the heater by mixing super critical helium (40-300 R and 3000-1600 psi) with an appropriate amount of combustion products from a 4:1 throttling stoichiometric LO2/LH2 combustor. This simple, low cost and reliable mixer utilizes the large quantity of helium to provide stoichiometric combustor cooling, extend the throttling limits and enhance the combustion stability margin. Preliminary combustion, thermal, and CFD analyses confirm that this low-pressure-drop direct helium heater can provide the constant-temperature pressurant suitable for tank pressurization of both fuel and oxidizer tanks of large pressure fed vehicles.

  11. RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS OCCURED IN HP FEED-WATER HEATERS AT A THERMAL POWER PLANT AND RESOLVING METHOD%高压加热器存在问题研究及解决方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓玲

    2001-01-01

    通过对某电厂整套引进的320 MW汽轮发电机组高压加热器不能正常投运原因的分析研究,提出了解决的方法。对其他机组的改造有一定的参考价值。%The problems occured in HP heaters of a completely imported 320 MW steam turbine-generator set are studied and analyzed,and resolving method has been proposed,having definite reference value for retrofitting other generating sets.

  12. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bed. (3) Where a boiler or process heater of less than 44 megawatts (150 million British thermal units... heaters. 63.988 Section 63.988 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters....

  13. Heater size effect on subcooled pool boiling of FC-72

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Rishi; Kim, Jungho [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on pool boiling using heaters larger than the capillary length. For large heaters and/or high gravity conditions, boiling is dominated by buoyancy, and the heat transfer is heater size independent. Much less is known about boiling on small heaters and at low gravity levels. The ratio of heater size L{sub h} to capillary length L{sub c} is an important parameter in the determination of heater size dependence on heat transfer. As the ratio L{sub h}/L{sub c} decreases due to a decrease in either heater size or gravity, surface tension forces become dominant. It is proposed that transition from buoyancy to surface tension dominated boiling occurs when the heater size and bubble departure diameter are of the same order. Previous work in variable gravity with flat surfaces has shown that the heat transfer was heater size independent only when the ratio L{sub h}/L{sub c} was considerably larger than 1. An array of 96 platinum resistance heater elements in a 10 x 10 configuration with individual elements 0.7 x 0.7 mm{sup 2} in size was used to vary heater size and measure the heat transfer. The threshold value of L{sub h}/L{sub c} above which pool boiling is heater size independent was found to be about 2.8. (author)

  14. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heater circuits. 111.70-5 Section 111.70-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-5 Heater circuits. (a) If an enclosure for a... from a separate circuit, the heater circuit must be disconnected from its source of potential by...

  15. Materials for a Stirling engine heater head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, J. E.; Lehmann, G. A.; Emigh, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    Work done on the 25-kW advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) terrestrial solar program in establishing criteria and selecting materials for the engine heater head and heater tubes is described. Various mechanisms contributing to incompatibility between materials are identified and discussed. Large thermal gradients, coupled with requirements for long life (60,000 h at temperature) and a large number of heatup and cooldown cycles (20,000) drive the design from a structural standpoint. The pressurized cylinder is checked for creep rupture, localized yielding, reverse plasticity, creep and fatigue damage, and creep ratcheting, in addition to the basic requirements for bust and proof pressure. In general, creep rupture and creep and fatigue interaction are the dominant factors in the design. A wide range of materials for the heater head and tubes was evaluated. Factors involved in the assessment were strength and effect on engine efficiency, reliability, and cost. A preliminary selection of Inconel 713LC for the heater head is based on acceptable structural properties but driven mainly by low cost. The criteria for failure, the structural analysis, and the material characteristics with basis for selection are discussed.

  16. Improving performance of electrostatic heater-theaters for light crude doped heavy crude; A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Ray, S.; Rai, R. [Institute of Oil and Gas Production Technology, New Bombay (India)

    1995-12-31

    Crude oil treatment systems for heavy oil assume paramount importance due to the difficult nature of emulsions formed and presence of water in the form of small droplets. With the aging of heavy oil fields, operating under active water drive, water content in the emulsion produced increases substantially. This has a direct impact on heater-treater performance and treated crude quality. A typical problem is discussed in this paper where the gradual increase in emulsion production over a period of time in heavy oil belts of ONGC have affected the electrostatic heater-treater performance, treating light crude doped heavy crude, resulting in increased BS&W (basic sediments and water) in the treated crude. Critical levels of water cut in both heavy and light crudes have been identified beyond which the existing emulsion treating system becomes ineffective. Analysis have also been carried out to identify optimum mixing proportion which result in the most effective demulsification.

  17. 空气源热泵在学生公寓的热水改造工程中的应用%Application of Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater to Reconstruction Project of Domestic Hot Water in Student Apartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何绪春

    2012-01-01

    The domestic water-heating system with gas-fired boiler of a college apartment in Chongqing was discussed.The reconstruction plans concerning air-source heat pump heating system and solar assisted air-source heat system were processed and discussed respectively after the analysis on daily hot water load.Compared with the original water-heating system,the annual operating costs of solar heating systems would be the lowest.%以重庆某学校采用燃气锅炉房作为热源的洗浴热水加热系统作为研究对象。对热水系统日用热量进行了分析。对原加热系统提出两种改造方案:空气源热泵加热系统、太阳能辅助空气源加热系统,探讨了这两种加热系统的系统流程,与原加热系统的年运行费用进行了比较,太阳能加热系统的年运行费用最低。

  18. Eleana near-surface heater experiment final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappin, A R; Thomas, R K; McVey, D F

    1981-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a near-surface heater experiment operated at a depth of 23 m in argillite within the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test geometrically simulated emplacement of a single canister of High-Level Waste (HLW) and was operated at a power level of 2.5 kW for 21 days, followed by 3.8 kW to 250 days, when the power was turned off. Below 85 to 100{sup 0}C, there was good agreement between modeled and measured thermal results in the rock and in the emplacement hole, except for transient transport of water in the heater hole. Above 100{sup 0}C, modeled and measured thermal results increasingly diverged, indicating that the in-situ rock-mass thermal conductivity decreased as a result of dehydration more than expected on the basis of matrix properties. Correlation of thermomechanical modeling and field results suggests that this decrease was caused by strong coupling of thermal and mechanical behavior of the argillite at elevated temperatures. No hole-wall decrepitation was observed in the experiment; this fact and the codrrelation of modeled and measured results at lower temperatures indicate that there is no a priori reason to eliminate argillaceous rocks from further consideration as a host rock for nuclear wastes.

  19. A micro solar heater for portable energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Raúl; Morrison, Graham; The, Owen; Rosengarten, Gary

    2007-12-01

    This study presents a new concept that combines microtechnology with solar thermal energy to provide a free portable energy source. A water-methanol mixture flows through an array of parallel microchannels which are fabricated into a silicon matrix using conventional micro-fabrication techniques. A vacuum layer is interposed between the channels and the external surface to thermally insulate the channels from the ambient temperature. A selective coating is deposited on one of the vacuum walls to absorb the short wavelength incoming radiation and reduce the long wavelength radiation, hence reducing the heat losses. A geometry and material optimization is still being developed in order to obtain the highest possible efficiency for the micro-heater, while keeping a low pressure drop in the micro-channels. The methanol outlet temperature is predicted to be higher than 250°C. This temperature is required for hydrogen production in a methanol reforming micro-reactor. Therefore, it is envisaged that the micro-solar heater will supply the thermal energy needed for hydrogen generation, that can later be used as fuel for microfuel cells. Both technologies can be integrated in a portable device.

  20. 全玻璃真空管式太阳热水器热性能研究(一) ——计算模型及计算结果%Thermal Performance Study on All-Glass Evacuated Tubular Water Heaters(一) ——model of calculation and results of calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋爱国

    2001-01-01

    A synthetic model of calculation which include solar radiationmodel and receiving energy model and daily efficiency model and instandaneous efficiency model are introduced for analyzing thermal performance of all-glass evacuated tubular water heaters,and results of calculation are obtained.%为了系统、全面地分析全玻璃真空管式太阳热水器(以下简称真空管式太阳热水器)的热性能,提出了包括阳光模型、真空管采集能量模型以及日平均效率、瞬时效率计算模型在内的一个综合的计算模型,并对真空管式太阳热水器的热性能进行了计算.

  1. 农户购买太阳能热水器行为的影响因素分析--基于鄱阳湖生态经济区1500户农户数据%Factors Affecting Farmers in Buying Solar Water Heaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王火根; 李娜

    2016-01-01

    以江西鄱阳湖生态经济区1500户农户的调研数据为基础,建立二元Logistic模型实证分析农户购买太阳能热水器行为的影响因素。研究结果表明:农户家庭年收入、离城镇的距离、村经济发展水平、村所在的地理环境与木柴的可获得性程度对农户购买太阳能热水器的影响显著,家庭收入来源与农户的年龄对农户购买太阳能热水器的影响不显著。为推动太阳能热水器在农村地区的广泛应用,政府应加强宣传,发展农村经济与制定有效的产业扶持政策等。%Promotion of solar water heaters can change the rural energy consumption structure,decrease the consumption of conventional energy and the dependence on traditional energy,thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions,which helps to protect rural ecological environment and improve farmers’ life quality and their living standard.This paper,with the help of Logistic model,analyzed the factors influencing farmers’use of solar water heaters based on data collected of 1500 farmers in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone. The results show that education,family income,distance from the town and village economic development level are significant positive factors while the effect of the geographical surroundings of the village and availability of wood was not significant.Besides,source of income and age are insignificant factors.

  2. Solar Air Heaters with Thermal Heat Storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy can be converted into different forms of energy, either to thermal energy or to electrical energy. Solar energy is converted directly into electrical power by photovoltaic modules, while solar collector converts solar energy into thermal energy. Solar collector works by absorbing the direct solar radiation and converting it into thermal energy, which can be stored in the form of sensible heat or latent heat or a combination of sensible and latent heats. A theoretical study has been carried out to rate the various thermal energy storage commonly used in solar air heaters. During the investigations rock bed storages have been found to be low type thermal heat storage, while phase change materials have been found to be high heat thermal storages. Besides this, a few other heat storing materials have been studied and discussed for lower to higher ratings in terms of thermal performance purposely for solar heaters.

  3. Single-heater test final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S. C.; Buscheck, T. A.; DeLoach, L. D.; Lin, W.; Ramirez, A. I.

    1998-09-01

    The Single-Heater Test (SHT) was one phase of the field-scale thermal testing program of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The primary purpose of the SHT was to study the thermomechanical (TM) behavior of the densely welded, non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff at the Exploratory Studies Facility. The SHT was also used as a shake-down for testing thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical processes in situ, testing that will be conducted in the Drift-Scale Test. In the SHT, a line-heat source 5-m long was emplaced in a pillar and used to heat the pillar for approximately nine months. The thermal field was relatively cylindrical about the line-heat source. The heater was turned off after nine months of heating, and the rock mass was monitored during the cool-down for another nine months, until May 28, 1997, when the test was terminated.

  4. Firebox modeling of SRT cracking heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, K.M.; Albano, J.V. [ABB Lummus Crest Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons remains the most economically attractive route for the production of ethylene. The heat for the endothermic cracking reaction is supplied in high capacity fired heaters which are designed specifically to have high selectivity to olefins. In the cracking process, coke is deposited within the tubes of the radiant coil. The rate of coke deposition in a cracking furnace is a function not only of process conditions but of other factors as well. High tube metal temperatures in certain areas of the coil or hot spots can cause locally high coking rate leading to partial blockage of the tubes and consequently, short runs. The small diameter tubes used in modern high selectivity heaters are more sensitive than older large tube designs. The occurrence of these hot zones is a strong function of fireside conditions. For satisfactory performance, the heat flux profile in a cracking heater must be maintained as uniform as possible. In addition, it is important to minimize the variation of process temperatures entering the various cracking coils. These fireside variables are not only a function of the type of burners, excess air, type of fuel(s) and distribution of air and fuel but depend significantly on the air and flue gas flow patterns associated with the firebox, i.e., the firebox aerodynamics. Poor aerodynamics can adversely affect firing patterns and hence heat flux profiles in commercial furnaces. A variety of modeling techniques have been used to evaluate the firebox aerodynamics of Lummus, Short Residence Time, cracking heaters. These include flow visualization, physical cold flow modeling, and computational techniques. These approaches are discussed in this paper.

  5. Development of Multi-Stage Steam Injector for Feedwater Heaters in Simplified Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu; Asanuma, Yutaka; Iwaki, Chikako

    A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater to heat up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. To develop high performance compact feedwater heater, it is necessary to quantify the characteristics between physical properties of the flow field. Its performance depends on the phenomena of steam condensation onto the water jet surface and heat transfer in the water jet due to turbulence on to the phase-interface. The analysis was conducted by using CFD code embedded separate two-phase flow models that were confirmed by the experimental data. As the four-stage SI is compact heater, the system is expected to bring about great simplification and materials-saving effects, and high reliability of its operation. Therefore, it is confirmed that the simplification of the power plant by replacing all low-pressure feedwater heaters with the four-stage SI system, having steam extraction pressures equal to those for the existing ABWR system.

  6. Heater Validation for the NEXT-C Hollow Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Timothy R.; Soulas, George C.; Mackey, Jonathan Ar.

    2017-01-01

    Swaged cathode heaters whose design was successfully demonstrated under a prior flight project are to be provided by the NASA Glenn Research Center for the NEXT-C ion thruster being fabricated by Aerojet Rocketdyne. Extensive requalification activities were performed to validate process controls that had to be re-established or revised because systemic changes prevented reuse of the past approaches. A development batch of heaters was successfully fabricated based on the new process controls. Acceptance and cyclic life testing of multiple discharge and neutralizer sized heaters extracted from the development batch was initiated in August, 2016, with the last heater completing testing in April, 2017. Cyclic life testing results substantially exceeded the NEXT-C thruster requirement as well as all past experience for GRC fabricated units. The heaters demonstrated ultimate cyclic life capability of 19050 to 33500 cycles. A qualification batch of heaters is now being fabricated using the finalized process controls. A set of six heaters will be acceptance and cyclic tested to verify conformance to the behavior observed with the development heaters. The heaters for flight use will be then be provided to the contractor. This paper summarizes the fabrication process control activities and the acceptance and life testing of the development heater units.

  7. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  8. Impact of kerosene space heaters on indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoune, B; Carteret, M

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the use of kerosene space heaters as additional or principal heat source has been increasing, because these heaters allow a continuous control on the energy cost. These devices are unvented, and all combustion products are released into the room where the heaters are operated. The indoor air quality of seven private homes using wick-type or electronic injection-type kerosene space heaters was investigated. Concentrations of CO, CO2, NOx, formaldehyde and particulate matter (0.02-10 μm) were measured, using time-resolved instruments when available. All heaters tested are significant sources of submicron particles, NOx and CO2. The average NO2 and CO2 concentrations are determined by the duration of use of the kerosene heaters. These results stress the need to regulate the use of unvented combustion appliances to decrease the exposure of people to air contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Crypto heater:a design fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Lindley, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This proposal is to exhibit the work named Crypto Heater which is part of a design fiction [c.f 1,5,8:30] series intended to explore a near future world in which cryptographic currencies such as Bitcoin [6] have become commonplace. This work opens up space for discussion about the activities of the distributed peer-to-peer network of so-called "miners" that ensure the security of the Bitcoin network and regulate the supply of new currency in the Bitcoin economy. The physical part of the work ...

  10. Status of Hollow Cathode Heater Development for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulas, George C.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor has been selected for use on the Space Station. During the operation of the plasma contactor, the hollow cathode heater will endure approximately 12000 thermal cycles. Since a hollow cathode heater failure would result in a plasma contactor failure, a hollow cathode heater development program was established to produce a reliable heater. The development program includes the heater design, process documents for both heater fabrication and assembly, and heater testing. The heater design was a modification of a sheathed ion thruster cathode heater. Heater tests included testing of the heater unit alone and plasma contactor and ion thruster testing. To date, eight heaters have been or are being processed through heater unit testing, two through plasma contactor testing and three through ion thruster testing, all using direct current power supplies. Comparisons of data from heater unit performance tests before cyclic testing, plasma contactor tests, and ion thruster tests at the ignition input current level show the average deviation of input power and tube temperature near the cathode tip to be +/-0.9 W and +/- 21 C, respectively. Heater unit testing included cyclic testing to evaluate reliability under thermal cycling. The first heater, although damaged during assembly, completed 5985 ignition cycles before failing. Four additional heaters successfully completed 6300, 6300, 700, and 700 cycles. Heater unit testing is currently ongoing for three heaters which have to date accumulated greater than 7250, greater than 5500, and greater than 5500 cycles, respectively.

  11. A novel role of three dimensional graphene foam to prevent heater failure during boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ho Seon; Kim, Ji Min; Park, Chibeom; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Hyungdae; Kaviany, Massoud; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel boiling heat transfer (NBHT) in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) suspended in water (RGO colloid) near critical heat flux (CHF), which is traditionally the dangerous limitation of nucleate boiling heat transfer because of heater failure. When the heat flux reaches the maximum value (CHF) in RGO colloid pool boiling, the wall temperature increases gradually and slowly with an almost constant heat flux, contrary to the rapid wall temperature increase found during water pool boiling. The gained time by NBHT would provide the safer margin of the heat transfer and the amazing impact on the thermal system as the first report of graphene application. In addition, the CHF and boiling heat transfer performance also increase. This novel boiling phenomenon can effectively prevent heater failure because of the role played by the self-assembled three-dimensional foam-like graphene network (SFG).

  12. Evaluation of radiofrequency dielectric heaters workers exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, M; Del Frate, S; Villalta, R

    2008-01-01

    Radiofrequency dielectric heaters (RFDH) are widely used in the woodworking industry for gluing laminates by applying pressure and RF heating. The workers operating such equipment remain in the vicinity of the machinery all day and can therefore be exposed to considerable levels of electric and magnetic field at RFs. This work describes the method used to measure the strength of fields generated by this particular machinery. This procedure is based on current methods cited in the literature and introduces the necessary modifications to meet this specific case. In particular, as there is often a scarcity of technical data available relating to such heaters, it is suggested that a spectrum analyser be used for measurements in the frequencies domain. On the basis of the data obtained the norms of reference are established, the instrumentation to be used in successive stages determined as well as the identification of possible sources of interference from spurious signals. Furthermore, a mapping of the field strengths is presented and the means of determining the decay curve as a function of distance. This last type of measurement is done to estimate the effectiveness of grounding the machinery. The report ends with an estimate of the exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields and also some recommendations for reducing risk.

  13. Parametric excitation of whistler waves by HF heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S. P.; Lee, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Possible generation of whistler waves by Tromso HF heater is investigated. It is shown that the HF heater wave can parametrically decay into a whistler wave and a Langmuir wave. Since whistler waves may have a broad range of frequency, the simultaneously excited Langmuir waves can have a much broader frequency bandwidth than those excited by the parametric decay instability.

  14. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion...

  15. Infrared transparent graphene heater for silicon photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Daniel; Mohsin, Muhammad; Sagade, Abhay A; Otto, Martin; Chmielak, Bartos; Suckow, Stephan; Giesecke, Anna Lena; Neumaier, Daniel; Kurz, Heinrich

    2016-04-18

    Thermo-optical tuning of the refractive index is one of the pivotal operations performed in integrated silicon photonic circuits for thermal stabilization, compensation of fabrication tolerances, and implementation of photonic operations. Currently, heaters based on metal wires provide the temperature control in the silicon waveguide. The strong interaction of metal and light, however, necessitates a certain gap between the heater and the photonic structure to avoid significant transmission loss. Here we present a graphene heater that overcomes this constraint and enables an energy efficient tuning of the refractive index. We achieve a tuning power as low as 22 mW per free spectral range and fast response time of 3 µs, outperforming metal based waveguide heaters. Simulations support the experimental results and suggest that for graphene heaters the spacing to the silicon can be further reduced yielding the best possible energy efficiency and operation speed.

  16. Toxic organic pollutants from kerosene space heaters in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyanpour-Rad, Mansoor

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate qualitatively the emission of toxic organic pollutants from an unventilated conventional kerosene space heater commonly used in Iran. A brand new common convective kerosene space heater, the "Aladdin," was used for this study. The well-tuned convective heater was operated in a 2.6-m(3) test chamber and then the emission was tested for organic pollutants. The emission was collected on Teflon-impregnated glass-fiber filters and XAD-2 resin and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. It was found that in addition to the ordinary pollutant gases, the heater emits aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the related nitrated compounds, phthalates, naphthalenes, and some other toxic organic compounds. However, it was found that the heater did not emit fluoranthene, cyclohexane, benzoic acid, and higher-molecular-weight alkylbenzenes, which could have resulted from the combustion of some other types of kerosene.

  17. Note: Improved heater design for high-temperature hollow cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M. S.; Gallimore, A. D.; Goebel, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    We present an improved heater design for thermionic cathodes using a rhenium filament encased in a boron nitride ceramic sleeve. This heater is relatively simple to fabricate, yet has been successfully used to reliably and repeatably light a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) hollow cathode based on a previously published design without noticeable filament degradation over hundreds of hours of operation. The high decomposition temperature of boron nitride (2800 C for inert environments) and melting point for rhenium (3180 C) make this heater especially attractive for use with LaB6, which may require operating temperatures upwards of 1700 C. While boron nitride decomposes in air above 1000 C, the heater was used only at vacuum with an inert gas discharge, and no degradation was observed. Limitations of current state of the art cathode heaters are also discussed and compared with the rhenium-boron nitride combination.

  18. Solair heater program: solair applications study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    General Electric has designed and tested a low-cost solar system using a vacuum tube solar air heater under ERDA Contract E(11-1)-2705. This contract extension has been provided to evaluate various applications of this solar collector. The evaluation identified attractive applications, evaluated corresponding control procedures, estimated system performance, compared economically insolation and insulation, and evaluated the repackaging of off-the-shelf equipment for improved cost effectiveness. The results of this study prompted General Electric's marketing group to do a detailed commercialization study of a residential domestic water heating system using the Solair concept which has been selected as the most attractive application. Other attractive applications are space/domestic water heating and a heat pump assisted solar system/domestic water heating where the heat pump and the solar system function in parallel. A prime advantage of heated air solar systems over liquid systems is cost and longer life which results in higher BTU's/dollar. Other air system advantages are no liquid leakage problems, no toxicity of freezing problems, and less complicated equipment. A hybrid solar system has been identified that can improve the market penetration of solar energy. This system would use the existing mass of the house for energy storage thereby reducing solar cost and complexity. Adequate performance can be obtained with house temperature swings comparable to those used in nighttime setback of the thermostat. Details of this system are provided.

  19. Development of an Operation Control System for Photovoltaics and Electric Storage Heaters for Houses Based on Information in Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Shin'ya

    An all-electric home using an electric storage heater with safety and cleaning is expanded. However, the general electric storage heater leads to an unpleasant room temperature and energy loss by the overs and shorts of the amount of heat radiation when the climate condition changes greatly. Consequently, the operation of the electric storage heater introduced into an all-electric home, a storage type electric water heater, and photovoltaics was planned using weather forecast information distributed by a communication line. The comfortable evaluation (the difference between a room-temperature target and a room-temperature result) when the proposed system was employed based on the operation planning, purchase electric energy, and capacity of photovoltaics was investigated. As a result, comfortable heating operation was realized by using weather forecast data; furthermore, it is expected that the purchase cost of the commercial power in daytime can be reduced by introducing photovoltaics. Moreover, when the capacity of the photovoltaics was increased, the surplus power was stored in the electric storage heater, but an extremely unpleasant room temperature was not shown in the investigation ranges of this paper. By obtaining weather information from the forecast of the day from an external service using a communication line, the heating system of the all-electric home with low energy loss and comfort temperature is realizable.

  20. Engineering analyses and design calculations of NASA, Langley Research Center hydrogen-air-vitiated heater with oxygen replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The technical basis is presented for the design of the hydrogen-air-vitiated heater. The heater liner is subjected to a maximum thermal environment at a specified condition, where the combustion gas temperature, pressure and flow rate are 5000 F, 750 psia, and 11.0 lb/sec, respectively, and results in a heat flux of the order of 275 BTU/sec-sq ft. Cooling and stress analyses indicate that water is the logical choice for cooling of the combustor liner. A mixing analysis was undertaken to establish a good combination of combustor length and injector configuration. The analysis, using a conservative analytical approach, indicates a combustor length of the order of 5 ft combined with discrete fuel and oxidizer injection at an approximate 2-1/2 inch radial combustor position, and results in uniform combustion products at the heater exit for all specified envelope conditions.

  1. 欧盟家用空气源热泵热水器能效标准测试方法的研究%The Experimental Research on the European Coefficient of Performance Testing Methods of Household Air-source Heat-pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒宏; 何林; 杨加政

    2015-01-01

    目前欧盟热泵热水器测试标准 EN 16147:2011,Heat pumps with electrically driven compressors- Testing and requirements for marking of domestic hot water units已于2011年7月开始实施,但国内的标准GB/T 23137-2008并未有相应的更改。本文将通过测试静态加热式热泵热水器来对比分析其能效测试结果相对于国标测试方法的不同,并分析出目前国内开发的主流的热泵热水器在售后使用时的真正能效是否节能,并考虑到售后使用的能效情况,提出设计热泵热水器时的优化节能方向和售后客户使用的节能注意事项。%The European standard, EN 16147:2011,Heat pumps with electrically driven compressors - Testing and requirements for marking of domestic hot water units, has been put into effect from July, 2011. However, Chinese na-tional standard is still the GB/T 23137-2008 which hasn’t made the corresponding changes. In this paper, it tests the static heating water heat pump and use its data to compare and analyze the differences of Chinese national standard and European standard, including the coefficient of performance which used by users. Furthermore, this paper points out the development direction of energy conservation of heat-pump water heater and the matters needing attention for us-ers in consideration of the coefficient of performance.

  2. Integrity Assessment of GOH Heater Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Sang; Hong, J. H.; Oh, Y. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Oh, J. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    An assessment of structural integrity of ASTM A312-TP347 GOH heater tube was performed. The surface notches which had been produced during tube manufacturing process were analyzed microscopically. Chemical analysis, hardness tests, tensile tests, and J-Integral fracture resistance tests were carried out to compare the mechanical properties with those of the material specification and also with the other material of the same type. The test results showed the mechanical properties of the GOH tube material are within the specification range. An elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis based on the DPFAD method reveals the tube an appropriate safety margin for the normal operation. 13 refs., 5 tabs., 24 figs. (author)

  3. Fluid bed solids heater. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuit, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    A solids heater which operates at up to 2000 F was designed, fabricated, installed and operated through checkout at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center at Morgantown, West Virginia. The system, designated the 2000 F Fluid Bed Solids Heater (FBSH) uses a fluidized bed to heat limestone to 600 F and aluminium oxide or silicon carbide to 2000 F and discharges heated solids upon demand. The FBSH with added valve handling and pressurization equipment is known as the Valve Hot Solids Test Unit and is intended for use by the US Department of Energy for testing of valves for severe service applications in coal conversion and utilization processes. The FBSH as designed and supplied by Combustion Power Company includes process equipment, controls, the enclosing building and other associated equipment. In the 600 F range of operation it can circulate limestone through two valve test trains simultaneously on a continuous basis. Only one valve test train is used for 2000 F solids and operation in that range is also continuous. Limestone, crushed to minus 5/16 size, is heated, discharged, and recycled at a maximum average rate of 250 lb/min while aluminum oxide or silicon carbide, No. 8 grit, is circulated at rates up to 167 lb/min. The FBSH control system is designed for automatic operation, and capability is included for external computerized data acquisition and/or supervisory control. An operating and maintenance manual and as-built drawings have been submitted. This report describes the FBSH equipment, its design basis, and its operation. It has been prepared and submitted in fulfillment of Contract Number DIAC05-77ET10499.

  4. Thermal emission of neutron stars with internal heaters

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminker, A D; Potekhin, A Y; Yakovlev, D G

    2014-01-01

    Using 1D and 2D cooling codes we study thermal emission from neutron stars with steady state internal heaters of various intensities and geometries (blobs or spherical layers) located at different depths in the crust. The generated heat tends to propagate radially, from the heater down to the stellar core and up to the surface; it is also emitted by neutrinos. In local regions near the heater the results are well described with the 1D code. The heater's region projects onto the stellar surface forming a hot spot. There are two heat propagation regimes. In the first, conduction outflow regime (realized at heat rates $H_0 \\lesssim 10^{20}$ erg cm$^{-3}$ s$^{-1}$ or temperatures $T_\\mathrm{h} \\lesssim 10^9$ K in the heater) the thermal surface emission of the star depends on the heater's power and neutrino emission in the stellar core. In the second, neutrino outflow regime ($H_0 \\gtrsim 10^{20}$ erg cm$^{-3}$ s$^{-1}$ or $T_\\mathrm{h} \\gtrsim 10^9$ K) the surface thermal emission becomes independent of heater's...

  5. Anti-freezing performance research of dry type shell-tube heat exchanger for air source heat pump water chiller-heater unit%空气源热泵冷(热)水机组用干式壳管换热器防冻性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙爱; 陈忠杰; 王传华

    2012-01-01

    针对空气源热泵冷(热)水机组运行中可能出现的干式壳管换热器冻裂问题,分析其被冻裂的主要因素,并且对壳管换热器冻裂的关键因素——蒸发压力过低的原因进行分析.基于分析结果,对壳管换热器的设计进行改进,同时对低流量保护点进行试验验证.%Aiming at the frost-cracking problem of the dry type shell-tube heat exchanger for air source heat pump water chiller-heater unit, the main influencing factors are analyzed. The key reason of shell-tube heat exchanger frost-cracking is analyzed that is too low evaporating pressure. The design of shell-tube heat exchanger is improved based on the analysis results, and the limited flow rate for protection of flow switch is verified by the test.

  6. Fast nanotopography imaging using a high speed cantilever with integrated heater-thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeonghee; Somnath, Suhas; King, William P

    2013-04-05

    This paper presents a high speed tapping cantilever with an integrated heater-thermometer for fast nanotopography imaging. The cantilever is much smaller and faster than previous heated cantilevers, with a length of 35 μm and a resonant frequency of 1.4 MHz. The mechanical response time is characterized by scanning over a backward-facing step of height 20 nm. The mechanical response time is 77 μs in air and 448 μs in water, which compares favorably to the fastest commercial cantilevers that do not have integrated heaters. The doped silicon cantilever is designed with an integrated heater that can heat and cool in about 10 μs and can operate in both air and water. We demonstrate standard laser-based topography imaging along with thermal topography imaging, when the cantilever is actuated via the piezoelectric shaker in an atomic force microscope system and when it is actuated by Lorentz forces. The cantilever can perform thermal topography imaging in tapping mode with an imaging resolution of 7 nm at a scan speed of 1.46 mm s(-1).

  7. Design and Implementation of the MSL Cruise Propulsion Tank Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylo, Robert; Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Cucullu, Gordon; Watkins, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and the implementation of the heaters for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The pressurized tanks store hydrazine that freezes at 2 C, this means that heaters are required to keep the hydrazine and the helium at 36 C for the trip to Mars. Using the TMG software the heat loss was analyzed, and a thermal model simulates a half full tank which yielded a 13W heating requirement for each hemisphere. Views of the design, and the heater are included.

  8. Modeling heat transfer from quench protection heaters to superconducting cables in Nb3Sn magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Salmi, T; Caspi, S; Felice, H; Prestemon, S; Chlachidze, G; Kate, H H J ten

    2013-01-01

    We use a recently developed quench protection heater modeling tool for an analysis of heater delays in superconducting high-field Nb3Sn accelerator magnets. The results suggest that the calculated delays are consistent with experimental data, and show how the heater delay depends on the main heater design parameters.

  9. 40 CFR 279.23 - On-site burning in space heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-site burning in space heaters. 279... burning in space heaters. Generators may burn used oil in used oil-fired space heaters provided that: (a) The heater burns only used oil that the owner or operator generates or used oil received from...

  10. Initial Growth Characteristics of the CaCO3 Fouling on Copper Surfaces of a Heat Pump Water Heater Under Various Water Qualities%不同水质下铜表面CaCO3污垢初始阶段生长特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛健; 张华; 赵萍

    2013-01-01

    紫铜和黄铜是热泵热水器中制冷剂与水换热的常用材料,在60℃时结垢严重.为研究CaCO3析晶污垢在表面的生长特性,分别在0.5和1.0 mmol/L的CaCO3溶液中,通过静态反应,分别用称重法和SEM获得不同浸入时间的结垢重量和微观形貌.结果表明:紫铜表面结垢量大于黄铜且更早形成污垢层.前期结垢量当Ca2+浓度较高时少于较低时,而浓度较高时最终结垢量则会多于较低时;Ca2+浓度并不影响晶型种类及比例,但浓度较高时大尺寸晶体出现较早较多且较小.pH值较高时使溶液体系能量较高,提高杂质和表面分子活性以及改变CaCO3电离平衡,产生更多晶核并促进文石转变为方解石.析晶污垢形成主要机理是难溶盐分子先在溶液内形成污垢颗粒,而后通过沉积到表面上,而不仅通过表面反应和吸附直接形成.%Red copper and brass are deemed as the commonly used materials for the heat exchange between coolants and water in heat pump water heaters. The fouling will be serious at 60 ℃. To study the growth characteristics of the CaCO3 precipitation crystal fouling on metal surfaces,in 0. 5 and 1.0 mmol/l CaCO3 solution respectively,the weight and microscopic morphology of the fouling were obtained through static state reactions by using weight weighing and SEM (scanning electronic microscopy) method at various immerging time durations. It has been found that the fouling quantity on the red copper surface is bigger than that on the brass surface and red copper is earlier to form a fouling layer than brass. The fouling quantity in the earlier period at a relatively high concentration of Ca + is less than that at a relatively low concentration of Ca2 + , however, the final fouling quantity at a relatively high concentration is larger than that at a low concentration. The concentration of Ca2+ will not influence the kind of the crystal and its proportion but the crystal in large sizes will emerge

  11. Analytical Model for Ring Heater Thermal Compensation in Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Ramette, Joshua; Brooks, Aidan; Blair, Carl; Wang, Haoyu; Heintze, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Advanced laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors use high laser power to achieve design sensitivity. A small part of this power is absorbed in the interferometer cavity mirrors where it creates thermal lenses, causing aberrations in the main laser beam that must be minimized by the actuation of "ring heaters," additional heater elements that are aimed to reduce the temperature gradients in the mirrors. In this article we derive the first analytical model of the temperature field generated by an ideal ring heater. We express the resulting optical aberration contribution to the main laser beam in this axisymmetric case. Used in conjunction with wavefront measurements, our model provides a more complete understanding of the thermal state of the cavity mirrors and will allow a more efficient use of the ring heaters in Advanced LIGO.

  12. A High Performance Cathode Heater for Hall Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current state-of-the-art co-axial swaged tantalum (Ta) heaters use magnesium oxide (MgO) insulators, which limits their operation to temperatures well below...

  13. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar,; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX), Harris; Kelvin, Christopher [Houston, TX

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  14. Thermal performance of a new solar air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiris, C.; Ozbalta, N. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Institute; Tiris, M.; Dincer, I. [TUBITAK-Marmara Research Center, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    1995-05-01

    A solar air heater, part of a food drying system using solar energy as a renewable energy source for heat, was developed and tested for several agricultural products (i.e., sultana grapes, green beans, sweet peppers, chili peppers). Drying processes were conducted in the chamber with forced natural air heated partly by solar energy. Solar air heater performances were discussed along with estimates of energy efficiency of the system. The obtained results indicate that the present system is efficiency and effective.

  15. Mathematical modeling of the area of tubular gas heater in the condensing mode of work

    OpenAIRE

    IRODOV V. F.; Bereziuk, G. G.

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the problem. Infrared tubular gas heaters are designed for burning gas, moving of the heated products of combustion with air inside the tubular heater and heating of the room where the heater is installed with the help of radiant and convective heat exchange with space of the room. Tubular gas heaters are simultaneously sources of heat supply and heating devices. Using of these heaters provides fuel economy and uniform distribution of comfortable heat. Maximum fuel economy can be...

  16. Gravity and Heater Size Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungho; Raj, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The current work is based on observations of boiling heat transfer over a continuous range of gravity levels between 0g to 1.8g and varying heater sizes with a fluorinert as the test liquid (FC-72/n-perfluorohexane). Variable gravity pool boiling heat transfer measurements over a wide range of gravity levels were made during parabolic flight campaigns as well as onboard the International Space Station. For large heaters and-or higher gravity conditions, buoyancy dominated boiling and heat transfer results were heater size independent. The power law coefficient for gravity in the heat transfer equation was found to be a function of wall temperature under these conditions. Under low gravity conditions and-or for smaller heaters, surface tension forces dominated and heat transfer results were heater size dependent. A pool boiling regime map differentiating buoyancy and surface tension dominated regimes was developed along with a unified framework that allowed for scaling of pool boiling over a wide range of gravity levels and heater sizes. The scaling laws developed in this study are expected to allow performance quantification of phase change based technologies under variable gravity environments eventually leading to their implementation in space based applications.

  17. Thermo-Electron Ballistic Coolers or Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic heat-transfer devices of a proposed type would exploit some of the quantum-wire-like, pseudo-superconducting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes or, optionally, room-temperature-superconducting polymers (RTSPs). The devices are denoted thermo-electron ballistic (TEB) coolers or heaters because one of the properties that they exploit is the totally or nearly ballistic (dissipation or scattering free) transport of electrons. This property is observed in RTSPs and carbon nanotubes that are free of material and geometric defects, except under conditions in which oscillatory electron motions become coupled with vibrations of the nanotubes. Another relevant property is the high number density of electrons passing through carbon nanotubes -- sufficient to sustain electron current densities as large as 100 MA/square cm. The combination of ballistic motion and large current density should make it possible for TEB devices to operate at low applied potentials while pumping heat at rates several orders of magnitude greater than those of thermoelectric devices. It may also enable them to operate with efficiency close to the Carnot limit. In addition, the proposed TEB devices are expected to operate over a wider temperature range

  18. Solar Biogas Digester with Built-In Reverse Absorber Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the design, fabrication and investigation of a solar biogas digester with built-in RAH (Reverse Absorber Heater is presented. The maximum temperature (50 o C inside of the methane tank was taken as a main parameter at the design of the digester. Using energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated; the parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were counted. The biogas digester is consisting of methane tank with built-in solar RAH to utilize solar energy for the heating of the slurry prepared from the different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc. The methane tank was filled up to 70% of volume by organic wastes of the GIK Institute sewage, firstly, and secondly, by sewage and cow dung as well. During three months (October-December, 2009 and two months (February-March, 2010 the digester was investigated. The solar irradiance incident to the absorber, slurry's temperature and ambient temperature were measured. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung the retention times was 4 weeks and two weeks respectively and biogas quantity produced was 0.4 and 8.0 m 3 respectively. In addition, biogas upgradation scheme for removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapor from biogas and conversion of biogas energy conversion into electric power is also discussed.

  19. Analysis of using air-source heat pump water chiller-heater units in the cold regions%空气源热泵冷热水机组在寒冷地区应用的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马最良; 杨自强; 姚杨; 喻银平

    2001-01-01

    针对空气源热泵冷热水机组在寒冷地区冬季使用时结霜、热效率低等问题,提出一种双级热泵系统,即由空气源热泵冷热水机组提供10~20 ℃温水,作为水源热泵的低位热源,组成水源热泵供热系统。分析了这种系统的技术经济性,认为该系统是可行的,具有节能和环保意义。%imed at solving frosting and low heating efficiency of heat pumps in cold regions, puts forward a twin heat pumps heating system that consists of an air source heat pump and a water source heat pump. The air source heat pump supplies 10-20 ℃ water as low grade heat source of the water source heat pump. Analyses the technical and economical features of the system. Considers that the system is practicable and has energy conservation and environment protection effects.

  20. Alternative for Summer Use of Solar Air Heaters in Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. González-González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Among solar thermal technologies for indoor heating, solar air heaters (SAH are appealing for implementation on existing buildings due to their simplicity, fewer risks related to the working fluid, and possible independence from the building structure. However, existing research work mainly focuses on winter use and still fails in providing effective solutions for yearly operation, which would enhance their interest. With the aim of analysing an alternative summer use, this work firstly characterises a double channel-single pass solar air collector through experimentation. From the obtained results, modelling and simulation tasks have been conducted to evaluate the possibilities of using hot air, provided by the SAH, while operating under summer conditions within a closed loop, to feed an air-to-water heat exchanger for domestic hot water (DHW production. The system is studied through simulation under two different configurations for a case study in Valladolid (Spain, during the period from May to September for different airflows in the closed loop. Results show that daily savings can vary from 27% to 85% among the different operating conditions; a configuration where make-up water is fed to the heat exchanger being preferable, with a dedicated water tank for the solar heated water storage of the minimum possible volume. The more favourable results for the harshest months highlight the interest of extending the use of the solar air heaters to the summer period.

  1. Performance Simulation of Microchannel Collector/Evaporator for Solar Heat Pump Water Heater%太阳能热泵热水系统微细通道集热板/蒸发器性能模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟; 张小松

    2016-01-01

    本文提出了一种采用微细通道的平板式集热板/蒸发器,它可以从太阳和环境空气二方面获取热量。其主要特点是采用树形分支模型,由两块铝板冷轧吹胀而成,减小了接触热阻,提高了集热板的换热系数。本文建立了该集热板/蒸发器的数学模型并进行了热性能分析,深入研究了不同环境工况条件下该热泵热水系统的性能,包括系统性能系数(COP)、集热板集热效率、加热时间等运行参数的变化特性。结果显示,将150 L水从15 oC加热到50 oC时,系统全年各月的平均COP为4.76,平均加热时间为314 min,环境温度的升高和太阳辐射强度的降低会使集热效率显著增加。%In this paper a new flat-plate collector/evaporator was presented by using microchannel to gain heat from both solar radiation and ambient air. Its main characteristic was using the model of tree branch. The collector/evaporator was made of two pieces of aluminium plates by using the method of cold-rolled huff, which could reduce the contact thermal resistance and improve the heat transfer efficiency of the collector. A simulation model of the collector/evaporator was developed and its thermal performance was analyzed. The performances of heat pump hot water system were evaluated experimentally under different ambients, including heat pump coefficient of performance (COP), heat collecting efficiency and heating time of hot water, etc. The results showed that heating 150 L water with the heat pump from 15 oC to 50 oC, the COP of the whole year was 4.76, and the heating time was 314 min all year around. Meanwhile the heat collecting efficiency increased evidently with the ambient temperature increasing and solar radiation intensity decreasing.

  2. Combustion-Driven Oscillation in Process Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Corporation (Retired), 198 James Avenue, Atherton, CA 94027 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    At this moment in thousands of process heaters all over the world there are, to borrow a phrase from the late Carl Sagan, 'billions and billions' of Btu/hr beneficially being released entirely free of pulsation. On those few occasions, perhaps a dozen and a half in my career, when I would get the inevitable 'Why me?' call, I have generally responsed with something like, 'Consider yourself lucky, you have a rare scientific curiosity on your hands'. Reflecting on the solutions ultimately found, I'm reminded that many years ago my friend Abbott Putnam shared with me an early AGA (American Gas Association) field-service bulletin that included a prescription for eliminating combustion-driven oscillations in home heating units; viz., 'Drill a hole; if that doesn't work, drill another hole' or words to that effect. Many times have I wished that I still had a copy of that bulletin and in this paper we will have occasion, once again, to reflect upon the value of that advice. In this paper we will discuss an instance that arose in a pioneering installation of a breakthrough development of 'extremely', to distinguish it from 'ultra', low-NOx lean premix burner technology. We will illustrate how, when and under what circumstances combustion-driven oscillation can arise; we will touch on the many alternatives for its elimination that were considered and investigated; and we will discuss three practical alternatives for eliminating combustion-driven oscillations.

  3. Structural Benchmark Testing for Stirling Convertor Heater Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bowman, Randy R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified high efficiency Stirling technology for potential use on long duration Space Science missions such as Mars rovers, deep space missions, and lunar applications. For the long life times required, a structurally significant design limit for the Stirling convertor heater head is creep deformation induced even under relatively low stress levels at high material temperatures. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and much creep data is available for the proposed Inconel-718 (IN-718) and MarM-247 nickel-based superalloy materials of construction. However, very little experimental creep information is available that directly applies to the atypical thin walls, the specific microstructures, and the low stress levels. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply multiaxial stress states on the heater head components, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, experimental benchmark testing is underway to aid in accurately assessing the durability of Stirling heater heads. The investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head test articles at elevated temperatures and with stress levels ranging from one to seven times design stresses. This paper presents experimental methods, results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for both accelerated and non-accelerated tests. The Stirling projects use the results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the heater heads to predict their life times.

  4. Optimal Heater Control with Technology of Fault Tolerance for Compensating Thermoforming Preheating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhe Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment of heater power is very important because the distribution of thickness strongly depends on the distribution of sheet temperature. In this paper, the steady state optimum distribution of heater power is searched by numerical optimization in order to get uniform sheet temperature. In the following step, optimal heater power distribution with a damaged heater was found out using the technology of fault tolerance, which will be used to reduce the repairing time when some heaters are damaged. The merit of this work is that the design variable was the power of each heater which can be directly used in the preheating process of thermoforming.

  5. Replacement of the level control of draining tanks MSRS and powered water heaters with the OVATION system in Asco NPP; Sustitucion del control del nivel de tanques de drenaje MSRS y calentadores de agua de alimentacion con el sistema ovation en CN Asco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano Jimenez, J.

    2012-07-01

    The current MSR drains and heaters tanks level control is local control individual, pneumatic and without action from Control room. The system has level switches for the generation of alarms, isolations and shots of bombs. Single control room operators have level alarms, final race of valves of control and indication of temperature and pressure of some tanks.

  6. Birds heater adaptation and performance using biogas as fuel; Avaliacao do desempenho de um aquecedor para aves adaptado para utilizar biogas como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    It was carried out a trial to evaluate the adaptation (injector diameter) and performance (biogas consumption and heating efficiency) of a heating adapted to burn biogas. It was tried a common heater, burning liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), operating with low gas pressure (28 cm water column), with calorific capacity of 5024 kJ/h and recommended for 500 birds. The heater was evaluated with the original fuel (LPG) without any modification in the gas injector and after adapting to biogas burning. Five injectors were evaluated with drillings of 1,0053; 1,5080; 1,5708; 1,7672 and 1,980 mm{sup 2}. It also was varied the biogas pressures in the heater entrance of 10, 12, 15, 17 and 20 cm of water column. Results showed that expressions for theoretical calculation and proposed parameters in the literature can be used for aviaries heaters adaptation. The adaptation is simple, indicating the viability for utilization of existing heaters in farms and in the market. Air temperatures were similar to the obtained with the original fuel (LPG). (author)

  7. Generation of ionospheric ducts by the HAARP HF heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J A; Pradipta, R; Burton, L M; Labno, A; Lee, M C [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Watkins, B J; Fallen, C [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Kuo, S P [New York University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Burke, W J [Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 (United States); Mabius, D; See, B Z, E-mail: mclee@mit.edu [Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We report an investigation of ionospheric ducts having the shape of large plasma sheets, generated by vertically transmitted HAARP HF heater waves in several experiments conducted in Gakona, Alaska. Theory predicts that O-mode heater wave-created ionospheric ducts form parallel-plate waveguides within the meridional plane, and those generated by the X-mode heater waves are orthogonal to the meridional plane. Our theoretical prediction is supported by measurements of ionosonde data (namely ionograms), range-time-intensity (RTI) plots of UHF and HF backscatter radars, as well as magnetometer data analyses. When these plasma sheets experienced ExB drifts, they were intercepted by the HAARP UHF radar and seen as slanted stripes in the RTI plots. This striking feature was also observed in our earlier experiments using the Arecibo UHF radar.

  8. Development of a cost effective microscope heater stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugre, Joshua; Prayaga, Chandra; Wade, Aaron

    Utilizing 3D printing technology, a heater stage has been developed and implemented for microscopic systems. Due to the flexibility of 3D printing,the heater stage can be easily modified to fit any sample size with only slight modifications to the heating element being required. The sample in contact with the heating element can also easily be secured in a thermal insulator, such as aluminum foil. The thermal gradient of the heater stage has been recorded to be less than 1°C and has been compared to more expensive designs, and the cost effectiveness of the system has been determined. The system has been tested with a sample of the liquid crystal 8CB in order to determine the exact temperatures of the phase transitions of the crystal to verify that the system is applicable to a wide range of experimental physics. UWF Quality Enhancement Plan Award.

  9. Flat plate solar air heater with latent heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, B.; Kerroumi, N.; Virgone, J.

    2017-02-01

    Our work contains two parts, first is an experimental study of the solar air heater with a simple flow and forced convection, we can use thatlaste oneit in many engineering's sectors as solardrying, space heating in particular. The second part is a numerical study with ansys fluent 15 of the storage of part of this solar thermal energy produced,using latent heat by using phase change materials (PCM). In the experimental parts, we realize and tested our solar air heater in URER.MS ADRAR, locate in southwest Algeria. Where we measured the solarradiation, ambient temperature, air flow, thetemperature of the absorber, glasses and the outlet temperature of the solar air heater from the Sunrise to the sunset. In the second part, we added a PCM at outlet part of the solar air heater. This PCM store a part of the energy produced in the day to be used in peak period at evening by using the latent heat where the PCMs present a grateful storagesystem.A numerical study of the fusion or also named the charging of the PCM using ANSYS Fluent 15, this code use the method of enthalpies to solve the fusion and solidification formulations. Furthermore, to improve the conjugate heat transfer between the heat transfer fluid (Air heated in solar plate air heater) and the PCM, we simulate the effect of adding fins to our geometry. Also, four user define are write in C code to describe the thermophysicalpropriety of the PCM, and the inlet temperature of our geometry which is the temperature at the outflow of the solar heater.

  10. Process for thermal imaging scanning of a swaged heater for an anode subassembly of a hollow cathode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor); Verhey, Timothy R. R. (Inventor); Soulas, George C. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A process for thermal imaging scanning of a swaged heater of an anode subassembly of a hollow cathode assembly, comprising scanning a swaged heater with a thermal imaging radiometer to measure a temperature distribution of the heater; raising the current in a power supply to increase the temperature of the swaged heater; and measuring the swaged heater temperature using the radiometer, whereupon the temperature distribution along the length of the heater shall be less than plus or minus 5 degrees C.

  11. Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, G.H.

    1996-06-01

    The Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fueled heat source designed to provide a thermal watt of power for space missions. The LWRHU will be used to maintain the temperature of various components on the spacecraft at the required level. The heat source consists of a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos has fabricated 180 heater units, which will be used on the Cassini mission. This report summarizes the specifications, fabrication processes, and production data for the heat sources fabricated at Los Alamos.

  12. Benchmark of CFD Simulations Using Temperatures Measured Within an Enclosed Array of Heater Rods Oriented Vertically and Horizontally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Narayana Rao

    Experiments and computational fluid dynamics/radiation heat transfer simulations of an 8x8 array of heated rods within an aluminum enclosure are performed. This configuration represents a region inside the channel of a spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assembly between two consecutive spacer plates. The heater rods can be oriented horizontally or vertically to represent transport or storage conditions, respectively. The measured and simulated rod-to-wall temperature differences are compared for various heater rod power levels (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500W), gases (Helium and Nitrogen), enclosure wall temperatures, pressures (1, 2 and 3 atm) and orientations (Horizontal and Vertical) to assess the accuracy of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. For analysis of spent nuclear fuel casks, it is crucial to predict the temperature of the hottest rods in an assembly to ensure that none of the fuel cladding exceeds its temperature limit. The measured temperatures are compared to those determined using CFD code to assess the adequacy of the computer code. Simulations show that temperature gradients are much steeper near the enclosure walls than they are near the center of the heater rod array. The measured maximum heater rod temperatures are above the center of heater rod array for nitrogen experiments in both horizontal and vertical orientations, whereas for helium the maximum temperatures are at the center of heater rod array irrespective of the orientation due to the high thermal conductivity of the helium gas. The measured temperatures of rods at symmetric locations are not identical, and the difference is larger for rods close to the enclosure wall than for those far from it. Small but uncontrolled deviations of the rod positions away from the design locations may cause these differences. For 2-inch insulated nitrogen experiment in vertical orientation with 1 atm pressure and a total heater rod power of 500 W, the maximum measured heater rod and enclosure

  13. High-Temperature Compatible Nickel Silicide Thermometer And Heater For Catalytic Chemical Microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Quaade, U.J.; Hansen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Integration of heaters and thermometers is important for agile and accurate control and measurement of the thermal reaction conditions in microfabricated chemical reactors (microreactors). This paper describes development and operation of nickel silicide heaters and temperature sensors...... for temperatures exceeding 700 °C. The heaters and thermometers are integrated with chemical microreactors for heterogeneous catalytic conversion of gasses, and thermally activated catalytic conversion of CO to CO2 in the reactors is demonstrated. The heaters and thermometers are shown to be compatible...

  14. Characteristics of Vertical Mantle Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Morrison, G.L.; Behnia, M.

    1999-01-01

    exchangers was also developed for detailed evaluation of the heat flux distribution over the mantle surface. Both the experimental and simulation results indicate that distribution of the flow around the mantle gap is governed by buoyancy driven recirculation in the mantle. The operation of the mantle...

  15. Comparative performance of coriander dryer coupled to solar air heater and solar air-heater-cum-rockbed storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, P.M.; Choudhury, C.; Garg, H.P. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Energy Studies, New Delhi (India)

    1996-03-01

    In the present communication, efforts have been made to study the drying characteristics of coriander in a stationary 0.5 tonne/batch capacity deep-bed dryer coupled to a solar air heater and a rockbed storage unit to receive hot air during sunshine and off-sunshine hours, respectively. The drying bed was assumed to consist of a number of thin layers of grains stacked upon each other. The theoretical investigation was made by writing the energy and mass balance equations for different components of the dryer-cum-air-heater-cum-storage and by adopting a finite difference approach for simulation. (author)

  16. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section... air heaters. (a) If any system used to heat intake air malfunctions, the heaters affected shall switch off automatically. (b) Thermal overload devices shall protect the blower motor from overheating....

  17. 46 CFR 61.30-5 - Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and... ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-5 Preparation of thermal fluid heater for inspection and test. For visual inspection, access plates and...

  18. TOTAL PARTICLE, SULFATE, AND ACIDIC AEROSOL EMISSIONS FROM KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamber studies were conducted on four unvented kerosene space heaters to assess emissions of total particle, sulfate, and acidic aerosol. The heaters tested represented four burner designs currently in use by the public. Kerosene space heaters are a potential source of fine part...

  19. 40 CFR 63.7506 - Do any boilers or process heaters have limited requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do any boilers or process heaters have limited requirements? 63.7506 Section 63.7506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... or process heaters have limited requirements? (a) New or reconstructed boilers and process heaters...

  20. Fast thermal nanoimprint lithography by a stamp with integrated heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tormen, Massimo; Malureanu, Radu; Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup

    2008-01-01

    We propose fast nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) process based on the use of stamps with integrated heater. The latter consists of heavily ion implantation n-type doped silicon layer buried below the microstructured surface of the stamp. The stamp is heated by Joule effect, by 50 μs 25 Hz...

  1. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... passages. (b) Ventilating air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be..., the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to... fluids or vapors into the ventilating airstream. (c) Combustion air ducts. Each combustion air duct...

  2. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... passage that surrounds the combustion chamber. (b) Ventilating air ducts. Each ventilating air duct... fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be...) Combustion air ducts. Each combustion air duct must be fireproof for a distance great enough to...

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF POPULATION AND USAGE OF UNVENTED KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study of the market penetration of unvented kerosene space heaters (UKSHs) in the residential sector, The study was aimed at gathering baseline information to help assess the magnitude and potential severity of a problem involving emissions from unve...

  4. Electrothermal pumping with interdigitated electrodes and resistive heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stuart J; Green, Nicolas G

    2015-08-01

    Interdigitated electrodes are used in electrokinetic lab-on-a-chip devices for dielectrophoretic trapping and characterization of suspended particles, as well as the production of field-induced fluid flow via AC electroosomosis and electrothermal mechanisms. However, the optimum design for dielectrophoresis, that if symmetrical electrodes, cannot induce bulk electrohydrodynamic pumping. In addition, the mechanism of intrinsic electrothermal pumping is affected by the properties of the fluid, with thermal fields being generated by Joule Heating. This work demonstrates the incorporation of an underlying thin film heater, electrically isolated from the interdigitated electrodes by an insulator layer, to enhance bulk electrothermal pumping. The use of integrated heaters allows the thermal field generation to be controlled independently of the electric field. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the importance of geometrical arrangement of the heater with respect to the interdigitated electrodes, as well as electrode size, spacing, and arrangement. The optimization of such a system is a careful balance between electrokinetics, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics. The heater location and electrode spacing influence the rate of electrothermal pumping significantly more than electrode width and insulator layer thickness. This demonstration will aid in the development of microfluidic electrokinetic systems that want to utilize the advantages associated with electrothermal pumping while simultaneously applying other lab-on-a-chip electrokinetics like dielectrophoresis.

  5. A masonry heater, a large thermal flywheel and constant temperatures : the winter of 1996/1997 of the Alberta Sustainable Home/Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowski, J.; Fofonoff, B.

    1997-07-01

    A masonry heater using scrapwood and firewood as the only source of back-up heat in this 1820 sq ft single-family live-in demonstration home/office, was described. The heater also contributed significantly to the thermal flywheel of the house. Together with other forms of thermal mass within the building (concrete slab, wood studs, drywall, tiles, furniture, plants, etc), the masonry heater was sufficient to see the occupants through the severe and long winter of 1996/97 with comfortable indoor temperatures. The masonry heater is located near the center of the house with a sunny view towards the south. On sunny winter days it operates as a passive solar heat sink, with the sun charging up the brick face by about five degrees C. In the evening, a 40 pound load of scrap and firewood will take about 1.25 hours to penetrate through the refractory interior core and brick exterior. This provides a cosy fireplace for the occupants, while storing heat in its mass for slow release during the next 1.5 to 3 days. It heats water for storage in the hot water tank. During the period of September 1996 to May 1997 one cord of wood was burned, which is about 12 per cent of the energy pumped into the average single family home in Calgary during the same period. Experience to-date suggests that the masonry heater performs very well as a back-up heater, maintaining an ambient temperature of about 20 degrees C throughout the winter. Some flat plate solar collectors might be necessary to provide for radiant floor heating of the mass since floor temperatures were lower than most occupants found comfortable.

  6. Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2012-02-14

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes three substantially u-shaped heaters with first end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to a single, three-phase wye transformer and second end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to each other and/or to ground. The three heaters may enter the formation through a first common wellbore and exit the formation through a second common wellbore so that the magnetic fields of the three heaters at least partially cancel out in the common wellbores.

  7. One-heater flow-through polymerase chain reaction device by heat pipes cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyh Jian; Liao, Ming Huei; Li, Kun Tze; Shen, Chia Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a novel microfluidic reactor capable of flow-through polymerase chain reactions (PCR). For one-heater PCR devices in previous studies, comprehensive simulations and experiments for the chip geometry and the heater arrangement were usually needed before the fabrication of the device. In order to improve the flexibility of the one-heater PCR device, two heat pipes with one fan are used to create the requisite temperature regions in our device. With the integration of one heater onto the chip, the high temperature required for the denaturation stage can be generated at the chip center. By arranging the heat pipes on the opposite sides of the chip, the low temperature needed for the annealing stage is easy to regulate. Numerical calculations and thermal measurements have shown that the temperature distribution in the five-temperature-region PCR chip would be suitable for DNA amplification. In order to ensure temperature uniformity at specific reaction regions, the Re of the sample flow is less than 1. When the microchannel width increases and then decreases gradually between the denaturation and annealing regions, the extension region located in the enlarged part of the channel can be observed numerically and experimentally. From the simulations, the residence time at the extension region with the enlarged channel is 4.25 times longer than that without an enlarged channel at a flow rate of 2 μl/min. The treated surfaces of the flow-through microchannel are characterized using the water contact angle, while the effects of the hydrophilicity of the treated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels on PCR efficiency are determined using gel electrophoresis. By increasing the hydrophilicity of the channel surface after immersing the PDMS substrates into Tween 20 (20%) or BSA (1 mg/ml) solutions, efficient amplifications of DNA segments were proved to occur in our chip device. To our knowledge, our group is the first to introduce heat pipes into

  8. An Active Heater Control Concept to Meet IXO Type Mirror Module Thermal-Structural Distortion Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Flight mirror assemblies (FMAs) of large telescopes, such as the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), have very stringent thermal-structural distortion requirements. The spatial temperature gradient requirement within a FMA could be as small as 0.05 C. Con ventionally, heaters and thermistors are attached to the stray light baffle (SLB), and centralized heater controllers (i.e., heater controller boards located in a large electronics box) are used. Due to the large number of heater harnesses, accommodating and routing them is extremely difficult. The total harness length/mass is very large. This innovation uses a thermally conductive pre-collimator to accommodate heaters and a distributed heater controller approach. It minimizes the harness length and mass, and reduces the problem of routing and accommodating them. Heaters and thermistors are attached to a short (4.67 cm) aluminum portion of the pre-collimator, which is thermally coupled to the SLB. Heaters, which have a very small heater power density, and thermistors are attached to the exterior of all the mirror module walls. The major portion (23.4 cm) of the pre-collimator for the middle and outer modules is made of thin, non-conductive material. It minimizes the view factors from the FMA and heated portion of the precollimator to space. It also minimizes heat conduction from one end of the FMA to the other. Small and multi-channel heater controllers, which have adjustable set points and internal redundancy, are used. They are mounted to the mechanical support structure members adjacent to each module. The IXO FMA, which is 3.3 m in diameter, is an example of a large telescope. If the heater controller boards are centralized, routing and accommodating heater harnesses is extremely difficult. This innovation has the following advantages. It minimizes the length/mass of the heater harness between the heater controllers and heater circuits. It reduces the problem of routing and accommodating the harness on the

  9. Electrical heater for very-low pressure helium gas

    CERN Document Server

    Benda, V; Vuillierme, B

    1996-01-01

    Testing superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in superfluid helium requires large-capacity refrigeration at 1.8K. At CERN, this is provided by a combination of a cold compressor and a set of warm vacuum pumps capable of handling up to 18g/s at 1 kPa suction pressure. The cold helium vapour, after the cold compressor, is warmed up from about 5K to ambient temperature in a 32 kW electrical heater. The device is designed to operate reliably at flow rates varying from 1 to 18g/s, inlet pressure of 1 kPa to 3 kPa, with pressure drop 100 Pa. Design and construction of the heater, completely realised at CERN, are presented, as well as measured performance. Some technological problems are discussed.

  10. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the annular flow helium heater design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N. C.; Sanders, J. P.

    1982-05-01

    Core support performance test (CSPT) by use of an existing facility, components flow test loop (CFTL), as part of the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) application program were conducted. A major objective of the CSPT is to study accelerated corrosion of the core graphite support structure in helium at reactor conditions. Concentration of impurities will be adjusted so that a 6 month test represents the 30 year reactor life. Thermal hydraulic and structural integrity of the graphite specimen, will be studied at high pressure of 7.24 MPa (1050 psi) and high temperature of 1000 deg C in a test vessel. To achieve the required high temperature at the test section, a heater bundle has to be specially designed and properly manufactured. Performance characteristics of the heater which were determined from an analysis based on this design are presented.

  11. DESIGN OF A 500W RESONANT INDUCTION HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Sami SAZAK

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a complete design procedure for a 500W induction heating system is given. An induction heating system basically consists of a coil and a DC/AC inverter. The use of a single switch resonant inverter, which is operated with Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, allows the switching device to turn off under zero current conditions, therefore switching losses are much reduced. This inverter system transforms the DC into AC for the induction heater coil. The proposed coil design method is applicable to a load of any shape so long as the coil surrounds the workpiece. The basis of this method of coil design is the reduction of the induction heater coil and workpiece to their equivalent resistance and inductance.

  12. An experimental evaluation of multi-pass solar air heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satcunanathan, S.; Persad, P.

    1980-12-01

    Three collectors of identical dimensions but operating in the single-pass, two-pass and three-pass modes were tested simultaneously under ambient conditions. It was found that the two-pass air heater was consistently better than the single-pass air heater over the day for the range of mass flow rates considered. It was also found that at a mass flow rate of 0.0095 kg s/sup -1/ m/sup -2/, the thermal performances of the two-pass and three-pass collectors were identical, but at higher flow rates the two-pass collector was superior to the three-pass collector, the superiority decreasing with increasing mass flow rate.

  13. Fabrication of light weight radioisotope heater unit hardware components

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Dennis C.

    1996-03-01

    The Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is planned to be used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Cassini Mission, to provide localized thermal energy as strategic locations on the spacecraft. These one watt heater units will support the operation of many on-board instruments that require a specific temperature range to function properly. The system incorporates a fuel pellet encapsulated in a vented metallic clad fabricated from platinum-30% rhodium (Pt-30%Rh) tubing, sheet and foil materials. To complete the package, the clad assemblies are placed inside a combination of graphite components. This report describes the techniques employed by Mound related to the fabrication and sub assembly processes of the LWRHU clad hardware components. Included are details concerning configuration control systems, material procurement and certification, hardware fabrication specifics, and special processes that are utilized.

  14. Influence of the heater material on the critical heat load at boiling of liquids on surfaces with different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhina, E. V.

    2010-05-01

    Data on critical heat loads q cr for the saturated and unsaturated pool boiling of water and ethanol under atmospheric pressure are reported. It is found experimentally that the critical heat load does not necessarily coincide with the heat load causing burnout of the heater, which should be taken into account. The absolute values of q cr for the boiling of water and ethanol on copper surfaces 65, 80, 100, 120, and 200 μm in diameter; tungsten surface 100 μm in diameter; and nichrome surface 100 μm in diameter are obtained experimentally.

  15. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this study, gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the United States, installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many pre-existing models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work. In each case modeled, the whole house was simulated along with the water heater to capture any interactions between the water heater and the space conditioning equipment.

  16. Performance Analysis and Modeling of Thermally Sprayed Resistive Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Marcoux, Pierre; Perrault, Michel; Abbott, Richard C.; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

    2013-08-01

    Many processes and systems require hot surfaces. These are usually heated using electrical elements located in their vicinity. However, this solution is subject to intrinsic limitations associated with heating element geometry and physical location. Thermally spraying electrical elements directly on surfaces can overcome these limitations by tailoring the geometry of the heating element to the application. Moreover, the element heat transfer is maximized by minimizing the distance between the heater and the surface to be heated. This article is aimed at modeling and characterizing resistive heaters sprayed on metallic substrates. Heaters were fabricated by using a plasma-sprayed alumina dielectric insulator and a wire flame-sprayed iron-based alloy resistive element. Samples were energized and kept at a constant temperature of 425 °C for up to 4 months. SEM cross-sectional observations revealed the formation of cracks at very specific locations in the alumina layer after thermal use. Finite-element modeling shows that these cracks originate from high local thermal stresses and can be predicted according to the considered geometry. The simulation model was refined using experimental parameters obtained by several techniques such as emissivity and time-dependent temperature profile (infra-red camera), resistivity (four-probe technique), thermal diffusivity (laser flash method), and mechanical properties (micro and nanoindentation). The influence of the alumina thickness and the substrate material on crack formation was evaluated.

  17. Tip Heater for Minimum Quench Energy Measurements on Superconducting Strands

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, P; Oberli, L R

    1999-01-01

    Superconducting strands can be characterized by their Minimum Quench Energy (MQE), i.e. the minimum heat pulse needed to trigger a quench in operation conditions (field, temperature, current), in the limit of a (temporally and spatially) d-shaped disturbance. The sub-mm/µs range of perturbation space has only recently been achieved using the electrical graphite-paste heater technique [1]. The present work has put this technique into practice for the strands of the LHC main magnets, which are designed to operate at 1.9K in peak fields of up to 9T [1]. No way has been found yet to calibrate MQE measurements. To make relative statements on the MQE of different samples possible, the reproducibility of the measurements was emphasized. First heater prototypes did not come up to this stipulation. Finally the tip-heater configuration was found to meet the requirements. It generates a heat pulse in a thin resistive graphite paste deposit on top of a small tip that is pressed against the sample with a clamp. The clamp...

  18. The heater test at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory: The thermo-mechanical response of the rock mass to a heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneefuss, J.; Gommlich, G.; Noell, U. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H. Muenchen, Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Tieflagerung)

    1989-08-01

    The Grimsel Test Site (Felslabor Grimsel - FLG) is situated at a depth of 450 m in the Juchlistock massif of the Bernese Oberland. It is managed by the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA-Switzerland). By means of a heater test, the power output of canisters filled with high-level waste is simulated. This heater test is performed by the German Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung - GSF. Two electrical heaters, with a heatable length of 6 m, a diameter of 0.3 m and an available power of 4 kW/m, are installed in two vertical boreholes. One of them is located in the granite adjacent to a strongly fractured lamprophyre vein, the other one directly within this disturbed zone. They are operating since August 1986. The thermo-mechanical reaction of the rock mass is registered by a large number of measurement devices which are installed in an array of instrument boreholes around the heaters. They record the deformation and the alteration of rock stresses, the pore water pressure and the water conductivity caused by heating. (orig.).

  19. 电热水器用环戊烷/HFC-245 fa型聚氨酯硬泡组合聚醚的研究%Study on Cyclopentane/HFC-245fa Blown Rigid Polyurethane Foam Premixed Polyol for Electric Water-Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾雪芹; 赵路; 李明; 信延垒

    2016-01-01

    With polyether polyols, iscoyanate, foam stabilizer, catalyst and foaming agent as raw materials, the blown rigid polyurethane foam for electric water⁃heater was prepared. The influence of types and composition of raw materials on thermal insulation performance of electric water⁃heater was discussed and formulation system was optimized. The results showed that the polyurethane foam thermal conductivity was 18�8 mW/(m·K), high and low temperature change rate was less than 0�2% when the mass ratio of cyclopentane and HFC⁃245fa was 2�1. The properties of polyurethane foam could reach the specification requirement of electric water⁃heater product.%以聚醚多元醇、异氰酸酯、泡沫稳定剂、催化剂和发泡剂等为原料,制备了电热水器用聚氨酯硬泡组合聚醚,探讨了原料种类和组成对电热水器保温性能的影响,优化了配方体系。结果表明,选择环戊烷与HFC⁃245fa的质量比值为2�1,得到的聚氨酯硬泡导热系数为18�8 mW/( m·K),高/低温尺寸变化率均小于0�2%,可满足电热水器产品的使用要求。

  20. Four Bed Molecular Sieve - Exploration (4BMS-X) Virtual Heater Design and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, R. Gregory; Peters, Warren T.; Thomas, John T., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    A 4BMS-X (Four Bed Molecular Sieve - Exploration) design and heater optimization study for CO2 sorbent beds in proposed exploration system architectures is presented. The primary objectives of the study are to reduce heater power and thermal gradients within the CO2 sorbent beds while minimizing channeling effects. Some of the notable changes from the ISS (International Space Station) CDRA (Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly) to the proposed exploration system architecture include cylindrical beds, alternate sorbents and an improved heater core. Results from both 2D and 3D sorbent bed thermal models with integrated heaters are presented. The 2D sorbent bed models are used to optimize heater power and fin geometry while the 3D models address end effects in the beds for more realistic thermal gradient and heater power predictions.

  1. Temperature buffer test. Installation of buffer, heaters and instruments in the deposition hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Barcena, Ignacio; Garcia-Sineriz, Jose Luis [Aitemin, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    During 2003 the Temperature Buffer Test was installed in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Temperature, water pressure, relative humidity, total pressure and displacements etc. are measured in numerous points in the test. Most of the cables from the transducers are led in the deposition hole through slots in the rock surface of the deposition hole in watertight tubes to the data collection system in a container placed in the tunnel close to the deposition hole. This report describes the work with the installations of the buffer, heaters, and instruments and yields a description of the final location of all instruments. The report also contains a description of the materials that were installed and the densities yielded after placement.

  2. Comparison of Simulation and Experimental Results of Class - D Inverter Fed Induction Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rama Reddy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research deals w ith simulation and experimentation of closed loop controlled class-D inverter fed induction heater system. This converter has reduced switching losses, stress and increased power density. The inverter system is designed and the simulation is done using Matlab. The results of simulation and experimentation are presented. The induction heater system uses embedded controller to generate driving pulses. The objective is to develop an induction heater system with minimum hardware.

  3. Thermal performance optimization of a flat plate solar air heater using genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varun; Siddhartha [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur 177 005 (H.P.) (India)

    2010-05-15

    Thermal performance of solar air heater is low and different techniques are adopted to increase the performance of solar air heaters, such as: fins, artificial roughness etc. In this paper an attempt has been done to optimize the thermal performance of flat plate solar air heater by considering the different system and operating parameters to obtain maximum thermal performance. Thermal performance is obtained for different Reynolds number, emissivity of the plate, tilt angle and number of glass plates by using genetic algorithm. (author)

  4. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  5. Exergetic performance evaluation and parametric studies of solar air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, M.K.; Kaushik, S.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-11-15

    The present study aims to establish the optimal performance parameters for the maximum exergy delivery during the collection of solar energy in a flat-plate solar air heater. The procedure to determine optimum aspect ratio (length to width ratio of the absorber plate) and optimum duct depth (the distance between the absorber and the bottom plates) for maximum exergy delivery has been developed. It is known that heat energy gain and blower work increase monotonically with mass flow rate, while the temperature of air decreases; therefore, it is desirable to incorporate the quality of heat energy collected and the blower work. First it is proved analytically that the optimum exergy output, neglecting blower work, and the corresponding mass flow rate depend on the inlet temperature of air. The energy and exergy output rates of the solar air heater were evaluated for various values of collector aspect ratio (AR) of the collector, mass flow rate per unit area of the collector plate (G) and solar air heater duct depth (H). Results have been presented to discuss the effects of G, AR and H on the energy and exergy output rates of the solar air heater. The energy output rate increases with G and AR, and decreases with H and the inlet temperature of air. The exergy-based evaluation criterion shows that performance is not a monotonically increasing function of G and AR, and a decreasing function of H and inlet temperature of air. Based on the exergy output rate, it is found that there must be an optimum inlet temperature of air and a corresponding optimum G for any value of AR and H. For values of G lesser than optimal corresponding to inlet temperature of air equals to ambient, higher exergy output rate is achieved for the low value of duct depth and high AR in the range of parameters investigated. If G is high, for an application requiring less temperature increase, then either low AR or high H would give higher exergy output rate. (author)

  6. Thin film heater for removable volatile protecting coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Abid

    2013-01-01

    Freshly coated aluminum mirrors have excellent reflectivity at far ultraviolet wavelengths. However, reflectivity rapidly degrades when the mirror surfaces are exposed to atmosphere. In order to avoid this problem, freshly coated aluminum surface can be protected by over-coating of a removable volatile protecting coating. This protecting coating can be re-evaporated by controlled heating or by some other methods when required. This type of removable coating has immediate application in UV space astronomy. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of re-evaporation of removable volatile Zn protecting coating using a NiCr thin film heater without affecting the reflection properties of Al mirror surfaces.

  7. Benchmark Tests for Stirling Convertor Heater Head Life Assessment Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Halford, Gary R.; Bowman, Randy R.

    2004-01-01

    A new in-house test capability has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, where a critical component of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is undergoing extensive testing to aid the development of analytical life prediction methodology and to experimentally aid in verification of the flight-design component's life. The new facility includes two test rigs that are performing creep testing of the SRG heater head pressure vessel test articles at design temperature and with wall stresses ranging from operating level to seven times that (see the following photograph).

  8. CVD diamond resistor as heater and temperature sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, G.S.; Aslam, M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Heat generation and temperature control, essential for most heater applications, require different components in a conventional system. We achieve the heat generation and temperature measurement simultaneously by using a single diamond resistor. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) p-type diamond resistors with different dimensions were fabricated on polycrystalline diamond or oxidized Si substrates using diamond film technology compatible with integrated circuit (IC) processing. The temperature response of the resistors was characterized in the temperature range of 25 - 500{degrees}C. Power densities in access of 600 watt/in{sup 2} were achieved.

  9. Integral finned heater and cooler for stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1984-01-01

    A piston and cylinder for a Stirling engine and the like having top and bottom meshing or nesting finned conical surfaces to provide large surface areas in close proximity to the working gas for good thermal (addition and subtraction of heat) exchange to the working gas and elimination of the usual heater and cooler dead volume. The piston fins at the hot end of the cylinder are perforated to permit the gas to pass into the piston interior and through a regenerator contained therein.

  10. High-performance, bare silver nanowire network transparent heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Orcun; Coskun, Sahin; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2016-11-04

    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks are one of the most promising candidates for the replacement of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films in many different applications. Recently, Ag-NW-based transparent heaters (THs) showed excellent heating performance. In order to overcome the instability issues of Ag NW networks, researchers have offered different hybrid structures. However, these approaches not only require extra processing, but also decrease the optical performance of Ag NW networks. So, it is important to investigate and determine the thermal performance limits of bare-Ag-NW-network-based THs. Herein, we report on the effect of NW density, contact geometry, applied bias, flexing and incremental bias application on the TH performance of Ag NW networks. Ag-NW-network-based THs with a sheet resistance and percentage transmittance of 4.3 Ω sq(-1) and 83.3%, respectively, and a NW density of 1.6 NW μm(-2) reached a maximum temperature of 275 °C under incremental bias application (5 V maximum). With this performance, our results provide a different perspective on bare-Ag-NW-network-based transparent heaters.

  11. Asymmetric Pentagonal Metal Meshes for Flexible Transparent Electrodes and Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Daniel; Burke, Micheal; Manning, Mary; Martin, Alfonso; Amann, Andreas; O'Connell, Dan; Murphy, Richard; Lyons, Colin; Quinn, Aidan J

    2017-02-08

    Metal meshes have emerged as an important class of flexible transparent electrodes. We report on the characteristics of a new class of asymmetric meshes, tiled using a recently discovered family of pentagons. Micron-scale meshes were fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates via optical lithography, metal evaporation (Ti 10 nm, Pt 50 nm), and lift-off. Three different designs were assessed, each with the same tessellation pattern and line width (5 μm), but with different sizes of the fundamental pentagonal unit. Good mechanical stability was observed for both tensile strain and compressive strain. After 1000 bending cycles, devices subjected to tensile strain showed fractional resistance increases in the range of 8-17%, while devices subjected to compressive strain showed fractional resistance increases in the range of 0-7%. The performance of the pentagonal metal mesh devices as visible transparent heaters via Joule heating was also assessed. Rapid response times (∼15 s) at low bias voltage (≤5 V) and good thermal resistance characteristics (213-258 °C cm(2)/W) were found using measured thermal imaging data. Deicing of an ice-bearing glass coupon on top of the transparent heater was also successfully demonstrated.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of thermal performances of flat plate solar air heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomo, Donatien; Daguenet, Michel

    2006-10-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a mathematical tool, first developed for optimization methods, which aim is to characterize a system response through the variations of its output parameters following modifications imposed on the input parameters of the system. Such an analysis may quickly become laborious when the thermal model under consideration is complex or the number of input parameters is high. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model to analyse the heat exchanges in four different types of solar air collectors. When building this thermal model we show that for each collector, at quasi-steady state, the energy balance equations of the components of the collector cascade into a single first-order non-linear differential equation that is able to predict the thermal behaviour of the collector. Our heat transfer model clearly demonstrates the existence of an important dimensionless parameter, referred to as the thermal performance factor of the collector, that compares the useful thermal energy which can be extracted from the heater to the overall thermal losses of that collector for a given set of input parameters. A sensitivity analysis of our thermal model has been performed for the most significant input parameters such as the incident solar irradiation, the inlet fluid temperature, the air mass flow rate, the depth of the fluid channel, the number and nature of the transparent covers in order to measure the impact of each of these parameters on our model. An important result which can be drawn from this study is that the heat transfer model developed is robust enough to be used for thermal design studies of most known flat plate solar air heaters, but also of flat plate solar water collectors and linear solar concentrators.

  13. 40 CFR 63.7491 - Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., hazardous waste boilers). (e) A commercial and industrial solid waste incineration unit covered by 40 CFR... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial... process heaters not subject to this subpart? The types of boilers and process heaters listed in paragraphs...

  14. 46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and... requirements for miscellaneous boiler types, such as donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, heating boiler, etc... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-35 Auxiliary, donkey, fired...

  15. 76 FR 28662 - Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 RIN 2060-AQ25; 2060-AO12 Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units AGENCY: Environmental... Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters'' and ``Standards...

  16. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  17. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  18. Survey costs associated with the replacement of electric showers for solar heaters; Levantamento de custos associados a substituicao de chuveiros eletricos por aquecedores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchior, Fernando Nunes [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UFEI), MG (Brazil); Araujo, Jose Euripedes de

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to explain the benefits of replacing electric shower for solar water heaters, and a consequent drop in peak demand for electric power generation and residential consumption in the economy. For this, will be shown the lifting of solar radiation per square meter in Brazil, studied in 250 locations, the most representative in terms of solar energy in this country. The costs presented are associated with replacement of 5 million, 10 million and 20 million electric showers. (author)

  19. Analysis of Uncertainties in Protection Heater Delay Time Measurements and Simulations in Nb$_{3}$Sn High-Field Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Salmi, Tiina; Marchevsky, Maxim; Bajas, Hugo; Felice, Helene; Stenvall, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The quench protection of superconducting high-field accelerator magnets is presently based on protection heaters, which are activated upon quench detection to accelerate the quench propagation within the winding. Estimations of the heater delay to initiate a normal zone in the coil are essential for the protection design. During the development of Nb3Sn magnets for the LHC luminosity upgrade, protection heater delays have been measured in several experiments, and a new computational tool CoHDA (Code for Heater Delay Analysis) has been developed for heater design. Several computational quench analyses suggest that the efficiency of the present heater technology is on the borderline of protecting the magnets. Quantifying the inevitable uncertainties related to the measured and simulated delays is therefore of pivotal importance. In this paper, we analyze the uncertainties in the heater delay measurements and simulations using data from five impregnated high-field Nb3Sn magnets with different heater geometries. ...

  20. High thermal performance of SnO2:F thin transparent heaters with scattered metal nanodots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudaya, Chairul; Jeon, Bup Ju; Lee, Joong Kee

    2015-01-14

    Facile production and novel transparent heaters consisting of fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2:F or FTO) thin films covered with three different scattered metal nanodots (Cr-nd, NiCr-nd and Ni-nd) prepared by plasma-enhanced sputtering system and electron cyclotron resonance-metal organic chemical vapor deposition are investigated. The heaters exhibit excellent optical transmittances of over 85% and superior saturated temperatures of more than 80 °C when a relatively low 12 V DC is supplied. The scattered metal nanodots FTO heaters successfully improve the specific power of bare FTO heater by 21, 15, and 12% for NiCr-nd FTO, Cr-nd FTO, and Ni-nd FTO, respectively. These results reveal that the FTO transparent heaters with scattered metal nanodots are the suitable heating materials that can be applied for various functional devices.

  1. Evaluation and certification of heater assemblies developed for thermal vacuum acceptance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Preparation of Rockwell International's Thermal Vacuum Chamber for acceptance testing of a mass produced satellite required the development of unique quartz lamp and hot wire heater assemblies. Testing performed on the basic elements of these heaters is described, as is the final testing done to certify that the heater assemblies meet the thermal requirements for acceptance testing. The methods and procedures of thermal mapping used during the development and final certification of these heater assemblies are presented. The absence of a definitive standard for determining flux distribution and heating boundaries for heaters of this type required the development of a test plan incorporating several thermal mapping techniques. These techniques include the development of heat flux using a multiple calorimeter array for both vacuum and ambient test conditions, and a photographic method for detecting heating boundaries. The test plan and thermal mapping techniques are discussed.

  2. Mutagenicity of organic emissions from unvented kerosene heaters in a chamber study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, J L; Lewtas, J; Williams, K; Tucker, W G; Traynor, G W

    1992-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the mutagenicity of semivolatile organics and particle-bound organics emitted from unvented kerosene space heaters. The units tested included a well-tuned radiant heater and a maltuned convective heater. The tests were conducted in a 27-m3 chamber with a prescribed on/off heater usage pattern. The organic emissions were collected on Teflon-coated glass filters backed by XAD-2 resin. The dichloromethane-extractable organics from both the filters and the XAD were analyzed for nitropolycyclic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and were bioassayed for mutagenicity in microsuspension assays using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 with and without S9 and TA98NR (a nitroreductase-deficient strain) without S9. The results showed that both the semivolatile and particle-bound organics emitted from the kerosene heaters were mutagenic, and the presence of nitropolycyclic hydrocarbons in these organic emissions substantiated these findings.

  3. Protection Heater Design Validation for the LARP Magnets Using Thermal Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Marchevsky, M; Cheng, D W; Felice, H; Sabbi, G; Salmi, T; Stenvall, A; Chlachidze, G; Ambrosio, G; Ferracin, P; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Perez, J C; Todesco, E

    2016-01-01

    Protection heaters are essential elements of a quench protection scheme for high-field accelerator magnets. Various heater designs fabricated by LARP and CERN have been already tested in the LARP high-field quadrupole HQ and presently being built into the coils of the high-field quadrupole MQXF. In order to compare the heat flow characteristics and thermal diffusion timescales of different heater designs, we powered heaters of two different geometries in ambient conditions and imaged the resulting thermal distributions using a high-sensitivity thermal video camera. We observed a peculiar spatial periodicity in the temperature distribution maps potentially linked to the structure of the underlying cable. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of heat diffusion and spatial heat distribution have been conducted, and the results of simulation and experiment have been compared. Imaging revealed hot spots due to a current concentration around high curvature points of heater strip of varying cross sections and visuali...

  4. Proceedings of a workshop on the utilization of coal fuels in process heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Almost 5% of the nation's energy consumption takes place in tubular process heaters. Currently, these units are gas- and, to a lesser extent, oil-fired. Process heaters provide energy for refining petroleum and the manufacture of numerous chemicals and petrochemicals. Since the current state-of-the-art, using waste heat recovery and forced draft burners, can achieve thermal efficiencies of about 90%, it is unlikely that current process heat and fuel requirements will be dramatically reduced by process modifications and/or conservation measures. Hence, if this sizeable, inexorable drain on our fluid petroleum reserves is to be halted, it seems reasonable to consider the utilization of coal and/or coal-based fuels to fire process heaters. In order to assess the feasibility and potential for a coal-based process heater industry, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) organized a workshop to define and explore the various problems that must be solved in order to burn coal in process heaters. A primary aim of the workshop was to consider the design methodology for process heaters when firing coal and compare it to those for gas and oil firing. The overall conclusions were: that retrofitting present process heaters to coal fuel was impractical; that it would be difficult to fit larger heaters designed to burn coal into present refineries; that there would be difficulties with process heaters burning coal; and that a better approach would be one large utility coal heater with a circulating heat transfer medium. Seven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  5. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Fang, X.; Wilson, E.

    2013-05-01

    Gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the US installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many preexisting models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work.

  6. Prediction of heater power distribution in radiative cylindrical furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, M.; Dilber, I.; Torok, D.

    1999-07-01

    In the design of long radiative cylindrical furnaces, it is important to control the temperature variation along the furnace walls and consequently the temperature distribution in the processed material by selectively adjusting the power input to heater rods located circumferentially around the furnace walls. The heaters are grouped in zones located at different axial locations. By adjusting the power to each zone a specified temperature distribution along the furnace can be attained. The radiative interchange between different axial zones of the furnace affects the temperature distribution; this interchange is also impacted by the shadowing caused by the presence of the load, i.e. the processed material. A desired temperature distribution can only be achieved by selectively changing the power input to the heaters. For an a priori assessment of the commercial viability of using process friendly temperature distributions, it is necessary to determine: (a) the maximum power demand from each zone; (b) if active cooling is inevitable and (c) the bounds on temperature distribution that can be achieved without active cooling. It is therefore extremely useful to be able to predict the input power distribution for achieving desired furnace temperature profiles. For a given power input, the temperature distribution inside the furnace could be obtained by using a general purpose Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, such as FIDAP. A new methodology is developed within the framework of FIDAP software to eliminate the manual trial and error method. The method is based on obtaining the sensitivity of the temperature at the desired locations of the furnace as a function of the power input to the heating elements. Using these sensitivity coefficients, an iterative scheme is designed to adjust the boundary conditions (power to the heating elements in this case) based on the discrepancy of the solution temperatures from the desired temperature distribution. For each of these

  7. Monitoring and modelling of thermo-hydro-mechanical processes - main results of a heater experiment at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingeborg, G.; Alheid, H.J. [BGR - Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Jockwerz, N. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) - Final Repository Research Division, Braunschweig (Germany); Mayor, J.C. [ENRESA - Empresa Nacional des Residuos Radioactivos, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Siner, J.L. [AITEMIN -Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarrollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales, Madrid, (Spain); Alonso, E. [CIMNE - Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria, UPC, Barcelona (Spain); Weber, H.P. [NAGRA - National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Wettingen (Switzerland); Plotze, M. [ETHZ - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, IGT, Zurich, (Switzerland); Klubertanz, G. [COLENCO Power Engineering Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    The long-term safety of permanent underground repositories relies on a combination of engineered and geological barriers, so that the interactions between the barriers in response to conditions expected in a high-level waste repository need to be identified and fully understood. Co-financed by the European Community, a heater experiment was realized on a pilot plant scale at the underground laboratory in Mont Terri, Switzerland. The experiment was accompanied by an extensive programme of continuous monitoring, experimental investigations on-site as well as in laboratories, and numerical modelling of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes. Heat-producing waste was simulated by a heater element of 10 cm diameter, held at a constant surface temperature of 100 C. The heater element (length 2 m) operated in a vertical borehole of 7 m depth at 4 to 6 m depth. It was embedded in a geotechnical barrier of pre-compacted bentonite blocks (outer diameter 30 cm) that were irrigated for 35 months before the heating phase (duration 18 months) began. The host rock is a highly consolidated stiff Jurassic clay stone (Opalinus Clay). After the heating phase, the vicinity of the heater element was explored by seismic, hydraulic, and geotechnical tests to investigate if the heating had induced changes in the Opalinus Clay. Additionally, rock mechanic specimens were tested in the laboratory. Finally, the experiment was dismantled to provide laboratory specimens of post - heating buffer and host rock material. The bentonite blocks were thoroughly wetted at the time of the dismantling. The volume increase amounted to 5 to 9% and was thus below the bentonite potential. Geo-electrical measurements showed no decrease of the water content in the vicinity of the heater during the heating phase. Decreasing energy input to the heater element over time suggests hence, that the bentonite dried leading to a decrease of its thermal conductivity. Gas release during the heating period occurred

  8. Controlled cellular fusion using optically trapped plasmonic nano-heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Azra; Lund, Andreas R.; Semsey, Szabolcs; Oddershede, Lene B.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2016-09-01

    Optically trapped plasmonic nano-heaters are used to mediate efficient and controlled fusion of biological membranes. The fusion method is demonstrated by optically trapping plasmonic nanoparticles located in between vesicle membranes leading to rapid lipid and content mixing. As an interesting application we show how direct control over fusion can be used for studying diffusion of peripheral membrane proteins and their interactions with membranes and for studying protein reactions. Membrane proteins encapsulated in an inert vesicle can be transferred to a vesicle composed of negative lipids by optically induced fusion. Mixing of the two membranes results in a fused vesicle with a high affinity for the protein and we observe immediate membrane tubulation due to the activity of the protein. Fusion of distinct membrane compartments also has applications in small scale chemistry for realizing pico-liter reactions and offers many exciting applications within biology which are discussed here.

  9. Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Pump Working as a Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassem, Mohamed Mehdi; Ueda, Yuki; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2011-10-01

    A prototype thermoacoustic heat pump working as a heater was demonstrated. The heat pump was composed of an acoustic driver, a branched tube, and a looped tube containing a regenerator; the looped tube was connected to the acoustic driver via the branched tube, and the regenerator consisted of many narrow flow channels. The measurement results of the acoustic impedance inside the looped tube indicated that the energy conversion of the acoustic power flow into the acoustic heat flow in the regenerator occurred through the inherently efficient Stirling cycle. Moreover, the heat pump generated a hot temperature of 370 °C, corresponding to a temperature lift along the regenerator of 340 °C.

  10. Results of MPBX studies at the single heater test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S. C.,LLNL

    1997-10-01

    We have developed an extensometer for measurement of distance and displacements in a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. This is an optical extensometer that measures distance using a modulated laser beam. In this design, reflecting targets are placed at desired measurement locations, and distance between each target and an optical head are measured repeatedly using the modulated laser beam. Moreover, all electronic and moving parts are located outside of the hostile or difficult environment as the optical head is connected to the laser, switching and signal analysis hardware using optical fibers. A reference beam is utilized to provide direct correction of system behavior. `Be system also - utilizes movable reflective anchors that can be repositioned if desired. We have installed the system in the Single Heater Test being conducted in Alcove 5 of the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, and report preliminary results.

  11. Thin Film Heater for Removable Volatile Protecting Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshly coated aluminum mirrors have excellent reflectivity at far ultraviolet wavelengths. However, reflectivity rapidly degrades when the mirror surfaces are exposed to atmosphere. In order to avoid this problem, freshly coated aluminum surface can be protected by over-coating of a removable volatile protecting coating. This protecting coating can be re-evaporated by controlled heating or by some other methods when required. This type of removable coating has immediate application in UV space astronomy. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of re-evaporation of removable volatile Zn protecting coating using a NiCr thin film heater without affecting the reflection properties of Al mirror surfaces.

  12. Modelling of Closed Loop Class E Inverter Based Induction Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arumugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents simulation of class E inverter based induction heater system using simulink. DC is converted into high frequency AC using class E inverter. This high frequency AC is used for induction heating. Closed loop systems are modeled and they are simulated using Mat lab Simulink.The results of closed loop systems are presented. The proposed amplifier with two series-parallel resonant load networks will allow sinusoidal output voltage to be achieved by associating with the positive and negative quasi-sinusoidal waveforms. The complementarily activated configuration will provide continuous high-ripple-frequency inputcurrent waveforms; this approach significantly reduces electromagnetic interference and requires very little filtering. With the symmetry of the push-pull Class-E Circuit, there is the additional benefit that the even harmonics are suppressed at the load, and thus there are fewer harmonic distortions.

  13. FEM Optimal Design of Wind Energy-based Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Tudorache

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the finite element based optimal design of a wind energybased heater. The proposed device ensures the conversion of the wind kinetic energy intoheat by means of Joule effect of eddy currents induced in the wall of a tubular stator due tothe rotating magnetic field produced by rotor permanent magnets. The transientelectromagnetic field problem associated to the operation of the device is solved using a2D finite element approach based on vector potential formulation. A simplified method forthe 2D heat transfer analysis of the device is also proposed. The influence of stator wallmaterial and thickness, number of poles, the airgap thickness and the geometricalparameters of the permanent magnets is analyzed in the aim of optimizing the studiedheater.

  14. Application of vapor-liquid two-phase flow technology in upgrading high/low pressure heater drain system of thermal power plant%汽液两相流技术在火电厂高低压加热器疏水改造中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problems existed in traditional basis pneumatic regulating mode such as the water level of high/low pressure heater becoming out of control, operation of heater with full water level or no water level, water - level fluctuation of heater and so on, the application of vapor - liquid two - phase flow automatic - regulation water level control device in upgrading high/low heater hydrophobic modification system of 125 MW turboset has guaranteed the stability of water level of heater, enhanced the safety of the turboset and saved the fire coal and costs of maintenance.%针对传统的基地式气动调节方式存在的高、低压加热器水位失控,加热器满水位或无水位运行及加热器水位波动大等问题,将汽液两相流自调节水位控制装置应用在125 MW汽轮发电机组高、低加热器疏水改造系统上,保证了加热器的水位稳定性,提高了机组的安全性,节约了燃煤和维护费用.

  15. Three-Dimensional Printable High-Temperature and High-Rate Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yonggang; Fu, Kun Kelvin; Yan, Chaoyi; Dai, Jiaqi; Chen, Yanan; Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Bilun; Hitz, Emily; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-05-24

    High temperature heaters are ubiquitously used in materials synthesis and device processing. In this work, we developed three-dimensional (3D) printed reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-based heaters to function as high-performance thermal supply with high temperature and ultrafast heating rate. Compared with other heating sources, such as furnace, laser, and infrared radiation, the 3D printed heaters demonstrated in this work have the following distinct advantages: (1) the RGO based heater can operate at high temperature up to 3000 K because of using the high temperature-sustainable carbon material; (2) the heater temperature can be ramped up and down with extremely fast rates, up to ∼20 000 K/second; (3) heaters with different shapes can be directly printed with small sizes and onto different substrates to enable heating anywhere. The 3D printable RGO heaters can be applied to a wide range of nanomanufacturing when precise temperature control in time, placement, and the ramping rate are important.

  16. Thermal response of transparent silver nanowire/PEDOT:PSS film heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shulin; He, Weiwei; Wang, Ke; Ran, Yunxia; Ye, Changhui

    2014-12-10

    Thermal response behavior of transparent silver nanowire/PEDOT:PSS film heaters are intensively studied for manipulating heating temperature, response time, and power consumption. Influences of substrate heat capacity, heat transfer coefficient between air and heater, sheet resistance and dimension of Ag nanowire film, on the thermal response are investigated from thermodynamic analysis. Suggestion is given for practical applications that if other parameters are fixed, Ag nanowire coverage can be utilized as an effective parameter to adjust the thermal response. The heat transfer coefficient plays opposite roles on thermal response speed and achievable steady temperature. A value of ≈32 W m(-2) K(-1) is obtained from transient process analysis after correcting it by considering heater resistance variation during heating tests. Guidance of designing heaters with a given response time is provided by forming Ag nanowire film with a suitable sheet resistance on substrate of appropriate material and a certain thickness. Thermal response tests of designed Ag heaters are performed to show higher heating temperature, shorter response time, and lower power consumption (179 °C cm(2) W(-1)) than ITO/FTO heaters, as well as homogeneous temperature distribution and stability for repeated use. Potential applications of the Ag heaters in window defogging, sensing and thermochromism are manifested.

  17. Atomization of High-Viscosity Fluids for Aromatherapy Using Micro-heaters for Heterogeneous Bubble Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Junhui; Kong, Ka Wai; Chan, Ho-Yin; Sun, Winston; Li, Wen Jung; Chau, Eric Boa Fung; Chan, George Kak Man

    2017-01-01

    The development of a novel lead-free microelectromechanical-system (MEMS)-based atomizer using the principle of thermal bubble actuation is presented. It is a low-cost, lead-free design that is environmentally friendly and harmless to humans. It has been tested to be applicable over a wide range of fluid viscosities, ranging from 1 cP (e.g., water) to 200 cP (e.g., oil-like fluid) at room temperature, a range that is difficult to achieve using ordinary atomizers. The results demonstrate that the average power consumption of the atomizer is approximately 1 W with an atomization rate of 0.1 to 0.3 mg of deionized (DI) water per cycle. The relationships between the micro-heater track width and the track gap, the size of the micro-cavities and the nucleation energy were studied to obtain an optimal atomizer design. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) results indicate that the diameter of the ejected droplets ranges from 30 to 90 μm with a speed of 20 to 340 mm/s. In addition, different modes of spraying are reported for the first time. It is envisioned that the successful development of this MEMS-based atomizing technology will revolutionize the existing market for atomizers and could also benefit different industries, particularly in applications involving viscous fluids. PMID:28074925

  18. Atomization of High-Viscosity Fluids for Aromatherapy Using Micro-heaters for Heterogeneous Bubble Nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Junhui; Kong, Ka Wai; Chan, Ho-Yin; Sun, Winston; Li, Wen Jung; Chau, Eric Boa Fung; Chan, George Kak Man

    2017-01-11

    The development of a novel lead-free microelectromechanical-system (MEMS)-based atomizer using the principle of thermal bubble actuation is presented. It is a low-cost, lead-free design that is environmentally friendly and harmless to humans. It has been tested to be applicable over a wide range of fluid viscosities, ranging from 1 cP (e.g., water) to 200 cP (e.g., oil-like fluid) at room temperature, a range that is difficult to achieve using ordinary atomizers. The results demonstrate that the average power consumption of the atomizer is approximately 1 W with an atomization rate of 0.1 to 0.3 mg of deionized (DI) water per cycle. The relationships between the micro-heater track width and the track gap, the size of the micro-cavities and the nucleation energy were studied to obtain an optimal atomizer design. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) results indicate that the diameter of the ejected droplets ranges from 30 to 90 μm with a speed of 20 to 340 mm/s. In addition, different modes of spraying are reported for the first time. It is envisioned that the successful development of this MEMS-based atomizing technology will revolutionize the existing market for atomizers and could also benefit different industries, particularly in applications involving viscous fluids.

  19. Atomization of High-Viscosity Fluids for Aromatherapy Using Micro-heaters for Heterogeneous Bubble Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Junhui; Kong, Ka Wai; Chan, Ho-Yin; Sun, Winston; Li, Wen Jung; Chau, Eric Boa Fung; Chan, George Kak Man

    2017-01-01

    The development of a novel lead-free microelectromechanical-system (MEMS)-based atomizer using the principle of thermal bubble actuation is presented. It is a low-cost, lead-free design that is environmentally friendly and harmless to humans. It has been tested to be applicable over a wide range of fluid viscosities, ranging from 1 cP (e.g., water) to 200 cP (e.g., oil-like fluid) at room temperature, a range that is difficult to achieve using ordinary atomizers. The results demonstrate that the average power consumption of the atomizer is approximately 1 W with an atomization rate of 0.1 to 0.3 mg of deionized (DI) water per cycle. The relationships between the micro-heater track width and the track gap, the size of the micro-cavities and the nucleation energy were studied to obtain an optimal atomizer design. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) results indicate that the diameter of the ejected droplets ranges from 30 to 90 μm with a speed of 20 to 340 mm/s. In addition, different modes of spraying are reported for the first time. It is envisioned that the successful development of this MEMS-based atomizing technology will revolutionize the existing market for atomizers and could also benefit different industries, particularly in applications involving viscous fluids.

  20. Effects of heater location and heater size on the natural convection heat transfer in a square cavity using finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Ich Long; Byon, Chan [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Finite element method was used to investigate the effects of heater location and heater size on the natural convection heat transfer in a 2D square cavity heated partially or fully from below and cooled from above. Rayleigh number (5 X 10{sup 2} ≤ Ra ≤ 5X10{sup 5}), heater size (0.1 ≤ D/L ≤ 1.0), and heater location (0.1 ≤ x{sub h}/L ≤ 0.5) were considered. Numerical results indicated that the average Nusselt number (Nu{sub m}) increases as the heater size decreases. In addition, when x{sub h}/L is less than 0.4, Nu{sub m} increases as x{sub h}/L increases, and Num decreases again for a larger value of x{sub h}/L. However, this trend changes when Ra is less than 10{sup 4}, suggesting that Nu{sub m} attains its maximum value at the region close to the bottom surface center. This study aims to gain insight into the behaviors of natural convection in order to potentially improve internal natural convection heat transfer.

  1. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. Energy...

  2. Numerical investigation of pure mixed convection in a ferrofluid-filled lid-driven cavity for different heater configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Md. Rabbi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed convection has been a center point of attraction to the heat transfer engineers for many years. Here, pure mixed convection analysis in cavity is carried out for two different geometric heater configurations under externally applied magnetic field. Ferrofluid (Fe3O4–water is considered as working fluid and modeled as single phase fluid. The heaters at the bottom wall are kept at constant high temperature while vertical side walls are adiabatic. The top wall is moving at a constant velocity in both geometric configurations and is kept at constant low temperature. Galerkin weighted residuals method of finite element analysis is implemented to solve the governing equations. The analysis has been carried out for a wide range of Richardson number (Ri = 0.1–10, Reynolds number (Re = 100–500, Hartmann number (Ha = 0–100 and solid volume fraction (φ = 0–0.15 of ferrofluid. The overall heat transfer performance for both the configurations is quantitatively investigated by average Nusselt number at the heated boundary wall. It is observed that higher Ri enhances the heat transfer rate, although higher Ha decreases heat transfer rate. Moreover, at higher Ri and lower Ha, semi-circular notched cavity shows significantly better (more than 30% heat transfer rate.

  3. Analysis and selection of high pressure heaters design for a new generation of NPP with BN-1200 reactor plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Trifonov, N. N.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Esin, S. B.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Prikhod'ko, P. Yu.; Nazarov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    In the development of advanced high-power steam-turbine plants (STP), special attention is placed on the design of reliable and economical high-pressure heater (HPH) capable to maintain the specified thermal hydraulic performance during the entire service life. Comparative analysis of the known designs of HPH, such as the spiral-collector HPH, the collector-coiled HPH, the collector-platen HPH, modular HPH, and the chamber HPH, was carried out. The advantages and disadvantages of each design were pointed. For better comparison, the heaters are separated into two groups—horizontal and vertical ones. The weight and dimension characteristics, the materials and features of the basic elements, and operating features of variety HPH are presented. At operating the spiral-collector HPH used in the majority of regenerative schemes of high-pressure STP of thermal and nuclear power plants, the disadvantages reducing the economy and reliability of their operation were revealed. The recommendations directed to the reliability growth of HPH, the decrease of subcooling the feed water, the increase of compactness are stated. Some of these were developed by the specialists of OAO NPO TsKTI and are successfully implemented on the thermal power plants and nuclear power plants. Technical solutions to reduce the cost of regeneration system and the weight of chamber HPH, reduce the thickness of the tube plate of HPH, and reliability assurance of the cooler of steam and condensate built in the HPH casing under all operating conditions were proposed. Three types of feed water chambers for vertical and horizontal chamber HPH are considered in detail, the constructive solutions that have been implemented in HPH of the regeneration system of turbines of 1000 and 1200 MW capacity with water-moderated water-cooled power reactor (WMWCPR) are described. The optimal design of HPH for the regeneration system of high-pressure turbine plant with BN-1200 reactor was selected.

  4. Swift BAT Thermal Recovery After Loop Heat Pipe #0 Secondary Heater Controller Failure in October 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    The Swift BAT LHP #0 primary heater controller failed on March 31, 2010. It has been disabled. On October 31, 2015, the secondary heater controller of this LHP failed. On November 1, 2015, the LHP #0 CC temperature increased to as 18.6 C, despite that the secondary heater controller set point was 8.8 C. It caused the average DM XA1 temperature to increase to 25.9 C, which was 5 C warmer than nominal. As a result, the detectors became noisy. To solve this problem, the LHP #1 secondary heater controller set point was decreased in 0.5 C decrements to 2.2 C. The set-point decrease restored the average DM XA1 temperature to a nominal value of 19.7 C on November 21.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Induction Through-Heater in Dynamic Operation Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCURTU Gheorghe Lucian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The numeric model used in this paper is based on the finite element method and is aiming an inductive heating in volume of a cylindrical structure in a dynamic operation mode. Nowadays the inductionthrough-heaters are usually designed to provide the required characteristics in “quasi” steady-state operation mode mainly. However, in industrial practice the heaters can operate under various disturbances more than half of time, so the transient process playsignificant role in effectiveness and quality of the heating. Investigation of dynamic characteristics of the heaters in dynamic modes can be only done by numerical modeling based on special algorithms providing a time loop additionally to coupling betweenelectromagnetic and thermal analysis. Such numerical models have been developed and used for investigation of dynamic modes for heating billets. The results of numerical simulation can be used for design ofinduction through-heaters and improvement of their characteristics in dynamic operation modes.

  6. Analytical model for ring heater thermal compensation in the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramette, Joshua; Kasprzack, Marie; Brooks, Aidan; Blair, Carl; Wang, Haoyu; Heintze, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Advanced laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors use high laser power to achieve design sensitivity. A small part of this power is absorbed in the interferometer cavity mirrors where it creates thermal lenses, causing aberrations in the main laser beam that must be minimized by the actuation of "ring heaters," which are additional heater elements that are aimed to reduce the temperature gradients in the mirrors. In this article we derive the first, to the best of our knowledge, analytical model of the temperature field generated by an ideal ring heater. We express the resulting optical aberration contribution to the main laser beam in this axisymmetric case. Used in conjunction with wavefront measurements, our model provides a more complete understanding of the thermal state of the cavity mirrors and will allow a more efficient use of the ring heaters in the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

  7. Self-regulating heater application to Shuttle/Centaur hydrazine fuel line thermal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkrich, David B.

    1987-01-01

    The Shuttle/Centaur high energy upper stage vehicle thermal environments were more severe than previous Centaur vehicle thermal environments, creating need for a new hydrazine fuel line thermal control technique. Constant power heaters did not satisfy power dissipation requirements, because the power required to maintain fuel line thermal control during cold conditions exceeded the maximum power allowable during hot conditions. Therefore, a Raychem Thermolimit self-regulating heater was selected for this application, and was attached to the hydrazine fuel line with Kapton and aluminum foil tapes. Fuel line/heater thermal modeling and subsequent thermal vacuum chamber testing simulated heater thermal performance during all worst-case Shuttle/Centaur thermal environmental conditions. Fuel line temperatures were maintained between the 4C to 71C limits during all analytical and test cases. Finally, the thermal model predictions were correlated with the test data, thereby ensuring that the model would provide satisfactory predictions for future missions and/or vehicles.

  8. Towards the Development of a Novel CNTs-based Flexible Mild Heater for Art Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Markevicius

    2014-03-01

    tests performed on a series of prototypes of the designed heaters showed that the device was able to convey uniform heating on different working materials, thus proving to be effective for thermal consolidation.

  9. Temperature Profiles During Quenches in LHC Superconducting Dipole Magnets Protected by Quench Heaters

    CERN Document Server

    Maroussov, V; Siemko, A

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of the magnet protection by quench heaters was studied using a novel method which derives the temperature profile in a superconducting magnet during a quench from measured voltage signals. In several Large Hadron Collider single aperture dipole models, temperature profiles and temperature gradients in the magnet coil have been evaluated in the case of protection by different sets of quench heaters and different powering and protection parameters. The influence of the insulation thickness between the quench heaters and the coil has also been considered. The results show clear correlation between the positions of quench heaters, magnet protection parameters and temperature profiles. This study allowed a better understanding of the quench process mechanisms and the efficiency assessment of the different protection schemes.

  10. Ultrathin Polyimide-Stainless Steel Heater for Vacuum System Bake-out

    CERN Document Server

    Rathjen, Christian; Henrist, Bernard; Kölemeijer, Wilhelmus; Libera, Bruno; Lutkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2005-01-01

    Space constraints in several normal conducting magnets of the LHC required the development of a dedicated permanent heater for vacuum chamber bake-out. The new heater consists of stainless steel bands inside layers of polyimide. The overall heater thickness is about 0.3 mm. The low magnetic permeability is suitable for applications in magnetic fields. The material combination allows for temperatures high enough to activate a NEG coating. Fabrication is performed in consecutive steps of tape wrapping. Automation makes high volume production at low costs possible. About 800 m of warm vacuum system of the long straight sections of the LHC will be equipped with the new heater. This paper covers experience gained at CERN from studies up to industrialization.

  11. A Simple Substrate Heater Device With Temperature Controller for Thin Film Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rendón

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple substrate heater and its temperature controller were designed and built in order to prepare thin films in a highvacuum deposition system. The substrate heater was elaborated with a glass-ceramic body and a molybdenum foilheater. The applied power and the temperature are regulated by a power controller board using a microcontrollerprogrammed with a proportional-integrative-derivative algorithm. The heater/controller system was tested in a highvacuum deposition system and the results of its characterization at 100, 200, 300 and 400 °C are presented. Avariation in temperature better than ± 0.5 °C was obtained for all the tested temperatures. An application of thesubstrate heater is demonstrated by evaporating gold thin films on heated glass substrates.

  12. Energy-efficient tunable silicon photonic micro-resonator with graphene transparent nano-heaters

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Longhai; Dai, Daoxin; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    Thermally-tuning silicon micro-cavities are versatile and beneficial elements in low-cost large-scale photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Traditional metal heaters used for thermal tuning in silicon micro-cavities usually need a thick SiO2 upper-cladding layer, which will introduce some disadvantages including low response speed, low heating efficiency, low achievable temperature and complicated fabrication processes. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate thermally-tuning silicon micro-disk resonators by introducing graphene transparent nano-heaters, which contacts the silicon core directly without any isolator layer. This makes the graphene transparent nano-heater potentially to have excellent performances in terms of the heating efficiency, the temporal response and the achievable temperature. It is also shown that the graphene nano-heater is convenient to be used in ultrasmall photonic integrated devices due to the single-atom thickness and excellent flexibility of graphene. Both experi...

  13. Analysis of exergy and parametric study of a v-corrugated solar air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayatizadeh, Mahdi [University of Tabriz, Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Birjand, Faculty of Agriculture, P.O. Box 97175/331, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ajabshirchi, Yahya [University of Tabriz, Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarhaddi, Faramarz; Farahat, Said [University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, P.O. Box 98164/161, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safavinejad, Ali [University of Birjand, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chaji, Hossein [University of Tabriz, Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Khorasan Razavi Province, Ministry of Agriculture, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Solar air heater requires investigation for enhancement of solar energy conversion into heat. Different configurations with various artificial roughness geometries are proposed to date. In present study attention is paid on ways leading to more delivery of exergy by a v-corrugated solar air heater through parametric study. Effects of aspect ratio of the collector, inlet air temperature, mass flow rate per collector area etc. are studied. (orig.)

  14. 高压加热器运行中存在的问题及对策%Existing Problems and Countermeasure on the Operation of High Pressure Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李航; 魏科

    2012-01-01

    Pointed out that the thermal power plant of high pressure heater leakage of high pressure heater leakage phenomenon,after the influence on the unit,in response to high pressure heater tubes and expanding mouth leak exists,automatic feed water bypass sealing is poor,poor drainage system automatically into some of the more common problems,analyze the reasons of the causes,proposes treatment countermeasures.%指出了火力电厂高压加热器泄漏的现象,高压加热器泄漏后对机组的影响,针对高压加热器存在的管子及胀口泄漏、给水自动旁路密封不佳、疏水系统自动投入不良等一些较普遍的问题,分析问题的成因,提出针对性的处理对策。

  15. Design, Construction, and Qualification of a Microscale Heater Array for Use in Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, T. D.; Kim, J.; Kalkur, T. S.

    1998-01-01

    Boiling heat transfer is an efficient means of heat transfer because a large amount of heat can be removed from a surface using a relatively small temperature difference between the surface and the bulk liquid. However, the mechanisms that govern boiling heat transfer are not well understood. Measurements of wall temperature and heat flux near the wall would add to the database of knowledge which is necessary to understand the mechanisms of nucleate boiling. A heater array has been developed which contains 96 heater elements within a 2.5 mm square area. The temperature of each heater element is held constant by an electronic control system similar to a hot-wire anemometer. The voltage that is being applied to each heater element can be measured and digitized using a high-speed A/D converter, and this digital information can be compiled into a series of heat-flux maps. Information for up to 10,000 heat flux maps can be obtained each second. The heater control system, the A/D system and the heater array construction are described in detail. Results are presented which show that this is an effective method of measuring the local heat flux during nucleate and transition boiling. Heat flux maps are obtained for pool boiling in FC-72 on a horizontal surface. Local heat flux variations are shown to be three to six times larger than variations in the spatially averaged heat flux.

  16. Heater induced thermal effects on the LTP dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gibert, Ferran; Lobo, Alberto; Díaz-Aguiló, Marc; Mateos, Ignacio; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Sanjuán, Josep; Gesa, Lluís; lloro, Ivan; Martín, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    The STOC (Science and Technology Operations Centre) simulator of the LPF (LISA PathFinder) mission is intended to provide a validation tool for the mission operations tele-commanding chain, as well as for a deeper understanding of the underlying physical processes happening in the LTP (LISA Technology Package). Amongst the different physical effects that will appear onboard, temperature fluctuations in the Electrode Housing (EH) could generate disturbances on the interferometer (IFO) readouts, therefore they must be known and controlled. In this article we report on the latest progress in the analysis at IEEC of the LTP response to thermal signals injected by means of heaters. More specifically, we determine the transfer functions relating heat input signals to forces on the Test Masses (TMs) in the LTP frequency band, from 1 mHz to 30 mHz. A complete thermal model of the entire LPF spacecraft plus payload, elaborated and maintained at European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), was used to obtain temperature d...

  17. Solar-Powered Cooler and Heater for an Automobile Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    The apparatus would include a solar photovoltaic panel mounted on the roof and a panellike assembly mounted in a window opening. The window-mounted assembly would include a stack of thermoelectric devices sandwiched between two heat sinks. A fan would circulate interior air over one heat sink. Another fan would circulate exterior air over the other heat sink. The fans and the thermoelectric devices would be powered by the solar photovoltaic panel. By means of a double-pole, double-throw switch, the panel voltage fed to the thermoelectric stack would be set to the desired polarity: For cooling operation, the chosen polarity would be one in which the thermoelectric devices transport heat from the inside heat sink to the outside one; for heating operation, the opposite polarity would be chosen. Because thermoelectric devices are more efficient in heating than in cooling, this apparatus would be more effective as a heater than as a cooler. However, if the apparatus were to include means to circulate air between the outside and the inside without opening the windows, then its effectiveness as a cooler in a hot, sunny location would be increased.

  18. Light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Rinehart, G. H.; Herrera, A.; Lopez, B.; Lynch, C.; Moniz, P.

    1998-01-01

    The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a 238PuO2-fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. Los Alamos National Laboratory designed, fabricated, and safety tested the LWRHU. The heat source consists of a hot-pressed 238PuO2 fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a fineweave-pierced fabric graphite aeroshell assembly. To compare the performance of the LWRHUs fabricated for the Cassini mission with the performance of those fabricated for the Galileo mission, and to determine a failure threshold, two types of impact tests were conducted. A post-reentry impact test was performed on one of 180 flight-quality units produced for the Cassini mission and a series of sequential impact tests using simulant-fueled LWRHU capsules were conducted respectively. The results showed that deformation and fuel containment of the impacted Cassini LWRHU was similar to that of a previously tested Galileo LWRHU. Both units sustained minimal deformation of the aeroshell and fueled capsule; the fuel was entirely contained by the platinum capsule. Sequential impacting, in both end-on and side-on orientations, resulted in increased damage with each subsequent impact. Sequential impacting of the LWRHU appears to result in slightly greater damage than a single impact at the final impact velocity of 50 m/s.

  19. Heat Flux at the Surface of Metal Foil Heater under Evaporating Sessile Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Marchuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporating water drops on a horizontal heated substrate were investigated experimentally. The heater was made of a constantan foil with the thickness of 25 μm and size of 42 × 35 mm2. The temperature of the bottom foil surface was measured by the infrared (IR camera. To determine the heat flux density during evaporation of liquid near the contact line, the Cauchy problem for the heat equation was solved using the temperature data. The maximum heat flux density is obtained in the contact line region and exceeds the average heat flux density from the entire foil surface by the factor of 5–7. The average heat flux density in the region wetted by the drop exceeds the average heat flux density from the entire foil surface by the factor of 3–5. This fact is explained by the heat influx from the foil periphery to the drop due to the relatively high heat conductivity coefficient of the foil material and high evaporation rate in the contact line region. Heat flux density profiles for pairs of sessile droplets are also investigated.

  20. MHD natural convection in an inclined wavy cavity with corner heater filled with a nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet, M. A.; Oztop, H. F.; Pop, I.

    2016-10-01

    A mathematical modelling of MHD free convection in an inclined wavy enclosure filled with a Cu-water nanofluid in the presence of an isothermal corner heater has been carried out. The cavity is heated from the left bottom corner and cooled from the top wavy wall while the rest walls are adiabatic. Uniform magnetic field affects the heat transfer and fluid flow with an inclination angle to the axis xbar. Wavy cavity is inclined to the horizontal direction. Mathematical model formulated using the single-phase nanofluid approach in dimensionless variables stream function, vorticity and temperature has been solved by finite difference method of the second order accuracy in a wide range of governing parameters: Hartmann number (Ha=0-100), inclination angle of the magnetic field (χ = 0 - π) , undulation number (κ=0-4), inclination angle of the cavity (ζ = 0 - π) , solid volume fraction parameter of nanoparticles (φ=0.0-0.05), and dimensionless time (τ=0-0.27). Main efforts have been focused on the effects of these parameters on the fluid flow and heat transfer inside the cavity. Numerical results have been presented in the form of streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt numbers.

  1. 77 FR 33337 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... products, lighting products, ceiling fans, certain types of water heaters, and televisions.\\4\\ \\1\\ 42 U.S.C... heaters); 71 FR 78057 (Dec. 26, 2006) (ceiling fans); and 76 FR 1038 (Jan. 6, 2011) (televisions). The... hourly wage of $23.42 per hour,\\50\\ the associated labor cost would approximate $11,710 per year (500...

  2. Creating a Comprehensive Solar Water Heating Deployment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-08-18

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  3. Optimized wood/pellet heater with flue gas condensation; Optimerad ved/pelletspanna med roekgaskondensering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Christian; Ramstroem, Erik; Berge, Niklas [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    To increase the efficiency of small-scale combustion equipment it is possible to cool the flue gas and condense the water vapor in the flue gas in a flue gas condenser. This also makes it possible to reduce the emissions of particles and unburnt hydrocarbon if the condenser is designed in a suitable way. This work concerns flue gas condensation with respect to the design of the condenser, the handling of the condensate and the integration of the flue gas condenser in a heating system from a technical and an economical point of view. The results from laboratory experiments shows that a flue gas condenser, designed as a plate heat exchanger, connected to a wood pellet fired heater reduces the emissions of both particles and unburnt hydrocarbons. A reduction of 10 to 77% of the particle content in the gas was achieved, the content of hydrocarbons (BTX) was reduced by 50 to 91 %. It was not possible to see any effect on the emissions by changing the design of the condenser, due to the relatively large scatter in the determined particle content in the gas. When it comes to cooling capacity the trends were however more clear; the cooling capacity was strongly dependent on the design of the condenser. It was possible to increase the cooling capacity of the condenser with 124% by changing the condenser design from a reference case with conventional design of the condenser with flat walls, to a design with a corrugated shape of the wall. For a typical domestic wood stove heater of 30 kW this means that the cooling capacity in a condenser under similar conditions increases from 3.3 to 7.4 kW. The addition of water in a spray in the gas upstream of the condenser had only a limited effect on the cooling capacity. The condensate from the condenser was analyzed with respect to the components that currently are regulated for disposal to the district sewer system. The analyses showed that the condensate most likely could be disposed to the sewer system directly without any

  4. Determination of inorganic compounds in drinking water on the basis of household water heater scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of fractional extraction from sediment — in our analyses it is scale, is based on the assumption that uranium with a solid substance conform bonds of different strength and that these bonds can be gradually fractionated by the action of reagents of increasing dissolving power whereby the separated phases of extraction are defined according to their function or the type of bond in that substance. The advantage of this analytical procedure is that it enables simultaneous observing of different forms of uranium emergence in sediment (solid substance, which cannot be achieved by using individual extraction methods. Using the method of fractional analysis, it has been found that uranium is mostly connected with mobile fraction - manganese and iron oxides (94.20 and 87.96 wt.% which represents the fraction that is potentially accessible to human organism.

  5. Expert Meeting Report. Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Osser, R. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This Building America expert meeting was held on 7/31/2011, in Westford, Massachusetts. Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

  6. Optimising Residential Water Heating System Performance to Minimise Water-Energy Penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Silva Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption associated with domestic hot water supply services correspond to a significant portion of the total energy consumption of the urban water cycle. The objective of this study is to analyse the performance of domestic water heaters in the three largest cities of Australia (i.e. Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. The performance of systems was investigated undertaking a multi-parametric analysis, in which energy efficiency indicators (i.e. energy intensity and power peaks were combined with level of service indicators (i.e. compliance rate with minimum temperature thresholds for end use points and hot water tanks. The operation of water heaters was modelled using the software EnergyPlus. Results demonstrate the need for a more holistic approach for the design and assessment of domestic water heaters taking into account not only the technology type to heat water, but also site specific aspects.

  7. Advanced Stirling Convertor Heater Head Durability and Reliability Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Shah, Ashwin R.; Korovaichuk, Igor; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified the high efficiency Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) as a candidate power source for long duration Science missions, such as lunar applications, Mars rovers, and deep space missions, that require reliable design lifetimes of up to 17 years. Resistance to creep deformation of the MarM-247 heater head (HH), a structurally critical component of the ASRG Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), under high temperatures (up to 850 C) is a key design driver for durability. Inherent uncertainties in the creep behavior of the thin-walled HH and the variations in the wall thickness, control temperature, and working gas pressure need to be accounted for in the life and reliability prediction. Due to the availability of very limited test data, assuring life and reliability of the HH is a challenging task. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has adopted an integrated approach combining available uniaxial MarM-247 material behavior testing, HH benchmark testing and advanced analysis in order to demonstrate the integrity, life and reliability of the HH under expected mission conditions. The proposed paper describes analytical aspects of the deterministic and probabilistic approaches and results. The deterministic approach involves development of the creep constitutive model for the MarM-247 (akin to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory master curve model used previously for Inconel 718 (Special Metals Corporation)) and nonlinear finite element analysis to predict the mean life. The probabilistic approach includes evaluation of the effect of design variable uncertainties in material creep behavior, geometry and operating conditions on life and reliability for the expected life. The sensitivity of the uncertainties in the design variables on the HH reliability is also quantified, and guidelines to improve reliability are discussed.

  8. Solar dryer with thermal storage and biomass-backup heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhlopa, A. [Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi); Ngwalo, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi)

    2007-04-15

    An indirect type natural convection solar dryer with integrated collector-storage solar and biomass-backup heaters has been designed, constructed and evaluated. The major components of the dryer are biomass burner (with a rectangular duct and flue gas chimney), collector-storage thermal mass and drying chamber (with a conventional solar chimney). The thermal mass was placed in the top part of the biomass burner enclosure. The dryer was fabricated using simple materials, tools and skills, and it was tested in three modes of operation (solar, biomass and solar-biomass) by drying twelve batches of fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus), with each batch weighing about 20 kg. Meteorological conditions were monitored during the dehydration process. Moisture and vitamin C contents were determined in both fresh and dried samples. Results show that the thermal mass was capable of storing part of the absorbed solar energy and heat from the burner. It was possible to dry a batch of pineapples using solar energy only on clear days. Drying proceeded successfully even under unfavorable weather conditions in the solar-biomass mode of operation. In this operational mode, the dryer reduced the moisture content of pineapple slices from about 669 to 11% (db) and yielded a nutritious dried product. The average values of the final-day moisture-pickup efficiency were 15%, 11% and 13% in the solar, biomass and solar-biomass modes of operation respectively. It appears that the solar dryer is suitable for preservation of pineapples and other fresh foods. Further improvements to the system design are suggested. (author)

  9. Emission factors of gaseous pollutants from recent kerosene space heaters and fuels available in France in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carteret, M; Pauwels, J-F; Hanoune, B

    2012-08-01

    Laboratory measurements of the gaseous emission factors (EF) from two recent kerosene space heaters (wick and injector) with five different fuels have been conducted in an 8-m(3) environmental chamber. The two heaters tested were found to emit mainly CO(2), CO, NO, NO(2), and some volatile organic compounds (VOCs). NO(2) is continuously emitted during use, with an EF of 100-450 μg per g of consumed fuel. CO is normally emitted mainly during the first minutes of use (up to 3 mg/g). Formaldehyde and benzene EFs were quantified at 15 and 16 μg/g, respectively, for the wick heater. Some other VOCs, such as 1,3-butadiene, were detected with lower EFs. We demonstrated the unsuitability of a 'biofuel' containing fatty acid methyl esters for use with the wick heater, and that the accumulation of soot on the same heater, whatever the fuel, leads to a dramatic increase in the CO EF, up to 16 mg/g, which could be responsible for chronic and acute CO intoxications. Our results show that in spite of new technologies and emission standards for unvented kerosene space heaters, as well as for the fuels, the use of these heaters in indoor environments still leads to NO(x) levels in excess of current health recommendations. Whereas injection heaters generate more nitrogen oxides than wick heaters, prolonged use of the latter leads to a soot buildup, concomitant with high CO emissions, which could be responsible for acute and chronic intoxications. The use of a biofuel in a wick heater is also of concern. Maintenance of the heaters and adequate ventilation of the room during use of kerosene space heaters are therefore of prime importance to reduce personal exposure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Comparative analysis between horizontal and vertical heater treaters: identification and analysis of efficiency variables for oil treatment; Analise comparativa entre tratadores termicos horizontais e verticais: levantamento de variaveis criticas a eficiencia do processamento primario do oleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio, Fabricio de Queiroz; Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The Brazilian onshore oil and gas production scenario has undergone changes with the maturity of fields and the prioritization of investments towards offshore projects. Added to the issue of lack of investment issue, the increasing production of formation water, which has already exceeded the production of the oil itself. With that comes the need to study the efficiency of process stages. It is common to find oil treatment plants (ETOS) limiting production operations due to lack of capacity to deal with increasing volumes of produced water. The critical moment of an ETO in onshore operations is the 'breaking' of emulsion (water in oil) usually performed by heater treaters. This article offers a comparative analysis between horizontal (TTH) and vertical (TTV) heater treaters, indicating the main variables and demonstrating opportunities for internalization of traditional and innovative technologies in horizontal systems that result in energy efficiency, optimization of the specification of oil (for marketing) and reduced operating costs. (author)

  11. Effect of Uniformly and Nonuniformly Coated Al2O3 Nanoparticles over Glass Tube Heater on Pool Boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Doifode

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of uniformly and nonuniformly coated Al2O3 nanoparticles over plain glass tube heater on pool boiling heat transfer was studied experimentally. A borosilicate glass tube coated with Al2O3 nanoparticle was used as test heater. The boiling behaviour was studied by using high speed camera. Result obtained for pool boiling shows enhancement in heat transfer for nanoparticle coated surface heater and compared with plain glass tube heater. Also heat transfer coefficient for nonuniformly coated nanoparticles was studied and compared with uniformly coated and plain glass tube. Coating effect of nanoparticles over glass tube increases its surface roughness and thereby creates more nucleation sites.

  12. Temperature optimization of an electric heater by emissivity variation of heating elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Hemmer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This note addresses an industrial application concerning the way to optimize the surface temperature of commercial electrical heater. The aim of this paper is to reduce the temperature on accessible surfaces and electrical heater in order to respect the European standards and quality criteria imposed by the manufacturer. This target must be achieved by changing only the emissivity distribution of the electric heater components. A numerical study of the natural convection flow coupled with radiation is carried out in a heated room with an electric heater. The physical model includes the transport equations of mass, momentum, energy and radiative transfer which are solved numerically. Thermo-physical properties of the fluid are assumed to be dependent of the temperature. The numerical simulations are carried out for a two-dimensional, steady and turbulent flow using the finite volume approach. Results showed the influence of emissivity distribution of the electric heater components. The reducing of the heating foil emissivity allowed to decrease the radiative contribution on the foil and its temperature.

  13. Accelerator Magnet Quench Heater Technology and Quality Control Tests for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Meuter, Florian

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) foresees the installation of new superconducting Nb3Sn magnets. For the protection of these magnets, quench heaters are placed on the magnet coils. The quench heater circuits are chemically etched from a stainless steel foil that is glued onto a flexible Polyimide film, using flexible printed circuit production technology. Approximately 500 quench heaters with a total length of about 3000 m are needed for the HL-LHC magnets. In order to keep the heater circuit electrical resistance in acceptable limits, an approximately 10 µm-thick Cu coating is applied onto the steel foil. The quality of this Cu coating has been found critical in the quench heater production. The work described in this thesis focuses on the characterisation of Cu coatings produced by electrolytic deposition, sputtering and electron beam evaporation. The quality of the Cu coatings from different manufacturers has been assessed for instance by ambient temperature electrical res...

  14. Development of the robot for pressurizer electric heater inspection and repairing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Seung Ho; Su, Yong Chil

    1998-01-01

    In this study a robot system has been developed for inspection and maintenance of the pressurizer and the rod heater. The developed robot system consists of four parts: two links, a support frame, a movable gripper, and a controller box. The robot is attached on the support frame, which is attached at the man-way flange of the pressurizer such that the robot is positioned inside pressurizer. To access arbitrary heater, at first two links horizontally rotate, and then the gripper suspended by two steel wires moves up and down by turing wire drum because the rod heaters are located about 8 meters under the robot and are arranged in two circular rows. The robot must be designed under several constraint such as its weight and collision with pressurizer wall or spray nozzle because the robot is positioned and moves inside the pressurizer. To verify that the designed robot is free from collision during installation procedure and it can access any desired rod heater, it is simulated by 3-dimensional graphic software (RobCAD). For evaluating stress of the support frame finite element analysis is performed by using the ANSYS code. For gripping the rod heater the passive self-locking mechanism is adopted, which is made up three balls and springs. Because the mechanism is very simple, it is very hardly defected than that adopted motor. (author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 13 figs

  15. The effects of operating conditions on emissions from masonry heaters and sauna stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissari, Jarkko; Hytoenen, Kati; Sippula, Olli [Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Jokiniemi, Jorma [Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)]|[VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fine Particles, PO Box 1000, 02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2009-03-15

    Emissions from masonry heaters and sauna stoves were studied. In the sauna stove the production of organic gaseous carbon (OGC) at 10 gC kg{sup -1} (per kilogram of fuel), carbon monoxide (CO) at 55 g kg{sup -1}, fine particle mass (PM{sub 1}) at 5 g kg{sup -1} and number emissions (N) at 1.8 x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} was higher than in other measured appliances. In a modern technology masonry heater with a unique grate, the emissions were very low: 0.4 gC kg{sup -1} OGC, 14 g kg{sup -1} CO and 0.7 g kg{sup -1} PM{sub 1}. Conventional masonry heaters, using small logs, clearly produced higher emissions when compared to using large logs. Doubling the fuel load caused emission factors to increase by up to 4- times (OGC), except for the number emission, which decreased from 4.0 x 10{sup 14} to 2.0 x 10{sup 14} kg{sup -1}. From the conventional masonry heater 90% of the PM was emitted during the firing phase. Its combustion process is different to that in stoves or conventional open fireplaces. The insufficient supply of air, due to too fast pyrolysis, and increased ash release, due to the high combustion temperature, are the main parameters which cause high particle and gas emissions in masonry heaters and sauna stoves. (author)

  16. Accelerated Life Structural Benchmark Testing for a Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Kantzos, Pete T.

    2006-01-01

    For proposed long-duration NASA Space Science missions, the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Infinia Corporation, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110 W Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110). A structurally significant limit state for the SRG110 heater head component is creep deformation induced at high material temperature and low stress level. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and a wealth of creep data is available for the Inconel 718 material of construction. However, the specified atypical thin heater head material is fine-grained with a heat treatment that limits precipitate growth, and little creep property data for this microstructure is available in the literature. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply a multiaxial stress state on the component, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, an extensive experimental investigation is ongoing to aid in accurately assessing the durability of the SRG110 heater head. This investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head-like pressure vessels at design temperature with stress levels ranging from approximately the design stress to several times that. This paper presents experimental results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for four higher-stress, accelerated life tests. Analysts are using these results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the SRG110 heater head.

  17. Experimental investigation of three different solar air heaters: Energy and exergy analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alta, Deniz; Ertekin, C.; Yaldiz, Osman [Department of Farm Machinery, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Akdeniz University, 07059 Antalya (Turkey); Bilgili, Emin [Cukurova Agricultural Research Institute, Adana (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    The present study aims to compare three different types of designed flat-plate solar air heaters, two having fins (Type II and Type III) and the other without fins (Type I), one of the heater with a fin had single glass cover (Type III) and the others had double glass covers (Type I and Type II). The energy and exergy output rates of the solar air heaters were evaluated for various air flow rates (25, 50 and 100 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2} h), tilt angle (0 , 15 and 30 ) and temperature conditions versus time. Based on the energy and exergy output rates, heater with double glass covers and fins (Type II) is more effective and the difference between the input and output air temperature is higher than of the others. Besides, it is found that the circulation time of air inside the heater played a role more important than of the number of transparent sheet. Lower air flow rates should be preferred in the applications of which temperature differences is more important. (author)

  18. Assessment of Performance Characteristic of Solar Air Heater with Assorted Geometries - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial roughness is an efficient way for increasing the heat transfer rate in solar air heater with the corresponding improvement in its thermal performance. A viscous sub-layer is responsible for the low heat transfer coefficient between absorber plate and flowing air. Repeated ribs in form of artificial roughness are an effective way to increase the heat transfer rate and improving the performance of solar air heater. Artificial roughness of the absorber plate is much economical and effective way to improve the thermal performance of solar air heater. Several investigators have done various investigations to improve heat transfer coefficient with little penalty of friction factor. They have also developed different correlation for heat transfer coefficient and friction factor. The correlations developed for heat transfer and friction factor by various investigators have been reviewed and presented.

  19. STUDY ON THE OPTIMIZATION OF IGBT THERMAL MANAGEMENT FOR PTC HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. JEONG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to optimize HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning system for a thermal plant or an electric vehicle since it has a significant effect on the thermal efficiency. PTC (positive temperature coefficient heaters are often used for a heating system and the power module of the PTC heaters, IGBT (insulated gate bipolar mode transistor, requires thermal management. In this study, in order to maximize the cooling performance for IGBT, a novel method that uses forced convection inside the HVAC duct with heat sinks was developed. In addition, heat sinks were optimized in terms of IGBT junction temperature and heat sink weight by 3-dimensional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation. The results show that the junction temperature of IGBT for 5.6kW PTC heater can be maintained at about 335K.

  20. Development of Industrially Produced Composite Quench Heaters for the LHC Superconducting Lattice Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Szeless, Balázs; Calvone, F

    1996-01-01

    The quench heaters are vital elements for the protection of the LHC superconducting lattice magnets in the case of resistive transitions of the conductor. The basic concept of magnet protection and technical solutions are briefly presented. The quench heater consists of partially copper clad stainless steel strips sandwiched in between electric insulating carrier foils with electrical and mechanical properties such as to withstand high voltages, low temperatures, pressures and ionizing radiation. Testing of some commercial available electric insulation foils, polyimide (PI), polyetheretherketon (PEEK) and polyarylate (PA) and combinations of adhesive systems which are suitable for industrial processing are described. Possible industrial methods for series production for some 80 km of these composite quench heaters are indicated.