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Sample records for m23 causing almond

  1. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  2. Oil migration in chocolate and almond product confectionery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Aylin; Lavenson, David M; McCarthy, Michael J; McCarthy, Kathryn L

    2011-08-01

    Oil migration from high oil content almond confections into adjacent chocolate causes changes in product quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the oil migration from almond products to dark chocolate. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to monitor spatial and temporal changes of liquid lipid content. A multislice spin echo pulse (MSSE) sequence was used to acquire images with a 7.8-ms echo time and a 1000-ms repetition time using a 1.03T Aspect AI MRI spectrometer. Samples were prepared as a 2-layer model system of chocolate and almond confection. Six different almond products and 1 type of dark chocolate were used. Samples were stored at 20, 25, and 30°C for a time frame of several months. Rate and extent of migration were quantified by a kinetic expression based on the linear dependence of oil uptake by chocolate and the square root of the time. Samples showed distinctly different rate and extent of oil migration, as evidenced by quantitative differences in the kinetic rate constants and equilibrium uptake for the different sample types. This work will be helpful to design formulations for almond and almond-based products in confections. This work will be helpful to design formulations for almond use in confections. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Bitterness in almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Olsen, Carl Erik; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2008-03-01

    Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis) is determined by the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. The ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin in the almond kernel was studied throughout the growth season using four different genotypes for bitterness. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed a specific developmentally dependent accumulation of prunasin in the tegument of the bitter genotype. The prunasin level decreased concomitant with the initiation of amygdalin accumulation in the cotyledons of the bitter genotype. By administration of radiolabeled phenylalanine, the tegument was identified as a specific site of synthesis of prunasin in all four genotypes. A major difference between sweet and bitter genotypes was observed upon staining of thin sections of teguments and cotyledons for beta-glucosidase activity using Fast Blue BB salt. In the sweet genotype, the inner epidermis in the tegument facing the nucellus was rich in cytoplasmic and vacuolar localized beta-glucosidase activity, whereas in the bitter cultivar, the beta-glucosidase activity in this cell layer was low. These combined data show that in the bitter genotype, prunasin synthesized in the tegument is transported into the cotyledon via the transfer cells and converted into amygdalin in the developing almond seed, whereas in the sweet genotype, amygdalin formation is prevented because the prunasin is degraded upon passage of the beta-glucosidase-rich cell layer in the inner epidermis of the tegument. The prunasin turnover may offer a buffer supply of ammonia, aspartic acid, and asparagine enabling the plants to balance the supply of nitrogen to the developing cotyledons.

  4. Management of almond leaf scorch disease: long term data on yield, tree vitality, and disease progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease has been a chronic problem for California almond growers. This disease is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa and is transmitted by xylem-feeding insects. Previous research suggested that retaining, rather than roguing, ALS-affected trees may be more ...

  5. Prebiotic effects of almonds and almond skins on intestinal microbiota in healthy adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhibin; Lin, Xiuchun; Huang, Guangwei; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Pingfan; Ni, Li

    2014-04-01

    Almonds and almond skins are rich in fiber and other components that have potential prebiotic properties. In this study we investigated the prebiotic effects of almond and almond skin intake in healthy humans. A total of 48 healthy adult volunteers consumed a daily dose of roasted almonds (56 g), almond skins (10 g), or commercial fructooligosaccharides (8 g) (as positive control) for 6 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at defined time points and analyzed for microbiota composition and selected indicators of microbial activity. Different strains of intestinal bacteria had varying degrees of growth sensitivity to almonds or almond skins. Significant increases in the populations of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were observed in fecal samples as a consequence of almond or almond skin supplementation. However, the populations of Escherichia coli did not change significantly, while the growth of the pathogen Clostridum perfringens was significantly repressed. Modification of the intestinal microbiota composition induced changes in bacterial enzyme activities, specifically a significant increase in fecal β-galactosidase activity and decreases in fecal β-glucuronidase, nitroreductase and azoreductase activities. Our observations suggest that almond and almond skin ingestion may lead to an improvement in the intestinal microbiota profile and a modification of the intestinal bacterial activities, which would induce the promotion of health beneficial factors and the inhibition of harmful factors. Thus we believe that almonds and almond skins possess potential prebiotic properties.

  6. Chemical and Sensory Quality Preservation in Coated Almonds with the Addition of Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrauri, Mariana; Demaría, María Gimena; Ryan, Liliana C; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Almonds provide many benefits such as preventing heart disease due to their high content of oleic fatty acid-rich oil and other important nutrients. However, they are susceptible to oxidation reactions causing rancidity during storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and sensory quality preservation of almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose and with the addition of natural and synthetic antioxidants during storage. Four samples were prepared: almonds without coating (C), almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), almonds coated with CMC supplemented with peanut skins extract (E), and almonds coated with CMC and supplemented with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined on raw almonds. Almond samples (C, CMC, E and BHT) were stored at 40 °C for 126 d. Lipid oxidation indicators: peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), volatile compounds (hexanal and nonanal), and sensory attributes were determined for the stored samples. Samples showed small but significant increases in PV, CD, hexanal and nonanal contents, and intensity ratings of negative sensory attributes (oxidized and cardboard). C had the highest tendency to deterioration during storage. At the end of storage (126 d), C had the highest PV (3.90 meqO2 /kg), and BHT had the lowest PV (2.00 meqO2 /kg). CMC and E samples had similar intermediate PV values (2.69 and 2.57 meqO2 /kg, respectively). CMC coating and the addition of natural (peanut skin extract) and synthetic (BHT) antioxidants provide protection to the roasted almond product.

  7. Almond advertising yields net benefits to growers

    OpenAIRE

    Crespi, John M.; Sexton, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic impacts of advertising and promotion expenditures funded under the almond marketing order. Over the crop years 1962/63 through 1997/98, the correlation of industry promotion and demand was positive and statistically significant. Almond advertising has yielded marginal benefits between $3 and $10 per dollar spent. The 1994/95 through 1996/97 suspension of the promotion program reduced grower profits in the range of $88 million to $231 million during the suspen...

  8. Current Global Almond Trade and Its Consumption Patterns Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article aims to investigate the current situation of the international almond trade and its consumption patterns.Traditionally, almonds are characterized by their good taste and high quality and regarded as an ideal source of several natural health nutrients. At present, the United States is the leading almond producer and exporter in the world, accompanied by Germany, Spain and Japan, the biggest almond importing countries. In order to study almond consumption patterns, two indicators were used in our study, the Food Consumer Location Ratio (FCLR) and the Food Consumer Location Relative Ratio (FCLRR). Furthermore, to identify the almond consumption groups, we carried out two cluster analyses based on FCLR and FCLRR values. Finally, an analysis of the factors which have an impact on a country's almond consumption was conducted. It shows that income level, endowment of resources and tradition as well as dietary habits are key factors that help to shape a country's almond consumption pattern.

  9. Xylella fastidiosa from almond in Iran: overwinter recovery and effects of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser AMANIFAR

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD, caused by Xylella fastidiosa, has been reported from some regions of Iran. Biological traits of isolates the pathogen from almond were investigated in pot and orchard conditions. ALSD killed trees of susceptible cultivars during 3 to 4 years outdoors in pots, but overwintered in root tissues in orchards with winter temperatures below -15°C. Xylella fastidiosa was not detected by culturing or DAS-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA in almond leaves until early summer and peaked in early autumn. However, root samples taken in winter (January and February and early spring (April reacted positively in DAS-ELISA, culture media and polymerase chain reaction assays. This demonstrates that X. fastidiosa survives in root tissues of almond trees under orchard conditions in very cold (-28°C winters. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline into leaf scorched almond trees reduced symptoms of the disease, while penicillin applications also reduced symptoms but to a lesser degree.

  10. Ultra high pressure homogenization of almond milk: Physico-chemical and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briviba, Karlis; Gräf, Volker; Walz, Elke; Guamis, Buenaventura; Butz, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) of food is a processing technology to improve food safety and shelf life. However, despite very short treatment duration UHPH may lead to changes in chemical and physico-chemical properties including formation of submicro-/nano-particles. This may affect the physiological or toxicological properties of the treated food. Here, we treated raw almond milk (AMr) with UHPH at 350 MPa and 85 °C (AMuhph), known able to inactivate food relevant microorganisms. UHPH-treatment led to about a threefold increase of the mean particle size. There was a nearly complete loss of antigenicity investigated by ELISA for determination of traces of almond proteins. The content of vitamins B1 and B2 remained unchanged, while free exposed sulfhydryl groups decreased. Despite of observed modifications, UHPH-treatment of almond milk did not cause any changes in cyto- or genotoxic effects and antigenotoxic capability of protecting intestinal cells against iron induced DNA damage in vitro.

  11. The development of seed-propagated peach-almond hybrids for use as almond rootstocks (Oral presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach-almond hybrids are becoming increasingly popular rootstocks in California almond orchards due to their enhanced vigor as compared with almond propagated on peach root. However, these hybrids are difficult to root without the use of in vitro micropropagation. The development of uniform and vi...

  12. Solar drying of jack fruit almonds

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre J. de M. Queiroz; Dantas,Hermeval J; Figueirêdo,Rossana M. F. de; Karla dos S Melo

    2011-01-01

    Dryers heated by solar energy have been constructed and used in drying whole and half jack fruit almonds. The samples were dried during the day in direct sun and in the conventional solar dryer prepared for this purpose. Another piece of equipment was built for reception and accumulation of sun energy in a body of water, which was used as a heat source for night drying. The drying with the sun energy was compared with artificial drying. The jack fruit almonds were dried whole, half, with pell...

  13. Seasonal abundance of Draeculacephala minerva and other Xylella fastidiosa vectors in California almond orchards and vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Kent M; Wistrom, Christina M; Shapland, Elaine B; Sisterson, Mark S

    2011-04-01

    Almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa and transmitted by xylem-feeding insects. Reports of increased incidence of ALS-diseased trees in California prompted surveys in three almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb]-growing regions, from June 2003 to September 2005, to determine insect vector species composition and abundance. For comparison, sampling in and near vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley, California, also was completed. Sampling in or near almond orchards collected >42,000 Cicadomorpha of which 4.8% were xylem feeders, including 1912 grass sharpshooter, Draeculacephala minerva Ball; five Xyphon fulgida Nottingham; and a single spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius L. The most abundant vector was D. minerva. Season-long sampling indicated that D. minerva was a year-round resident in and/or near almonds in the Sacramento Valley, but not in the San Joaquin Valley. Similarly, D. minerca was rare in vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley, but was abundant in irrigated pastures near vineyards. D. minerva was most frequently collected along orchard margins, and peak densities were observed in summer, the period of time when bacterial titers are reported to increase in infected trees. Screening of D. minerva for presence of X.fastidiosa found that 1.1% of insects collected near almond orchards and 4.5% of insects collected from pastures tested positive. The X. fastidiosa subspecies and genotype detected in insects collected from orchards matched those collected from ALS-diseased almond trees in the same orchard. Of the few X. fulgida and P. spumarius collected, none tested positive for X. fastidiosa. Results are discussed with respect to X. fastidiosa vector control and detection methods.

  14. Gastric digestion of raw and roasted almonds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Roman, Maxine J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Burri, Betty J; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2013-11-01

    Almonds are an important dietary source of lipids, protein, and α-tocopherol. It has been demonstrated that the physical form of almond kernels influences their digestion and absorption, but the role of thermal processes on the digestion of almonds has received little attention. The objectives of this study were to examine the gastric emptying and nutrient composition of gastric chyme from pigs (used as a model for the adult human) fed a single meal of either raw or roasted almonds over a 12-h postprandial period (72 pigs total, 6 pigs at each diet-time combination). Concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols, and α-tocopherol in peripheral plasma during the 12-h postprandial period were determined. For dry matter and lipid, the gastric emptying profile was not different between raw and roasted almonds. Roasting almonds also did not influence gastric pH, or plasma glucose or triacylglycerols levels. In contrast, the gastric emptying of protein was more rapid for raw almonds compared to roasted almonds (P < 0.01) and intragastric protein content exhibited segregation (P < 0.001) throughout the stomach, with raw almonds having a higher level of segregation compared to roasted almonds. Postprandial plasma α-tocopherol levels were, on average 33% greater (P < 0.001) after consumption of raw almonds, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of α-tocopherol in raw almonds compared to roasted almonds. Roasting of almonds did not influence the overall gastric emptying process, but did lead to differences in the distribution of protein in the stomach and to the gastric emptying of protein.

  15. 7 CFR 981.466 - Almond butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Almond butter. 981.466 Section 981.466 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... plastic or semiplastic mass or liquid having very few particles larger than 1/16 inch in any dimension....

  16. Evolutionary genomics of peach and almond domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill.) D. A. Webb] originate on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated approximately 5000 years ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and di er in a number of morphological and ph...

  17. Cyanide and amygdalin as indicators of the presence of bitter almonds in imported raw almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Valerie M; Nickum, Elisa A; Flurer, Cheryl L

    2012-09-01

    Consumer complaints received by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in August 2010 about raw organic almonds tasting "bitter" opened an investigation into the presence of bitter almonds in the imported product. Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) contain the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin, which hydrolyzes to produce cyanide. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry was used to detect and quantitate cyanide, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to detect amygdalin in the submitted samples. Control bitter almonds were found to contain 1.4 mg cyanide/g and an estimated level of 20-25 mg amygdalin/g. The questioned samples contained between 14 and 42 μg cyanide/g and were positive for the presence of amygdalin. Sweet almonds were found to be negative for both compounds, at levels of detection of 4 μg cyanide/g and 200 μg amygdalin/g. 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  18. Identification of Mo-Rich M23C6 Carbides in Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Ali; Tewes, Jürgen; Parsa, Alireza Basir; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Kostka, Alexander; Kloewer, Jutta

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we systematically identify and characterize a (Nb, Mo)-rich M23C6 type of M23C6 carbide with a lattice parameter of 1.094 nm in alloy 718 for the first time using a combination of selected area electron diffraction pattern and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The time-temperature-precipitation diagrams of the precipitates in both annealed and strained conditions are obtained by particle analysis using an automated scanning electron microscopy method. (Nb, Mo)-rich M23C6 carbides first precipitate after 24 hours at 1223 K (950 °C) annealing, while they form after 10 minutes at 1273 K (1000 °C) in the strained condition. This correlates with the excess dislocations produce during deformation.

  19. Precipitation of the Carbides $M_{23}C_{6}$ under the Irradiation by High Energy Heavy Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, A; Semina, V K; Kochanski, T

    2000-01-01

    Carbide M_{23}C_{6} precipitation process in chromium-nickel steels 12H18N9ô and 00H17N14í2 irradiated with high energy heavy Ar^{+6} ions at 625^{o}ó has been studied. It was found that ion irradiation accelerates carbide M_{23}C_{6} precipitation in comparison to thermal annealing. It was shown that composition of carbides formed by irradiation in 00H17N14í2 steel formed under irradiation differs from composition of carbides precipitated during thermal ageing.

  20. STUDY OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN ALMOND LEAVES

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    Lenchyk L.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Almond (Amygdalus communis is a stone fruit, from the Rosaceae family, closest to the peach. It is spread throughout the entire Mediterranean region and afterwards to the Southwestern USA, Northern Africa, Turkey, Iran, Australia and South Africa. It is sensitive to wet conditions, and therefore is not grown in wet climates. Iran is located in the semi-arid region of the world. Because of its special tolerance to water stress, almond is one of the main agricultural products in rainfed condition in Iran. Almond leaves have been investigated for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It was found that total antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds exhibited variations according to season, plant organ (leaf and stem and variety. Analysis of previous research on almonds focused on investigating compounds mostly in seeds and phenolic compounds in leaves, but organic acids in leaves have not been studied. Aim of this study was investigation of organic acids in leaves of almond variety which is distributed in Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and Methods. In August 2012 almond leaves were collected in Iran, dried and grinded. The study of qualitative composition and quantitative determination of carboxylic acids in almond leaves was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. For determination organic acids content, to 50 mg of dried plant material in 2 ml vial internal standard (50 μg of tridecane in hexane was added and filled up with 1.0 ml of methylating agent (14 % BCl3 in methanol, Supelco 3-3033. The mixture was kept in a sealed vial during 8 hours at 65 °C. At this time fatty oil was fully extracted, and hydrolyzed into its constituent fatty acids and their methylation was done. At the same time free organic and phenolcarbonic acids were methylated too. The reaction mixture was poured from the plant material sediment and was diluted with 1 ml of distilled water. To extract methyl

  1. Crystal Structure of the LasA Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Substrate Specificity and Mechanism of M23 Metallopeptidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, James; Murphy, Loretta M.; Conners, Rebecca; Sessions, Richard B.; Gamblin, Steven J. (Wales); (Bristol Med Sci); (NIMR)

    2010-09-21

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunist Gram-negative bacterial pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections in immunocompromized individuals and is a leading cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. A number of secreted virulence factors, including various proteolytic enzymes, contribute to the establishment and maintenance of Pseudomonas infection. One such is LasA, an M23 metallopeptidase related to autolytic glycylglycine endopeptidases such as Staphylococcus aureus lysostaphin and LytM, and to DD-endopeptidases involved in entry of bacteriophage to host bacteria. LasA is implicated in a range of processes related to Pseudomonas virulence, including stimulating ectodomain shedding of the cell surface heparan sulphate proteoglycan syndecan-1 and elastin degradation in connective tissue. Here we present crystal structures of active LasA as a complex with tartrate and in the uncomplexed form. While the overall fold resembles that of the other M23 family members, the LasA active site is less constricted and utilizes a different set of metal ligands. The active site of uncomplexed LasA contains a five-coordinate zinc ion with trigonal bipyramidal geometry and two metal-bound water molecules. Using these structures as a starting point, we propose a model for substrate binding by LasA that explains its activity against a wider range of substrates than those used by related lytic enzymes, and offer a catalytic mechanism for M23 metallopeptidases consistent with available structural and mutagenesis data. Our results highlight how LasA is a structurally distinct member of this endopeptidase family, consistent with its activity against a wider range of substrates and with its multiple roles in Pseudomonas virulence.

  2. Food processing and structure impact the metabolizable energy of almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measured metabolizable energy (ME) of whole almonds has been shown to be less than predicted by Atwater factors. However, data are lacking on the effects of processing (roasting, chopping or grinding) on the ME of almonds. A 5-period randomized, crossover study in healthy individuals (n=18) was ...

  3. Bitterness in Almonds1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Olsen, Carl Erik; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2008-01-01

    Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis) is determined by the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. The ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin in the almond kernel was studied throughout the growth season using four different genotypes for bitterness. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed a specific developmentally dependent accumulation of prunasin in the tegument of the bitter genotype. The prunasin level decreased concomitant with the initiation of amygdalin accumulation in the cotyledons of the bitter genotype. By administration of radiolabeled phenylalanine, the tegument was identified as a specific site of synthesis of prunasin in all four genotypes. A major difference between sweet and bitter genotypes was observed upon staining of thin sections of teguments and cotyledons for β-glucosidase activity using Fast Blue BB salt. In the sweet genotype, the inner epidermis in the tegument facing the nucellus was rich in cytoplasmic and vacuolar localized β-glucosidase activity, whereas in the bitter cultivar, the β-glucosidase activity in this cell layer was low. These combined data show that in the bitter genotype, prunasin synthesized in the tegument is transported into the cotyledon via the transfer cells and converted into amygdalin in the developing almond seed, whereas in the sweet genotype, amygdalin formation is prevented because the prunasin is degraded upon passage of the β-glucosidase-rich cell layer in the inner epidermis of the tegument. The prunasin turnover may offer a buffer supply of ammonia, aspartic acid, and asparagine enabling the plants to balance the supply of nitrogen to the developing cotyledons. PMID:18192442

  4. Visualizing Armed Groups: The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s M23 in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Nangini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies can help unpack the relationships and tendencies that persist in complex networks. We present an interactive, web-based visualization that captures interlocking networks related to the Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23 rebel group in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC to demonstrate the utility of visually summarizing relationships in a multi-dimensional dataset. We draw exclusively from the findings the UN Group of Governmental Experts report S/2012/843 documenting the procurement of weapons and ammunition by the M23 network. The visualization was built using a hierarchical edge bundling algorithm (Holten 2006 implemented in Data-Driven Documents (d3 (Bostock 2011, an open-source JavaScript-based library for interactive web visualizations. We contend that such visualizations can provide improved understanding of complex social networks both within and beyond the confines of war.

  5. Relationships between spur- and orchard-level fruit bearing in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Sergio; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel; DeJong, Theodore M

    2011-12-01

    Almond is often considered to be a moderately alternate-bearing species but historical yield data typically do not exhibit clear patterns of alternate bearing at the orchard level, while research has indicated that spurs (the main fruit bearing unit in almond trees) rarely produce fruit in two subsequent years. The objective of the present work was to analyze the bearing behavior of almond trees at both the orchard level and the individual spur level over multiple years to explain this apparent paradox. The 10-year yield patterns of three almond cultivars grown at three different sites within California were analyzed for tendencies of alternate bearing at the orchard level. At the individual spur level, data on spur viability, and number of flowers and fruits per spur were collected on 2400 individually tagged spurs that were observed over 6 years to characterize bearing at that level. At the orchard level one cultivar (Nonpareil) did exhibit a tendency for alternate bearing at one site (Kern) but other cultivars and sites did not. The orchard and the individual trees in which the spur population study was conducted showed tendencies for alternate bearing but the spur population did not. Only a relatively small percentage of the total tagged spur population bore fruit in any given year and therefore while individual fruiting spurs exhibited a high level of non-bearing after fruiting the previous year the spurs that did produce fruit in any year generally did not constitute enough of the total spur population to exhibit alternate bearing at the whole population level. Our results suggest that annual bearing fluctuations in almond are probably mainly due to year-to-year variations of parameters affecting fruit set and that high rates of fruit set in a given year may involve a larger-than-normal percentage of a spur population in fruit bearing. This would limit the size of the spur population available for flowering in the subsequent year and could cause alternate

  6. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncero, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2 and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses. The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.En este trabajo se revisan los métodos de extracción del aceite de almendra virgen y su composición química. Los métodos más habituales para la obtención del aceite son la extracción con disolventes, la extracción con fluidos supercríticos (CO2 y los sistemas de presión (prensas hidráulica y de tornillo. El mayor rendimiento industrial, pero también la peor calidad de los aceites, se consigue mediante el uso de disolventes. Además, los aceites obtenidos por este método no se pueden considerar vírgenes, pues se obtienen por medio de tratamientos químicos. La extracción con fluidos supercríticos da lugar a aceites de mayor calidad pero a un precio muy elevado. La extracción mediante prensado se convierte en la mejor opción de extracción, al conseguir aceites de alta calidad a un precio asequible. En cuanto a su composición química, el aceite de almendra se caracteriza por su bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados y el predominio de los monoinsaturados, en

  7. Determination of Some Mechanical Properties of Almond Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Some Mechanical Properties of Almond Seed Related to Design of Food ... Nigerian Journal of Technological Development ... The determined engineering properties are vital for the design of postharvest handling and ...

  8. Effect of almond processing on levels and distribution of aflatoxins in finished products and byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Perrone, Giancarlo; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2014-06-18

    The fate of aflatoxins during processing of contaminated almonds into nougat, pastries, and almond syrup was evaluated by testing the effect of each processing step (blanching, peeling, roasting, caramelization, cooking, and water infusion) on the distribution and levels of aflatoxins. Blanching and peeling did not reduce total aflatoxins that were distributed between peeled almonds (90-93%) and skins (7-10%). Roasting of peeled almonds reduced up to 50% of aflatoxins. Up to 70% reduction of aflatoxins was observed during preparation and cooking of almond nougat in caramelized sugar. Aflatoxins were substantially stable during preparation and cooking of almond pastries. The whole process of almond syrup preparation produced a marked increase of total aflatoxins (up to 270%) that were distributed between syrup (18-25%) and spent almonds (75-82%). The increase of total aflatoxins was probably due to the activation of almond enzymes during the infusion step that released free aflatoxins from masked aflatoxins.

  9. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-wk randomized crossover clinical trial was that almond consumption would improve glycemic control and decrease risk to cardiovascular disease in 20 Chinese type ...

  10. Use of almond shell and almond hull as substrates for sweet pepper cultivation. Effects on fruit yield and mineral content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valverde, M.; Madrid, R.; Garcia, A. L.; Amor, F. M. del; Rincon, L.

    2013-05-01

    The use of almond by products as substrate in greenhouses for growing vegetables has a great economic interest. The objective of this work was to assess the use of two almond by-products (almond shell-AS and almond hull-AH), which had been previously conditioned without composting, as substrates for pepper (cv. Caprino F1) production and to study their effects on the yield, fruit size, and fruit mineral content. Physical, physico-chemical, and chemical characteristics of the almond by-products were determined both initially and during the pepper growing season. Initially, all values of the parameters studied ? except sulfur and iron ? differed significantly between the two substrates. During cultivation, the 18 substrate parameters and variables tested - except bulk density - exhibited significant variations with time for AS; the same occurred for AH, exceptions being pH, total nitrogen Nt, N-NH4, bulk density, and manganese. The changes in both substrates for the K, N, and S concentrations were significant. The nutrient levels in AH were higher than for AS. The almond shell and almond hull substrates produced slight decreases in total fruit yield with respect to the control (0.79 and 3.22 for AS and AH, respectively), with a lesser decrease for AS, due to reductions in the number of fruits per plant rather than to reductions in individual fruit weight. The plants grown on the AS and AH substrates showed a decrease in total fruit yield, due to reductions in the number of fruits per plant rather than reductions in individual fruit weight. (Author) 37 refs.

  11. Use of almond shell and almond hull as substrates for sweet pepper cultivation. Effects on fruit yield and mineral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valverde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of almond by products as substrate in greenhouses for growing vegetables has a great economic interest. The objective of this work was to assess the use of two almond by-products (almond shell-AS and almond hull-AH, which had been previously conditioned without composting, as substrates for pepper (cv. Caprino F1 production and to study their effects on the yield, fruit size, and fruit mineral content. Physical, physico-chemical, and chemical characteristics of the almond by-products were determined both initially and during the pepper growing season. Initially, all values of the parameters studied ― except sulfur and iron ― differed significantly between the two substrates. During cultivation, the 18 substrate parameters and variables tested - except bulk density - exhibited significant variations with time for AS; the same occurred for AH, exceptions being pH, total nitrogen Nt, N-NH4, bulk density, and manganese. The changes in both substrates for the K, N, and S concentrations were significant. The nutrient levels in AH were higher than for AS. The almond shell and almond hull substrates produced slight decreases in total fruit yield with respect to the control (0.79 and 3.22 for AS and AH, respectively, with a lesser decrease for AS, due to reductions in the number of fruits per plant rather than to reductions in individual fruit weight. The plants grown on the AS and AH substrates showed a decrease in total fruit yield, due to reductions in the number of fruits per plant rather than reductions in individual fruit weight.

  12. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Arrázola, Guillermo; Sánchez P., Raquel; Dicenta, Federico; Grané, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor) and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic) are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype...

  13. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Arrázola; Raquel Sánchez P; Federico Dicenta; Nuria Grané

    2012-01-01

    Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor) and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic) are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype...

  14. Symmetry analysis of the behavior of the family R6M23 compounds upon hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Agnieszka; Sikora, Wiesława

    2011-06-01

    Symmetry analysis was applied in this work to discuss the behavior of the family R6M23 compounds upon hydrogenation (deuteration), where different structural transformations and magnetic properties, depending on the type of R and M atoms and hydrogen (deuterium) concentrations, have been found. The crystallographic structure of these compounds is described by the Fm3m space group and contain 116 atoms per unit cell occupying the positions 24e(R), 4b, 24d, 32f1 and 32f2(M). Additionally in the elementary cell, there could be up to 100 atoms of hydrogen (or deuterium) occupying the interstitial positions 4a, 32f3, 96j1 and 96k1. The symmetry analysis in the frame of the theory of space groups and their representation gives the opportunity to find all possible transformations from high symmetry parent structure to the structures with symmetry belonging to one of its subgroups. For a given transformation it indicates possible displacements of atoms from initial positions in the parent structure, ordering of hydrogen over interstitial sites and also ordering of magnetic moments, described by the smallest possible number of free parameters. The analysis was carried out by means of the MODY computer program for vectors k = (0; 0; 0) and k = (0; 0; 1) describing the changes of translational symmetry and all positions occupied by the R, M and D atoms.

  15. Multistage process for the production of bioethanol from almond shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, Imen; Koubaa, Mohamed; Maktouf, Sameh; Chaari, Fatma; Najar, Taha; Chaabouni, Moncef; Ettis, Nadia; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-07-01

    This work describes the feasibility of using almond shell as feedstock for bioethanol production. A pre-treatment step was carried out using 4% NaOH for 60min at 121°C followed by 1% sulfuric acid for 60min at 121°C. Enzymatic saccharification of the pre-treated almond shell was performed using Penicillium occitanis enzymes. The process was optimized using a hybrid design with four parameters including the incubation time, temperature, enzyme loads, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration. The optimum hydrolysis conditions led to a sugar yield of 13.5%. A detoxification step of the enzymatic hydrolysate was carried out at pH 5 using 1U/ml of laccase enzyme produced by Polyporus ciliatus. Fermenting efficiency of the hydrolysates was greatly improved by laccase treatment, increasing the ethanol yield from 30% to 84%. These results demonstrated the efficiency of using almond shell as a promising source for bioethanol production.

  16. Regulations relating to mycotoxins in almonds in European context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diella, Giusy; De Giglio, Osvalda; Vallone, Lisa; Iriti, Marcello; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several species of fungi and having a toxic effect on humans and farm animals. In particular, almonds, a rich source of nutrients and phytochemicals, can be contaminated by aflatoxins, one of the most important mycotoxins, mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The reference regulations in this field are continuously improved and updated worldwide. This paper reports the current state of the European regulations on aflatoxins in almonds concerning the limits, and the procedures for performing official controls and for import.

  17. Unique genomic arrangements in an invasive serotype M23 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes identify genes that induce hypervirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yunjuan; Liang, Zhong; Booyjzsen, Claire; Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Li, Yang; Lee, Shaun W; Ploplis, Victoria A; Song, Hui; Castellino, Francis J

    2014-12-01

    The first genome sequence of a group A Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M23 (emm23) strain (M23ND), isolated from an invasive human infection, has been completed. The genome of this opacity factor-negative (SOF(-)) strain is composed of a circular chromosome of 1,846,477 bp. Gene profiling showed that this strain contained six phage-encoded and 24 chromosomally inherited well-known virulence factors, as well as 11 pseudogenes. The bacterium has acquired four large prophage elements, ΦM23ND.1 to ΦM23ND.4, harboring genes encoding streptococcal superantigen (ssa), streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (speC, speH, and speI), and DNases (spd1 and spd3), with phage integrase genes being present at one flank of each phage insertion, suggesting that the phages were integrated by horizontal gene transfer. Comparative analyses revealed unique large-scale genomic rearrangements that result in genomic rearrangements that differ from those of previously sequenced GAS strains. These rearrangements resulted in an imbalanced genomic architecture and translocations of chromosomal virulence genes. The covS sensor in M23ND was identified as a pseudogene, resulting in the attenuation of speB function and increased expression of the genes for the chromosomal virulence factors multiple-gene activator (mga), M protein (emm23), C5a peptidase (scpA), fibronectin-binding proteins (sfbI and fbp54), streptolysin O (slo), hyaluronic acid capsule (hasA), streptokinase (ska), and DNases (spd and spd3), which were verified by PCR. These genes are responsible for facilitating host epithelial cell binding and and/or immune evasion, thus further contributing to the virulence of M23ND. In conclusion, strain M23ND has become highly pathogenic as the result of a combination of multiple genetic factors, particularly gene composition and mutations, prophage integrations, unique genomic rearrangements, and regulated expression of critical virulence factors.

  18. Reservoir condition special core analyses and relative permeability measurements on Almond formation and Fontainebleu sandstone rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the results from special core analyses and relative permeability measurements conducted on Almond formation and Fontainebleu sandstone plugs. Almond formation plug tests were performed to evaluate multiphase, steady-state,reservoir-condition relative permeability measurement techniques and to examine the effect of temperature on relative permeability characteristics. Some conclusions from this project are as follows: An increase in temperature appeared to cause an increase in brine relative permeability results for an Almond formation plug compared to room temperature results. The plug was tested using steady-state oil/brine methods. The oil was a low-viscosity, isoparaffinic refined oil. Fontainebleu sandstone rock and fluid flow characteristics were measured and are reported. Most of the relative permeability versus saturation results could be represented by one of two trends -- either a k{sub rx} versus S{sub x} or k{sub rx} versus Sy trend where x and y are fluid phases (gas, oil, or brine). An oil/surfactant-brine steady-state relative permeability test was performed to examine changes in oil/brine relative permeability characteristics from changes in fluid IFTS. It appeared that, while low interfacial tension increased the aqueous phase relative permeability, it had no effect on the oil relative permeability. The BOAST simulator was modified for coreflood simulation. The simulator was useful for examining effects of variations in relative permeability and capillary pressure functions. Coreflood production monitoring and separator interface level measurement techniques were developed using X-ray absorption, weight methods, and RF admittance technologies. The three types of separators should be useful for routine and specialized core analysis applications.

  19. Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and ben...

  20. David Almond's "Skellig": "A New Vista of Contemplation"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Susan Louise

    2009-01-01

    The debates that have arisen regarding Darwin's theories of evolution and Christian views of creation and their place in education in the United States have frequently been extremely heated, resulting in trials, hearings, and laws. This article provides an overview of some of the disagreements and illustrates how David Almond's British novel,…

  1. Empowering Adolescent Readers: Intertextuality in Three Novels by David Almond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don

    2008-01-01

    In "Skellig," "Kit's Wilderness," and "Clay", David Almond employs various types of intertextuality to enrich his narratives. Through the use of allusion, adaptation, collage, and mise-en-abyme, he encourages his adolescent readers to seek out precursor texts and to consider the interrelationships between these texts and his own. By so doing, he…

  2. Efficient salt-aided aqueous extraction of bitter almond oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Yu, Xiuzhu; Zhao, Zhong; Xu, Lirong; Zhang, Rui

    2017-08-01

    Salt-aided aqueous extraction (SAAE) is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly method of oil extraction that is influenced by many factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of SAAE on bitter almond oil yield. This study used sodium bicarbonate solution as extraction solvent and the optimal extraction parameters predicted by Box-Behnken design (i.e., concentration of sodium bicarbonate, 0.4 mol L(-1) ; solvent-to-sample ratio, 5:1; extraction temperature, 84 °C; extraction time, 60 min), for oil recovery of 90.9%. The physiochemical characteristics of the extracted oil suggest that the quality was similar to that of the aqueous enzymatic extracted oil. Moreover, the content of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in bitter almond oil was found to be less than 5 mg kg(-1) , which was lower compared to that obtained by other reported methods. Results of microanalysis indicated that SAAE led to significant improvement in oil yield by allowing the release of oil and decreasing the emulsion fraction. Therefore, extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE is feasible. These results demonstrate that extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE based on the salt effect is feasible on a laboratory scale. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. 78 FR 77367 - Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 981 Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a... referred to as the ``order,'' and the applicable provisions of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act...

  4. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups.

  5. Survey of Leafhopper Species in Almond Orchards Infected with Almond Witches'-Broom Phytoplasma in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Efat Abou-Fakhr; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) account for more than 80% of all “Auchenorrhynchous” vectors that transmit phytoplasmas. The leafhopper populations in two almond witches'-broom phytoplasma (AlmWB) infected sites: Tanboureet (south of Lebanon) and Bourj El Yahoudieh (north of Lebanon) were surveyed using yellow sticky traps. The survey revealed that the most abundant species was Asymmetrasca decedens, which represented 82.4% of all the leafhoppers sampled. Potential phytoplasma vectors in members of the subfamilies Aphrodinae, Deltocephalinae, and Megophthalminae were present in very low numbers including: Aphrodes makarovi, Cicadulina bipunctella, Euscelidius mundus, Fieberiella macchiae, Allygus theryi, Circulifer haematoceps, Neoaliturus transversalis, and Megophthalmus scabripennis. Allygus theryi (Horváth) (Deltocephalinae) was reported for the first time in Lebanon. Nested PCR analysis and sequencing showed that Asymmetrasca decedens, Empoasca decipiens, Fieberiella macchiae, Euscelidius mundus, Thamnottetix seclusis, Balclutha sp., Lylatina inexpectata, Allygus sp., and Annoplotettix danutae were nine potential carriers of AlmWB phytoplasma. Although the detection of phytoplasmas in an insect does not prove a definite vector relationship, the technique is useful in narrowing the search for potential vectors. The importance of this information for management of AlmWB is discussed. PMID:21864154

  6. Development of a non-dairy probiotic fermented product based on almond milk and inulin

    OpenAIRE

    Bernat Pérez, Neus; Cháfer Nácher, María Teresa; Chiralt Boix, Mª Amparo; González Martínez, María Consuelo

    2015-01-01

    A new fermented almond milk that combined the properties of both almonds and probiotics was considered to cover the current versatile health-promoting foods' demand. Almond milk fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus was studied by using a Central Composite design with response surface methodology, and different factors (glucose, fructose, inulin and starters) were optimised to assure high probiotic survivals in the final product. The optimal formulat...

  7. Matrizes do pensamento culturalista: Tocqueville e Almond-Verba

    OpenAIRE

    Fagundes, Bruno Flávio Lontra

    2008-01-01

    Este artigo analisa o approach culturalista em A democracia na América, com base em alguns itens de Teoria da Cultura Política feitas em The civic culture, e em trabalhos posteriores que matizaram alguns de seus conceitos, marcando semelhanças e diferenças entre o que seriam duas matrizes do pensamento culturalista em Ciência Política: a de Almond e Verba e a de Tocqueville.

  8. Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-04-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet.

  9. Fabrication of electrospun almond gum/PVA nanofibers as a thermostable delivery system for vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Atefe; Tavanai, Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the fabrication of vanillin incorporated almond gum/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers through electrospinning has been investigated. Electrospinning of only almond gum was proved impossible. It was found that the aqueous solution of almond gum/PVA (80:20, concentration=7% (w/w)) containing 3% (w/w) vanillin could have successfully electrospun to uniform nanofibers with diameters as low as 77nm. According to the thermal analysis, incorporated vanillin in almond gum/PVA nanofibers showed higher thermal stability than free vanillin, making this composite especially suitable for high temperature applications. XRD and FTIR analyses proved the presence of vanillin in the almond gum/PVA nanofibers. It was also found that vanillin was dispersed as big crystallites in the matrix of almond gum/PVA nanofibers. FTIR analysis showed almond gum and PVA had chemical cross-linking by etheric bonds between COH groups of almond gum and OH groups of PVA. Also, in the nanofibers, there were no major interaction between vanillin and either almond gum or PVA.

  10. Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Tribulus terrestris and Bitter Almond Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abtahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial effects of the extracts of different kinds of plants have been demonstrated in several studies. However, no study has been conducted so far on the synergistic effects of two herbal extracts on their germicidal effects. In this study, in addition to antibacterial effects of the aqueous, methanol or ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris and bitter almond on some bacteria, the synergistic effects of the extracts of these two plants were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, water, methanol and ethanol extracts of seeds were screened against some bacterial strains. Seeds were extracted by percolation method. Aliquots of the extracts at variable concentrations were then incubated with different bacterial strains, and the antimicrobial activities of the extracts from seeds were determined by MIC. Three antibiotics were used as reference compounds for antibacterial activities. Seeds extract inhibited significantly the growth of the tested bacterial strains. Results: The greatest synergistic effect of T. terrestris and bitter almond extracts is detected in methanol and aqueous extracts. Among the bacterial strains tested, Staphylococcus aureus was most susceptibility. Conclusion: The results showed the highest antibacterial effect in the combination of methanol extract of T. terrestris and the aqueous extract of the bitter almond.

  11. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  12. Determination of fatty acid composition of {gamma}-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gecgel, Umit, E-mail: ugecgel@nku.edu.t [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey); Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  13. The synergistic effects of almond protection fungicides on honey bee (Apis mellifera) forager survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera) contributes approximately $17 billion annually in pollination services performed for major agricultural crops in the United States including almond, which is completely dependent on honey bee pollination for nut set. Almond growers face challenges to crop productivity ...

  14. Identification of predominant aroma components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Edibe S; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-02-15

    Volatile components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds were isolated by solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and predominant aroma compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilutions analysis (AEDA). Selected odorants were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry and odor-activity values (OAVs) determined. Results of AEDA indicated that 1-octen-3-one and acetic acid were important aroma compounds in raw almonds. Those predominant in dry roasted almonds were methional, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2,3-pentanedione; whereas, in oil roasted almonds 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-pentanedione, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were the predominant aroma compounds. Overall, oil roasted almonds contained a greater number and higher abundance of aroma compounds than either raw or dry roasted almonds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of lipid-derived volatile compounds in raw almond aroma. Meanwhile, in dry and oil roasted almonds, the predominant aroma compounds were derived via the Maillard reaction, lipid degradation/oxidation and sugar degradation.

  15. 129Xe NMR studies of morphology and accessibility in porous biochar from almond shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micro and mesoporous materials are often used in catalysis, purification, composite filler, and other applications. Almond shell is an important agricultural byproduct that can be transformed to microporous and mesoporous carbon. In this work, we produced biochar from almond shell using a thermal tr...

  16. In vitro activity of almond skin polyphenols for scavenging free radicals and inducing quinone reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observational studies and clinical trials suggest nut intake, including almonds, is associated with an enhancement in antioxidant defense and a reduction in risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Almond skins are rich in polyphenols (ASP) that may contribute to these putative benefits. To assess...

  17. 16O+12C resonances within the strong absorption region for Ec.m.>23 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachcinski, C. M.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Berkowitz, G. M.; Freifelder, R. H.; Gai, M.; Renner, T. R.; Uhlhorn, C. D.

    1980-07-01

    Excitation functions for 12C(16O, 16O)12C elastic and inelastic scattering have been measured in the energy range 23<=Ec.m.<=32 MeV. Two strong structures at Ec.m.=25.5 and 29.6 MeV are observed in the 12C + 16O(3-,6.13 MeV) exit channel; angular correlation measurements at these energies suggest spin assignments of 15- and 16+, respectively. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 12C(16O, 16O*)12C*; Ec.m.=23-32 MeV, θc.m.(16O)=130°-155° measured σ(E) angular correlations.

  18. [Effect of processing on metabolism of amygdalin from bitter almond in rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Minfeng; Fu, Zhiling; Wang, Qilin; Wang, Shixiang; Xiao, Chaoni; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2010-10-01

    To study the influence of processing on metabolism of the main component of bitter almond-amygdalin in rat. The blood was collected at different times after amygdalin given by injection and oral, bitter almond and its processed production given by oral respectively, and then detected by both HPLC and HPLC-MS(n) methods after extraction pretreatment. After injection, amygdalin was absorbed in prototype to blood rapidly, while the other three kinds of medicine given by oral were all not detected the prototype of amygdalin, but two metabolites were detected which were isomers of prunasin confirmed by mass spectrometry. The metabolic pathway of prunasin in processed bitter almond group was markedly different from the bitter almond group. Processing has a significant effect on bitter almond metabolic processes in rats.

  19. Chemical quality of Baru almond (Dipteryx alata oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vegetable oils are suitable for human consumption as part of a healthy diet and native fruits of the cerrado, such as almond baru, which are natural sources of these oils. This study informed about the quality of baru oil having as a basis for comparison, soybean oil and olive oil, usually consumed in human diet. Analyzes of acid value, peroxide and iodine for the three oils and fatty acid composition for the baru oil were performed according to official standard methodology. Baru oil has the potential to be part of the human consumption, in healthy diets similarly to soybean oil and olive oil.

  20. Cyanogenic glucoside patterns in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2009-01-01

    their ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin. The analyses were carried out during the entire growth season, from almond tree flowering to kernel ripening using the following tissues: leaves, petioles, and the fruit (endosperm and cotyledon). Four different genotypes were investigated......-mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase activity was detected in the vegetative part of the tree (leaves), and in fruit tissues (endosperm and in the cotyledon) of the homozygous genotypes. UDPG-prunasin glucosyltransferase activity was detected in all four genotypes and the activity was restricted to the cotyledons. The similar...

  1. Cyanogenic glucoside patterns in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2009-01-01

    their ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin. The analyses were carried out during the entire growth season, from almond tree flowering to kernel ripening using the following tissues: leaves, petioles, and the fruit (endosperm and cotyledon). Four different genotypes were investigated......-mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase activity was detected in the vegetative part of the tree (leaves), and in fruit tissues (endosperm and in the cotyledon) of the homozygous genotypes. UDPG-prunasin glucosyltransferase activity was detected in all four genotypes and the activity was restricted to the cotyledons. The similar...

  2. Comparison of the volatile emission profiles of ground almond and pistachio mummies: part 1 – addressing a gap in knowledge of current attractants of navel orangeworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the years various tissues of almond and pistachios have been evaluated for their ability to attract the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest to almond and pistachio orchards in California. Almond meal, which typically consists of ground almond kernels, is the current monitoring tool for n...

  3. Matrizes do pensamento culturalista: Tocqueville e Almond-Verba Matrices of culturalist thought: Tocqueville and Almond-Verba

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Flávio Lontra Fagundes

    2008-01-01

    Este artigo analisa o approach culturalista em A democracia na América, com base em alguns itens de Teoria da Cultura Política feitas em The civic culture, e em trabalhos posteriores que matizaram alguns de seus conceitos, marcando semelhanças e diferenças entre o que seriam duas matrizes do pensamento culturalista em Ciência Política: a de Almond e Verba e a de Tocqueville.This article analyzes the culturalist approach in The democracy in America, based on some itens of the theory found in T...

  4. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    carbohydrates and 4,3% of total protein were found. The caloric value was around 180 kcal/g. The difference between these values and other from literatures. Was observed probably the nutritional values of the tucumã vary so much with the variety as with the maturation stadium in that is the fruit. The almond of the tucumã presented contents of 50,82% of C12 (láurico)e 24,98% C14 (miristico). It is a quite interesting and very spread fruit among the local communities, especially in lands that already suffered human actions, as the introduction of pastures and where its crop in extraction areas, not causing this way, larger damages to the forest. Key Words: rupture force, fat acid, oil

  5. Detection of hazelnuts and almonds using commercial ELISA test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Eric A E; Perry, Jesse

    2010-03-01

    Three commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits for the detection of hazelnuts and almonds were evaluated. Limits of detection and dynamic ranges were determined for hazelnuts and almonds spiked into cooked oatmeal, dipping chocolate, and muffins (baked). The limit of detection values varied from 1 to 38 μg/g, depending on the food matrix and ELISA test kit. Percent recoveries based on the standards supplied with the test kits varied from 10% to 170%. It is impossible to ascertain whether the percent recoveries reflect the performance of the ELISAs or differences between the protein content of the nuts used to spike the samples and the test kit standards. Unfortunately, reference materials do not exist that can be used to compare the results from different test kits and standardize the test kit standards. Also, insufficient knowledge regarding the epitope specificity of the antibodies used in the ELISAs further hinders interpretation of the results generated by the different test kits.

  6. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed.

  7. Moisture Adsorption and Thermodynamic Properties of California Grown Almonds (Varieties: Nonpareil and Monterey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuo Taitano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moisture adsorption characteristics of California grown almonds (Nonpareil: pasteurized and unpasteurized almonds; Monterey: pasteurized, unpasteurized and blanched almonds were obtained using the gravimetric method over a range of water activities from 0.11 to 0.98 at 7-50ºC. The weights of almonds were measured until samples reached a constant weight. The relationship between equilibrium moisture content and water activity was established using the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The diffusion coefficient of water in almond kernels was calculated based on Ficks second law. The monolayer moisture value of almonds ranged from 0.020 to 0.035 kg H2O kg-1 solids. The diffusion coefficient increased with temperature at a constant water activity, and decreased with water activity at a constant temperature. The thermodynamic properties (net isosteric heat, differential enthalpy and entropy were also determined. The net isosteric heat of adsorption decreased with the increasing moisture content, and the plot of differential enthalpy versus entropy satisfied the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The adsorption process of almond samples was enthalpy driven over the range of studied moisture contents.

  8. Novel genomic rearrangements mediated by multiple genetic elements in Streptococcus pyogenes M23ND confer potential for evolutionary persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yun-Juan; Liang, Zhong; Mayfield, Jeffrey A; McShan, William M; Lee, Shaun W; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2016-08-01

    Symmetric genomic rearrangements around replication axes in genomes are commonly observed in prokaryotic genomes, including Group A Streptococcus (GAS). However, asymmetric rearrangements are rare. Our previous studies showed that the hypervirulent invasive GAS strain, M23ND, containing an inactivated transcriptional regulator system, covRS, exhibits unique extensive asymmetric rearrangements, which reconstructed a genomic structure distinct from other GAS genomes. In the current investigation, we identified the rearrangement events and examined the genetic consequences and evolutionary implications underlying the rearrangements. By comparison with a close phylogenetic relative, M18-MGAS8232, we propose a molecular model wherein a series of asymmetric rearrangements have occurred in M23ND, involving translocations, inversions and integrations mediated by multiple factors, viz., rRNA-comX (factor for late competence), transposons and phage-encoded gene segments. Assessments of the cumulative gene orientations and GC skews reveal that the asymmetric genomic rearrangements did not affect the general genomic integrity of the organism. However, functional distributions reveal re-clustering of a broad set of CovRS-regulated actively transcribed genes, including virulence factors and metabolic genes, to the same leading strand, with high confidence (p-value ~10-10). The re-clustering of the genes suggests a potential selection advantage for the spatial proximity to the transcription complexes, which may contain the global transcriptional regulator, CovRS, and other RNA polymerases. Their proximities allow for efficient transcription of the genes required for growth, virulence and persistence. A new paradigm of survival strategies of GAS strains is provided through multiple genomic rearrangements, while, at the same time, maintaining genomic integrity.

  9. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose......, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal...... in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet....

  10. Data from selected Almond Formation outcrops -- Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.R.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.

    1993-12-01

    The objectives of this research program are to: (1) determine the reservoir characteristics and production problems of shoreline barrier reservoirs; and (2) develop methods and methodologies to effectively characterize shoreline barrier reservoirs to predict flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Two reservoirs were selected for detailed reservoir characterization studies -- Bell Creek field, Carter County, Montana, that produces from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Muddy Formation, and Patrick Draw field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming that produces from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Almond Formation of the Mesaverde Group. An important component of the research project was to use information from outcrop exposures of the producing formations to study the spatial variations of reservoir properties and the degree to which outcrop information can be used in the construction of reservoir models. A report similar to this one presents the Muddy Formation outcrop data and analyses performed in the course of this study (Rawn-Schatzinger, 1993). Two outcrop localities, RG and RH, previously described by Roehler (1988) provided good exposures of the Upper Almond shoreline barrier facies and were studied during 1990--1991. Core from core well No. 2 drilled approximately 0.3 miles downdip of outcrop RG was obtained for study. The results of the core study will be reported in a separate volume. Outcrops RH and RG, located about 2 miles apart were selected for detailed description and drilling of core plugs. One 257-ft-thick section was measured at outcrop RG, and three sections {approximately}145 ft thick located 490 and 655 feet apart were measured at the outcrop RH. Cross-sections of these described profiles were constructed to determine lateral facies continuity and changes. This report contains the data and analyses from the studied outcrops.

  11. Roast Effects on Mechnical and Sensory Texture Attributes of Peantus, Almonds, Hazelnuts and Cashews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two instrumental methods were developed to quantify mechanical properties of peanuts, almonds, hazelnuts and cashews that potentially related to sensory texture attributes after thermal processing. The first method involved individual compression testing of multiple separate oilseeds, whereas the se...

  12. Three new species of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from almonds and maize in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new aflatoxin-producing species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are described, Aspergillus mottae, Aspergillus sergii and Aspergillus transmontanensis. These species were isolated from Portuguese almonds and maize. An investigation examining morphology, extrolites and molecular data was...

  13. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Arrázola

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype (sweet, slightly bitter or bitter and the genotype (homozygous: sweet or bitter or heterozygous: sweet or slightly bitter with an easy analytical test. Results showed that there was a clear difference in the amount of amygdalin between bitter and non-bitter cultivars. However, the content of amygdalin did not differentiate the other genotypes, since similar amounts of amygdalin can be found in the two different genotypes with the same phenotype

  14. Effect of almond consumption on the serum fatty acid profile: a dose-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Stephanie; Kendall, Cyril W C; Gascoyne, Ana-Maria; Bazinet, Richard P; Bashyam, Balachandran; Lapsley, Karen G; Augustin, Livia S A; Sievenpiper, John L; Jenkins, David J A

    2014-10-14

    Consumption of almonds has been shown to be associated with a decreased risk of CHD, which may be related to their fatty acid (FA) composition. However, the effect of almond consumption on the serum FA composition is not known. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether almond consumption would alter the serum FA profile and risk of CHD, as calculated using Framingham's 10-year risk score, in a dose-dependent manner in hyperlipidaemic individuals when compared with a higher-carbohydrate control group using dietary interventions incorporating almonds. A total of twenty-seven hyperlipidaemic individuals consumed three isoenergetic (mean 1770 kJ/d) supplements during three 1-month dietary phases: (1) full-dose almonds (50-100 g/d); (2) half-dose almonds with half-dose muffins; (3) full-dose muffins. Fasting blood samples were obtained at weeks 0 and 4 for the determination of FA concentrations. Almond intake (g/d) was found to be inversely associated with the estimated Framingham 10-year CHD risk score (P= 0·026). In both the half-dose and full-dose almond groups, the proportions of oleic acid (OA) and MUFA in the TAG fraction (half-almond: OA P= 0·003; MUFA P= 0·004; full-almond: OA PFramingham 10-year CHD risk score was inversely associated with the percentage change of OA (P= 0·011) and MUFA (P= 0·016) content in the TAG fraction. The proportions of MUFA in the TAG and NEFA fractions were positively associated with changes in HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Similarly, the estimated Framingham 10-year CHD risk score was inversely associated with the percentage change of OA (P= 0·069) and MUFA content in the NEFA fraction (P= 0·009). In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that almond consumption increases OA and MUFA content in serum TAG and NEFA fractions, which are inversely associated with CHD lipid risk factors and overall estimated 10-year CHD risk.

  15. Improving chocolate flavor in poor-quality cocoa almonds by enzymatic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hilana Salete Silva; Mamede, Maria Eugênia Oliveira; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Koblitz, Maria Gabriela Bello

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to enzymatically treat poor-quality cocoa almonds (known as "slate") to ensure the formation of chocolate flavor precursors. The production of flavor precursors improves the quality of these almonds, which are usually responsible for the low quality of the liquor produced. Proteases and carboxypeptidases from different sources were tested under various conditions. The different treatments were evaluated by chemical analysis (hydrolysis efficiency) and sensory analysis of the treated material compared to good-quality cocoa almonds. The results show that it is possible, through the use of microbial enzymes, to generate the mixture of compounds that will release, after roasting, the characteristic chocolate flavor in poor-quality almonds. However, it is necessary to optimize the conditions of enzymatic treatment to obtain better results and thus establish a process that can be used for industrial purposes for manufacturing cocoa and chocolate. The basidiomycete Moniliophtora perniciosa is the causative agent of witches' broom disease (WBD) of the cocoa tree, whose seeds are the source of chocolate. It is the most important phytopathological problem of cocoa-producing areas of the American continent, and has decimated the Brazilian cocoa industry. In Bahia (Brazil), M. perniciosa was identified in 1989 and, as a consequence of its spreading, the annual production of cocoa almonds dropped from 450,000 to 90,000 tons within 12 y, reducing export values from an all-time high of about US$ 1 billion to 110 million. The high incidence of WBD incapacitates Brazil to produce enough cocoa almonds even for the internal market, leading the country to import low-quality cocoa almonds mainly from African countries. Our work proposes an enzymatic treatment to increase the quality of that cocoa almonds and, consequently, to improve the quality of the chocolate produced and consumed in the country. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Hull split and damaged almond volatiles attract male and female navel orangeworm moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John J; Higbee, Bradley S; Light, Douglas M; Gee, Wai S; Merrill, Glory B; Hayashi, Jennifer M

    2012-08-22

    A blend of volatiles derived from the emissions of almonds at hull split and mechanically damaged almonds was compared to almond meal, the current monitoring standard for the insect pest navel orangeworm (NOW). Field trapping studies were performed to determine the blend's ability to attract adult NOW. The blend comprised racemic 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl benzoate, methyl salicylate, acetophenone, and racemic (E)-conophthorin. Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent with a blend component concentration of 100 mg/mL. The blend attracted both sexes of NOW when tested in five 2-week intervals spanning the first three flights of NOW in commercial almond orchards in the southern Central Valley of California. The blend demonstrated consistently higher capture rates for female NOW throughout the evaluation period, but unlike almond meal it significantly attracted males. Reported is a survey of the major and minor volatiles emitted from almonds at hull split, the key period of vulnerability to NOW infestation. Also reported is the attractancy of a formulated test blend based on the host plant volatile emissions, electroantennographic screening experiments, and field trapping studies. The results of this test blend highlight progress toward a host-plant-based attractant for NOW, a major insect pest of California tree nuts that presently lacks an adequate monitoring tool.

  17. Effect of Drying Moisture Exposed Almonds on the Development of the Quality Defect Concealed Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Luo, Kathleen; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2017-10-02

    Concealed damage (CD), is a term used by the nut industry to describe a brown discoloration of kernel nutmeat that becomes visible after moderate heat treatments (e.g., roasting). CD can result in consumer rejection and product loss. Postharvest exposure of almonds to moisture (e.g., rain) is a key factor in the development of CD as it promotes hydrolysis of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. The effect of drying moisture-exposed almonds between 45 to 95 °C, prior to roasting was evaluated as a method for controlling CD in roasted almonds. Additionally, moisture-exposed almonds dried at 55 and 75 °C were stored under accelerated shelf life conditions (45 °C/80% RH) and evaluated for headspace volatiles. Results indicate that drying temperatures below 65 °C decreases brown discoloration of nutmeat up to 40% while drying temperatures above 75 °C produce significant increases in brown discoloration and volatiles related to lipid oxidation, and nonsignificant increases in Amadori compounds. Results also demonstrate that raw almonds exposed to moisture and dried at 55 °C prior to roasting, reduce the visual sign of CD and maintain headspace volatiles profiles similar to almonds without moisture damage during accelerated storage.

  18. High-specificity quantification method for almond-by-products, based on differential proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiwei; Wang, Shifeng; Huang, Jingmin; Lai, Xintian; Du, Yegang; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Bifang; Feng, Ronghu; Yang, Guowu

    2016-03-01

    A highly specific competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol has been developed to identify and classify almond products based on differential proteomic analysis. We applied two-dimensional electrophoresis to compare the differences between almond and apricot kernels to search for almond-specific proteins. The amino acid of apricot Pru-1 was sequenced and aligned to almond Pru-1. One peptide, RQGRQQGRQQQEEGR, which exists in almond but not in apricot, was used as hapten to prepare monoclonal antibody against almond Pru-1. An optimized ELISA method was established using this antibody. The assay did not exhibit cross-reactivity with the tested apricot kernels and other edible plant seeds. The limit of detection (LOD) was 2.5-100μg/g based on different food samples. The recoveries of fortified samples at levels of twofold and eightfold LOD ranged from 82% to 96%. The coefficients of variation were less than 13.0%. Using 7M urea as extracting solution, the heat-treated protein loss ratios were 2%, 5% and 15% under pasteurization (65°C for 30min), baking (150°C for 30min) and autoclaved sterilization (120°C for 15min), respectively.

  19. California's Effort to Improve Almond Orchard Crop Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanden, B. L.; Fulton, A. E.; Munk, D. S.; Ewert, S.; Little, C.; Anderson, F.; Connell, J. H.; Rivera, M.; Orang, M. N.; Snyder, R. L.

    2012-04-01

    Almonds are a major agricultural commodity in California and optimal irrigation management is important for production, protecting the environment, and long term water resources planning. While evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are widely used for water resource planning, it is used less for "realtime" irrigation management for several reasons. One problem is the lack of confidence in the crop coefficient (Kc) values that are used with reference ET (ETo) to estimate well-watered crop ET (ETc). This is especially true for orchard crops. Until recently, the Kc values used to estimate the ETc of most orchard crops in California were derived using measurements of applied water, runoff, and soil water content depletion with the assumption that the trees were transpiring at a rate that was not restricted by water availability. For decades, a typical midseason Kc value used for clean-cultivated almond orchards was 0.90. Recently, a study was conducted by the University of California and the California Department of Water Resources to improve the Kc estimates for almond orchards; helping growers improve their on-farm water management for better production and less adverse impacts on the environment. Field experiments were conducted in four locations (Butte, Fresno, Kern, and Tehama Counties) spanning 1000 km north to south within the Central Valley of California over somewhat different climates. California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) weather stations were used with the ASCE-EWRI standardized reference evapotranspiration equation for short canopies to determine ETo. Latent heat flux (LE), in all four orchards, was estimated using the residual of the energy balance equation: LE=Rn-G-H from measured net radiation (Rn), ground heat flux (G), and sensible heat flux (H) using surface renewal and eddy covariance measurements. The LE was divided by the latent heat of vaporization (L) to determine ETc. In three years of measurements in Kern County, the data

  20. Dielectric properties of almond kernels associated with radio frequency and microwave pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Shuang; Kou, Xiaoxi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shaojin

    2017-02-10

    To develop advanced pasteurization treatments based on radio frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of almond kernels were measured by using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer at frequencies between 10 and 3000 MHz, moisture contents between 4.2% to 19.6% w.b. and temperatures between 20 and 90 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant and loss factor of the almond kernels decreased sharply with increasing frequency over the RF range (10-300 MHz), but gradually over the measured MW range (300-3000 MHz). Both dielectric constant and loss factor of almond kernels increased with increasing temperature and moisture content, and largely enhanced at higher temperature and moisture levels. Quadratic polynomial equations were developed to best fit the relationship between dielectric constant or loss factor at 27, 40, 915 or 2450 MHz and sample temperature/moisture content with R(2) greater than 0.967. Penetration depth of electromagnetic wave into samples decreased with increasing frequency (27-2450 MHz), moisture content (4.2-19.6% w.b.) and temperature (20-90 °C). The temperature profiles of RF heated almond kernels under three moisture levels were made using experiment and computer simulation based on measured dielectric properties. Based on the result of this study, RF treatment has potential to be practically used for pasteurization of almond kernels with acceptable heating uniformity.

  1. Thrombin inhibitory and clot-specific fibrinolytic activities of the urokinase variant, M23 (rscu-PA-40 kDa/Hir)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, J; Wnendt, S; Saunders, D; HeinzelWieland, R; Wilffert, B; Steffens, G

    1996-01-01

    The recombinant bifunctional urokinase variant, M23 (rscu-PA-40 kDA/Hir), comprising the kringle and protease domain of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator and a C-terminal fragment of hirudin in one single-chain molecule, was evaluated for its thrombin-inhibitory and fibrinolytic

  2. Food Matrix Effects of Polyphenol Bioaccessibility from Almond Skin during Simulated Human Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Vardakou, Maria; Faulks, Richard; Bisignano, Carlo; Martorana, Maria; Smeriglio, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to quantify the rate and extent of polyphenols released in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from natural (NS) and blanched (BS) almond skins. A dynamic gastric model of digestion which provides a realistic simulation of the human stomach was used. In order to establish the effect of a food matrix on polyphenols bioaccessibility, NS and BS were either digested in water (WT) or incorporated into home-made biscuits (HB), crisp-bread (CB) and full-fat milk (FM). Phenolic acids were the most bioaccessible class (68.5% release from NS and 64.7% from BS). WT increased the release of flavan-3-ols (p antioxidant status in the digestion medium, indicating that phenolic compounds could bind protein present in the food matrix. The release of bioactives from almond skins could explain the beneficial effects associated with almond consumption. PMID:27649239

  3. Solar drying of jack fruit almonds Secagem solar de amêndoas de jaca

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre J. de M. Queiroz; Dantas,Hermeval J; Figueirêdo,Rossana M. F. de; Karla dos S Melo

    2011-01-01

    Dryers heated by solar energy have been constructed and used in drying whole and half jack fruit almonds. The samples were dried during the day in direct sun and in the conventional solar dryer prepared for this purpose. Another piece of equipment was built for reception and accumulation of sun energy in a body of water, which was used as a heat source for night drying. The drying with the sun energy was compared with artificial drying. The jack fruit almonds were dried whole, half, with pell...

  4. Effect of cooling rate during solidification on the hard phases of M23C6-type of cast CoCrMo alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alvarez-Vera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural morphology of CoCrMo alloy by control of the cooling rate during the solidification was investigated. Samples were obtained using both an induction furnace for slow cooling rate and electric arc furnace for fast cooling rate. Microstructural characterizations were performed with metallographic techniques. It was found that the difference between the formation temperature of hard secondary phases of M23C6-type carbides determine the reduction of carbide size by increasing the cooling rate.

  5. Quantification of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Wood, Elizabeth; Rogel Castillo, Cristian; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2013-08-14

    Amygdalin is a cynaogenic diglucoside responsible for the bitterness of almonds. Almonds display three flavor phenotypes, nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter. Herein, the amygdalin content of 20 varieties of nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds from four primary growing regions of California was determined using solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS). The detection limit for this method is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL (3 times the signal-to-noise ratio) and the LOQ is 0.33 ng/mL (10 times the signal-to-noise ratio), allowing for the reliable quantitation of trace levels of amygdalin in nonbitter almonds (0.13 mg/kg almond). Results indicate that amygdalin concentrations for the three flavor phenotypes were significantly different (p amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds are 63.13 ± 57.54, 992.24 ± 513.04, and 40060.34 ± 7855.26 mg/kg, respectively. Levels of amygdalin ranged from 2.16 to 157.44 mg/kg in nonbitter, from 523.50 to 1772.75 mg/kg in semibitter, and from 33006.60 to 53998.30 mg/kg in bitter almonds. These results suggest that phenotype classification may be achieved on the basis of amygdalin levels. Growing region had a statistically significant effect on the amygdalin concentration in commercial varieties (p < 0.05).

  6. Secularism, Multiculturalism and Same-Sex Marriage: A Comment on Brenda Almond's "Education for Tolerance"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Although Almond argues that the contemporary West has lost touch with the value of tolerance, I argue that that value applied to those of different religions and sexual orientations is too minimal a standard for a pluralistic society. I suggest, in the spirit of the work of Charles Taylor and Tariq Modood, the more robust standard of respect and…

  7. Secularism, Multiculturalism and Same-Sex Marriage: A Comment on Brenda Almond's "Education for Tolerance"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Although Almond argues that the contemporary West has lost touch with the value of tolerance, I argue that that value applied to those of different religions and sexual orientations is too minimal a standard for a pluralistic society. I suggest, in the spirit of the work of Charles Taylor and Tariq Modood, the more robust standard of respect and…

  8. 77 FR 41707 - United States Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... is to facilitate the marketing of agricultural commodities. Executive Order 12988 The rule has been...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 51 United States Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY:...

  9. Torrefaction of almond shells: effects of torrefaction conditions on properties of solid and condensate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond shells were torrefied in a fixed bed reactor and their solid and condensate products were collected for analysis. A central composite design and response surface methodology were used to examine effects of torrefaction temperature and time on mass and energy yields of solid products as well a...

  10. Promotion Expenditure, Categories, Time Lag Structure, and the Demand for Almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-06

    promotional programs to increase the demand for California almonds: public relations, advertising , food services and nutrition research. This...ABC) administers a grower-initiated federal marketing order, under the supervision of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), to promote ...finances four different categories of promotional programs: advertising , public relations, food services and nutrition research. Most of the

  11. Characterization of narrow micropores in almond shell biochars by nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of biochars usually includes surface area and pore volume determination by nitrogen adsorption. In this study, we show that there is a substantial pore volume in biochars created via slow pyrolysis from low- and high-ash almond shells that cannot be characterized in this fashion due...

  12. Development of a non-dairy probiotic fermented product based on almond milk and inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Neus; Cháfer, Maite; Chiralt, Amparo; González-Martínez, Chelo

    2015-09-01

    A new fermented almond "milk" that combined the properties of both almonds and probiotics was considered to cover the current versatile health-promoting foods' demand. Almond milk fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus was studied by using a Central Composite design with response surface methodology, and different factors (glucose, fructose, inulin and starters) were optimised to assure high probiotic survivals in the final product. The optimal formulation was physicochemically characterised throughout cold storage (28 days) and both probiotic survivals to in vitro digestion and proteolysis were quantified. Results showed that a high probiotic population (>10(7) cfu/mL) was obtained in the previously optimised almond milk throughout storage time, which correspond to the addition of 0.75 g of glucose/100 mL, 0.75 g of fructose/100 mL, 2 g/100 mL inulin and 6 mL/100 mL inoculum. Glucose was used as the main nutrient and the production of mannitol by L. reuteri was detected. The fermentation process increased the viscosity values, forming a weak gel structure, whose physical properties hardly changed. Probiotic bacteria notably survived (51%) to the in vitro digestion, surely related to the inulin presence, which would add value to the developed product by enhancing the potential health benefits of its consumption.

  13. Understanding genetic and physiological bases of salt tolerance in almond rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the biggest challenges California almond growers are facing is the irrigation water quality. Due to the reduced availability of good quality water, the use of alternative/ degraded waters is inevitable. The most important consideration for the use of degraded waters is the water salt concentr...

  14. A Tale of Two Bees: Looking at Pollination Fees for Both Almonds and Sweet Cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic theory of supply and demand can explain the recent drastic changes in the pollination prices for almonds and cherries, following large acreage increases for these crops and a concurrent drop in honey bee availability due to colony collapse disorder (CCD). We constructed a model which s...

  15. Effects of Almond Leaf Scorch Disease on Yield and Tree Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond leaf scorch disease (ALS) has been present in California for more than 60 years. The disease is present in orchards throughout the state, but usually affects only a small proportion of trees and large increases in the number of infected trees within orchards between years is typically not ob...

  16. 78 FR 14907 - United States Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... / Friday, March 8, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Grades of Almonds in the Shell. These standards are issued under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946. The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is revising the standards by changing the determination...

  17. Cyanogenic Glucosides and Derivatives in Almond and Sweet Cherry Flower Buds from Dormancy to Flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cueto, Jorge; Ionescu, Irina A.; Pičmanová, Martina; Gericke, Oliver; Motawia, Mohammed S.; Olsen, Carl E.; Campoy, José A.; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger L.; Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Almond and sweet cherry are two economically important species of the Prunus genus. They both produce the cyanogenic glucosides prunasin and amygdalin. As part of a two-component defense system, prunasin and amygdalin release toxic hydrogen cyanide upon cell disruption. In this study, we investigated the potential role within prunasin and amygdalin and some of its derivatives in endodormancy release of these two Prunus species. The content of prunasin and of endogenous prunasin turnover products in the course of flower development was examined in five almond cultivars – differing from very early to extra-late in flowering time – and in one sweet early cherry cultivar. In all cultivars, prunasin began to accumulate in the flower buds shortly after dormancy release and the levels dropped again just before flowering time. In almond and sweet cherry, the turnover of prunasin coincided with increased levels of prunasin amide whereas prunasin anitrile pentoside and β-D-glucose-1-benzoate were abundant in almond and cherry flower buds at certain developmental stages. These findings indicate a role for the turnover of cyanogenic glucosides in controlling flower development in Prunus species. PMID:28579996

  18. Cyanogenic Glucosides and Derivatives in Almond and Sweet Cherry Flower Buds from Dormancy to Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Del Cueto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Almond and sweet cherry are two economically important species of the Prunus genus. They both produce the cyanogenic glucosides prunasin and amygdalin. As part of a two-component defense system, prunasin and amygdalin release toxic hydrogen cyanide upon cell disruption. In this study, we investigated the potential role within prunasin and amygdalin and some of its derivatives in endodormancy release of these two Prunus species. The content of prunasin and of endogenous prunasin turnover products in the course of flower development was examined in five almond cultivars – differing from very early to extra-late in flowering time – and in one sweet early cherry cultivar. In all cultivars, prunasin began to accumulate in the flower buds shortly after dormancy release and the levels dropped again just before flowering time. In almond and sweet cherry, the turnover of prunasin coincided with increased levels of prunasin amide whereas prunasin anitrile pentoside and β-D-glucose-1-benzoate were abundant in almond and cherry flower buds at certain developmental stages. These findings indicate a role for the turnover of cyanogenic glucosides in controlling flower development in Prunus species.

  19. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    , and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal...

  20. Dielectric properties of almond kernels associated with radio frequency and microwave pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Shuang; Kou, Xiaoxi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shaojin

    2017-01-01

    To develop advanced pasteurization treatments based on radio frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of almond kernels were measured by using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer at frequencies between 10 and 3000 MHz, moisture contents between 4.2% to 19.6% w.b. and temperatures between 20 and 90 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant and loss factor of the almond kernels decreased sharply with increasing frequency over the RF range (10–300 MHz), but gradually over the measured MW range (300–3000 MHz). Both dielectric constant and loss factor of almond kernels increased with increasing temperature and moisture content, and largely enhanced at higher temperature and moisture levels. Quadratic polynomial equations were developed to best fit the relationship between dielectric constant or loss factor at 27, 40, 915 or 2450 MHz and sample temperature/moisture content with R2 greater than 0.967. Penetration depth of electromagnetic wave into samples decreased with increasing frequency (27–2450 MHz), moisture content (4.2–19.6% w.b.) and temperature (20–90 °C). The temperature profiles of RF heated almond kernels under three moisture levels were made using experiment and computer simulation based on measured dielectric properties. Based on the result of this study, RF treatment has potential to be practically used for pasteurization of almond kernels with acceptable heating uniformity. PMID:28186149

  1. Dielectric properties of almond kernels associated with radio frequency and microwave pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Shuang; Kou, Xiaoxi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shaojin

    2017-02-01

    To develop advanced pasteurization treatments based on radio frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of almond kernels were measured by using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer at frequencies between 10 and 3000 MHz, moisture contents between 4.2% to 19.6% w.b. and temperatures between 20 and 90 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant and loss factor of the almond kernels decreased sharply with increasing frequency over the RF range (10–300 MHz), but gradually over the measured MW range (300–3000 MHz). Both dielectric constant and loss factor of almond kernels increased with increasing temperature and moisture content, and largely enhanced at higher temperature and moisture levels. Quadratic polynomial equations were developed to best fit the relationship between dielectric constant or loss factor at 27, 40, 915 or 2450 MHz and sample temperature/moisture content with R2 greater than 0.967. Penetration depth of electromagnetic wave into samples decreased with increasing frequency (27–2450 MHz), moisture content (4.2–19.6% w.b.) and temperature (20–90 °C). The temperature profiles of RF heated almond kernels under three moisture levels were made using experiment and computer simulation based on measured dielectric properties. Based on the result of this study, RF treatment has potential to be practically used for pasteurization of almond kernels with acceptable heating uniformity.

  2. The Synergistic Effects of Almond Protection Fungicides on Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Forager Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Adrian; Coleman, Chet; Hoffmann, Clint; Fritz, Brad; Rangel, Juliana

    2017-06-01

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) contributes ∼$17 billion annually to the United States economy, primarily by pollinating major agricultural crops including almond, which is completely dependent on honey bee pollination for nut set. Almond growers face constant challenges to crop productivity owing to pests and pathogens, which are often controlled with a multitude of agrochemicals. For example, fungicides are often applied in combination with other products to control fungal pathogens during almond bloom. However, the effects of fungicides on honey bee health have been so far understudied. To assess the effects of some of the top fungicides used during the 2012 California almond bloom on honey bee forager mortality, we collected foragers from a local apiary and exposed them to fungicides (alone and in various combinations) at the label dose, or at doses ranging from 0.25 to 2 times the label dose rate. These fungicides were Iprodione 2SE Select, Pristine, and Quadris. We utilized a wind tunnel and atomizer set up with a wind speed of 2.9 m/s to simulate field-relevant exposure of honey bees to these agrochemicals during aerial application in almond fields. Groups of 40-50 foragers exposed to either untreated controls or fungicide-laden treatments were monitored daily over a 10-d period. Our results showed a significant decrease in forager survival resulting from exposure to simulated tank mixes of Iprodione 2SE Select, as well as synergistic detrimental effects of Iprodione 2SE Select in combination with Pristine and Quadris on forager survival. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Combination phenyl propionate/pheromone traps for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds in the vicinity of mating disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating...

  4. Determination of feed value of cherry, apricot and almond tree leaves in ruminant using in situ method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmoudi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, chemical composition and in situ rumen dry matter degradability (DMD of some tree species (cherry, apricot and almond tree leaves were determined. Crude protein (CP concentration varied from 6.76% for almond tree to 2.76% for cherry tree, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, from 29.2, 20.8% for apricot tree to 20.8 and 15.8% for almond tree leaves respectively. Polyphenol and tannin composition measured from 3.49, 1.2% for almond tree to 1.51 and 0.61% for apricot tree, respectively. In situ rumen degradability was carried out in three fistulaed Taleshi native male cattle which were incubated at times of 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96-hour. Almond leaves had higher potential degradation (a+b for dry matter (92.37% and cherry leaves showed lower potential degradation (84.12%, respectively. Effective rumen degradable dry matter at rate of 0.05/h varied from 69.86% for almond tree to 52.20% for cherry leaves. Results showed that the almond leaves were higher in nutritive value than cherry and apricot leaves. Therefore, almond tree leaves could be used with forage in ruminant diets to reduce cost of animals feed requirements. Overall, it seemed that the tree leaves used in this study, had a higher nutritive value in ruminant’s nutrition, however more experiments are needed for an accurate determination of nutritional values of these resources.

  5. Nutritional evaluation of almond cashew nut by-products in diets for slow-growing broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. V. Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility and energy value of almond cashew nut by-products for slow-growing broiler chickens. Seventy-six chickens (males and females were allocated in a completely randomized design to four treatments: a control diet and the same diet in which the conventional ingredients were replaced with 30% (kg/kg almond cashew nut film, almond cashew nut meal or almond cashew nut mass. The animals were housed in individual cages adapted for excreta collection. The apparent digestibility coefficients of film, full meal and almond mass were, respectively, 81.3, 87.3 and 86.2% for dry matter; 32.1, 71.2 and 56.7% for crude protein (CP; 82.7, 92.6 and 92.8% for ether extract; 10.9, 29.9 and 34.7% for neutral detergent fiber; 7.7, 17.9 and 19.6% for acid detergent fiber; 41.9, 57.2 and 66.7% for coefficient of gross energy metabolism (CGEM; 1,189, 2,648 and 3,719 kcal/kg for apparent metabolizable energy (AME; 8.1, 19.9 and 12.9% for digestible protein, and 3.9, 15.2 and 6.3% for mineral matter (MM. The CP and MM apparent digestibility coefficients of full meal were higher than those of film and almond cashew nut mass, while the latter exhibited higher apparent digestibility of fiber, CGEM and AME compared to the other by-products. The inclusion of almond cashew nut by-products in diets for slow-growing broiler chickens results in lower nutrient digestibility, except for ether extract, neutral detergent fiber and AME, in diets containing 30% almond cashew nut mass.

  6. Feasibility of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) and trichloroethylene (TCE) adsorption onto activated carbons made from nut shells of different almond varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steam-activated carbons were made from shells from five different almond varieties (‘Nonpareil,’ ‘Padre,’ Tuono,’ ‘23-122,’ and ‘Y120-74’) and from a mix of almond types. The purpose of the work was to evaluate if the composition of shells had any effect on the performance of the final product. The ...

  7. Cefiderocol MIC quality control ranges in iron-depleted cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth using a CLSI M23-A4 multi-laboratory study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huband, Michael D; Ito, Akinobu; Tsuji, Masakatsu; Sader, Helio S; Fedler, Kelley A; Flamm, Robert K

    2017-06-01

    Cefiderocol (formerly S-649266) is a new catechol-substituted parenteral siderophore cephalosporin with potent in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative isolates including multidrug-resistant strains. A recent study following CLSI M23-A4 quality control guidelines established cefiderocol MIC QC ranges against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (0.06-0.5 μg/mL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (0.06-0.5 μg/mL). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduction of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis on the surface of raw shelled almonds by exposure to steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young; Oh, Se-wook; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Reyes-De-Corcuera, Jose I; Powers, Joseph R; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of steam treatment on the reduction of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on the surface of raw almonds. Two cultivars, 'Nonpareil' and 'Mission', were studied. Salmonella Enteritidis was inoculated on the surface of raw almonds, which were then treated with steam (93 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C) for 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65 s. After steam treatment, samples were plated on xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD) and overlay (OV) XLD as a selective and nonselective agar for Salmonella, respectively, to investigate the extent of sublethal injury in Salmonella. Steam treatment of raw almonds effectively reduced Salmonella Enteritidis, and the effect was pronounced with increasing treatment time. After 65 s of steam treatment, reductions in Salmonella Enteritidis populations were 5.7 log and 5.8 log for 'Nonpareil' and 4.0 log and 4.1 log for 'Mission' when enumerated on XLD and OV XLD, respectively. There was no significant difference in population estimates determined with XLD and OV XLD over time (P > 0.05). The effect of the steam treatment was significantly different between two almond cultivars. Salmonella inoculated onto 'Mission' was more resistant to the steam treatment than that on 'Nonpareil', indicating that varietal differences must be considered in the application of steam for the disinfection of raw almonds. The present investigation revealed the potential usefulness of steam treatments for the control of pathogens in raw almonds.

  9. Almond milk fermented with different potentially probiotic bacteria improves iron uptake by intestinal epithelial (Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New fermented almond milks were developed, using different potentially probiotic bacteria, in order to meet the current demand for healthy, versatile non-dairy products. An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model was used to evaluate the effect of both non-fermented and fermented almond milks on the mitochondrial enzymatic activities of enterocytes. Moreover, macrophages were challenged with the in-vitro digested samples and the production of pro-inflammatory biomarkers TNF-a and IL-6 was quantified. Enzymatic activities of cell cultures seemed to be stimulated by the exposure to both fermented and non-fermented almond milks. Both biomarkers decreased (p< 0.05 in fermented almond milks with either B. bifidum or B. longum. Results showed that fermented almond products favored the energetic metabolism of enterocytes and had a lower inflammatory response than non-fermented almond milk, suggesting its benefits for the management of allergies/intolerances. Moreover, the fermentation process enhanced the uptake of iron by Caco-2 cells, especially when using L. rhamnosus and either B. bifidum or B. longum as starters, thus improving the product bioactivity. Therefore, new non-dairy fermented products with functional properties were developed, which might be positioned as alternatives to cow-milk products for sensitized groups of population (allergic and/or intolerant to cow milk or anemic population, among others.

  10. Pilot-Scale Production and Thermostability Improvement of the M23 Protease Pseudoalterin from the Deep Sea Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. CF6-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoalterin is the most abundant protease secreted by the marine sedimental bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. CF6-2 and is a novel cold-adapted metalloprotease of the M23 family. Proteases of the M23 family have high activity towards peptidoglycan and elastin, suggesting their promising biomedical and biotechnological potentials. To lower the fermentive cost and improve the pseudoalterin production of CF6-2, we optimized the fermentation medium by using single factor experiments, added 0.5% sucrose as a carbon source, and lowered the usage of artery powder from 1.2% to 0.6%. In the optimized medium, pseudoalterin production reached 161.15 ± 3.08 U/mL, 61% greater than that before optimization. We further conducted a small-scale fermentation experiment in a 5-L fermenter and a pilot-scale fermentation experiment in a 50-L fermenter. Pseudoalterin production during pilot-scale fermentation reached 103.48 ± 8.64 U/mL, 77% greater than that before the medium was optimized. In addition, through single factor experiments and orthogonal tests, we developed a compound stabilizer for pseudoalterin, using medically safe sugars and polyols. This stabilizer showed a significant protective effect for pseudoalterin against enzymatic thermal denaturation. These results lay a solid foundation for the industrial production of pseudoalterin and the development of its biomedical and biotechnological potentials.

  11. Acceptability and nutritional value of dark chocolate enriched with baru almonds, flaxseed and quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana Borges de Freitas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to formulate dark chocolate enriched with baru almonds, flaxseed and quinoa (9% in replacement of chocolate, as well as assess the acceptability (global acceptance, appearance and purchase intent and the nutritional value of the formulations. The various chocolate samples were considered accepted and showed good levels of purchase intent, except for the variation enriched with flaxseed. The chocolate samples showed high content of fiber (27 to 40 g/100g, and lower energy value (385 to 413 kcal/100g compared to conventional dark chocolates with almonds (7 to 11 g of dietary fiber/100g and 500 to 550 kcal/100g, thus providing a healthier alternative for consumers.

  12. Pathogen prevalence and abundance in honey bee colonies involved in almond pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigli, Ian; Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Lerch, Michael; Banner, Katie; Garcia, Emma; Brutscher, Laura M; Flenniken, Michelle L

    Honey bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops. Since 2006, US beekeepers have experienced high annual honey bee colony losses, which may be attributed to multiple abiotic and biotic factors, including pathogens. However, the relative importance of these factors has not been fully elucidated. To identify the most prevalent pathogens and investigate the relationship between colony strength and health, we assessed pathogen occurrence, prevalence, and abundance in Western US honey bee colonies involved in almond pollination. The most prevalent pathogens were Black queen cell virus (BQCV), Lake Sinai virus 2 (LSV2), Sacbrood virus (SBV), Nosema ceranae, and trypanosomatids. Our results indicated that pathogen prevalence and abundance were associated with both sampling date and beekeeping operation, that prevalence was highest in honey bee samples obtained immediately after almond pollination, and that weak colonies had a greater mean pathogen prevalence than strong colonies.

  13. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorite, I. J.; Santos, C.; Testi, L.; Fereres, E.

    2012-11-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm “Alameda del Obispo” in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ETc). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of the construction of the weighing lysimeter is provided in detail, including considerations relative to system resolution and wind effects on the measurements. Finally, some preliminary results of the evaporation and transpiration of young almond trees are presented demonstrating that lysimetry in orchards provides accurate ETc values needed to determine irrigation water requirements. (Author) 72 refs.

  14. Determination of Some Mechanical Properties of Almond Seed Related to Design of Food Processing Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Sunmonu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some selected mechanical properties of red and white varieties of Almond seeds grown in Nigeria were determined using Testometric M500 – 100AT machine. The fracture force, compressive strength, deformation at yield for red varieties were 2679.40 ± 580.29 N, 408.70 ± 41.90 N/mm2 and 7.03 ± 0.65 mm respectively. The values obtained for the white varieties were 2843.90 ± 330.22 N, 396.20 ± 49.40 N/mm2, and 7.27 ± 0.46 mm. The determined engineering properties are vital for the design of postharvest handling and processing systems for Almond seeds as statistical test showed that there are significant differences (at 5% level between the engineering properties of the two seeds studied.

  15. The seahorse, the almond, and the night-mare: elaborative encoding during sleep-paralysis hallucinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's proposal that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming reflects elaborative encoding mediated by the hippocampus ("seahorse") offers an interesting perspective for understanding hallucinations accompanying sleep paralysis (SP; "night-mare"). SP arises from anomalous intrusion of REM processes into waking consciousness, including threat-detection systems mediated by the amygdala ("almond"). Unique aspects of SP hallucinations offer additional prospects for investigation of Llewellyn's theory of elaborative encoding.

  16. Probiotic fermented almond “milk” as an alternative to cow-milk yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics in almond-based matrices were considered as a means of obtaining fermented products which would cover both the current demand for health-promoting foods and for alternatives to standard yoghurts. Firstly, the combined effect of high pressure homogenisation (HPH and heat treatment on the physical stability of almond “milk” was studied. The beverage was homogenised by applying 62, 103 and 172 MPa (MF1, MF2 and MF3 respectively; MF3 was also combined with two different heat treatments (85 ºC-30 min (LH and 121 ºC-15 min (HH. Both microstructure and colloidal stability were analysed in all the processed samples to select the most suitable treatment with which to obtain a stable product. The selected almond milk was then fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus and the final product was characterised throughout cold storage time (28 days as to pH, acidity, serum retention and starter viability. A sensory evaluation and probiotic survival to in vitro digestion was also conducted. The results showed that the physical and structural almond-milk properties were affected by both HPH and heat treatments, obtaining the greatest stability in MF3-LH samples. The fermented milk permitted probiotic survivals above the level suggested as minimum for ensuring health benefits during the entire controlled time and, hence, can be considered as a functional food. No differences in the sensory acceptability of the product were found between 1 and 28 storage days. Therefore, a new, functional, fermented product was developed, which was suitable for targeted groups, such as the lactose-intolerant and cow-milk-protein allergic populations.

  17. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm "Alameda del Obispo" in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ET c). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of...

  18. Identification of Genetic Loci Associated with Quality Traits in Almond via Association Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Font i Forcada

    Full Text Available To design an appropriate association study, we need to understand population structure and the structure of linkage disequilibrium within and among populations as well as in different regions of the genome in an organism. In this study, we have used a total of 98 almond accessions, from five continents located and maintained at the Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA; Spain, and 40 microsatellite markers. Population structure analysis performed in 'Structure' grouped the accessions into two principal groups; the Mediterranean (Western-Europe and the non-Mediterranean, with K = 3, being the best fit for our data. There was a strong subpopulation structure with linkage disequilibrium decaying with increasing genetic distance resulting in lower levels of linkage disequilibrium between more distant markers. A significant impact of population structure on linkage disequilibrium in the almond cultivar groups was observed. The mean r2 value for all intra-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.040, whereas, the r2 for the inter-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.036. For analysis of association between the markers and phenotypic traits, five models comprising both general linear models and mixed linear models were selected to test the marker trait associations. The mixed linear model (MLM approach using co-ancestry values from population structure and kinship estimates (K model as covariates identified a maximum of 16 significant associations for chemical traits and 12 for physical traits. This study reports for the first time the use of association mapping for determining marker-locus trait associations in a world-wide almond germplasm collection. It is likely that association mapping will have the most immediate and largest impact on the tier of crops such as almond with the greatest economic value.

  19. Chemical composition of oils from wild almond (Prunus scoparia and wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Mohammadi, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerol compositions as well as the amount of tocopherols, total phenols and pigments wild almond and cold pressed wild pistachio oils. Triacylglycerols, tocopherols and pigments were analyzed with HPLC, fatty acids and sterols with gas chromatography, and total phenols photometrically. The main fatty acids in both samples were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. The most predominant TAG species are SLL + PLO (21.83% in wild pistachio oil and OOO (47.27% in wild almond oil. Pheophytin a was the major pigment in wild pistachio oil. There were no pigments detected in wild almond oil. Total phenols were 57.6 mg kg-1 oil for wild pistachio and 45.3 mg kg-1 oil for wild almond oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición en ácidos grasos, esteroles, triglicéridos, así como tocoferoles, fenoles totales y pigmentos de aceites de almendras y pistachos silvestres prensados en frío. Triglicéridos (TAG, tocoferoles y pigmentos se analizaron mediante HPLC, los ácidos grasos y esteroles mediante cromatografía de gases, y los fenoles totales espectrofotométricamente. Los principales ácidos grasos de ambas especies fueron los ácidos oleico, linoleico y palmítico. Las especies de TAG predominantes son SLL + OLP (21,83% en el pistacho silvestre y OOO (47,27% en almendras silvestre. Feofitina a es un pigmento importante en los aceites de pistacho silvestre. No se detectó pigmentos en los aceites de almendras silvestres. Los fenoles totales fueron 57,6 mg kg-1 y 45,3 mg kg-1 en los aceites de pistacho silvestre y de almendra silvestre respectivamente.

  20. Prunasin Hydrolases during Fruit Development in Sweet and Bitter Almonds1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet. PMID:22353576

  1. Evidences for a leaky scanning mechanism for the synthesis of the shorter M23 protein isoform of aquaporin-4: implication in orthogonal array formation and neuromyelitis optica antibody interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andrea; Pisani, Francesco; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Svelto, Maria; Frigeri, Antonio

    2010-02-12

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) exists as two major isoforms that differ in the length of the N terminus, the shorter AQP4-M23 and the longer AQP4-M1. Both isoforms form tetramers, which can further aggregate in the plasma membrane to form typical orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) whose dimension depends on the ratio of the M1 and M23. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the M23 isoform can be produced directly by the M1 mRNA. In cells transiently transfected with AQP4-M1 coding sequence we observed besides AQP4-M1 the additional presence of the AQP4-M23 isoform associated with the formation of typical OAPs observable by two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE and total internal reflection microscopy. The mutation of the second in-frame methionine M23 in AQP4-M1 (AQP4-M1(M23I)) prevented the expression of the M23 isoform and the formation of OAPs. We propose "leaky scanning" as a translational mechanism for the expression of AQP4-M23 protein isoform and that the formation of OAPs may occur even in the absence of AQP4-M23 mRNA. This mechanism can have important pathophysiological implications for the cell regulation of the M1/M23 ratio and thus OAP size. In this study we also provide evidence that AQP4-M1 is mobile in the plasma membrane, that it is inserted and not excluded into immobile OAPs, and that it is an important determinant of OAP structure and size.

  2. Assessment of Tolerance of Late-Flowering Almond Cultivars to Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bybordi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the tolerance to salinity in almond, this factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized block design with three replications in greenhouse of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center in East Azerbaijan province. The first factor included almond cultivars (Mangha, Nonpareil, Eskandar, Araz and Sahand, and the second factor was salinity levels (electrical conductivity of 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 dS/m. In this experiment, the plant height, fresh and dry weight of leaves, chlorophyll index and concentration of nitrogen, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium were measured. The results showed that the highest plant height belonged to Eskandar and Sahand cultivars. With increasing the salinity level, nitrogen concentration of the leaves decreased. Leaves of Mangha cultivar had the highest chlorine content. Although calcium concentrations of the leaves in various salinity levels were in the same statistical group, but calcium concentration was increased in higher salinity levels. Araz cultivar had the highest concentration of magnesium in its leaves. Interaction of salinity × cultivar for phosphorus content showed that Araz cultivar produced the highest phosphorus content in its leaves at salinity level of 16 dS/m. Statistical results of sodium to potassium ratio, which is an index for resistance to salinity, showed that Araz was the most tolerant almond cultivar against salinity.

  3. Food Matrix Effects of Polyphenol Bioaccessibility from Almond Skin during Simulated Human Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Mandalari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to quantify the rate and extent of polyphenols released in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT from natural (NS and blanched (BS almond skins. A dynamic gastric model of digestion which provides a realistic simulation of the human stomach was used. In order to establish the effect of a food matrix on polyphenols bioaccessibility, NS and BS were either digested in water (WT or incorporated into home-made biscuits (HB, crisp-bread (CB and full-fat milk (FM. Phenolic acids were the most bioaccessible class (68.5% release from NS and 64.7% from BS. WT increased the release of flavan-3-ols (p < 0.05 and flavonols (p < 0.05 from NS after gastric plus duodenal digestion, whereas CB and HB were better vehicles for BS. FM lowered the % recovery of polyphenols, the free total phenols and the antioxidant status in the digestion medium, indicating that phenolic compounds could bind protein present in the food matrix. The release of bioactives from almond skins could explain the beneficial effects associated with almond consumption.

  4. Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

    2010-05-01

    In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and β-galactosidase activity showed the

  5. DAMAGE CAUSED BY TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE IN STORED BRAZIL NUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Pires

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tribolium castaneum is an insect that occurs worldwide and it is a pest that attacks stored products, in particular, grains and seeds. The adult and immature forms are categorized as secondary pests which feed on grains or seeds previously damage in storage conditions. The objective of this study was to describe the type of damage caused by adults and immature of T. castaneum in Brazil nuts and identify the type of damage caused by Coleoptera. It was also verified whether the shell can protect the almond from the attack of this pest. The lesions inflicted by this insect starts as a scratched surface, which evolves into galleries and even injuries capable of modifying the original shape of the almond. Due to its capacity to promote considerable damage with consequent losses in the value of the nuts, T. castaneum may be listed among pests of Brazil nut categorized as primary pest by its ability to initiate injuries in the intact almond.

  6. An Economic Evaluation of Iranian Horticultural Research and Extension Policy: The Case Study of Almond Late Flowering Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Safdar Hosseini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of investment in developing and introducing Almond Late Flowering Cultivars (ALFC in a period of 52 years from 1968 to 2020, developed in Sahand Horticultural Research Station (SHRS, using the economic surplus model and field survey data. ALFC make almond supply curve move less to the left when there is a chilling case, thus affect the economic surplus of producers and consumers. Results showed that because of ALFC, economic surplus of producers and consumers had been increased about 0.4 and 0.6 million US Dollars, respectively that the share of consumers from benefits was 58 percent. The social net present value of ALFC regarding to the cost of research and extension was about 0.1 million US Dollars. It was identified that the internal rate of return in developing and introducing of ALFC had been about 11%. The findings expressed that if the research investment in ALFC could keep the position of almond supply curve unchanged unless the weather conditions, then the economic surplus of producers and consumers would decreased 3 and 4.2 million US Dollars less annually, respectively and internal rate of return in almond research would be 33 %. Comparing the results showed that the introduction of late flowering cultivars could reduce the loss only 4 % per hectare. The results illustrated that investment in R&E of almond could make supply curve shift less in chilling situation because of decrease in cultivation cost, but it is necessary to enhance almond yield too. The findings identify that the efficiency of current system of R&E for almond is low. So it is a necessity to find ways for make better the R&E performance in Iran.

  7. 7 CFR 457.123 - Almond crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Volcanic eruption; (7) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if caused by an insured peril that occurs... elections you choose for each type must have the same percentage relationship to the maximum price offered...

  8. 构建M23-AQP4稳定表达的HEK293细胞应用于血清抗AQP4抗体检测的研究%Serum anti-AQP4 antibody detection based on HEK293 cells stably expressing M23-AQP4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓牧; 符青青; 刘诗英; 项正兵; 熊英琼; 张昆南

    2015-01-01

    目的 构建M23-AQP4稳定表达HEK293细胞(HEK293-M23-AQP4)并用于抗AQP4抗体检测,以探索临床可行的抗AQP4抗体检测方法.方法 用磷酸钙转染试剂将pEGFP-N1-M23-AQP4质粒转入HEK293细胞,通过G418筛选HEK293-M23-AQP4,以细胞间接免疫荧光法(CBA)检测M23-AQP4表达及分布.以HEK293-M23-AQP4为底物的CBA法检测视神经脊髓炎(NMO)6例、多发性硬化(MS) 16例、其他脱髓鞘疾病(视神经炎、脊髓炎、吉兰-巴雷综合征、急性播散性脑脊髓炎)30例、非脱髓鞘性疾病患者10例血清抗AQP4抗体及其滴度,并比较4组抗体阳性率,计算抗AQP4抗体诊断NMO的敏感性,分别以非NMO的脱髓鞘疾病和非脱髓鞘疾病作对照计算抗AQP4抗体诊断NMO的特异性.将HEK293-M23-AQP4细胞于室温、4℃、-20℃保存4周,分别作为底物检测经首次检测所得抗AQP4抗体阳性标本并随机选取5例抗体阴性标本的抗AQP4抗体及滴度,比较其阳性率及滴度变化;将上述首次检测所得抗AQP4抗体阳性标本及5例抗体阴性标本反复冻融3次后分别于室温、4℃、-20℃保存1周后,检测其抗AQP4抗体及滴度,比较阳性率和滴度变化.结果 HEK293-M23-AQP4构建成功,M23-AQP4主要表达在细胞膜上.NMO患者抗AQP4抗体阳性率达83.3% (5/6),显著高于MS患者[6.3%(1/16)]、其他脱髓鞘疾病[3.3%(1/30)]和非脱髓鞘性疾病[0.0%(0/10)](均P<0.01);抗AQP4抗体诊断NMO的敏感性为83.3%(5/6),以非NMO的脱髓鞘疾病作对照时,其诊断NMO特异性为95.6%(44/46),以非脱髓鞘疾病作对照时,其诊断NMO特异性为100%(10/10).HEK293-M23-AQP4于不同温度保存后所检测抗AQP4抗体阳性率和滴度与首次检测比较均无统计学意义(均P=1.0).血清标本4℃及-20℃保存1周后所检测抗AQP4抗体阳性率和滴度与首次检测比较差异均无统计学意义(均P=1.0);室温保存1周后抗体滴度(1∶400、1∶400、1∶3200、1∶6400、1∶6400、1

  9. In-depth proteomic analysis of non-alcoholic beverages with peptide ligand libraries. I: Almond milk and orgeat syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Kravchuk, Alexander V; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2011-06-10

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, both commercial and home-made, have been adopted to investigate the proteome of non-alcoholic beverages, in order to assess their genuineness and detect also trace proteins, in search of potential allergens. Two such beverages have been studied: almond milk and orgeat syrup. In the first product we have been able to identify 132 unique protein species, the deepest investigation so far of the almond proteome. In the second beverage, a handful of proteins (just 14) have been detected, belonging to a bitter almond extract. In both cases, the genuineness of such products has been verified, as well as the fact that almond milk, judging on the total protein and fat content, must have been produced with 100g ground almonds per litre of beverage, as required by authorities. On the contrary, cheap orgeat syrups produced by local supermarkets and sold as their own brands, where found not to contain any residual proteins, suggesting that they contained only synthetic aromas and no natural plant extracts. This could be the starting point for investigating the myriad of beverages that in the last decades have invaded the shelves of supermarkets the world over, whose genuineness and natural origin have never been properly assessed.

  10. A comparative study of almond biodiesel-diesel blends for diesel engine in terms of performance and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H; Alnefaie, Khaled A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50) with diesel fuel (B0) were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NO x using blends of almond biodiesel was measured.

  11. A Comparative Study of Almond Biodiesel-Diesel Blends for Diesel Engine in Terms of Performance and Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal H. Abu-Hamdeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50 with diesel fuel (B0 were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NOx using blends of almond biodiesel was measured.

  12. Comparative gas exchange characteristics of potted, glasshouse-grown almond, apple, fig, grape, olive, peach and Asian pear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, S.S.; Larsen, F.E.; Bendel, R.B.; Radamaker, G.K.; Bassman, J.H.; Bidlake, W.R.; Wir, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Net photosynthesis (Pn), dark respiration (Rd), transpirational flux density (TFD) and leaf conductance (kl) on glasshouse-grown plants of almond, apple, fig, grape, olive, peach and Asian pear were examined under various laboratory environmental conditions. Grape and almond had the highest light-saturated photosynthetic rates, greater than 20 ??mol CO2 m-2 s-1. Apple had the lowest temperature optimum for Pn, 20??C. Almond had the highest Rd rate between 10 and 50??C, but grape had the highest Q10 for respiration, a value of 2.5. Apple, olive and grape stomata were most sensitive to the leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference. Apple had the greatest sensitivity of Pn to the vapor pressure difference. ?? 1992.

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design, development and evaluation of a divergent roller sizer for almond kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ghanbarian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran is one of the major producers of almonds. According to the statistics released by FAO (2011, Iran with more than 110000 tons of almonds is the third in rank throughout the world. However, most Iranian almonds are presented as an unsorted and unpackaged product. Some producers sort their products by hand which is very time-consuming and labor-intensive. So, there is an essential need for suitable grading and packaging machines especially for the export of almond kernels.Grading, which is sometimes called sorting, is basically separating the material in different homogenous groups according to its specific characteristics like size, shape, color and on the basis of quality. Weighing is one of the best methods for grading agricultural products based on size, but due to its high cost and complexity of operations, usage of weigh size sorting machines is practically limited. So, sizing of most agricultural products is accomplished based on their dimensional attributes such as diameter, length, thickness or a combination of them. Field study shows that recently vibrating sizing machines are used for grading almond kernels. This type of sizing machine is huge, expensive, noisy and it consumes a lot of energy. Thus, the main objective of the present study was the design, development and evaluation of a new prototype of an almond kernel sizing machine. Materials and methods: It is important that the machine could resolve defects of existing vibrating machines. It should provide efficient and cost effective sizing for a wide range of kernel sizes and shapes. Furthermore, it should be of simple construction and be able to accept manual feeding. Previously conducted experiments showed that the thickness of the kernel is the most appropriate dimension for its sizing. Among the different types of dimensional sizing machines, the divergent roller grader which grades the products based on their thickness is considered to be one of the simplest

  15. Polypropylene/olive pit & almond shell polymer composites: wear and friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, M.

    2017-05-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are made from wood and annual plant fiber or flours, mixing with plastics materials. WPC provide better properties than resources that form it. This renewable material has many utilization areas because of outstanding properties such as enhanced strength, stiffness, creep, physical and mechanical properties and dimension stability. In the present work, series of filled Polypropylene (PP) composites with olive pit and almond shell flour loading (between 0-40 wt %) were prepared, to study the effect of the filler content on the mechanical, wear and friction properties of polypropylene polymer composites.

  16. Design, development and evaluation of a divergent roller sizer for almond kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ghanbarian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran is one of the major producers of almonds. According to the statistics released by FAO (2011, Iran with more than 110000 tons of almonds is the third in rank throughout the world. However, most Iranian almonds are presented as an unsorted and unpackaged product. Some producers sort their products by hand which is very time-consuming and labor-intensive. So, there is an essential need for suitable grading and packaging machines especially for the export of almond kernels.Grading, which is sometimes called sorting, is basically separating the material in different homogenous groups according to its specific characteristics like size, shape, color and on the basis of quality. Weighing is one of the best methods for grading agricultural products based on size, but due to its high cost and complexity of operations, usage of weigh size sorting machines is practically limited. So, sizing of most agricultural products is accomplished based on their dimensional attributes such as diameter, length, thickness or a combination of them. Field study shows that recently vibrating sizing machines are used for grading almond kernels. This type of sizing machine is huge, expensive, noisy and it consumes a lot of energy. Thus, the main objective of the present study was the design, development and evaluation of a new prototype of an almond kernel sizing machine. Materials and methods: It is important that the machine could resolve defects of existing vibrating machines. It should provide efficient and cost effective sizing for a wide range of kernel sizes and shapes. Furthermore, it should be of simple construction and be able to accept manual feeding. Previously conducted experiments showed that the thickness of the kernel is the most appropriate dimension for its sizing. Among the different types of dimensional sizing machines, the divergent roller grader which grades the products based on their thickness is considered to be one of the simplest

  17. Optimization of Enzymatic Production of Oligopeptides from Apricot Almonds Meal with Neutrase and N120P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrase 0.8L and N120P proteases were used for oligopeptide production from apricot almonds meal, and response surface design was carried out to optimize the effect of hydrolysis conditions on hydrolysis degree (DH and oligopeptide yield rate. Four independent variables were used to optimize the hydrolysis process: hydrolysis temperature (X1, enzyme-to substrate ratio (E/S (X2, substrate concentration (X3 and reaction time (X4. Statistical analysis indicated that the four variables, quadratic terms of X1, X3, and X4, and the interaction terms with X1 had a significant (p

  18. Molecular characterization of five new S alleles associated with self-incompatibility in local Spanish almond cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Almond is a highly heterozygous species with a high number of S-alleles controlling its gametophytic self-incompatibility system (GSI). In this work we have analysed Spanish local almond cultivars for S-RNase allele diversity. By cloning and sequencing five new S-RNase alleles were identified: S31 (804 bp) in 'Pou de Felanitx' and 'Totsol', S32 (855 bp) in 'Taiatona', S33 (1165 bp) in 'Pou d'Establiments' and 'Muel', S34 (1663 bp) in 'Pané-Barquets', and S35 (1658 bp) in 'Planeta de les Garri...

  19. Combining Lactic Acid Spray with Near-Infrared Radiation Heating To Inactivate Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis on Almond and Pine Nut Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jae-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of near-infrared radiation (NIR) heating combined with lactic acid (LA) sprays for inactivating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on almond and pine nut kernels and to elucidate the mechanisms of the lethal effect of the NIR-LA combined treatment. Also, the effect of the combination treatment on product quality was determined. Separately prepared S. Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and non-PT 30 S. Enteritidis cocktails were inoculated onto almond and pine nut kernels, respectively, followed by treatments with NIR or 2% LA spray alone, NIR with distilled water spray (NIR-DW), and NIR with 2% LA spray (NIR-LA). Although surface temperatures of nuts treated with NIR were higher than those subjected to NIR-DW or NIR-LA treatment, more S. Enteritidis survived after NIR treatment alone. The effectiveness of NIR-DW and NIR-LA was similar, but significantly more sublethally injured cells were recovered from NIR-DW-treated samples. We confirmed that the enhanced bactericidal effect of the NIR-LA combination may not be attributable to cell membrane damage per se. NIR heat treatment might allow S. Enteritidis cells to become permeable to applied LA solution. The NIR-LA treatment (5 min) did not significantly (P > 0.05) cause changes in the lipid peroxidation parameters, total phenolic contents, color values, moisture contents, and sensory attributes of nut kernels. Given the results of the present study, NIR-LA treatment may be a potential intervention for controlling food-borne pathogens on nut kernel products.

  20. Special core analyses and relative permeability measurement on Almond formation reservoir rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, D.; Doggett, K.; Brinkmeyer, A.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes the results from special core analyses and relative permeability measurements conducted on samples of rock from the Almond Formation in Greater Green River Basin of southwestern Wyoming. The core was from Arch Unit Well 121 of Patrick Draw field. Samples were taken from the 4,950 to 4,965 ft depth interval. Thin section evaluation, X-ray diffraction, routine permeability and porosity, capillary pressure and wettability tests were performed to characterize the samples. Fluid flow capacity characteristics were measured during two-phase unsteady- and steady-state and three-phase steady-state relative permeability tests. Test results are presented in tables and graphs. Relative permeability results are compared with those of a 260-mD, fired Berea sandstone sample which was previously subjected to similar tests. Brine relative permeabilities were similar for the two samples, whereas oil and gas relative permeabilities for the Almond formation rock were higher at equivalent saturation conditions compared to Berea results. Most of the tests described in this report were conducted at 74{degrees}F laboratory temperature. Additional tests are planned at 150{degrees}F temperature. Equipment and procedural modifications to perform the elevated temperature tests are described.

  1. Special core analyses and relative permeability measurement on Almond formation reservoir rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, D.; Doggett, K.; Brinkmeyer, A.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes the results from special core analyses and relative permeability measurements conducted on samples of rock from the Almond Formation in Greater Green River Basin of southwestern Wyoming. The core was from Arch Unit Well 121 of Patrick Draw field. Samples were taken from the 4,950 to 4,965 ft depth interval. Thin section evaluation, X-ray diffraction, routine permeability and porosity, capillary pressure and wettability tests were performed to characterize the samples. Fluid flow capacity characteristics were measured during two-phase unsteady- and steady-state and three-phase steady-state relative permeability tests. Test results are presented in tables and graphs. Relative permeability results are compared with those of a 260-mD, fired Berea sandstone sample which was previously subjected to similar tests. Brine relative permeabilities were similar for the two samples, whereas oil and gas relative permeabilities for the Almond formation rock were higher at equivalent saturation conditions compared to Berea results. Most of the tests described in this report were conducted at 74[degrees]F laboratory temperature. Additional tests are planned at 150[degrees]F temperature. Equipment and procedural modifications to perform the elevated temperature tests are described.

  2. An efficient regeneration and rapid micropropagation protocol for Almond using dormant axillary buds as explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ravish; Chaudhury, Rekha; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Sharma, Kailash Chandra

    2015-07-01

    An efficient in vitro protocol was standardized for Almond (Prunus dulcis) propagation using dormant axillary buds as explants. Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) and woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with different concentration/combination(s) of phytohormones. MS basal medium showed lowest shoot induction and took longest duration for shoot initiation. Multiple shoots were induced in MS medium supplemented with the combination of BAP (0.5 mgL(-1)). Cultures showed poor response for rooting in all combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and took 90 days for initiation. Rooting was higher in half strength of MS than in full-strength. The highest root induction (33.33%) was recorded in half MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mgL(-1) IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) followed by full strength of MS medium (20%) supplemented with IBA (0.1 mgL(-1)). α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was less effective for rooting than IBA. The highest root induction (25%) was found in half strength of MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mgL(-1) NAA followed by full strength of MS medium (20%). The protocol developed would be of use in mass propagation of almond and also support in vitro conservation.

  3. [Fungal population and distribution of aflatoxigenic fungi in commercial almond powder products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenjo, Tomoko; Ishide, Yuka; Aoyama, Koji; Ichinoe, Masakatsu

    2007-08-01

    The fungal population and distribution of aflatoxin-producing fungi in 30 samples of imported almond powder products purchased from retail markets were examined in this study. Total counts of fungi ranged from under 1.0 x 10 colony-forming units (CFU)/g to 8.5 x 10(3) CFU/g as determined with the dilution plating technique. The predominant fungi in the mould-contaminated almond samples were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and the related species, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Rhizopus. Aflatoxin-producing ability in the isolates of A. flavus and related fungi were tested by thin layer chromatography using 2% yeast extract and 15% sucrose broth culture. Four different aflatoxigenic fungi were detected in the isolates; aflatoxins B1 and B2 were produced by some strains of A. flavus and A. parvisclerotigenus, and aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 were produced by all tested strains of A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Identification of the strains was based on morphological and metabolic characters.

  4. Molecular modelling of S-RNases involved in almond self-incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eFernandez i Marti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI is a mechanism in flowering plants, to prevent inbreeding and promote outcrossing. GSI is under the control of a specific locus, known as the S-locus, which contains at least two genes, the RNase and the SFB. Active S-RNases in the style are essential for rejection of haploid pollen, when the pollen S-allele matches one of two S-alleles of the diploid pistil. However, the nature of their mutual interactions at genetic and biochemical levels remain unclear. Thus, detailed understanding of the protein structure involved in GSI may help in discovering how the proteins involved in GSI may function and how they fulfil their biological roles. To this end, 3D models of the SC (Sf and two SI (S8 and S23 S-RNases of almond were constructed, using comparative modelling tools. The modelled structures consisted of mixed α and β folds, with six helices and six beta-strands. However, the self-compatible (Sf RNase contained an additional extended loop between the conserved domains RC4 and C5, which may be involved in the manifestation of self-compatibility in almond.

  5. Organosolv extraction of lignin from hydrolyzed almond shells and application of the delta-value theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Medina, Joaquín; López-Cremades, Francisco Javier; Olivares-Carrillo, Pilar

    2010-11-01

    The solubility of lignin from hydrolyzed almond (Prunus amygdalus) shells in different acetone, ethanol and dioxane-water mixtures and conditions (extraction time and temperature) was studied. The concept of the solubility parameter (delta-value) was applied to explain the effect of organic solvent concentration on lignin solubility. The organic solvent-water mixture that led to the highest lignin extraction was composed of a 75% vol. of organic solvent for all the solvent series investigated (acetone, ethanol and dioxane). Moreover, the best lignin extraction conditions were a temperature of 210 degrees C and an extraction time of 40 min for the acetone and ethanol series, and 25 min for the dioxane series. The delta-value of the hydrolyzed almond shell lignin [14.60 (cal/cm(3))(1/2)] and that of the organic solvent-water mixtures was calculated. The experimental delignification capacity of the aqueous organic solvents clearly reflected the proximity of their delta-value to that of lignin. The hydrogen-bonding capacity of the solvent-water mixtures was also taken into account. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative inbreeding effects in tree fruit breeding: self-compatibility transmission in almond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Segura, J M; Socias I Company, R

    2007-07-01

    Inbreeding depression has been observed in most fruit trees, negatively affecting the offspring of related parents. This problem is steadily increasing due to the repeated utilization of parents in breeding programmes. In almond, self-compatibility transmission from 'Tuono' to its offspring remains partially unexplained due to deviations from the expected genotype ratios. In order to test if these deviations could be due to inbreeding, the S-genotypes of the seedlings of four almond families, 'Tuono' (S(1)S(f )) x 'Ferragnès' (S(1)S(3)), 'Tuono' (S(1)S(f)) x 'Ferralise' (S(1)S(3)) and reciprocal crosses were studied. The S-genotype determination of each seedling by separation of stylar S-RNases and by S-allele-specific PCR amplification gave identical results. The ratio of S-genotypes of the family 'Tuono' x 'Ferralise' was the one least adjusted to the expected 1:1 ratio, because the number of self-compatible seedlings (S(f)S(3)) was less than a half the number of self-incompatible ones (S(1)S(3)). A mechanism acting against inbreeding would favour cross-breeding in the following generation to increase heterozygosity. This fact stresses the need to avoid crosses between related parents in fruit breeding programmes.

  7. Mango seed uses: thermal behaviour of mango seed almond fat and its mixtures with cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Fuentes, J A; Durán-de-Bazúa, M C

    2004-03-01

    This paper deals with the physicochemical characterization, including thermal behaviour, by differential scanning calorimetry of mango seed almond fat (MAF), alone and in mixtures with cocoa butter (CB). Results showed that mango almond seeds contain about 5.28-11.26% (dw) of fat. The refraction index is 1.466, the saponification index 189.0 and the iodine index 41.76. Fatty acids found in MAF are oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids (40.81%, 39.07% and 9.29% (w/w), respectively) as well as smaller amounts of linoleic, with arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, and linolenic acids, among others. Calorimetric analysis showed that MAF crystallizes between 14.6 and -24.27 degrees C with a DeltaHc of 56.06 J/g and melts between -17.1 and 53.8 degrees C, with fusion maxima at 18.54 degrees C and 40.0 degrees C for the alpha and beta polymorphic forms. Their fusion enthalpies are 70.12 and 115.7 J/g. The MAF solids content profile is very similar to that of CB, both in stabilized and non-stabilized samples. The mixing compatibility was analyzed using isosolids curves of mixtures of different compositions.

  8. Isolation and full characterisation of a potentially allergenic lipid transfer protein (LTP) in almond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Sofie; Tedeschi, Tullia; Faccini, Andrea; Garino, Cristiano; Arlorio, Marco; Dossena, Arnaldo; Sforza, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) were shown to be among the most significant allergens, in particular in several fruits belonging to the Rosaceae family. The molecular features of LTPs, such as the presence of eight cysteine residues forming four disulfide bridges, confer a compact structure, decreasing the probability of degradation due to cooking or digestion, thereby increasing the chance of systemic absorption and severe allergic reactions. Few studies on LTP-induced allergies regarding almond (Prunus dulcis L) are available in the literature. In the present work, we describe for the first time the extraction and purification of an almond LTP, achieving its full characterisation by using liquid chromatography and exact mass spectrometry; the full sequence was identified by means of LC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS applying a bottom-up approach. The characterised protein consists of 92 amino acids and has a calculated exact MW of 9579.0. The presence of four disulfide bridges was confirmed after reduction, as shown by a mass increment of 8 Da. Finally, its potential allergenicity was confirmed via an in silico approach. The results presented here demonstrate the enormous potential of advanced MS techniques for obtaining high-quality structural and functional data of allergenic proteins in a short time.

  9. Comparison of Laboratory-Developed and Commercial Monoclonal Antibody-Based Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Almond (Prunus dulcis) Detection and Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Chhabra, Guneet S; Zhao, Jing; Zaffran, Valerie D; Gupta, Sahil; Roux, Kenneth H; Gradziel, Thomas M; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2017-09-04

    A commercially available monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (BioFront Technologies, Tallahassee, Fla., U.S.A.) was compared with an in-house developed mAb 4C10-based ELISA for almond detection. The assays were comparable in sensitivity (limit of detection < 1 ppm full fat almond, limit of quantification < 5 ppm full fat almond), specificity (no cross-reactivity with 156 tested foods at a concentration of 100000 ppm whole sample), and reproducibility (intra- and interassay variability < 15% CV). The target antigens were stable and detectable in whole almond seeds subjected to autoclaving, blanching, frying, microwaving, and dry roasting. The almond recovery ranges for spiked food matrices were 84.3% to 124.6% for 4C10 ELISA and 81.2% to 127.4% for MonoTrace ELISA. The almond recovery ranges for commercial and laboratory prepared foods with declared/known almond amount were 30.9% to 161.2% for 4C10 ELISA and 38.1% to 207.6% for MonoTrace ELISA. Neither assay registered any false-positive or negative results among the tested commercial and laboratory prepared samples. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Generation of the volatile spiroketals conophthorin and chalcogran by fungal spores on polyunsaturated fatty acids common to almonds and pistachios

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spiroketal (E)-conophthorin has recently been reported as a semiochemical of the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest of California pistachios and almonds. Conophthorin and the isomeric spiroketal chalcogran are most commonly known as semiochemicals of several scolytid beetles. Conophthori...

  11. Quality characteristics and microbiological safety evaluation of oils extracted from gamma irradiated almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, I. A.; Iqbal, M.; Anwar, F.; Shanid, S. A.; Shahid, M.

    2013-05-01

    The physicochemical attributes and microbial decontamination of oils extracted from gamma-irradiated almond (Mission and Price varieties) seeds, to the absorbed doses of 2-10 kGy, have been evaluated. Gamma irradiation exerted no considerable effect on the proximate seed composition. The physicochemical properties such as density and refractive index of the oils, extracted from gammairradieted seeds, were almost unaffected; the iodine value decreased while saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acids increased. The oxidative status and tocopherol content of almond oils were negatively affected while the fatty acid profile slightly changed due to irradiation stress. Interestingly, these effects on the oil quality attributes were more pronounced at higher irradiation doses (> 6 kGy). Besides, microbial contamination was completely eliminated in the oils irradiated to an absorbed dose of 6.0 kGy. It could be concluded from the present findings that irradiation has a considerably positive or negative effect on some attributes of the almond oil. Therefore, an appropriate magnitude of gamma irradiation should be exercised to treat almond seeds in order to retain maximum nutritive benefits. (Author) 52 refs.

  12. Generation of the volatile spiroketals conophthorin and chalcogran by fungal spores on polyunsaturated fatty acids common to almonds and pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John J; Mahoney, Noreen E; Cook, Daniel; Gee, Wai S

    2012-12-05

    The spiroketal (E)-conophthorin has recently been reported as a semiochemical of the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest of California pistachios and almonds. Conophthorin and the isomeric spiroketal chalcogran are most commonly known as semiochemicals of several scolytid beetles. Conophthorin is both an insect- and plant-produced semiochemical widely recognized as a nonhost plant volatile from the bark of several angiosperm species. Chalcogran is the principal aggregation pheromone component of the six-spined spruce bark beetle. Recent research has shown conophthorin is produced by almonds undergoing hull-split, and both spiroketals are produced by mechanically damaged almonds. To better understand the origin of these spiroketals, the volatile emissions of orchard fungal spores on fatty acids common to both pistachios and almonds were evaluated. The volatile emission for the first 13 days of spores placed on a fatty acid was monitored. The spores investigated were Aspergillus flavus (atoxigenic), A. flavus (toxigenic), Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium glabrum, and Rhizopus stolonifer. The fatty acids used as growth media were palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic. Spores on linoleic acid produced both spiroketals, those on linolenic acid produced only chalcogran, and those on palmitic and oleic acid did not produce either spiroketal. This is the first report of the spiroketals conophthorin and chalcogran from a fungal source.

  13. Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2012-01-01

    Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian

  14. Antibacterial activities of almond skins on cagA-positive and-negative clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is known to be a gastric pathogen of humans. Eradication regimens for H. pylori infection have some side effects, compliance problems, relapses, and antibiotic resistance. Therefore, the need for alternative therapies for H. pylori infections is of special interest. We have previously shown that polyphenols from almond skins are active against a range of food-borne pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of natural almond skins before and after simulated human digestion and the pure flavonoid compounds epicatechin, naringenin and protocatechuic acid against H. pylori. Results H. pylori strains were isolated from gastric biopsy samples following standard microbiology procedures. Also, cagA and vacA genes were identified using PCR. Susceptibility studies on 34 strains of H. pylori, including two reference strains (ATCC 43504, ATCC 49503), were performed by the standard agar dilution method. Natural almond skin was the most effective compound against H. pylori (MIC range, 64 to 128 μg/ml), followed by natural skin post gastric digestion (MIC range, 128 to 512 μg/ml), and natural almond skin post gastric plus duodenal digestion (MIC range, 256 to 512 μg/ml). Amongst the pure flavonoid compounds, protocatechuic acid showed the greatest activity (MIC range, 128 to 512 μg/ml) against H. pylori strains. Conclusions Polyphenols from almond skins were effective in vitro against H. pylori, irrespective of genotype status and could therefore be used in combination with antibiotics as a novel strategy for antibiotic resistance. PMID:23659287

  15. The survival and growth performance of juvenile cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi with application of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURHIDAYAT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Nurhidayat, Wardin L, Sitorus E. 2015. The survival and growth performance of juvenile cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi with application of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa leaves. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 1-4. The proportional appearance of the length and the weight, and the color pattern are key factors of ornamental fishes. Modification of environment and application of food may be done to increase fish quality. The addition of active compound of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa leaves at certain doses can be done to increase survival rate and the growth of juvenile cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi. This research used completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications. Therefore, there were 16 experimental units. The treatments were four doses of almond leaves: D0 (without almond leaves, D1 (0.5 g/L, D2 (1.5 g/L and D3 (2,5 g/L. Experimental fish used in this research was cardinal tetra. The result showed that 0.5 g/L and 1.5 g/L of almond leaves addition resulted in 100% survival rate. Those concentrations also increased the body length by 1.28 cm and increased the weight by 0.092 g. The best water parameters used during the research were: temperature of 25-29oC, dissolved oxygen of 6-6.6 ppm, pH of 6-6.5, alkalinity of 22.66-33.98 ppm, water hardness of 26.17-57.00 ppm, ammonia of 0.0052-0.0104 ppm, and nitrite of 0.0029-0.0696 ppm.

  16. Role of leaf hydraulic conductance in the regulation of stomatal conductance in almond and olive in response to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Santana, Virginia; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Celia M; Fernández, J Enrique; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The decrease of stomatal conductance (gs) is one of the prime responses to water shortage and the main determinant of yield limitation in fruit trees. Understanding the mechanisms related to stomatal closure in response to imposed water stress is crucial for correct irrigation management. The loss of leaf hydraulic functioning is considered as one of the major factors triggering stomatal closure. Thus, we conducted an experiment to quantify the dehydration response of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) and its impact on gs in two Mediterranean fruit tree species, one deciduous (almond) and one evergreen (olive). Our hypothesis was that a higher Kleaf would be associated with a higher gs and that the reduction in Kleaf would predict the reduction in gs in both species. We measured Kleaf in olive and almond during a cycle of irrigation withholding. We also compared the results of two methods to measure Kleaf: dynamic rehydration kinetics and evaporative flux methods. In addition, determined gs, leaf water potential (Ψleaf), vein density, photosynthetic capacity and turgor loss point. Results showed that gs was higher in almond than in olive and so was Kleaf (Kmax = 4.70 and 3.42 mmol s(-1) MPa(-1) m(-2), in almond and olive, respectively) for Ψleaf > -1.2 MPa. At greater water stress levels than -1.2 MPa, however, Kleaf decreased exponentially, being similar for both species, while gs was still higher in almond than in olive. We conclude that although the Kleaf decrease with increasing water stress does not drive unequivocally the gs response to water stress, Kleaf is the variable most strongly related to the gs response to water stress, especially in olive. Other variables such as the increase in abscisic acid (ABA) may be playing an important role in gs regulation, although in our study the gs-ABA relationship did not show a clear pattern.

  17. Solar drying of jack fruit almonds Secagem solar de amêndoas de jaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre J. de M Queiroz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dryers heated by solar energy have been constructed and used in drying whole and half jack fruit almonds. The samples were dried during the day in direct sun and in the conventional solar dryer prepared for this purpose. Another piece of equipment was built for reception and accumulation of sun energy in a body of water, which was used as a heat source for night drying. The drying with the sun energy was compared with artificial drying. The jack fruit almonds were dried whole, half, with pellicle and without it. The storage of solar energy in water was technically viable for use in night drying. The drying by combining solar dryers in the day and night periods were completed in approximately 35 hours, and were equivalent to artificial drying between 40ºC and 70ºC. Almond cut in half and the pellicle removed reduced the drying time.Secadores com aquecimento por energia solar foram construídos e utilizados em secagens de amêndoas de jaca inteiras e em metades. As secagens no período diurno foram realizadas por exposição direta ao sol e em secador solar convencional, elaborado para este fim. Construiu-se também um equipamento para captação e acumulação de energia solar em uma massa de água, a qual foi utilizada como fonte de calor para realização de secagens no período noturno. As secagens com o uso de energia solar foram comparadas com secagens artificiais. As amêndoas de jaca foram secadas inteiras, em metades, com e sem película. O armazenamento da energia solar em corpo de água mostrou-se viável do ponto de vista técnico para utilização em secagens noturnas. As secagens combinando secadores por energia solar nos períodos diurno e noturno foram concluídas em tempos aproximados de 35 horas e equivaleram a secagens artificiais entre 40 ºC e 70 ºC. O corte das amêndoas e a retirada das películas reduziram o tempo de secagem.

  18. Effects of captan on Apis mellifera brood development under field conditions in California almond orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everich, R; Schiller, C; Whitehead, J; Beavers, M; Barrett, K

    2009-02-01

    Three almond field trials were conducted during 2003 and 2004 at two locations in central (Fresno County) and northern (Yolo County) California to evaluate the potential effects of commercial applications of Captan on honey bees, Apis mellifera L. Captan was applied at 5.0 kg (AI)/ha during bloom. Hives were evaluated for hive health and brood development parameters for approximately 2 mo after application. This study showed that the application of Captan was not harmful to foraging honey bees or their brood. No treatment-related effects were noted on hive weights, dead bee deformity, number of dead bees, survival of individual larvae, weight of individual emerging adults, and other hive health parameters.

  19. Non-enzymatic Glycation of Almond Cystatin Leads to Conformational Changes and Altered Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Azad A; Sohail, Aamir; Bhat, Sheraz A; Rehman, Md T; Bano, Bilqees

    2015-01-01

    The non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and reducing sugars, known as glycation, leads to the formation of inter and intramolecular cross-links of proteins. Stable end products called as advanced Maillard products or advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have received tremendous attention since last decades. It was suggested that the formation of AGEs not only modify the conformation of proteins but also induces altered biological activity. In this study, cystatin purified from almond was incubated with three different sugars namely D-ribose, fructose and lactose to monitor the glycation process. Structural changes induced in cystatin on glycation were studied using UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, CD and FTIR techniques. Glycated cystatin was found to migrate slower on electrophoresis as compared to control cystatin. Biological activity data of glycated cystatin showed that D-ribose was most effective in inducing conformational changes with maximum altered activity.

  20. Developing almond shell-derived activated carbons as CO{sub 2} adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza, M.G.; Pevida, C.; Martin, C.F.; Fermoso, J.; Pis, J.J.; Rubiera, F. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-01-29

    Two series of carbon dioxide adsorbents were prepared from almond shells, by carbonisation followed either by activation with CO{sub 2} or by heat treatment in the presence of ammonia gas (amination). Both procedures gave carbons with high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities in pure CO{sub 2} as well as in a binary mixture of 15% CO{sub 2} in N{sub 2}. Activation with carbon dioxide significantly developed porosity in the samples, mostly in the micropore domain, while amination at 800{sup o}C moderately developed narrow microporosity in the char and incorporated stable nitrogen functionalities, which enhanced CO{sub 2} selectivity. Amination showed two additional advantages over conventional activation with CO{sub 2}: a greater carbon yield and a shorter soaking time.

  1. Pollination and plant resources change the nutritional quality of almonds for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Claire; Kremen, Claire; Garber, Andrea; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Insect-pollinated crops provide important nutrients for human health. Pollination, water and nutrients available to crops can influence yield, but it is not known if the nutritional value of the crop is also influenced. Almonds are an important source of critical nutrients for human health such as unsaturated fat and vitamin E. We manipulated the pollination of almond trees and the resources available to the trees, to investigate the impact on the nutritional composition of the crop. The pollination treatments were: (a) exclusion of pollinators to initiate self-pollination and (b) hand cross-pollination; the plant resource treatments were: (c) reduced water and (d) no fertilizer. In an orchard in northern California, trees were exposed to a single treatment or a combination of two (one pollination and one resource). Both the fat and vitamin E composition of the nuts were highly influenced by pollination. Lower proportions of oleic to linoleic acid, which are less desirable from both a health and commercial perspective, were produced by the self-pollinated trees. However, higher levels of vitamin E were found in the self-pollinated nuts. In some cases, combined changes in pollination and plant resources sharpened the pollination effects, even when plant resources were not influencing the nutrients as an individual treatment. This study highlights the importance of insects as providers of cross-pollination for fruit quality that can affect human health, and, for the first time, shows that other environmental factors can sharpen the effect of pollination. This contributes to an emerging field of research investigating the complexity of interactions of ecosystem services affecting the nutritional value and commercial quality of crops.

  2. Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Huiling; Yu, Xinchi; Lu, Ailin; Cao, Haoqiang; Zhou, Bohang; Zhou, Le; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-08-29

    The essential oil from the powder residual of dried bitter almond, a novel and environmentally-friendly fungicide, was successfully extracted in a 0.7% yield by hydro-distillation under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of bitter almond essential oil (BAEO) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-one different components representing 99.90% of the total essential oil were identified, of which benzaldehyde (62.52%), benzoic acid (14.80%), and hexadecane (3.97%) were the most abundant components. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of BAEO against common plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated by the mycelium linear growth rate method and pot test, respectively. It was documented that 1 mg/mL of BAEO could variously inhibit all tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rates of 44.8%~100%. Among the tested 19 strains of fungi, the median effective concentration (EC50) values of BAEO against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria solani were only 50.2 and 103.2 μg/mL, respectively, which were higher than those of other fungi. The in vivo antifungal activity of BAEO against Gloeosporium orbiculare was much higher than Blumeria graminis. The protective efficacy for the former was up to 98.07% at 10 mg/mL and the treatment efficacy was 93.41% at 12 mg/mL. The above results indicated that BAEO has the great potential to be developed as a botanical and agricultural fungicide.

  3. Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Huiling; Yu, Xinchi; Lu, Ailin; Cao, Haoqiang; Zhou, Bohang; Zhou, Le; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the powder residual of dried bitter almond, a novel and environmentally-friendly fungicide, was successfully extracted in a 0.7% yield by hydro-distillation under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of bitter almond essential oil (BAEO) was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Twenty-one different components representing 99.90% of the total essential oil were identified, of which benzaldehyde (62.52%), benzoic acid (14.80%), and hexadecane (3.97%) were the most abundant components. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of BAEO against common plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated by the mycelium linear growth rate method and pot test, respectively. It was documented that 1 mg/mL of BAEO could variously inhibit all tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rates of 44.8%~100%. Among the tested 19 strains of fungi, the median effective concentration (EC50) values of BAEO against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria solani were only 50.2 and 103.2 μg/mL, respectively, which were higher than those of other fungi. The in vivo antifungal activity of BAEO against Gloeosporium orbiculare was much higher than Blumeria graminis. The protective efficacy for the former was up to 98.07% at 10 mg/mL and the treatment efficacy was 93.41% at 12 mg/mL. The above results indicated that BAEO has the great potential to be developed as a botanical and agricultural fungicide. PMID:27589723

  4. Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Geng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the powder residual of dried bitter almond, a novel and environmentally-friendly fungicide, was successfully extracted in a 0.7% yield by hydro-distillation under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of bitter almond essential oil (BAEO was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. Twenty-one different components representing 99.90% of the total essential oil were identified, of which benzaldehyde (62.52%, benzoic acid (14.80%, and hexadecane (3.97% were the most abundant components. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of BAEO against common plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated by the mycelium linear growth rate method and pot test, respectively. It was documented that 1 mg/mL of BAEO could variously inhibit all tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rates of 44.8%~100%. Among the tested 19 strains of fungi, the median effective concentration (EC50 values of BAEO against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria solani were only 50.2 and 103.2 μg/mL, respectively, which were higher than those of other fungi. The in vivo antifungal activity of BAEO against Gloeosporium orbiculare was much higher than Blumeria graminis. The protective efficacy for the former was up to 98.07% at 10 mg/mL and the treatment efficacy was 93.41% at 12 mg/mL. The above results indicated that BAEO has the great potential to be developed as a botanical and agricultural fungicide.

  5. Effectiveness of almond gum trees exudate as a novel edible coating for improving postharvest quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Chouaibi, Moncef; Hamdi, Salem

    2014-01-01

    The use of coatings is a technique used to increase postharvest life of the fruit. Almond gum exudate was used, in comparison with gum arabic, at concentrations of 10% as a novel edible coating, to preserve the quality parameters of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum). Fruits were harvested at the mature-green stage of ripening. Results showed that the coatings delayed significantly (p color, weight loss, firmness, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, soluble solids concentration, and decay percentage compared to uncoated control fruits. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of 10% almond gum and gum arabic coatings to maintain the overall quality of tomato fruits during storage period (20 days). In addition, the difference between gum arabic and almond gum coatings was not significant (p > 0.05) except for pulp color. Therefore, we can suggest the use of almond gum exudate as a novel edible coating extends the shelf-life of tomato fruits on postharvest.

  6. The effects of processing and mastication on almond lipid bioaccessibility using novel methods of in vitro digestion modelling and micro-structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Grundy, Myriam M-L; Grassby, Terri; Parker, Mary L; Cross, Kathryn L; Chessa, Simona; Bisignano, Carlo; Barreca, Davide; Bellocco, Ersilia; Laganà, Giuseppina; Butterworth, Peter J; Faulks, Richard M; Wilde, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R; Waldron, Keith W

    2014-11-14

    A number of studies have demonstrated that consuming almonds increases satiety but does not result in weight gain, despite their high energy and lipid content. To understand the mechanism of almond digestion, in the present study, we investigated the bioaccessibility of lipids from masticated almonds during in vitro simulated human digestion, and determined the associated changes in cell-wall composition and cellular microstructure. The influence of processing on lipid release was assessed by using natural raw almonds (NA) and roasted almonds (RA). Masticated samples from four healthy adults (two females, two males) were exposed to a dynamic gastric model of digestion followed by simulated duodenal digestion. Between 7·8 and 11·1 % of the total lipid was released as a result of mastication, with no significant differences between the NA and RA samples. Significant digestion occurred during the in vitro gastric phase (16·4 and 15·9 %) and the in vitro duodenal phase (32·2 and 32·7 %) for the NA and RA samples, respectively. Roasting produced a smaller average particle size distribution post-mastication; however, this was not significant in terms of lipid release. Light microscopy showed major changes that occurred in the distribution of lipid in all cells after the roasting process. Further changes were observed in the surface cells of almond fragments and in fractured cells after exposure to the duodenal environment. Almond cell walls prevented lipid release from intact cells, providing a mechanism for incomplete nutrient absorption in the gut. The composition of almond cell walls was not affected by processing or simulated digestion.

  7. Effect of five year storage on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of almond (Amygdalus communisL. hull and shell from different genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Sadat Moosavi Dolatabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Almond (Prunus amygdalus hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years on the total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from different genotypes was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The total phenolic content (TPC and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. Results: It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were different, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract. Conclusions: For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell.

  8. Effects of almond consumption on the post-lunch dip and long-term cognitive function in energy-restricted overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Jaapna; Tan, Sze-Yen; Mattes, Richard D

    2017-02-01

    The post-lunch dip in cognition is a well-established phenomenon of decreased alertness, memory and vigilance after lunch consumption. Lunch composition reportedly influences the post-lunch dip. Moreover, dieting is associated with cognitive function impairments. The negative effects of dieting have been reversed with nut-supplemented diets. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the acute effect of an almond-enriched high-fat lunch or high-carbohydrate lunch on the post-lunch decline in cognitive function, and (2) evaluate the effects of chronic almond consumption as part of an energy-restricted diet on the memory and attention domains of cognitive function. In total, eighty-six overweight and obese adults were randomised to consume either an almond-enriched diet (AED) or a nut-free control diet (NFD) over a 12-week weight loss intervention. Participants were also randomised to receive either an almond-enriched high-fat lunch (A-HFL) (>55 % energy from fat, almonds contributing 70-75 % energy) or a high-carbohydrate lunch (HCL) (>85 % energy from carbohydrates) at the beginning and end of the weight loss intervention. Memory and attention performance indices decreased after lunch consumption (Pconsumption at a midday meal can reduce the post-lunch dip in memory. However, long-term almond consumption may not further improve cognitive function outcomes in a weight loss intervention.

  9. Identification and Analysis of Amygdalin, Neoamygdalin and Amygdalin Amide in Different Processed Bitter Almonds by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuya; Xu, Xinfang; Yuan, Shaoxiong; Liu, Huan; Liu, Mengnan; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Hui; Gao, Yan; Lin, Ruichao; Li, Xiangri

    2017-08-30

    Processing is a traditional pharmacy technology based on traditional Chinese medicine theory. The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) ingredients should be processed before being used as a medicine. Processed bitter almonds are widely used in the clinic in TCM for the treatment of cough and asthma. In this work the amygdalin profile of three producing areas in China was determined, with respect to three differently processed bitter almond products: raw, stir-fried and scalded. Identification of the compounds was done by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Results indicated that amygdalin, neoamygdalin and amygdalin amide were identified in the different processed bitter almonds. Meanwhile, amygdalin was used as a standard to calculate the quantification of amygdalin and the concentration ratio of neoamygdalin and total amygdalin by HPLC-DAD. The data suggested that composition of amygdalin isomers in bitter almonds was influenced by the processing method. It also gives a new understanding of the processing principle of bitter almonds. Moreover, the classification of different processed bitter almonds can be achieved on the basis of amygdalin isomers levels.

  10. Evaluation of Paclobutrazol Spraying on Salinity Hardiness of Peach- Almond Hybrid (GF677 Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam amiri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is a common abiotic stress that seriously affects crop production in some parts of the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. The deleterious effects of salinity on plant growth are associated with low osmotic potential of soil solution (water stress, nutritional imbalance, specific ion effect (salt stress, or a combination of these factors. Paclobutrazol (PBZ, a member of the triazole plant growth inhibitor group, is a broad-spectrum gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor. Triazoles have both fungal toxicity and plant growth regulatory effects. They also increase tolerance of various plant species to biotic and abiotic stresses, including fungal pathogens, drought, air pollutants, and low- and high-temperature stress. According to our knowledge, there are no reports on the effects of exogenous PBZ enhancing vegetative peach- almond hybrid (GF 677 rootstock tolerance to salt stress. Therefore, the objective of this work was the possibility test of this idea that PBZ application would protect GF 677 rootstock from damaging effects of salinity. Materials and Methods: One-year-old rooted cuttings of GF 677 were grown in in plastic pots in the research greenhouse of Agricultural College, Isfahan University of Technology of Iran. The minimum and maximum temperatures during the experiment period were 19 and 32˚C, respectively. After cutting establishment (3 months, the plants were sprayed twice (with a 7 days interval with 0 (control, 20 and 40 mg l-1 PBZ to the point of run-off. One week after the second foliar application of PBZ, each plants was subjected to one of several salt stress treatments. The salt treatments (0, 25 and 50 mM NaCl were applied to the pots intervals in 0.5 l of irrigation water. To avoid osmotic shock, the NaCl concentration was increased gradually. The layout was a 3×3 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The experimental measurements were carried out

  11. The fatty acid compositions of predator Piocoris luridus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) and its host Monosteria unicostata (Heteroptera: Tingidae) reared on almond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OZLEM CAKMAK; MEHMET BASHAN; HALIL BOLU

    2007-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid compositions during nutritional interaction among almond Amygdalus communis Linnaeus (Rosales: Rosaceae) (host plant), lacebug Monosteria unicostata (Mulsant and Rey) (Heteroptera: Tingidae) and its predator Piocoris luridus Fieber (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) were determined by gas chromatography and gas chroma-tography-mass spectrometry analyses. The fatty acid profiles of phospholipids and triacylglycerols were substantially different. Unlike the general observations for virtually most terrestrial insects, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids were detected in high proportions of phospholipid fractions in both insects, especially in P.luridus.Also the almond tissues provide very little oleic acid to the herbivore diet, yet both insect species developed high proportions of this component. Our data reveals instances of specific accumulation of fatty acid biosynthesis, elongation/desaturation, and not incorporating selected fatty acids into cellular lipids.

  12. Separation and HPLC-MS identification of phenolic antioxidants from agricultural residues: Almond hulls and grape pomace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubilar, M.; Pinelo, Manuel; Shene, C.

    2007-01-01

    /water fraction (FOW). Extracts and fractions were analyzed for antioxidant power and their phenolic components tentatively identified by HPLC-MS. Chromatographic peaks of almond hull extracts showed the occurrence of hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives, with minor presence of flavan-3-ols (ECG, EGCG...... between both grape pomaces, myricetin glycosyde was found in that from the red variety, whereas flavan-3-ols (EC, afzelechin) were only identified in white pomace. When their FOW fractions were analyzed, gallic acid and some hydroxybenzoic acids were additionally detected. Antioxidant activity...... was assessed by DPPH and TBARS assays. Almond hulls showed inhibition percentages lower than 50% in both assays, while the inhibition percentage ranged from 80% to 90% in pomace extracts. Red grape pomace extract was the most efficient antioxidant, with an EC50 value of 0.91 g/L for TBARS and 0.20 g/L for DPPH...

  13. Nootropic and hypophagic effects following long term intake of almonds (Prunus amygdalus) in rats Efectos nootróficos e hipofágicos del consumo prolongado de almendras (Prunus amygdalus) en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Over a period of time researchers have become more interested in finding out the potential of various foods to maintain the general health and to treat diseases. Almonds are a very good source of many nutrients which may help to sharpen the memory and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the nootropic effects of almonds. Effect of oral intake of almond was also monitored on food intake and plasma cholesterol levels. Method...

  14. Supervised chemical pattern recognition in almond (Prunus dulcis) Portuguese PDO cultivars: a PCA and LDA based triennial study

    OpenAIRE

    Barreira, João C.M.; Casal, Susana; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Peres, António M.; PEREIRA, J. A.; Oliveira, M. B. P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Almonds harvested in three years in Trás-os-Montes (Portugal) were characterized to find differences among Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Amêndoa Douro and commercial non-PDO cultivars. Nutritional parameters, fiber (neutral and acid detergent fibers, acid detergent lignin and cellulose), fatty acids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and tocopherols were evaluated. Fat was the major component, followed by carbohydrates, protein and moisture. Fatty acids were mostly detected as monounsaturated an...

  15. Dissemination of sustainable irrigation strategies for almond and olive orchards via a participatory approach. Project LIFE+IRRIMAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vila, Margarita; Gamero-Ojeda, Pablo; Ascension Carmona, Maria; Berlanga, Jose; Fereres, Elias

    2017-04-01

    Dissemination of sustainable irrigation strategies for almond and olive orchards via a participatory approach. Project LIFE+IRRIMAN Spain is the world's first and third largest producer of olive oil and almond, respectively. Despite huge efforts in the last years by the production sector towards intensification, cultural issues relative to the traditional rain-fed crop management know how, prevent farmers from adoption of sustainable irrigation management practices. Consequently, even though there has been progress in irrigation management research for these two crops, adoption of modern irrigation techniques by farmers has been slow. Sustainable irrigation strategies for olive and almond orchards are being designed, implemented, validated and disseminated under the framework of the LIFE+ IRRIMAN project, through a participatory approach. The implementation of the LIFE+ IRRIMAN innovative and demonstrative actions has been carried out in an irrigation district of Southern Spain (Genil-Cabra Irrigation Scheme, Andalusia). The approach designed has four phases: i) design and implementation of sustainable irrigation strategies in demonstration farms; ii) dissemination of best irrigation practices which were tested in the initial year throughout the irrigation scheme by the irrigation advisory service; iii) assessment of degree of adoption and re-design of the dissemination strategies; and, iv) based on the results obtained, elaboration of sustainable irrigation guidelines for knowledge transfer in the district at regional and national levels to promote changes in irrigation practices. Participatory approaches have proven to be effective tools for successful irrigation strategies design and diffusion, especially in traditional rain fed crops such as olive and almond trees in the Mediterranean countries. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  16. Multiscale heterogeneity characterization of tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies, Almond Formation outcrops, Rock Springs uplift, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzinger, R.A.; Tomutsa, L. [BDM Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In order to accurately predict fluid flow within a reservoir, variability in the rock properties at all scales relevant to the specific depositional environment needs to be taken into account. The present work describes rock variability at scales from hundreds of meters (facies level) to millimeters (laminae) based on outcrop studies of the Almond Formation. Tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies were sampled on the eastern flank of the Rock Springs uplift, southeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming. The Almond Fm. was deposited as part of a mesotidal Upper Cretaceous transgressive systems tract within the greater Green River Basin. Bedding style, lithology, lateral extent of beds of bedsets, bed thickness, amount and distribution of depositional clay matrix, bioturbation and grain sorting provide controls on sandstone properties that may vary more than an order of magnitude within and between depositional facies in outcrops of the Almond Formation. These features can be mapped on the scale of an outcrop. The products of diagenesis such as the relative timing of carbonate cement, scale of cemented zones, continuity of cemented zones, selectively leached framework grains, lateral variability of compaction of sedimentary rock fragments, and the resultant pore structure play an equally important, although less predictable role in determining rock property heterogeneity. A knowledge of the spatial distribution of the products of diagenesis such as calcite cement or compaction is critical to modeling variation even within a single facies in the Almond Fin. because diagenesis can enhance or reduce primary (depositional) rock property heterogeneity. Application of outcrop heterogeneity models to the subsurface is greatly hindered by differences in diagenesis between the two settings. The measurements upon which this study is based were performed both on drilled outcrop plugs and on blocks.

  17. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for fenpyrazamine in almonds, grapes, apricots, peaches and strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Austria, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Sumitomo Chemical Agro Europe SAS to set import tolerances for the active substance fenpyrazamine in almonds, grapes and strawberries from the United States of America (USA. Austria received a second application from the above cited company to modify the existing MRLs for fenpyrazamine in peaches, including nectarines, apricots and strawberries reflecting the intended uses in the EU. Austria proposed the MRL of 3 mg/kg in strawberries, peaches and apricots, 0.01 mg/kg in almonds, which corresponds to the limit of quantification (LOQ, whereas no amendment of the existing MRL of 3 mg/kg for grapes was required. Austria drafted two separate evaluation reports in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive the following MRL proposal: 0.01*mg/kg for almonds, 3 mg/kg for strawberries and 4 mg/kg for peaches, including nectarines and similar hybrids. An amendment of the existing MRL on grapes is not necessary, while the data are not sufficient to propose a MRL for the intended uses on apricots. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of fenpyrazamine in the crops under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of fenpyrazamine on almonds, grapes, peaches and strawberries will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  18. Extraction, Purification and Thermodynamic Characterization of Almond (Amygdalus communis β-Galactosidase for the Preparation of Delactosed Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Lobo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buffer type, pH and ionic strength, as well as the fraction of polyvinylpyrrolidone were optimized for efficient extraction of β-galactosidase from almond seeds. The enzyme was purified up to electrophoretic homogeneity employing (NH42SO4 (15–60 % fractionation, size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Molecular mass of β-galactosidase as estimated by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE was approx. 62 kDa, confirming its monomeric nature. The optimum activity of the enzyme was at pH=5.5, and it was stable within the range of pH=5.0–6.0. Various kinetic parameters of β-galactosidase thermal inactivation were calculated: ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° suggested that the enzyme undergoes significant processes of unfolding during denaturation. Using β-galactosidase from almond seed powder, lactose hydrolysis in milk up to approx. 50 % was observed. The findings indicate the potential use of almond seeds for the production of low/delactosed milk for lactose-intolerant population.

  19. 苦杏仁酸制备工艺研究%Study on Preparation Technology of Bitter Almond Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢敏

    2016-01-01

    Using TEBA quaternary ammonium salt as phase transfer catalyst,the synthesis of bitter almond acid by using phenyl formaldehyde as raw material is a new synthetic method.Greatly accelerate the reaction speed improve the yield,but also simplifies the operation,instead of the previous by benzaldehyde and sodium cyanide addition to cyanohydrin then hydrolyzing the long route, inconvenient operation,labor protection requirements of the shortcomings of high.The specific effects of the experimental conditions on the synthesis of bitter almond acid were introduced,and the optimum conditions for the synthesis of bitter almond were found.%以TEBA季铵盐为相转移催化剂,苯甲醛为原料合成苦杏仁酸是一种新的合成方法。新的合成方法加快了反应速度提高了收率,也简化了操作,代替了以往多由苯甲醛与氰化钠加成得氰醇再水解制得的传统方法,克服了路线长,操作不便,劳动保护要求高的缺点。介绍了实验条件对合成苦杏仁酸反应的具体影响,找到了合成实验的最佳条件。

  20. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of clotrimazole gel containing almond oil and tween 80 as penetration enhancer for topical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Asif; Jan, Syed Umer; Khan, Nauman Rahim; Hussain, Abid; Khan, Gul Majid

    2013-05-01

    Achieving a desirable percutaneous absorption of drug molecule is a major concern in formulating dermal and transdermal products. The use of penetration enhancers could provide a successful mean for this purpose. The aim of this study was to develop Clotrimazole gel and to evaluate the effect of almond oil and tween 80 (in different concentrations), on the permeation of drug through rabbit skin in vitro. In order to investigate the effect of penetration enhancers used in this study on the permeation of Clotrimazole through sections of excised rabbit skin, Franz diffusion cell was employed. Sample solution was withdrawn at specific time interval up to 24 h. Significant difference in permeation among the eight formulations was seen in the study. The permeation profile of various formulations also showed that the added enhancers in individual batches affected the permeation of the drug. Drug permeation increased with increased concentration of Tween 80 and decreased concentration of almond oil. Furthermore, almond oil combined with tween 80 showed synergistic effect. The clotrimazole gels were successfully formulated and could be beneficial for topical use.

  1. Almond tree and organic fertilization for soil quality improvement in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Masciandaro, Grazia; Mennone, Carmelo; Ceccanti, Brunello

    2012-03-01

    The semi-arid Mediterranean region, characterized by long dry periods followed by heavy bursts of rainfall, is particularly prone to soil erosion. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the soil quality under different practices of bio-physical amelioration which involve the soil-plant system (almond trees) and microorganism-manure. This study, carried out in the South of Italy (Basilicata Region- Pantanello farm), considered two types of fertilization (mineral and organic) and three slope gradients (0, 2 and 6%), in order to evaluate the effects of management practices in resisting soil erosion. Chemical (organic carbon and nitrogen), physical (soil shrinkage and bulk density) and biochemical (dehydrogenase activity and hydrolytic enzyme activities) parameters were selected as markers to follow agro-ecological changes with time. The organic treatment affected soil microbiological and physico-chemical properties by increasing soil nutrient availability, microbial activity, and improving soil structure. The consistently higher values of the hydrolytic enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease and protease) often observed in the presence of plants and on the 0 and 2% slopes, suggested the stimulation of nutrient cycles by tree roots, which improve the conditions for soil microorganisms in carrying out their metabolic activity. In the 6% slope and, in particular, in the mineral fertilizer treatment, soil metabolism was lower as suggested by the dehydrogenase activity which was 50% lower than that found in the 0 and 2% slopes, this seemed to be related to a slowdown in the nutrient cycling and organic carbon metabolism. However, on this slope, in both mineral and organic treatments, a significant stimulation of hydrolytic enzyme activities and an improvement of soil structure (reduction of bulk density of about 10% and increase in total shrinkage from 20 to 60%) were observed with plants compared to the control soil. The combination of organic

  2. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of the M23 Protease Pseudoalterin by Deep-Sea Pseudoalteromonas sp. CF6-2 with Artery Powder as an Inducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Lin Zhao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteases in the M23 family have specific activities toward elastin and bacterial peptidoglycan. The peptidoglycan-degrading property makes these proteases have potential as novel antimicrobials. Because M23 proteases cannot be maturely expressed in Escherichia coli, it is significant to improve the production of these enzymes in their wild strains. Pseudoalterin is a new M23 protease secreted by the deep-sea bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. CF6-2. In this study, the fermentation conditions of strain CF6-2 for pseudoalterin production were optimized using single factor experiments and response surface methodology to improve the enzyme yield. To reduce the fermentation cost, bovine artery powder instead of elastin was determined as a cheap and efficient inducer. Based on single factor experiments, artery powder content, culture temperature and culture time were determined as the main factors influencing pseudoalterin production and were further optimized by the central composite design. The optimal values of these factors were determined as: artery powder of 1.2%, culture temperature of 20.17 °C and culture time of 28.04 h. Under the optimized conditions, pseudoalterin production reached 100.02 ± 9.0 U/mL, more than twice of that before optimization. These results lay a good foundation for developing the biotechnological potential of pseudoalterin.

  3. Total Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of some Almond (Amygdalus Communis L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Adnan Nurhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the total oil contents and fatty acid compositions of some commercial almond cultivars. The total oil contents changed significantly (p<0.05 by year in all cultivars with the exception of cultivar Ferrastar. Total oil contents were changed from 50.90% (Picantili to 62.01% (Supernova in 2008 and from 52.44% (Lauranne to 63.18% (Cristomorto in 2009. While predominant unsaturated fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids, predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid. The highest amount of oleic acid was obtained in Glorieta in both 2008 (83.35% and 2009 (72.74%. Linoleic acid content varied by year and the highest content was recorded in Picantili (26.08% in 2008 and Yaltinski (30.01% in 2009. The highest amount of palmitic acid was detected in cultivar Sonora in both years, i.e. as 7.76% in 2008 and 10.11% in 2009. The mean UFA:SFA ratio was 11.73 in 2008 but 7.59 in 2009. Principal component (PC analysis indicated that palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, arachidic acid, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, saturated fatty acid (SFA and UFA:SFA ratio were primarily responsible for the separation on PC1

  4. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of mercury adsorption on almond shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaloo, Shokooh Sadat; Matin, Amir Hossein; Sharifi, Sahar; Fadaeinia, Masoumeh; Kazempour, Narges; Mirzadeh, Shaghayegh

    2012-01-01

    The application of almond shell as a low cost natural adsorbent to remove Hg(2+) from aqueous solution was investigated. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the material. The chemical and physical parameters such as pH, sorbent amount, initial ion concentration, and contact time were optimized for the maximum uptake of mercury onto the solid surface. Adsorption isotherms were expressed by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models, and the experimental data were found to fit the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from the Langmuir isotherm was 135.13 mg/g. A kinetic study was carried out with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order reaction equations and it was found that the Hg(2+) uptake process followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. The thermodynamic values, ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0), indicated that adsorption was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The potential of this material for mercury elimination was demonstrated by efficient Hg(2+) removal from a synthetic effluent.

  5. Antioxidant and Photoprotective Effects of Blanch Water, a Byproduct of the Almond Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Bonina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate the antioxidant and photoprotective effect of blanch water (BW, a byproduct of the almond processing industry. The polyphenolic content of a BW extract, the level of proanthocyanidins and the vanillin index determination were determined. The antioxidant activity and the radical scavenging activity of the BW were evaluated by a range of in vitro tests. The in vivo photoprotective effect was investigated using a formulation containing 2% of the BW extract on skin erythema induced by acute UV-B exposure in twelve volunteers. Results confirmed the presence of added-value antioxidant compounds in the industrial BW extract, and the most representative compounds were naringenin-7-O-glucoside and kaempferol-7-O-rutinoside. The proanthocyanidin content was 71.84 ± 5.21 cyanidin equivalents/g of BW extract. The good antiradical activity of the BW extract was demonstrated in both the DPPH• test and in the Reducing Power test. The percentage inhibition of erythema obtained using a formulation of BW was 50.48, value clearly demonstrating an effect against photooxidative damage in vivo.

  6. Effects of irrigation deprivation during the harvest period on yield determinants in mature almond trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, G; DeJong, T M; Weinbaum, S A; Klein, I

    2001-09-01

    Effects of irrigation deprivation during the harvest period on yield determinants in mature almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb cv. Nonpareil) trees were investigated during a 3-year field experiment. Return bloom and fruit set were measured on 2185 individually tagged spurs. Water stress resulting from irrigation deprivation during the harvest period, which purportedly coincides with the time of flower initiation, had no effect on the percentage of spurs that flowered or set fruit during subsequent years. Although water stress had no apparent effect on spur mortality, 66% of the tagged spurs died within 3 years. In addition, many spurs were vegetative by the third year, indicating the importance of spur renewal for sustained fruit production. Reductions in nut yield were evident after two successive years of irrigation deprivation during the harvest period. Regression analysis indicated a loss in yield of 7.7 kg tree(-1) in response to each 1 MPa decrease in stem water potential below -1.2 MPa during the previous seasons. The number of fruiting positions per tree (estimated indirectly for whole trees based on weight of current-year shoots > 5 cm in length) was negatively associated with water stress. Yield reduction in response to water stress during harvest appears to be a compound, multiyear effect, associated with reduced annual growth and renewal of fruiting positions.

  7. Granuloma due to sweet almond oil injection: Difficulties of diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisete Isabel Crocco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body granuloma reaction is a tissue response to some extraneous materials which incite a characteristic pattern of granulomatous reaction. Several cases of foreign body granulomas on the face have been reported, especially after the injection of dermal fillers. Oleoma or paraffinoma is defined as a foreign body granuloma resulting from the injection of oily substances into the skin or subcutaneous tissue. We report a case of an adult woman who had developed foreign body granulomas due to a self-injection of sweet almond oil into the glabella and periorbital area. The diagnosis was based on a thorough interrogation, clinical features and histopathological findings. Treatment of foreign body granuloma is challenging. At first, oral prednisone was initiated with the improvement of the inflammatory signs and reduction of the lesions’ dimension, but recurrence of the lesions occurred when the dose was decreased. After research of literature, a low-dose minocycline regime was prescribed for its beneficial effects in granulomatous diseases, with encouraging results.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Some Metals in Almond Kernel in Erbil City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes determination of moisture (7.2% and total ash (2.5% from the sweet and bitter almond kernel fruit of Erbil city. The amounts of elements including: Na, Ca and K as alkaline metals and Cd, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr as heavy metals have been determined by using both atomic emission and absorption spectrometry. The analysis results indicate that amount of potassium was the highest (276.525 μg ml-1 this is an importation, because it is necessary for the function of all living cells, and the sodium was the lowest (64.91 μg ml-1 as an alkaline metals. While, for heavy metals the amount of chromium was the highest (4.577 μg ml-1 which is a suitable biochemical nutritional to promote weight loss, muscle development and to treat the symptoms of type 2 diabetes, and the lead was the lowest (1.598 μg ml-1, which is good because lead is toxic to kidney, brain and bone demineralization.

  9. Non-target effects of fungicides on nectar-inhabiting fungi of almond flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Robert N; Vannette, Rachel L; Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal M; Fukami, Tadashi

    2017-04-01

    Nectar mediates interactions between plants and pollinators in natural and agricultural systems. Specialized microorganisms are common nectar inhabitants, and potentially important mediators of plant-pollinator interactions. However, their diversity and role in mediating pollination services in agricultural systems are poorly characterized. Moreover, agrochemicals are commonly applied to minimize crop damage, but may present ecological consequences for non-target organisms. Assessment of ecological risk has tended to focus on beneficial macroorganisms such as pollinators, with less attention paid to microorganisms. Here, using culture-independent methods, we assess the impact of two widely-used fungicides on nectar microbial community structure in the mass-flowering crop almond (Prunus dulcis). We predicted that fungicide application would reduce fungal richness and diversity, whereas competing bacterial richness would increase, benefitting from negative effects on fungi. We found that fungicides reduced fungal richness and diversity in exposed flowers, but did not significantly affect bacterial richness, diversity, or community composition. The relative abundance of Metschnikowia OTUs, nectar specialists that can impact pollination, was reduced by both fungicides. Given growing recognition of the importance of nectar microorganisms as mediators of plant-pollinator mutualisms, future research should consider the impact of management practices on plant-associated microorganisms and consequences for pollination services in agricultural landscapes. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Development of the Red Jujube Almond Compound Protein Beverage%红枣杏仁复合蛋白饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳怀; 代绍娟; 张雪梅; 雷勇; 尹俊涛

    2015-01-01

    With red jujube, almond as the main raw material,with sensory score as the evaluation criteria, by orthogonal experimental design, the best proportion of red jujube almond compound protein beverage was determined. The experimental results showed that the red jujube almond compound protein beverage best formula was:white granulated sugar 6 %, honey 2 %, almond milk 30 %, red jujube paste 15 %, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 0.03%, xanthan gum 0.06%, sucrose ester 0.07%, glycerol monostearate 0.13%. The product had peculiar to the red jujube and almond aroma, delicate taste, organization in good condition.%以红枣、杏仁为主要原料,以感官评分作为评定标准,采用正交试验设计,确定红枣杏仁复合蛋白饮料的最佳配比.实验结果表明,红枣杏仁复合蛋白饮料最佳配方为:白砂糖6%、蜂蜜2%、杏仁乳30%、红枣浆15%,羧甲基纤维素钠0.03%,黄原胶0.06%,蔗糖酯0.07%,单硬脂酸甘油酯0.13%.所得产品具有红枣和杏仁所特有的香气,口感细腻,组织状态良好.

  11. Growth and Evaluation of Almond-Apricot in Baiyushan Hilly Area%白于山区仁用杏生长状况与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白岗栓; 杜社妮; 侯喜录

    2004-01-01

    In Baiyushan hilly area, the roots system of almond-apricot mainly distributes vertically in the subsoil from 30 cm to 80 cm and horizontally distributes from 50 cm to 180 cm around the trunk. There are three growing peaks of the roots in a year and July-peak is the tallest one. From March to July is water losing period in subsoil of almond-apricot orchard, water losing is mainly from the aubsoil above 200 cm. There are three growing peaks for extending shoots and only one peak for fruit shoots in a vear. Fruit set percentage of almond-apricot is 15.61 %, of which short fruit branches are 22.62%, long fruit branches are 8.56%. Although there are differences in the growth of almond-apricot trees gown in slope lands with different elevation,aspects, and slopes, all trees grow well. Except frostbite harming, Baiyushan hilly area could be a better commodity production base of almond-apricot.

  12. Influence of crop load on almond tree water status and its importance in irrigation scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Conesa, Pablo; Domingo Miguel, Rafael; Torres Sánchez, Roque; Pérez Pastor, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    In the Mediterranean area water is the main factor limiting crop production and therefore irrigation is essential to achieve economically viable yields. One of the fundamental techniques to ensure that irrigation water is managed efficiently with maximum productivity and minimum environmental impact is irrigation scheduling. The fact that the plant water status integrates atmospheric demand and soil water content conditions encourages the use of plant-based water status indicators. Some researchers have successfully scheduled irrigation in certain fruit trees by maintaining the maximum daily trunk diameter shrinkage (MDS) signal intensity at threshold values to generate (or not) water stress. However MDS not only depends on the climate and soil water content, but may be affected by tree factors such as age, size, phenological stage and fruit load. There is therefore a need to quantify the influence of these factors on MDS. The main objective of this work was to study the effects of crop load on tree water relations for scheduling purposes. We particularly focused on MDS vs VPD10-15 (mean air vapor pressure deficit during the period 10.00-15.00 h solar time) for different loads and phenological phases under non-limiting soil water conditions. The experiment was carried out in 2011 in a 1 ha plot in SE Spain with almond trees (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb cv. 'Marta'). Three crop load treatments were studied according to three crop load levels, i) T100, high crop load, characteristic crop load, ii) T50, medium crop load, in which 50% of the fruits were removed and iii) T0, practically without fruits. Fruits were manually thinned. Each treatment, randomly distributed in blocks, was run in triplicate. Plant water status was assessed from midday stem water potential (Ψs), MDS, daily trunk growth rate (TGR), leaf turgor potential Ψp, fruit water potential (Ψf), stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration rates (E). Yield, pruning weights and

  13. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A; Fredborg, Marlene; Mai, Volker

    2014-06-28

    The modification of microbiota composition to a 'beneficial' one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy and diverse microbiota. The effects of increased consumption of specific nuts, which are rich in fibre as well as various phytonutrients, on human gut microbiota composition have not been investigated to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of almond and pistachio consumption on human gut microbiota composition. We characterised microbiota in faecal samples collected from volunteers in two separate randomised, controlled, cross-over feeding studies (n 18 for the almond feeding study and n 16 for the pistachio feeding study) with 0, 1·5 or 3 servings/d of the respective nuts for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various operational taxonomic units that appeared to be affected by nut consumption. The effect of pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition was much stronger than that of almond consumption and included an increase in the number of potentially beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Although the numbers of bifidobacteria were not affected by the consumption of either nut, pistachio consumption appeared to decrease the number of lactic acid bacteria (Ppistachios appears to be an effective means of modifying gut microbiota composition.

  14. The effect of almonds on anthropometric measurements and lipid profile in overweight and obese females in a weight reduction program: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Abazarfard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the wholesome benefits of nuts increased consumption of them has been recommended. However, because of nut′s high energy density, the role of them in the treatment of overweight and obesity is vague. This current clinical trial study aims to investigate the effects of a balanced hypocaloric almond-enriched diet (AED (almond group in comparison to a balanced hypocaloric nut-free diet (NFD (nut-free group on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in women with body mass index (BMI >25 for 3-month. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 overweight and obese women were assigned in our 3-month randomized controlled trial. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups regarding a balanced hypocaloric diet with or without almond. The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical except for the almond group who consumed 50 g of almonds daily. Anthropometric and laboratory measurements of the participants who completed the study were made prior to and at the end of the study. Results: A total of 100 subjects completed the study. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip circumference ratio, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, total: High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, fasting blood sugar and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the almond group compared to the nut-free group (P > 0.001. Greater reduction in low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P > 0.002 and systolic blood pressure (P > 0.001 and greater increase in HDL-C (P = 0.001 were found in the nut-free group. Conclusion: The balanced hypocaloric AED in comparison to the balanced hypocaloric NFD led to a greater weight-loss and overall better improvements in studied cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  15. Crystal Structure of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M.; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; (IIT); (US-FDA); (IT)

    2010-10-28

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 {angstrom}, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An {alpha} helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  16. Crystal structure of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-09-23

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 A, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An alpha helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  17. APPLICATION OF IMPREGNATED ALMOND SHELL ACTIVATED CARBON BY ZINC AND ZINC SULFATE FOR NITRATE REMOVAL FROM WATER

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rezaee, H. Godini, S. Dehestani, A. Khavanin

    2008-01-01

    In this study impregnated almond shell activated carbon by Zn° and ZnSO4 were used as adsorbent with a particle size of 10-20 mesh. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of impregnated activated carbon in nitrate removal. The modified activated carbon had 1mm effective size, with a uniformity coefficient of 1.18. Potassium nitrate solution was used in batch adsorption experiments for nitrate removal from water. The effects of nitrate concentration, activated carbon dosag...

  18. Leaf-to-branch scaling of C-gain in field-grown almond trees under different soil moisture regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Gregorio; González-Real, María M; Martin-Gorriz, Bernardo; Baille, Alain

    2014-06-01

    Branch/tree-level measurements of carbon (C)-acquisition provide an integration of the physical and biological processes driving the C gain of all individual leaves. Most research dealing with the interacting effects of high-irradiance environments and soil-induced water stress on the C-gain of fruit tree species has focused on leaf-level measurements. The C-gain of both sun-exposed leaves and branches of adult almond trees growing in a semi-arid climate was investigated to determine the respective costs of structural and biochemical/physiological protective mechanisms involved in the behaviour at branch scale. Measurements were performed on well-watered (fully irrigated, FI) and drought-stressed (deficit irrigated, DI) trees. Leaf-to-branch scaling for net CO2 assimilation was quantified by a global scaling factor (fg), defined as the product of two specific scaling factors: (i) a structural scaling factor (fs), determined under well-watered conditions, mainly involving leaf mutual shading; and (ii) a water stress scaling factor (fws,b) involving the limitations in C-acquisition due to soil water deficit. The contribution of structural mechanisms to limiting branch net C-gain was high (mean fs ∼0.33) and close to the projected-to-total leaf area ratio of almond branches (ε = 0.31), while the contribution of water stress mechanisms was moderate (mean fws,b ∼0.85), thus supplying an fg ranging between 0.25 and 0.33 with slightly higher values for FI trees with respect to DI trees. These results suggest that the almond tree (a drought-tolerant species) has acquired mechanisms of defensive strategy (survival) mainly based on a specific branch architectural design. This strategy allows the potential for C-gain to be preserved at branch scale under a large range of soil water deficits. In other words, almond tree branches exhibit an architecture that is suboptimal for C-acquisition under well-watered conditions, but remarkably efficient to counteract the impact

  19. Analysis of volatile flavour compounds and acrylamide in roasted Malaysian tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) nuts using supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim

    2010-01-01

    Considering the importance of tropical almond nuts as a snack item, a study was conducted to identify the flavour volatiles and acrylamide generated during the roasting of the nuts. The supercritical fluid extracted flavour components revealed 74 aroma active compounds made up of 27 hydrocarbons, 12 aldehydes, 11 ketones, 7 acids, 4 esters, 3 alcohols, 5 furan derivatives a pyrazine, and 2 unknown compounds. While low levels of acrylamide (8-86 microg/kg) were obtained in the roasted nuts, significant (P0.05) concentration of acrylamide was generated with mild roasting and shorter roasting period.

  20. Aceite de almendras dulces: extracción, caracterización y aplicación Sweet almond oil: extraction, characterization and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of sweet almond oil at room temperature and reflux is an easy and accessible procedure to obtain natural oil in a laboratory scale for undergraduates' courses in chemistry and related areas. In this paper we show how the utilization of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy can be interesting in the qualitative analysis of these oils. We also propose the preparation of three different skin creams to demonstrate the effective uses of sweet almond oil in cosmetics and pharmaceutical fields.

  1. Influence of Nest Box Color and Release Sites on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Reproductive Success in a Commercial Almond Orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Allan, Matthew J; Wardell, Gordon I; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2014-12-01

    Intensively managed, commercial orchards offer resources for managed solitary bees within agricultural landscapes and provide a means to study bee dispersal patterns, spatial movement, nest establishment, and reproduction. In 2012, we studied the impact of 1) the color of nest boxes covaried with four nest box density treatments and 2) the number of bee release sites covaried with two nest box density treatments on the reproductive success of Osmia lignaria Say in a California almond orchard pollinated by a mixture of O. lignaria and Apis mellifera L. Nest box color influenced the number of nests, total cells, and cells with male and female brood. More nests and cells were produced in light blue nest boxes than in orange or yellow nest boxes. The covariate nest box density also had a significant effect on brood production. The number of release sites did not affect O. lignaria nesting and reproduction, but the number of cavities in nest boxes influenced reproduction. Overall, the color of nest boxes and their distribution, but not the number of release sites, can greatly affect O. lignaria nest establishment and reproductive success in a commercial almond orchard. The ability to locate nesting sites in a homogenous, large orchard landscape may also be facilitated by the higher frequency of nest boxes with low numbers of cavities, and by the ability to detect certain nest box colors that best contrast with the blooming trees. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  2. Effects of sesame and bitter almond seed oils on mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kalyoncu, Ismail Hakki

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus from Nigde University Mushroom Research Centre (Aksaray-Nigde was monitored in malt extract agar medium containing sesame or bitter almond seed oils. With 1 % sesame oil, highest growth was established and less growth period was determined as 27.4 days. All of the samples with sesame oil showed better growth according to the control, being the stimulative effect of sesame oil higher than that of bitter almond oil.

    El crecimiento secundario de micelios de Agaricus bisporus del Centro de Investigación de Hongos de la Universidad de Nigde (Aksaray-Nigde se siguió en agar con extracto de malta conteniendo aceites de semillas de almendra amarga o sésamo. El mayor crecimiento se obtuvo con aceite de sésamo al 1%, y el periodo más corto para dicho crecimiento se estableció en 27.4 días. Todas las muestras con aceite de sésamo mostraron mejor crecimiento que el control, siendo el efecto estimulante del aceite de sésamo mayor que el del aceite de almendra amarga.

  3. Characterization of biocontrol bacterial strains isolated from a suppressiveness-induced soil after amendment with composted almond shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Carmen; Cazorla, Francisco M; de Vicente, Antonio

    The improvement in soil quality of avocado crops through organic amendments with composted almond shells has a positive effect on crop yield and plant health, and enhances soil suppressiveness against the phytopathogenic fungus Rosellinia necatrix. In previous studies, induced soil suppressiveness against this pathogen was related to stimulation of Gammaproteobacteria, especially some members of Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol-related activities. In this work, we isolated bacteria from this suppressiveness-induced amended soil using a selective medium for Pseudomonas-like microorganisms. We characterized the obtained bacterial collection to aid in identification, including metabolic profiles, antagonistic responses, hybridization to biosynthetic genes of antifungal compounds, production of lytic exoenzymatic activities and plant growth-promotion-related traits, and sequenced and compared amplified 16S rDNA genes from representative bacteria. The final selection of representative strains mainly belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, but also included the genera Serratia and Stenotrophomonas. Their biocontrol-related activities were assayed using the experimental avocado model, and results showed that all selected strains protected the avocado roots against R. necatrix. This work confirmed the biocontrol activity of these Gammaproteobacteria-related members against R. necatrix following specific stimulation in a suppressiveness-induced soil after a composted almond shell application. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus “dulcis” seeds as a potential feedstock for Nigerian Biodiesel Automotive Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Giwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus “dulcis” seed oil (SASO as a non-conventional feedstock for the preparation of biodiesel in Nigeria, rather than the traditional oils of palm, groundnut and palm kernel. SASO was extracted via the solvent method, pretreated to reduce the acid value, and transesterified using methanol (solvent and sodium hydroxide (catalyst. The oil content and acid value of SASO were 51.45 ± 3.92% and 1.07 mg KOH/g, respectively. The fatty acid composition of SASO reveals the predominance of oleic acid (69.7%, linoleic acid (18.2% and palmitic acid (9.3%. Specific fuel properties of sweet almond oil methyl esters (SAOME were determined using standard test methods and were found to satisfy both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards; the cold flow properties were particularly outstanding (cloud point; -3ºC and pour point; -9ºC. SASO appears to offer great promise as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Nigeria.

  5. Supervised chemical pattern recognition in almond ( Prunus dulcis ) Portuguese PDO cultivars: PCA- and LDA-based triennial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C M; Casal, Susana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Peres, António M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2012-09-26

    Almonds harvested in three years in Trás-os-Montes (Portugal) were characterized to find differences among Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Amêndoa Douro and commercial non-PDO cultivars. Nutritional parameters, fiber (neutral and acid detergent fibers, acid detergent lignin, and cellulose), fatty acids, triacylglycerols (TAG), and tocopherols were evaluated. Fat was the major component, followed by carbohydrates, protein, and moisture. Fatty acids were mostly detected as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated forms, with relevance of oleic and linoleic acids. Accordingly, 1,2,3-trioleoylglycerol and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoylglycerol were the major TAG. α-Tocopherol was the leading tocopherol. To verify statistical differences among PDO and non-PDO cultivars independent of the harvest year, data were analyzed through an analysis of variance, a principal component analysis, and a linear discriminant analysis (LDA). These differences identified classification parameters, providing an important tool for authenticity purposes. The best results were achieved with TAG analysis coupled with LDA, which proved its effectiveness to discriminate almond cultivars.

  6. Nitrogen Use Efficiency of California Almond Orchards Using Advanced Farming Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Schellenberg, Daniel; Saa Silva, Sebastian; Muhammad, Saiful; Sanden, Blake; Brown, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Mobilization of reactive nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, NOx, N2O, NO2- and NO3-) is perceived as one of the foremost challenges for modern agricultural production systems. Yet information to address the question of how advanced nitrogen (N) management alters reactive N mobilization is lacking. During 2009 to 2012 we monitored spatially constrained N2O emissions and potential leachable NO3-, along with yield-N content to examine their contribution to nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, fruit-N exported/fertilizer-N applied) for a modern, high yielding almond production system. This modern production system schedules irrigation to match evapotranspiration (ETc) estimated from the Penman-Montieth calculation of a reference evapotranspiration (ETo) times a seasonal crop coefficient (Kc) which was verified using eddy covariance and surface renewal latent heat flux estimates. Split N-fertilizer applications were targeted to tree-N demand and root proliferation. These production systems demand upwards of 300 kg N ha-1. NUE was found to be nearly 80% at an N application level allowing for economic sustainability of the system (308 kg N ha-1). When mobilization of N2O and NO3- were included in the NUE assessment, these systems were still highly sustainable in terms of N applied. We also monitored production and consumption of the greenhouse gases of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). These systems had relatively low levels of N2O emissions with emissions of N2O as a fraction of N-fertilizer applied being consistently less than IPCC Tier 1 emissions factors, and lower than the average estimated for most continental US farming systems. The system also demonstrated a capacity for net CH4 oxidation over the course of a season that occurred mainly in the driveways between tree rows that are kept dry over the course of the season in this arid environment. Our study indicated that tight management of water resources and targeted applications of N-fertilizer resulted in net positive

  7. Mongolian Almond (Prunus mongolica Maxim: The Morpho-Physiological, Biochemical and Transcriptomic Response to Drought Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jǖgang Wang

    to the understanding of how P. mongolica responds to drought stress at the transcriptome level, which may help to elucidate molecular mechanisms associated with the drought response of almond plants.

  8. "Neither Can They Die Any More; for They Are Equal Unto the Angels": Secular Epiphanies in David Almond's "Counting Stars"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Written before the successful publication of Skellig (1998), David Almond's short story collection, "Counting Stars," has attracted less critical attention than his more famous novels. Falling between fiction and autobiography, the earlier short stories are more firmly grounded in realism than the novels, which feature elements of…

  9. Comparison of the volatile emission profiles of ground almond and pistachio mummies: part 2 - critical changes in emission profiles as a result of increasing the water activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent field trapping studies ground pistachio and almond mummies were reported to attract adult navel orangeworm moths, which showed a slight preference for the dry pistachio mummy matrix depending on the year evaluated. Recent work in these laboratories has demonstrated that the water activity ...

  10. Functionality of Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) When Used for Western U.S. Honey Production and Almond Pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, were evaluated for performance when used for honey production in Montana, USA, and for almond pollination the following winter. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed honey bees with...

  11. Pellet as a Technological Nutrient within the Circular Economy Model: Comparative Analysis of Combustion Efficiency and CO and NOx Emissions for Pellets from Olive and Almond Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Molina-Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the operation of Biomass System (BIO System technology for the combustion of pellets from almond and olive trees within the circular economy model. Its aims are the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as well as waste removal and its energy use by reintroducing that waste into the production process as technological nutrient. In order to do so, combustion efficiency under optimal conditions at nominal power was analyzed. In addition, a TESTO 350-XL analyzer was employed to measure CO and NOx emissions. High combustion efficiency values were obtained, 87.7% and 86.3%, for pellets from olive tree and almond tree, respectively. The results of CO and NOx emission levels were very satisfactory. Under conditions close to nominal power, CO emission levels were 225.3 ppm at 6% O2 for pellet from almond tree and 351.6 ppm at 6% O2 for pellet from olive tree. Regarding NOx emissions, the values were 365.8 ppm at 6% O2 and 333.2 ppm at 6% O2 for pellets from almond tree and olive tree, respectively. In general, these values were below those legally established by current legislation in European countries. Therefore, BIO System technology is a perfectly feasible option in terms of energy use and circular economy.

  12. SELF-INCOMPATIBILITY AND EFFECT OF RECIPROCAL CROSS AND OPEN POLLINATION ON FRUIT SET AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTIC IN JORDANIAN ALMOND LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Owais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited studies were carried out to identify self- and cross-compatibility relationships among Jordanian almond landraces. Therefore, this study aimed at studying the level of self-incompatibility and the effect of cross and open pollination on fruit set and shell, nut and kernel related traits in almond. To achieve this objective, field experiments were carried out during 2012 and 2013 cropping season on five Jordanian almond landraces and one wild bitter almond (A. communis available in the farmer's fields at Ajloun district, Jordan. Fruit set was recorded in the field after open-pollination, self-pollination by bagging the branches with flower buds and cross pollination after emasculation of the floral buds. All almond genotypes showed complete self-incompatibility. Genotypes showed variable percentages in fruit set with similar trend in the two growing seasons. Following cross pollination treatment, genotypes exhibited fruit set ranging from 40.3% in Hajari to 94.0% in Fark and from 34.1% in Mukhmaly to 93.3% in Fark in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Results showed that cross pollination of Hami Hallo (79.7-81.7 and 77.8-89.2% in 2012 and 2013 respectively and Fark (83.0-94.0 and 86.1-93.3% in 2012 and 2013 respectively with other landraces led to high level of fruit set indicating high cross-incompatibility. Slight differences were recorded in fruit set in reciprocal crosses. Pollen source did not affect shell, nut and kernel traits. As a conclusion, results obtained from this study showed that, all of the genotypes were self in-compatible and all genotypes showed high level of cross-compatibility with variable degree among genotypes.

  13. Repellent Activity of Bitter Almond Oil Against Aedes albopictus%苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊的驱避活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉花; 赵忠; 江志利; 魏丽萍; 郭婵娟; 张兴

    2012-01-01

    采用个体涂肤有效保护时间试验研究了苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊的驱避活性.结果表明,含HCN和去除HCN的苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊都具有很强的驱避活性,涂药8h后,2种苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊的驱避率均在96.76%以上,作为对照的隆力奇花露水的驱避率为58.28%.另外,2种精油对人体的有效保护时间分别为6h和7h,高于隆力奇花露水4h.可见苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊具有很强的驱避效果,且其有效保护时间高于隆力奇花露水,因而有望开发成为新型的蚊虫驱避剂.%The repellent activity of bitter almond oil with and without HCN and toilet water (with the main component of DEET) against Aedes albopictus were studied with human body. The results showed that both of bitter almond oils had strong repellent activity against A. Albopictus, after 8 h the repellent rate of bitter almond oil with and without HCN was 96. 76% while the repellent rate of toilet water was 58. 28%. The available protective time of two types of bitter almond oil was 6 h and 7 h, respectively, higher than that of toilet water, indicating the potential of bitter almond oil to be developed as a new mosquito repellent agent.

  14. Quality characteristics and microbiological safety evaluation of oils extracted from gamma irradiated almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical attributes and microbial decontamination of oils extracted from gamma-irradiated almond (Mission and Price varieties seeds, to the absorbed doses of 2-10 kGy, have been evaluated. Gamma irradiation exerted no considerable effect on the proximate seed composition. The physicochemical properties such as density and refractive index of the oils, extracted from gammairradieted seeds, were almost unaffected; the iodine value decreased while saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acids increased. The oxidative status and tocopherol content of almond oils were negatively affected while the fatty acid profile slightly changed due to irradiation stress. Interestingly, these effects on the oil quality attributes were more pronounced at higher irradiation doses (> 6 kGy. Besides, microbial contamination was completely eliminated in the oils irradiated to an absorbed dose of 6.0 kGy. It could be concluded from the present findings that irradiation has a considerably positive or negative effect on some attributes of the almond oil. Therefore, an appropriate magnitude of gamma irradiation should be exercised to treat almond seeds in order to retain maximum nutritive benefits.Se ha evaluado las caracteristicas fisico-químicas y la descontaminación microbiana de aceites extraídos de semillas de almendras (variedades Misión y Price gamma-irradiadas a dosis absorbidas de 2-10 kGy. La radiación gamma no ejerce ningún efecto considerable en la composición próximal de las semillas. Las características fisico-químicas tales como la densidad y el índice de refracción de los aceites, extraídos a partir de semillas gamma-irradiadas, permanecieron casi sin afectar; el índice de yodo disminuye mientras que el valor de saponificación, la materia insaponificable y los ácidos grasos libres aumentan. El estado oxidativo y el contenido de tocoferoles de los aceites de almendra se vieron afectados negativamente, mientras

  15. CHEMICAL VALORIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF XYLAN-BASED ANTIOXIDANTS FROM ALMOND SHELL BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ebringerová

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of non-cellulosic polysaccharides from both almond shells and their solid residue after autohydrolysis using a two-step alkaline extraction without and in combination with short ultrasonic treatment was investigated. The obtained polysaccharide preparations were characterized by yield, chemical composition and structural features, and the antioxidant activity of the water-soluble preparations was discussed in relation to the content of phenolics. The results suggested that, depending on the extraction conditions used, xylan associated to various extent with pectic polysaccharides and phenolics can be prepared, and the reaction time significantly shortened by application of ultrasound. The xylan polymers might serve as biopolymer sources in native form or after targeted modification for production of value-added substances and polysaccharide-based antioxidants, applicable in food, cosmetics and other areas.

  16. Response of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertigation to “Waris” Almond (Prunus dulcis under Northwestern Himalayan Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on almond (Prunus dulcis to study the effect of N&K fertigation on growth, yields and leaf nutrient status over two seasons (2011 and 2012 in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. There were six treatments, namely, T1—100% recommended dose of fertilizers as soil application, T2—100% RDF through fertigations, T3—75% RDF through fertigation, T4—75% RDF through fertigation (split application, T5—50% RDF through fertigation and T6—50% RDF through fertigation (split application with three replications under randomized block design. The results indicated that the maximum tree height (3.21 m and 3.56 m, nut weight (2.73 g and 1.94 g, nut yield (2.41 kg/tree and 5.98 kg/tree; 2.67 t/ha and 6.64 t/ha, and leaf nutrient content (2.34 and 2.38% N; 0.14 and 0.17% P; 1.37 and 1.41% K were recorded in T4 treatment, whereas the highest TCSA of main trunk, primary, secondary, and tertiary branches (72.67 and 90.28 cm2; 16.75 and 24.26 cm2; 3.83 and 7.49 cm2; 0.47 and 1.23 cm2, canopy volume (7.15 and 8.11 m3, and fruit number (990 and 3083/tree were recorded in T2 in almond variety Waris.

  17. APPLICATION OF IMPREGNATED ALMOND SHELL ACTIVATED CARBON BY ZINC AND ZINC SULFATE FOR NITRATE REMOVAL FROM WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rezaee, H. Godini, S. Dehestani, A. Khavanin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study impregnated almond shell activated carbon by Zn° and ZnSO4 were used as adsorbent with a particle size of 10-20 mesh. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of impregnated activated carbon in nitrate removal. The modified activated carbon had 1mm effective size, with a uniformity coefficient of 1.18. Potassium nitrate solution was used in batch adsorption experiments for nitrate removal from water. The effects of nitrate concentration, activated carbon dosage and time of contact were studied. Experimental data showed that modified activated carbon by Zn° and ZnSO4 was more effective than virgin almond activated carbon for nitrate removal. The maximum nitrate removal was 64%-80% and 5%-42% for modified activated carbon and virgin activated carbon, respectively. While virgin activated carbon used, nitrate-N decreased from 20 to 15mg/L in 30min reaction. The final nitrate concentration was not in the standard range of WHO recommendations for water quality; while impregnated activated carbons were used, nitrate drcreased to <10mg/L. Maximum removal was over 16-17mg nitrate-N per 1g activated carbon for impregnated activated carbon. The experiments were conducted at pH=6.2, 20ºC and initial concentrations of 20mg/L nitrate-N. Increase in modified activated carbon dosage increased the nitrate removal efficiency. The equilibrium time was found to be 45min for modified activated carbon.

  18. Plaadid : Jimmy Sommerville "Manage The Damage". Marc Almond "Open All Night". Mishka "Mishka". Ma$e "Double Up". Erinevad esitajad "On The Floor At The Botique : mixed by Lo Fidelity Allstars" / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    1999-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest : Jimmy Sommerville "Manage The Damage". Marc Almond "Open All Night". Mishka "Mishka". Ma$e "Double Up". Erinevad esitajad "On The Floor At The Botique: mixed by Lo Fidelity Allstars"

  19. Plaadid : Jimmy Sommerville "Manage The Damage". Marc Almond "Open All Night". Mishka "Mishka". Ma$e "Double Up". Erinevad esitajad "On The Floor At The Botique : mixed by Lo Fidelity Allstars" / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    1999-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest : Jimmy Sommerville "Manage The Damage". Marc Almond "Open All Night". Mishka "Mishka". Ma$e "Double Up". Erinevad esitajad "On The Floor At The Botique: mixed by Lo Fidelity Allstars"

  20. Physicochemical characterization and thermal behavior of guanabana (Annona muricata) seed almond oil; Caracterizacion fisicoquimica y comportamiento termico del aceite de almendra de guanabana (Annona muricata, L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Amador-Hernandez, C.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

    2010-07-01

    In this work some physicochemical properties and the thermal behavior and stability of sour sop or guanabana (Annona muricata) seed almond oil were studied by means of chemical, DSC and TG analysis. The results showed that the almond has 2.5% ash, 17.9% crude fiber, 15.7% protein, 26.0% de carbohydrates and 37.7% oil (dry base). The composition of almond oil showed 68.5% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic, and some palmitoleic acids, and 31.5% saturated, principally palmitic and stearic fatty acids; refraction index was 1.468 and saponification and iodine value were 168.2 and 87.0, respectively. DSC thermal analysis showed that oil crystallization initiates at -4.5 degree centigrade and ends at -79.0 degree centigrade with a crystallization enthalpy of 48.2 J/g; the oil melts in a temperature range from -42.4 to -16.9 degree centigrade, with a maximum peak at -15 degree centigrade and a fusion enthalpy of 80.5 J/g. The oil remained liquid at refrigeration temperatures with minimal SFC and free of crystals at temperatures over 10 degree centigrade. TG analysis showed that the thermal decomposition of the oil in a N{sub 2} atmosphere starts at 380 degree centigrade and ends at 442 degree centigrade, with a maximum decomposition rate at 412 degree centigrade. Under oxidizing conditions its decomposition begins at 206 degree centigrade and concludes at 567 degree centigrade. In accordance with this study, sour sop almond seed contains large amounts of an oil that possesses similar characteristics to those of salad and cooking oils. (Author) 28 refs.

  1. Environmental Impact of Introducing Aromatic-Shrub Strips in Almond Orchards under Semiarid Climate (SE Spain): implications for Erosion and Agricultural Runoff Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran-Zuazo, V. H.; Rodriguez-Pleguezuelo, C. R.; Francia-Martinez, J. R.; Martinez-Raya, A.; Carceles-Rodriguez, B.; Arroyo-Panadero, L.; Casado, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    Erosion degrades soil quality in natural, agricultural, and forest ecosystems, thereby reducing the productivity of the land. Semi-natural vegetation and diverse cropping systems have been converted into monocultures with low tree densities, leaving the soil unprotected. Soil loss, runoff, and nutrient loss over a four-year period were monitored in hillside erosion plots with almond trees under different soil-management systems. (Author)

  2. Preparation and quality evaluation of flat almond oil micro-encapsulation%扁杏仁油微胶囊的制备及质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 杨有林; 张靖; 张志琪

    2012-01-01

    以魔芋胶(KGM)和大豆分离蛋白(SPI)为壁材,分子蒸馏单甘酯(GMS)为乳化剂,应用响应面分析法进行配方优化,以喷雾干燥法制备了扁杏仁油微胶囊,并对扁杏仁油微胶囊的包埋率、抗氧化性、微观结构进行测试。结果表明:扁杏仁油微胶囊最佳配方是扁杏仁油质量分数27%,魔芋胶质量分数2.8%,分子蒸馏单甘酯质量分数1.8%,大豆分离蛋白质量分数68.4%,制得的扁杏仁油微胶囊包埋率达到93.9%。产品表面光滑,粒径均匀,具有抗氧化稳定性。%Taking konjac glucomannan(KGM) and soy protein isolate(SPI) as materials of wall and glycerol monostearate(GMS) as emulsifier,the micro-encapsulation of flat almond oil was prepared by spray-drying method.The prescription of micro-encapsules was optimized with response surface methodology(RSM),and the micro-encapsulation efficiency,anti-oxidation and microstructure of flat almond oil micro-encapsules was investigated.The result indicated that the optimal composition of the micro-encapsules was as follows:almond oil 27%,KGM 2.8%,GMS 1.8%,SPI 68.4%.The micro-encapsulation efficiency of the production was 93.9%.And the products of almond oil micro-encapsule were in good antioxidation,smooth surface and uniform particle sizes.

  3. Markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes are improved by the daily consumption of almonds or sunflower kernels: a feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Korina; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim; Brown, Rachel; Chisholm, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Dietary guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes advocate the regular consumption of nuts and seeds. Key lipid abnormalities associated with diabetes include raised LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TAG concentrations and decreased concentrations of HDL-C. The fatty acid profiles of nuts and seeds differ and may potentially influence lipid outcomes in people with diabetes differently. To examine the effects of nut or seed consumption on lipid and lipoprotein markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), we added almonds (AD) or sunflower kernels (SKD) to a recommended diet in a randomised crossover feeding study. Twenty-two postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes consumed personalised diets, with the addition of 30 g/d of either almonds or sunflower kernels. All food was supplied for two periods of three weeks, separated by a four-week washout. There was a significant reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), and apolipoprotein (apo) A1 and B100 on the SKD compared to the AD. Total (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased significantly on both diets from baseline, with no difference between diets. A diet with the addition of either almonds or sunflower kernels has clinically beneficial effects on lipid- and lipoprotein-mediated CVD risk.

  4. 杏仁种皮中多酚类物质的提取研究%Study on extracting polyphenol compounds from almond skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文娟

    2011-01-01

    Almond skin contains dietary fiber, polyphenols and flavonoids, etc. Phenolic compounds were extracted from almond skin by solvent, based on single factor analysis an orthogonal experiment method was adopted to determine the optimum technology parameter. They were as follows: concentration of ethanol 50%, extraction temperature 80℃, extraction time lh and the ratio of almond skin to extractantl g : 15 mL, and the extraction rate was 90.35%.%杏仁种皮中含有膳食纤维、多酚类物质和黄酮类物质等。采用乙醇溶剂提取杏仁种皮中的多酚类物质,在单因素的基础上,通过正交试验确定最佳提取工艺条件。最佳提取工艺条件为:乙醇体积浓度50%、提取温度80℃、提取时间1 h、料液比1 g∶15 mL,总多酚提取率达到90.35%。

  5. Attenuation of cadmium-induced decline in spatial, habituation and recognition memory by long-term administration of almond and walnut supplementation: Role of cholinergic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Zehra; Agha, Faiza; Ahmad, Saara; Liaquat, Laraib; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Anis, Lubna; Sajid, Irfan; Emad, Shaista; Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

    2017-01-01

    Excessive exposure of cadmium which is regarded as a neurotoxin can stimulate aging process by inducing abnormality in neuronal function. It has been reported that supplementation of almond and walnut attenuate age-related memory loss. Present study was designed to investigate the weekly administration of cadmium for one month on learning and memory function with relation to cholinergic activity. Cadmium was administered at the dose of 50 mg/kg/week. Whereas, almond and walnut was supplemented at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day along with cadmium administration to separate set of rats. At the end of experiment, memory function was assessed by Morris water maze, open field test and novel object recognition test. Results of the present study showed that cadmium administration significantly reduced memory retention. Reduced acetylcholine levels and elevated acetyl cholinesterase activity were also observed in frontal cortex and hippocampus of cadmium treated rats. Malondialdehyde levels were also significantly increased following the administration of cadmium. Daily supplementation of almond and walnut for 28 days significantly attenuated cadmium-induced memory impairment in rats. Results of the present study are discussed in term of cholinergic activity in cadmium-induced memory loss and its attenuation by nuts supplementation in rats.

  6. Genome-wide DNA-(de)methylation is associated with Noninfectious Bud-failure exhibition in Almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D.A.Webb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Chan, Helen M.; Parfitt, Dan E.; Crisosto, Carlos H.; Gradziel, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    Noninfectious bud-failure (BF) remains a major threat to almond production in California, particularly with the recent rapid expansion of acreage and as more intensive cultural practices and modern cultivars are adopted. BF has been shown to be inherited in both vegetative and sexual progeny, with exhibition related to the age and propagation history of scion clonal sources. These characteristics suggest an epigenetic influence, such as the loss of juvenility mediated by DNA-(de)methylation. Various degrees of BF have been reported among cultivars as well as within sources of clonal propagation of the same cultivar. Genome-wide methylation profiles for different clones within almond genotypes were developed to examine their association with BF levels and association with the chronological time from initial propagation. The degree of BF exhibition was found to be associated with DNA-(de)methylation and clonal age, which suggests that epigenetic changes associated with ageing may be involved in the differential exhibition of BF within and among almond clones. Research is needed to investigate the potential of DNA-(de)methylation status as a predictor for BF as well as for effective strategies to improve clonal selection against age related deterioration. This is the first report of an epigenetic-related disorder threatening a major tree crop. PMID:28202904

  7. Effects of Kaolin Application on Light Absorption and Distribution, Radiation Use Efficiency and Photosynthesis of Almond and Walnut Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Buchner, Richard P.; Fulton, Allan E.; Lampinen, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Kaolin applied as a suspension to plant canopies forms a film on leaves that increases reflection and reduces absorption of light. Photosynthesis of individual leaves is decreased while the photosynthesis of the whole canopy remains unaffected or even increases. This may result from a better distribution of light within the canopy following kaolin application, but this explanation has not been tested. The objective of this work was to study the effects of kaolin application on light distribution and absorption within tree canopies and, ultimately, on canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency. Methods Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) incident on individual leaves within the canopy of almond (Prunus dulcis) and walnut (Juglans regia) trees was measured before and after kaolin application in order to study PAR distribution within the canopy. The PAR incident on, and reflected and transmitted by, the canopy was measured on the same day for kaolin-sprayed and control trees in order to calculate canopy PAR absorption. These data were then used to model canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency by a simple method proposed in previous work, based on the photosynthetic response to incident PAR of a top-canopy leaf. Key Results Kaolin increased incident PAR on surfaces of inner-canopy leaves, although there was an estimated 20 % loss in PAR reaching the photosynthetic apparatus, due to increased reflection. Assuming a 20 % loss of PAR, modelled photosynthesis and photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PRUE) of kaolin-coated leaves decreased by only 6·3 %. This was due to (1) more beneficial PAR distribution within the kaolin-sprayed canopy, and (2) with decreasing PAR, leaf photosynthesis decreases less than proportionally, due to the curvature of the photosynthesis response-curve to PAR. The relatively small loss in canopy PRUE (per unit of incident PAR), coupled with the increased incident PAR on the leaf surface on

  8. 山药杏仁乳饮料制作工艺优化%Optimization of Preparation Process of Milk Beverage of Almond and Chinese Yam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 邢建华; 郭志刚; 闫春生

    2011-01-01

    [目的]优化山药杏仁乳的制作工艺.[方法]对苦杏仁的脱毒、去苦条件、不同乳化稳定剂乳化稳定效果进行了考察,采用正交试验设计山药杏仁乳的配方.[结果]采用0.08%单甘酯、0.02%蔗糖酯、0.07%三聚甘油酯、0.03%酪蛋白酸钠、0.08%CMC、0.02%海藻酸钠、0.03%黄原胶及0.07%果胶作为乳化稳定剂,可以起到较好的乳化稳定效果;山药杏仁乳的最佳配方为:杏仁乳用量30.00%,山药汁用量15.00%,pH为3.8,白砂糖用量10.00%o[结论]该工艺配方条件下制得的产品色泽、风味俱佳,组织状态稳定.%[Objective] To optimize the preparation process of milk beverage of almond and Chinese yam. [ Method] The detoxification and debittering conditions of almond and effect of different emulsifying agent and stabilizer were investigated. The preparation process of milk beverage of almond and Chinese yam was optimized by orthogonal experiment. [ Result] The optimal emulsifying agent and stabilizer were as following : 0.08% of GMS, 0.02% of sucrose ester, 0.07% of polyglycerin ester, 0.03% of sodium caseinate, 0.08% of CMC, 0.02% sodium alginate, 0.03% of xanthan gum and 0. 07% of pectin. The optimum preparation formula of milk beverage of almond and Chinese yam were: 30.00% of almond milk amount,15.00% of Chinese yam juice amount, pH of 3. 8 and 10. 00% of white granulated sugar amount. [ Conclusion] The beverage prepared by this process was good in color and flavor and stable in state.

  9. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony health and pathogen composition in migratory beekeeping operations involved in California almond pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenny, William; Cavigli, Ian; Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Radford, Rosemarie; Kegley, Susan E; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops. Pathogens and other factors have been implicated in high annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and some European countries. To further investigate the relationship between multiple factors, including pathogen prevalence and abundance and colony health, we monitored commercially managed migratory honey bee colonies involved in California almond pollination in 2014. At each sampling event, honey bee colony health was assessed, using colony population size as a proxy for health, and the prevalence and abundance of seven honey bee pathogens was evaluated using PCR and quantitative PCR, respectively. In this sample cohort, pathogen prevalence and abundance did not correlate with colony health, but did correlate with the date of sampling. In general, pathogen prevalence (i.e., the number of specific pathogens harbored within a colony) was lower early in the year (January-March) and was greater in the summer, with peak prevalence occurring in June. Pathogen abundance in individual honey bee colonies varied throughout the year and was strongly associated with the sampling date, and was influenced by beekeeping operation, colony health, and mite infestation level. Together, data from this and other observational cohort studies that monitor individual honey bee colonies and precisely account for sampling date (i.e., day of year) will lead to a better understanding of the influence of pathogens on colony mortality and the effects of other factors on these associations.

  10. Quality of granola prepared with dried caju-do-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz) and baru almonds (Dipteryx alata Vog).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Priscila Laís C; Silva, Mara R

    2015-03-01

    The use of Brazilian Cerrado fruits and research into their nutritional potential are important for socioeconomic development and the sustainable preservation of the environment. The use of these fruits in products such as granola encourages the inclusion of healthier and more-natural foods in the diet. This study was undertaken to evaluate acceptability, microbiological, physical and nutritional characteristics and the stability of granola made from dried caju-do-cerrado and baru almonds. Granola containing Cerrado fruits had high levels of protein content (117.4 g/kg), dietary fiber (115.3 g/kg) and iron (32.1 mg/kg) and had lower moisture (57.0 g/kg), water activity (0.3), sodium (577.7 mg/kg), lipids (150.2 g/kg) and energy value (3952.2 kcal/kg) than did the control. After storage for 100 days, the granola presented adequate microbiological conditions, with acceptability scores higher than 7 assigned by 85.5 % to 95.2 % of the judges and a crunchy texture. The high nutritional potential of granola containing Cerrado fruits, coupled with its stability over 100 days of storage, may contribute to the appreciation and consumption of these fruits and meet the growing demand for healthier, more natural foods.

  11. Effect of almond shell biochar addition on the hydro-physical properties of an arable Central Valley soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, V.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar is composed of any carbonaceous matter pyrolyzed under low oxygen exposure. Its use as a soil amendment to address soil infertility has been accelerated by studies reporting positive effects of enhanced nutrient retention, cation exchange capacity, microbial activity, and vegetative growth over time. Biochar has also been considered as a carbon sequestration method because of its reported environmental persistence. While the aforementioned effects are positive benefits of biochar's use, its impact on soil physical properties and water flow are equally important in maintaining soil fertility. This study aims to show how soil physical and hydraulic properties change over time with biochar addition. To address these aims, we conducted a 9 week microcosm incubation experiment with local arable loamy sand soils amended with biochar. Biochar was created from locally collected almond shells and differs by pyrolysis temperatures (350°C, 700°C) and size (determining content of water stable aggregates remaining after wet sieving. This series of experiments is expected to provide a greater understanding on the impact biochar addition on soil physical and hydraulic properties. Furthermore, it provides insight into whether or not converting local agricultural waste into biochar for soil use will be beneficial, especially in agricultural systems undergoing climate stress.

  12. Inheritance of self-compatibility in almond: breeding strategies to assure self-compatibility in the progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, E; Dicenta, F

    2003-03-01

    To assure self-compatibility in the progenies, three different crosses were conducted for the first time in an almond breeding programme: self-pollination (266 descendants from 30 families), crosses between parents sharing an S-allele (108 descendants from five families) and crosses with homozygous self-compatible parents (62 descendants from five families). Depending on the cross, self-compatibility in the progenies was determined by observing pollen tube growth (by means of fluorescence microscopy), stylar S-RNases analysis or allele-specific PCR. The results obtained fit with the accepted hypothesis of inheritance of self-compatibility and the three crossing strategies used ensured 100% of self-compatible descendants. These strategies increase the efficiency of the breeding programme and avoid the laborious task of evaluating this characteristic. From the breeding point of view, self-fertilisation and crosses between relatives tend to produce inbreeding. Furthermore, these methods reduce the possibilities of choosing the parental combination. The use of homozygous self-compatible parents does not have any of these disadvantages. As far as we know, this is the first time that allele-specific PCR has been used for early selection of self-compatible seedlings. The advantages and disadvantages of the three methodologies used to determine self-compatibility are discussed.

  13. 扁桃开花及传粉生物学特性研究%Studies on Flowering and Pollination Biology of Almond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆婷; 罗淑萍; 李疆; 唐开文; 玉苏甫·阿不力提甫

    2013-01-01

    [目的]扁桃(Amygdalus communisL)是新疆重要的经济林树种,其自交率极低,必须依赖传粉昆虫才能结实.为明确扁桃的传粉昆虫种类及传粉昆虫的传粉效率.[方法]通过田间观察、套袋控制昆虫访花和在显微镜下计数昆虫一次访问后剩余花粉量和柱头上被移入花粉量,对开花习性、访花昆虫种类、主要传粉昆虫的访花频率和传粉效率进行了研究.[结果]蜂类、蝇类和蝶类均能传粉,人工饲养的意大利蜜蜂(Apismellifera L.)、凹唇壁蜂(Osmia cerinthidis F.Mor)和当地野生昆虫红附条峰(Anthophora testaceipes F.Mor)是主要传粉昆虫,三者在柱头上沉降花粉数量没有显著区别,但移出花粉能力有明显差异,意蜂传粉效率低于其他两种蜂;人工养蜂能有效提高坐果率.[结论]扁桃具有泛化的传粉系统,红附条峰是传粉媒介中最安全有效的传粉者.%[Objective]Almond (Amygdalus communis L. ) is an important economic forest tree species in Xinjiang. Most of the almond varieties are allogamy plants and depend on the insect pollinators for their fruits set. The purpose of this study aims to make sure the composition of insect pollinator species and the efficiency of the dominant pollinators in almonds. [ Method ] Blossom characteristics and visitors' visitation were observed in the field during the flowering period. The pollinator efficiency was estimated by microscopic counting of the pollens deposited on the stigma and pollens remaining in anthers after a single visit to virgin flowers. [Result]The results showed that almond tree has a generalist pollination system, with bees, flies and butterflies being effective pollinators. In addition to the artificial breeding bees Apis mellifera and Osmia excavata, the wild bee Anthophora testaceipes is the main pollinator of local almond trees. There was no great difference in the deposited amount of pollens on the stigmas of the three kinds of bees, but they

  14. Analysis of S-RNase alleles of almond (Prunus dulcis): characterization of new sequences, resolution of synonyms and evidence of intragenic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Encarnación; Bosković, Radovan I; Sargent, Daniel J; Tobutt, Kenneth R

    2006-11-01

    Cross-compatibility relationships in almond are controlled by a gametophytically expressed incompatibility system partly mediated by stylar RNases, of which 29 have been reported. To resolve possible synonyms and to provide data for phylogenetic analysis, 21 almond S-RNase alleles were cloned and sequenced from SP (signal peptide region) or C1 (first conserved region) to C5, except for the S29 allele, which could be cloned only from SP to C1. Nineteen sequences (S4, S6, S11-S22, S25-S29)) were potentially new whereas S10 and S24 had previously been published but with different labels. The sequences for S16 and S17 were identical to that for S1, published previously; likewise, S15 was identical to S5. In addition, S4 and S20 were identical, as were S13 and S19. A revised version of the standard table of almond incompatibility genotypes is presented. Several alleles had AT or GA tandem repeats in their introns. Sequences of the 23 distinct newly cloned or already published alleles were aligned. Sliding windows analysis of Ka/Ks identified regions where positive selection may operate; in contrast to the Maloideae, most of the region from the beginning of C3 to the beginning of RC4 appeared not to be under positive selection. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four pairs of alleles had "bootstrap" support > 80%: S5/S10, S4/S8, S11/S24, and S3/S6. Various motifs up to 19 residues long occurred in at least two alleles, and their distributions were consistent with intragenic recombination, as were separate phylogenetic analyses of the 5' and 3' sections. Sequence comparison of phylogenetically related alleles indicated the significance of the region between RC4 and C5 in defining specificity.

  15. Morpho-physical variation of fruits and impact on almond production of djansang (Ricinodendron heudelotii Baill.) in west and centre of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Néhémie, Donfagsiteli Tchinda; Fotso; Sanonne; Dénis, Omokolo Ndoumou

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study were to describe different forms of fruits and the establishment of correlation between the different morpho-physical parameters in view of evaluating their incidence on production of almonds in Ricinodendron heudolotii in three localities (Balamba, Mbalmayo, Santchou) in Cameroon. Tropical forest trees belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family, R. heudelotii is used by the local population in traditional medicine and as lipidic source. Fruits randomly harvested in these three localities have revealed six types namely: one new type constitute of four seeded fruit with four lobes and five previous type constitute of single seeded fruit with one lobe; single seeded fruit with one aborted lobe; two seeded fruit with two lobes; two seeded fruit with unequally developed lobes; three seeded fruit with three lobes. This variability is expressed by differences at the level of morphological parameters (mass of fruit and seed) and physical parameters (thickness of shell, ratio of longitudinal diameter and cross diameter section of seeds, capacity to liberate almonds). Analyses of variance, correlation and principal component have showed that, seeds extracted from fruits of Mbalmayo have shell thicker whereby those of Santchou liberate much shell. In the same way, accession of Mbalmayo has a total mass for 1500 fruits estimated 1.5 times superior to those of Balamba and 1.19 time superior to those of Santchou. In fact, study of morpho-physical parameter shows that to choose the fruits having a high capacity to liberate almond, ellipsoid-oblate form of the seeds and thickness of shell are good indicators and for this effect, accession of Santchou is recommended. Accessions of Balamba and Santchou having less rate of seed abortion are more productive.

  16. Effect of Almond Supplementation on Glycemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Asian Indians in North India with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 24–Week Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Seema; Pandey, Ravindra M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) statistics have reached menacing proportions in India. Appropriate dietary intervention, as part of healthy lifestyle, is imperative to curb further spread of this disease. Objectives: This pre–post intervention study was conducted in New Delhi, India, to investigate the effects of daily consumption of almonds for 24 weeks in T2D subjects, specifically on measures of glycemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods and Study Design: In this study, the 24-week intervention period was preceded by a control diet and exercise run-in period of 3 weeks. Raw almonds (20% of energy intake) were provided to the patients for consumption along with diet and physical activity counseling. Patients were assessed for anthropometry, blood pressure, measures of glycemia (fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin), lipids [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, lipoprotein(a)], surrogate marker of atherosclerosis (Pulse wave velocity), and marker of inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) at baseline and after the intervention period. Results: Statistically significant improvement in mean values for various parameters post intervention was as follows: waist circumference (P < 0.03), waist-to-height ratio (P < 0.005), TC (P < 0.002), serum triglycerides (P < 0.004), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.01), glycosylated hemoglobin (P < 0.04), and hs-CRP (P < 0.01). A trend toward improvement in pulse wave velocity (P < 0.06) was also observed. Conclusion: The study findings illustrate that incorporation of almonds in a well-balanced healthy diet leads to multiple beneficial effects on glycemic and CVDs risk factors in Asian Indian patients with T2D. PMID:28051354

  17. Inclusion of Almonds in a Cholesterol-Lowering Diet Improves Plasma HDL Subspecies and Cholesterol Efflux to Serum in Normal-Weight Individuals with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-08-01

    Background: Almonds may increase circulating HDL cholesterol when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in an isocaloric diet, yet little is known about the effects on HDL biology and function.Objective: The objective was to determine whether incorporating 43 g almonds/d in a cholesterol-lowering diet would improve HDL subspecies and function, which were secondary study outcomes.Methods: In a randomized, 2-period, crossover, controlled-feeding study, a diet with 43 g almonds/d (percentage of total energy: 51% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 32% total and 8% saturated fat) was compared with a similar diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (58% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 26% total and 8% saturated fat) in men and women with elevated LDL cholesterol. Plasma HDL subspecies and cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages to human serum were measured at baseline and after each diet period. Diet effects were examined in all participants (n = 48) and in normal-weight (body mass index: HDL [mean ± SEM: 26.7 ± 1.5 compared with 24.3 ± 1.3 mg apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/dL; P = 0.001]. In normal-weight participants, the almond diet, relative to the control diet, increased α-1 HDL (33.7 ± 3.2 compared with 28.4 ± 2.6 mg apoA-I/dL), the α-1 to pre-β-1 ratio [geometric mean (95% CI): 4.3 (3.3, 5.7) compared with 3.1 (2.4, 4.0)], and non-ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 cholesterol efflux (8.3% ± 0.4% compared with 7.8% ± 0.3%) and decreased pre-β-2 (3.8 ± 0.4 compared with 4.6 ± 0.4 mg apoA-I/dL) and α-3 (23.5 ± 0.9 compared with 26.9 ± 1.1 mg apoA-I/dL) HDL (P HDL subpopulation distribution and improve cholesterol efflux in normal-weight individuals with elevated LDL cholesterol. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01101230. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen (IIT); (US-FDA)

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  19. A Comparative Study of Cellulose Agricultural Wastes (Almond Shell, Pistachio Shell, Walnut Shell, Tea Waste And Orange Peel for Adsorption of Violet B Dye from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Hashemian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of violet B azo dye from aqueous solutions was studied by different cellulose agriculturalwaste materials (almond shell (AS, pistachio shell (PS, walnut shell (WS, Tea waste (TW and orange peel (OP. Cellulose agricultural waste sorbents characterized by FTIR and SEM methods. The effects of different parameters such as contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentration were studied.Maximum removal of dye was obtained at contact time of 90 min and pH 11.The adsorption of violet B was fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetic model.The Langmuir isotherm model was better fitted than Freundlichmodel. The results showed that the adsorption efficiency of violet B by cellulose agricultural waste materials is as followed: Almond shell > Orange peel > Pistachio shell > Tea waste> Walnut shell.The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained 96, 82, 71.4, 55.5 and 48.7 mg g−1 for AS, OP, PS, TW and WS, respectively.

  20. Tree canopy light interception estimates in almond and a walnut orchards using ground, low flying aircraft, and satellite based methods to improve irrigation scheduling programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrance, R. C.; Johnson, L.; Soderstrom, D.

    2016-12-01

    Canopy light interception is a main driver of water use and crop yield in almond and walnut production. Fractional green canopy cover (Fc) is a good indicator of light interception and can be estimated remotely from satellite using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. Satellite-based Fc estimates could be used to inform crop evapotranspiration models, and hence support improvements in irrigation evaluation and management capabilities. Satellite estimates of Fc in almond and walnut orchards, however, need to be verified before incorporating them into irrigation scheduling or other crop water management programs. In this study, Landsat-based NDVI and Fc from NASA's Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) were compared with four estimates of canopy cover: 1. light bar measurement, 2. in-situ and image-based dimensional tree-crown analyses, 3. high-resolution NDVI data from low flying aircraft, and 4. orchard photos obtained via Google Earth and processed by an Image J thresholding routine. Correlations between the various estimates are discussed.

  1. Differentiated dynamics of bud dormancy and growth in temperate fruit trees relating to bud phenology adaptation, the case of apple and almond trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yaacoubi, Adnane; Malagi, Gustavo; Oukabli, Ahmed; Citadin, Idemir; Hafidi, Majida; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil. Low-chill almond cultivars offered an additional relevant plant material for comparison with apple in northern Morocco. Divergent patterns of dormancy and growth dynamics were clearly found in apple tree between southern France and southern Brazil. Divergences were less pronounced between France and Morocco. A global view outlined main differences in the dormancy chronology and intensity, the transition between endordormancy and ecodormancy and the duration of ecodormancy. A key role of bud rehydration in the transition period was shown. High-chill cultivars would be submitted in mild conditions to heterogeneous rehydration capacities linked to insufficient chill fulfillment and excessive forcing linked to high temperatures. This would favor bud competitions and consequently excessive flowering durations and weak flowering. Low chilling requirements in apple and almond would conversely confer biological capacities to tolerate superficial dormancy and abrupt transition from endordormancy to ecodormancy without important heterogeneous rehydration states within buds. It may also assume that low-chill cultivars can also tolerate high temperatures during ecodormancy as well as extended flowering durations.

  2. Improved methods in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of almond using positive (mannose/pmi) or negative (kanamycin resistance) selection-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Kaiser, Brent N; Franks, Tricia; Collins, Graham; Sedgley, Margaret

    2006-08-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with either kanamycin or mannose selection was developed for leaf explants of the cultivar Prunus dulcis cv. Ne Plus Ultra. Regenerating shoots were selected on medium containing 15 muM kanamycin (negative selection), while in the positive selection strategy, shoots were selected on 2.5 g/l mannose supplemented with 15 g/l sucrose. Transformation efficiencies based on PCR analysis of individual putative transformed shoots from independent lines relative to the initial numbers of leaf explants tested were 5.6% for kanamycin/nptII and 6.8% for mannose/pmi selection, respectively. Southern blot analysis on six randomly chosen PCR-positive shoots confirmed the presence of the nptII transgene in each, and five randomly chosen lines identified to contain the pmi transgene by PCR showed positive hybridisation to a pmi DNA probe. The positive (mannose/pmi) and the negative (kanamycin) selection protocols used in this study have greatly improved transformation efficiency in almond, which were confirmed with PCR and Southern blot. This study also demonstrates that in almond the mannose/pmi selection protocol is appropriate and can result in higher transformation efficiencies over that of kanamycin/nptII selection protocols.

  3. Wild almond (Prunus scoparia L.) as potential oilseed resource for the future: Studies on the variability of its oil content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkheh, Karim; Kiani, Soghra; Sofo, Adriano

    2016-12-01

    Wild almond genetic resources have still not received considerable attention for oil chemical compositions and uses. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of variation in oil content and fatty acid composition in forty Iranian accessions of Prunus scoparia L. (Spach) to identify genotypes with desirable traits in terms of oil quantity, quality and industrial utilization. Oil parameters and indices were measured, and fatty acid methyl ester analysis was carried out by gas liquid chromatography. Oleic and linoleic fatty acids showed high variability among accessions, ranging from 232.4 to 359.6g/kg oil and from 190.7 to 348.8g/kg oil, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acid fraction was higher than total saturated fatty acid. The ranges of saponification number (199.2-202.1), iodine value (104.8-125.7kg I2/kg) and cetane number (43.8-48.8), confirmed that the oils have industrial potentialities. Results could contribute to select wild almond genotypes as genetic sources for oil production.

  4. Tree Canopy Light Interception Estimates in Almond and a Walnut Orchards Using Ground, Low Flying Aircraft, and Satellite Based Methods to Improve Irrigation Scheduling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrance, Richard C.; Johnson, Lee; Soderstrom, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Canopy light interception is a main driver of water use and crop yield in almond and walnut production. Fractional green canopy cover (Fc) is a good indicator of light interception and can be estimated remotely from satellite using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. Satellite-based Fc estimates could be used to inform crop evapotranspiration models, and hence support improvements in irrigation evaluation and management capabilities. Satellite estimates of Fc in almond and walnut orchards, however, need to be verified before incorporating them into irrigation scheduling or other crop water management programs. In this study, Landsat-based NDVI and Fc from NASA's Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) were compared with four estimates of canopy cover: 1. light bar measurement, 2. in-situ and image-based dimensional tree-crown analyses, 3. high-resolution NDVI data from low flying aircraft, and 4. orchard photos obtained via Google Earth and processed by an Image J thresholding routine. Correlations between the various estimates are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of zirconium dioxide-based sorbents to decrease the matrix effect in avocado and almond multiresidue pesticide analysis followed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Ana; Rajski, Łukasz; Uclés, Samanta; Belmonte-Valles, Noelia; Mezcua, Milagros; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2014-01-01

    Two sorbents containing ZrO₂ (Z-Sep and Z-Sep+) were tested as a d-SPE clean-up in combination with the QuEChERS and ethyl acetate multiresidue method in the pesticide residues extraction in avocado. All extracts were analysed using gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer working in multi-reaction monitoring mode. GC QToF was used to compare the amount of matrix compounds present in the final extracts, prepared according to different protocols. The highest number of pesticides with acceptable recoveries and the lowest amount of coextracted matrix compounds were provided by QuEChERS with Z-Sep. Subsequently, this method was fully validated in avocado and almonds. Validation studies were carried out according to DG Sanco guidelines including: the evaluation of recoveries at two levels (10 and 50 μg/kg), limit of quantitation, linearity, matrix effects, as well as interday and intraday precision. In avocado, 166 pesticides were fully validated compared to 119 in almonds. The method was operated satisfactorily in routine analysis and was applied to real samples.

  6. Linking Plant Water-Use Efficiency and Depth of Water Uptake to Field­-Level Productivity Under Surplus and Deficit Irrigation in Almond Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, T.; Shackel, K.; Silva, L. C. R.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of water stress on depth of water uptake, as well as water­-use efficiency (WUE) at the tree-level and field-level was examined in almond orchards under varying degrees of deficit and surplus irrigation treatments. Three different orchards, spanning a latitudinal gradient (35° to 39° N) were sampled during two growing seasons in the central valley of CA. The orchards encompass a range of climatic and edaphic conditions, providing an opportunity for comparisons of WUE and orchard yield under contrasting environmental conditions. In each orchard, the control treatment received 100% replacement of water lost to evapotranspiration (ET), while the surplus treatment received 110% and the deficit treatment received 70% replenishment of ET, the latter simulating conditions of water stress. Preliminary results based on the analysis of carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in leaves throughout the 2015 and 2016 growing seasons, reveal a significant change in WUE in all three orchard sites, increasing up to 20% on average in the deficit irrigation treatment relative to controls. In contrast, trees growing under surplus irrigation had the lowest WUE across all orchard sites. The difference in WUE between surplus irrigated trees and control irrigated trees within each orchard was not always statistically significant. These physiological responses to levels of water availability were not reflected in field-level orchard productivity, which was highly variable across orchard sites and treatments. Additionally, analysis of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotope ratios of stem, leaf, and soil water has been undertaken to determine the effect of water stress on the depth of root water uptake. The hypothesis that almond trees can effectively acclimate to water stress through higher WUE and deeper root water uptake compared to well-watered trees will be tested. This multi-scale, ecohydrological study will elucidate the impacts of drought on almond orchards, one of the most

  7. Cytoprotection by almond skin extracts or catechins of hepatocyte cytotoxicity induced by hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) versus glyoxal or methylglyoxal (carbonylation model).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiang; Banaich, Monica S; O'Brien, Peter J

    2010-04-29

    Oxidative and carbonyl stress are detrimental in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, as well as in other chronic diseases. However, this process may be decreased by dietary bioactive compounds. Almond skin is an abundant source of bioactive compounds and antioxidants, including polyphenolic flavonoids, which may contribute to the decrease in oxidative and carbonyl stress. In this study, four Almond Skin Extracts (ASEI, ASEII, ASEIII, and ASEIV) were prepared by different methods and evaluated for their antioxidant activity. The order of the polyphenol content (total muM gallic acid equivalents) of the four extracts was found to be, in decreasing order of effectiveness: ASEI>ASEIII>ASEIV>ASEII. The order of Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, microM FeSO(4)/g) value, in decreasing order was ASEI (216)>ASEIII (176)>ASEIV (89)>ASEII (85). The order of ASE effectiveness for decreasing protein carbonyation induced by the copper Fenton reaction was ASEI>ASEIV>ASEII>ASEIII. The order of antioxidant effectiveness for inhibiting tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) induced microsomal lipid peroxidation was ASEI>ASEIV>ASEII, ASEIII. Also, the order of ASE effectiveness for inhibiting TBH induced hepatocyte cell death was: ASEIII, ASEIV>ASEI, ASEII. Catechin also protected hepatocytes from TBH induced hepatocyte, lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity. In a cell free model, equimolar concentrations of catechin or epicatechin rescued serum albumin from protein carbonylation induced by methylglyoxal (MGO). Catechin, epicatechin and ASEI all decreased gloxal induced hepatocyte cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in GSH-depleted hepatocytes. Catechin and epicatechin protected against GO or MGO induced hepatocyte cell death, protein carbonylation and ROS formation. Catechin was more effective than epicatechin. Our results suggest that (a) bioactive almond skin constituents in the non-lipophilic polyphenol extract were the most effective at protecting

  8. Analysis of nut qualities of almond varieties in Xinjiang%新疆地区扁桃坚果品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷继英; 张强; 田嘉; 李鹏; 李疆

    2015-01-01

    In order to select out almond cultivars with development potential, the nuts of 38 varieties of almond in Xinjiang area were chosen as research objects to determine the shell thickness, kernel percentage, kernel mass, crude fat content, crude protein content and amygdalin content according to the national standard method, and to comprehensively evaluate the nuts quality of almond in Xinjiang by using the subordinate function method. The results showed: the average kernel mass of ‘Kexi’ was the highest, reaching 1.40 g; ‘Nonpareil’ had the greatest kernel percentage (72.23%); the shell thickness of ‘Kubadan’ was the smallest, only 0.40 mm; ‘Amannisha’ had the highest content of crude fat (60.95%); the crude protein content in ‘Mission’ was the lowest (30.09%); ‘Tianrentaobadan’ had the lowest content of amygdalin, while ‘Xiaotaobadan’ had the highest content. Based on the results of comprehensive evaluation with the method of subordinate function, the comprehensive qualities of ‘Zhipi’, ‘Butte’, ‘Thompson’, ‘Sonora’, ‘Nonpareil’, ‘Ye’erqiang’ and ‘Badanwang’ were thought to be the highest and these almond cultivars had the greater development potential.%为了筛选出具有开发潜力的品种,以新疆地区扁桃坚果为研究对象,按照国家标准方法测定38个扁桃品种的壳厚度、出仁率、种仁质量、粗脂肪含量、粗蛋白含量和苦杏仁苷含量,利用隶属函数法综合评价新疆地区扁桃的坚果品质。结果表明:‘克西’的平均种仁质量最大,为1.40 g;‘Nonpareil’的出仁率最高,为72.23%;‘苦巴旦’的壳厚度最小,仅为0.40 mm;‘阿曼尼沙’的粗脂肪含量最高,为60.95%;‘Mission’的粗蛋白含量最高,为30.09%;‘甜仁桃巴旦’苦杏仁苷含量最低,‘小桃巴旦’含量最高。经隶属函数法综合评价,认为扁桃品种‘纸皮’、‘Butte’、‘Thompson’、

  9. A novel dual-channel chemosensor for CN- using asymmetric double-azine derivatives in aqueous media and its application in bitter almond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Peng-Xiang; Hu, Jing-Han; Chen, Ying; Sun, You; Qi, Jing

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we have designed and synthesized a novel sensor L1 based on asymmetric double-azine derivatives, which showed both ;naked eye; recognition and fluorescence responses for CN- in DMSO/H2O (v/v = 4:1, pH = 7.20) solution. This simple sensor L1 could distinguish CN- from coexisting anions via the way of deprotonation and sensing mechanism of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), and the minimum detection limit on fluorescence response of the sensor L1 towards CN- was down to 9.47 × 10- 7 M. Moreover, we have successfully utilized the sensor L1 to detect CN- in bitter almond. Test strips containing L1 were also prepared, which could act as a practical colorimetric tool to detect CN- in aqueous media.

  10. Nootropic and hypophagic effects following long term intake of almonds (Prunus amygdalus in rats Efectos nootróficos e hipofágicos del consumo prolongado de almendras (Prunus amygdalus en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haider

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over a period of time researchers have become more interested in finding out the potential of various foods to maintain the general health and to treat diseases. Almonds are a very good source of many nutrients which may help to sharpen the memory and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the nootropic effects of almonds. Effect of oral intake of almond was also monitored on food intake and plasma cholesterol levels. Methods: Rats were given almond paste orally with the help of feeding tube for 28 days. Memory function in rats was assessed by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Radial Arm Maze (RAM. Brain tryptophan, 5-HT and 5-HIAA were estimated at the end of the treatment by HPLC-EC method. Results: A significant improvement in learning and memory of almond treated rats compared to controls was observed. Almond treated rats also exhibited a significant decrease in food intake and plasma cholesterol levels while the change in growth rate (in terms of percentage remained comparable between the two groups. Analysis of brain tryptophan (TRP monoamines exhibited enhanced TRP levels and serotonergic turnover in rat brain following oral intake of almonds. Conclusion: The findings show that almonds possess significant hypophagic and nootropic effects. Results are discussed in context of enhanced 5-HT metabolism following almond administration.Introducción: De un tiempo a esta parte, los investigadores se han interesado cada vez más en encontrar el potencial de diversos alimentos para mantener la salud en general y tratar la enfermedad. Las almendras son una muy buen fuente de muchos nutrientes que pueden ayudar a agudizar la memoria y reducir los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Objetivo: Este estudio se realizó para evaluar los efectos nootróficos de la almendra. También se monitoreó el efecto de la ingestión oral de almendra sobre el consumo de alimentos y las concentraciones

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Nitrate Concentration below the Root Zone in an Almond Orchard and its Implications for Potential Groundwater Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, S.; Couvreur, V.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial and Temporal Variability in Nitrate Concentration below the Root Zone in an Almond Orchard and its Implications for Potential Groundwater Contamination S. Baram1, M. Read1, D. Smart2, T. Harter1, J Hopmans11Department of Land, Air & Water Resources University of California Davis 2Department of Viticulture and Enology University of California Davis Estimates of water and fertilizer losses below the root zone of nitrogen (N) intensive agricultural orchard crops are major concern in groundwater protection. However, microscopic and macroscopic heterogeneity in unsaturated soils make accurate loss estimates very challenging. In this study we aimed to examine field scale variability in nitrate (NO3-) losses below the root zone (>250cm) of a 15 years old almond orchard in Madera county California. Based on a soil variability survey, tensiometers and solution samplers were installed at 17 locations around the 40 acre orchard. The hydraulic potential and the NO3- concentrations were monitored over two growing seasons. Nitrate concentrations varied spatially and temporarily, and ranged from below to more than 30 times higher than the drinking water contamination standard of >10 mg NO3--N L-1. Principal component analysis of the relations between the NO3- concentration, presence of a hard pan in the subsurface, its depth and thickness, and the fertigation and irrigation events indicated that none of these factors explained the observed variability in pore-water NO3- concentrations, with hard pan being the most dominant factor. Throughout the irrigation season minimal leaching was observed, yet post-harvest and preseason flooding events led to deep drainage. Due to the high spatial and temporal variability in the NO3- concentration and the potential for deep drainage following a wet winter or flooding event we conclude that the most efficient way to protect ground water is by transitioning to high frequency low nitrogen fertigation which would retain NO3-in the active

  12. Functionality of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when used for western U.S. honey production and almond pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderer, Tihomas E; Danka, Robert G; Johnson, Stephanie; Bourgeois, A Lelania; Frake, Amanda M; Villa, José D; De Guzman, Lilia I; Harris, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, were evaluated for performance when used for honey production in Montana, and for almond pollination the following winter. Colonies of Russian honey bees and outcrossed honey bees with Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) were compared with control colonies of Italian honey bees. All colonies were managed without miticide treatments. In total, 185 and 175 colonies were established for trials in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, respectively. Survival of colonies with original queens or with supersedure queens was similar among stocks for both years. Colony sizes of the Varroa-resistant stocks were as large as or larger than the control colonies during periods critical to honey production and almond pollination. Honey production varied among stocks. In the first year, all stocks produced similar amounts of honey. In the second year, Russian honey bees colonies produced less honey than the control colonies. V. destructor infestations also varied among stocks. In the first year, control colonies had more infesting mites than either of the Varroa-resistant stocks, especially later in the year. In the second year, the control and outcrossed Varroa-sensitive hygiene colonies had high and damaging levels of infestation while the Russian honey bees colonies maintained lower levels of infestation. Infestations of Acarapis woodi (Rennie) were generally infrequent and low. All the stocks had similarly high Nosema ceranae infections in the spring and following winter of both years. Overall, the two Varroa-resistant stocks functioned adequately in this model beekeeping system.

  13. Sustainable use of pig slurry, with and without treatment, as an amendment organic in almond crop; Utilizacion sostenible de purines de cerdo, con y sin tratamiento, como enmienda organica en cultivos de almendro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Oliver, S. G.; Faz Cano, A.

    2009-07-01

    This study consists in the use of different forms of slurry, as an organic fertilizer, on almond trees located in La Aljorra (Cartegena, Murcia). The slurry used comes from a farm near the area of study, which has a treatment system composed by tree parts: a phase separator, a bioreactor and 5 constructed wetlands of vertical flow. Different phases of slurry are obtained from each part of the system. The results show the reduction of most of the parameters lime salinity, BOD{sub 5} QOD, nitrate, etc. The use of these effluents as an organic amend in different doses, supposes a sustainable way of management of these residues; at the same time it improves the soil properties and the agronomic quality of the almond tree crop. (Author) 4 refs.

  14. 酸提取杏仁种皮果胶的工艺优化研究%Optimization of the process of extracting pectin from almond skin by acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李育峰; 刘美荣; 张贺

    2016-01-01

    Pectin from almond seed was extracted byhydrochloric acid water solution in this experiment.Through single factor test andorthogonal experiment,theoptimum technologicalconditions were determined as follows:pH 1.5,solid–liquid ratio 1∶25(g/mL),extraction temperature 70℃, extraction time 60min. Under aboveconditions,the extraction rateof pectin from almond skin was 12.1%.%采用盐酸水溶液提取杏仁种皮果胶。通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了最佳工艺条件为pH 1.5、料液比1∶25(g/mL)、提取温度70℃、提取时间60min;在最佳条件下,杏仁种皮果胶的提取率为12.1%。

  15. Effects of almond consumption on body weight, blood pressure and blood lipids of young smokers%美国大杏仁对年轻吸烟者体重、血脂和血压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张馨; 王伟; 崔文明; 李宁; 贾旭东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of almond consumption on body weight, blood pressure and blood lipids of smokers.Methods Almonds were given to 60 young healthy male smokers, 84 g/d for 28 days.Body weight and blood pressure were measured and blood lipids including triglyceride, total cholesterol and HDL were determined before and after the trial.Results No significant differences on body weight, blood pressure and blood lipids of smokers were found before and after almond consumption.Conclusion Almond consumption (84 g/d for 28 days ) exhibited no affect on body weight, blood pressure and blood lipids of smokers.%目的 本研究探讨了美国大杏仁对吸烟者体重、血脂和血压的影响.方法 60位健康年轻男性吸烟者摄入美国大杏仁,84 g/d,连续28 d.分别在试验前后测量体重和血压,并取血测定相关血脂指标,包括甘油三酯、总胆固醇和高密度脂蛋白.结果 吸烟者摄入美国大杏仁28 d后,与摄入前相比,体重、血压和血脂均没有显著改变.结论 连续28 d摄入84 g美国大杏仁对年轻健康吸烟者的体重、血压和血脂均没有明显影响.

  16. The Adaptability Study of Introduced Six American Almond Varieties in Xinjiang Kashi%6个美国扁桃品种在新疆喀什地区的引种适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 龚鹏; 车玉红; 张平; 卢春生; 徐叶挺

    2012-01-01

    以新疆喀什地区品种纸皮为对照(CK),对连续3 a从美国引进的Nonpareil、Sonora、Mission、Thompson、Ne puls ultra和Butte在物候期、坐果率、光合特性、田间适应性、种子及种仁性状和产量方面进行对比试验.结果表明,引进的6个品种均可以适应新疆喀什地区暖温带大陆性干旱气候条件,表现出开花期晚、光合作用强、坐果率高、进入结果期早及丰产性强等特性;另外,从丰产性、果实经济性状及田间适应性方面考虑,Butte和Nonpareil 2个品种可作为新疆喀什地区发展美国优良扁桃品种的主栽品种,其他品种可作为授粉品种适当发展.%In order to provide technical data for introduction and cultivation of American almond in Xinjiang Kashi,six introduced American almond varieties-Nonpareil, Sonora, Mission, Thompson, Ne pu-lus ltera and Butte were compared with Xinjiang local almond variety Zhipi on phenophase,fruit setting, photosynthetic characteristics, field adaptability, characteristics of almond kernel and yield for three consecutive years. The results showed that the six introduced American almond varieties could bloom and bear fruits normally under the warm and arid continental climate of Xinjiang Kashi and displayed later flowering,stronger photosynthesis ,higher fruit setting,earlier fruiting and higher yield. For the consideration of yield,economic traits and filed adaptability, Butte and Nonpareil were chosen to be the two main varieties developing in Xinjiang Kashi,others could be developed to be the pollinator lines.

  17. 新疆引进美国扁桃品种种仁的品质特性%Kernel Quality Evaluation of Almond Varieties Introduced from American to Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 龚鹏; 徐叶挺; 张平; 卢春生; 车玉红; 刘河疆

    2011-01-01

    为了解新疆引进美国扁桃品种的品质特性,以本地品种纸皮为对照(CK),对Nonpareil、Sonora、Mission、Thompson、Ne puls ultra和Butte 6个美国扁桃品种种仁的7种常规成分、9种矿质元素、17种氨基酸和5种脂肪酸含量进行对比研究.结果表明,美国扁桃品种与本地扁桃品种都含有丰富的营养物质,测定的成分互有高低,脂肪、水解后还原糖、Na、P、Ca、亚油酸的含量美国品种间均值高于对照,而蛋白质、还原糖、Vc、K、Cu、Zn、油酸的含量美国品种间均值低于对照,灰分、干物质、氨基酸、Fe、Mg、Mn、棕榈酸等指标的含量两者相当.说明新疆喀什引进的美国扁桃品种保持了扁桃种仁营养丰富的品质特性,适应当地的气候条件.%In order to evaluate kernel quality of American-introduced almond varieties, seven ingredients and nine mineral elements and 17 amino acids and five fatty acids contents of almond kernel were determined in Nonpareil, Sonora, Mission, Thompson, Ne puls ultra, Butte, and the local almond variety Zhipi severed as a control. The result shows that the content of nine mineral elements were different between American and local almond varieties. The average content of fat, hydrolysis-reducing suga, Na, P, Ca and linoleic acid were higher than the control. But the average content of protein, reducing sugar, Vc, K, Cu, Zn and oleic acid were lower than the control. And the average content of ash, dry matter, amino acids, Fe, Mg and palmitic acid were equal to the control. Therefore, the almond varieties introduced from American to Xinjiang maintain the kernel characteristics.

  18. Extração, secagem e torrefação da amêndoa do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Extration, drying, and toasting of the pequi almond (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria da Silva Rabêlo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. possui em seu interior amêndoa comestível pouco explorada. Objetivou-se avaliar o processo de extração, secagem e torrefação da amêndoa do pequi. Foram utilizadas sementes de pequi fornecidas pela Associação de Beneficiamento de Frutos do Cerrado, localizada na cidade de Damianópolis-GO. Para a extração da amêndoa, foi adaptado equipamento tipo guilhotina, com a finalidade de cortar a semente ao meio. O equipamento é composto por uma lâmina fixa em um suporte de madeira, recoberto com placa de Policloreto de Vinila (PVC e apresentou desempenho satisfatório. Para a secagem das amêndoas, sugeriu-se o binômio tempo/temperatura de 70 °C por 60 minutos, pois conferiu ao produto atividade de água em torno de 0,60 em menor tempo secagem. As amêndoas torradas a 130 °C durante 15 e 30 minutos apresentaram melhores características sensoriais, não diferindo significativamente entre si (p > 0,05 pelo Teste de Friedman. No tempo de 30 minutos, observaram-se tendências de melhores características sensoriais, como cor e crocância, no produto final.The Pequi (caryocar brasiliense Camb. edible almond seed is little used. The aim of this study is to evaluate almond seeds of pequi supplied by the "Associação de Beneficiamento de Frutos do Cerrado" (Cerrado fruit supply association, located in the city of Damianópolis-GO. For the extration of the almond, a guillotine like equipment was used with the purpose of cutting the seed in half. The equipment was composed of a fixed blade placed in a wooden support, recovered with Polyvinyl chloride (PVC, and it presented satisfactory performance. For the almonds drying, the temperature of 70 ºC for 60 minutes was suggested since it allowed water activity of around 0,60 in shorter drying time. The almonds roasted at 130 °C for 15 and 30 minutes presented better sensorial characteristics, and proved not significantly different among themselves (P > 0,05 in

  19. Effects of Almond- and Olive Oil-Based Docosahexaenoic- and Vitamin E-Enriched Beverage Dietary Supplementation on Inflammation Associated to Exercise and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Capó

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols are potential key factors for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation associated to ageing and non-communicable diseases. The aim was to analyse effects of an almond and olive oil beverage enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic, exercise and age on inflammatory plasma markers, and immune gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Five young and five senior athletes who were supplemented for five weeks with a functional beverage performed a stress test under controlled conditions before and after beverage supplementation. Blood samples were taken immediately before and 1 h after each test. Plasma, erythrocytes and PBMCs were isolated. Beverage supplementation increased plasmatic Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα levels depending on age and exercise. Exercise increased plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFAs, soluble Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (sICAM3 and soluble L-selectin (sL-Selectin, and this increase was attenuated by the supplementation. Exercise increased PGE2 plasma levels in supplemented young and in senior placebo athletes. Exercise increased NFkβ-activated levels in PBMCs, which are primed to a pro-inflammatory response increasing pro-inflammatory genes expression after the exercise mainly in the young group after the supplementation. The functional beverage supplementation to young athletes enhances a pro-inflammatory circulating environment in response to the exercise that was less evident in the senior group.

  20. Effects of Almond- and Olive Oil-Based Docosahexaenoic- and Vitamin E-Enriched Beverage Dietary Supplementation on Inflammation Associated to Exercise and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Riera, Joan; Drobnic, Franchek; Tur, Josep Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols are potential key factors for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation associated to ageing and non-communicable diseases. The aim was to analyse effects of an almond and olive oil beverage enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic, exercise and age on inflammatory plasma markers, and immune gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Five young and five senior athletes who were supplemented for five weeks with a functional beverage performed a stress test under controlled conditions before and after beverage supplementation. Blood samples were taken immediately before and 1 h after each test. Plasma, erythrocytes and PBMCs were isolated. Beverage supplementation increased plasmatic Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) levels depending on age and exercise. Exercise increased plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), soluble Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (sICAM3) and soluble L-selectin (sL-Selectin), and this increase was attenuated by the supplementation. Exercise increased PGE2 plasma levels in supplemented young and in senior placebo athletes. Exercise increased NFkβ-activated levels in PBMCs, which are primed to a pro-inflammatory response increasing pro-inflammatory genes expression after the exercise mainly in the young group after the supplementation. The functional beverage supplementation to young athletes enhances a pro-inflammatory circulating environment in response to the exercise that was less evident in the senior group. PMID:27735833

  1. Ultrasonic Assisted Adsorption of Basic Dyes from Binary Component Systems onto ZnO Nanoparticles Loaded on Activated Carbon Derived from Almond Shell: Optimization by Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Asghari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were loaded on activated carbon prepared from almond shell (ZnO-NP-AC. Then, this novel material applied as an efficient adsorbent for the ultrasonic assisted simultaneous removal of Basic Blue 41(BB41 and Basic Red 46 (BR46 in binary solution.  The efficiency of proposed activated carbon was enhanced by acid treatment and subsequent modification by physical mixing with ZnO- NP. The identification by different techniques such as FT-IR, SEM and XRD confirm its porous structure and appearance of various functional groups on AC. In batch process mode, the effect of variables such as adsorbent dosage, initial dyes concentration and sonication time on the removal of dyes were studied by central composite design (CCD combined with response surface methodology (RSM and desirability function (DF. The optimum values of input variables were found to be 0.03 g of adsorbent, 19 min of sonication time, 14 mg/L of BR46, 9 mg/L of BB41in pH 6 to high removal percentage (85% and 91% for BR 46, BB41, respectively. Among of the conventional isotherm and Kinetic models, p-factor and second-order models showed reasonable fit to the adsorption equilibrium data, respectively.

  2. Foliar application of microbial and plant based biostimulants increases growth and potassium uptake in almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D. A. Webb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eSaa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of biostimulants has become a common practice in agriculture. However, there is little peer-reviewed research on this topic. In this study we tested, under controlled and replicated conditions, the effect of one biostimulant derived from seaweed extraction (Bio-1 and another biostimulant derived from microbial fermentation (Bio-2. This experiment utilized two-year-old almond plants over two growing seasons in a randomized complete design with a full 2 x 4 factorial structure with two soil potassium treatments (125 µg g-1 of K vs 5 µg g-1 and four foliar treatments (No spray, Foliar-K, Bio-1, Bio-2. Rubidium was utilized as a surrogate for short-term potassium uptake and plant growth, nutrient concentration, and final plant biomass were evaluated. There was a substantial positive effect of both biostimulant treatments on total shoot leaf area, and significant increases in shoot length and biomass under adequate soil potassium supply with a positive effect of Bio-1 only under low K supply. Rubidium uptake was increased by Bio-1 application an effect that was greater under the low soil K treatment. Though significant beneficial effects of the biostimulants used on plant growth were observed, it is not possible to determine the mode of action of these materials. The results presented here illustrate the promise and complexity of research involving biostimulants.

  3. Identification of Mango Leaves and Almond Leaves by First Order Derivative Spectrophotometry%一阶导数紫外光谱法鉴别芒果叶和扁桃叶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢宇奇; 零学仕; 赖清华

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish the method to use first -order derivative ultraviolet spectroscopy to identify mango leaf and almond leaf , the water of mango leaf and almond leaf and the leach liquor of the absolute ethyl alcohol , petroleum ether and trichloromethane were prepared , and the first-order derivative ultraviolet spectroscopy data of leach liquor was tested and compared.The result showed that the peak position and absorption strength of the mango leaf's first -order derivative ultraviolet spectroscopy was significantly different from that of almond leaf , which was easier to be identified than the common method of ultraviolet absorption spectra lines group , which can generate the effects of easy and fast identification.%为建立一阶导数紫外光谱法鉴别芒果叶和扁桃叶的方法,制备芒果叶和扁桃叶的水、无水乙醇、石油醚和三氯甲烷的浸提液,检测并比对浸提液的一阶导数紫外光谱数据。结果显示:芒果叶和扁桃叶浸提液的一阶导数紫外光谱的峰位置和吸收强度有明显差异,比常规紫外谱线组法更易识别,可以达到简便、快速鉴别的效果。

  4. Optimization of preparation of sweet almond oil microcapsules by response surface methodology%甜杏仁油微胶囊化工艺响应面法优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于蒙; 沙漠; 刘珊珊; 杨海燕

    2012-01-01

    甜杏仁油中含有较高的不饱和脂肪酸,为减缓其氧化,通过喷雾干燥法将甜杏仁油微胶囊化.在单因素试验基础上,选取芯材含量、乳化剂含量、酪蛋白含量、固形物浓度为影响因素,包埋率为响应值,通过响应面分析法确定甜杏仁油微胶囊化的最佳工艺参数:甜杏仁油质量分数24%,乳化剂添加量2%,酪蛋白含量4.3%,固形物浓度26%.该条件下获得的微胶囊包埋率为94.56%.%Sweet almond oil with high unsaturated fatty acid, to slow its oxidation, the sweet almond oil was sprayed drying for microen-capsulation. On the basis of single factor, select the core content, e-mulsifier content, sodium caseinate: malt dextrin, solids concentration as the affecting factors, the embedment rate as response value, the optimal parameters were obtained through the response surface analysis method, and were as follows: sweet almond oil mass fraction 24%; emulsifier 2%, casein 4. 3%, and solid concentration 26%. Under the optimal condition, the micro-capsules embedment rate reached 94. 56%.

  5. Forward Extraction of Almond Protein Using Reverse Micelles%反胶束溶液萃取杏仁蛋白前萃工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红珍

    2011-01-01

    对AOT/异辛烷反胶束溶液萃取杏仁蛋白的前萃工艺进行了研究.试验以AOT/异辛烷为反胶束溶液体系,以蛋白质萃取率为指标,分别对溶液的pH值、W0值、萃取时间和萃取温度进行了单因素试验以及四因素三水平的正交试验,以确定杏仁蛋白前萃的最佳工艺.正交试验结果方差分析表明,在各因素中,W0值对蛋白质提取率影响达到显著水平,其他三因素未达到显著水平,确定的最佳工艺条件为:W0值为40,溶液pH值7.0,前萃温度25 ℃,前萃时间90 min.%The forward extraction of almond protein using AOT / isooctane reverse micellar solution was studied. Taking protein extraction rate as index, the effects of pH values, W0 value, extraction time and temperature were studied with single factor experiments, and a three level factorial -designed orthogonal experiment was carried out to optimize the extraction process. Results:Variance analysis show the influence of Wo value on protein extraction rate is significant, the other three factors do not reach significant level, and the optimum forward extraction conditions are W0 40, pH 7.0, extraction temperature 25 ℃, and extraction time 90 min.

  6. Change of Vitality of Introduced Almond Pollen under Different Storage Conditions%不同贮藏条件下引进扁桃花粉活力变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐叶挺; 龚鹏; 杨波; 张平; 卢春生

    2011-01-01

    [目的]确定引进扁桃花粉贮藏条件及花粉活力保持时间.[方法]对6个扁桃品种浓帕烈、索奴拉、米森、汤姆逊、尼普鲁斯和布特的花粉进行贮藏,研究其萌发率及花粉活力.[结果]贮藏浓帕烈、索奴拉、米森、汤姆逊、尼普鲁斯和布特花粉,其常温下与4℃下贮藏相比,花粉活力保持天数仅多1-3d,而在-19℃下汤姆逊、尼普鲁斯和布特花粉活力保持天数为34 d,浓帕烈在44 d后花粉萌发率仍在77%,贮藏的各扁桃品种花粉活力保持天数比49C贮藏下多4倍以上.[结论]引进扁桃的花粉在-19℃下贮藏较为适宜.%[Objective] To determine the storage conditions of introduced almond pollen and time of maintaining its pollen vigour. [Method] The pollen of six almond varieties including Nonpareil, Sonora, Mission, Thompson, Ne puls ultra and Butte were storaged to study the chang of their germination rate . [ Result]The result shows that with the increase of the storage time, pollen vitality fell gradually under the different temperature conditions,the pollen vitality could be maintained for 7 - 14 days under room temperature, the pollen vitality of almord storaged under room temperature were could be maintained for only more 1 - 3 days than that under 4℃ , while Thompson and Napuls ultra and Butte were maintained for 34 days, the pollen germination rate of Nonpareil still were 77% after 44 days . The storaged pollen vitality of all the almond varieties could be maintained for more 4 times than that under 40℃ [ Conclusion]The introduced almond pollen was fitlod to be stovaged at - 19℃ .

  7. Composición Química del Aceite de Almendras producidas por el Árbol Olleto (Lecythis minor DC Chemical Composition of Almond Oil obtained from Olleto Trees (Lecythis minor DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J Lafont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan dos métodos de extracción del aceite a partir de las almendras del árbol conocido en el norte de Colombia con el nombre de olleto (Lecythis minor DC. Se analizó su composición química y se determinaron algunas propiedades fisicoquímicas. También se realizó el análisis proximal a la torta y la harina y se determinó la presencia de metales en la almendra. Para extraer el aceite, las almendras fueron trituradas y sometidas a procesos de prensado y extracción con solvente. La composición química del aceite se analizó mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a masas y los análisis de metales se realizaron con un espectrofotómetro de absorción atómica. Se encontró que el método de extracción más eficiente fue el de solvente. La composición química de la almendra, torta, harina y aceite, indicaron alto porcentaje en carbohidratos, proteína, fibra y minerales, importantes nutrientes que pueden ser empleados en la alimentación humana y animal.Two methods of oil extraction from almonds produced by a tree known in the north region of Colombia as olleto (Lecythis minor DC are compared. The chemical composition was analyzed and some physicochemical properties were determined. Also, proximal analysis of the cake and the flour was done and the presence of metals in the almond was determined. To extract the oil, the almonds were crushed and subjected to mechanical compression and to solvent extraction. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed through gas chromatography coupled to mass and the analysis of metals was done with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. It was found that the most efficient method was solvent extraction. The chemical composition of the almond, cake, flour and oil indicated a high level of carbohydrates, proteins, fiber and minerals, important nutrients that could be used for human and animal consumption.

  8. 以电导法配合Logistic方程测定6种扁桃枝条的抗寒性%Determination on Cold Resistance of Six Almond Branches Based on Electric Conductance Method Combining with Logistic Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢军; 耿文娟; 何峰江; 廖康; 卢春生

    2011-01-01

    以6种扁桃(5种国外品种,1种新疆地方品种)的1年生休眠枝条为试材,采取人工模拟外界环境的方法对6种扁桃休眠枝条进行了不同梯度的低温(-12~-36℃)处理,并测定其6种扁桃休眠枝条的电解质渗出率,配合Logistic方程对各品种扁桃休眠枝条的低温半致死温度进行了拟合.结果表明:随处理温度的不断降低,6种扁桃枝条组织的电解质渗出率变化幅度呈现明显的"S"形变化曲线;在-14.28~-21.52℃时,各品种扁桃枝条的半致死温度(LT50)先后出现;不同品种间表现出一定差异性,主要集中在-16~-19℃;新疆本地品种的扁桃枝条抗寒力最强.%In this peper,annual dormant branches from six different varieties of almond (5 foreign varieties and 1 Xinjiang local variety) were used to investigate the influence of the semi-lethal temperature (LT50) on six varieties of almond. The changes of leakage ratio of electrolyte of the branches which were treated under different artificial simulated low temperature were studied. The semi-lethal temperature (LT50) was obtained on the basis of conductivity and logistic equation. The results showed that leakage ratio of electrolyte increased like “S” curve concomitant with temperature reducing. The semilethal temperature for almond was from -14. 28 ℃ to -21. 52 ℃. Six different varieties of almond had different freezing resistance,most of them were from -16 ℃ to -19 ℃. The Xinjiang local variety has stronger cold tolerance than others.

  9. Pensamento liberal e hegemonia norte-americana: a cultura política em Almond e Verba DOI10.5216/o.v14i1.27658

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Singolano Néspoli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo consiste num estudo da história do pensamento político contemporâneo e dedica-se particularmente à análise do conceito de cultura política desenvolvido por Gabriel Almond e Sidney Verba na obra A cultura cívica, publicada em 1963. A partir dessa referência, o conceito se espalhou por diversas áreas do conhecimento e a cultura política se transformou num dos mais importantes conceitos do período pós II Guerra Mundial. Esse estudo tem por objetivo analisar as concepções teóricas e práticas presentes no conceito de cultura política em seu contexto de origem, de modo que, por um lado, procura-se identificar as principais referências intelectuais e debates teóricos que contribuíram para delimitar o conceito, por outro lado, pretende analisar os desdobramentos práticos do conceito, buscando compreender as orientações do conceito para a política do pós-guerra. Em ambos os aspectos, o conceito de cultura política de Almond e Verba representou um instrumento da hegemonia norte-americana no contexto da Guerra Fria. hegemonia Estados Unidos.

  10. Characterization of pedological parameters that influence almond productivity Caracterização dos parâmetros pedológicos que influenciam a produtividade da amendoeira

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    Emilia Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several almond orchards have been studied in south-eastern Spain to characterize and evaluate the soils dedicated to the cultivation of different cultivars in order to identify the parameters that most affect yield. The percentage of gravels, high in several of the soils studied, correlated negatively with the clay content and Water Holding Capacity (WHC as did the percentage of CaCO3 with available potassium. The greatest yield corresponded to soils with higher surface porosity and lower subsurface porosity, enaulic or gefuric related distribution in the surface horizons and porphyric related distribution in the subsurface horizons. Both for the Fertility Capability Classification as well as for the Agricultural Productivity Evaluation (FAO, the soils with the best characteristics for the crop did not coincide with those in which the greatest yield was found (Ferragnès registering the highest yield, due to the flowering period of the rest of the cultivars selected, which was more influenced by the climatic characteristics of the zone, especially temperature.Estudaram-se vários pomares de amendoeira situados no Sudeste de Espanha com o objectivo de caracterizar e avaliar os solos dedicados à cultura de diferentes cultivares de forma a identificar os parâmetros que mais afectam a produtividade. A percentagem de cascalho, presente em quantidades elevadas, em alguns dos solos estudados, está negativamente correlacionada com o teor de argila e a capacidade máxima de retenção de água, bem como a percentagem de CaCO3 com o teor de potássio disponível no solo. As maiores produções corresponderam aos solos que apresentaram uma maior porosidade superficial e uma menor porosidade sub superficial, com uma distribuição enáulica ou gefúrica nos horizontes superficiais e uma distribuição porfírica nos horizontes sub superficiais. Os solos que melhores características apresentam para este tipo de cultura, quer no que se refere à sua

  11. Perfil lipídico da polpa e amêndoa da guarirova Nutritional quality of oil and almond guarirova pulp

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    Vanessa Taís Nozaki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos de frutos estão sendo estudados por seu potencial na indústria de alimentos e também para aumento do consumo de ácidos graxos monos e poli-insaturados. Este estudo objetivou determinar as constantes físico-químicas, composição centesimal, identificar e quantificar os principais ácidos graxos presentes na fração lipídica da polpa e da amêndoa dos frutos de guarirova, espécie Syagrus oleracea (Mart. Becc. Foi realizada a caracterização físico-química dos óleos, composição de ácidos graxos e índices de qualidade nutricional. O óleo da amêndoa possui maior concentração de ácidos graxos saturados (89,2%, sendo representado principalmente pelo ácido láurico (48,34%. A polpa apresentou ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (24,84% e poli-insaturados (33,25%, com maior percentual de ômega-6 (31,94% e ômega-9 (19,15%; e menor de ômega-3 (1,31%.The oils of fruits are being studied for its potential in the food industry and also to increase the consumption of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study aimed to determine the physio-chemical constants, chemical composition and identify and quantify the major fatty acids present in the lipid fraction of pulp and kernel of the fruits of guarirova, species Syagrus oleracea (Mart. Becc. It was performed the physicochemical characterization of oils, fatty acid composition and nutritional quality indexes. Almond oil has the highest concentration of saturated fatty acids (89,2%, represented mainly by lauric acid (48,34%. The pulp showed monounsaturated (24,84% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (33,25%, with higher percentage of omega-6 (31,94% and omega-9 (19,15% and lower omega-3 (1,31%.

  12. Comparison of Pollen Production and Quality Characteristics of Cultivated and Wild Almond Species Comparación de Producción y Características de Calidad del Polen de Especies de Almendro Cultivadas y Silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safder Bayazit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are several wild almond species in Turkey included Amygdalus orientalis (Mill., Amygdalus turcomanica (Lincz., Amygdalus fenzliana (Fritsch Lipsky, Amygdalus trichamygdalus (Hand.-Mazz. Woronow, Amygdalus arabica (Olivier, and Amygdalus webbii (Spach. These species offer a great value for the almond improvement; we studied the pollen viability, germination ratio and pollen yield for seven genotypes of A. orientalis, seven genotypes of A. turcomanica all growing under natural conditions in Southeastern Anatolia (Gaziantep and §anliurfa provinces, Turkey. Almond cultivars (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D.A. Webb obtained from Pozanti Agricultural Experimental Station, Cukurova University, were also used in the experiment. The pollen viabilities of various almond genotypes were determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC and fluorescein diacetate (FDA tests. At the end, pollen germination ratios were established according to Petri dishes method in vitro conditions (1% agar + 0, 10, 15 and 20% sucrose while pollen yield was estimated with hemacytometric methods. The results indicated that pollen viability ratios were close to each other in both methods for the genotypes A. orientalis and A. turcomanica. Pollen germination ratios were found to be dependent on the sucrose content as well as on the genotypes used. The pollen of almond cultivars showed similar germination ratios in all of the sucrose concentrations while those pollens of A. orientalis and A. turcomanica genotypes displayed higher germination ratios in 10% sucrose. The number of anthers in one flower was higher in cultivars whereas the number of pollen grains was lower in other almond species. While the number of pollen grains in one flower was relatively high in A. orientalis genotypes, pollen quality was high in all the three species under research. The results suggested that these two species, namely A. orientalis and A. turcomanica could be employed for future almond

  13. Clinical Value of Bitter Almond in the Treatment of Chronic Bronchitis%苦杏仁治疗慢性支气管炎的临床价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐孝艳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨苦杏仁治疗慢性支气管炎的临床效果。方法以2014年1月~2015年1月本院收治的24例慢性支气管炎患者为研究对象,给予其苦杏仁进行治疗,分析临床治疗效果。结果16例患者在服药后5~6 d喘息、咳嗽、咳痰等症状有所缓解;3例患者治疗3个疗程,4例患者治疗4个疗程,6例患者治疗5个疗程,11例患者治疗6个疗程。6个疗程结束后,治疗总有效率为91.7%(22/24),其中,9例基本治愈,10例显效,3例好转,2例无效。结论苦杏仁治疗慢性支气管炎有着较好的临床效果。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of treating chronic bronchitis with bitter almond.Methods In January 2014 to January 2015 in our hospital,24 cases of chronic bronchitis patients as the research object,to give their bitter almond for treatment,analysis of clinical treatment effect.Results16 cases of patients in the medication after 5~6 d wheezing,cough,sputum and other symptoms eased,3 patients were treated 3 course of treatment,4 patients were treated with four courses,6 patients 5 courses,11 cases of patients 6 courses. After 6 courses of treatment,the total effective rate was 91.7%(22/24),of which,9 cases were basically cured, 10 cases were markedly effective,3 cases improved,2 cases ineffective.Conclusion Bitter almond has good clinical effect in treating chronic bronchitis.

  14. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

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    ... Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Causes Thyroid Cancer? Thyroid cancer is linked with a number of ... inside a cell, without an outside cause. Papillary thyroid cancer Several DNA mutations (changes) have been found in ...

  15. What Causes a Toothache?

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    ... directly to your desktop! more... What Causes a Toothache? Article Chapters What Causes a Toothache? Why Does ... bite. Tooth eruption may be the cause of tooth or jaw pain in babies and school-age children. TMJ, sinus ...

  16. Pensamento liberal e hegemonia norte-americana: a cultura política em Almond e Verba DOI10.5216/o.v14i1.27658

    OpenAIRE

    José Henrique Singolano Néspoli

    2014-01-01

    Este artigo consiste num estudo da história do pensamento político contemporâneo e dedica-se particularmente à análise do conceito de cultura política desenvolvido por Gabriel Almond e Sidney Verba na obra A cultura cívica, publicada em 1963. A partir dessa referência, o conceito se espalhou por diversas áreas do conhecimento e a cultura política se transformou num dos mais importantes conceitos do período pós II Guerra Mundial. Esse estudo tem por objetivo analisar as concepções teóricas ...

  17. Luminescence and magnetic behaviour of almond like (Na{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5})MoO{sub 4}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Tb, Dy) nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Rajagopalan [Department of Physics, B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandalur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Thirumalai, Jagannathan, E-mail: jthirumalai@bsauniv.ac.in [Department of Physics, B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandalur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Thomas, Sabu [Polymer Science and Technology, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India); Gowri, Mahasampath [Department of Chemistry, B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandalur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-08-01

    Graphical abstract: Monodispersed almond-like (Na{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5})MoO{sub 4}:RE{sup 3+} nanostructures synthesized by employing ethylene-diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) using hydrothermal route at 200 °C for 24 h. These nanoparticles were found to be novel bi-functional candidates suitable for high-quality luminescence and magnetic applications. - Highlights: • Almond like structures of (Na{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5})MoO{sub 4}:RE{sup 3+} were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Time dependent self-assembly could be the dominant process for the formation of 3D networks. • Luminescence properties of nanosamples were studied in comparison with bulk sample. • Room temperature magnetic properties of bulk and nanophosphors were investigated. - Abstract: Tetragonal phase (Na{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5})MoO{sub 4}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Tb, Dy) with almond like hierarchical structures assembled from nanosheets building blocks were successfully synthesized by employing disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Na{sub 2}EDTA) using hydrothermal route at 200 °C for 24 h. Field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and X-ray diffraction patterns were used to characterize the morphology, size, and crystal structure with good resolution. The sequestering agent EDTA acts as quadridentate ligand coordinated with metal ions [Na{sup +}, La{sup 3+}/RE{sup 3+}] facilitating the formation of self-organized 3D networks. The growth mechanism for the formation of almond like nanostructures is explicated in four paths: dissolution, adsorption, in situ transformation in acidic and basic media and the effective collision. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra reveals a spectral blue shift which was observed in the nanosamples towards shorter wavelengths compared with the bulk sample. Upon UV irradiation, both bulk and nanostructure show strong luminescence in the red region due to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} transition in Eu{sup 3

  18. Learning impairment in honey bees caused by agricultural spray adjuvants.

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    Timothy J Ciarlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spray adjuvants are often applied to crops in conjunction with agricultural pesticides in order to boost the efficacy of the active ingredient(s. The adjuvants themselves are largely assumed to be biologically inert and are therefore subject to minimal scrutiny and toxicological testing by regulatory agencies. Honey bees are exposed to a wide array of pesticides as they conduct normal foraging operations, meaning that they are likely exposed to spray adjuvants as well. It was previously unknown whether these agrochemicals have any deleterious effects on honey bee behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An improved, automated version of the proboscis extension reflex (PER assay with a high degree of trial-to-trial reproducibility was used to measure the olfactory learning ability of honey bees treated orally with sublethal doses of the most widely used spray adjuvants on almonds in the Central Valley of California. Three different adjuvant classes (nonionic surfactants, crop oil concentrates, and organosilicone surfactants were investigated in this study. Learning was impaired after ingestion of 20 µg organosilicone surfactant, indicating harmful effects on honey bees caused by agrochemicals previously believed to be innocuous. Organosilicones were more active than the nonionic adjuvants, while the crop oil concentrates were inactive. Ingestion was required for the tested adjuvant to have an effect on learning, as exposure via antennal contact only induced no level of impairment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A decrease in percent conditioned response after ingestion of organosilicone surfactants has been demonstrated here for the first time. Olfactory learning is important for foraging honey bees because it allows them to exploit the most productive floral resources in an area at any given time. Impairment of this learning ability may have serious implications for foraging efficiency at the colony level, as well as potentially many

  19. What Causes Bronchitis?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Bronchitis? Acute Bronchitis Infections or lung irritants cause acute bronchitis. The ... fire, also may lead to acute bronchitis. Chronic Bronchitis Repeatedly breathing in fumes that irritate and damage ...

  20. What Causes Lactose Intolerance?

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    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What causes lactose intolerance? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... lactase in the body is the cause of lactose intolerance. The names for the three types of ...

  1. Causes of Pediatric Cardiomyopathy

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    Search ABOUT THE DISEASE CAUSES Although pediatric cardiomyopathy is one of the leading causes of cardiac death in children, an explanation for why it occurs remains unknown. Most cases are familial ...

  2. What Causes Cardiomyopathy?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cardiomyopathy? Cardiomyopathy can be acquired or inherited. “Acquired” means ... case when the disease occurs in children. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy usually is inherited. It’s caused by ...

  3. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

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    ... Publications What causes menstrual irregularities? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Menstrual irregularities can be caused by a variety of conditions, including pregnancy, hormonal imbalances, infections, malignancies, diseases, trauma, and certain ...

  4. What Causes Atherosclerosis?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  5. What Causes Anemia?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Anemia? The three main causes of anemia are: Blood ... the blood and can lead to anemia. Aplastic Anemia Some infants are born without the ability to ...

  6. What Causes Cystic Fibrosis?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cystic Fibrosis? A defect in the CFTR gene causes cystic ... in the severity of the disease. How Is Cystic Fibrosis Inherited? Every person inherits two CFTR genes—one ...

  7. What Causes Sarcoidosis?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Sarcoidosis? The cause of sarcoidosis isn't known. More ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  8. What Causes Down Syndrome?

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    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What causes Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Down Syndrome Registry​ . Chromosomal Changes That Can Cause Down Syndrome Research shows that three types of chromosomal changes ...

  9. Causes of High Cholesterol

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    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes of High Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 If you have high ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes ...

  10. Incidence Causes and Outcome

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    GB

    causes and outcome of obstructed labor in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. METHODS: ... Obstructed labor is an important cause of ... and outcome on the mother and baby. Data .... to this hospital after onset of labor as compared to the.

  11. What Causes Heart Disease?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Disease? Research suggests that coronary heart disease (CHD) begins with damage to the lining and ... causing coronary microvascular disease (MVD). Coronary MVD is heart disease that affects the heart's tiny arteries. The cause ...

  12. 杏仁皮渣中维生素E的酶法辅助萃取工艺研究%Study on organic extraction of vitamin E from skin residue of almond assisted by pectinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小贤; 刘昌蒙

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin E (VE) is a known fat-soluble antioxidant, which possesses multiple physiological activities and is usually used to treat malnutrition and delay the reproductive system atrophy and degeneration in traditional medicine. Modern researches show that VE is also closely related to the regulation of immune function, for example, some antibodies could be increased by improving intake of VE. In consideration of comprehensive utilization of almond, the assisted effect of pectinase on organic extraction of VE from almond skin was researched in this paper. The experimental results showed that the optimal parameters for organic extraction with absolute ethyl alcohol-acetone assisted by pectinase were as follows: 0. 7% dosage of enzyme was used at the ratio between material and water of 1 : 25 by 75 minutes hydrolysis at 55 ℃ and pH 3. 50; then, the mixture of absolute ethyl alcohol and ace-tone(9 : 1)was added to extract Vitamin E for 120 minutes at 60 ℃ , at the ratio between material and solvent of 1 : 15, operated twice totally. Under the conditions, the yield of VE from almond skin could reach up to 10. 32mg/g.%维生素E是一种脂溶性抗氧化剂,具有广泛的生理活性,在传统医药上用于治疗营养不良和延缓生殖系统萎缩及退化等症.现代研究表明,维生素E还与人体免疫功能的调节有关,提高维生素E的摄入量则可增加一些抗体从而刺激许多免疫功能.本实验对杏仁资源进行综合利用,以皮渣为原料,无水乙醇∶丙酮(9∶1)为提取溶剂,研究果胶酶的辅助效果.实验结果表明∶果胶酶对细胞壁的破坏作用能够有效促进维生素E的释放,最佳工艺参数为∶酶用量0.7%,酶解温度55℃,pH3.5,酶解75 min,料液比为1∶25,在此条件下按1∶15加入无水乙醇∶丙酮(9∶1)混合溶剂于60℃下水浴浸提120 min,连续提取2次,维生素E的提取率为10.32 mg/g.

  13. 扁桃果实发育期果肉组织糖含量及相关酶活性的变化%Changes of sugar content and related enzyme activities in the flesh of developing almond fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国良; 蔡华成; 张宏平; 朱超; 田建保; 张燕; 杨燕君

    2012-01-01

    【目的】为提高扁桃质量而了解扁桃果实发育过程中糖代谢状况十分必要。【方法】以‘晋扁1号’扁桃(Amygdalus communis L.)为试材,测定了其果实发育过程中果肉组织糖含量及相关酶活性的动态变化。【结果】结果表明,扁桃果实中总糖、蔗糖、山梨醇、葡萄糖含量表现为前期高,后期低;果糖含量变化不大,果实成熟时迅速增加;淀粉含量前期快速升高,后期呈波动状态,维持较高水平。酸性转化酶(AI)和淀粉酶均在幼果期达到最大值,后期降低;蔗糖合成酶(SS合成方向)和蔗糖磷酸合成酶(SPS)活性在整个果实发育期表现为前期弱,后期强;山梨醇氧化酶(SOX)和山梨醇脱氢酶(SDH)活性前期很强,后期降低。相关性分析结果表明,AI、淀粉酶、SOX、SDH活性与总糖含量有显著的负相关,AI、SOX、SDH活性与淀粉含量呈极显著的负相关。【结论】由此可知花后15~45d是‘晋扁1号’扁桃田间管理的关键时期。%[Objective]In order to improve fruit quality,it is necessary to understand the fruit sugar metabolism in almond during fruit development. [Method]The contents of total sugar, sucrose, sorbitol, glucose, fructose, starch and the activities of sugar-metabolizing enzymes, including acid invertase (AI), amylase, sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sorbitol oxidase (SOX) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) in the fruit flesh of ‘Jinbian No. 1' almond were determined. [Result]The results showed that the contents of total sugar, sucrose, sorbitol and glucose were higher at the early stage than at the late stage; The content of fructose showed little changes at the early stage, but obviously increased during the maturation period; the content of starch rose quickly at the early stage, and maintained a higher level at the late stage. The activities of AI and amylase

  14. Causes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause.

  15. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also show

  16. Empyema caused by trichomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kevin L; Doherty, Dennis E; Ribes, Julie; Seabolt, John P; Bensadoun, Eric S

    2003-01-01

    Empyema is one of the potential complications of lower respiratory tract infections. Very rarely, in predisposed individuals, empyema can be caused by Trichomonas species, of which Trichomonas tenax appears to be the most common cause. Here, we present a case of trichomonal empyema in a 56-year-old man and review the available literature of this rare occurrence.

  17. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci,S.Erhan; Açık, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors.

  18. Causes of Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by a virus that attacks the nerves which control motor function. > Spina bifida A neural tube defect that causes incomplete closure in the spinal column. > Spinal cord injury Involves damage to the nerves within the bony protection of the spinal canal. > ...

  19. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Kids > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan ... kinds of allergies are more likely to have asthma. Do you have allergies that affect your nose ...

  20. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? A A A en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  1. What Causes Raynaud's?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primary and secondary. In primary Raynaud’s (also called Raynaud’s disease), the cause isn't known. Primary Raynaud's is ... examples of diseases and conditions that can cause Raynaud's include: Rheumatoid (RU-ma-toyd) ... (SHOW-gren's) syndrome, dermatomyositis (DER-ma-to-mi-o-SI-tis), ...

  2. Causes of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iron can build up in and damage the pancreas and other organs. Hormonal diseases Some hormonal diseases cause the body to produce too much of certain hormones, which sometimes cause insulin resistance and diabetes. ... of the pancreas Pancreatitis , pancreatic cancer, and trauma can all harm ...

  3. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous; Impacto en el medio ambiente del cultivo de almendros en fuertes pendientes con dos cubiertas vegetales: Matorral y Leguminosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m{sup 2} (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  4. A green ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on deep eutectic solvent for the HPLC-UV determination of ferulic, caffeic and cinnamic acid from olive, almond, sesame and cinnamon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezeli, Tahere; Daneshfar, Ali; Sahraei, Reza

    2016-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive and sensitive ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method based on deep eutectic solvent (UALLME-DES) was used for the extraction of three phenolic acids (ferulic, caffeic and cinnamic) from vegetable oils. In a typical experiment, deep eutectic solvent as green extraction solvent was added to n-hexane (as a typical oil medium) containing target analytes. Subsequently, the extraction was accelerated by sonication. After the extraction, phase separation (DES rich phase/n-hexane phase) was performed by centrifugation. DES rich phase (lower phase) was withdrawn by a micro-syringe and submitted to isocratic reverse-phase HPLC with UV detection. Under optimum conditions obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function (DF), the method has good linear calibration ranges (between 1.30 and 1000 µg L(-1)), coefficients of determination (r(2)>0.9949) and low limits of detection (between 0.39 and 0.63 µg L(-1)). This procedure was successfully applied to the determination of target analytes in olive, almond, sesame and cinnamon oil samples. The relative mean recoveries ranged from 94.7% to 104.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. What Causes COPD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes COPD? Long-term exposure to lung irritants that damage ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is COPD? 05/22/2014 Describes how COPD, or chronic ...

  6. Can Lupus Cause Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lupus Living well with lupus Can lupus cause depression? Life with lupus can be challenging. With symptoms ... treatable illness called clinical depression. Symptoms of Clinical Depression People are considered clinically depressed when they have ...

  7. What Causes Thalassemias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Thalassemias? Your body makes three types of blood cells: ... have inherited faulty genes from both parents. Alpha Thalassemias You need four genes (two from each parent) ...

  8. Viral causes of diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodgame, R W

    2001-09-01

    Viruses are important causes of diarrhea. In healthy adults, the main clinical manifestation is acute, self-limited gastroenteritis. Advances in molecular diagnostics have shown that epidemics of acute gastroenteritis most frequently are due to caliciviruses spread through contaminated food or through person-to-person contact. Application of similar technology is needed to make a definitive statement about the role of such candidate viruses as rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus as the cause of nonepidemic acute gastroenteritis in adults. Rarely a previously healthy adult gets acute CMV colitis. CMV and EBV mainly cause diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, however. Advances in prophylaxis and treatment have reduced the frequency and severity of these diseases. Acute infantile gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus, calcivirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus. These viral diseases of the gut are seen by the physician as routine and rare clinical problems.

  9. What Causes Polycythemia Vera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body to make more of the hormone erythropoietin (EPO). High levels of EPO can prompt your body to make more red ... secondary polycythemia. Rarely, tumors can make and release EPO, or certain blood problems can cause the body ...

  10. Causes of Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate to the National Ataxia Foundation Causes of Ataxia The hereditary ataxias are genetic, which means they ... the disease is inherited as a recessive gene. Ataxia Gene Identified in 1993 The first ataxia gene ...

  11. What Causes Hemophilia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Hemophilia? A defect in one of the genes that ... the hemophilia gene is inherited. Inheritance Pattern for Hemophilia—Example 1 The image shows one example of ...

  12. Rare causes of osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcucci, Gemma; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by loss of bone mass and strength, resulting in increased risk of fractures. It is classically divided into primary (post-menopausal or senile), secondary and idiopathic forms. There are many rare diseases, that cause directly or indirectly osteoporosis. The identification and classification of most of these rare causes of osteoporosis is crucial for the specialists in endocrinology and not, in order to prevent this bone complication and ...

  13. Causes of vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Aleksandrovna Tolmacheva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo is the second common complaint next to headache, which makes a patient seek medical care. Neurological, auricular, cardiac, mental, and other diseases may be a cause of dizziness. Since vertigo is interdisciplinary in nature, there are frequently problems of establishing its origin. Vertigo is commonly associated with vascular pathology of the head and neck, which results in the hyperdiagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. At the same time, little attention is given to the patient's psychoemotional sphere and ENT pathology. Large-scale studies have demonstrated that vertigo most frequently results from psychogenic causes and vestibular apparatus diseases.

  14. Darwin's Sacred Cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    of scholarly specialists and been appropriated by money makers. One could not help thinking about this as, in the autumn of 2008, the publisher began hyping Darwin's Sacred Cause as ‘one of the major contributions to the worldwide Darwin anniversary celebrations in 2009' Udgivelsesdato: February...

  15. Causes, Treatments and Consequences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    groups in Africa. All Yoruba ... and Oduduwa as the founder of their race. Al- ... and with the various members of staff in a .... in the womb, and causes a lot of pain and sorrow ... have given up, God can still make you conceive, ... I was careless when I did my second abortion. ..... who feel embarrassed to walk around with an.

  16. Infestation caused by acanthocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An on-line case of infestation caused by M. moniliformis is descripted. This rodents’ worm, belonging to acanthocephala, can be rarely responsible of human intestinal pathology. The case is the pretext for a brief revision on this parasitosis. So, biological, epidemiological, clinical and diagnostical findings are reported.

  17. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex.

  18. The Determination of Amygdalin and the Process of Removing the Bitterness in the Almond Skin%杏仁皮的苦杏仁苷含量测定及脱毒工艺探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘策; 曹清明; 屠焰; 刁其玉

    2015-01-01

    建立了杏仁皮中活性物质苦杏仁苷含量的测定方法,并对杏仁皮脱毒工艺进行了优化。用紫外光谱法测得:在219 nm处有最大吸收光谱;苦杏仁苷的甲醇溶液在一定的浓度范围内,其吸光度值与浓度呈良好的线性关系(r2=0.9992)。以苦杏仁苷标准品为对照,计算了样品中的苦杏仁苷含量。确定测定方法以后,对浸泡脱毒法进行单因素及正交优化,确定了0.1%柠檬酸浸泡8 h,浸泡温度70℃、料水比1∶15(g∶mL)为最佳脱毒条件。%This paper aimed to establish a method for measuring the concentration of amygdalin in almond skin. The optimization of detoxification also was finished. With Ultraviolet spectrometry , the maximum absorption wavelength determined at 219 nm , and the calibration curve was linear in a certain range(r2=0.999 2),and with the standard of amygdalin as reference, amygdalin contents in samples were measured. Based on this method, the single factors and orthogonal optimization were used for the detoxification of soaking. The result is as follows:0.1 %citric acid soaking reagent,8 hours for smoking,70℃soaking temperature,the rate of solid to liquid 1∶15(g/mL).

  19. Self-(in)compatibility of the almonds P. dulcis and P. webbii: detection and cloning of 'wild-type Sf ' and new self-compatibility alleles encoding inactive S-RNases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, Radovan I; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Ortega, Encarnación; Sutherland, Bruce G; Godini, Angelo

    2007-12-01

    Prunus dulcis, the almond, is a predominantly self-incompatible (SI) species with a gametophytic self-incompatibility system mediated by S-RNases. The economically important allele Sf, which results in self-compatibility in P. dulcis, is said to have arisen by introgression from Prunus webbii in the Italian region of Apulia. We investigated the range of self-(in)compatibility alleles in Apulian material of the two species. About 23 cultivars of P. dulcis (14 self-compatible (SC) and nine SI) and 33 accessions of P. webbii (16 SC, two SI and 15 initially of unknown status), all from Apulia, were analysed using PCR of genomic DNA to amplify S-RNase alleles and, in most cases, IEF and staining of stylar protein extracts to detect S-RNase activity. Some amplification products were cloned and sequenced. The allele Sf was present in nearly all the SC cultivars of P. dulcis but, surprisingly, was absent from nearly all SC accessions of P. webbii. And of particular interest was the presence in many SI cultivars of P. dulcis of a new active allele, labelled S30, the sequence of which showed it to be the wild-type of Sf so that Sf can be regarded as a stylar part mutant S30 degrees . These findings indicate Sf may have arisen within P. dulcis, by mutation. One SC cultivar of P. dulcis, 'Patalina', had a new self-compatibility allele lacking RNase activity, Sn5, which could be useful in breeding programmes. In the accessions of P. webbii, some of which were known to be SC, three new alleles were found which lacked RNase activity but had normal DNA sequences.

  20. [Causes of camptocormia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocker, F X; Berninger, U G

    2013-08-01

    In this society with an ever increasing number of the elderly there is an increasing number of causes of a bent spine syndrome (camptocormia/dropped head syndrome). The causes include neurological, neuro-orthopedic, rheumatological and psychiatric disorders. Parkinson's disease, dystonia and neuromuscular diseases (motor neuron disease, myositis and muscular dystrophy) with weakness of the axial muscles may result in bent spine syndrome and is often combined with a dropped head. Disc herniation, hypertrophic spondylosis or pseudospondylolisthesis with spinal narrowing may lead to an abnormal flexion of the trunk. Ankylosing spondylitis can produce a disabling bent spine syndrome. Camptocormia may also be mimicked by osteoporotic fractures of the vertebral bones with wedge-shaped vertebrae. In some cases camptocormia is related to a psychogenic disorder.

  1. What Causes Lupus Flares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, David; Kirou, Kyriakos A

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the prototypic systemic autoimmune disease, follows a chronic disease course, punctuated by flares. Disease flares often occur without apparent cause, perhaps from progressive inherent buildup of autoimmunity. However, there is evidence that certain environmental factors may trigger the disease. These include exposure to UV light, infections, certain hormones, and drugs which may activate the innate and adaptive immune system, resulting in inflammation, cytotoxic effects, and clinical symptoms. Uncontrolled disease flares, as well as their treatment, especially with glucocorticoids, can cause significant organ damage. Tight surveillance and timely control of lupus flares with judicial use of effective treatments to adequately suppress the excessive immune system activation are required to bring about long term remission of the disease. We hope that new clinical trials will soon offer additional effective and target-specific biologic treatments for SLE.

  2. Labor Informality: General Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sandoval Betancour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main causes of labor informality in order to verify the validity of classical theories that explain unemployment in market economies and its relationship to informality. Methodologically, the project was based, in the empirical part, on international statistics, comparing the evolution of labor market structure in a combined sample of highly industrialized countries and other less industrialized ones. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the classical economic theory of Marxist origin is inefficient to explain the causes of unemployment in contemporary market economies, as well as it fails to satisfactorily explain informality. On the contrary, we conclude that the theory in question is more relevant to explain informality in centrally planned economies where this phenomenon has been present even more significantly than in free market economies.

  3. Tracing Actual Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-08

    process described by the model. A signature S = 〈U ,V,R〉 specifies a set of endogenous variables (V), a set of exogenous vari- ables (U) and a range R(X...we need a language for modeling causal processes (circuits, sys- tems, etc.) that generate caused and causative events. Fol- lowing prior work on...causation [Halpern and Pearl, 2005; Halpern, 2015; Pearl, 2000], we model causal processes as structural equations, which we recap briefly. Variables A, B

  4. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  5. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  6. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  7. [Causes of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco Alonso

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes four nosological categories of depressive disorder according to the fundamental or prime cause: endogen depression, situative depression, psychogen depression and somatogen (also pharmacogen or addictive) depression. Recent advances in neurobiology provide the commun pathogenic mechanism distribuited in neurochemical, neuroendocrine and neuroinmune factors, with at the end a cellular and molecular sequence beyond the synapse. There is an increased risk of depression multiplied by three or four in the elderly, obese, unemployed and inmigrant and it is very frequent in terminally ill patients with a pervasive desire for death. Finally, eight personalized preventive guidelines enable to decrease the individual risk of depression in more than a fifty per cent.

  8. Homology and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valen, L M

    1982-09-01

    Homology is resemblance caused by a continuity of information. In biology it is a unified developmental phenomenon. Homologies among and within individuals intergrade in several ways, so historical homology cannot be separated sharply from repetitive homology. Nevertheless, the consequences of historical and repetitive homologies can be mutually contradictory. A detailed discussion of the rise and fall of the "premolar-analogy" theory of homologies of mammalian molar-tooth cusps exemplifies such a contradiction. All other hypotheses of historical homology which are based on repetitive homology, such as the foliar theory of the flower considered phyletically, are suspect.

  9. Iatrogenic causes of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoysman, R; Segal, L

    1990-01-01

    The Authors review the list of the iatrogenic causes of infertility. In their opinion the more delicate the structure, the more heavy the price paid to clumsy or erroneous investigation. Such eventual incompetence may lead to further damage of the already existing situation. The Authors however look at the future with relative optimism: incidents become rarer, specialists in gynecology and infertility pay more attention to the delicacy of genital structures and there is an encouraging tendency to refer to infertility specialists those cases who need adequate work-up of their condition.

  10. Chorea caused by toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaki, Janis M

    2011-01-01

    Chorea is uncommonly caused by toxins. Anecdotal evidence from cases of toxin-induced chorea assists in our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases associated with chorea. Beginning in medieval Europe with ergotism and the "fire that twisted people," spanning to crack dancing in contemporary times and the coexistence of alcohol abuse with chorea, toxins may exert direct effects to enhance mesolimbic dopamine transmission or indirect effects through gamma-aminobutyric acid modulation. The following chapter will discuss toxins associated with chorea and the presumed pathophysiology underlying the movement disorders in these case series.

  11. Darwin's Sacred Cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    As we are being flooded by Darwin lollipops, t-shirts, quills and stamps it is becoming increasingly difficult to be heard or seen in the commercialised celebration in 2009. Some are in the business for the science, but a lot are in it for profit. Accordingly, the Darwin industry has left the hands...... of scholarly specialists and been appropriated by money makers. One could not help thinking about this as, in the autumn of 2008, the publisher began hyping Darwin's Sacred Cause as ‘one of the major contributions to the worldwide Darwin anniversary celebrations in 2009' Udgivelsesdato: February...

  12. Effects of ultraviolet (254nm) irradiation on egg hatching and adult emergence of the flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum and the almond moth, Cadra cautella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruki, S I; Das, D R; Khan, A R; Khatun, M

    2007-01-01

    The eggs of the stored grain pests, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), T. confusum (Duval) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Cadra cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae) belonging to three age groups, 1, 2, and 3 days-old, were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation with 254nm wavelength (UV-C) for different durations to determine irradiation effects on egg-hatching and adult emergence. An increase in time of exposure to UV-rays caused a gradual decrease in the percentage of hatching of eggs in all age groups of eggs. No hatching occurred after 24 minutes of exposure in 2 and 3 day-old eggs of T. confusum. C. cautella eggs were less sensitive to UV-rays than were T. castaneum and T. confusum eggs. All the exposure periods significantly reduced the eclosion of adults in all the experimental insects. No adults emerged when 3 day-old eggs of T. castaneum were irradiated for 16 or 24 minutes, or from 2 and 3 day-old eggs T. confusum irradiated for 16 or 24 minutes.

  13. Cervicogenic causes of vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Timothy C

    2015-02-01

    Herein we discuss the recent literature concerning cervicogenic vertigo including vertigo associated with rotational vertebral artery syndrome, as well as whiplash and degenerative disturbances of the cervical spine. We conclude with a summary of progress regarding diagnostic methods for cervicogenic vertigo. Several additional single case studies of the exceedingly rare rotational vertebral artery syndrome have been added to the literature over the last year. Concerning whiplash and degenerative disturbances of the cervical spine, four reviews were published concerning using physical therapy as treatment, and two reviews reported successful surgical management. Publications regarding diagnostic methodology remain few and unconvincing, but the cervical torsion test appears the most promising. Little progress has been made over the last year concerning cervicogenic vertigo. As neck disturbances combined with dizziness are commonly encountered in the clinic, the lack of a diagnostic test that establishes that a neck disturbance causes vertigo remains the critical problem that must be solved.

  14. [Cellulite - causes, prevention, treatment ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Tomikowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cellulite is a multifactorial etiology ailment. It changes the skin topography by the formation of the skin surface's appearance, changes described as "orange peel". This prob- lem concerns 85-98% of women, and for them it is one of the most intolerable aesthetic imperfections. In the past few years the interest of scientists in this problem has clearly increased. Several theories on the pathophysiology of cel- lulite have been produced A number of different thera- peutic regimens have been developed using modern tech- nology. However, despite the many treatment options for cellulite, it is extremely important that patients should be aware that only multidirectional treatment can bring sat- isfactory results. The aim of this review was to describe the causes of cellulite, and its prevention and treatment.

  15. Composição química e compostos bioativos presentes na polpa e na amêndoa do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds in the pulp and almond of pequi fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro de Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da composição química dos alimentos é fundamental para se avaliarem a disponibilidade de nutrientes e o seu consumo por populações. Neste trabalho, o pequi (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb. foi caracterizado pela composição centesimal e pela presença de compostos bioativos na polpa e na amêndoa. Os dados do perfil lipídico mostram alto teor de lípides tanto na polpa quanto na amêndoa, destacando-se nos mesmos a presença dos ácidos graxos insaturados, predominando o ácido oléico como principal componente entre os ácidos graxos. Foi observada também a relação entre os elevados teores de ácidos graxos insaturados com os compostos fenólicos e carotenóides presentes, tendo a polpa quantidades mais expressivas dessas substâncias quando comparada à amêndoa, além de conter uma quantidade superior de fibra alimentar. Os resultados obtidos abrem a perspectiva de se utilizar o pequi como fruto que apresenta, na sua composição, compostos importantes para a formulação de uma dieta saudável.The knowledge of the chemical composition of foods is basic for evaluate the nutrients availability and its consumption for the population. In this work, the pulp and the almond of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb. were characterized by the centesimal composition and the presence of nutrients. The results showed high amount of lipids and in the fatty acids profile, the oleic fatty acid was the main component. The presence between high unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant compounds (phenolic acids and carotenoids was correlated with the fruit protection. In the pulp was observed too high amount of alimentary fiber. These results are suggesting the pequi utilization in a healthful diet preparation.

  16. Existing form of Amygdalin in Bitter Almond and Influence Factors%苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷的存在形式及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤庆发; 谢颖; 陈飞龙; 郭阳; 宋帅; 罗佳波

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷的存在形式及温度与酸碱对苦杏仁苷异构化的影响.方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定苦杏仁在不同煎煮温度下L-苦杏仁苷与D-苦杏仁苷的峰面积,同时用该法定性考察酸碱对苦杏仁苷单体异构化的影响.结果:苦杏仁中的苦杏仁苷在不同温度段内具有不同的异构化表现;苦杏仁苷单体在醋酸中未发生异构化,而在氨水、氢氧化钠的作用下均可发生异构化.结论:随着煎煮温度的上升,苦杏仁中L-苦杏仁苷与D-苦杏仁苷的峰面积比值逐渐增加;苦杏仁苷单体能在酸性环境中稳定存在,而碱是导致其发生异构化的因素之一.%Objective: To evaluate the existing form of amygdalin in bitter almond and the influence of temperature and acid-base on isomerization of amygdalin. Method: Use high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) to determine the peak area of Z)-amygdalin and L-amygdalin in different decocting temperature, and use this method qualitatively investigate the influence of acid-base on isomerization of amygdalin monomer. Result: Amygdalin in Semen Armeniacae Amarum in different temperatures have different isomerization performance; amygdalin monomer did not occur isomerization in acid environment, isomerization under the effect of ammonia, sodium hydroxide. Conclusion: With the rise of decocting temperature results in the peak area of D-amygdalin and L-amygdalin gradually increased. Amygdalin monomer is stable in the acidic environment, alkali lead one of the factors of isomerization.

  17. Spray Drying and Antioxidant Activity of Sweet Almond Protein Hydrolysate%扁杏仁水解蛋白的喷雾干燥及其抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贺; 王雪; 李君; 郭晓飞; 朱丹实; 何余堂; 钱建华

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the effects of spray drying process parameters such as vacuum dehydration ratio, inlet air temperature and feeding rate on the recovery and antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysate powder were explored by response surface methodology. Mathematical predictive models were established, respectively, describing hdyrolysate recovery and reducing power, hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity and Fe2~ chelating activity as a function of these three spray drying process parameters. The prepared powder had certain antioxidant activity, which was dependent on the spray drying process parameters. Process parameters optimization was performed using the SAS software, and the optimized parameters were experimentally validated. In general good results for the spray drying of sweet almond protein hydrolysate could be achieved with a vacuum dehydration ratio of 0.5 -- 0.6, an inlet air temperature of approximately 200 ℃, and a feeding rate of f 270 -- 320 mL/h.%通过响应面设计方法探讨减压浓缩脱水比例、进风温度和进料速度等喷雾干燥工艺参数对扁杏仁水解蛋白溶液干燥效果及水解蛋白粉抗氧化活性的影响,获得表征相关指标的数学模型,在实践过程中可以对相关指标进行预测。扁杏仁水解蛋白粉具有一定的抗氧化活性,但受到喷雾干燥工艺参数的影响,通过SAS统计分析软件对相关指标进行优化,并进行验证实验,总体而言,脱水比例在0.5~0.6之间,进风温度200℃左右,进料速度在270~320mL/h,可以获得较好的综合效果。

  18. Establishing quality control ranges for temocillin following CLSI-M23-A3 guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurissen, W; Sutter, G De; De Beenhouwer, H; Frans, J; Van den Abeele, A-M; Cartuyvels, R; Laffut, W; Vandecandelaere, P; Coppens, G

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to establish acceptable quality control ranges for temocillin disk diffusion tests and Etest(®) minimal inhibitory concentrations. According to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline, a Tier 2 quality control study was performed and involves seven laboratories. Each of them tested 10 replicates of two quality control strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and E. coli ATCC 35218) on three different media lots and, for disk diffusion, two disk lots. Proposed zone diameter quality control ranges were 12-25 mm for E. coli ATCC 25922 and 19-28 mm for E. coli ATCC 35218. Proposed Etest quality control ranges were 3-24 mg/l for E. coli ATCC 25922 and 2-6 mg/l E. coli ATCC 35218. Based on our results, we would advise the use of E. coli ATCC 35218 as QC strain for temocillin susceptibility testing and Etest because ranges obtained are narrower than with E. coli ATCC 25922 and do not overlap temocillin breakpoint.

  19. The causes of epistasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, J. Arjan G. M.; Cooper, Tim F.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2011-01-01

    Since Bateson's discovery that genes can suppress the phenotypic effects of other genes, gene interactions—called epistasis—have been the topic of a vast research effort. Systems and developmental biologists study epistasis to understand the genotype–phenotype map, whereas evolutionary biologists recognize the fundamental importance of epistasis for evolution. Depending on its form, epistasis may lead to divergence and speciation, provide evolutionary benefits to sex and affect the robustness and evolvability of organisms. That epistasis can itself be shaped by evolution has only recently been realized. Here, we review the empirical pattern of epistasis, and some of the factors that may affect the form and extent of epistasis. Based on their divergent consequences, we distinguish between interactions with or without mean effect, and those affecting the magnitude of fitness effects or their sign. Empirical work has begun to quantify epistasis in multiple dimensions in the context of metabolic and fitness landscape models. We discuss possible proximate causes (such as protein function and metabolic networks) and ultimate factors (including mutation, recombination, and the importance of natural selection and genetic drift). We conclude that, in general, pleiotropy is an important prerequisite for epistasis, and that epistasis may evolve as an adaptive or intrinsic consequence of changes in genetic robustness and evolvability. PMID:21976687

  20. Causes for "ghost" manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borok, S.; Goldfarb, I.; Gol'dshtein, V.

    2009-05-01

    ;71:359-82; Flockerzi D. Tutorial: intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds and slow attractors. Magdeburg: Max-Planck-Institut; 2001-2005. ; Flockerzi D, Heineken W. Comment on "Identification of low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope". Chaos 1999;9:108-23; Flockerzi D, Heineken W. Comment on "Identification of low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope". Chaos 2006;16:048101]. The present work studies the causes for the "ghost" manifolds appearance for the case of a two-dimensional singularly perturbed system.

  1. Gastrointestinal causes of abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Elizabeth; Vuong, Giao Michael; Prather, Charlene M

    2014-09-01

    Gastrointestinal causes of abdominal pain are numerous. These causes are reviewed in brief here, divided into 2 categories: acute abdominal pain and chronic abdominal pain. They are further subcategorized by location of pain as it pertains to the abdomen.

  2. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was developed in collaboration with ... a surgical procedure called laparoscopy. Does endometriosis cause infertility? If you have endometriosis, it may be more ...

  3. Drugs that may cause impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... Many medicines and recreational drugs can affect a man's sexual arousal and sexual performance. What causes impotence in one ...

  4. MINERAL COMPOSITION OF COOKIES DEVELOPED WITH ALMOND OR PEANUT FLOURS SUPPLEMENTED WITH IRON COMPOSIÇÃO MINERAL DE BISCOITOS ELABORADOS A PARTIR DE FARINHAS DE AMÊNDOA OU AMENDOIM ADICIONADAS DE FERRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Vilas Boas Wiecheteck Piekarski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    One of the most important steps in the improvement of food products quality, in the last 40 years, is represented by food fortification with minerals and essential vitamins, a way to correct a deficiency, to balance the nutritional profile or to restore nutrients lost in the processing. In this context, this work aimed at mineral determination in gluten-free almond or peanut cookies, to verify their potential as a source of essential nutrients. The quantification of iron, magnesium, calcium, copper, zinc, potassium and sodium was carried out via flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and phosphorus was quantified via UV-VIS-spectrophotometry. The data showed that the cookies developed with almond could be considered, for adults, a source of copper and iron and rich in phosphorus and that the ones elaborated with peanuts could be considered rich in phosphorous, magnesium and iron. Both cookies could be considered sources of copper, magnesium, phosphorous and iron, when values are directed to the consumption of children from 4 to 6 years old, showing nutritional potential to celiacs.

     

    KEY-WORDS: Celiac disease; cookies; minerals; iron.

  1. Does excessive pronation cause pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Nielsen, R.G.; Rathleff, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...... pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient is in pain but wanted to investigate if it was possible to measure a change in foot posture after af given treatment.......Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...

  2. Cervicomedullary neurocysticercosis causing obstructive hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Doris D; Huang, Michael C

    2015-09-01

    We present a 45-year-old man with tussive headache and blurred vision found to have obstructive hydrocephalus from a neurocysticercal cyst at the cervicomedullary junction who underwent surgical removal of the cyst. We performed a suboccipital craniectomy to remove the cervicomedullary cyst en bloc. Cyst removal successfully treated the patient's headaches without necessitating permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasite infection of the central nervous system causing seizures and, less commonly, hydrocephalus. Intraventricular cysts or arachnoiditis usually cause hydrocephalus in neurocysticercosis but craniocervical junction cysts causing obstructive hydrocephalus are rare. Neurocysticercosis at the craniocervical junction may cause Chiari-like symptoms. In the absence of arachnoiditis and leptomeningeal enhancement, surgical removal of the intact cyst can lead to favorable outcomes.

  3. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  4. Nongenetic causes of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chade, A R; Kasten, M; Tanner, C M

    2006-01-01

    Study of the nongenetic causes of Parkinson's disease (PD) was encouraged by discovery of a cluster of parkinsonism produced by neurotoxic pyridine 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in the 1980s. Since that time, epidemiologic investigations have suggested risk factors, though their results do not establish causality. Pesticide exposure has been associated with increased risk in many studies. Other proposed risks include rural residence and certain occupations. Cigarette smoking, use of coffee/caffeine, and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) all appear to lower risk of PD, while dietary lipid and milk consumption, high caloric intake, and head trauma may increase risk. The cause of PD is likely multifactorial. Underlying genetic susceptibility and combinations of risk and protective factors likely all contribute. The combined research effort by epidemiologists, geneticists, and basic scientists will be needed to clarify the cause(s) of PD.

  5. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  6. Could Anemia Cause Hearing Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162793.html Could Anemia Cause Hearing Loss? Iron deficiency might keep ear ... Hearing loss may be linked to iron deficiency anemia -- a combination of low levels of iron and ...

  7. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  8. What Causes Heart Valve Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a heart attack or injury to the heart. Rheumatic Fever Untreated strep throat or other infections with strep bacteria that progress to rheumatic fever can cause heart valve disease. When the body ...

  9. Facebook Bullying Can Cause Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160991.html Facebook Bullying Can Cause Depression Social media attacks have ' ... Sept. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Negative experiences on Facebook can increase the odds of depression in young ...

  10. Infant Reflux: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the stomach contents to have enough acid to irritate the throat or esophagus and to cause signs ... as: GERD. The reflux has enough acid to irritate and damage the lining of the esophagus. Pyloric ...

  11. What Causes Thrombocythemia and Thrombocytosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Thrombocythemia and Thrombocytosis? Primary Thrombocythemia In this condition, faulty stem cells ... scarring of the bone marrow can occur. Secondary Thrombocytosis This condition occurs if another disease, condition, or ...

  12. Dementia due to metabolic causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interact Pneumonia , urinary tract infections , and skin infections Pressure sores Symptoms of the underlying problem (such as loss ... in mental status or a life-threatening emergency. Prevention Treating the underlying cause may reduce the risk ...

  13. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  14. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  15. Uncommon Causes of Cerebral Microbleeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh-Sabet, Nariman; Pulakanti, Varun Chandi; Zand, Ramin

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small and round perivascular hemosiderin depositions detectable by gradient echo sequences or susceptibility-weighted imaging. Cerebral microbleeds are common among patients with hypertension, cerebral ischemia, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In this article, we describe uncommon causes of CMBs. We searched Pubmed with the keyword CMBs for relevant studies and looked for different uncommon causes of CMBs. CMBs have several uncommon etiologies including posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, infective endocarditis, brain radiation therapy, cocaine abuse, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, traumatic brain injury, intravascular lymphomatosis or proliferating angio-endotheliomatosis, moyamoya disease, sickle cell anemia/β-thalassemia, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy subcortical infarcts, and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), genetic syndromes, or obstructive sleep apnea. Understanding the uncommon causes of CMBs is not only helpful in diagnosis and prognosis of some of these rare diseases, but can also help in better understanding different pathophysiology involved in the development of CMBs. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Características químicas de amêndoas de barueiros (dipteryx alata vog. de ocorrência natural no cerrado do estado de Goiás, Brasil Chemical characteristics of baru almonds (dipteryx alata vog. from the savannah of Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Vera

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando a ampliar os conhecimentos sobre os teores nutricionais de frutos de barueiro, planta nativa do Cerrado, com a finalidade de subsidiar o manejo econômico da cultura, determinaram-se as características químicas de amêndoas de barueiros provenientes de diferentes regiões geográficas do Cerrado goiano. Onze regiões do Estado de Goiás com elevada ocorrência natural de barueiro foram selecionadas e em cada região foram escolhidas, aleatoriamente, doze plantas em plena produção. Coletaram-se aproximadamente 60 frutos e, após seleção, amostraram-se 20 frutos por árvore. As amêndoas foram retiradas dos frutos e, trituradas, constituindo uma amostra composta. Determinaram-se: umidade, proteína, extrato etéreo, minerais e perfil de ácidos graxos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os teores médios de umidade das amêndoas de baru variaram nas regiões estudadas entre 2,93-5,07 g (100 g-1, a proteína entre 25,16-27,69 g (100 g-1 e o teor de extrato etéreo de 32,42-37,36 g (100 g-1. Os teores médios de ácidos graxos saturados variaram de 19,93-25,74 g (100 g-1 e deácidos graxos insaturados de 73,47-79,19 g (100 g-1. Os ácidos graxos de maior ocorrência foram oleico e linoleico, seguidos pelos ácidos palmítico, lignocérico, esteárico, behênico, gadoleico e araquítico. Os macronutrientes minerais que apresentaram maiores teores, foram potássio, fósforo e enxofre. Com relação aos micronutrientes minerais, o ferro apresentou maior concentração.Aiming to broaden the knowledge about the nutritional content of baru fruits, a tree species from the Brazilian Savannah, in order to subsidize its economic management, it was determined the chemical characteristics of baru almonds from different geographical regions. In the state of Goiás eleven sites were chosen for their abundance of baru trees, and at each site twelve trees in full

  17. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.;

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...... of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that the effect of this treatment has not been documented. Therefore the authors can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive...

  18. Occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1994-12-01

    Amino alcohols are used in various industries, often as minor constituents of compounds to modify the properties of the compound. Generally, they are considered to be safe, but they have been known to cause local skin irritation at higher concentrations in solutions. We report on three cases of occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines: two metal workers exposed to a cutting fluid containing triethanolamine, and one cleaner exposed to a detergent containing monoethanolamine. The diagnosis was based on work-related symptoms and on a chamber challenge with the suspected agent. Persistence of the symptoms after exposure ended was a common feature of the three cases.

  19. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  20. 干旱胁迫对不同生态条件下蒙古扁桃叶片PAL和C_4H活性的影响%Effects of Drought Stress in Different Ecological Conditions of the Prunus mongolica Maxim Almond Leaves in PAL and C_4H Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金丽萍; 崔世茂; 杜金伟; 金彩霞; 吴玉峰; 其日格

    2009-01-01

    Plant cell wall in the face of adversity will appear thicker,to withstand the adverse environment.lt was a preliminary identification of the cell wall due to the formation of the lignin deposition. At present, the synthesis of lignin that is not only a means,but Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase(PAL)and Cinnamic acid 4-Hydroxylase(C_4H) ,such as en-zyme in the synthesis played a very important role. As a result, this experiment with wild Prunus mongolia Maxim used to study drought stress in different ecological conditions, the impact of the body of its PAL and C_4H activity. The results showed that: when subjected to drought stress, Prunus mongolia Maxim almond leaves with the activity of PAL and C_4H drought stress increased gradually increased, and in arid regions in Prunus mongolia Maxim almond leaf PAL and C_4H activity than the relatively arid region. PAL and C_4H activity and plant drought resistance was positive correlation be-tween .%植物细胞壁在遭遇逆境后会出现增厚现象,以抵御不良环境,有研究认为这是由于细胞壁内的木质素沉积形成的.目前认为木质素的合成途径不只一条,但苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)和肉桂酸4-羟基化酶(C_4H)等酶在合成中起到了十分重要的作用.因此,本试验以野生蒙古扁桃为试验材料,研究干旱胁迫对其在不同生态环境条件下体内PAL和C_4H酶活性影响的变化.结果表明:在遭受干旱胁迫时,蒙古扁桃叶内PAL和C_4H活性随干旱胁迫程度的增加而逐渐增强,且干旱地区的蒙古扁桃叶内PAL和C_4H活性要强于相对不干旱地区.PAL和C_4H活性与植物的抗旱性呈正相关关系.

  1. Endocarditis caused by Haemophilus aegyptius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, A; Wanderman, K; Simu, A; Vidne, B; Alkan, M

    1986-08-01

    Endocarditis due to Haemophilus is uncommon. This is the first reported case caused by Haemophilus aegyptius. The course of the disease was complicated by pericarditis, congestive heart failure, and myocardial abscess formation. Surgical removal of the damaged aortic valve was not beneficial. The biologic properties of the organism included urea degradation, absence of indole metabolism, and absence of the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase.

  2. Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?

    CERN Document Server

    Leikind, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Do cell phones, household electrical power wiring or appliance, or high voltage power lines cause cancer? Fuggedaboudit! No way! When pigs fly! When I'm the Pope! Don't text while you're driving, however, or eat your cell phone. All organisms absorb microwave radiation directly as thermal energy. In living organisms, the organisms' thermal control systems, including the blood flow, and various cooling mechanisms, such as sweating in humans, that work to maintain a stable body temperature rapidly transfer the absorbed energy to the environment. Any temperature rise is small or even unobserved. Any proposed mechanism by which cell phone radiation might cause cancer must begin with this fact. But the amount of radiation absorbed from a cell phone is less than that produced by normal metabolic processes, and much less than that produced by, for example, exercise. None of these normal metabolic processes cause cancer. Therefore, the much smaller amounts of energy from cell phones doesn't cause cancer either. All f...

  3. Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Gunther F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available One case of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis presented with a swelling on the right ankle with multiple sinuses discharging sero-sanguinous material without any granules. He was treated successfully with dapsone followed by surgical excision of the swelling and skin graft.

  5. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  6. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  7. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  8. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  9. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  10. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  11. Organizational Conflict: Causes and Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    No group (within an organization) can be entirely harmonious, but conflict is not an altogether disruptive factor. A delicate balance is required to obtain the advantages and restrict the disadvantages of organizational conflict. The causes and forms of organizational conflict are examined. (JMD)

  12. Fighting for a Common Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Cause China and Russia conduct joint antiterrorism exercises with no ulterior motives The Peace Mission 2009, a joint military exercise that was held on July 22-26 by China and Russia, was meant to convey one message: that both countries are firmly resolved to rooting out the "three evil forces" of terrorism, extremism and separatism. About 1300 service people from the army

  13. Rare cause of subcutaneous emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prober, A.; Tverskoy, M.

    1986-12-01

    A rare cause of subcutaneous emphysema is described which developed in two patients after epidural anaesthesia. Only two case reports could be found in literature describing similar conditions. The anaesthesia is performed using the 'loss of resistance' technique with injection of air for the identification of the epidural space. Possible explanations for the development of the emphysema are discussed.

  14. Care Causes and Contributing Factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    d'urgence offerts aux femmes admises dans quatre maternités de référence du Bénin ainsi que les causes et déterminants .... décédées au cours de la grossesse, .... les conditions d'admission et les types complications selon le niveau de.

  15. What Causes Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart pumps little or no blood to the body. V-fib is fatal if not treated within a few minutes. Other problems with the heart's electrical system also can cause SCA. For example, SCA can occur if the rate of the heart's electrical signals becomes very slow and stops. SCA also can ...

  16. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, F.

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane

  17. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview & Facts Causes & Symptoms Self-Tests & Diagnosis Treatment Restless Legs Syndrome - Causes & Symptoms Causes What causes of restless legs syndrome varies from person to person. In some cases ...

  18. Ureterosciatic Hernia Causes Obstructive Uropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ju Tsai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive uropathy can be caused by urolithiasis, fibrotic ureteral stricture, inflammatory ureteritis with polyp formations, ureteral malignancy and various forms of external compression. Ureteral herniation is a relatively rare cause of obstructive uropathy and has been reported with herniation sites including inguinal canal, femoral canal and sciatic foramen. Most ureteral herniations occur in the inguinal area. In the literature, previous cases of sciatic ureter have been treated with observation in asymptomatic patients or with surgery in patients with obstructive uropathy or clinical symptomatology. We report the case of a 91-year-old female with asymptomatic hydronephrosis of the left kidney due to extremely rare ureterosciatic herniation. Her global renal function was acceptable. As she was elderly and a poor surgical candidate, watchful waiting was recommended after discussion with the patient and her family.

  19. Unusual Cause of Knee Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Huri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of partial intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon as an unusual cause of pseudolocking of the knee. A 13-year-old semiprofessional soccer player applied to our clinic with a locked right knee in spite of the therapy applied (cold pack, NSAID, and immobilization in another institution 20 days after the injury. Significant extension loss was observed in his right knee with 30∘–90∘ ROM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and arthroscopy confirmed the intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon and synovitis. The ruptured part of the tendon was debrided, and the inflammatory tissue around the tendon, which may lead to pseudolocking, was gently removed with a shaver in order to regain the normal ROM. The patient was discharged with full ROM and weight bearing first day after the surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first case demonstrating intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon causing pseudolocking of the knee.

  20. Alarm Fatigue: Causes and Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Marc; Hüske-Kraus, Dirk; Klausen, Andreas; Koch, Christian; Schlauch, Wolfgang; Röhrig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The term "Alarm fatigue" is commonly used to describe the effect which a high number of alarms can have on caregivers: Frequent alarms, many of which are avoidable, can lead to inadequate responses, severely impacting patient safety. In the first step of a long-term effort to address this problem, both the direct and indirect impact of alarms, as well as possible causes of unnecessary alarms were focused. Models of these causes and impacts were developed using a scoping review which included guided interviews with experts from medical informatics, clinicians and medical device manufacturers. These models can provide the methodical grounds for the definition of targeted interventions and the assessment of their effects.

  1. Toxic agents causing cerebellar ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum is particularly vulnerable to intoxication and poisoning, especially so the cerebellar cortex and Purkinje neurons. In humans, the most common cause of a toxic lesion to the cerebellar circuitry is alcohol related, but the cerebellum is also a main target of drug exposure (such as anticonvulsants, antineoplastics, lithium salts, calcineurin inhibitors), drug abuse and addiction (such as cocaine, heroin, phencyclidine), and environmental toxins (such as mercury, lead, manganese, toluene/benzene derivatives). Although data for the prevalence and incidence of cerebellar lesions related to intoxication and poisoning are still unknown in many cases, clinicians should keep in mind the list of agents that may cause cerebellar deficits, since toxin-induced cerebellar ataxias are not rare in daily practice. Moreover, the patient's status may require immediate therapies when the intoxication is life-threatening. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pediatric genetic diseases causing glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichhpujani, Parul; Singh, Rohan B.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucomatous optic neuropathy may be considered as an endpoint of multiple systemic factors. Genetic conditions commonly causing glaucoma in children and adolescents include Axenfeld-Reiger syndrome, aniridia, Marfan syndrome, Weill-Marchessani syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, nevus of Ota, congenital rubella and neurofibromatosis type 1. In the recent years, with the advancements in genetic research our understanding of the fundamental causes of glaucoma associated with inherited disorders has improved. In addition to intraocular pressure reduction, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with the multiple systemic associations with glaucoma, to re-evaluate treatment frequently, and to target the underlying disease process, if present. PMID:27625878

  3. Does Drug Use Cause Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kaestner

    1998-01-01

    In this study, I examine the effect of drug use on poverty. The main objective of the paper is to provide descriptive empirical information about the relationship between drug use and poverty, and to explore, in a preliminary fashion, the question of whether drug use causes poverty. Toward this end, I present the results of both descriptive and multivariate analyses of the relationship between drug use and poverty for two national samples of young adults. One sample is drawn from the National...

  4. Mexican Migration: Assessing Root Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    66 Figure 4 is derived from John Scott, “Metas y Mecanismo ,” Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas...John Scott, “Metas y Mecanismo ,” 4. 31 Another explanation for the increase in migration concerns neither the Mexican economy nor the Mexican...Dominant Regime,” 135. 82 John Scott, “Metas y Mecanismo ,” 5. 83 World Bank: Mexican Health Foundation, “Trends and Empirical Causes of Violent

  5. A rare cause of osteonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agostinis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHereditary hemochromatosis (HH is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the HFE gene, which increase intestinal iron absorption. The prevalence of C282Y homozygosity, which causes the disorder, is 0.5% in Caucasian populations. The clinical manifestations are related to excess iron in the tissues, especially the liver, heart, pancreas, pituitary, and skin. They include fatigue, loss of libido or impotence in males, liver disease, skin pigmentation, diabetes mellitus, cardiac enlargement—with or without heart failure, and conduction defects. The classic triad of cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, and skin pigmentation (“bronze diabetes” results from a combination of iron deposits and melanin. It occurs late in the disease, when the total body iron content is more than five times the normal value, about 20 grams. Left untreated, approximately half of all patients with HH eventually develop arthralgia or arthropathy. Chondrocalcinosis, chronic pseudo-osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis are the major rheumatic manifestations of HH. The cause of the arthropathy is still unknown. Iron deposits within joints may trigger a number of pathologic events, such as free radical generation and crystal deposition, which stimulate immune complex formation and inflammation.Materials and methodsWe describe the case of a 48-year-old male suffering from chronic bilateral ankle pain.ResultsThe work-up revealed osteonecrosis of ankle. The patient also presented high plasma ferritin levels and homozygosity for the C282Y mutation. Other than HH, which was confirmed by liver biopsy, the patient had no other risk factors for osteonecrosis.DiscussionHH represents a rare cause of osteonecrosis, and there are no prior reports of aseptic osteonecrosis of the ankle in a patient with this disease. The pathogenetic mechanism remains unknown.

  6. Mutations in ANKH cause chondrocalcinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Adrian; Johnson, Michelle D; Hughes, Anne; Gurley, Kyle A; Ho, Andrew M; Doherty, Michael; Dixey, Josh; Gillet, Pierre; Loeuille, Damien; McGrath, Rodney; Reginato, Antonio; Shiang, Rita; Wright, Gary; Netter, Patrick; Williams, Charlene; Kingsley, David M

    2002-10-01

    Chondrocalcinosis (CC) is a common cause of joint pain and arthritis that is caused by the deposition of calcium-containing crystals within articular cartilage. Although most cases are sporadic, rare familial forms have been linked to human chromosomes 8 (CCAL1) or 5p (CCAL2) (Baldwin et al. 1995; Hughes et al. 1995; Andrew et al. 1999). Here, we show that two previously described families with CCAL2 have mutations in the human homolog of the mouse progressive ankylosis gene (ANKH). One of the human mutations results in the substitution of a highly conserved amino acid residue within a predicted transmembrane segment. The other creates a new ATG start site that adds four additional residues to the ANKH protein. Both mutations segregate completely with disease status and are not found in control subjects. In addition, 1 of 95 U.K. patients with sporadic CC showed a deletion of a single codon in the ANKH gene. The same change was found in a sister who had bilateral knee replacement for osteoarthritis. Each of the three human mutations was reconstructed in a full-length ANK expression construct previously shown to regulate pyrophosphate levels in cultured cells in vitro. All three of the human mutations showed significantly more activity than a previously described nonsense mutation that causes severe hydroxyapatite mineral deposition and widespread joint ankylosis in mice. These results suggest that small sequence changes in ANKH are one cause of CC and joint disease in humans. Increased ANK activity may explain the different types of crystals commonly deposited in human CCAL2 families and mutant mice and may provide a useful pharmacological target for treating some forms of human CC.

  7. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers.

  8. Ascariasis cholecystitis: An unusual cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Balakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection to infest man. Usually the adult worm lives in the small intestine. Rarely it migrates through the ampulla of vater and enters the common bile duct. We are reporting a case of gall bladder ascariasis causing acute cholecystitis treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in gallbladder is rare entity as it is difficult to reach there due to the narrow and tortuous cystic duct.

  9. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  10. Endocrine causes of secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Domenic A

    2008-07-01

    Secondary hypertension is common in clinical practice if a broad definition is applied. Various patterns of hypertension exist in the patient with an endocrine source of their disease, including new-onset hypertension in a previously normotensive individual, a loss of blood pressure control in a patient with previously well-controlled blood pressure, and/or labile blood pressure in the setting of either of these 2 patterns. A thorough history and physical exam, which can rule out concomitant medications, alcohol intake, and over-the-counter medication use, is an important prerequisite to the workup for endocrine causes of hypertension. Endocrine forms of secondary hypertension, such as pheochromocytoma and Cushing's disease, are extremely uncommon. Conversely, primary aldosteronism now occurs with sufficient frequency so as to be considered "top of the list" for secondary endocrine causes in otherwise difficult-to-treat or resistant hypertension. Primary aldosteronism can be insidious in its presentation since a supposed hallmark finding, hypokalemia, may be variable in its presentation. It is important to identify secondary causes of hypertension that are endocrine in nature because surgical intervention may result in correction or substantial improvement of the hypertension.

  11. EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  12. [Morgagni hernia causing cardiac tamponade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Breinig; Paranon, S; Le Mandat, A; Galinier, P; Dulac, Y; Acar, P

    2010-10-01

    Morgagni hernia is a rare malformation (3% of diaphragmatic hernias). This hernia is usually asymptomatic in children. We report on a case revealed by an unusual complication. Severe cyanosis was due to right-to-left atrial shunt through the foramen ovale assessed by 2D echocardiography. Diagnosis of the Morgagni hernia was made with CT scan. The intrathoracic liver compressed the right chambers of the heart causing tamponade. Cardiac compression was reversed after surgery and replacement of the liver in the abdomen. Six months after the surgery, the infant was symptom-free with normal size right chambers of the heart.

  13. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:28408982

  14. An unusual cause for halitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Gabriella; Ali, Haythem; Aboul Enein, Mohamed; Poynter, Liam

    2016-04-19

    This report describes an unusual cause for halitosis and an unusual treatment for the underlying problem. Halitosis is a symptom which can result from a diverse range of underlying pathologies, most frequently those affecting the oral cavity or respiratory tract. Uncommonly, it arises due to pathology within the upper gastrointestinal tract. The case of a patient presenting with severe persistent halitosis attributable to mesh erosion occurring 8 years after redo laparoscopic hiatus hernia repair is described. Full external healing of the erosion tract was observed such that no symptomatic oesophageal perforation resulted. Mesh erosion is typically managed with surgical intervention. In this case, the infected mesh was successfully removed endoscopically.

  15. Trapezoid fracture caused by assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshikare V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe an open fracture of trapezoid and break in anterior cortex of capitate due to assault in a young adult male. Direct impact force of a sharp object to the first web space caused the above fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation of the trapezoid was carried out using Kirschner wires. Cut extensor tendons, extensor retaniculum, capsule, adductor pollicis muscle, first dorsal interosseous muscle, soft tissue and overlying skin were sutured primarily. Three months after the operation the patient has made a complete recovery. There is no similar case reported in the literature.

  16. The true cause of magnetostriction

    CERN Document Server

    Mnyukh, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The cause of magnetostriction is revealed by analyzing this phenomenon in a polydomain crystal of Fe. It is based on the two fundamentals: (a) magnetization is a rearrangement of spins by rearrangement of the crystal structure, and (b) the {\\alpha}-Fe has a tetragonal rather than cubic structure. The magnetostriction results from the structural rearrangement, induced by application of magnetic field. that makes the direction of longer crystallographic axis of the participated domains coincide with, or become closer to, the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  17. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  18. Causes and Countermeasures of Chinglish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Min

    2014-01-01

    “The so-called Chinglish is the kind of mixed language, neither Chinese nor English, it may also be cal ed English with Chinese Characteristics.” They are deformities in English which are not consistent with the English expression (except a smal number which have been included in the English dictionary). It may also be grammatical y correct, but the usage of the words, phrases or expressions is different from the Standard English. This paper explores the causes of Chinglish from the perspective of Chinese and Western thinking differences, and comes up with strategies to help English learners get a better understanding of Chinglish, thereby effectively overcome it.

  19. Occupational allergies caused by latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Debra D Fett; Sobczak, Steven C; Yunginger, John W

    2003-05-01

    Allergy to natural rubber latex is an important cause of occupational allergy in healthcare workers. Disposable medical gloves are the major reservoir of latex allergens, particularly powdered gloves, in healthcare delivery settings. Diagnosis of latex allergy requires a history of exacerbation of cutaneous, respiratory, ocular, or systemic signs and symptoms after exposure to natural rubber latex products; and evidence of sensitization by patch testing, skin testing, measurement of latex-specific IgE antibodies, or challenge testing. Optimal management of latex allergy involves education concerning cross-reacting allergens, reduction of cutaneous or mucosal contact with dipped rubber products, and minimization of exposure to latex aeroallergens in work environments.

  20. Mutations in XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism without causing immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinta; Kurosawa, Aya; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-08-01

    In successive reports from 2014 to 2015, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 (XRCC4) has been identified as a novel causative gene of primordial dwarfism. XRCC4 is indispensable for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks. As NHEJ is essential for V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development, it is generally believed that abnormalities in XRCC4 cause severe combined immunodeficiency. Contrary to expectations, however, no overt immunodeficiency has been observed in patients with primordial dwarfism harboring XRCC4 mutations. Here, we describe the various XRCC4 mutations that lead to disease and discuss their impact on NHEJ and V(D)J recombination.

  1. [Liver damage caused by drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeyer, G; Weik, C

    1999-05-01

    The liver has a central role in the metabolism of many drugs, since this organ is the main site of biotransformation of endo- and xenobiotics. Water-soluble drugs have a small volume of distribution and can be eliminated unchanged in the urine. By contrast, lipid-soluble drugs have a larger volume of distribution and require conversion to water-soluble metabolites for their elimination in urine or bile. The liver with its specific receptors, transporters and enzymes is responsible for the uptake, transformation and excretion of the lipophilic drugs. While most of the drugs are transformed into stable metabolites, other drugs form reactive, potentially toxic, metabolites producing liver cell damage. Liver injury caused by drugs may mimic almost any kind of liver disease. Clinical findings are gastrointestinal symptoms with nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, cholestatic liver injury with jaundice and pruritus of severe inflammatory and cirrhotic liver damage with signs of liver failure, encephalopathy and cerebral edema. The morphological changes vary from hepatitis, cholestasis, fatty liver, granulomatous hepatitis, peri-/portal inflammation, to fibrosis with cirrhotic alterations and vascular lesions and tumors. The most commonly used drugs causing severe liver injury are discussed in detail. These are anabolics, oral contraceptives, antituberculous and antifungal agents, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ring substituted amphetamins ("designer drugs"), antiarrhythmics and antibiotics.

  2. Zika virus causes testicular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Householder, Sarah; Yockey, Laura J.; Hastings, Andrew K.; Homer, Robert J.; Iwasaki, Akiko; Fikrig, Erol

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been found to cause fetal infection and neonatal abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological dysfunction. ZIKV persists in the semen months after the acute viremic phase in humans. To further understand the consequences of ZIKV persistence in males, we infected Ifnar1−/− mice via subcutaneous injection of a pathogenic but nonlethal ZIKV strain. ZIKV replication persists within the testes even after clearance from the blood, with interstitial, testosterone-producing Leydig cells supporting virus replication. We found high levels of viral RNA and antigen within the epididymal lumen, where sperm is stored, and within surrounding epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, at 21 days post-infection, the testes of the ZIKV-infected mice were significantly smaller compared to those of mock-infected mice, indicating progressive testicular atrophy. ZIKV infection caused a reduction in serum testosterone, suggesting that male fertility can be affected. Our findings have important implications for nonvector-borne vertical transmission, as well as long-term potential reproductive deficiencies, in ZIKV-infected males. PMID:28261663

  3. [Tonic pupil caused by ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, H

    1989-01-01

    Tonic pupil is usually an idiopathic condition. In some cases, the cause of the ciliary ganglion lesion leading to tonic pupils is obvious. Rarely ischemia causes a lesion of the ciliary ganglion or the short ciliary nerves due to the good blood supply of the ciliary ganglion. Only two cases of tonic pupils in the course of giant cell arteritis are mentioned in the literature, but tonic pupils are probably much more common with this disease. Five cases are demonstrated here. All had associated ischemic optic neuropathy, and stagnation of the blood flow in the supratrochlear artery could be demonstrated in two cases by Doppler sonography. Tonic pupils may also occur when an oclusion of the internal carotid artery resolves, probably because of transient stasis of the orbital blood flow. In another case, tonic pupils were associated with choroidal ischemia (proved by video fluorescent angiography) of unknown origin. The diagnosis of tonic pupils was made by pharmacological testing for cholinergic hypersensitivity with 0.1% pilocarpine.

  4. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  5. Occupational asthma caused by palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daenen, M.; Rochette, F.; Demedts, M.; Nemery, B. [K.U. Leuven, Pneumology (Belgium); Rogiers, P. [A.Z. St-Lucas, Brugge (Belgium); Walle, C. Van de [Siemens, Oostkamp (Belgium)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to complex platinum salts is a well-known cause of occupational asthma. Although there is evidence that platinum refinery workers may also be sensitized to other precious metals, such as palladium or rhodium, no instances of occupational asthma due to an isolated sensitization to palladium have been reported. A case is reported of occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in a previously healthy worker exposed to the fumes of an electroplating bath containing palladium. There was no exposure to platinum. Sensitization to palladium was documented by skin-prick tests. The skin-prick test was positive with Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Cl{sub 2}, but not with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}PdCl{sub 4}. Corresponding salts of platinum were all negative. A bronchial provocation test with Pd(NH{sub 34})Cl{sub 2} (0.0001 % for a total of 315 s, followed by 0.001 % for a total of 210 s) led to an early decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (-35%). A similar exposure (0.001 % for a total of 16 min) in an unrelated asthmatic gave no reaction. This case shows that an isolated sensitization to palladium can occur and that respiratory exposure to palladium is a novel cause of metal-induced occupational asthma. (au) 24 refs.

  6. Do We Know What Causes Kaposi Sarcoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention Do We Know What Causes Kaposi Sarcoma? Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is caused by infection with a ... Sarcoma? Can Kaposi Sarcoma Be Prevented? More In Kaposi Sarcoma About Kaposi Sarcoma Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  7. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  8. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook ... Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by ...

  9. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors, and Prevention Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer? The exact cause of most testicular cancers is ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  10. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  11. [Myocardial infarction caused by exertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F; Weber, S

    1997-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is the main cause of sudden death during physical exercise, particularly in subjects over 40 and may even occur in high-performance young athletes. Sports and physical activity have a beneficial effect in preventing cardiovascular diseases, but certain rules of prudence must be followed to avoid the risk of a severe coronary event. Myocardial infarction always occurs in particularly susceptible subjects with several risk factors, predominantly smoking, hypercholesterolemia, family history of atherosclerosis. Dietary factors, either before, during or after the exercise, are always found. Distribution of coronary lesions differs with age. Before 40 years, the coronary network is normal in 40% of the cases. The infarction is partially explained by platelet hyperaggregahility and coronary spasms at exercise or in the post-exercise period.

  12. Osteomyelitis caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Shinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, nonfermenting gram-negative rod and described as a waterborne bacterium since it habits aquatic environments ubiquitously. It has frequently been isolated from aquatic surroundings in the hospital and from various human body sites. Although occasionally considered a non-pathogen, A. xylosoxidans has been associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infection due to contaminated fluids. Moreover, a wide variety of infectious etiologies due to A. xylosoxidans has been reported primarily in immunocompromised individuals. Heightened awareness of this bacterium and associated clinical importance is warranted for clinicians since its broad disease spectrum in humans and frequent multi-drug resistance may result in an increased mortality rate. In this report, we describe a case of osteomyelitis caused by A. xylosoxidans in a patient with a history of diabetes mellitus.

  13. Osteomyelitis caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinha, Takashi; Oguagha, Ifeanyi C

    2015-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, nonfermenting gram-negative rod and described as a waterborne bacterium since it habits aquatic environments ubiquitously. It has frequently been isolated from aquatic surroundings in the hospital and from various human body sites. Although occasionally considered a non-pathogen, A. xylosoxidans has been associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infection due to contaminated fluids. Moreover, a wide variety of infectious etiologies due to A. xylosoxidans has been reported primarily in immunocompromised individuals. Heightened awareness of this bacterium and associated clinical importance is warranted for clinicians since its broad disease spectrum in humans and frequent multi-drug resistance may result in an increased mortality rate. In this report, we describe a case of osteomyelitis caused by A. xylosoxidans in a patient with a history of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Heroin overdose: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner-Smith, M; Darke, S; Lynskey, M; Hall, W

    2001-08-01

    Over the past decade fatal opioid overdose has emerged as a major public health issue internationally. This paper examines the risk factors for overdose from a biomedical perspective. While significant risk factors for opioid overdose fatality are well recognized, the mechanism of fatal overdose remains unclear. Losses of tolerance and concomitant use of alcohol and other CNS depressants clearly play a major role in fatality; however, such risk factors do not account for the strong age and gender patterns observed consistently among victims of overdose. There is evidence that systemic disease may be more prevalent in users at greatest risk of overdose. We hypothesize that pulmonary and hepatic dysfunction resulting from such disease may increase susceptibility to both fatal and non-fatal overdose. Sequelae of non-fatal overdose are recognized in the clinical literature but few epidemiological data exist describing the burden of morbidity arising from such sequelae. The potential for overdose to cause persisting morbidity is reviewed.

  15. Coordination failure caused by sunspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugnot, Julie; Gürgüç, Zeynep; Øvlisen, Frederik Roose

    2012-01-01

    In a coordination game with Pareto-ranked equilibria, we study whether a sunspot can lead to either coordination on an inferior equilibrium (mis-coordination) or to out-of equilibrium behavior (dis-coordination). While much of the literature searches for mechanisms to attain coordination...... on the efficient equilibrium, we consider sunspots as a potential reason for coordination failure. We conduct an experiment with a three player 2x2x2 game in which coordination on the efficient equilibrium is easy and should normally occur. In the control session, we find almost perfect coordination on the payoff......-dominant equilibrium, but in the sunspot treatment, dis-coordination is frequent. Sunspots lead to significant inefficiency, and we conclude that sunspots can indeed cause coordination failure....

  16. Pyopneumopericardium caused by mediastinal granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Lorne J; Malthaner, Richard A; Quantz, Mackenzie A

    2002-07-01

    We report the case of a previously healthy 32-year-old man who was seen with flulike symptoms, dyspnea, and chest pain. The diagnosis was pyopneumopericardium, and pericardial tap revealed 1.3 L of purulent material. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated a calcified mass inferior to the carina. Urgent exploration through a right thoracotomy revealed that the mass was adherent to the esophagus and pericardium. The subcarinal mass was resected. Pathological study demonstrated granulomatous lymph nodes, which were likely due to histoplasmosis. This is among the first reports of granulomatous erosion into the pericardium causing pyopneumopericardium. The patient made a good recovery, and his case demonstrates the importance of early imaging and mediastinal exploration for pyopneumopericardium.

  17. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  18. Endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma M Al-Jasser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year–old man with pre-existing rheumatic heart disease and aortic regurgitation (AR presented with intermittent fever, ankle swelling and clinical evidence of endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiogram (TEE revealed vegetations and destruction of the aortic valve (AV. Blood cultures grew a gram positive coccobacillus which was phenotypically identified as Abiotrophia defectvia (A.defectiva. A diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE due to A.defectiva was made. Treatment, with penicillin and gentamicin, was administered for 4 weeks. Mechanical valve replacement was required few days after starting the antibiotic therapy. The patient had a favorable outcome on follow up.Although A.defectiva is an uncommon cause of endocarditis, early and correct identification of this pathogen is important to improve the outcome and the prognosis of patients with IE due to this organism.

  19. The causes of whale strandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, D O

    1982-03-01

    Strandings of cetaceans (whales and dolphins) is probably the result of a sequence of events rather than a simple cause-and-effect relationship. Strandings of solitary animals are more common than massed and generally thought to be due to severe disease. Mass strandings (three to several hundred individuals) are less common, but very spectacular. Mass strandings are considered to be due to a complex of factors in which behavioural factors are probably important, severe disease making an unimportant, or negligible contribution. There may be interaction of physical conditions (weather, tides, currents, coastline) and biological conditions (predators, feeding, disturbance of echolocation and disease) which result in stranding. One postulated reason for stranding is that it is dependent on instinctive behaviour, deeply located in subcortical areas of the brain, which provokes cetaceans to seek refuge ashore when under stress.

  20. Causes of secondary pediatric osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Maria Luisa

    2013-06-01

    Secondary osteoporosis is increasingly observed in both adult and pediatric patients affected by many heterogeneous diseases. Most forms of secondary osteoporosis derive from one or more of the following causes: malnutrition, malabsorption, immobilization and/or reduced mechanical load, vitamin D deficiency, chronic inflammation, hormonal derangements, and chronic use of glucocorticoids and other drugs. Considering the lack of symptoms in the early phases, both the risk and the presence of secondary osteoporosis tend to be underestimated, and as a consequence, appropriate prevention/treatment measures are often delayed or not taken at all. Failure to accumulate an appropriate bone mass for gender and age or to build an architecturally "strong" bone must always be suspected when a child or adolescent presents with frequent and/or low-trauma fractures, chronic bone pain, or an incidental finding of "osteopenia" on plain X-rays. Known risk factors must always be considered.

  1. Genetic causes of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffs, Katrien; Seneca, Sara; Lissens, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Male infertility, affecting around half of the couples with a problem to get pregnant, is a very heterogeneous condition. Part of patients are having a defect in spermatogenesis of which the underlying causes (including genetic ones) remain largely unknown. The only genetic tests routinely used in the diagnosis of male infertility are the analyses for the presence of Yq microdeletions and/or chromosomal abnormalities. Various other single gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility. Yet, their causative effect often remains to be proven. The recent evolution in the development of whole genome-based techniques may help in clarifying the role of genes and other genetic factors involved in spermatogenesis and spermatogenesis defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Nattrassia mangiferae causing fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindo A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fungal keratitis caused by the coelomycetous fungus Nattrassia mangiferae in a 70 year old gentleman, agriculturist by occupation, with a history of injury to his right eye. The scraping showed narrow septate fungal hyphae on a KOH mount, isolation of a fast growing black mould, which demonstrated hyphae and arthroconidia of varying widths typical of the Scytalidium synanamorph (S. dimidiatum. The formation of the pycnidia, which at maturity, expressed conidia. The patient was started on topical itraconazole one hourly and topical atropine thrice a day. The patient was lost to follow up hence we are not able to comment on the final outcome of the patient.

  3. Infections caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choroszy-Król, Irena; Frej-Mądrzak, Magdalena; Hober, Martyna; Sarowska, Jolanta; Jama-Kmiecik, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    High affinity to the epithelial lining of the airways makes Chlamydophila pneumoniae a common etiological agent of respiratory tract infections (RTI). It causes among others: pharyngitis, tracheitis, sinusitis, otitis media, bronchitis and bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. It is estimated that Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection is responsible for about 20% of lower respiratory tract infections. Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection may play an important role in the pathogenesis and course of bronchial asthma. The recent results indicate that Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection may be a factor responsible for 4-16% of COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) exacerbations. A relationship of chlamydial infection with atherosclerosis raises huge interest. A connection of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection with other non-communicable diseases such as lung cancer, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis and erythema nodosum is also recognized, although the role of these bacteria has not been fully understood in any of the listed diseases.

  4. Can cardiac surgery cause hypopituitarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Flverly; Burger, Ines; Poll, Eva Maria; Reineke, Andrea; Strasburger, Christian J; Dohmen, Guido; Gilsbach, Joachim M; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka

    2012-03-01

    Apoplexy of pituitary adenomas with subsequent hypopituitarism is a rare but well recognized complication following cardiac surgery. The nature of cardiac on-pump surgery provides a risk of damage to the pituitary because the vascular supply of the pituitary is not included in the cerebral autoregulation. Thus, pituitary tissue may exhibit an increased susceptibility to hypoperfusion, ischemia or intraoperative embolism. After on-pump procedures, patients often present with physical and psychosocial impairments which resemble symptoms of hypopituitarism. Therefore, we analyzed whether on-pump cardiac surgery may cause pituitary dysfunction also in the absence of pre-existing pituitary disease. Twenty-five patients were examined 3-12 months after on-pump cardiac surgery. Basal hormone levels for all four anterior pituitary hormone axes were measured and a short synacthen test and a growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine (GHRH-ARG)-test were performed. Quality of life (QoL), depression, subjective distress for a specific life event, sleep quality and fatigue were assessed by means of self-rating questionnaires. Hormonal alterations were only slight and no signs of anterior hypopituitarism were found except for an insufficient growth hormone rise in two overweight patients in the GHRH-ARG-test. Psychosocial impairment was pronounced, including symptoms of moderate to severe depression in 9, reduced mental QoL in 8, dysfunctional coping in 6 and pronounced sleep disturbances in 16 patients. Hormone levels did not correlate with psychosocial impairment. On-pump cardiac surgery did not cause relevant hypopituitarism in our sample of patients and does not serve to explain the psychosocial symptoms of these patients.

  5. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative

  6. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T D

    1999-01-24

    multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of "what dose does?" in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of "what dose is?" Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  7. Genetic causes of spermatogenic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annelien Massart; Willy Lissens; Herman Tournaye; Katrien Stouffs

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10%-15% of couples are infertile,and a male factor is involved in almost half of these cases.This observation is due in part to defects in spermatogenesis,and the underlying causes,including genetic abnormalities,remain largely unknown.Until recently,the only genetic tests used in the diagnosis of male infertility were aimed at detecting the presence of microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome and/or chromosomal abnormalities.Various other single-gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility.However,their causative effects often remain unproven.The recent evolution in the development of whole-genome-based techniques and the large-scale analysis of mouse models might help in this process.Through knockout mouse models,at least 388 genes have been shown to be associated with spermatogenesis in mice.However,problems often arise when translating this information from mice to humans.

  8. Environmental Degradation: Causes and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Tyagi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of environmental economics is at the forefront of the green debate: the environment can no longer be viewed as an entity separate from the economy. Environmental degradation is of many types and have many consequences. To address this challenge a number of studies have been conducted in both developing and developed countries applying different methods to capture health benefits from improved environmental quality. Minimizing exposure to environmental risk factors by enhancing air quality and access to improved sources of drinking and bathing water, sanitation and clean energy is found to be associated with significant health benefits and can contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals of environmental sustainability, health and development. In this paper, I describe the national and global causes and consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice. This paper provides a review of the literature on studies associated with reduced environmental risk and in particular focusing on reduced air pollution, enhanced water quality and climate change mitigation.

  9. Dyscalculia: Characteristics, Causes, and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Price

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental Dyscalculia (DD is a learning disorder affecting the ability to acquire school-level arithmetic skills, affecting approximately 3-6% of individuals. Progress in understanding the root causes of DD and how best to treat it have been impeded by lack of widespread research and variation in characterizations of the disorder across studies. However, recent years have witnessed significant growth in the field, and a growing body of behavioral and neuroimaging evidence now points to an underlying deficit in the representation and processing of numerical magnitude information as a potential core deficit in DD. An additional product of the recent progress in understanding DD is the resurgence of a distinction between ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ developmental dyscalculia. The first appears related to impaired development of brain mechanisms for processing numerical magnitude information, while the latter refers to mathematical deficits stemming from external factors such as poor teaching, low socio-economic status, and behavioral attention problems or domain-general cognitive deficits. Increased awareness of this distinction going forward, in combination with longitudinal empirical research, offers great potential for deepening our understanding of the disorder and developing effective educational interventions.

  10. Lymphoma caused by intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mitsuko L; Schiestl, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  11. Spondylodiscitis Caused by Enterobacter agglomerans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath Jayaweera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the globe, the incidence of vertebral infection is rising. Nowadays, compared to tuberculous variety, pyogenic spondylodiscitis incidence is high. The increase in the susceptible population and improved diagnostics summatively contributed to this. In clinical grounds, differentiation of pyogenic and tuberculous spondylodiscitis is well defined. Enterobacter agglomerans is a hospital contaminant and associated with infections in immunocompromised individuals and intravenous lines. It causes a wide array of infections. Enterobacter agglomerans spondylodiscitis is unusual and there are, around the globe, only less than 31 suspected cases that have been previously reported. Enterobacter agglomerans histology mimics tuberculous rather than pyogenic spondylodiscitis. A 65-year-old farming lady, while being in hospital, developed sudden onset spastic paraparesis with hyperreflexia. Later blood culture revealed Enterobacter agglomerans with 41-hour incubation in 99.9% probability from Ramel identification system. Her initial ESR was 120 mm/first hour. Isolate was susceptible to ciprofloxacin and intravenous followed with oral therapy shows a drastic ESR fall and improved clinical response. Differentiation of tuberculous and pyogenic spondylodiscitis is very much important in management point of view. Therefore, blood culture has a role in diagnosis of spondylodiscitis. ESR can be used as important inflammatory marker in monitoring the response to treatment. Retrospectively, ESR would aid in reaching a definitive diagnosis.

  12. Reduced pallidal output causes dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. In the present article, we will introduce our recent electrophysiological studies in hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and in a human cervical dystonia patient, and discuss the pathophysiology of dystonia on the basis of these electrophysiological findings. Recording of neuronal activity in the awake state of DYT1 dystonia model mice revealed reduced spontaneous activity with bursts and pauses in both internal (GPi and external (GPe segments of the globus pallidus. Electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked responses composed of excitation and subsequent long-lasting inhibition, the latter of which was never observed in normal mice. In addition, somatotopic arrangements were disorganized in the GPi and GPe of dystonia model mice. In a human cervical dystonia patient, electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked similar long-lasting inhibition in the GPi and GPe. Thus, reduced GPi output may cause increased thalamic and cortical activity, resulting in the involuntary movements observed in dystonia.

  13. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  14. Onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon mucoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Rizzitelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon mucoides in a man with diabetes is presented. The infection was characterized by a brown–black pigmentation of the nail plates and subungual hyperkeratosis of the first three toes of both feet. Onychogryphosis was also visible on the third left toe. Direct microscopic examinations revealed wide and septate hyphae and spores. Three cultures on Sabouraud–gentamicin–chloramphenicol 2 agar and chromID Candida agar produced white, creamy, and smooth colonies that were judged to be morphologically typical of T. mucoides. Microscopic examinations of the colonies showed arthroconidia and blastoconidia. The urease test was positive. A sugar assimilation test on yeast nitrogen base agar showed assimilation of galactitol, sorbitol, and arabinitol. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF confirmed the diagnosis of T. mucoides infection. The patient was treated with topical urea and oral itraconazole. Three months later, a mild improvement was observed. The patient was subsequently lost to follow-up.

  15. [Anaphylaxis caused by royal jelly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, A; Rubira, N; Nogueiras, C; Guspi, R; Baltasar, M; Cadahia, A

    1995-01-01

    Royal jelly is the food on which are fed and which causes them to develop into queen bees. It is claimed to have rejuvenating virtues for human beings. This report describes a 15-year-old atopic woman who presented, 15 minutes after the intake of royal jelly, local angioedema, generalised urticaria, dysphonia and bronchospasm. She was given antihistaminics and corticoesteroids and responded well. The ingested product contains royal jelly, lactose and potassium sorbate. No anaphylactic reactions to lactose and sorbates have been described previously. Prick test to common food allergens hymenoptera venoms and pollens were negative. RAST to meletin was also negative. Blood eosinophils were 600 and total IgE 465. Non-commercial prepared specific IgE to royal jelly was positive (0.8 KU/l). Prick by prick was positive to 1/10 dilution, being negative in controls (undiluted). No oral provocation test was performed due to the risk of anaphylaxis. No reported cases of royal jelly allergy were founded in a review of the medical literature. Concluding, it is the first described case of IgE anaphylactic reaction due to royal jelly.

  16. Trypanosomatid parasites causing neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, K; Honek, J; Cadmus, C M C v C; Efferth, T

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic diseases such as Kala azar (visceral leishmaniasis), Chagas disease human (American trypanosomiasis) and African sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) are affecting more than 27 million people worldwide. They are categorized amongst the most important neglected diseases causing approximately 150,000 deaths annually. As no vaccination is available, treatment is solely dependent on chemotherapeutic drugs. This review provides a comprehensive insight into the treatment of Kala azar, Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness. In addition to established drugs, novel small molecule- based therapeutic approaches are discussed. Drugs currently used for the treatment of Kala azar include pentavalent antimonials, Amphotericin B, Miltefosine, and Paromomycin. Liposomal formulations such as AmBisome provide promising alternatives. Furthermore, antiproliferative compounds might open new avenues in Kala azar treatment. Regarding Chagas disease, chemotherapy is based on two drugs, Nifurtimox and Benznidazole. However, sequencing of T. cruzi genome in the year 2005 raises a hope for new drug targets. Proteases, sterols and sialic acids are potential promising drug targets. Suramin, Pentamidine, Melarsporol and Eflornithine are well-established drugs to treat African sleeping sickness. New treatment options include combination therapy of Eflornithine and Nifurtimox, a Chagas disease therapeutic.. However, all approved chemotherapeutic compounds for trypanosomatid diseases suffer from high toxicity. Further, increasing resistance limits their efficacy and compliance.

  17. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushnapriya Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children′s physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  18. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holand, P.

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  19. Suppression of maize root diseases caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium graminearum by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K K; Tilak, K V; Saxena, A K; Dey, R; Singh, C S

    2001-01-01

    A plant growth-promoting isolate of a fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 and two bacilli isolates MR-11(2) and MRF, isolated from maize rhizosphere, were found strongly antagonistic to Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium graminearum and Macrophomina phaseolina, causal agents of foot rots and wilting, collar rots/stalk rots and root rots and wilting, and charcoal rots of maize, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. EM85 produced antifungal antibiotics (Afa+), siderophore (Sid+), HCN (HCN+) and fluorescent pigments (Flu+) besides exhibiting plant growth promoting traits like nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, and production of organic acids and IAA. While MR-11(2) produced siderophore (Sid+), antibiotics (Afa+) and antifungal volatiles (Afv+), MRF exhibited the production of antifungal antibiotics (Afa+) and siderophores (Sid+). Bacillus spp. MRF was also found to produce organic acids and IAA, solubilized tri-calcium phosphate and fixed nitrogen from the atmosphere. All three isolates suppressed the diseases caused by Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium graminearum and Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro. A Tn5:: lacZ induced isogenic mutant of the fluorescent Pseudomonas EM85, M23, along with the two bacilli were evaluated for in situ disease suppression of maize. Results indicated that combined application of the two bacilli significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the Macrophomina-induced charcoal rots of maize by 56.04%. Treatments with the MRF isolate of Bacillus spp. and Tn5:: lacZ mutant (M23) of fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 significantly reduced collar rots, root and foot rots, and wilting of maize caused by Fusarium moniliforme and F. graminearum (P = 0.05) compared to all other treatments. All these isolates were found very efficient in colonizing the rhizotic zones of maize after inoculation. Evaluation of the population dynamics of the fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 using the Tn5:: lacZ marker and of the Bacillus spp. MRF and MR-11(2) using an antibiotic resistance

  20. Common Cause Abduction : Its Scope and Limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziurosz-Serafinowicz, Patryk

    2012-01-01

    Patryk Dziurosz-Serafmowicz, Common Cause Abduction: Its Scope and Limits This article aims to analyze the scope and limits of common cause abduction which is a version of explanatory abduction based on Hans Reichenbach's Principle of the Common Cause. First, it is argued that common cause abduction

  1. 7 CFR 276.6 - Good cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good cause. 276.6 Section 276.6 Agriculture... cause. (a) When a State agency has failed to comply with provisions of the Act, the regulations issued... cause for the noncompliance. FNS shall evaluate good cause in these situations on a case-by-case...

  2. Coarsening behaviour of M23C6 carbides in creep-resistant steel exposed to high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    M. Godec; Skobir Balantič, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    High operating temperatures can have very deleterious effects on the long-term performance of high-Cr, creep-resistant steels used, for example, in the structural components of power plants. For the popular creep-resistant steel X20CrMoV12.1 we analysed the processes of carbide growth using a variety of analytical techniques: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffraction (TED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The evolution of the micro...

  3. Cloning and sequence analysis of CP gene of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus from almond plants in Xinjiang%李属坏死环斑病毒(PNRSV)新疆巴旦木分离物外壳蛋白基因(CP)片断的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷智婷; 韩剑; 周国辉; 张祥林; 罗明; 潘亚南

    2012-01-01

    【目的】为了查明新疆巴旦木果树病原病毒的种类,为病毒的分子检测提供基础。【方法】采用双抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附法(DAS—ELISA),从巴旦木果树叶片中检测到李属坏死环斑病毒(PNRSV)。以阳性样品的总RNA为模板进行PNRSV外壳蛋白基因(CP)RT—PCR扩增,对预期430bp大小的4个扩增产物进行克隆、测序和序列分析。【结果】结果表明,PNRSV新疆巴旦木分离物cJP基因的核苷酸和氨基酸序列与世界各地已报道的分离物具有较高的同源性,分别为80.0%-97.2%和80.1%-94.1%,其中与阿根廷分离物AY217的同源性最高:而与同属03亚组的苹果花叶病毒(ApMV)同源性较低,仅为52.9%~55.4%和45.6%-48.6%。新疆PNRSV各分离物之间C尸基因高度同源。序列比对与系统发生树的分析显示,PNRSV新疆巴旦木分离物的株系属于Group I组。【结论】确定了PNRSV为侵染新疆巴旦木果树的病原病毒。这是PNRSV在新疆发现的首次报道。%[Objective]The objective of the study is to identify the virus infecting almond trees in Xinjiang Province,and provide a foundation for developing molecular detection of the viral diseases. [Method]The samples showing typical symptoms of virus-like diseases were screened by Double-Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (DAS-ELISA), and eight were tested positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV). Using universal primers for viral coat protein gene (CP) of PNRSV, RT-PCR were performed with the total RNA as templates extracted from the detected positive samples. Four amplified cDNA fragments with expected amplified sizes of 430 bp were cloned and sequenced. [Result]The similarity analysis of the nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid of CP gene showed highly identity between of PNRSV-Xinjiang isolates and that from several different countries, sharing identities of

  4. Control of San Jose Scale Nymphs, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, on Almond and Apple Orchards with Pyriproxyfen, Phenoxycarb, Chlorpyrifos, and Mineral Oil Control de Ninfas de la Escama de San José, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, en Almendros y Manzanos con Piriproxifen, Fenoxicarb, Clorpirifos y Aceite Mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sazo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pyriproxyfen, phenoxycarb, chlorpyrifos, and mineral oil in the control of first generation nymphs of the San Jose scale (SJC, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, in almond, Prunusdulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb, and apple, Malusdomestica Borkh. orchards was studied in the 2001-2002 season in central Chile. One and two sprays of pyriproxyfen 0.07% and phenoxycarb 0.05% were applied, the first at the beginning of the appearance of nymphs in early spring (biofix, and the other 15 days later, and were compared with one spray of chlorpyrifos 0.08% applied at the biofix. Also, one and two sprays of mineral oil 1% were evaluated, the first applied 7 days after the biofix, and the second 15 days after the first spray. Evaluations were done in the laboratory at the end of the dispersion of first generation nymphs, on December 27 and 28 for almonds and apples, respectively, counting the number of nymphs fixed per lineal meter of new twigs collected at infested sectors, percentage of infested apples, and the number of scales fixed per fruit. Results were subjected to ANOVA and Duncan multiple range tests. At low level infestation, one application of pyriproxyfen 0.07%, phenoxycarb 0.05%, or mineral oil 1% in spring reduced significantly (P≤0.05 the number of nymphs fixed per twig, at a level similar to that of a traditional treatment of chlorpyrifos 0.08%. However, at greater infestations, one spray of pyriproxyfen or mineral oil in spring was insufficient to control ESJ.En la temporada 2001-2002 se estudió el efecto de piriproxifen, fenoxicarb, clorpyrifos y aceite mineral en el control de las ninfas de la primera generación de la Escama de San José (ESJ, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, en almendros, Prunusdulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb, y manzanos, Malusdomestica Borkh., en Chile central. Se hicieron una y dos aplicaciones de piriproxifen 0,07% y fenoxicarb 0,05%, la primera en el inicio del nacimiento de ninfas de primavera (biofix y la segunda

  5. Effect of Ethephon on Almond Bloom Delay, Yield, and Nut Quality under Warm Climate Conditions in Northwestern Mexico Efecto del Ethephon en el Retraso de la Floración, la Producción y la Calidad del Almendro, bajo Condiciones de Clima Caliente del Noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Leonel Grijalva-Contreras

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available World almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb production is mostly located in areas where flowering is injured by low temperatures, and using ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid to delay bloom is suggested as a measure to avoid frost damage. However, it is unknown if that practice could be beneficial in Mexico’s warm climates. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethephon on almond bloom delay and yield. We evaluated foliar applications of ethephon at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg L-1 at 10% leaf drop stage and at 150 mg L-1 during dormancy over 2 yr. In 2004, ethephon applied at 10% leaf drop stage delayed bloom by 7, 8, and 9 d at 75, 150, and 300 mg L-1, respectively (p La producción de almendra (Prunus dulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb en el mundo está situada sobre todo en las áreas donde la floración es dañada por bajas temperaturas, y se sugiere el uso del ethephon (ácido 2-cloroetil fosfónico para retrasarla, como una medida para evitar daños por helada. Sin embargo, no se sabe si esa práctica podría ser beneficiosa bajo los climas calientes de México. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del ethephon (ácido 2-cloroetil fosfónico sobre el retraso de la floración y la producción de la almendra. Evaluamos la aplicación foliar de ethephon en dosis de 75; 150 y 300 mg L-1 en la etapa de 10% de caída de la hoja, y en 150 mg L-1 en la etapa de dormancia, durante 2 años. En el 2004, ethephon aplicado en la etapa de 10% de caída de la hoja retrasó la floración por 7; 8 y 9 d a 75; 150 y 300 mg L-1 respectivamente (p < 0,01, y en 2005 el retraso de la floración fue de 3 d a 300 mg L-1. El ethephon aplicado durante dormancia retrasó la floración 2 d en el primer año pero no hubo efecto en el segundo año. El rendimiento y el amarre de fruta fueron afectados por el ethephon aplicado en la etapa de 10% de caída de la hoja en 2004, pero no en 2005. Ni la producción ni el amarre de fruta fue

  6. 顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法测定苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷含量%GC-MS Determination of Amygdalins in Bitter Almond with Sample Treatment by Head-space Solid Phase Micro-extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩素芳; 丁明; 刘亚群; 陈顺伟

    2011-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法对苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷进行了测定。0.1g苦杏仁样品及4mol·L^-1硫酸4mL置于25mL顶空瓶中,于沸水浴水解15min。PDMS/DVB萃取头顶空萃取20min,萃取头于气相色谱进样口解析1min。采用HP-5MS色谱柱在程序升温条件下进行分离。用氦气为载气,流量为1.0mL·min^-1,质谱分析中采用电子轰击电离源(230℃,70eV),并在40-600amu质量数范围内进行全扫描。结果表明:方法在100μg·g^-1以内呈线性。采用此法对市售苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷含量测定结果为60.43μg·g^-1,与分光光度法结果相符。样品5次测定结果相对标准偏差为1.8%;60μg·g^-1。及20μg·g^-1两个水平添加回收率均在90%以上。%The sample of bitter almond (0. 1 g) was hydrolyzed with 4 mol · L^-1 H2SO4 in a 25 mL headspace bottle heated in a boiling water bath for 15 min, and then extracted by SPME with the PDMS/DVB extractor for 20 min. The extractor was desorbed for 1 min at the inlet of the gas chromatograph, and separation of amygdalin was carried out on the HP-5MS chromatographic column with programmed temperature elevation. Helium with flow-rate of 1.0 mL · min ^-1 was used as carrier gas. Electron bombardment ionization (230 ℃, 70 eV) and whole scanning in the mass range of 40-600 ainu were adopted in MS analysis. Linearity was obtained in the range within 100μg · g^-1 . A sample of bitter almond was analyzed by this method, value of amygdalin content of 60. 43μg · g^-1 was found, which is in consistency with the value determined by spectrophotometry. Value of RSD (n=5) found by analyzing the same sample was 1. 8%. Values of recovery over 90% were obtained in the recovery tests at 2 concentration levels of 60μg · g^-1 and 20 μg · g^-1 .

  7. Extracción y Caracterización Fisicoquímica del Aceite de la Semilla (Almendra del Marañón (Anacardium occidentale L Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of Seed Oil (Almond of Cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J Lafont

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal del trabajo que se presenta en este artículo es la evaluación de diferentes métodos de extracción de aceite de semillas de almendras (Anacardium occidentale L y caracterización de sus propiedades físico-químicas. El procedimiento consiste en someter la muestra a procesos de extracción mecánica o prensado y a extracción con solventes aplicando dos métodos: inmersión e inmersión-percolación. El método más eficiente fue el de inmersión-percolación usando n-hexano como solvente. El rendimiento obtenido es del (97.78 ± 1.32%. El análisis de ácidos grasos por HPLC reveló un alto contenido de ácido oleico (61.36%. De estos resultados se recomienda la extracción con solventes para la industria de jabones, cosméticos y la extracción con prensado para la industria alimenticia.The main objective of the work presented in this paper is the evaluation of different methods for the extraction of almond oil (Anacardium occidentale L and the characterization of its physicochemical properties. The procedure involves subjecting the sample to mechanical extraction process, or pressing and solvent extraction using two methods, immersion and immersion-percolation. The most efficient method was the immersion-percolation using n-hexane as solvent. The yield obtained is (97.78 ± 1.12%. The fatty acid analysis by HPLC revealed high contení of oleic acid (61.36%. From these results solvent extraction is recommended for the soap industry, for cosmetics and extraction by pressing in the food industry.

  8. 49 CFR 850.20 - Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cause or probable cause determinations from Board... INVESTIGATIONS § 850.20 Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation. After an investigation conducted by the Board under § 850.15, the Board determines cause or probable cause and issues a report...

  9. Hypothyroidism: Does It Cause Joint Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Does it cause joint pain? Can hypothyroidism cause joint pain? I have hypothyroidism and have been experiencing severe arthritis-like pain in my shoulders and hips. Answers from Todd B. ...

  10. Hypothyroidism: Can It Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Can it cause peripheral neuropathy? Can hypothyroidism cause peripheral neuropathy and, if so, how is it treated? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Hypothyroidism — a condition in which your ...

  11. Rogue Genes May Cause Some ALS Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166795.html Rogue Genes May Cause Some ALS Cases Most people with ... 21, 2017 WEDNESDAY, June 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Gene mutations may cause up to 17 percent of ...

  12. FastStats: Leading Causes of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Leading Causes of Death Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Number of deaths for leading causes of death Heart disease: 633,842 • Cancer: ...

  13. Sjogren's Syndrome: Can It Cause Recurrent UTIs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it cause recurrent UTIs? Since being diagnosed with Sjogren's syndrome last year, I've had three urinary tract infections. Is there any evidence that Sjogren's syndrome causes recurrent UTIs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, ...

  14. Rhinofacial zygomycosis caused by conidiobolus coronatus

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, D. R.; Pillai, S; Rao, L

    2004-01-01

    Fungal infections are common in a tropical country like India. Among the Zygomycosis infections, those caused by Mucorales are more prevalent. However, there exists another order of zygomycetes, the Entomophthorales, which rarely cause clinical disease. We report a rare cause of fungal infection of the maxillo-facial region and the oropharynx in a previously healthly male adult caused by Conidiobolus coronata of the order Entomophthorales to highlight the clinical presentation and treatment o...

  15. BUCKLE: A Model of Unobserved Cause Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Dealing with alternative causes is necessary to avoid making inaccurate causal inferences from covariation data. However, information about alternative causes is frequently unavailable, rendering them unobserved. The current article reviews the way in which current learning models deal, or could deal, with unobserved causes. A new model of causal…

  16. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dry skin, with no blisters, on his left leg was reported [Figure 1]. ... can indeed cause it. in very rare cases, the condition can cause damage leading to skin cancer. ... After an extensive work‑up, burning caused by use of a laptop was observed.

  17. 46 CFR 4.40-20 - Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cause or probable cause determinations from Board... Board Marine Casualty Investigations § 4.40-20 Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation. After an investigation conducted by the Board under § 4.40-15, the Board determines cause...

  18. More on the Cause-Effect Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Jerzy A.

    2007-06-01

    Does every event have a cause? An answer is not simple. The notion of cause contains a particular being y acting on being x plus everything that may be called the boundary conditions. These may form necessary and suffcient conditions giving rise to a strong cause, or only necessary conditions, giving rise to a weak cause. These matters are discussed in this article with particular attention being paid to the argumentation of Thomas Aquinas known as prima via. Prima via is the analysis of a cause-effect sequence which leads (according to Thomas) to a First Cause (First Mover). It seems that the extrapolation of the cause-effect sequence to infinity is permissible from the logical point of view. But the possibility of weak causes seems to destroy the cause-effect "line". Here it is perhaps useful to "escape" to the metaphysical abstraction which looks at things sub ratione entitatis. If we ignore space and time (which is characteristic of this abstraction) we are led to believe that the IS of cause is finally unavoidable, which means that from the vantage point of this abstraction, i.e. from the point of view of IS, all causes are strong.

  19. [Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis caused by dental restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiminori

    2014-06-01

    We report herein on 5 patients with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis caused by a dental restoration (caries cutting, cavity preparation, inlay restoration). Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis was noted following dental restoration. Even though the pulp cavity and dental pulp were intact, the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis occurred caused by an apical lesion. Infection by way of the dentinal tubules was suggested to be a cause of the pathophysiology. Endoscopic sinus surgery was indicated in patients with intractable odontogenic maxillary sinusitis caused by the dental restoration. Cone-beam x-ray CT was useful for the accurate diagnosis of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis caused by a dental restoration. Physicians should thus be aware of the possibility that a tooth, which has undergone dental restoration, may cause odontogenic maxillary sinusitis.

  20. 水/有机溶剂双相中杏仁醇腈酶促不对称合成(R)-苯乙氰醇%Asymmetric Synthesis of (R)-Mandelonitrile Catalysed by (R)-Oxynitrila se from Almond in Water/Organic Solvent Biphase Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘森林; 宗敏华; 涂然; 周番

    2001-01-01

    研究了水/有机溶剂双相中来源于杏仁的(R)-醇腈酶催化苯甲醛与HCN不对称合成(R )-苯乙氰醇,系统探讨了有机溶剂、水相与有机溶剂相体积比、水相pH值和反应温度对反 应速度、转化率和产物光学纯度的影响. 结果表明,上述因素对醇腈酶促不对称合成(R) -苯乙氰醇反应均有显著影响. 异丙醚为该反应最好的有机溶剂,水相与有机溶剂相体积比 以1/2为宜,适宜的pH值为3.4,最佳反应温度为0~5 ℃. 在该优化反应条件下,反应转化率 和产物的光学纯度均高达99%以上.%The asymmetric synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile from benzaldehyde and hydrog en cyanide using (R)-oxynitrilase from bitter almond in water/organic solve nt biphase systems was studied. The effects of organic solvents, volume ratio of water phase to organic phase, pH value of aqueous phase and reaction temperatur e on the initial reaction rate, the final conversion and enantiomeric purity of the product were explored. All above mentioned facts had important effects on th e reaction. Diisopropyl ether is found to be the best organic solvent for the re action. The optimum volume ratio of water phase to organic phase, pH and reactio n temperature are 1/2, 3.4 and 0~5 ℃ respectively for the reaction. Under the se conditions, both the conversion rate and enantiomeric excess are as high as 99%.

  1. Mullerian anomalies: a cause of primary amenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to determine the etiologic causes of amenorrhea, the prevalence of mullerian anomalies as a cause of primary amenorrhea and the different varieties of mullerian anomalies causing primary amenorrhea. Methods: This study included all the women presenting with primary amenorrhea who presented to the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Sir T Hospital and Government Medical College, Bhavnagar from 1st January 2010 to 30th June 2012. Results: The c...

  2. Infectious discitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solans, R; Simeon, P; Cuenca, R; Fonollosa, V; Bago, J; Vilardell, M

    1992-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient who developed a vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae. The organism was isolated in cultures of blood and vertebral puncture biopsy samples. The patient was satisfactorily treated with trimethroprim and sulphamethoxazole. Enterobacter cloacae, a Gram negative organism, has been confirmed as the cause of bacteremia in patients with burns, urinary infections, in adults with pneumonia, and in children with joint infections. Spondylodiscitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae has not previously been described. Images PMID:1632668

  3. An unusual cause of gastrointestinal bleed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Adarsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI bleed often brings the patient to the emergency medical service with great anxiety. Known common causes of GI bleed include ulcers, varices, Mallory-Weiss among others. All causes of GI bleed should be considered however unusual during the evaluation. Aortoenteric fistula (AEF is one of the unusual causes of GI bleed, which has to be considered especially in patients with a history of abdominal surgery in general and aortic surgery in particular.

  4. Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NUMBER Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F • 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...3-10 AUG 05. 14. ABSTRACT Forbush decreases (FDs) in neutron monitor (NM) counting rates are caused by enhanced magnetic fields in interplanetary...VS-HA-TR-2007-1044 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference Pune (2005) 2, 267-270 Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases S.W

  5. An unusual cause of anemia and encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Kumar Sharma; Dharma Choudhary; Anil Handoo; Gaurav Dhamija; Gaurav Kharya; Vipin Khandelwal; Mayank Dhamija; Sweta Kothari

    2015-01-01

    The authors present here an interesting case of recent onset anemia that was associated with an encephalopathy of the unusual cause.Although severe anemia can theoretically result in anemic hypoxia and can then lead to hypoxic encephalopathy, it is not a primary cause of encephalopathy. More frequently anemia can contribute together with other multiple causes of encephalopathy, such as infections, metabolic abnormalities, trauma, hepatic dysfunction, hypertension, toxins.

  6. Megaloblastic Anemias: Nutritional and Other Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ralph; Datta Mitra, Ananya

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies are major causes of megaloblastic anemia. Causes of B12 deficiency include pernicious anemia, gastric surgery, intestinal disorders, dietary deficiency, and inherited disorders of B12 transport or absorption. The prevalence of folate deficiency has decreased because of folate fortification, but deficiency still occurs from malabsorption and increased demand. Other causes include drugs and inborn metabolic errors. Clinical features of megaloblastic anemia include anemia, cytopenias, jaundice, and megaloblastic marrow morphology. Neurologic symptoms occur in B12 deficiency, but not in folate deficiency. Management includes identifying any deficiency, establishing its cause, and replenishing B12 or folate parenterally or orally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hemolytic anemia caused by chemicals and toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This list is not all-inclusive. Alternative Names Anemia - hemolytic - caused by chemicals or toxins References Michel M. Autoimmune and intravascular hemolytic anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer ...

  8. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  9. How does climate change cause extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Abigail E; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Fisher-Reid, M Caitlin; Hua, Xia; Karanewsky, Caitlin J; Ryu, Hae Yeong; Sbeglia, Gena C; Spagnolo, Fabrizio; Waldron, John B; Warsi, Omar; Wiens, John J

    2013-01-07

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to be a major cause of species extinctions in the next 100 years. But what will actually cause these extinctions? For example, will it be limited physiological tolerance to high temperatures, changing biotic interactions or other factors? Here, we systematically review the proximate causes of climate-change related extinctions and their empirical support. We find 136 case studies of climatic impacts that are potentially relevant to this topic. However, only seven identified proximate causes of demonstrated local extinctions due to anthropogenic climate change. Among these seven studies, the proximate causes vary widely. Surprisingly, none show a straightforward relationship between local extinction and limited tolerances to high temperature. Instead, many studies implicate species interactions as an important proximate cause, especially decreases in food availability. We find very similar patterns in studies showing decreases in abundance associated with climate change, and in those studies showing impacts of climatic oscillations. Collectively, these results highlight our disturbingly limited knowledge of this crucial issue but also support the idea that changing species interactions are an important cause of documented population declines and extinctions related to climate change. Finally, we briefly outline general research strategies for identifying these proximate causes in future studies.

  10. The Good Cause. Theoretical Perspectives on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.; Maravić, von P.; Wagenaar, F.P.

    From conceptualization to ideas on practical policy recommendations, The Good Cause presents a state-of-the-art study on the causes of corruption. A cohort of internationally-recognized researchers from the various academic fields that study corruption come together to explain their different theore

  11. Thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tomoyuki; Urata, Teruo; Nemoto, Daisuke; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus, an organism considered as a periodontal pathogen but rarely recovered from extraoral specimens. The patient fully recovered through drainage of purulent pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics. The present case illustrates that C. rectus can be a cause of not only periodontal disease but also pulmonary infection.

  12. Acute esophageal necrosis caused by alcohol abuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsu Endo; Juichi Sakamoto; Ken Sato; Miyako Takimoto; Koji Shimaya; Tatsuya Mikami; Akihiro Munakata; Tadashi Shimoyama; Shinsaku Fukuda

    2005-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is extremely rare and the pathogenesis of this is still unknown. We report a case of AEN caused by alcohol abuse. In our case, the main pathogenesis could be accounted for low systemic perfusion caused by severe alcoholic lactic acidosis. After the healing of AEN, balloon dilatation was effective to manage the stricture.

  13. Secondary peritonitis caused by Streptomyces viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Datta (Priya); S. Arora (Shilpa); A. Jain (Ashok); J. Chander (Jagdish); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStreptomyces organisms are soil inhabitants rarely causing nonmycetomic infections. We describe a case of secondary peritonitis caused by Streptomyces viridis in a chronic alcoholic patient who presented with fever, abdominal distension, and pain in the abdomen. The most likely source of

  14. Case to Cause: Back to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, Mimi; Sherraden, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reopens the historic debate about the roles of micro and macro practice in social work and encourages the profession to find ways to achieve a better balance between case and cause in education, practice, and research. To this end, it traces the history of the case versus cause debate including conceptual frameworks for rebalancing…

  15. Genes Causing Male Infertility in Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence C. Layman

    2002-01-01

    There are an accumulating number of identified gene mutations that cause infertility in humans. Most of the known gene mutations impair normal puberty and subsequently cause infertility by either hypothalamic /pituitary deficiency of important tropic factors to the gonad or by gonadal genes.

  16. A rare cause of Cushing's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg;

    2014-01-01

    Excess glucocorticoid levels cause Cushing's syndrome (CS) and may be due to pituitary, adrenal or ectopic tumours. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels are useful in identifying adrenal tumours. In rare cases, ACTH-producing phaeochromocytomas are the cause of CS. We present two cases of ACTH...

  17. The Good Cause. Theoretical Perspectives on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.; Maravić, von P.; Wagenaar, F.P.

    From conceptualization to ideas on practical policy recommendations, The Good Cause presents a state-of-the-art study on the causes of corruption. A cohort of internationally-recognized researchers from the various academic fields that study corruption come together to explain their different

  18. Interstitial lung disease probably caused by imipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Prasanna R; Ravi, Ranjani; Gouda, Sinddalingana; Stanley, Weena; Hande, Manjunath H

    2014-01-01

    Drugs are rarely associated with causing interstitial lung disease (ILD). We report a case of a 75-year-old woman who developed ILD after exposure to imipramine. To our knowledge, this is one of the rare cases of ILD probably caused due to imipramine. There is need to report such rare adverse effects related to ILD and drugs for better management of ILD.

  19. Identification of microcracks caused by autogenous shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Guang, Ye

    2005-01-01

    Detection and quantification of microcracks caused by restrained autogenous shrinkage in high-performance concrete is difficult. Available techniques either lack the required resolution or may cause further cracks indistinguishable from the original ones. The new technique presented in this paper...... microscopy, electron probe micro analysis, EPMA, and scanning electron microscopy, SEM. A preliminary analysis of the observed microcracks is presented in this paper....

  20. Fatigue in traffic : causes and effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    The role of fatigue must not be underestimated when studying the causes of crashes. Crashes in which driver fatigue plays a role are not only a matter of having spent too long behind the wheel; fatigue can also be caused by too little sleep, stress, or the time of the day. According to a conservativ