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Sample records for m2 m-4 lx

  1. Characterization of the novel positive allosteric modulator, LY2119620, at the muscarinic M(2) and M(4) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Carrie H; Schober, Douglas A; Xiao, Hongling; Quets, Anne; Christopoulos, Arthur; Felder, Christian C

    2014-07-01

    The M(4) receptor is a compelling therapeutic target, as this receptor modulates neural circuits dysregulated in schizophrenia, and there is clinical evidence that muscarinic agonists possess both antipsychotic and procognitive efficacy. Recent efforts have shifted toward allosteric ligands to maximize receptor selectivity and manipulate endogenous cholinergic and dopaminergic signaling. In this study, we present the pharmacological characterization of LY2119620 (3-amino-5-chloro-N-cyclopropyl-4-methyl-6-[2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethoxy] thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide), a M(2)/M(4) receptor-selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM), chemically evolved from hits identified through a M4 allosteric functional screen. Although unsuitable as a therapeutic due to M(2) receptor cross-reactivity and, thus, potential cardiovascular liability, LY2119620 surpassed previous congeners in potency and PAM activity and broadens research capabilities through its development into a radiotracer. Characterization of LY2119620 revealed evidence of probe dependence in both binding and functional assays. Guanosine 5'-[γ-(35)S]-triphosphate assays displayed differential potentiation depending on the orthosteric-allosteric pairing, with the largest cooperativity observed for oxotremorine M (Oxo-M) LY2119620. Further [(3)H]Oxo-M saturation binding, including studies with guanosine-5'-[(β,γ)-imido]triphosphate, suggests that both the orthosteric and allosteric ligands can alter the population of receptors in the active G protein-coupled state. Additionally, this work expands the characterization of the orthosteric agonist, iperoxo, at the M(4) receptor, and demonstrates that an allosteric ligand can positively modulate the binding and functional efficacy of this high efficacy ligand. Ultimately, it was the M(2) receptor pharmacology and PAM activity with iperoxo that made LY2119620 the most suitable allosteric partner for the M(2) active-state structure recently solved

  2. Sequence analysis of muscarinic receptors M2 and M4 expression by cultured rat astrocyte cells%星形胶质细胞毒蕈碱样乙酰胆碱受体M2M4亚型基因克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟; 汪海

    2005-01-01

    目的:克隆胶质细胞M2M4受体亚型基因序列,并比较胶质细胞M2M4受体亚型基因序列和蛋白质序列与神经元细胞M2M4受体基因序列和蛋白质序列间的差异.方法:根据神经元细胞M2M4受体基因序列设计出针对M2M4受体基因序列全长的特异性探针,采用RT-PCR方法扩增胶质细胞M2M4受体亚型基因序列,并对其进行克隆测序.结果:通过RT-PCR方法扩增胶质细胞M2M4受体亚型基因序列,与神经元细胞M2M4受体比较,M2受体差异碱基17个,发生氨基酸改变的有8个;M4受体差异碱基3个,发生氨基酸改变的有2个.结论:胶质细胞M2M4受体与神经细胞M2M4受体亚型在基因序列和氨基酸序列上具有明显差异.

  3. Binding properties of nine 4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine (4-DAMP) analogues to M1, M2, M3 and putative M4 muscarinic receptor subtypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Waelbroeck, M.; Camus, J.; Tastenoy, M.; Christophe, J.

    1992-01-01

    1. We compared the binding properties of 4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine methiodide (4-DAMP) and nine analogues of this compound on muscarinic receptors of human neuroblastoma NB-OK1 cells (M1 subtype), rat heart (M2 subtype), rat pancreas (M3 subtype) and to the putative M4 subtype in striatum. 2. The requirements for high affinity binding were somewhat different for the four receptor subtypes. In general, the requirements of M3 receptors were more stringent than for M1, M2 or putativ...

  4. Development of a radioligand, [(3)H]LY2119620, to probe the human M(2) and M(4) muscarinic receptor allosteric binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Douglas A; Croy, Carrie H; Xiao, Hongling; Christopoulos, Arthur; Felder, Christian C

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we characterized a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) potentiator, LY2119620 (3-amino-5-chloro-N-cyclopropyl-4-methyl-6-[2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethoxy]thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide) as a novel probe of the human M2 and M4 allosteric binding sites. Since the discovery of allosteric binding sites on G protein-coupled receptors, compounds targeting these novel sites have been starting to emerge. For example, LY2033298 (3-amino-5-chloro-6-methoxy-4-methyl-thieno(2,3-b)pyridine-2-carboxylic acid cyclopropylamid) and a derivative of this chemical scaffold, VU152100 (3-amino-N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4,6-dim​ethylthieno[2,3-b]pyridine carboxamide), bind to the human M4 mAChR allosteric pocket. In the current study, we characterized LY2119620, a compound similar in structure to LY2033298 and binds to the same allosteric site on the human M4 mAChRs. However, LY2119620 also binds to an allosteric site on the human M2 subtype. [(3)H]NMS ([(3)H]N-methylscopolamine) binding experiments confirm that LY2119620 does not compete for the orthosteric binding pocket at any of the five muscarinic receptor subtypes. Dissociation kinetic studies using [(3)H]NMS further support that LY2119620 binds allosterically to the M2 and M4 mAChRs and was positively cooperative with muscarinic orthosteric agonists. To probe directly the allosteric sites on M2 and M4, we radiolabeled LY2119620. Cooperativity binding of [(3)H]LY2119620 with mAChR orthosteric agonists detects significant changes in Bmax values with little change in Kd, suggesting a G protein-dependent process. Furthermore, [(3)H]LY2119620 was displaced by compounds of similar chemical structure but not by previously described mAChR allosteric compounds such as gallamine or WIN 62,577 (17-β-hydroxy-17-α-ethynyl-δ-4-androstano[3,2-b]pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole). Our results therefore demonstrate the development of a radioligand, [(3)H]LY2119620 to probe specifically the human M2 and M4 muscarinic

  5. Different pharmacology of N-desmethylclozapine at human and rat M2 and M 4 mAChRs in neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigout, S; Wierschke, S; Dehnicke, C; Deisz, R A

    2015-05-01

    Cholinergic transmission plays a pivotal role in learning, memory and cognition, and disturbances of cholinergic transmission have been implicated in neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy and schizophrenia. Pharmacological alleviation of these diseases by drugs including N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC), promising in animal models, often fails in patients. We therefore compared the effects of NDMC on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission in slices from rat and human neocortex. We used carbachol (CCh; an established agonist at metabotropic muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs)) as a reference. Standard electrophysiological methods including intracellular and field potential recordings were used. In the rat neocortex, NDMC prevented the CCh-induced decrease of GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated responses but not the CCh-induced increase of the paired-pulse depression. NDMC reduced neither the amplitude of the excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) nor antagonized the CCh-induced depression of EPSP. In the human neocortex, however, NDMC failed to prevent CCh-induced decrease of the GABAB responses and directly reduced the amplitude of EPSP. These data suggest distinct effects of NDMC in rat and human at M2 and M4 mAChRs underlying presynaptic modulation of GABA and glutamate release, respectively. In particular, NDMC might be a M2 mAChR antagonist in the rat but has no activity at this receptor in human neocortex. However, NDMC has an agonistic effect at M4 mAChR in the human but no such effect in the rat neocortex. The present study confirms that pharmacology at mAChRs can differ between species and emphasizes the need of studies in human tissue.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMALLY DAMAGED LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P C

    2007-07-11

    Thermal damage was applied to LX-17 at 190 C for several hours. The damaged LX-17 samples, after cooled down to room temperature, were characterized for their material properties (density, porosity, permeability, moduli), safety, and performance. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant (< 0.1% wt.). The damaged LX-17 samples expanded, resulting in a bulk density reduction of 4.3%. Subsequent detonation measurements (cylinder tests) were conducted on the thermally-damaged LX-17 samples. The results showed that the fractions of damaged LX-17 reacted were slightly lower than those of pristine LX-17. The thermally damaged LX-17 had a detonation velocity of 7.315 mm/{micro}s, lower than that (7.638 mm/{micro}s) of pristine LX-17. Detonation energy density for the damaged LX-17 was 5.08 kJ/cm{sup 3}, about 9.0% lower than the detonation energy density of 5.50 kJ/cm{sup 3} for the pristine LX-17. The break-out curves showed reaction zone lengths for pristine LX-17 and damaged LX-17 were similar but the damaged samples had ragged detonation fronts.

  7. 毒蕈碱乙酰胆碱M2/M4受体亚型在调节脊髓背角神经元谷氨酸能递质释放中的作用%Role of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes in regulating glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat spinal dorsal horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜威; 郭英; 袁维秀

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) subtypes in the regulation of glutamatergic input to the spinal dorsal horn neurons and the possible mechanism.Methods Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings on acute spinal slice was utilized to investigate the effect of activation of mAChRs and blockade of M2/M4 subtypes on glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat spinal dorsal horn neurons.Results The nonselective mAChRs agonist oxotremorine-M concentration-dependently decreased the amplitude of monosynaptic and polysynaptic evoked glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) in most of the neurons.The M2/M4 antagonist himbacine completely blocked the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine-M in 92.3% of monosynaptic and 75% of polysynaptic neurons in the spinal cord slices.In the remaining 16% neurons,himbacine partially blocked the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine-M.Conclusions Activation of mAChRs in the spinal cord attenuates synaptic glutamate release to the dorsal horn neurons mainly through M2 and M4 receptor subtypes,indicating that a presynaptic inhibition in the spinal cord may be involved in the regulation of nociception by the cholinergic system and mAChRs.%目的 研究毒蕈碱胆碱能受体(mAChRs)亚型对脊髓背角感觉神经元谷氨酸能突触传递的调节机制.方法 在急性切取的腰段脊髓切片上,利用全细胞膜片钳法记录mAChRs非特异性激动剂氢化震颤素M(Oxo-M)对脊髓背角浅层神经元谷氨酸能兴奋性突触后电流(eEPSCs)的影响,给予M2/M4受体特异性拮抗剂喜巴辛,观察mAChRs在脊髓背角浅层神经元谷氨酸能递质释放调节过程中的作用.结果 不同浓度Oxo-M使脊髓背角神经元单突触和多突触eEPSCs的幅度显著降低,其抑制强度呈浓度依赖性,喜巴辛可以拮抗Oxo-M对刺激诱发eEPSCs幅度的抑制作用,在记录的25个细胞中,92.3%的单突触细胞和75%的多突触细胞表现为Oxo-M

  8. Detonation Performance Testing of LX-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Samuel; Aslam, Tariq; Jackson, Scott

    2015-06-01

    CL-20 was developed at the Naval Surface Weapons Center at China Lake, CA in the mid 80's. Being less sensitive than PETN, but considerably more powerful than HMX, it is the highest energy and density compound known among organic chemicals. LX-19 was developed at LLNL in the early 90's. It is a high-energy plastic bonded explosive, composed of 95.8 wt% CL-20 and 4.2 wt% Estane binder, and is similar to LX-14 (composed of HMX and Estane), but with greater sensitivity characteristics with use of the more energetic CL-20 explosive. We report detonation performance results for unconfined cylindrical rate sticks of LX-19. The experimental diameter effects are shown, along with detonation front shapes, and reaction zone profiles for different test diameters. This data is critical for calibration to Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD). LA-UR-15-20672.

  9. LX Cygni: A carbon star is born

    CERN Document Server

    Uttenthaler, S; Lebzelter, T; Aringer, B; Joyce, R R; Hinkle, K; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Greimel, R

    2016-01-01

    Context: The Mira variable LX Cyg showed a dramatic increase of its pulsation period in the recent decades and appears to undergo an important transition in its evolution. Aims: We aim at investigating the spectral type evolution of this star over the recent decades as well as during one pulsation cycle in more detail and discuss it in connection with the period evolution. Methods: We present optical, near- and mid-IR low-resolution as well as optical high-resolution spectra to determine the current spectral type. The optical spectrum of LX Cyg has been followed for more than one pulsation cycle. Recent spectra are compared to archival spectra to trace the spectral type evolution and a Spitzer mid-IR spectrum is analysed for the presence of molecular and dust features. Furthermore, the current period is derived from AAVSO data. Results: It is found that the spectral type of LX Cyg changed from S to C sometime between 1975 and 2008. Currently, the spectral type C is stable during a pulsation cycle. It is shown...

  10. The Physical Basis of the LX = Lbol Empirical Law for O-Star X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owocki, S. P.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Cohen, D. H.; Gayley, K. G.

    2012-12-01

    X-ray satellites since Einstein have empirically established that the X-ray luminosity from single O-stars scales linearly with bolometric luminosity, LX = 10-7 Lbol. But straightforward forms of the most favored model, in which X-rays arise from instability-generated shocks embedded in the stellar wind, predict a steeper scaling, either with mass-loss rate LX = M = Lbol1.7 if the shocks are radiative, or with LX = M2 = Lbol3.4 if they are adiabatic. We present here a generalized formalism that bridges these radiative vs. adiabatic limits in terms of the ratio of the shock cooling length to the local radius. Noting that the thin-shell instability of radiative shocks should lead to extensive mixing of hot and cool material, we then propose that the associated softening and weakening of the X-ray emission can be parameterized by the cooling length ratio raised to a power m, the “mixing exponent". For physically reasonable values m ≍ 0.4, this leads to an X-ray luminosity LX = M0.6 = Lbol that matches the empirical scaling. We conclude by noting that such thin-shell mixing may also be important for X-rays from colliding wind binaries, and that future numerical simulation studies will be needed to test this thin-shell mixing ansatz for X-ray emission.

  11. Air Gap Effects in LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Ault, S; Avara, R; Bahl, K L; Boat, R; Cunningham, B; Gidding, D; Janzen, J; Kuklo, D; Lee, R; Lauderbach, L; Weingart, W C; Wu, B; Winer, K

    2005-09-26

    Three experiments done over twenty years on gaps in LX-17 are reported. For the detonation front moving parallel to the gaps, jets of gas products were seen coming from the gaps at velocities greater than the detonation velocity. A case can be made that the jet velocity increased with gap thickness but the data is scattered. For the detonation front moving transverse to the gap, time delays were seen. The delays roughly increase with gap width, going from 0-70 ns at 'zero gap' to around 300 ns at 0.5-1 mm gap. Larger gaps of up to 6 mm width almost certainly stopped the detonation, but this was not proved. Real-time resolution of the parallel jets and determination of the actual re-detonation or failure in the transverse case needs to be done in future experiments.

  12. Variant M4 Barrel Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    in the button broached barrels. 6. Acknowledgments The authors are pleased to acknowledge the sample preparation provided by Mrs. A. Welty , RDAR...Rickard, C., & Welty , A. (2007). Comparison of electroplated chromium coatings applied to M4 and M16 barrels. US Army-ARDEC. 3) Smith, S. B., & Rickard

  13. LX-17 and ufTATB Data for Corner-Turning, Failure and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Lauderbach, L; Garza, R; Vitello, P; Hare, D E

    2010-02-03

    Data is presented for the size (diameter) effect for ambient and cold confined LX-17, unconfined ambient LX-17, and confined ambient ultrafine TATB. Ambient, cold and hot double cylinder corner-turning data for LX-17, PBX 9502 and ufTATB is presented. Transverse air gap crossing in ambient LX-17 is studied with time delays given for detonations that cross.

  14. The M2 Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santner, Paul

    and inhibition mechanisms, drug design studies were recently able to achieve successes in finding new potent inhibitors, some of which are even able to inhibit resistant M2 variants. Effective and robust methods for measuring M2 activity on the other hand are still scarce and tactics to assess the genetic...... barrier of new inhibitors as well as resistance development non-existent. Therefore we developed a fluorescence sensor based assay that directly measures proton conduction (pHlux assay) and combined it with an already established directed evolution selection and screening system of M2 to identify possible...... resistance escape routes from drug inhibition. We thereby were hopefully able to provide a platform for the large-scale evaluation of M2 channel activity, inhibitors and resistance....

  15. LX-17 Deflagration at High Pressures and Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, J; Maienschein, J; Black, K; DeHaven, M; Wardell, J

    2006-10-23

    We measure the laminar deflagration rate of LX-17 (92.5 wt% TATB, 7.5 wt% Kel-F 800) at high pressure and temperature in a strand burner, thereby obtaining reaction rate data for prediction of thermal explosion violence. Simultaneous measurements of flame front time-of-arrival and temporal pressure history allow for the direct calculation of deflagration rate as a function of pressure. Additionally, deflagrating surface areas are calculated in order to provide quantitative insight into the dynamic surface structure during deflagration and its relationship to explosion violence. Deflagration rate data show that LX-17 burns in a smooth fashion at ambient temperature and is represented by the burn rate equation B = 0.2P{sup 0.9}. At 225 C, deflagration is more rapid and erratic. Dynamic deflagrating surface area calculations show that ambient temperature LX-17 deflagrating surface areas remain near unity over the pressure range studied.

  16. CompTIA Linux+ Complete Study Guide (Exams LX0-101 and LX0-102)

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Roderick W

    2010-01-01

    Prepare for CompTIA's Linux+ Exams. As the Linux server and desktop markets continue to grow, so does the need for qualified Linux administrators. CompTIA's Linux+ certification (Exams LX0-101 and LX0-102) includes the very latest enhancements to the popular open source operating system. This detailed guide not only covers all key exam topics—such as using Linux command-line tools, understanding the boot process and scripts, managing files and file systems, managing system security, and much more—it also builds your practical Linux skills with real-world examples. Inside, you'll find:. Full co

  17. CompTIA Linux+ study guide exam LX0-103 and exam LX0-104

    CERN Document Server

    Bresnahan, Christine

    2015-01-01

    CompTIA Authorized Linux+ prepCompTIA Linux+ Study Guide is your comprehensive study guide for the Linux+ Powered by LPI certification exams. With complete coverage of 100% of the objectives on both exam LX0-103 and exam LX0-104, this study guide provides clear, concise information on all aspects of Linux administration, with a focus on the latest version of the exam. You'll gain the insight of examples drawn from real-world scenarios, with detailed guidance and authoritative coverage of key topics, including GNU and Unix commands, system operation, system administration, system services, secu

  18. ONE-DIMENSIONAL TIME TO EXPLOSION (THERMAL SENSITIVITY) TESTS ON PETN, PBX-9407, LX-10, AND LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Strout, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ellsworth, Fred Ellsworth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to thermal explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine the kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the results of our recent ODTX experiments on PETN powder, PBX-9407 pressed part, LX-10 pressed part, LX-17 pressed part and compares the test data that were obtained decades ago with the older version of ODTX system. Test results show the thermal sensitivity of various materials tested in the following order: PETN> PBX-9407 > LX-10 > LX-17.

  19. A possible giant planet orbiting the cataclysmic variable LX Ser

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K; Zhou, J -L; Wu, D -H; Guo, D -F; Jiang, Y -G; Gao, D -Y; Chen, X; Wang, X -Y

    2016-01-01

    LX Ser is a deeply eclipsing cataclysmic variable with an orbital period of $0.^d 1584325$. Sixty two new eclipse times were determined by our observations and the AAVSO International Data base. Combining all available eclipse times, we analyzed the O-C behavior of LX Ser. We found that the O-C diagram of LX Ser shows a sinusoidal oscillation with a period of 22.8 yr and an amplitude of 0.00035 days. Two mechanisms (i.e., the Applegate mechanism and the light travel time effect) are applied to explain the cyclic modulation. We found that the Applegate mechanism is difficult to explain the cyclic oscillation in the orbital period. Therefore, the cyclic period change is most likely to be caused by the light travel time effect due to the presence of a third body. The mass of the tertiary component was determined to be $M_3\\sim7.5 M_{Jup}$. We supposed that the tertiary companion is plausible a giant planet. The stability of the giant planet was checked, and we found that the multiple system is stable.

  20. A possible giant planet orbiting the cataclysmic variable LX Ser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Hu, Shaoming; Zhou, Jilin; Wu, Donghong; Guo, Difu; Jiang, Yunguo; Gao, Dongyang; Chen, Xu; Wang, Xianyu

    2017-02-01

    LX Ser is a deeply eclipsing cataclysmic variable with an orbital period of 0.1584325 d. 62 new eclipse times were determined by our observations and the AAVSO International Data base. Combining all available eclipse times, we analyzed the O - C behavior of LX Ser. We found that the O - C diagram of LX Ser shows a sinusoidal oscillation with a period of 22.8 yr and an amplitude of 0.00035 d. Two mechanisms (i.e., the Applegate mechanism and the light-travel time effect) are applied to explain the cyclic modulation. We found that it is difficult to apply the Applegate mechanism to explain the cyclic oscillation in the orbital period. Therefore, the cyclic period change is most likely to be caused by the light-travel time effect due to the presence of a third body. The mass of the tertiary component was determined to be M3 ∼ 7.5 MJup. We supposed that the tertiary companion is plausibly a giant planet. The stability of the giant planet was checked, and we found that the multiple system is stable.

  1. Parameterization of a Cookoff Model for LX-07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviles-Ramos, Cuauhtemoc [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Advanced Engineering Analysis Group (W-13)

    2016-11-22

    A thermal decomposition model for PBX 9501 (95% HMX, 2.5% Estane® binder, 2.5% BDNPA/F nitro-plasticizer) was implemented by Dickson, et. al. The objective in this study is to estimate parameters associated with this kinetics model so it can be applied to carry out thermal ignition predictions for LX-07 (90% HMX, 10% Viton binder). LX-07 thermal ignition experiments have been carried out using the “Sandia Instrumented Thermal Ignition Apparatus”, SITI. The SITI design consists of solid cylinders (1” diameter × 1” height) of high explosive (HE) confined by a cylindrical aluminum case. An electric heater is wrapped around the outer surface of the case. This heater produces a temperature heating ramp on the outer surface of the case. Internal thermocouples measure the HE temperature rise from the center to locations close to the HE-aluminum interface. The energetic material is heated until thermal ignition occurs. A two–dimensional axisymmetric heat conduction finite element model is used to simulate these experiments. The HE thermal decomposition kinetics is coupled to a heat conduction model trough the definition of an energy source term. The parameters used to define the HE thermal decomposition model are optimized to obtain a good agreement with the experimental time to thermal ignition and temperatures. Also, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the LX-07 mixture were estimated using temperatures measured at the center of the HE before the solid to solid HMX phase transition occurred.

  2. Homogeneous M2 duals

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with $N>4$ supersymmetry --- equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra $\\mathfrak{osp}(N|4)$ for $N>4$ --- we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{so}(n) \\oplus \\mathfrak{so}(3,2)$ for $n=5,6,7$. We find that there are no new backgrounds with $n=6,7$ but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with $n=5$. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form $\\operatorname{AdS}_4 \\times P^7$, with $P$ riemannian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(5)$, or $S^4 \\times Q^7$ with $Q$ lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(3,2)$. At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only $N=2$) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund--Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  3. Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    Service Summary The LX(R) program is a program to build a new class of 11 amphibious ships for the Navy. The Navy wants to procure the first LX(R) in...accelerate the procurement of the first LX(R) from FY2020 to an earlier year, so as to reduce the gap in time between the end of LPD-17 production and the

  4. Fungicin M4: a narrow spectrum peptide antibiotic from Bacillus licheniformis M-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebbadi, M; Gálvez, A; Maqueda, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Valdivia, E

    1994-07-01

    The strain Bacillus licheniformis M-4 produces a 3.4 kDa hydrophilic peptide with antifungal activity, named fungicin M4. Analysis of the purified peptide shows that it contains the amino acids Glu (8), Arg (5), Pro (4), Tyr (8), Val (3), Met (2) and Orn (4). Its inhibitory spectrum is restricted to Microsporum canis CECT 2797, Mucor mucedo CECT 2653, Mucor plumbeus CCM 443, Sporothrix schenckii CECT 2799, Bacillus megaterium and Corynebacterium glutamicum CECT 78. Fungicin M4 exerts biocidal activity on liquid cultures of Sporothrix schenckii CECT 2799.

  5. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungan, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2008-02-05

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in 0 reactive flow JWL++ and Linked Cheetah V4, mostly at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. The physical basis of the input parameters is considered.

  6. Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-08

    unaffordable for the purposes of the LX(R) program), 11 a modified (reduced capability/reduced-cost) version of the LPD-17 design, brand new (i.e...Solicitation Limited to Two Builders16 On June 25, 2015, the Navy, as part of its acquisition strategy for LX(R) program, issued a combined solicitation...estimated cost of the 12 th LPD-17 class ship by incorporating design innovations and cost-reduction strategies intended for the LX(R). 20 This will make

  7. Prediction of the Critical Curvature for LX-17 with the Time of Arrival Data from DNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fried, Laurence E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moss, William C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We extract the detonation shock front velocity, curvature and acceleration from time of arrival data measured at grid points from direct numerical simulations of a 50mm rate-stick lit by a disk-source, with the ignition and growth reaction model and a JWL equation of state calibrated for LX-17. We compute the quasi-steady (D, κ) relation based on the extracted properties and predicted the critical curvatures of LX-17. We also proposed an explicit formula that contains the failure turning point, obtained from optimization for the (D, κ) relation of LX-17.

  8. Mesoscale Modeling of LX-17 Under Isentropic Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, H K; Willey, T M; Friedman, G; Fried, L E; Vandersall, K S; Baer, M R

    2010-03-06

    Mesoscale simulations of LX-17 incorporating different equilibrium mixture models were used to investigate the unreacted equation-of-state (UEOS) of TATB. Candidate TATB UEOS were calculated using the equilibrium mixture models and benchmarked with mesoscale simulations of isentropic compression experiments (ICE). X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) data provided the basis for initializing the simulations with realistic microstructural details. Three equilibrium mixture models were used in this study. The single constituent with conservation equations (SCCE) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted specific volume and the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The single constituent equation-of-state (SCEOS) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted specific volume and the equation-of-state of the constituents. The kinetic energy averaging (KEA) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted particle velocity mixture rule and the conservation equations. The SCEOS model yielded the stiffest TATB EOS (0.121{micro} + 0.4958{micro}{sup 2} + 2.0473{micro}{sup 3}) and, when incorporated in mesoscale simulations of the ICE, demonstrated the best agreement with VISAR velocity data for both specimen thicknesses. The SCCE model yielded a relatively more compliant EOS (0.1999{micro}-0.6967{micro}{sup 2} + 4.9546{micro}{sup 3}) and the KEA model yielded the most compliant EOS (0.1999{micro}-0.6967{micro}{sup 2}+4.9546{micro}{sup 3}) of all the equilibrium mixture models. Mesoscale simulations with the lower density TATB adiabatic EOS data demonstrated the least agreement with VISAR velocity data.

  9. LX-04 VIOLENCE MEASUREMENTS- STEVEN TESTS IMPACTED BY PROJECTILES SHOT FROM A HOWITZER GUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

    2005-07-18

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

  10. Rotational motion of Foton M-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrashkin, V. I.; Voronov, K. E.; Piyakov, I. V.; Puzin, Yu. Ya.; Sazonov, V. V.; Semkin, N. D.; Chebukov, S. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The actual controlled rotational motion of the Foton M-4 satellite is reconstructed for the mode of single-axis solar orientation. The reconstruction was carried out using data of onboard measurements of vectors of angular velocity and the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. The reconstruction method is based on the reconstruction of the kinematic equations of the rotational motion of a solid body. According to the method, measurement data of both types collected at a certain time interval are processed together. Measurements of the angular velocity are interpolated by piecewise-linear functions, which are substituted in kinematic differential equations for a quaternion that defines the transition from the satellite instrument coordinate system to the inertial coordinate system. The obtained equations represent the kinematic model of the satellite rotational motion. A solution of these equations that approximates the actual motion is derived from the condition of the best (in the sense of the least squares method) match between the measurement data of the strength vector of the Earth's magnetic field and its calculated values. The described method makes it possible to reconstruct the actual rotational satellite motion using one solution of kinematic equations over time intervals longer than 10 h. The found reconstructions have been used to calculate the residual microaccelerations.

  11. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungen, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2007-05-30

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in the Linked Cheetah V4.0 reactive flow code at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. A report card of 25 tests run with the same settings on LX-17 is shown, possibly the most extensive simultaneous calibration yet tried with an explosive. The physical basis of some of the input parameters is considered.

  12. X-ray Sources and their Optical Counterparts in the Globular Cluster M4

    CERN Document Server

    Bassa, C; Homer, L; Verbunt, F; Gaensler, B M; Lewin, W H G; Anderson, S F; Margon, B; Kaspi, V M; Van der Klis, M; Bassa, Cees; Pooley, David; Homer, Lee; Verbunt, Frank; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Anderson, Scott F.; Margon, Bruce; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Klis, Michiel van der

    2004-01-01

    We report on the Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-S3 imaging observation of the Galactic globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121). We detect 12 X-ray sources inside the core and 19 more within the cluster half-mass radius. The limiting luminosity of this observation is Lx~10e29 erg/sec for sources associated with the cluster, the deepest X-ray observation of a globular cluster to date. We identify 6 X-ray sources with known objects and use ROSAT observations to show that the brightest X-ray source is variable. Archival data from the Hubble Space Telescope allow us to identify optical counterparts to 16 X-ray sources. Based on the X-ray and optical properties of the identifications and the information from the literature, we classify two (possibly three) sources as cataclysmic variables, one X-ray source as a millisecond pulsar and 12 sources as chromospherically active binaries. Comparison of M4 with 47 Tuc and NGC 6397 suggests a scaling of the number of active binaries in these clusters with the cluster (core) mass.

  13. LOW AMPLITUDE SINGLE AND MULTIPLE SHOCK INITIATION EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING OF LX-04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M; Garcia, F; Chidester, S; Urtiew, P A; Forbes, J W

    2006-06-27

    Shock initiation experiments were performed on the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton binder) using single and multiple low amplitude shocks to obtain pressure history data for use in Ignition and Growth reactive flow modeling parameterization. A 100 mm diameter propellant driven gas gun was utilized to initiate the LX-04 explosive charges containing manganin piezoresistive pressure gauge packages placed between explosive discs. In the single shock experiments, the run distances to detonation at three shock pressures showed agreement with previously published data above 3 GPa. Even longer run distances to detonation were measured using 80 mm long by 145 mm diameter LX-04 charges impacted by low velocity projectiles from a 155 mm diameter gun. The minimum shock pressure required to cause low levels of exothermic reaction were determined for these large LX-04 charge dimensions. Multiple shocks were generated as double shocks by using a flyer plate with two materials and as reflected shocks by placing a high impedance material at the rear of the explosive charge. In both cases, the first shock pressure was not high enough to cause detonation of LX-04, and the second shock pressure, which would have been sufficient to cause detonation if generated by a single shock, failed to cause detonation. Thus LX-04 exhibited shock desensitization over a range of 0.6 to 1.4 GPa. The higher shock pressure LX-04 model was extended to accurately simulate these lower pressure and multiple shock gauge records. The shock desensitization effects observed with multiple shock compressions were partially accounted for in the model by using a critical compression corresponding to a shock pressure of 1.2 GPa. This shock desensitization effect occurs at higher pressures than those of other HMX-based PBX's containing higher HMX percentages.

  14. Shock Sensitivity of LX-04 Containing Delta Phase HMX at Elevated Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urtiew, P A; Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Vandersall, K S; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Hsu, P C; Maienschein, J L

    2003-07-11

    LX-04 is a widely used HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, which contains 85 weight % HMX and 15 weight % Viton binder. The sensitivity of LX-04 to a single stimulus such as heat, impact, and shock has been previously studied. However, hazard scenarios can involve multiple stimuli, such as heating to temperatures close to thermal explosion conditions followed by fragment impact, producing a shock in the hot explosive. The sensitivity of HMX at elevated temperatures is further complicated by the beta to delta solid-state phase transition, which occurs at approximately 165 C. This paper presents the results of shock initiation experiments conducted with LX-04 preheated to 190 C, as well as density measurements and small scale safety test results of the {delta} phase HMX at room temperature. This work shows that LX-04 at 190 C is more shock sensitive than LX-04 at 150 C or 170 C due to the volume increase during the {beta} to {delta} solid phase transition, which creates more hot spots, and the faster growth of reaction during shock compression.

  15. The Lx-Tvir relation in galaxy clusters: Effects of radiative cooling and AGN heating

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Rupal; Reiprich, Thomas H; Jaritz, Vera

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the X-ray luminosity (Lx)-gas temperature (Tvir) relation of the complete X-ray flux-limited sample of the 64 brightest galaxy clusters in the sky (HIFLUGCS). We study the influence of two astrophysical processes, active galactic nuclei (AGN) heating and intracluster medium (ICM) cooling, on the Lx-Tvir relation, simultaneously for the first time. We determine best-fit relations for different subsamples using the cool-core strength and the presence of central radio activity as selection criteria. We find the strong cool-core clusters (SCCs) with short cooling times ( 7.7Gyr) to display the shallowest (Lx ~ Tvir^{2.42}). This has the simple implication that on the high-mass scale (Tvir > 2.5keV) the steepening of the Lx-Tvir relation is mainly due to the cooling of the intracluster medium gas. We propose that ICM cooling and AGN heating are both important in shaping the Lx-Tvir relation but on different length-scales. While our study indicates that ICM cooling dominates o...

  16. Bioaugmentation of Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B affects hydrogen production through altering indigenous bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Shi, Xiaoshuang; He, Shuai; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Dang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-07-01

    Bioaugmentation can facilitate hydrogen production from complex organic substrates, but it still is unknown how indigenous microbial communities respond to the added bacteria. Here, using a Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B (named as LX-B) bioaugmentation experiments, the distribution of metabolites and the responses of indigenous bacterial communities were investigated via batch cultivation (BC) and repeated batch cultivation (RBC). In BC the LX-B/sludge ratio of 0.12 achieved substantial high hydrogen yield, which was over twice that of control. In RBC one-time bioaugmentation and repeated batch bioaugmentation of LX-B resulted in the hydrogen yield that was average 1.2-fold and 0.8-fold higher than that in control, respectively. This improved hydrogen production performance mainly benefited from a shift in composition of the indigenous bacterial community caused by LX-B bioaugmentation. The findings represented an important step in understanding the relationship between bioaugmentation, a shift in bacterial communities, and altered bioreactor performance.

  17. De Novo Synthesis and Degradation of Lx and V Cycle Pigments during Shade and Sun Acclimation in Avocado Leaves1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Britta; Osmond, C. Barry; Pogson, Barry J.

    2009-01-01

    The photoprotective role of the universal violaxanthin cycle that interconverts violaxanthin (V), antheraxanthin (A), and zeaxanthin (Z) is well established, but functions of the analogous conversions of lutein-5,6-epoxide (Lx) and lutein (L) in the selectively occurring Lx cycle are still unclear. We investigated carotenoid pools in Lx-rich leaves of avocado (Persea americana) during sun or shade acclimation at different developmental stages. During sun exposure of mature shade leaves, an unusual decrease in L preceded the deepoxidation of Lx to L and of V to A+Z. In addition to deepoxidation, de novo synthesis increased the L and A+Z pools. Epoxidation of L was exceptionally slow, requiring about 40 d in the shade to restore the Lx pool, and residual A+Z usually persisted overnight. In young shade leaves, the Lx cycle was reversed initially, with Lx accumulating in the sun and declining in the shade. De novo synthesis of xanthophylls did not affect α- and β-carotene pools on the first day, but during long-term acclimation α-carotene pools changed noticeably. Nonetheless, the total change in α- and β-branch carotenoid pools was equal. We discuss the implications for regulation of metabolic flux through the α- and β-branches of carotenoid biosynthesis and potential roles for L in photoprotection and Lx in energy transfer to photosystem II and explore physiological roles of both xanthophyll cycles as determinants of photosystem II efficiency. PMID:19060099

  18. Impact loading response of the MiL-Lx leg fitted with combat boots

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available to the injuries more especially during underbelly detonation due to the spatial proximity to the rapid deforming floors. Lower limb surrogate legs, such as the Hybrid III (HIII) or Military Lower Extremity (MiL-Lx) are used to quantify the loading on the lower...

  19. Quercetin targets the interaction of calcineurin with LxVP-type motifs in immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yane; Zhang, Jin; Shi, Xiaoyu; Li, Jing; Wang, Rui; Song, Ruiwen; Wei, Qun; Cai, Huaibin; Luo, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Calcineurin (CN) is a unique calcium/calmodulin (CaM)-activated serine/threonine phosphatase. To perform its diverse biological functions, CN communicates with many substrates and other proteins. In the physiological activation of T cells, CN acts through transcriptional factors belonging to the NFAT family and other transcriptional effectors. The classic immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA) can bind to cyclophilin (CyP) and compete with CN for the NFAT LxVP motif. CsA has debilitating side effects, including nephrotoxicity, hypertension and tremor. It is desirable to develop alternative immunosuppressive agents. To this end, we first tested the interactions between CN and the LxVP-type substrates, including endogenous regulators of calcineurin (RCAN1) and NFAT. Interestingly, we found that quercetin, the primary dietary flavonol, can inhibit the activity of CN and significantly disrupt the associations between CN and its LxVP-type substrates. We then validated the inhibitory effects of quercetin on the CN-NFAT interactions in cell-based assays. Further, quercetin also shows dose-dependent suppression of cytokine gene expression in mouse spleen cells. These data raise the possibility that the interactions of CN with its LxVP-type substrates are potential targets for immunosuppressive agents.

  20. Genetic characteristics of the human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Weiskirchen

    Full Text Available The human hepatic cell line LX-2 has been described as tool to study mechanisms of hepatic fibrogenesis and the testing of antifibrotic compounds. It was originally generated by immortalisation with the Simian Vacuolating Virus 40 (SV40 transforming (T antigen and subsequent propagation in low serum conditions. Although this immortalized line is used in an increasing number of studies, detailed genetic characterisation has been lacking. We here have performed genetic characterisation of the LX-2 cell line and established a single-locus short tandem repeat (STR profile for the cell line and characterized the LX-2 karyotype by several cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Spectral karyotyping (SKY revealed a complex karyotype with a set of aberrations consistently present in the metaphases analyses which might serve as cytogenetic markers. In addition, various subclonal and single cell aberrations were detected. Our study provides criteria for genetic authentication of LX-2 and offers insights into the genotype changes which might underlie part of its phenotypic features.

  1. Pre-ignition confinement and deflagration violence in LX-10 and PBX 9501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, J. W., E-mail: tringe2@llnl.gov; Glascoe, E. A.; McClelland, M. A.; Greenwood, D.; Chambers, R. D.; Springer, H. K.; Levie, H. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    In thermal explosions of the nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)-based explosives LX-10 and PBX-9501, the pre-ignition spatial and temporal heating profile defines the ignition location. The ignition location then determines the extent of inertial confinement and the violence of the resulting deflagration. In this work, we present results of experiments in which ∼23 g cylinders of LX-10 and PBX 9501 in thin-walled aluminum confinement vessels were subjected to identical heating profiles but which presented starkly different energy release signatures. Post-explosion LX-10 containment vessels were completely fragmented, while the PBX 9501 vessels were merely ruptured. Flash x-ray radiography images show that the initiation location for the LX-10 is a few mm farther from the end caps of the vessel relative to the initiation location of PBX 9501. This difference increases deflagration confinement for LX-10 at the time of ignition and extends the pressurization time during which the deflagration front propagates in the explosive. The variation in the initiation location, in turn, is determined by the thermal boundary conditions, which differ for these two explosives because of the larger coefficient of thermal expansion and greater thermal stability of the Viton binder in LX-10 relative to the estane and bis(2,2-dinitropropyl) acetal/formal binder of the PBX 9501. The thermal profile and initiation location were modeled for LX-10 using the hydrodynamics and structures code ALE3D; results indicate temperatures in the vicinity of the ignition location in excess of 274 °C near the time of ignition. The conductive burn rates for these two explosives, as determined by flash x-ray radiography, are comparable in the range 0.1–0.2 mm/μs, somewhat faster than rates observed by strand burner experiments for explosives in the temperature range 150–180 °C and pressures up to 100 MPa. The thinnest-wall aluminum containment vessels

  2. Development of LX70 Wire Rod for Steel Cord%钢帘线用LX70盘条的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹树卫; 康永林; 王新江

    2011-01-01

    对安阳钢铁集团有限责任公司钢帘线用LX70盘条的研制与开发过程、帘线钢冶炼连铸工艺和轧制工艺、帘线钢中夹杂物的控制及钢帘线应用情况等进行了研究和分析。结果表明:帘线钢中夹杂物的控制、良好的铸坯凝固组织、高比率的索氏体金相组织是保证高质量帘线钢盘条的重要因素;LX70盘条拉拔性能优良稳定,捻制过程满足子午线轮胎用钢帘线合股要求,总满轮率达到国内同类型产品先进水平,完全满足钢帘线用户的使用要求。%The research and development process of wire rod for steel cord,the refining-continuous casting process and strip rolling process of steel cord,the control of the inclusions and the trial-manufacture situation in steel in particular of Anyang Iron and Steel Group Co.,Ltd.were introduced.Trail-manufacture result illustrates: inclusions control in steel cord,well strand solidification structure,high ratio sorbitic metallographic structure are key factors of high quality rod for steel cord.The drawing performance of LX70 of Angang is well and stable,twisting process satisfies meridian tyre for steel cord stranding requirement,the total full round of rate reaches advanced level of domestic products with the same type,completely satisfies the use requirement of the user of steel cord.

  3. The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist BuTAC mediates antipsychotic-like effects via the M4 subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Marla L; Rorick-Kehn, Linda; Shaw, David B; Knitowski, Karen M; Quets, Anne T; Chesterfield, Amy K; McKinzie, David L; Felder, Christian C

    2013-12-01

    The generation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype-selective compounds has been challenging, requiring use of nonpharmacological approaches, such as genetically engineered animals, to deepen our understanding of the potential that members of the muscarinic receptor subtype family hold as therapeutic drug targets. The muscarinic receptor agonist 'BuTAC' was previously shown to exhibit efficacy in animal models of psychosis, although the particular receptor subtype(s) responsible for such activity was unclear. Here, we evaluate the in vitro functional agonist and antagonist activity of BuTAC using an assay that provides a direct measure of G protein activation. In addition, we employ the conditioned avoidance response paradigm, an in vivo model predictive of antipsychotic activity, and mouse genetic deletion models to investigate which presynaptic mAChR subtype mediates the antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC. Our results show that, in vitro, BuTAC acts as a full agonist at the M2AChR and a partial agonist at the M1 and M4 receptors, with full antagonist activity at M3- and M5AChRs. In the mouse conditioned avoidance response (CAR) assay, BuTAC exhibits an atypical antipsychotic-like profile by selectively decreasing avoidance responses at doses that do not induce escape failures. CAR results using M2(-/-), M4(-/-), and M2/M4 (M2/M4(-/-)) mice found that the effects of BuTAC were near completely lost in M2/M4(-/-) double-knockout mice and potency of BuTAC was right-shifted in M4(-/-) as compared with wild-type and M2(-/-) mice. The M2/M4(-/-) mice showed no altered sensitivity to the antipsychotic effects of either haloperidol or clozapine, suggesting that these compounds mediate their actions in CAR via a non-mAChR-mediated mechanism. These data support a role for the M4AChR subtype in mediating the antipsychotic-like activity of BuTAC and implicate M4AChR agonism as a potential novel therapeutic mechanism for ameliorating symptoms associated with

  4. Characterization of PCS1055, a novel muscarinic M4 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Carrie H; Chan, Wai Y; Castetter, Andrea M; Watt, Marla L; Quets, Anne T; Felder, Christian C

    2016-07-05

    Identification of synthetic ligands selective for muscarinic receptor subtypes has been challenging due to the high sequence identity and structural homology among the five muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Here, we report the pharmacological characterization of PCS1055, a novel muscarinic M4 receptor antagonist. PCS1055 inhibited radioligand [(3)H]-NMS binding to the M4 receptor with a Ki=6.5nM. Though the potency of PCS1055 is lower than that of pan-muscarinic antagonist atropine, it has better subtype selectivity over previously reported M4-selective reagents such as the muscarinic-peptide toxins (Karlsson et al., 1994; Santiago and Potter, 2001a) at the M1 subtype, and benzoxazine ligand PD102807 at the M3-subtype (Bohme et al., 2002). A detailed head-to-head comparison study using [(3)H]-NMS competitive binding assays characterizes the selectivity profiles of PCS1055 to that of other potent muscarinic-antagonist compounds PD102807, tropicamide, AF-DX-384, pirenzapine, and atropine. In addition to binding studies, the subtype specificity of PCS1055 is also demonstrated by functional receptor activation as readout by GTP-γ-[(35)S] binding. These GTP-γ-[(35)S] binding studies showed that PCS1055 exhibited 255-, 69.1-, 342- and >1000-fold greater inhibition of Oxo-M activity at the M4 versus the M1-, M2(-), M3-or M5 receptor subtypes, respectively. Schild analyses indicates that PCS1055 acts as a competitive antagonist to muscarinic M4 receptor, and confirms the affinity of the ligand to be low nanomolar, Kb=5.72nM. Therefore, PCS1055 represents a new M4-preferring antagonist that may be useful in elucidating the roles of M4 receptor signaling.

  5. What is $\\Delta m^2_{ee}$ ?

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The current short baseline reactor experiments, Daya Bay and RENO (Double Chooz) have measured (or are capable of measuring) an effective $\\Delta m^2$ associated with the atmospheric oscillation scale of 0.5 km/MeV in electron anti-neutrino disappearance. In this paper, I compare and contrast the different definitions of such an effective $\\Delta m^2$ and argue that the simple, L/E independent, definition given by $\\Delta m^2_{ee} \\equiv \\cos^2 \\theta_{12} \\Delta m^2_{31}+ \\sin^2 \\theta_{12} \\Delta m^2_{32}$, i.e. "the $\

  6. Thermal Decomposition of New and Aged LX-04 and PBX 9501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, T D; Tarver, C; Idar, D J; Rodin, W A

    2002-04-09

    One-Dimensional-Time-To-Explosion (ODTX) experiments were conducted to study the thermal decomposition of new and aged LX-04, PBX 9501, HMX class 1 and class 2, Estane and EstaneBDNPA-F (PBX 950 1 plasticized-binder) materials. New and aged LX-04 showed comparable decomposition kinetics. The data for aged PBX 9501 showed slightly longer explosion times at equivalent temperatures. Analysis of the error in time measurement is complicated by several experimental factors but the small time change appears to be experimentally significant. The results suggest that aged PBX 9501 is slightly more thermally stable. The thermal decomposition of these materials were modeled using a coupled thermal and heat transport code (chemical TOPAZ) using separate kinetics for HMX and binder decomposition. The current kinetic models describe the longer explosion times by the loss of plasticizer-binder constituent, which was more thermally reactive.

  7. A report on the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in the high explosive LX-04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, D E; Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Granholm, R H; Tarver, C M; Vandersall, K S; Sandusky, H W

    2004-06-30

    The deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) was investigated for 1.874 g/cc (98.8 % of theoretical maximum density) LX-04 in moderate confinement (4340 steel tube at R{sub C} 32 with 1.020 inch inside diameter and 0.235 inch thick wall) at both ambient initial temperature (roughly 20 C) and at an initial temperature of 186 C. No transition to detonation was observed in a 295 mm column length for either case.

  8. Thermal Decomposition of New and Aged LX-04 and PBX 9501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, T D; Tarver, C; Idar, D J

    2002-03-25

    One-Dimensional-Time-To-Explosion (ODTX) experiments were conducted to study the thermal decomposition of aged LX-04, aged PBX 9501, HMX class 1 and class 2, Estane and Estane/BDNPA-F (PBX 950 1 plasticized-binder) materials. The tests involved heating 12.7 mm diameter spherical samples in pre-heated aluminum anvils until explosion. The times to explosion at different heating temperatures were compared to historical data on new LX-04 and PBX 9501 compounds to study any changes to their thermal stability. New and aged LX-04 showed comparable decomposition kinetics. The data for aged PBX 9501 showed slightly longer explosion times at equivalent temperatures. Analysis of the error in time measurement is limited and complicated by several experimental factors but the small time change appears to be experimentally significant. The thermal decomposition of these PBXs were modeled using a coupled thermal and heat transport code (chemical TOPAZ) using separate kinetics for HMX and binder decomposition. Separate decomposition models were developed for HMX and the reactive PBX 9501 binder component (1:1 Estane:BDNPA/F) based on the measured explosion times. Thermal aging models can describe longer explosion times by the loss of plasticizer-binder constituent which was more thermally reactive.

  9. M2M massive wireless access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanella, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele; Santos, André F.

    2013-01-01

    of the current cellular standards. Here, we provide insights and introduce potential solutions for the cellular radio protocol that will allow the efficient support of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications. The paper focuses on the massive aspect of M2M. We will introduce PHY and MAC approaches such as Coded...... and research guidelines for enabling future networks to support efficiently M2M communications....

  10. Hofbauer cells of M2a, M2b and M2c polarization may regulate feto-placental angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loegl, J; Hiden, U; Nussbaumer, E; Schliefsteiner, C; Cvitic, S; Lang, I; Wadsack, C; Huppertz, B; Desoye, G

    2016-11-01

    The human placenta comprises a special type of tissue macrophages, the Hofbauer cells (HBC), which exhibit M2 macrophage phenotype. Several subtypes of M2-polarized macrophages (M2a, M2b and M2c) exist in almost all tissues. Macrophage polarization depends on the way of macrophage activation and leads to the expression of specific cell surface markers and the acquisition of specific functions, including tissue remodeling and the promotion of angiogenesis. The placenta is a highly vascularized and rapidly growing organ, suggesting a role of HBC in feto-placental angiogenesis. We here aimed to characterize the specific polarization and phenotype of HBC and investigated the role of HBC in feto-placental angiogenesis. Therefore, HBC were isolated from third trimester placentas and their phenotype was determined by the presence of cell surface markers (FACS analysis) and secretion of cytokines (ELISA). HBC conditioned medium (CM) was analyzed for pro-angiogenic factors, and the effect of HBC CM on angiogenesis, proliferation and chemoattraction of isolated primary feto-placental endothelial cells (fpEC) was determined in vitro Our results revealed that isolated HBC possess an M2 polarization, with M2a, M2b and M2c characteristics. HBC secreted the pro-angiogenic molecules VEGF and FGF2. Furthermore, HBC CM stimulated the in vitro angiogenesis of fpEC. However, compared with control medium, chemoattraction of fpEC toward HBC CM was reduced. Proliferation of fpEC was not affected by HBC CM. These findings demonstrate a paracrine regulation of feto-placental angiogenesis by HBC in vitro Based on our collective results, we propose that the changes in HBC number or phenotype may affect feto-placental angiogenesis. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  11. Assigning error to an M2 measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, T. Sean

    2006-02-01

    The ISO 11146:1999 standard has been published for 6 years and set forth the proper way to measure the M2 parameter. In spite of the strong experimental guidance given by this standard and the many commercial devices based upon ISO 11146, it is still the custom to quote M2 measurements without any reference to significant figures or error estimation. To the author's knowledge, no commercial M2 measurement device includes error estimation. There exists, perhaps, a false belief that M2 numbers are high precision and of insignificant error. This paradigm causes program managers and purchasers to over-specify a beam quality parameter and researchers not to question the accuracy and precision of their M2 measurements. This paper will examine the experimental sources of error in an M2 measurement including discretization error, CCD noise, discrete filter sets, noise equivalent aperture estimation, laser fluctuation and curve fitting error. These sources of error will be explained in their experimental context and convenient formula given to properly estimate error in a given M2 measurement. This work is the result of the author's inability to find error estimation and disclosure of methods in commercial beam quality measurement devices and building an ISO 11146 compliant, computer- automated M2 measurement device and the resulting lessons learned and concepts developed.

  12. Tachyonic Anti-M2 Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Kuperstein, Stanislav; Massai, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of anti-M2 branes in a warped Stenzel solution with M2 charges dissolved in fluxes by taking into account their full backreaction on the geometry. The resulting supergravity solution has a singular magnetic four-form flux in the near-brane region. We examine the possible resolution of this singularity via the polarization of anti-M2 branes into M5 branes, and compute the corresponding polarization potential for branes smeared on the finite-size four-sphere at the tip of the Stenzel space. We find that the potential has no minimum. We then use the potential for smeared branes to compute the one corresponding to a stack of localized anti-M2 branes, and use this potential to compute the force between two anti-M2 branes at tip of the Stenzel space. We find that this force, which is zero in the probe approximation, is in fact repulsive. This surprising result points to a tachyonic instability of anti-M2 branes in backgrounds with M2 brane charge dissolved in flux.

  13. Evaluation of the biofidelity of the HIII and MIL-Lx lower leg surrogates under axial impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenneville, Cheryl E; Dunning, Cynthia E

    2012-01-01

    Lower leg injury risk is commonly assessed using an anthropomorphic test device (ATD). The current standard leg (the HIII) has been shown to have low biofidelity due to its geometry and material properties. A new surrogate (the MIL-Lx) was developed to address these issues, specifically for anti-vehicular mine blast scenarios but with potential applications to high-force crashes in the automotive industry. Before it is adopted for use, the MIL-Lx must be evaluated under impact loading to ensure that it represents the natural lower leg response. Axial impact loads were applied to both the HIII and the MIL-Lx at impact velocities of 2 to 7 m/s using a pneumatic impacting device. Testing was also conducted with the foot removed from both surrogates to enable comparison with previous tests of isolated cadaveric tibias at noninjurious and injurious (i.e., fracture) levels. To evaluate the effect of a boot on load attenuation, the HIII was impacted with and without a hiking boot. Forces in the MIL-Lx were between 25 and 100 percent of those in the HIII (depending on impact conditions). The use of a boot reduced the peak force by approximately 65 percent at the highest impact velocities. The MIL-Lx fit the data from noninjurious cadaveric tibia tests with R(2) = 0.83. The MIL-Lx is a new surrogate that represents the response of the natural tibia under axial impact loading better than the HIII. The inclusion of a boot has a significant effect on loads in the leg and may influence injury assessment results. The MIL-Lx will be a useful tool for predicting lower leg injury risk over a wide range of impact velocities.

  14. Multimedia for Art ReTrieval (M4ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.L. van den; Schouten, T.E.; Kok, T.; Hoenkamp, E.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The prototype for an online Multimedia for Art ReTrieval (M4ART) system is introduced, that provides entrance to the digitized collection of the National Gallery of the Netherlands (the Rijksmuseum). The current online system of the Rijksmuseum is text-based and requires expert knowledge concerning

  15. Inhibitory effects of soluble algae products (SAP) released by Scenedesmus sp. LX1 on its growth and lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Yu, Yin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Soluble algal products (SAP) accumulated in culture medium via water reuse may affect the growth of microalga during the cultivation. Scenedesmus sp. LX1, a freshwater microalga, was used in this study to investigate the effect of SAP on growth and lipid production of microalga. Under the SAP concentrations of 6.4-25.8 mg L(-1), maximum algal density (K) and maximum growth rate (Rmax) of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were decreased by 50-80% and 35-70% compared with the control group, respectively. The effect of SAP on lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was non-significant. According to hydrophilic-hydrophobic and acid-base properties, SAP was fractionized into six fractions. All of the fractions could inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. Organic bases (HIB, HOB) and hydrophilic acids (HIA) showed the strongest inhibition. HIA could also decrease the lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by 59.2%. As the inhibitory effect, SAP should be seriously treated before water reuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of acoustoelastic constant in API-5L-X70 welded pipes; Determinacao da constante acustoelastica de tubos API-5L-X70 com solda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, Marcelo de Siqueira Queiroz; Fonseca, Manoel Antonio da Costa [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos Henrique Francisco de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    To preserve the environment and avoid financial losses resulting from leaks in the transport of natural oil and gas the industry is particularly concerned to ensure the structural integrity of their pipelines. Grounded pipes may be exposed to damages due to unstable soil movement, and in extreme cases, to failure. Then, techniques to assess stress in pipelines are of central importance. The ultrasonic birefringence technique is an efficient method to measure residual stress. It is based on the changing velocity of the shear wave when it crosses a material under stress; this phenomenon is known as acoustoelasticity. The knowledge of the parameter called acoustoelastic constant is necessary to measure stress using this technique. By the mechanical conformation in the manufacture of welded tubes, from rolled plates, different anisotropy degrees are showed around the cross section of these tubes. In this paper it was studied the acoustoelastic constant for the API-5L-X70 steel pipes, with different thicknesses, diameters and manufacturing processes so as to be able to use this technique to stress measurement in pipelines. (author)

  17. Fast rotating Blue Stragglers in the globular cluster M4

    CERN Document Server

    Lovisi, L; Ferraro, F R; Lucatello, S; Lanzoni, B; Dalessandro, E; Beccari, G; Rood, R T; Sills, A; Pecci, F Fusi; Gratton, R; Piotto, G

    2010-01-01

    We have used high resolution spectra obtained with the spectrograph FLAMES at the ESO Very Large Telescope to determine the kinematical properties and the abundance patterns of 20 blue straggler stars (BSSs) in the globular cluster M4. We found that ~ 40% of the measured BSSs are fast rotators (with rotational velocities > 50 km/s). This is the largest frequency of rapidly rotating BSSs ever detected in a globular cluster. In addition, at odds with what has been found in 47 Tucanae, no evidence of carbon and/or oxygen depletion has been revealed in the sample of 11 BSSs for which we were able to measure the abundances. This could be due either to low statistics, or to a different BSS formation process acting in M4.

  18. Studying RR Lyrae Stars in M4 with K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Drury, Jason; Moskalik, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    Observations by Kepler/K2 have revolutionized the study of RR Lyrae stars by allowing the detection of new phenomena, such as low amplitude additional modes and period doubling, which had not previously been seen from the ground. During its campaign 2, K2 observed the globular cluster M4, providing the first opportunity to study a sizeable group of RR Lyrae stars that belong to a single population; the other RR Lyrae stars that have been observed from space are field stars in the galactic halo and thus belong to an assortment of populations. We present the results of our study of the RR Lyrae variables in M4 from K2 photometry. We have identified additional, low amplitude pulsation modes in the two observed RRc stars. In three RRab stars we have found the Blazhko effect with periods of 16.6 days, 22.4 days, and 44.5 days.

  19. M4AST - A Tool for Asteroid Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlan, Mirel; Popescu, Marcel; Irimiea, Lucian; Binzel, Richard

    2016-10-01

    M4AST (Modelling for asteroids) is an online tool devoted to the analysis and interpretation of reflection spectra of asteroids in the visible and near-infrared spectral intervals. It consists into a spectral database of individual objects and a set of routines for analysis which address scientific aspects such as: taxonomy, curve matching with laboratory spectra, space weathering models, and mineralogical diagnosis. Spectral data were obtained using groundbased facilities; part of these data are precompiled from the literature[1].The database is composed by permanent and temporary files. Each permanent file contains a header and two or three columns (wavelength, spectral reflectance, and the error on spectral reflectance). Temporary files can be uploaded anonymously, and are purged for the property of submitted data. The computing routines are organized in order to accomplish several scientific objectives: visualize spectra, compute the asteroid taxonomic class, compare an asteroid spectrum with similar spectra of meteorites, and computing mineralogical parameters. One facility of using the Virtual Observatory protocols was also developed.A new version of the service was released in June 2016. This new release of M4AST contains a database and facilities to model more than 6,000 spectra of asteroids. A new web-interface was designed. This development allows new functionalities into a user-friendly environment. A bridge system of access and exploiting the database SMASS-MIT (http://smass.mit.edu) allows the treatment and analysis of these data in the framework of M4AST environment.Reference:[1] M. Popescu, M. Birlan, and D.A. Nedelcu, "Modeling of asteroids: M4AST," Astronomy & Astrophysics 544, EDP Sciences, pp. A130, 2012.

  20. White Dwarfs in Globular Clusters HST Observations of M4

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, H B; Ibata, R A; Pryor, C E; Bell, R A; Bolte, M; Bond, H E; Harris, W E; Hesser, J E; Holland, S; Ivanans, N; Mandushev, G I; Stetson, P B; Wood, M A; Richer, Harvey B.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Pryor, Carlton; Bell, Roger A.; Bolte, Michael; Bond, Howard E.; Harris, William E.; Hesser, James E.; Holland, Steve; Ivanans, Nicholas; Mandushev, Georgi; Stetson, Peter B.; Wood, Matt A.

    1997-01-01

    Using WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have isolated a sample of 258 white dwarfs (WDs) in the Galactic globular cluster M4. Fields at three radial distances from the cluster center were observed and sizeable WD populations were found in all three. The location of these WDs in the color-magnitude diagram, their mean mass of 0.51($ \\pm 0.03$)M$_{\\odot}$, and their luminosity function confirm basic tenets of stellar evolution theory and support the results from current WD cooling theory. The WDs are used to extend the cluster main-sequence mass function upward to stars that have already completed their nuclear evolution. The WD/red dwarf binary frequency in M4 is investigated and found to be at most a few percent of all the main-sequence stars. The most ancient WDs found are about 9 Gyr old, a level which is set solely by the photometric limits of our data. Even though this is less than the age of M4, we discuss how these cooling WDs can eventually be used to check the turnoff ages of globular clusters a...

  1. M2M massive wireless access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanella, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele; Santos, André F.

    2013-01-01

    In order to make the Internet of Things a reality, ubiquitous coverage and low-complexity connectivity are required. Cellular networks are hence the most straightforward and realistic solution to enable a massive deployment of always connected Machines around the globe. Nevertheless, a paradigm...... of the current cellular standards. Here, we provide insights and introduce potential solutions for the cellular radio protocol that will allow the efficient support of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications. The paper focuses on the massive aspect of M2M. We will introduce PHY and MAC approaches such as Coded...

  2. Measurement and ALE3D Simulation of Violence in a Deflagration Experiment With LX-10 and Aermet-100 Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knap, J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Howard, W M; Nichols, A L; deHaven, M R; Strand, O T

    2006-06-22

    We describe the results of a Scaled-Thermal-Explosion-eXperiment (STEX) for LX-10 (94.7 % HMX, 5.3 % Viton A) confined in an AerMet 100 (iron-cobalt-nickel alloy) tube with reinforced end caps. The experimental measurements are compared with predictions of an Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE3D) computer model. ALE3D is a three-dimensional multi-physics computer code capable of solving coupled equations describing thermal, mechanical and chemical behavior of materials. In particular, we focus on the processes linked to fracture and fragmentation of the AerMet tube driven by the LX-10 deflagration.

  3. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2011-12-20

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  4. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2013-04-16

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  5. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2013-04-16

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  6. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Photometry of the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Richer, Harvey B.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Bolte, Michael; Bond, Howard E.; Hesser, James E.; Pryor, Carlton; Stetson, Peter B.

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the acquisition and processing of a large body of imaging data for three fields in the globular cluster M4 taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Analysis with the ALLFRAME package yielded the deepest photometry yet obtained for this cluster. The resulting data set for 4708 stars (positions and calibrated photometry in V, I, and, in two fields, U) spanning approximately six cluster core radii is presented. The scientific analysis is deferred to three companion papers, which investigate the significant white dwarf population discovered and the main-sequence population.

  7. Explosive Model Tarantula 4d/JWL++ Calibration of LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P A

    2008-09-30

    Tarantula is an explosive kinetic package intended to do detonation, shock initiation, failure, corner-turning with dead zones, gap tests and air gaps in reactive flow hydrocode models. The first, 2007-2008 version with monotonic Q is here run inside JWL++ with square zoning from 40 to 200 zones/cm on ambient LX-17. The model splits the rate behavior in every zone into sections set by the hydrocode pressure, P + Q. As the pressure rises, we pass through the no-reaction, initiation, ramp-up/failure and detonation sections sequentially. We find that the initiation and pure detonation rate constants are largely insensitive to zoning but that the ramp-up/failure rate constant is extremely sensitive. At no time does the model pass every test, but the pressure-based approach generally works. The best values for the ramp/failure region are listed here in Mb units.

  8. Superconformal indices and M2-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, Richard [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Schmude, Johannes [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-12-10

    We derive the superconformal index of the world-volume theory on M2-branes probing the cone over an arbitrary Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifold. The index is expressed in terms of the cohomology groups of the cone. We match our supergravity results with known results from gauge theory. Along the way we derive the spectrum of short Kaluza-Klein multiplets on generic Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds.

  9. Superconformal indices and M2-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eager, Richard; Schmude, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    We derive the superconformal index of the world-volume theory on M2-branes probing the cone over an arbitrary Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifold. The index is expressed in terms of the cohomology groups of the cone. We match our supergravity results with known results from gauge theory. Along the way we derive the spectrum of short Kaluza-Klein multiplets on generic Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds.

  10. Transforming Growth Factor Beta-Induced Factor 2-Linked X (TGIF2LX Regulates Two Morphogenesis Genes, Nir1 and Nir2 in Human Colorectal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Mobini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A member of homeodomain protein namely TGIF2LX has been implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in human malignancy as well as in spermatogenesis. However, to our knowledge, dynamic functional evidence of the TGIF2LX has not yet been provided. The aim of the present study was to investigate the human TGIF2LX target gene(s using a cDNA-AFLP as a differential display method. A pEGFP-TGIF2LX construct containing the wild-type TGIF2LX cDNA was stably transfected into SW48 cells. UV microscopic analysis and Real-time RT-PCR were used to confirm TGIF2LX expression. The mRNA expressions of TGIF2LX in transfected SW48 cells, the cells containing empty vector (pEGFP-N, and untransfected cells were compared. Also, a Real-time PCR technique was applied to validate cDNA-AFLP results. The results revealed a significant down-regulation and up-regulationby TGIF2LX of Nir1 and Nir2 genes, respectively. The genes are engaged in the cell morphogenesis process. Our findings may provide new insight into the complex molecular pathways underlying colorectal cancer development.

  11. Transforming Growth Factor Beta-Induced Factor 2-Linked X (TGIF2LX) Regulates Two Morphogenesis Genes, Nir1 and Nir2 in Human Colorectal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobini, Gholam Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Amanpour, Saeid; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Akbari, Abolfazl; Hoseiniharouni, Seyed Mojtaba; Muhammadnejad, Samad; Sheikhzade, Maryam; Abedkhojasteh, Hoda; Mohebi, Masoumeh; Bolhassani, Manzar; Heidari, Mansour

    2016-05-01

    A member of homeodomain protein namely TGIF2LX has been implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in human malignancy as well as in spermatogenesis. However, to our knowledge, dynamic functional evidence of the TGIF2LX has not yet been provided. The aim of the present study was to investigate the human TGIF2LX target gene(s) using a cDNA-AFLP as a differential display method. A pEGFP-TGIF2LX construct containing the wild-type TGIF2LX cDNA was stably transfected into SW48 cells. UV microscopic analysis and Real-time RT-PCR were used to confirm TGIF2LX expression. The mRNA expressions of TGIF2LX in transfected SW48 cells, the cells containing empty vector (pEGFP-N), and untransfected cells were compared. Also, a Real-time PCR technique was applied to validate cDNA-AFLP results. The results revealed a significant down-regulation and up-regulationby TGIF2LX of Nir1 and Nir2 genes, respectively. The genes are engaged in the cell morphogenesis process. Our findings may provide new insight into the complex molecular pathways underlying colorectal cancer development.

  12. Practical evaluation of the MiL-Lx lower leg when subjected to simulated vehicle under belly blast load conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the initial results pertaining to a practical investigation into the robustness of the newly developed Military Extremity (MiL-Lx) lower leg, with respect to repeatability and reproducibility under typical mine-protected vehicle...

  13. LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balin, Yu S; Bairashin, G S; Kokhanenko, G P; Penner, I E; Samoilova, S V [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    The scanning LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar, which is aimed at probing atmosphere at wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm, is described. The backscattered light is received simultaneously in two regimes: analogue and photon-counting. Along with the signals of elastic light scattering at the initial wavelengths, a 607-nm Raman signal from molecular nitrogen is also recorded. It is shown that the height range of atmosphere probing can be expanded from the near-Earth layer to stratosphere using two (near- and far-field) receiving telescopes, and analogue and photon-counting lidar signals can be combined into one signal. Examples of natural measurements of aerosol stratification in atmosphere along vertical and horizontal paths during the expeditions to the Gobi Desert (Mongolia) and Lake Baikal areas are presented.

  14. Periodic Arrays of M2-Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Imtak; Richmond, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We consider periodic arrays of M2-branes in the ABJM model in the spirit of a circle compactification to D2-branes in type IIA string theory. The result is a curious formulation of three-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in terms of fermions, seven transverse scalars, a non-dynamical gauge field and an additional scalar `dual gluon'. Upon further T-duality on a transverse torus we obtain a non-manifest-Lorentz-invariant description of five-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills. Here the additional scalar field can be thought of as the components of a two-form along the torus. This action can be viewed as an M-theory description of M5-branes on ${\\mathbb T}^3$.

  15. The (178m2)Hf Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J A; Gemmell, D S; Schiffer, J P; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-07-24

    Since its discovery in the 1960's the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer has garnered high attention from both the basic and applied communities in nuclear science. It's combination of high spin (16+), long half life (31 yrs), and high excitation energy (2.446 MeV) offer unique possibilities as an energy storage medium. Interest in the isomer was rekindled beginning in 1999 when a series of publications began to appear from a group (referred to here as the ''Texas collaboration'') primarily based at the University of Texas, Dallas [1]. They reported observations that some of the stored energy could be released (''triggered'') when the isomer was exposed to a fluence of photons in the energy range {approx}10 to {approx}60 keV. The implications of this observation are profound. Even though the claimed cross section for the process was {approx}7 orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted from the known systematics of photon absorption by nuclei in this mass range [2], such a highly efficient method for triggering the isomeric deexcitation immediately suggested applications utilizing the explosive or the controlled gradual energy release from a very compact source. The prospect of such applications has focused considerable interest on realizing the promise that is implicit in the reported observations. However, two experiments performed by a group from ANL/LANL/LLNL at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne (the ''APS collaboration'') reported negative results for the observation of any photon-triggered deexcitation of the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer [3]. This has led to a continued controversy, where both sides have adamantly defended their observations. At this point an outsider has difficulty determining whether there is indeed a triggering effect that should be pursued energetically with substantial resources, or whether the phenomenon consists of overly optimistic interpretation of data.

  16. Characterization of the Hokuyo URG-04LX laser rangefinder for mobile robot obstacle negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yoichi; Ye, Cang; Borenstein, Johann

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a characterization study of the Hokuyo URG-04LX scanning laser rangefinder (LRF). The Hokuyo LRF is similar in function to the Sick LRF, which has been the de-facto standard range sensor for mobile robot obstacle avoidance and mapping applications for the last decade. Problems with the Sick LRF are its relatively large size, weight, and power consumption, allowing its use only on relatively large mobile robots. The Hokuyo LRF is substantially smaller, lighter, and consumes less power, and is therefore more suitable for small mobile robots. The question is whether it performs just as well as the Sick LRF in typical mobile robot applications. In 2002, two of the authors of the present paper published a characterization study of the Sick LRF. For the present paper we used the exact same test apparatus and test procedures as we did in the 2002 paper, but this time to characterize the Hokuyo LRF. As a result, we are in the unique position of being able to provide not only a detailed characterization study of the Hokuyo LRF, but also to compare the Hokuyo LRF with the Sick LRF under identical test conditions. Among the tested characteristics are sensitivity to a variety of target surface properties and incidence angles, which may potentially affect the sensing performance. We also discuss the performance of the Hokuyo LRF with regard to the mixed pixels problem associated with LRFs. Lastly, the present paper provides a calibration model for improving the accuracy of the Hokuyo LRF.

  17. LX201获快速通道审批地位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱苏宁(摘)

    2008-01-01

    美国FDA授予LuxBiosciences公司用于预防角膜移植排斥的LX201(I)快速通道审批地位。该产品是置于眼睑下方的眼内植入物,它将在一年内稳定地向眼内释放环孢素A(ciclosporinA)(Ⅱ)(已经用于预防肾以及其它实体器官移植的排斥)。(I)的两项重要的为期一年的Ⅲ期临床试验是LUCIDA项目的一部分,目前正在进行中。第一项试验在175例免疫排斥高危的患者中进行,以免疫排斥和移植物丧失为主要终点。第二项试验涉及240例在角膜移植后经历了排斥事件的受试者,以移植后52周内免疫性的移植物排斥事件或移植失败为主要终点。

  18. Evidence of paired M2 muscarinic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, L.T.; Ballesteros, L.A.; Bichajian, L.H.; Ferrendelli, C.A.; Fisher, A.; Hanchett, H.E.; Zhang, R. (Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Binding assays involving various antagonists, including N-(3H) methylscopolamine, (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate, AFDX-116, pirenzepine, and propylbenzilylcholine mustard, disclosed only a single population of M2 muscarinic receptors in membranes from the rat brainstem (medulla, pons, and colliculi). However, competition curves between N-(3H)methylscopolamine and various agonists, including oxotremorine, cis-dioxolane, and acetylethylcholine mustard, showed approximately equal numbers of guanine nucleotide-sensitive high affinity (H) sites and guanine nucleotide-insensitive low affinity (L) sites. This 50% H phenomenon persisted in different buffers, at different temperatures, after the number of receptors was halved (and, thus, the remaining receptor to guanine nucleotide-binding protein ratio was doubled), after membrane solubilization with digitonin, and when rabbit cardiac membranes were used instead of rat brainstem membranes. Preferential occupation of H sites with acetylethylcholine mustard, and of L sites with quinuclidinyl benzilate or either mustard, yielded residual free receptor populations showing predominantly L and H sites, respectively. Low concentrations of (3H)-oxotremorine-M labeled only H sites, and the Bmax for these sites was 49% of the Bmax found with (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate plus guanine nucleotide. These and other results are most consistent with the idea that H and L receptor sites exist on separate but dimeric receptor molecules and with the hypothesis that only the H receptors cycle between high and low affinity, depending upon interactions between this receptor molecule and a guanine nucleotide-binding protein.

  19. Recombinant T2 RNase protein of Schistosoma japonicum inhibits expression of α-SMA in LX-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxin; Peng, Wenxia; Feng, Jinrong; Zhu, Dandan; Chen, Jinling; Sun, Xiaolei; Lyu, Lei; Ju, Shaoqing; Duan, Yinong

    2016-10-01

    Recombinant T2 RNase glycoprotein, which showed a certain degree of homology to Omega-1 from Schistosoma mansoni eggs, was expressed in adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum, but not in eggs of S. japonicum. The direct biological role of the recombinant T2 RNase protein in activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) remains unknown. In the present study, the immortalized human HSC line (LX-2 cells) was treated with the recombinant T2 RNase protein at indicated concentrations for various time points in vitro. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Smad4 were detected by Western blot. The results showed that the recombinant T2 RNase protein significantly diminished the expression levels of α-SMA and Smad4 in LX-2 cells. The upregulated expression levels of α-SMA and Smad4 by TGF-β1 in LX-2 cells were both suppressed by the recombinant T2 RNase protein. These data suggest that the recombinant T2 RNase protein may be a potential target of therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  20. Biogas from fibrous digestate and wood. New lignin extraction (LX) process for energy and raw material production from plant residues; Biogas aus ''ausgegorenem'' Gaerrest und Holz. Das neue Lignin-Extraktions-(LX)-Verfahren zur Energie- und Rohstoffproduktion aus pflanzlichen Reststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, R.M.F. [maxbiogas GmbH, Marienwerder (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    75% of plant biomass on earth is made of cellulose and lignine, the lignocelluloses. In a simplified view the lignin wraps in plant biomass the substances easily degraded by microorganisms like cellulose. The LX process utilizes plant biomass and separates it to lignine and pretreated LX-substrate with a reduced lignine content, which is fed back to the fermentation process to be degraded. Combining a biogas plant with the LX process allows even the degradation of fibrous plant parts and it is possible to digest wood. E.g. the fibrous digest is fermented more efficient than maize silage. The LX process has therefore the potential to be able to produce in future economically either energy as wells as resources form plant residues. (orig.) [German] 75% der pflanzlichen Biomasse auf der Welt bestehen aus Zellulose und Lignin, der Lignocellulose. Lignin umhuellt, vereinfacht beschrieben, im pflanzlichen Substrat die leicht durch Mikroorganismen abbaubaren Stoffe, wie Zellulose. Das LX-Verfahren verwertet pflanzliche Biomasse und erzeugt daraus Lignin und stark im Ligningehalt reduziertes, sogenanntes ''aufgeschlossenes'', LX-Substrat, dass dann dem weiteren Abbauprozess zugefuehrt wird. Kombiniert man zum Beispiel eine Biogasanlage mit dem LX-Verfahren, so koennen selbst faserige Pflanzenbestandteile und erstmalig auch Holz vergoren werden. Beispielsweise wird ''ausgegorener'' Gaerrest effizienter fermentiert als Maissilage. Damit hat das LX-Verfahren das Potenzial, kuenftig sowohl Energie als auch Rohstoffe aus pflanzlichen Reststoffen wirtschaftlich herstellen zu koennen.

  1. The effect of IL-32γon CollagenⅠ expression by LX-2 cells%IL -32γ对 LX -2细胞表达Ⅰ型胶原的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘兴飞; 张绍全; 杨小安; 邹小芳; 魏立平

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究IL-32γ可否诱导肝星状细胞LX-2表达Ⅰ型胶原( Collagen Ⅰ)。方法不同浓度的IL-32γ与LX-2共培养,分别收集培养上清液、提取细胞总RNA,real-time PCR检测Collagen Ⅰ mRNA表达水平,ELISA法检测CollagenⅠ蛋白质表达水平。用不同浓度的人重组磷酸化p38α蛋白( recombinant human active p38α蛋白)与LX-2细胞共培养,48 h后收集细胞培养上清液,ELISA法检测Collagen Ⅰ蛋白质表达水平。再用不同浓度的p38MAPK抑制剂SB203580加入LX-2细胞与IL-32γ共培养的培养液中,分别收集培养上清液,采用ELISA检测CollagenⅠ蛋白质表达水平,同时提取细胞总RNA采用real-time PCR检测Collagen Ⅰ mRNA表达水平。结果 IL-32γ诱导人LX-2细胞表达CollagenⅠ,且其表达水平随IL-32γ浓度的增加而增强;人重组磷酸化p38α蛋白可诱导LX-2细胞表达Collagen Ⅰ增高,阻断p38MAPK可降低IL-32γ诱导的Collagen Ⅰ表达。结论 IL-32γ通过活化p38MAPK通路诱导LX-2细胞表达CollagenⅠ,IL-32γ可能通过诱导肝星状细胞表达Collagen Ⅰ而参与肝纤维化的形成。%Objective To investigate whether could IL-32γinduce Collagen Ⅰ expression in LX-2 cells. Methods LX-2 cells were co-cultured with IL-32γof different concentrations.Then total RNA was extracted, and the cell supernatant was collected.CollagenⅠRNA expression level was assayed by using real-time PCR.CollagenⅠprotein expression level was detected by using ELISA.Subsequently, LX-2 cells were co-cultured with recombinant Human Active p38αprotein of different concentrations.Forty-eight hours later, the cell supernatant was collected and CollagenⅠprotein expression level was assessed.The LX-2 cells were then co-cultured with IL-32γ, and p38MAPK inhibitors SB 203580 of different concentrations were added.CollagenⅠRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by using real-time PCR and

  2. Involvement of a subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the antipsychotic-like effects of the M1/M4 preferring muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Wörtwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia;

    2011-01-01

    studies indicate that the M(4) muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtype (mAChR) modulates the activity of the dopaminergic system and that this specific mAChR subtype is involved in mediating the antipsychotic-like effects of xanomeline. A specific neuronal subpopulation that expresses M(4) mAChRs together...... with D(1) dopamine receptors seems to be especially important in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors. Using mutant mice that lack the M(4) mAChR only in D(1) dopamine receptor-expressing cells (D1-M4-KO), we investigated the role of this neuronal population in the antipsychotic-like effects...

  3. Guanylpirenzepine distinguishes between neuronal ml and m4 muscarinic receptor subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monferini, E.; Cereda, E.; Ladinsky, H.; Donetti, A.; Giraldo, E. (Istituto De Angeli S.p.A., Milan (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    Guanylpirenzepine, a polar, non-quaternary analog of pirenzepine, exhibited a novel binding behavior in rat brain regions: in competition binding experiments against (3H)pirenzepine labeling the M1 receptor in membranes from cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum, the compound, differently from pirenzepine, displayed heterogeneous binding curves. Computer assisted analysis of these curves, evidenced the existence of two populations of binding sites: a large proportion (84-89%) of high affinity receptors (KH = 64-92 nM) and a remainder with very low affinity (KL = 19-28 microM). Like pirenzepine, guanylpirenzepine showed low affinity for the glandular M3 and the cardiac M2 receptors when (3H)N-methylscopolamine was used to label the receptors in membranes from these two tissues; affinity values for guanylpirenzepine were 1336 and 5790 nM respectively, vs 323 and 683 nM for pirenzepine. We conclude that guanylpirenzepine is able to discriminate between m1 and m4 receptor subtypes and may represent a new tool for deeper studies on muscarinic receptors classification.

  4. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-4 - Special rules for mergers, acquisitions and similar events. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules for mergers, acquisitions and similar events. 1.401(m)-4 Section 1.401(m)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.401(m)-4 Special rules for mergers, acquisitions and similar events....

  5. Main: 1M2Q [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1M2Q トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Casein Kinase Ii, Alpha Chain Name=Ack2; Zea Mays Mole...LVGRHSRKPWLKFMNADNQHLVSPEAIDFLDKLLRYDHQERLTALEAMTHPYFQQVRAAENSRTRA corn_1M2Q.jpg ...

  6. Main: 1M2P [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1M2P トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Casein Kinase Ii, Alpha Chain Name=Ack2; Zea Mays Mole...LVGRHSRKPWLKFMNADNQHLVSPEAIDFLDKLLRYDHQERLTALEAMTHPYFQQVRAAENSRTRA corn_1M2P.jpg ...

  7. Main: 1M2R [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1M2R トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Casein Kinase Ii, Alpha Chain Name=Ack2; Zea Mays Mole...ELLVDLQDYDYSLDMWSLGCMFAGMIFRKEPFFYGHDNHDQLVKIAKVLGTDGLNVYLNKYRIELDPQLEALVGRHSRKPWLKFMNADNQHLVSPEAIDFLDKLLRYDHQERLTALEAMTHPYFQQVRAAENSRTRA corn_1M2R.jpg ...

  8. 丙型肝炎病毒F蛋白诱导LX2肝星形细胞活化%Activation of hepatic stellate LX2 cells by F protein of hepatitis C virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵圣文; 徐伯赢; 卢添宝; 徐菊玲; 顾福萍; 段劲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)F蛋白对肝星形细胞(HSC)功能的影响.方法 采用脂质体转染法将pcDNA3.1-f(实验组)或pcDNA3.1空质粒(对照组)转染HSC株LX2细胞,24、48 h后收集细胞,用Western blot法检测α-肌动蛋白(α-SMA)含量,RT-PCR法测定金属蛋白酶组织抑制因子1(TIMP-1)和基质金属蛋白酶2(MMP-2)基因mRNA表达水平.结果 转染后24、48 h,实验组LX2细胞α-SMA蛋白表达量以及TIMP-1基因mRNA水平均明显高于对照组,两组细胞MMP-2 基因mRNA水平接近.结论 HCV F蛋白能够活化HSC,上调其TIMP-1基因转录水平,但不影响MMP-2基因转录水平,使MMP-2蛋白的有效酶活性下降,造成肝组织细胞外基质(ECM)降解速率减慢,进而发生纤维化.%Objective To investigate the effect of hepatitis C virus( HCV) F protein on function of hepatic stellate cells.Methods 24 h and 48 h after transfection pcDNA3.1-f(test group)or pcDNA3.1(control group) plasmid into hepatic stellate LX2 cells by liposome , the protein of smooth muscle α-actin( α-SMA) was detected by Western blot, and the mRNA level of tissue inhibitor factor 1 of metalloproteinases(TIMP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase 2(MMP-2) gene were examined by RT-PCR.Results 24 h and 48 h after LX2 cells transfected pcDNA3.1-f(test group) or pcDNA3.1(control group) , the content of α-SMA protein and the mRNA level of TIMP-1 gene of cells in test group was high than that in control group,and the mRNA level of MMP-2 gene of cells showed no difference between test and control groups.Conclusion HCV F protein is able to activate hepatic stellate LX2 cells.enhance the mRNA level of TIMP-1 gene,but not affect MMP-2 gene transcription,which make the effective enzyme activity of MMP-2 protein be decreased,the degradation rate of ECM in hepatic tissue slowed down.and result in hepatic fibrosis.

  9. The galaxy cluster Ysz-Lx and Ysz-M relations from the WMAP 5-yr data

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, J -B; Delabrouille, J; Arnaud, M; Piffaretti, R; Pratt, G W

    2010-01-01

    We use multifrequency matched filters to estimate, in the WMAP 5-year data, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) fluxes of 893 ROSAT NORAS/REFLEX clusters spanning the luminosity range Lx,[0.1-2.4]keV = 2 10^{41} - 3.5 10^{45} erg s^{-1}. The filters are spatially optimised by using the universal pressure profile recently obtained from combining XMM-Newton observations of the REXCESS sample and numerical simulations. Although the clusters are individually only marginally detected, we are able to firmly measure the SZ signal (>10 sigma) when averaging the data in luminosity/mass bins. The comparison between the bin-averaged SZ signal versus luminosity and X-ray model predictions shows excellent agreement, implying that there is no deficit in SZ signal strength relative to expectations from the X-ray properties of clusters. Using the individual cluster SZ flux measurements, we directly constrain the Y500-Lx and Y500-M500 relations, where Y500 is the Compton y-parameter integrated over a sphere of radius r500. The Y500-M...

  10. M4 muscarinic receptor knockout mice display abnormal social behavior and decreased prepulse inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshimizu Hisatsugu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the central nervous system (CNS, the muscarinic system plays key roles in learning and memory, as well as in the regulation of many sensory, motor, and autonomic processes, and is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several major diseases of the CNS, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous studies reveal that M4 muscarinic receptor knockout (M4R KO mice displayed an increase in basal locomotor activity, an increase in sensitivity to the prepulse inhibition (PPI-disrupting effect of psychotomimetics, and normal basal PPI. However, other behaviorally significant roles of M4R remain unclear. Results In this study, to further investigate precise functional roles of M4R in the CNS, M4R KO mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. M4R KO mice showed no significant impairments in nociception, neuromuscular strength, or motor coordination/learning. In open field, light/dark transition, and social interaction tests, consistent with previous studies, M4R KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor activity compared to their wild-type littermates. In the open field test, M4R KO mice exhibited novelty-induced locomotor hyperactivity. In the social interaction test, contacts between pairs of M4R KO mice lasted shorter than those of wild-type mice. In the sensorimotor gating test, M4R KO mice showed a decrease in PPI, whereas in the startle response test, in contrast to a previous study, M4R KO mice demonstrated normal startle response. M4R KO mice also displayed normal performance in the Morris water maze test. Conclusions These findings indicate that M4R is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, and sensorimotor gating in mice. Together with decreased PPI, abnormal social behavior, which was newly identified in the present study, may represent a behavioral abnormality related to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia.

  11. Towards Horizontal Architecture for Autonomic M2M Service Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Latvakoski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, increasing number of industrial application cases rely on the Machine to Machine (M2M services exposed from physical devices. Such M2M services enable interaction of physical world with the core processes of company information systems. However, there are grand challenges related to complexity and “vertical silos” limiting the M2M market scale and interoperability. It is here expected that horizontal approach for the system architecture is required for solving these challenges. Therefore, a set of architectural principles and key enablers for the horizontal architecture have been specified in this work. A selected set of key enablers called as autonomic M2M manager, M2M service capabilities, M2M messaging system, M2M gateways towards energy constrained M2M asset devices and creation of trust to enable end-to-end security for M2M applications have been developed. The developed key enablers have been evaluated separately in different scenarios dealing with smart metering, car sharing and electric bike experiments. The evaluation results shows that the provided architectural principles, and developed key enablers establish a solid ground for future research and seem to enable communication between objects and applications, which are not initially been designed to communicate together. The aim as the next step in this research is to create a combined experimental system to evaluate the system interoperability and performance in a more detailed manner.

  12. Revisiting the Endocytosis of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Wymke Ockenga; Ritva Tikkanen

    2015-01-01

    The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimul...

  13. A selfish gene chastened: Tribolium castaneum Medea M4 is silenced by a complementary gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M Scott

    2014-04-01

    Maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest (Medea) of Tribolium castaneum are autosomal factors that act maternally to cause the death of any progeny that do not inherit them. This selfish behavior is thought to result from a maternally expressed poison and zygotically expressed antidote. Medea factors and the hybrid incompatibility factor, H, have a negative interaction consistent with complementary genes of the Dobzhansky-Muller model for post-zygotic isolation. This negative interaction may result from H suppression of Medea zygotic antidote, leaving zygotes incompletely protected from maternal poison. I report here a test of the hypothesis that H also suppresses the Medea maternal poison. Viable F1 females were generated from a cross of Medea M4 strain males to H strain females. These females, heterozygous for both M4 and H, failed to express M4 maternal lethal activity when crossed to their male sibs. Transmission of non-M4 homologues from these females was confirmed using a dominant transgenic enhanced green fluorescent protein eye color marker, tightly linked in cis to M4. M4 beetles, lacking H, were selected from the F2 population. Female descendants of these clearly expressed M4 maternal lethal activity, indicating restoration of this activity after H was segregated away. I conclude that H, or a factor tightly linked to H, suppresses Medea M4 maternal poison.

  14. Antipsychotic-induced catalepsy is attenuated in mice lacking the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink-Jensen, Anders; Schmidt, Lene S; Dencker, Ditte

    2011-01-01

    of the striatum, suggesting a role for muscarinic M4 receptors in the motor side effects of antipsychotics, and in the alleviation of these side effects by anticholinergics. Here we investigated the potential role of the muscarinic M4 receptor in catalepsy induced by antipsychotics (haloperidol and risperidone...

  15. The Demand for Divisia M2 in China%中国Divisa M2需求模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘红宇; 邓述慧

    2001-01-01

    本文计算中国Divisa M2指数并对其建立需求模型,研究发现实际Divisa M2 与实际产出存在协整关系,采用误差校正方法建立的动态需求模型具有良好的稳定性。%This paper computes the Divisa M2 in China and makes the money demand model for it. The research finds that the demand for real Divisa M2 is cointegrated with the real output, the short-run model is stable also.

  16. A Survey on M2M Service Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Latvakoski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of industrial applications relying on the Machine to Machine (M2M services exposed from physical world has been increasing in recent years. Such M2M services enable communication of devices with the core processes of companies. However, there is a big challenge related to complexity and to application-specific M2M systems called “vertical silos”. This paper focuses on reviewing the technologies of M2M service networks and discussing approaches from the perspectives of M2M information and services, M2M communication and M2M security. Finally, a discussion on technologies and approaches potentially enabling future autonomic M2M service networks are provided. According to our conclusions, it is seen that clear definition of the architectural principles is needed to solve the “vertical silo” problem and then, proceeding towards enabling autonomic capabilities for solving complexity problem appears feasible. Several areas of future research have been identified, e.g., autonomic information based services, optimization of communications with limited capability devices, real-time messaging, creation of trust and end to end security, adaptability, reliability, performance, interoperability, and maintenance.

  17. M2 factor of four-petal Gaussian beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Guo-Quan; Fan Yan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the second-order moments,this paper derives an analytical expression of the M2 factor of four-petal Gaussian beam.The results show that the M2 factor is only determined by the beam order n.The corresponding numerical calculations are also given.As the beam order increases,the augment of M2 factor is disciplinary.As the expression of M2 factor is expressed in series form and becomes more complicated,a new concise formula of M2 factor is also presented by using curve fitting of numerical calculations.When 3≤n≤200,the maximum error rate of fitting formula will not exceed 2.6% and the average error rate is 0.28%.This research is helpful to the applications of four-petal Gaussian beam.

  18. M2 polarization enhances silica nanoparticle uptake by macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eHoppstädter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While silica nanoparticles have enabled numerous industrial and medical applications, their toxicological safety requires further evaluation. Macrophages are the major cell population responsible for nanoparticle clearance in vivo. The prevailing macrophage phenotype largely depends on the local immune status of the host. Whereas M1-polarized macrophages are considered as pro-inflammatory macrophages involved in host defense, M2 macrophages exhibit anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties, but also promote tumor growth.We employed different models of M1 and M2 polarization: GM-CSF/LPS/IFN-gamma was used to generate primary human M1 cells and M-CSF/IL-10 to differentiate M2 monocyte-derived macrophages. PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were polarized towards an M1 type by LPS/IFN-gamma and towards M2 by IL-10. Uptake of fluorescent silica nanoparticles (Ø 26 and 41 nm and microparticles (Ø 1.75 µm was quantified. At the concentration used (50 µg/ml, silica nanoparticles did not influence cell viability as assessed by MTT assay. Nanoparticle uptake was enhanced in M2-polarized primary human monocyte-derived macrophages compared with M1 cells, as shown by flow cytometric and microscopic approaches. In contrast, the uptake of microparticles did not differ between M1 and M2 phenotypes. M2 polarization was also associated with increased nanoparticle uptake in the macrophage-like THP-1 cell line. In accordance, in vivo polarized M2-like primary human tumor-associated macrophages (TAM obtained from lung tumors took up more nanoparticles than M1-like alveolar macrophages isolated from the surrounding lung tissue.In summary, our data indicate that the M2 polarization of macrophages promotes nanoparticle internalization. Therefore, the phenotypical differences between macrophage subsets should be taken into consideration in future investigations on nanosafety, but might also open up therapeutic perspectives allowing to specifically target M2

  19. Thin-shell mixing in radiative wind-shocks and the Lx-Lbol scaling of O-star X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Owocki, Stanley P; Cohen, David H; Gayley, Kenneth G

    2012-01-01

    X-ray satellites since Einstein have empirically established that the X-ray luminosity from single O-stars scales linearly with bolometric luminosity, Lx ~ 10^{-7} Lbol. But straightforward forms of the most favored model, in which X-rays arise from instability-generated shocks embedded in the stellar wind, predict a steeper scaling, either with mass loss rate Lx ~ Mdot ~ Lbol^{1.7} if the shocks are radiative, or with Lx ~ Mdot^{2} ~ Lbol^{3.4} if they are adiabatic. This paper presents a generalized formalism that bridges these radiative vs. adiabatic limits in terms of the ratio of the shock cooling length to the local radius. Noting that the thin-shell instability of radiative shocks should lead to extensive mixing of hot and cool material, we propose that the associated softening and weakening of the X-ray emission can be parametrized as scaling with the cooling length ratio raised to a power m$, the "mixing exponent". For physically reasonable values m ~= 0.4, this leads to an X-ray luminosity Lx ~ Mdot...

  20. Presynaptic muscarinic M(2) receptors modulate glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ji-Dong; Hazra, Rimi; Dabrowska, Joanna; Muly, E Chris; Wess, Jürgen; Rainnie, Donald G

    2012-03-01

    The anterolateral cell group of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST(ALG)) serves as an important relay station in stress circuitry. Limbic inputs to the BNST(ALG) are primarily glutamatergic and activity-dependent changes in this input have been implicated in abnormal behaviors associated with chronic stress and addiction. Significantly, local infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) receptor agonists into the BNST trigger stress-like cardiovascular responses, however, little is known about the effects of these agents on glutamatergic transmission in the BNST(ALG). Here, we show that glutamate- and ACh-containing fibers are found in close association in the BNST(ALG). Moreover, in the presence of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, eserine, endogenous ACh release evoked a long-lasting reduction of the amplitude of stimulus-evoked EPSCs. This effect was mimicked by exogenous application of the ACh analog, carbachol, which caused a reversible, dose-dependent, reduction of the evoked EPSC amplitude, and an increase in both the paired-pulse ratio and coefficient of variation, suggesting a presynaptic site of action. Uncoupling of postsynaptic G-proteins with intracellular GDP-β-S, or application of the nicotinic receptor antagonist, tubocurarine, failed to block the carbachol effect. In contrast, the carbachol effect was blocked by prior application of atropine or M(2) receptor-preferring antagonists, and was absent in M(2)/M(4) receptor knockout mice, suggesting that presynaptic M(2) receptors mediate the effect of ACh. Immunoelectron microscopy studies further revealed the presence of M(2) receptors on axon terminals that formed asymmetric synapses with BNST neurons. Our findings suggest that presynaptic M(2) receptors might be an important modulator of the stress circuit and hence a novel target for drug development.

  1. TNF Counterbalances the Emergence of M2 Tumor Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Kratochvill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer can involve non-resolving, persistent inflammation where varying numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs infiltrate and adopt different activation states between anti-tumor M1 and pro-tumor M2 phenotypes. Here, we resolve a cascade causing differential macrophage phenotypes in the tumor microenvironment. Reduction in TNF mRNA production or loss of type I TNF receptor signaling resulted in a striking pattern of enhanced M2 mRNA expression. M2 gene expression was driven in part by IL-13 from eosinophils co-recruited with inflammatory monocytes, a pathway that was suppressed by TNF. Our data define regulatory nodes within the tumor microenvironment that balance M1 and M2 populations. Our results show macrophage polarization in cancer is dynamic and dependent on the balance between TNF and IL-13, thus providing a strategy for manipulating TAMs.

  2. TNF counterbalances the emergence of M2 tumor macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvill, Franz; Neale, Geoffrey; Haverkamp, Jessica M.; de Velde, Lee-Ann Van; Smith, Amber M.; Kawauchi, Daisuke; McEvoy, Justina; Roussel, Martine F.; Dyer, Michael A.; Qualls, Joseph E.; Murray, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a form of non-resolving, persistent inflammation where varying numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) infiltrate and adopt different activation states between anti-tumor M1 and pro-tumor M2 phenotypes. Here we resolve a cascade causing differential macrophage phenotypes in the tumor microenvironment. Reduction in TNF mRNA production or loss of Type I TNF receptor signaling resulted in a striking pattern of enhanced M2 mRNA expression. M2 gene expression was driven in part by IL-13 from eosinophils co-recruited with inflammatory monocytes, a pathway that was suppressed by TNF. Our data define regulatory nodes within the tumor microenvironment that balance M1 and M2 populations. Our results show macrophage polarization in cancer is dynamic and dependent on the balance between TNF and IL-13, thus providing a strategy for manipulating TAMs. PMID:26365184

  3. Multiple Access Technologies for Cellular M 2M Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahyar Shirvanimoghaddam; Sarah J. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the multiple access techniques for machine⁃to⁃machine (M2M) communications in future wireless cellular net⁃works. M2M communications aims at providing the communication infrastructure for the emerging Internet of Things (IoT), which will revolutionize the way we interact with our surrounding physical environment. We provide an overview of the multiple access strategies and explain their limitations when used for M2M communications. We show the throughput efficiency of different multi⁃ple access techniques when used in coordinated and uncoordinated scenarios. Non⁃orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is also shown to support a larger number of devices compared to orthogonal multiple access techniques, especially in uncoordinated sce⁃narios. We also detail the issues and challenges of different multiple access techniques to be used for M2M applications in cellu⁃lar networks.

  4. Theoretical Assessment of 178m2Hf De-Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartouni, E P; Chen, M; Descalle, M A; Escher, J E; Loshak, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Pruet, J; Thompson, I J; Wang, T F

    2008-10-06

    This document contains a comprehensive literature review in support of the theoretical assessment of the {sup 178m2}Hf de-excitation, as well as a rigorous description of controlled energy release from an isomeric nuclear state.

  5. Characterization of M2 antibodies in asymptomatic Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hua Jiang; Ren-Qian Zhong; Xiao-Yun Fan; Yin Hu; Feng An; Jian-Wen Sun; Xian-Tao Kong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the presence of M2 antibodies specific for pdmary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) in asymptomatic Chinese and identify patients with early PBC.METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ElISA)tests for M2 antibodies to recombinant protein were performed in 5 011 subjects (age range, 26-85 years; mean age: 45.81±15.02 years) who took an annual physical examination. M2-positive subjects were further analyzed for immunoglobulin (Ig) classes and subclasses of M2 antibodies.Clinical, biochemical and immunological data were obtained for M2-positive subjects. In addition, ultrasonography (US)or endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP)was performed to exclude any disorders other than PBC.RESULTS: M2 antibodies were detected in 8 (0.16%) of the 5 0LL subjects studied. Of the 8 subjects, 7 were female and 1 was male (age range: 40-74 years). An unexplained increase of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) values, often to striking levels,was detected in 4 M2-positive subjects, 3 of them accorded with the diagnostic criteria recommended by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, even though they had no symptoms of PBC (such as fatigue, pruritus or jaundice).Liver biopsy was performed in two M2-positive subjects and the histology was compatible with PBC in both cases.CONCLUSION: Our data, while not assessing the true prevalence of asymptomatic PBC in the general population,suggest that asymptomatic PBC is much more common in China than has been supposed.

  6. M2-Edge Colorings Of Cacti And Graph Joins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czap Július

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An edge coloring φ of a graph G is called an M2-edge coloring if |φ(v| ≤ 2 for every vertex v of G, where φ(v is the set of colors of edges incident with v. Let 2(G denote the maximum number of colors used in an M2-edge coloring of G. In this paper we determine 2(G for trees, cacti, complete multipartite graphs and graph joins.

  7. Study of {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnevsky, I. N.; Zheltonozhsky, V. A., E-mail: zhelton@kinr.kiev.ua; Savrasov, A. N. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Nuclear Research (Ukraine); Mazur, V. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Electronic Physics (Ukraine)

    2016-12-15

    Isomeric ratios of {sup 179}Hf{sup m2,g} yields in the (γ, n) reaction and the cross section for the {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} population in the (α, p) reaction are measured for the first time at the end-point energies of 15.1 and 17.5 MeV for bremsstrahlung photons and 26 MeV for alpha particles. The results are σ = (1.1 ± 0.11) × 10{sup −27} cm{sup 2} for the {sup 176}Lu(α, p){sup 179}Hf{sup m2} reaction and Y{sub m2}/Y{sub g} = (6.1 ± 0.3) × 10{sup −6} and (3.7 ± 0.2) × 10{sup −6} for the {sup 180}Hf(γ, n){sup 179}Hf{sup m22} reaction at E{sub ep} =15.1 and 17.5 MeV, respectively. The experimental data on the relative {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} yield indicate a single-humped shape of the excitation function for the {sup 180}Hf(γ, n){sup 179}Hf{sup m2} reaction. Simulation is performed using the TALYS-1.4 and EMPIRE-3.2 codes.

  8. Revisiting the endocytosis of the m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenga, Wymke; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2015-05-12

    The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimulation requires clathrin. The expression of various dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutants and the use of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function revealed that dynamin expression and membrane localization as such appear to be necessary for M2 endocytosis, whereas dynamin GTPase activity is not required for this process. Based on the data from the present and from previous studies, we propose that M2 endocytosis takes place by means of an atypical clathrin-mediated pathway that may involve a specific subset of clathrin-coated pits/vesicles.

  9. Revisiting the Endocytosis of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wymke Ockenga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimulation requires clathrin. The expression of various dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutants and the use of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function revealed that dynamin expression and membrane localization as such appear to be necessary for M2 endocytosis, whereas dynamin GTPase activity is not required for this process. Based on the data from the present and from previous studies, we propose that M2 endocytosis takes place by means of an atypical clathrin-mediated pathway that may involve a specific subset of clathrin-coated pits/vesicles.

  10. Formulation and Characterization of LX-17-2 from new FK 800 binder and WA, ATK, and BAE TATBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePiero, S C; Hoffman, D M

    2007-08-03

    Currently LLNL has no Kel-F 800 or wet-aminated TATB reserves for formulation. Although both materials are soon to be commercially available, their synthesis processes have changed and the explosive must be re-evaluated. In 2000 3M phased out the uses of perfluorooctanoyl (C8) derivatives due to environmental persistence and bioaccumulation issues. A C8 derivative was used as an emulsifier for making Kel F-800. In 2001 Kel F-800 was scheduled to be discontinued and the last Kel F-800 run was made in early 2002. LANL ordered 2M$ worth of Kel-F 800 for reserves and Pantex purchased several hundred pounds to satisfy mock needs. After four years, 3M has decided to introduce a Kel-F 800-like polymer based on a new emulsifier using the same chlorotrifluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride monomers and emulsion polymerization process. They have produced 3 batches and claim the 'new' FK-800 is indistinguishable from the 'old' Kel-F 800 in any of their testing parameters. In June-July 2006 3M scaled up a batch of about 800 pounds and have test quantities available. We have samples of the new FK-800 for evaluation. Neither wet nor dry-aminated TATB has been synthesized in the US in any significant quantity since about 1985 and significant quantities of LX-17-1 has not been formulated since about 1990. Over the last few years as part of a DOD MANTECH, ATK Thiokol and BAE Holston Army Ammunition Plant (HAAP) have produced moderate quantities of TATB ({approx}5 kg batches) with plans to scale up for DOD applications. Thiokol TATB is polycrystalline with an average particle size of about 40 m (similar to WA TATB) but HAAP TATB is only 5-6 {micro}m (similar to ultrafine). We have obtained small quantities of these materials for evaluation. The project (1) compares new FK-800 with old Kel-F 800 and FK-800 lots currently available at LLNL, (2) compares and characterizes new TATB with old TATB, (3) formulates new FK-800 with wet-aminated TATB and new TATBs in

  11. A randomized comparison of daunorubicin 90 mg/m2 vs 60 mg/m2 in AML induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burnett, A. K.; Russell, N. H.; Hills, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    remission rate (73% vs 75%; odds ratio, 1.07 [0.83-1.39]; P = .6) or in any recognized subgroup. The 60-day mortality was increased in the 90 mg/m(2) arm (10% vs 5% (hazard ratio [HR] 1.98 [1.30-3.02]; P = .001), which resulted in no difference in overall 2-year survival (59% vs 60%; HR, 1.16 [0.95-1.43]; P...... recommended as a standard of care. However, 60 mg/m(2) is widely used and has never been directly compared with 90 mg/m(2). As part of the UK National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) AML17 trial, 1206 adults with untreated AML or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, mostly younger than 60 years of age, were...... randomized to a first-induction course of chemotherapy, which delivered either 90 mg/m(2) or 60 mg/m(2) on days 1, 3, and 5 combined with cytosine arabinoside. All patients then received a second course that included daunorubicin 50 mg/m(2) on days 1, 3, and 5. There was no overall difference in complete...

  12. On the Structure of Hot Gas in Halos: Implications for the Lx-Tx Relation & Missing Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Prateek; Parrish, Ian J; Quataert, Eliot

    2012-01-01

    We present one-dimensional models of the hot gas in dark-matter halos, which both predict the existence of cool cores and explain their structure. Our models are directly applicable to semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation. We have previously argued that filaments of cold (~10^4 K) gas condense out of the intracluster medium (ICM) in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium when the ratio of the thermal instability timescale to the free-fall time $t_{TI}/t_{ff}$ falls below 5-10. This criterion corresponds to an upper limit on the density of the ICM and motivates a model in which a density core forms wherever $t_{TI}/t_{ff} \\lesssim 10$. Consistent with observations and numerical simulations, this model predicts larger and more tenuous cores for lower-mass halos---while the core density in a cluster may be as large as ~ 0.1 cm^{-3}, the core density in the Galactic halo should not exceed ~ 10^{-4} cm^{-3}. Our models produce a favorable match to the observational X-ray luminosity-temperature (Lx-Tx) rela...

  13. Boundary magnetization properties of epitaxial C r2 -xA lxO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Binek, Christian; Berger, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    The magnetoelectric antiferromagnet α -C r2O3 (chromia) is known to possess a roughness insensitive net equilibrium magnetization at the (0001) surface, called boundary magnetization (BM), which is coupled to the bulk antiferromagnetic order parameter. In order to verify whether this symmetry sensitive BM persists in alloys, we investigate the impact of diamagnetic dilution on chromia thin films alloyed with the isostructural α -A l2O3 (alumina). Single-crystalline C r2 -xA lxO3 thin films with (0001) surface orientation and varying stoichiometry have been grown by sputter codeposition in the concentration range between x =0 and x =0.6 . For these samples, we find the corundum crystal structure, the antiferromagnetic ordering, and the boundary magnetization to be preserved. We also find that the critical temperature TN can be tuned by alloying with α -A l2O3 , using the BM as a probe to study the magnetic phase transition. Furthermore, we were able to evaluate the critical exponent and the absolute BM values for different samples. Both properties corroborate that the observed magnetic signals originate from the BM rather than the bulk of the samples.

  14. M$^2$I Communication: From Theoretical Modeling to Practical Design

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communications in complex environments are constrained by lossy media and complicated structures. Magnetic Induction (MI) has been proved to be an efficient solution to extend the communication range. Due to the small coil antenna's physical limitation, however, MI's communication range is still very limited. To this end, Metamaterial-enhanced Magnetic Induction (M$^2$I) communication has been proposed and the theoretical results suggest that it can significantly increase the communication performance, namely, data rate and communication range. Nevertheless, currently, the real implementation of M$^2$I is still a challenge and there is no guideline on design and fabrication of spherical metamaterial. In this paper, we propose a practical design by using a spherical coil array to realize M$^2$I and we prove that it can achieve negative permeability and there exists a resonance condition where the radiated magnetic field can be significantly amplified. The radiation and communication performance are ev...

  15. M4 mAChR-mediated modulation of glutamatergic transmission at corticostriatal synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancani, Tristano; Bolarinwa, Caroline; Smith, Yoland; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Xiang, Zixiu

    2014-04-16

    The striatum is the main input station of the basal ganglia and is extensively involved in the modulation of motivated behavior. The information conveyed to this subcortical structure through glutamatergic projections from the cerebral cortex and thalamus is processed by the activity of several striatal neuromodulatory systems including the cholinergic system. Acetylcholine potently modulates glutamate signaling in the striatum via activation of muscarinic receptors (mAChRs). It is, however, unclear which mAChR subtype is responsible for this modulatory effect. Here, by using electrophysiological, optogenetic, and immunoelectron microscopic approaches in conjunction with a novel, highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator VU0152100 (ML108) and M4 knockout mice, we show that M4 is a major mAChR subtype mediating the cholinergic inhibition of corticostriatal glutamatergic input on both striatonigral and striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). This effect is due to activation of presynaptic M4 receptors, which, in turn, leads to a decrease in glutamate release from corticostriatal terminals. The findings of the present study raise the interesting possibility that M4 mAChR could be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders involving hyper-glutamatergic transmission at corticostriatal synapses.

  16. M2-F1 on lakebed with pilot Milt Thompson

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Pilot Milt Thompson, shown here on the lakebed with the M2-F1 lifting body, was an early backer of R. Dale Reed's lifting-body proposal. He urged Flight Research Center director Paul Bikle to approve the M2-F1's construction. Thompson also made the first glide flights in both the M2-F1 and its successor, the heavyweight M2-F2. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved

  17. 4333M4超高压反应管的断裂韧度%Fracture Toughness of Ultrahigh Pressure Reaction Tube Made by 4333M4 Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铜; 陈进

    2012-01-01

    The critical stress intensity factor Kit: of high strength low alloy steel 4333M4 was determinated through non-standard arch bone bending experiment, and flexibility method was used. Then the tube was assessed by the leak before break criterion. The results showed that the fracture toughness of the steel was measured up to standard of SFAC 98--01 Rev. 2 and the pipe met requirements of leak before break.%通过非标准拱形三点弯曲试样的试验,采用柔度法标定,测定了进口4333M4低合金超高强度钢管材的临界应力强度因子Kzc,并对该超高压反应管进行了先漏后破分析。结果表明:该钢材有较高的断裂韧度,符合SFAC98-01Rev.2《超高压用无缝合金钢管技术条件》的要求,且管材符合先漏后破标准。

  18. Production of a single cyclic type of fructooligosaccharide structure by inulin-degrading Paenibacillus sp. LX16 newly isolated from Jerusalem artichoke root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhihua; Guo, Jiqiang; Tang, Wenzhu; Sun, Zhen; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Xianzhen

    2016-05-01

    A novel inulin-degrading bacterium was isolated from a soil sample collected on Jerusalem artichoke roots. It is a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile and central endospore-forming straight rod, and exhibits phenotypic properties being consistent with its classification in the genus Paenibacillus. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0 and anteiso-C17:0. This strain represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus on the basis of phenotypic data together with phylogenetic analysis, and it is here designated as LX16 and deposited in China centre for type collection, China (= CCTCC 2015256). Strain LX16 could produce a cyclofructooligosaccharide fructanotransferase catalysing the formation of one type of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) from inulin. The FOS was identified as a cyclofructooligosaccharide with a degree of polymerization of 6. Such homology in inulin degradation products may be beneficial for the functional FOS production.

  19. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on M4 common technical document; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-16

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of guidance entitled "M4 Organization of the Common Technical Document for the Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use" (M4CTD). The guidance was developed under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance, which is being made available simultaneously in four parts (general organization, quality, safety, and efficacy), describes a harmonized format for new product applications (including applications for biotechnology-derived products) for submission to the regulatory authorities in the three ICH regions. The M4 CTD is intended to reduce the time and resources used to compile applications, ease the preparation of electronic submissions, facilitate regulatory reviews and communication with the applicant, and simplify the exchange of regulatory information among regulatory authorities.

  20. Voice-coil technology for the E-ELT M4 Adaptive Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallieni, D.; Tintori, M.; Mantegazza, M.; Anaclerio, E.; Crimella, L.; Acerboni, M.; Biasi, R.; Angerer, G.; Andrigettoni, M.; Merler, A.; Veronese, D.; Carel, J.-L.; Marque, G.; Molinari, E.; Tresoldi, D.; Toso, G.; Spanó, P.; Riva, M.; Mazzoleni, R.; Riccardi, A.; Mantegazza, P.; Manetti, M.; Morandini, M.; Vernet, E.; Hubin, N.; Jochum, L.; Madec, P.; Dimmler, M.; Koch, F.

    We present our design of the E-ELT M4 Adaptive Unit based on voice-coil driven deformable mirror technology. This technology was developed by INAF-Arcetri, Microgate and ADS team in the past 15 years and it has been adopted by a number of large ground based telescopes as the MMT, LBT, Magellan and lastly the VLT in the frame of the Adaptive Telescope Facility project. Our design is based on contactless force actuators made by permanent magnets glued on the back of the deformable mirror and coils mounted on a stiff reference structure. We use capacitive sensors to close a position loop co-located with each actuator. Dedicated high performance parallel processors are used to implement the local de-centralized control at actuator level and a centralized feed-forward computation of all the actuators forces. This allowed achieving in our previous systems dynamic performances well in line with the requirements of the M4 Adaptive Unit (M4AU) case. The actuator density of our design is in the order of 30-mm spacing for a figure of about 6000 actuators on the M4AU and it allows fulfilling the fitting error and corrections requirements of the E-ELT high order DM. Moreover, our contact-less technology makes the Deformable Mirror tolerant to up 5% actuators failures without spoiling system capability to reach its specified performances, besides allowing large mechanical tolerances between the reference structure and the deformable mirror. Finally, we present the Demonstration Prototype we are building in the frame of the M4AU Phase B study to measure the optical dynamical performances predicted by our design. Such a prototype will be fully representative of the M4AU features, in particular it will address the controllability of two adjacent segments of the 2-mm thick mirror and implement the actuators "brick" modular concept that has been adopted to dramatically improve the maintainability of the final unit.

  1. M2磁带机挑战极限

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    日前安百特(Exabyte)公司宣布,其OEM合作伙伴Cybernetics在对Mammoth-2(M2)磁带机的性能和可靠性测试中取得了创记录的结果,从而加快了M2的商业交付计划。M2磁带机以部门级价格提供了企业级的性能,其容量增加50%,达到60GB,性能提高一倍,传输率达到12MB/s,可在一小时内备份43GB数据(未压缩)。Cybernetics利用该公司为了故意“破坏”磁带机而创建的定制软件对M2进行了测试,包括读/写能力测试、

  2. Dimeric Complexes of Tryptophan with M2+ Metal Ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunbar, R. C.; Steill, J. D.; Polfer, N. C.; Oomens, J.

    2009-01-01

    IRMPD spectroscopy using the FELIX free electron laser and a Fourier transform ICR mass spectrometer was used to characterize the structures of electrosprayed dimer complexes M(2+)Trp(2) of tryptophan with a series of eight doubly charged metal ions, including alkaline earths Ca, Sr, and Ba, and tra

  3. M2e-Based Universal Influenza A Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Deng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The successful isolation of a human influenza virus in 1933 was soon followed by the first attempts to develop an influenza vaccine. Nowadays, vaccination is still the most effective method to prevent human influenza disease. However, licensed influenza vaccines offer protection against antigenically matching viruses, and the composition of these vaccines needs to be updated nearly every year. Vaccines that target conserved epitopes of influenza viruses would in principle not require such updating and would probably have a considerable positive impact on global human health in case of a pandemic outbreak. The extracellular domain of Matrix 2 (M2e protein is an evolutionarily conserved region in influenza A viruses and a promising epitope for designing a universal influenza vaccine. Here we review the seminal and recent studies that focused on M2e as a vaccine antigen. We address the mechanism of action and the clinical development of M2e-vaccines. Finally, we try to foresee how M2e-based vaccines could be implemented clinically in the future.

  4. Progress On 58m2 Passive Resonant Ring Laser Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G. L.; Rotge, J.; Simmons, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    An update of the large area (now 60m2) Passive Resonant Ring Laser Gyro (PRRLG) is given. Some aspects of last year's design have changed; but performance is still predicted to be in the 10-10 earth rate unit (ERU) range. This is of interest for a number of geophysical applications.

  5. Correlation of the National Emergency Medicine M4 Clerkship Examination with USMLE Examination Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan E. Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Assessment of medical students’ knowledge in clinical settings is complex yet essential to the learning process. Clinical clerkships use various types of written examinations to objectively test medical knowledge within a given discipline. Within emergency medicine (EM, a new national standardized exam was developed to test medical knowledge in this specialty. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a new examination is an important issue to address during test development and use. Studies have shown that student performance on selected standardized exams will reveal students’ strengths and/or weaknesses, so that effective remedial efforts can be implemented. Our study sought to address these issues by examining the association of scores on the new EM national exam with other standardized exam scores. Methods: From August 2011 to April 2013, average National EM M4 examination scores of fourthyear medical students taken at the end of a required EM clerkship were compiled. We examined the correlation of the National EM M4 examination with the scores of initial attempts of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK examinations. Correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals of correlation coefficients are reported. We also examined the association between the national EM M4 examination score, final grades for the EM rotation, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores. Results: 133 students were included in the study and achieved a mean score of 79.5 SD 8.0 on the National EM M4 exam compared to a national mean of 79.7 SD 3.89. The mean USMLE Step 1 score was 226.8 SD 19.3. The mean USMLE Step 2 CK score was 238.5 SD 18.9. National EM M4 examination scores showed moderate correlation with both USMLE Step 1 (mean score=226.8; correlation coefficient=0.50; 95% CI [0.28-0.67] and USMLE Step 2 CK (mean score=238.5; correlation coefficient=0.47; 95% CI [0.25-0.65]. Students scoring

  6. Length and amino acid sequence of peptides substituted for the 5-HT3A receptor M3M4 loop may affect channel expression and desensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole K McKinnon

    Full Text Available 5-HT3A receptors are pentameric neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in the Cys-loop receptor family. Each subunit contains an extracellular domain, four transmembrane segments (M1, M2, M3, M4 and a 115 residue intracellular loop between M3 and M4. In contrast, the M3M4 loop in prokaryotic homologues is <15 residues. To investigate the limits of M3M4 loop length and composition on channel function we replaced the 5-HT3A M3M4 loop with two to seven alanine residues (5-HT3A-A(n = 2-7. Mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized using two electrode voltage clamp recording. All mutants were functional. The 5-HT EC(50's were at most 5-fold greater than wild-type (WT. The desensitization rate differed significantly among the mutants. Desensitization rates for 5-HT3A-A(2, 5-HT3A-A(4, 5-HT3A-A(6, and 5-HT3A-A(7 were similar to WT. In contrast, 5-HT3A-A(3 and 5-HT3A-A(5 had desensitization rates at least an order of magnitude faster than WT. The one Ala loop construct, 5-HT3A-A(1, entered a non-functional state from which it did not recover after the first 5-HT application. These results suggest that the large M3M4 loop of eukaryotic Cys-loop channels is not required for receptor assembly or function. However, loop length and amino acid composition can effect channel expression and desensitization. We infer that the cytoplasmic ends of the M3 and M4 segments may undergo conformational changes during channel gating and desensitization and/or the loop may influence the position and mobility of these segments as they undergo gating-induced conformational changes. Altering structure or conformational mobility of the cytoplasmic ends of M3 and M4 may be the basis by which phosphorylation or protein binding to the cytoplasmic loop alters channel function.

  7. Internal steel structure of M2-F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The internal steel structure for the M2-F1 was built at the Flight Research Center (predecessor of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) in a section of the calibration hangar dubbed 'Wright Bicycle Shop.' Visible are the stick, rudder pedals, and ejection seat. The external wooden shell was attached to the steel structure. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly

  8. E Durans Strain M4-5 Isolated From Human Colonic Flora Attenuates Intestinal Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avram-Hananel, L.; Stock, J.; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2010-01-01

    inflammation, and inhibited colonic transcription of proinflammatory immune factors. The effect of therapeutic treatment alone on these parameters was more moderate but still significant. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that E durans strain M4 to 5 and its metabolic product butyrate induce significant anti...

  9. Iconic end-users in M4H's organic area development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Michaël; Peek, Gert- Joost

    2015-01-01

    This paper present the preliminary findings of a recently started research project on the organic redevelopment strategy of the Rotterdam City Ports organization in the MerweVierhavens area (M4H) and its particular context. An overview of the area and roles of the involved actors is given from the p

  10. Terahertz and M4PP conductivity mapping of large area CVD grown graphene films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter;

    We demonstrate mapping of magnitude and variation of the electrical conductance of large area CVD graphene films by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and micro four-point-probe (M4PP). Non-trivial correlations between results obtained with the two techniques are discussed in relation...

  11. Increased cocaine self-administration in M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lene Sørensen; Thomsen, Morgane; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system. Behavioral and neurochemical studies have shown that the cholinergic muscarinic M4 receptor subtype plays an important role in regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Objectives Here we investigated...... of drug addiction...

  12. Tyrosine 129 of the murine gammaherpesvirus M2 protein is critical for M2 function in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya S Rangaswamy

    Full Text Available A common strategy shared by all known gammaherpesviruses is their ability to establish a latent infection in lymphocytes--predominantly in B cells. In immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients or AIDS patients, gammaherpesvirus infections can lead to the development of lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoid malignancies. The human gamma-herpesviruses, EBV and KSHV, encode proteins that are capable of modulating the host immune signaling machinery, thereby subverting host immune responses. Murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68 infection of laboratory strains of mice has proven to be useful small-animal model that shares important pathogenic strategies with the human gamma-herpesviruses. The MHV68 M2 protein is known to manipulate B cell signaling and, dependent on route and dose of virus inoculation, plays a role in both the establishment of latency and virus reactivation. M2 contains two tyrosines that are targets for phosphorylation, and have been shown to interact with the B cell signaling machinery. Here we describe in vitro and in vivo studies of M2 mutants which reveals that while both tyrosines Y120 and Y129 are required for M2 induction of IL-10 expression from primary murine B cells in vitro, only Y129 is critical for reactivation from latency and plasma cell differentiation in vivo.

  13. Tyrosine 129 of the murine gammaherpesvirus M2 protein is critical for M2 function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Udaya S; O'Flaherty, Brigid M; Speck, Samuel H

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy shared by all known gammaherpesviruses is their ability to establish a latent infection in lymphocytes--predominantly in B cells. In immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients or AIDS patients, gammaherpesvirus infections can lead to the development of lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoid malignancies. The human gamma-herpesviruses, EBV and KSHV, encode proteins that are capable of modulating the host immune signaling machinery, thereby subverting host immune responses. Murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection of laboratory strains of mice has proven to be useful small-animal model that shares important pathogenic strategies with the human gamma-herpesviruses. The MHV68 M2 protein is known to manipulate B cell signaling and, dependent on route and dose of virus inoculation, plays a role in both the establishment of latency and virus reactivation. M2 contains two tyrosines that are targets for phosphorylation, and have been shown to interact with the B cell signaling machinery. Here we describe in vitro and in vivo studies of M2 mutants which reveals that while both tyrosines Y120 and Y129 are required for M2 induction of IL-10 expression from primary murine B cells in vitro, only Y129 is critical for reactivation from latency and plasma cell differentiation in vivo.

  14. Camera Ready Masters. B/M-1 Resource Assessment. B/M-2 Surveying. B/M-3 Tabulation. B/M-4 Selecting Program Goals. B/M-5 Producing CDU's. Career Planning Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational Education.

    This package of camera ready masters is one of a set of twelve documents describing the Career Planning Support System (CPSS) and its use. (CPSS is a comprehensive guidance program management system which (1) provides techniques to improve a high school's career guidance program, (2) focuses on the skills students need to make decisions about and…

  15. Activation and dynamic network of the M2 muscarinic receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yinglong; Nichols, Sara E.; Gasper, Paul M.; Metzger, Vincent T; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate cellular responses to various hormones and neurotransmitters and are important targets for treating a wide spectrum of diseases. Although significant advances have been made in structural studies of GPCRs, details of their activation mechanism remain unclear. The X-ray crystal structure of the M2 muscarinic receptor, a key GPCR that regulates human heart rate and contractile forces of cardiomyocytes, was determined recently in an inactive antagonist...

  16. Wilson Loops for M2- and M5-brane spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Quijada, Edward

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the quark and anti-quark interaction energy in different positions in spaces generated by $N$ coincident $M2$- and $M5$-branes. We use the Maldacena-Rey-Yee method for calculating this energy as a function of quark-antiquark separation. We obtain the solution for these problems as integrals of the metric elements. For limiting regimes we find simpler solutions for which some potentials exhibit a confinement behavior.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M4 Core Project with HST. Radial velocities (Malavolta+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolta, L.; Piotto, G.; Bedin, L. R.; Sneden, C.; Nascimbeni, V.; Sommariva, V.

    2016-07-01

    The spectra for our project were originally used by Sommariva et al. (2009A&A...493..947S) to study the internal velocity dispersion of M4 and to search for spectroscopic binaries. A total of 2771 stars covering colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) positions from the upper RGB to about 1mag fainter than the main-sequence turnoff (TO) luminosity were observed between 2003 and 2009, including 306 new spectra obtained in 2009 and targeting MS stars already observed in the previous epochs. Determination of the M 4 velocity dispersion and binary star fraction were the prime motivators for obtaining these data. Therefore nearly all stars were observed at least twice, and three or more spectra were obtained for nearly 40 per cent of the sample. (2 data files).

  18. M4C9 +(M = Ti, V): New gas phase clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Selvan; L Gowrishankar; T Pradeep

    2001-10-01

    New metal-carbon clusters, M4C9 +(M = Ti, V), generated using a combined thermal arc discharge evaporation set-up, have been studied with quadrupole mass spectrometry. Reactivities of these clusters have been investigated by means of association reactions with H2O. Metal-carbon clusters of other compositions have also been studied. We speculate on the mechanism of formation of larger metal-carbon clusters.

  19. Hypoplastic acute myeloid leukemia-M4: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia (AML is defined as AML with bone marrow cellularity <20%. Hypocellular AML is an infrequent entity. Its frequency ranges between 5% and 12% of all cases of AML. Hypocellular variants of acute leukemia almost always have a myeloid phenotype and usually develop secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. We report a rare case of Hypocellular AML-M4 occurring in a 60-year-old woman who was incidentally found to be positive for HIV.

  20. A Business Case Analysis of the M4/AR-15 Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    market . The market analysis was conducted to fill missing gaps on the M4/AR-15 market size, customer demographics , and supplier base. Data was collected...Wesson, 2012). The article also provides data on the rapid growth in the modern sporting rifle market segment . Peters (2012) cites a Freedom Group...types of products generally manufactured in each market . The four main market segments are Small Arms (which will be considered the “Gun segment

  1. Getting ready for the real data-taking with M4

    CERN Multimedia

    Giuseppe Mornacchi

    M4 (Milestone 4), the fourth global commissioning period, took place from August 23rd to September 3rd. As for M3, this run included almost all of the ATLAS sub-detectors, with only the Pixels and Cathode Strip Chambers missing, but featured more detector hardware, new releases of offline and online software and many new functions. These are outlined below. The more mature state of systems integration called for a different organization of M4 with respect to M1-M3: following a 2-day setup time, we spent the rest of M4 running formal shifts: two shifts a day (9:00 to 17:00 and 17:00 to 24:00) with a full crew during week days, that is 13 control room desks staffed by at least one shifter each, and a single shift (9:00 to 17:00) with reduced crew of 5-7 people during weekends. While most of the time was dedicated to combined running with cosmics muons, four of the day shifts were dedicated to more technical issues such as: high rate (many kHz) runs, tests related to synchronization (Bunch Counter Reset and Eve...

  2. The M4RIE library for dense linear algebra over small fields with even characteristic

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Martin R

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the M4RIE library which implements efficient algorithms for linear algebra with dense matrices over GF(2^e) for 2 <= 2 <= 10. As the name of the library indicates, it makes heavy use of the M4RI library both directly (i.e., by calling it) and indirectly (i.e., by using its concepts). We provide an open-source GPLv2+ C library for efficient linear algebra over GF(2^e) for e small. In this library we implemented an idea due to Bradshaw and Boothby which reduces matrix multiplication over GF(p^k) to a series of matrix multiplications over GF(p). Furthermore, we propose a caching technique - Newton-John tables - to avoid finite field multiplications which is inspired by Kronrod's method ("M4RM") for matrix multiplication over GF(2). Using these two techniques we provide asymptotically fast triangular solving with matrices (TRSM) and PLE-based Gaussian elimination. As a result, we are able to significantly improve upon the state of the art in dense linear algebra over GF(2^e) with 2 ...

  3. Abundances in a sample of turnoff and subgiant stars in NGC 6121 (M4)

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, Monique; Gallagher, Andrew J; Monaco, Lorenzo; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Caffau, Elisabetta; Villanova, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    {The aim of this work is to investigate the relations between the abundances of different elements in the globular cluster M4, selected for its uniform deficiency of iron, to explore the best models explaining the pattern of these observed abundances. Moreover, in turnoff stars, the abundances of the elements are not suspected to be affected by internal mixing. In M4, using low and moderate resolution spectra obtained for 91 turnoff (and subgiant) stars with the ESO FLAMES-Giraffe spectrograph, we have extended previous measurements of abundances (of Li, C and Na) to other elements (C, Si, Ca, Sr and Ba), using model atmosphere analysis. We have also studied the influence of the choice of the microturbulent velocity. Firstly, the peculiar turnoff star found to be very Li-rich in a previous paper does not show any other abundance anomalies relative to the other turnoff stars in M4. ~Secondly, an anti-correlation between C and Na has been detected, the slope being significative at more than $3\\sigma$. This rela...

  4. M2-Branes in N = 3 Harmonic Superspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a brief account of the recently proposed N = 3 superfield formulation of the N = 6, 3D superconformal theory of Aharony et al (ABJM describing a low-energy limit of the system of multiple M2-branes on the AdS4×S7/Zk background. This formulation is given in harmonic N = 3 superspace and reveals a number of surprising new features. In particular, the sextic scalar potential of ABJM arises at the on-shell component level as the result of eliminating appropriate auxiliary fields, while there is no explicit superpotential at the off-shell superfield level.

  5. M2-branes and AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Klebanov, Igor R

    2009-01-01

    These notes provide a brief introduction to the ABJM theory, the level k U(N) x U(N) superconformal Chern-Simons matter theory which has been conjectured to describe N coincident M2-branes. We discuss its dual formulation in terms of M-theory on AdS_4 x S^7/Z_k and review some of the evidence in favor of the conjecture. We end with a brief discussion of the important role played by the monopole operators.

  6. Superconformal M2-branes and generalized Jordan triple systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Bengt E W

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal theories with six supersymmetries and SU(4) R-symmetry describing stacks of M2-branes are here proposed to be related to generalized Jordan triple systems. Writing the four-index structure constants in an appropriate form, the Chern-Simons part of the action immediately suggests a connection to such triple systems. In this note we show that the whole theory with six manifest supersymmetries can be naturally expressed in terms of structure constants of generalized Jordan triple systems. We comment on the associated graded Lie algebra, which corresponds to an extension of the gauge group.

  7. The s-process enrichment of the globular clusters M4 and M22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shingles, Luke J.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Fishlock, Cherie K.; Yong, David; Da Costa, Gary S.; Marino, Anna F. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Hirschi, Raphael, E-mail: luke.shingles@anu.edu.au [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, 277-8583 Kashiwa (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the enrichment in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s-process) in the globular clusters M4 (NGC 6121) and M22 (NGC 6656). Stars in M4 have homogeneous abundances of Fe and neutron-capture elements, but the entire cluster is enhanced in s-process elements (Sr, Y, Ba, Pb) relative to other clusters with a similar metallicity. In M22, two stellar groups exhibit different abundances of Fe and s-process elements. By subtracting the mean abundances of s-poor from s-rich stars, we derive s-process residuals or empirical s-process distributions for M4 and M22. We find that the s-process distribution in M22 is more weighted toward the heavy s-peak (Ba, La, Ce) and Pb than M4, which has been enriched mostly with light s-peak elements (Sr, Y, Zr). We construct simple chemical evolution models using yields from massive star models that include rotation, which dramatically increases s-process production at low metallicity. We show that our massive star models with rotation rates of up to 50% of the critical (break-up) velocity and changes to the preferred {sup 17}O(α, γ){sup 21}Ne rate produce insufficient heavy s-elements and Pb to match the empirical distributions. For models that incorporate asymptotic giant branch yields, we find that intermediate-mass yields (with a {sup 22}Ne neutron source) alone do not reproduce the light-to-heavy s-element ratios for M4 and M22, and that a small contribution from models with a {sup 13}C pocket is required. With our assumption that {sup 13}C pockets form for initial masses below a transition range between 3.0 and 3.5 M {sub ☉}, we match the light-to-heavy s-element ratio in the s-process residual of M22 and predict a minimum enrichment timescale of between 240 and 360 Myr. Our predicted value is consistent with the 300 Myr upper limit age difference between the two groups derived from isochrone fitting.

  8. A comprehensive survey of M(2)AX phase elastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, M F; Warschkow, O; Bilek, M M M; McKenzie, D R

    2009-07-29

    M(2)AX phases are a family of nanolaminate, ternary alloys that are composed of slabs of transition metal carbide or nitride (M(2)X) separated by single atomic layers of a main group element. In this combination, they manifest many of the beneficial properties of both ceramic and metallic compounds, making them attractive for many technological applications. We report here the results of a large scale computational survey of the elastic properties of all 240 elemental combinations using first-principles density functional theory calculations. We found correlations revealing the governing role of the A element and its interaction with the M element on the c axis compressibility and shearability of the material. The role of the X element is relatively minor, with the strongest effect seen in the in-plane constants C(11) and C(12). We identify several elemental compositions with extremal properties such as W(2)SnC, which has by far the lowest value of C(44), suggesting potential applications as a high-temperature dry lubricant.

  9. Inversion of the Focal Mechanisms of the 2014 M4.2 and M4.0 Earthquakes in Rushan,Shandong Using the CAP Method%CAP 方法反演2014年山东乳山 M4.2、M4.0地震震源机制解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲均浩; 刘瑞峰; 李金; 李永红; 张芹; 李铂; 吴丹彤

    2014-01-01

    There have been many intensive small earthquakes since the M 3.8 earthquake occurred in Rushan,Shandong on October 1,2013.Two earthquakes(M 4.2 and M 4.0)occurred separately on January 7 and April 4,2014.There have never been so many earthquakes in Rushan.A focal mechanism describes the nature and source rupture process and is an important foundation to un-derstand the stress state of the source region,earthquake faults,and for analyzing the causes of a seismic event.Therefore,seismic interpretation and post-earthquake seismogenic stress distribu-tion mechanisms play very important roles in determining earthquake focal mechanisms.In this study,using waveforms from the Shandong Seismological Network and comparing the synthetic and the observed seismograms,the focal mechanism of the Rushan M 4.2 and M 4.0 earthquakes in 2014 are inverted using the CAP(Cut and paste)method.The results show that the two earth-quakes get their best focal mechanism at 6 km depth,and that the parameters of the nodal planes are similar,belonging to the strike-slip type.At a depth of 6 km,the correlation coefficients of 40 phases of the M 4.2 earthquake greater than 0.7 that were recorded by eight stations are 37,which accounts for 93%.The correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 are 28,accounting for about 70%. Similarly,at a depth of 6 km,the correlation coefficients of 40 phases of the M 4.0 earthquake that were recorded by the eight stations are all greater than 0.7 and the correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 are 31,accounting for about 78%.Therefore,the synthetic seismograms of the two earth-quakes fit the observed seismograms well demonstrating that the inversion results are credible. The focal mechanism shows that the moment magnitude of the M 4.2 earthquake was M W =4.3;one nodal plane has a strike of 290°,rake of 84°,and dip of 22°and the other nodal plane has a strike of 189°,rake of 68°,and dip of 174°.The moment magnitude of the M 4.0 earthquake is M W=4.2,one nodal

  10. The Extreme Type I Planetary Nebula M2-52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peña

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de espectroscopía de alta resolución de la parte central de la nebulosa planetaria bipolar M2-52 que muestra un tipo morfológico Br. Hemos confirmado que M2-52 es una nebulosa de Tipo I de Peimbert, con un espectro rico en líneas de alto y bajo grado de ionización y un fuerte enriquecimiento de He y N. La composición química del gas ionizado es: He/H = 0:165 0:010, O/H = (2:6 0:5 x 10_4, N/O = 2:3 0:3, Ne/O = 0:37 0:10, Ar/O = (9:2 2:0 x 10_3 y S/O > 2:0 x 10_3. La velocidad de expansión de la nebulosa es, en promedio, de 20 2 km s_1 y varía ligeramente dependiendo del ión considerado. Los iones de menor grado de ionización, N+ y S+, muestran vexp _ 18 km s_1, O++ y He+ muestran vexp _ 20 km s_1, en tanto que He++ y H+ muestran vexp _ 22 km s_1. Es posible que la zona de N+ y S+ esté siendo frenada por el anillo de material molecular encontrado alrededor de la estrella.

  11. Marginal fluctuations as instantons on M2/D2-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghdi, M. [University of Ilam, Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We introduce some (anti-) M/D-branes through turning on the corresponding field strengths of the 11- and 10-dimensional supergravity theories over AdS{sub 4} x M{sup 7} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 6} spaces, where we use S{sup 7}/Z{sub k} and CP{sup 3} for the internal spaces. Indeed, when we add M2/D2-branes on the same directions with the near horizon branes of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis- Maldacena model, all symmetries and supersymmetries are preserved trivially. In this case, we obtain a localized object just in the horizon. This normalizable bulk massless scalar mode is a singlet of SO(8) and SU(4) x U(1), and it agrees with a marginal boundary operator of the conformal dimension of Δ{sub +} = 3. However, after performing a special conformal transformation, we see that the solution is localized in the Euclideanized AdS{sub 4} space and is attributable to the included anti-M2/D2-branes, which are also necessary to ensure that there is no back-reaction. The resultant theory now breaks all N = 8, 6 supersymmetries to N = 0, while the other symmetries are so preserved. The dual boundary operator is then set up from the skew-whiffing of the representations 8s and 8v for the supercharges and scalars, respectively, while the fermions remain fixed in 8c of the original theory. Besides, we also address another alternate bulk to boundary matching procedure through turning on one of the gauge fields of the full U(N){sub k} x U(N){sub -k} gauge group along the same lines with a similar situation to the one faced in the AdS{sub 5}/CFT{sub 4} correspondence. The latter approach covers the difficulty already faced with in the bulk-boundary matching procedure for k = 1, 2 as well. (orig.)

  12. M4FT-15LL0806062-LLNL Thermodynamic and Sorption Data FY15 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolery, T. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    This progress report (Milestone Number M4FT-15LL0806062) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within Work Package Number FT-15LL080606. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physicochemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  13. M4FT-16LL080302052-Update to Thermodynamic Database Development and Sorption Database Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences; Wolery, T. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Akima Infrastructure Services, LLC; Atkins-Duffin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Global Security

    2016-08-16

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4FT-16LL080302052) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Argillite Disposal R&D Work Package Number FT-16LL08030205. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physico-chemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  14. Abundances in a sample of turnoff and subgiant stars in NGC 6121 (M 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Gallagher, A. J.; Monaco, L.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Villanova, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The stellar abundances observed in globular clusters show complex structures, currently not yet understood. Aims: The aim of this work is to investigate the relations between the abundances of different elements in the globular cluster M 4, selected for its uniform deficiency of iron, to explore the best models explaining the pattern of these observed abundances. Moreover, in turnoff stars, the abundances of the elements are not suspected to be affected by internal mixing. Methods: In M 4, using low and moderate resolution spectra obtained for 91 turnoff (and subgiant) stars with the ESO FLAMES-Giraffe spectrograph, we have extended previous measurements of abundances (of Li, C and Na) to other elements (C, Si, Ca, Sr and Ba), using model atmosphere analysis. We have also studied the influence of the choice of the microturbulent velocity. Results: Firstly, the peculiar turnoff star found to be very Li-rich in a previous paper does not show any other abundance anomalies relative to the other turnoff stars in M 4. Secondly, an anti-correlation between C and Na has been detected, the slope being significative at more than 3σ. This relation between C and Na is in perfect agreement with the relation found in giant stars selected below the RGB bump. Thirdly, the strong enrichment of Si and of the neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, already observed in the giants in M 4, is confirmed. Finally, the relations between Li, C, Na, Sr and Ba constrain the enrichment processes of the observed stars. Conclusions: The abundances of the elements in the turnoff stars appear to be compatible with production processes by massive AGBs, but are also compatible with the production of second generation elements (like Na) and low Li produced by, for example, fast rotating massive stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 085.D-0537(A).Full Tables 3 and 4 are only available at the

  15. [Effective method of isolating M4-lactate dehydrogenase from rat liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Z V; Maglysh, S S; Konovalenko, O V

    1984-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase M4-isoform in the homogeneous state was isolated from the rat liver by successive application of sulphate-ammonium fractionation, phosphocellulose ion-exchange chromatography with high-affinity elution of 1 mM NADH and subsequent hydroxyl apatite fractionation. The method permits obtaining the preparation amounts of the enzymic protein with yield 37.5%, specific activity 386.8 units per 1 mg of protein. It is established that 1 mM NAD+, 10 mM pyruvate and 100 mM lactate are also effective as agents of the selective enzyme elution.

  16. New examples of metalloaromatic Al-clusters: (Al4M4)Fe(CO)3 (M=Li, Na and K) and (Al4M4)2Ni: Rationalization for possible synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, A; Datta, Ayan; Pati, Swapan K.

    2005-01-01

    Ab-initio calculations reveal that all-metal antiaromatic molecules like Al4M4 (M=Li, Na and K) can be stabilized in half-sandwich complex: (Al4M4)Fe(CO)3 and full-sandwich complexes of the type: (Al4M4)2Ni. The formation of the full-sandwich complex [(Al4M4)2Ni] from its organometallic precursor depends on the stability of the organic-inorganic hybrid (C4H4) Ni (Al4Li4).

  17. Multiple populations along the asymptotic giant branch of the globular cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.; Savino, A.; Donati, P.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.

    2017-04-01

    Nearly all Galactic globular clusters host stars that display characteristic abundance anticorrelations, like the O-rich/Na-poor pattern typical of field halo stars, together with O-poor/Na-rich additional components. A recent spectroscopic investigation questioned the presence of O-poor/Na-rich stars amongst a sample of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the cluster M4, at variance with the spectroscopic detection of a O-poor/Na-rich component along both the cluster red giant branch (RGB) and horizontal branch. This is contrary to what is expected from the cluster horizontal branch morphology and horizontal branch stellar evolution models. Here, we have investigated this issue by employing the CUBI = (U - B) - (B - I) index, that previous studies have demonstrated to be very effective in separating multiple populations along both the RGB and AGB sequences. We confirm previous results that the RGB is intrinsically broad in the V-CUBI diagram, with the presence of two components that nicely correspond to the two populations identified by high-resolution spectroscopy. We find that AGB stars are distributed over a wide range of CUBI values, in close analogy with what is observed for the RGB, demonstrating that the AGB of M4 also hosts multiple stellar populations.

  18. The discovery of an M4+T8.5 binary system

    CERN Document Server

    Burningham, Ben; Leggett, S K; Tinney, C G; Liu, M C; Homeier, D; West, A A; Day-Jones, A; Huélamo, N; Dupuy, T J; Zhang, Z; Murray, D N; Lodieu, N; Navascues, D Barrado y; Folkes, S; Galvez-Ortiz, M C; Jones, H R A; Lucas, P W; Calderon, M Morales; Tamura, M

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of a T8.5 dwarf, which is a companion to the M4 dwarf Wolf 940. At a distance of 12.50 (+0.75,-0.67) pc, the angular separation of 32arcsec corresponds to a projected separation of 400 AU. The M4 primary displays no Halpha emission, and we apply the age-activity relations of West et al. to place a lower limit on the age of the system of 3.5 Gyr. Weak Halpha absorption suggests some residual activity and we estimate an upper age limit of 6 Gyr. We apply the relations of Bonfils et al for V-Ks and M_Ks to determine the metallicity, [Fe/H] = -0.06 +/- 0.20 for Wolf~940A, and by extension the T8.5 secondary, Wolf 940B. We have obtained JHK NIRI spectroscopy and JHKL' photometry of Wolf 940B, and use these data, in combination with theoretical extensions, to determine its bolometric flux, Fbol = 1.75 +/- 0.18 E-16 Wm^-2 and thus its luminosity log(L*/Lsun) = -6.07 +/- 0.04. Using the age constraints for the system, and evolutionary structural models of Baraffe et al. we determine Teff = 570...

  19. An aluminium tool for multiple stellar generations in the globular clusters 47 Tuc and M 4

    CERN Document Server

    Carretta, Eugenio; Bragaglia, Angela; D'Orazi, Valentina; Lucatello, Sara

    2012-01-01

    We present aluminium abundances for a sample of about 100 red giant stars in each of the Galactic globular clusters 47 Tuc (NGC 104) and M 4 (NGC 6121). We have derived homogeneous abundances from intermediate-resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra. Aluminium abundances are from the strong doublet Al I at 8772-8773 A as in previous works done for giants in NGC 6752 and NGC 1851, and nitrogen abundances are extracted from a large number of features of the CN molecules, by assuming a suitable carbon abundance. We added previous homogeneous abundances of O and Na and newly derived abundances of Mg and Si for our samples of 83 stars in M 4 and 116 stars in 47 Tuc to obtain the full set of elements from proton-capture reactions produced by different stellar generations in these clusters. By simultaneously studying the Ne-Na and Mg-Al cycles of H-burning at high temperature our main aims are to understand the nature of the polluters at work in the first generation and to ascertain whether the second generation of cluste...

  20. Sodium-Oxygen anticorrelation among Horizontal Branch Stars in the Globular Cluster M4

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, A F; Milone, A P; Piotto, G; Lind, K; Geisler, D; Stetson, P B

    2010-01-01

    The horizontal branch (HB) morphology of globular clusters (GC) is mainly governed by metallicity. The second parameter problem, well known since the 60's, states that metallicity alone is not enough to describe the observed HB morphology of many GCs. Despite many efforts to resolve this issue, the second parameter phenomenon still remains without a satisfactory explanation. We have analyzed blue, red-HB, and RR-Lyrae stars in the GC M4 and studied their Fe, Na, and O abundances. Our goal is to investigate possible connections between the bimodal HB of M4 and the chemical signatures of the two stellar populations recently discovered among red giants of this cluster. We obtained FLAMES-UVES/GIRAFFE spectra of a sample of 22 stars covering the HB from the red to the blue region. While iron has the same abundance in both the red and blue-HB segment, the red-HB is composed of stars with scaled-solar sodium abundances, while the blue-HB stars are all sodium enhanced and oxygen depleted. The RR-Lyrae are Na-poor, a...

  1. Expression of ETV6 rearrangement in a subject with acute myeloid leukemia-M4Eo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Na; LI Zhi-hong; DING Bu-tong; CHEN Yun; WANG Yun-shan; QIAO Ying; GUO Nong-jian

    2008-01-01

    @@ Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M4Eo type is a hematological malignancy with abnormal eosinophilia,which is often accompanied by inv(16).The Ets variant gene 6 (ETV6),mapped to 12p13,is an ETS family transcription factor that is essential for hematopoietic processes,1 The ETV6 gene-involved chromosomal translocations have been found in many hematological malignancies characterized by fusing to a number of different partner genes;mainly coding for tyrosine kinases or transcription factors which are important for the initiation,progress and prognosis of disease.2 In particular,the ETV6 gene has been reported to be fused to ABL in acute lymphocytic leukemias (ALL),3 and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).4 However,there have been few domestic reports of ETV6 fusion genes,especially in cases of acute leukemia.We investigated 3 cases of AML-M4Eo patients using Split-signal Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and found one case with a translocation between 12p13 and 1q25 co-occurring with an inv(16).The ETV6/ARG (ABL-related gene) fusion transcript was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).This is the report of ARG involvement in a translocation in a human malignancy.

  2. Monte Carlo Simulations of Star Clusters - V. The globular cluster M4

    CERN Document Server

    Giersz, Mirek

    2008-01-01

    We describe Monte Carlo models for the dynamical evolution of the nearby globular cluster M4. The code includes treatments of two-body relaxation, three- and four-body interactions involving primordial binaries and those formed dynamically, the Galactic tide, and the internal evolution of both single and binary stars. We arrive at a set of initial parameters for the cluster which, after 12Gyr of evolution, gives a model with a satisfactory match to the surface brightness profile, the velocity dispersion profile, and the luminosity function in two fields. We describe in particular the evolution of the core, and find that M4 (which has a classic King profile) is actually a post-collapse cluster, its core radius being sustained by binary burning. We also consider the distribution of its binaries, including those which would be observed as photometric binaries and as radial-velocity binaries. We also consider the populations of white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes and blue stragglers, though not all channels ...

  3. Dietary Flavonoid Hyperoside Induces Apoptosis of Activated Human LX-2 Hepatic Stellate Cell by Suppressing Canonical NF-κB Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperoside, an active compound found in plants of the genera Hypericum and Crataegus, is reported to exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Induction of hepatic stellate cell (HSC apoptosis is recognized as a promising strategy for attenuation of hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we investigated whether hyperoside treatment can exert antifibrotic effects in human LX-2 hepatic stellate cells. We found that hyperoside induced apoptosis in LX-2 cells and decreased levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, type I collagen, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Remarkably, hyperoside also inhibited the DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor NF-κB and altered expression levels of NF-κB-regulated genes related to apoptosis, including proapoptotic genes Bcl-Xs, DR4, Fas, and FasL and anti-apoptotic genes A20, c-IAP1, Bcl-XL, and RIP1. Our results suggest that hyperoside may have potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  4. Programmable self-assembly of water-soluble organo-heterometallic cages [M12M'4L12] using 3-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pentane-2,4-dione (H2L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Man; Cui, Yu; Jiang, Xuan-Feng; Tong, Jin; Yu, Shu-Yan

    2017-04-11

    A bifunctional ligand H2L featuring primary (pyrazole) and secondary (acetylacetone) coordination sites was preferentially reacted with dimetallic [M2(NO3)2](NO3)2 linkers at the pyrazolyl end of H2L, giving rise to dimetallic corners. Subsequently, the corners serve as the secondary site with M' to form water-soluble organo-heterometallic [M12M'4L12] cages in a stepwise mode.

  5. Multiwavelength photometry in the Globular Cluster M2

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B; Ferraro, F R; Schiavon, R; Rood, R T

    2009-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength photometric analysis of the globular cluster M2. The data-set has been obtained by combining high-resolution (HST/WFPC2 and ACS) and wide-field (GALEX) space observations and ground based (MEGACAM-CFHT, EMMI-NTT) images. The photometric sample covers the entire cluster extension from the very central regions up to the tidal radius and beyond. It allows an accurate determination of the cluster center of gravity and other structural parameters derived from the star count density profile. Moreover we study the BSS population and its radial distribution. A total of 123 BSS has been selected, and their radial distribution has been found to be bimodal (highly peaked in the center, decreasing at intermediate radii and rising outward), as already found in a number of other clusters. The radial position of the minimum of the BSS distribution is consistent with the radius of avoidance caused by the dynamical friction of massive objects over the cluster age. We also searched for gradients in...

  6. Metric 3-Leibniz algebras and M2-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez-Escobar, Elena

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with superconformal Chern-Simons theories with matter in 3 dimensions. The interest in these theories is two-fold. On the one hand, it is a new family of theories in which to test the AdS/CFT correspondence and on the other, they are important to study one of the main objects of M-theory (M2-branes). All these theories have something in common: they can be written in terms of 3-Leibniz algebras. Here we study the structure theory of such algebras, paying special attention to a subclass of them that gives rise to maximal supersymmetry and that was the first to appear in this context: 3-Lie algebras. In chapter 2, we review the structure theory of metric Lie algebras and their unitary representations. In chapter 3, we study metric 3-Leibniz algebras and show, by specialising a construction originally due to Faulkner, that they are in one to one correspondence with pairs of real metric Lie algebras and unitary representations of them. We also show a third characterisation for six extreme...

  7. Fermi surface behavior in the ABJM M2-brane theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolfe, Oliver; Henriksson, Oscar; Rosen, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    We calculate fermionic Green's functions for states of the three-dimensional Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena M2-brane theory at large N using the gauge-gravity correspondence. We embed extremal black brane solutions in four-dimensional maximally supersymmetric gauged supergravity, obtain the linearized Dirac equations for each spin-1 /2 mode that cannot mix with a gravitino, and solve these equations with infalling boundary conditions to calculate retarded Green's functions. For generic values of the chemical potentials, we find Fermi surfaces with universally non-Fermi liquid behavior, matching the situation for four-dimensional N =4 super-Yang-Mills. Fermi surface singularities appear and disappear discontinuously at the point where all chemical potentials are equal, reminiscent of a quantum critical point. One limit of parameter space has zero entropy at zero temperature, and fermionic fluctuations are perfectly stable inside an energy region around the Fermi surface. An ambiguity in the quantization of the fermions is resolved by supersymmetry.

  8. 血红铆钉菇子实体对人肝星状细胞LX-2和人肝癌细胞Hep G2增殖的影响%Effects of Chemical Fractions from Chroogomphus rutilus Fruiting Body on the Proliferation of Human Hepatic Stellate Cells LX-2 and Human Liver Carcinoma Hep G2 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝鹤鸣; 吴艳玲; 李雪; 姚大雷; 张昌浩; 崔炯谟; 李镐

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To study the effects of chemical fractions from Chroogomphus rutilus fruiting body on the proliferation of human hepatic stellate cells LX-2 and human liver carcinoma Hep G2 cells,and to screen the active fractions with anti-hepatic fibrosis and anti-tumor activity from C.rutilus fruiting body.[Method] The polysaccharide,petroleum ether,dichloromethane,ethyl acetate,n-butanol and aqueous fractions from C.rutilus fruiting body were obtained by the methods of nature products chemistry.MTT assay was used to determine the effects of above fractions on the proliferation of human hepatic stellate cells LX-2 and human liver carcinoma Hep G2 cells.Morphological changes were observed through invert microscope.[Result] The petroleum ether fraction,dichloromethane fraction and ethyl acetate fraction showed inhibitory activities on human hepatic stellate cells LX-2 with IC50 values at 519.6,526,675.7 μg/ml,respectively,and human liver carcinoma Hep G2 cells with IC50 values at 727.6,610.1,618.1 μg/ml,respectively.Morphological change of apoptosis body formation was observed by invert microscope.[Conclusion] Among polysaccharide and solvent fractions from C.rutilus fruiting body,the petroleum ether fraction,dichloromethane fraction and ethyl acetate fraction have anti-hepatic fibrosis and anti-tumor activities as the main active parts.%[目的]探讨血红铆钉菇子实体对人肝癌细胞HepG2和人肝星状细胞LX-2增殖的影响,筛选出血红铆钉菇子实体抗肝纤维化和抗肿瘤作用的活性部位.[方法]利用天然药物化学方法提取得到血红铆钉菇子实体的石油醚、二氯甲烷、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇、水和粗多糖提取物,应用MTT法观察血红铆钉菇子实体不同溶剂提取物对体外培养的人肝星状细胞LX-2和人肝癌细胞Hep G2增殖的抑制作用,通过倒置显微镜观察细胞的形态学变化.[结果]血红铆钉菇子实体石油醚、二氯甲烷和乙酸乙酯提取物均对人肝星状细胞LX

  9. Tracing differential reddening with Diffuse Interstellar Bands. The globular cluster M 4 as a testbed

    CERN Document Server

    Monreal-Ibero, A; Puspitarini, L; Bonifacio, P; Monaco, L

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are weak absorption features of interstellar origin present in the optical and infrared spectra of stars. Their use as a tool to trace the structure of the Galactic ISM is gaining relevance in the recent years. Here we present an experiment to test our ability to trace differential reddening on the plane of the sky by using the information relative to the DIB at $\\lambda$6614 extracted from the spectra of cool stars. For that we made use of archive FLAMES data of the globular cluster M4, as well as WISE and Planck images for reference. We found a global positive trend between the distribution of the strength of the DIB, as traced by its equivalent width, and the amount of Galactic reddening, as traced by Planck. This result supports the use of DIBs to trace the small scale structure of the Galactic ISM.

  10. Experimental results and numerical simulations for transonic flow over the ONERA M4R model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gabriel COJOCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison between experimental results of transonic flow over the ONERA M4R calibration model obtained in the INCAS Trisonic wind tunnel and the numerical results. The first purpose, emphasized in this paper is to compare and validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD techniques for internal transonic flows and to try to find the most suitable numerical methodology for these flows in both accuracy and computational resources. The second purpose is to develop a general method in experimental data correction and flight Reynolds extrapolation, using numerical simulations for both global and local pressure coefficients, as a replacement for the classical vortex lattices based method. That will be developed in a future paper. Besides the computational work, the periodic wind tunnel calibration is required as a quality insurance operation and a numerical model is developed such that future hardware modifications to be included and their impact to be properly considered.

  11. A Case of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (FAB M2 with Inversion 16 Who Presented with Pelvic Myeloid Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çakan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemias are the most common childhood cancer in all age groups. Acute myeloid leukemias (AML constitute about 15–20% of acute leukemias. Fatigability, pallor, fever, and bleeding are the most common presenting symptoms of AML. Hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy are commonly encountered during physical examination. In rare instances eruptions due to skin involvement and localized tumor masses (myeloid sarcoma may be found. Myeloid sarcoma is especially seen in AML-M2 subtype. By cytogenetic analysis, in AML-M2 subtype t(8;21 is often seen and it is more probable to find inversion 16 in AML-M4Eos subtype. Herein, we present a 15-year-old girl whose initial symptom was abdominal pain for three days and her pathological sign was a large abdominal mass which was verified by imaging studies and diagnosed as myeloid sarcoma by biopsy. On bone marrow examination, she had diagnosis of AML-M2 and by cytogenetic analysis inversion 16 was positive. She was treated with AML-BFM 2004 protocol and she is being followed up in remission on her ninth month of the maintenance therapy.

  12. An allosteric enhancer of M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor function inhibits behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ditte Dencker; Weikop, Pia; Sørensen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The mesostriatal dopamine system plays a key role in mediating the reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs like cocaine. The muscarinic M(4) acetylcholine receptor subtype is centrally involved in the regulation of dopamine release in striatal areas. Consequently, striatal M(4) receptors could...... be a novel target for modulating psychostimulant effects of cocaine....

  13. RBP-J is required for M2 macrophage polarization in response to chitin and mediates expression of a subset of M2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldi, Julia; Shang, Yingli; Zhao, Baohong; Ivashkiv, Lionel B; Hu, Xiaoyu

    2016-03-01

    Development of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage phenotypes is a complex process that is coordinately regulated by a plethora of pathways and factors. Here, we report that RBP-J, a DNA-binding protein that integrates signals from multiple pathways including the Notch pathway, is critically involved in polarization of M2 macrophages. Mice deficient in RBP-J in the myeloid compartment exhibited impaired M2 phenotypes in vivo in a chitin-induced model of M2 polarization. Consistent with the in vivo findings, M2 polarization was partially compromised in vitro in Rbpj-deficient macrophages as demonstrated by reduced expression of a subset of M2 effector molecules including arginase 1. Functionally, myeloid Rbpj deficiency impaired M2 effector functions including recruitment of eosinophils and suppression of T cell proliferation. Collectively, we have identified RBP-J as an essential regulator of differentiation and function of alternatively activated macrophages.

  14. Cosmic radiation measurements on the Foton-M4 satellite by passive detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strádi, Andrea; Pálfalvi, József K.; Szabó, Julianna; Pázmándi, Tamás; Ivanova, Olga A.; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav A.

    2017-02-01

    The Russian Foton spacecraft was designed to deliver scientific experiments to low Earth orbit and return them safely to the ground for further analysis. During the 44-d Foton-M4 satellite mission in 2014 several passive cosmic ray detectors were exposed outside (in a single holder) and inside (in 4 locations) the recoverable capsule to study the radiation field. The applied thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) are more sensitive to the particles with LET under 10 keV μm-1, while the solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) measure the particles having LET over this value. According to our measurements the average internal absorbed dose rate varied between 374-562 μGy/day for low LET radiation and 40-52 μGy/day for high LET radiation. Outside the capsule the dose rate was much higher, 1078 μGy/day for low LET radiation and 75 μGy/day for high LET radiation. Within the paper the obtained absorbed dose rates has been compared to those measured on the previous Foton-M flights, during the Bion-M1 mission and in the Columbus module of the International Space Station.

  15. An extreme paucity of second population AGB stars in the normal globular cluster M4

    CERN Document Server

    MacLean, B T; De Silva, G M; Lattanzio, J; DOrazi, V; Simpson, J D; Momany, Y

    2016-01-01

    Galactic Globular clusters (GCs) are now known to harbour multiple stellar populations, which are chemically distinct in many light element abundances. It is becoming increasingly clear that asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in GCs show different abundance distributions in light elements compared to those in the red giant branch (RGB) and other phases, skewing toward more primordial, field-star-like abundances, which we refer to as subpopulation one (SP1). As part of a larger program targeting giants in GCs, we obtained high-resolution spectra for a sample of 106 RGB and 15 AGB stars in Messier 4 (NGC 6121) using the 2dF+HERMES facility on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. In this Letter we report an extreme paucity of AGB stars with [Na/O] > -0.17 in M4, which contrasts with the RGB that has abundances up to [Na/O] =0.55. The AGB abundance distribution is consistent with all AGB stars being from SP1. This result appears to imply that all subpopulation two stars (SP2; Na-rich, O-poor) avoid the AGB phase. Thi...

  16. [2 fatal cases of acute myeloid leukemia (M3, M4) during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, M; Asmundo, A

    1995-04-01

    Two cases of unexpected post-partum death of women with acute leukemia are described. In the first case (1st pregnancy) the diagnosis (acute promyelocytic leukemia: M3) was performed one week before delivery and death occurred 3 days later, because of hemorrhagic and renal DIC complication. Since one month before hospitalization, laboratory exams indicated a serious hematological pathology and no further exams were carried out by the physicians, elements of professional fault were recognized in them, considering that because of the diagnostic omission it was impossible to make an early diagnosis and thus perform to specific therapy, adopted only in the terminal phase. This specific therapy is able to determine remission from most cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia. In the second case (2nd pregnancy) the diagnosis (acute myelomonocytic leukemia: M4) was performed only postmortem because, during the whole pregnancy, no signs of disease were evident. After a few hours from the spontaneous delivery, death occurred as a result of an intractable + hemorrhagic syndrome caused by primary hyperfibrinolysis and repeated episodes of cardiac arrest, without possibility of recognizing it. The medical procedures for this case, both throughout pregnancy and terminal phases, appeared free of censure.

  17. A White Light Megaflare on the dM4.5e Star YZ CMi

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Adam F; Holtzman, Jon A; Wisniewski, John P; Hilton, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    On UT 2009 January 16, we observed a white light megaflare on the dM4.5e star YZ CMi as part of a long-term spectroscopic flare-monitoring campaign to constrain the spectral shape of optical flare continuum emission. Simultaneous U-band photometric and 3350A-9260A spectroscopic observations were obtained during 1.3 hours of the flare decay. The event persisted for more than 7 hours and at flare peak, the U-band flux was almost 6 magnitudes brighter than in the quiescent state. The properties of this flare mark it as one of the most energetic and longest-lasting white light flares ever to be observed on an isolated low-mass star. We present the U-band flare energetics and a flare continuum analysis. For the first time, we show convincingly with spectra that the shape of the blue continuum from 3350A to 4800A can be represented as a sum of two components: a Balmer continuum as predicted by the Allred et al radiative hydrodynamic flare models and a T ~ 10,000K blackbody emission component as suggested by many pr...

  18. Bimodality of light and s-elements in M4 (NGC 6121)

    CERN Document Server

    Villanova, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    All Globular Clusters (GCs) studied in detail so far host two or more populations of stars. Theoretical models suggest that the second population is formed from gas polluted by processed material produced by massive stars of the first generation. However the nature of the polluter is a matter of strong debate. Several candidates have been proposed: massive main-sequence stars (fast rotating or binaries), intermediate-mass AGB stars, or SNeII. We studied red giant branch (RGB) stars in the GC M4 (NGC 6121) to measure their chemical signature. We confirm the presence of a bimodal population, first discovered by Marino et al. (2008). The two groups have different C,$^{12}$C/$^{13}$C,N,O,Na content, but share the same Li,C+N+O,Mg,Al,Si,Ca,Ti,Cr,Fe,Ni,Zr,Ba and Eu abundance. Quite surprisingly the two groups differ also in their Y abundance. The absence of a spread in $\\alpha$-elements, Eu and Ba makes SNeII and AGB stars unlikely as polluters. On the other hand, massive main-sequence stars can explain the bimodal...

  19. Hubble space telescope observations of white dwarfs in the globular cluster M4

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, H B; Ibata, R A; Stetson, P B; Bell, R A; Bolte, M; Bond, H E; Harris, W E; Hesser, J E; Mandushev, G I; Pryor, C E; Richer, Harvey B; Fahlman, Gregory G; Ibata, Rodrigo A; Stetson, Peter B; Bell, Roger A; Bolte, Michael; Bond, Howard E; Harris, William E; Hesser, James E; Mandushev, Georgi; Pryor, Carlton

    1995-01-01

    With the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have discovered in M4 (NGC 6121, C 1620-264) the first extensive sequence of cooling white dwarfs seen in a globular cluster. Adopting a distance modulus of (m-M)_V = 12.65 and a reddening of E(B-V) = 0.37, we show that the sequence, which extends over 9 < M_U < 13, is comprised of white dwarfs of mass \\sim 0.5 M_{\\odot}. The total mass loss from the present turnoff to the white dwarf sequence is 0.31 M_{\\odot} and the intrinsic dispersion in the mean mass appears to be < 0.05 M_{\\odot}. Both the location of the white dwarf cooling sequence in the cluster color-magnitude diagram and the cumulative luminosity function attest to the basic correctness and completeness of the physics in theoretical models for the upper three magnitudes of the observed white dwarf cooling sequence. To test the theory in globular clusters at cooling ages beyond \\sim 3 \\times 10^8 years will require deeper and more complete data.

  20. Molecular Characterization of a Recombinant Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from Lactococcus lactis M4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Hooi Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A superoxide dismutase (SOD gene of Lactococcus lactis M4 was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 621 bp which codes for 206 amino acid residues. Expression of sodA under T7 promoter exhibited a specific activity of 4967 U/mg when induced with 1 mM of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside. The recombinant SOD was purified to homogeneity by immobilised metal affinity chromatography and Superose 12 gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analyses of the recombinant SOD detected a molecular mass of approximately 27 kDa. However, the SOD was in dimer form as revealed by gel filtration chromatography. The purified recombinant enzyme had a pI of 4.5 and exhibited maximal activity at 25°C and pH 7.2. It was stable up to 45°C. The insensitivity of this lactococcal SOD to cyanide and hydrogen peroxide established that it was a MnSOD. Although it has 98% homology to SOD of L. lactis IL1403, this is the first elucidated structure of lactococcal SOD revealing active sites containing the catalytic manganese coordinated by four ligands (H-27, H-82, D-168, and H-172.

  1. Efecto de la corrosión por h 2 so 4 en la difusividad térmica de acero api5l-x52.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peña-Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work present a study of the effect of the H2SO4 corrosion to constant pH of 1.4 in the thermal diffusivity of API5L-X52 pipeline steel. The samples were exposed by 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days to the corrosive solution, in an atmosphere with relative average humidity of 57.16% and temperature of 23.6°C. The thermal diffusivity measure was carried out using the photoacoustic technique in a heat transmission configuration. Our results show a decrease of the thermal diffusivity ( a with the corrosion time, presenting a behavior that is adjusted to a logistical curve of type decreasing with a saturation limit of 52% of a initial value.

  2. Influencia del precalentamiento en las propiedades de uniones soldadas de acero API 5L-X80 soldadas con alambre tubular autoprotegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper, R.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work refers to the characterization of API 5L-X80 pipeline joints welded with self-shielded flux cored wire. This process was evaluated under preheating conditions, with an uniform and steady heat input. All joints were welded in flat position (IG, with the pipe turning and the torch still. Tube dimensions were 762 mm in external diameter and 16 mm in thickness. Welds were applied on single V-groove, with six weld beads, along with three levels of preheating temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C, 160 °C. These temperatures were maintained as interpass temperature. The filler metal E71T8-K6 with mechanical properties different from parent metal was used in undermatched conditions. The weld characterization is presented according to the mechanical test results of tensile strength, hardness and impact test. The mechanical tests were conducted according to API 1104, AWS and ASTM standards. API 1104 and API 51 were used as screening criteria. According to the results obtained, it was possible to remark that it is appropriate to weld API 5L-X80 steel ducts with Self-shielded Flux Cored wires, in conformance to the API standards and no preheat temperature is necessary.

    Este trabajo presenta un estudio sobre la caracterización de las propiedades mecánicas de uniones soldadas con alambre tubular autoprotegido, de acero API 5L-X80. En este sentido, se evalúa la influencia de la temperatura de precalentamiento, manteniendo el aporte de calor uniforme. Todas las uniones soldadas se realizaron en la posición plana (IG, con la antorcha fíja y la tubería girando. Se utilizó un tubo de 762 mm de diámetro exterior y 16 mm de espesor. Las soldaduras se aplicaron sobre una unión de tope con bisel en V simple, utilizando 6 pasadas, con tres niveles de temperatura de precalentamiento (ambiente, 100 °C y 160 °C. Estas temperaturas se mantuvieron como temperatura entre pasadas. El metal de aporte, del tipo E71T8-K6, se utilizó en la

  3. Reseach on Business Model of M2M Virtual Opertion%M2M虚拟运营的商业模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景士颖; 乔新春

    2014-01-01

    M2M市场在未来几年拥有较大的增长空间,随着移动转售业务牌照的发放,M2M将成为虚拟运营商可以切入的具备潜力的市场领域之一。探讨M2M虚拟运营的商业模式,分析国际开展M2M虚拟运营的案例,并给出国内开展M2M虚拟运营的建议。%M2M has more market space for growth in the coming years, with the issuance of mobile resale service license, M2M wil become a potential market area where MVNOs can cut into. This article discusses the business model of M2M virtual operation, analyzes the international M2M MVNO business cases, and gives advices to MNOs and MVNOs on how to provide better M2M services in China.

  4. M2e通用流感疫苗的研究进展%Universal influenza vaccine based on the extracellular domain of M2 protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花艳红; 王希良

    2009-01-01

    M2基质蛋白是A型流感病毒膜蛋白,在A型流感病毒的生命周期中,M2具有重要的生物学功能,已成为抗病毒药物研究的靶蛋白.其胞外区M2e(M2 eetodomain,M2e)为24个氨基酸残基,该片段在多病毒株中具有极高的保守性.针对M2e产生IgG型抗体能够防止流感病毒引发的死亡,减少动物模型中流感的发病率.了解有关M2e疫苗的研究进展,以及关于M2e作为A型流感疫苗靶抗原的关键问题很重要.%Matrix protein M2 (M2) is the membrane protein of Influenza A with an extracellular domain of 24 amino acid residues, which is strongly conserved across virus strains. M2 plays an important role in the life cy-cle of the Influenza A virus and has been the target of antiviral drugs. IgG subtype antibodies directed against M2e can prevent death from influenza and reduce morbidity in animal models for influenza disease. This review summarizes the findings on M2e vaccine candidates and addresses some key questions about this Influenza A vaccine target.

  5. Salvianolic Acid B Inhibits ERK and p38 MAPK Signaling in TGF-β1-Stimulated Human Hepatic Stellate Cell Line (LX-2 via Distinct Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Lv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolic acid B (SA-B is water-soluble component of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza. The previous work indicated that SA-B can inhibit MAPK and Smad signaling in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs to perform anti-fibrotic activity Lv et al. 2010. However, some studies have shown that there is cross-talk between MAPK and Smad in certain cell types. Thus, the anti-fibrotic action of SA-B may be through the cross-talk. In order to clarify the mechanism of SA-B further, we knocked down Smad in LX-2 cells (SRV4 via RNAi, and then added TGF-β1, and PD98059 or SB203580 and SA-B. The levels of p-MEK and p-p38 were inhibited by SA-B in SRV4 independent of TGF-β1. The expression of Col I and α-SMA in SRV4 could be reduced by SA-B independent TGF-β1. SB203580 had not significant effect on p-MEK in SRV4 stimulated by TGF-β1. The levels of p-MEK in SRV4 were not increased significantly after TGF-β1 stimulation. PD98059 had no effect on the levels of p-p38 in SRV4 irrespective of TGF-β1. In conclusion, SA-B inhibits the synthesis of Col I in LX-2 cells independent of TGF-β1 stimulation, and the anti-fibrotic effect of SA-B is due to direct inhibition of p38 signaling and inhibition the cross-talk of Smad to ERK signaling.

  6. Salvianolic Acid B Inhibits ERK and p38 MAPK Signaling in TGF-β1-Stimulated Human Hepatic Stellate Cell Line (LX-2) via Distinct Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhigang; Xu, Lieming

    2012-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (SA-B) is water-soluble component of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza. The previous work indicated that SA-B can inhibit MAPK and Smad signaling in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to perform anti-fibrotic activity Lv et al. 2010. However, some studies have shown that there is cross-talk between MAPK and Smad in certain cell types. Thus, the anti-fibrotic action of SA-B may be through the cross-talk. In order to clarify the mechanism of SA-B further, we knocked down Smad in LX-2 cells (SRV4) via RNAi, and then added TGF-β1, and PD98059 or SB203580 and SA-B. The levels of p-MEK and p-p38 were inhibited by SA-B in SRV4 independent of TGF-β1. The expression of Col I and α-SMA in SRV4 could be reduced by SA-B independent TGF-β1. SB203580 had not significant effect on p-MEK in SRV4 stimulated by TGF-β1. The levels of p-MEK in SRV4 were not increased significantly after TGF-β1 stimulation. PD98059 had no effect on the levels of p-p38 in SRV4 irrespective of TGF-β1. In conclusion, SA-B inhibits the synthesis of Col I in LX-2 cells independent of TGF-β1 stimulation, and the anti-fibrotic effect of SA-B is due to direct inhibition of p38 signaling and inhibition the cross-talk of Smad to ERK signaling. PMID:21860657

  7. In pursuit of vehicle landmine occupant protection: Evaluating the dynamic response characteristic of the military lower extremity leg (MiL-Lx) compared to the Hybrid III (HIII) lower leg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a practical investigation into the robustness of the newly developed Military Extremity (MiL-Lx) lower leg, as compared to the Hybrid III (HIII) lower leg, with respect to repeatability and reproducibility under...

  8. 经典再出发--江淮瑞风M4上市%JAC Launch Reifne in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于占波

    2016-01-01

    Oct. 12, 2016, JAC held a grand ceremony in front of the Guangzhou Tower, the symbolic scene of Guangzhou city, to launch latest new models of Reifne M4. These new four models of Reifne were priced between 99,800 RMB to 129,800 RMB, which indicated that higher cost-effective quality is still the key to market promotion of Reifne M4.

  9. Degradation of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid by a filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae M-4 strain with self-protection transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanting; Li, Jianlong; Yao, Kai; Zhao, Nan; Zhou, Kang; Hu, Xinjie; Zou, Likou; Han, Xinfeng; Liu, Aiping; Liu, Shuliang

    2016-11-01

    A novel filamentous fungus M-4 strain was isolated from soy sauce koji and identified as Aspergillus oryzae (Collection number: CGMCC 11645) on the basis of morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer sequence. M-4 could degrade 80.62 % of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA; 100 mg L(-1)) within 5 days. 3-PBA degradation occurred in accordance with first-order kinetics. The degradation metabolites of 3-PBA were identified through high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Relevant enzymatic activities and substrate utilization were also investigated, which indicated that M-4 could effectively degrade the intermediates of 3-PBA. Base on analysis of these metabolites, a novel biochemical pathway for the degradation of 3-PBA was proposed. There exists a mutual transformation between 3-phenoxy-benzyl alcohol and 3-PBA, which was firstly reported about the degradation of 3-PBA and may be attributed to self-protection transformation of M-4; subsequently, 3-PBA was gradually transformed into phenol, 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy benzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid. The safety of M-4 was evaluated via an acute toxicity test in vivo. The biodegradation ability of M-4 without toxic effects reveals that this fungus may be likely to be used for eliminating 3-PBA from contaminated environment or fermented foods.

  10. DEEP NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M4: HUNTING FOR BROWN DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieball, A. [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Helmholtz Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, University of Bonn (Germany); Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Knigge, C. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Allard, F. [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574: CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Dotter, A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Richer, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Zurek, D., E-mail: adieball@astro.uni-bonn.de [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We present an analysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 near-IR (NIR) imaging data of the globular cluster (GC) M4. The best-photometry NIR color–magnitude diagram (CMD) clearly shows the main sequence extending toward the expected end of the hydrogen-burning limit and going beyond this point toward fainter sources. The white dwarf (WD) sequence can be identified. As such, this is the deepest NIR CMD of a GC to date. Archival HST optical data were used for proper-motion cleaning of the CMD and for distinguishing the WDs from brown dwarf (BD) candidates. Detection limits in the NIR are around F110W ≈ 26.5 mag and F160W ≈ 27 mag, and in the optical around F775W ≈ 28 mag. Comparing our observed CMDs with theoretical models, we conclude that we have reached beyond the H-burning limit in our NIR CMD and are probably just above or around this limit in our optical–NIR CMDs. Thus, any faint NIR sources that have no optical counterpart are potential BD candidates, since the optical data are not deep enough to detect them. We visually inspected the positions of NIR sources that are fainter than the H-burning limit in F110W and for which the optical photometry did not return a counterpart. We found in total five sources for which we did not get an optical measurement. For four of these five sources, a faint optical counterpart could be visually identified, and an upper optical magnitude was estimated. Based on these upper optical magnitude limits, we conclude that one source is likely a WD, one source could be either a WD or BD candidate, and the remaining two sources agree with being BD candidates. No optical counterpart could be detected for just one source, which makes this source a good BD candidate. We conclude that we found in total four good BD candidates.

  11. Pharmacological and biological properties of CHOm2 cells transfected with M2-receptor suptype%M2受体cDNA转染CHOm2细胞的某些药理学和生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雅儿; 施菊; 夏宗勤

    1999-01-01

    转染m1、m2m4 Cdna的CHO细胞膜受体与3H-QNB结合,能给出典型的饱和曲线,Hill系数接近1.单位点竞争结合表明,对PZP抑制能力为CHOm1>CHOm4>CHOm2,对METH抑制强度为CHOm2>CHOm4>CHOm1.与药理学PZP对M1受体的亲和力最高和METH对M2的亲和力最高是一致的.CHOm2对Forskolin和Carbachol影响Camp的结果,证明该M受体亚型信号传导系统的完整性,因此是研究M受体亚型与其信号传导的较好模型,也可用于筛选M受体亚型的药物

  12. The structure of the third intracellular loop of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyama, Susumu; Oka, Yoshiaki; Haga, Kazuko; Kojima, Shuichi; Tateishi, Yukihiro; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Haga, Tatsuya

    2006-01-09

    We have examined whether the long third intracellular loop (i3) of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtype has a rigid structure. Circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of M2i3 expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli indicated that M2i3 consists mostly of random coil. In addition, the differential CD spectrum between the M2 and M2deltai3 receptors, the latter of which lacks most of i3 except N- and C-terminal ends, gave no indication of secondary structure. These results suggest that the central part of i3 of the M2 receptor has a flexible structure.

  13. M5-branes on S^2 x M_4: Nahm's Equations and 4d Topological Sigma-models

    CERN Document Server

    Assel, Benjamin; Wong, Jin-Mann

    2016-01-01

    We study the 6d N=(0,2) superconformal field theory, which describes multiple M5-branes, on the product space S^2 x M_4, and suggest a correspondence between a 2d N=(0,2) half-twisted gauge theory on S^2 and a topological sigma-model on the four-manifold M_4. To set up this correspondence, we determine in this paper the dimensional reduction of the 6d N=(0,2) theory on a two-sphere and derive that the four-dimensional theory is a sigma-model into the moduli space of solutions to Nahm's equations, or equivalently the moduli space of k-centered SU(2) monopoles, where k is the number of M5-branes. We proceed in three steps: we reduce the 6d abelian theory to a 5d Super-Yang-Mills theory on I x M_4, with I an interval, then non-abelianize the 5d theory and finally reduce this to 4d. In the special case, when M_4 is a Hyper-Kahler manifold, we show that the dimensional reduction gives rise to a topological sigma-model based on tri-holomorphic maps. Deriving the theory on a general M_4 requires knowledge of the met...

  14. M2M在3GPP SA2的研究进展%The Progress of M2M in 3GPP SA2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜加懂

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet of things,almost all communication standardization organizations put their focus on the standards of M2M.3GPP as the main mobile communication SDO is working hard on research and standards on M2M.Based on the brief introduction of the 3GPP working groups on M2M,this paper mainly introduces the 3GPP SA2 research progress and standardization on M2M.%随着物联网的快速发展,M2M成为各个标准化组织研究和标准制定的工作重点。3GPP作为移动通信技术的主要研究和标准制定者,对M2M的相关研究和标准制定也在加紧进行。本文在介绍3GPP各个工作组的工作情况的基础上,重点介绍了M2M在3GPP在SA2的研究和标准化进展情况。

  15. File list: ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 All antigens Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19...3596,SRX193611,SRX201281,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  16. File list: DNS.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 DNase-seq Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19359...6,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Myo.05.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.05.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 All antigens Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19...3596,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.05.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 DNase-seq Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19359...6,SRX193611,SRX201281,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 All antigens Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19...3596,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 All antigens Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19...3596,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 DNase-seq Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19359...6,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  2. Measurements and ALE3D Simulations for Violence in a Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment with LX-10 and AerMet 100 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Yoh, J J; deHaven, M R; Strand, O T

    2005-06-03

    We completed a Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) and performed ALE3D simulations for the HMX-based explosive, LX-10, confined in an AerMet 100 (iron-cobalt-nickel alloy) vessel. The explosive was heated at 1 C/h until cookoff at 182 C using a controlled temperature profile. During the explosion, the expansion of the tube and fragment velocities were measured with strain gauges, Photonic-Doppler-Velocimeters (PDVs), and micropower radar units. These results were combined to produce a single curve describing 15 cm of tube wall motion. A majority of the metal fragments were captured and cataloged. A fragment size distribution was constructed, and a typical fragment had a length scale of 2 cm. Based on these results, the explosion was considered to be a violent deflagration. ALE3D models for chemical, thermal, and mechanical behavior were developed for the heating and explosive processes. A four-step chemical kinetics model is employed for the HMX while a one-step model is used for the Viton. A pressure-dependent deflagration model is employed during the expansion. The mechanical behavior of the solid constituents is represented by a Steinberg-Guinan model while polynomial and gamma-law expressions are used for the equation of state of the solid and gas species, respectively. A gamma-law model is employed for the air in gaps, and a mixed material model is used for the interface between air and explosive. A Johnson-Cook model with an empirical rule for failure strain is used to describe fracture behavior. Parameters for the kinetics model were specified using measurements of the One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX), while measurements for burn rate were employed to determine parameters in the burn front model. The ALE3D models provide good predictions for the thermal behavior and time to explosion, but the predicted wall expansion curve is higher than the measured curve. Possible contributions to this discrepancy include inaccuracies in the chemical models

  3. PPARγ ligands switched high fat diet-induced macrophage M2b polarization toward M2a thereby improving intestinal Candida elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Lefèvre

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation that predisposes to insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. In this metabolic context, gastrointestinal (GI candidiasis is common. We recently demonstrated that the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone promotes the clearance of Candida albicans through the activation of alternative M2 macrophage polarization. Here, we evaluated the impact of high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity and the effect of rosiglitazone (PPARγ ligand or WY14643 (PPARα ligand both on the phenotypic M1/M2 polarization of peritoneal and cecal tissue macrophages and on the outcome of GI candidiasis. We demonstrated that the peritoneal macrophages and the cell types present in the cecal tissue from HF fed mice present a M2b polarization (TNF-α(high, IL-10(high, MR, Dectin-1. Interestingly, rosiglitazone induces a phenotypic M2b-to-M2a (TNF-α(low, IL-10(low, MR(high, Dectin-1(high switch of peritoneal macrophages and of the cells present in the cecal tissue. The incapacity of WY14643 to switch this polarization toward M2a state, strongly suggests the specific involvement of PPARγ in this mechanism. We showed that in insulin resistant mice, M2b polarization of macrophages present on the site of infection is associated with an increased susceptibility to GI candidiasis, whereas M2a polarization after rosiglitazone treatment favours the GI fungal elimination independently of reduced blood glucose. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a dual benefit of PPARγ ligands because they promote mucosal defence mechanisms against GI candidiasis through M2a macrophage polarization while regulating blood glucose level.

  4. Structural and electronic properties of reduced transition metal oxide clusters, M4O10 and M4O10- (M = Cr, W), from photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenggang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Dixon, David A

    2012-05-31

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations at the density functional theory (DFT), coupled cluster theory (CCSD(T)), and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) theory levels are employed to study the reduced transition metal oxide clusters M(4)O(10)(-) (M = Cr, W) and their neutrals. Photoelectron spectra are obtained at 193 and 157 nm photon energies, revealing very different electronic structures for the Cr versus W oxide clusters. The electron affinity and HOMO-LUMO gap are measured to be 3.68 ± 0.05 and 0.7 eV, respectively, for the Cr(4)O(10) neutral cluster, as compared to 4.41 ± 0.04 and 1.3 eV for W(4)O(10). A comprehensive search is performed to determine the ground-state structures for M(4)O(10) and M(4)O(10)(-), in terms of geometry and electronic states by carefully examining the calculated relative energies at the DFT, CCSD(T), and CASSCF levels. The ground states of Cr(4)O(10) and Cr(4)O(10)(-) have tetrahedral structures similar to that of P(4)O(10) with the anion having a lower symmetry due to a Jahn-Teller distortion. The ground states of W(4)O(10) and W(4)O(10)(-) have butterfly shape structures, featuring two fused five-member rings with a metal-metal multiple bond between the central metal atoms. The much stronger WW bonding than the CrCr bonding is found to be the primary cause for the different ground state structures of the reduced Cr(4)O(10)(0/-) versus W(4)O(10)(0/-) oxide clusters. The photoelectron spectra are assigned by comparing the experimental and theoretical adiabatic and vertical electron detachment energies, further confirming the determination of the ground electronic states of M(4)O(10) and M(4)O(10)(-). The time-dependent DFT method is used to calculate the excitation energies of M(4)O(10). The TD-DFT results in combination with the self-consistently calculated vertical detachment energies for some of the excited states at the DFT and CCSD(T) levels are used to assign the higher energy

  5. Definition and measurement of the beam propagation factor M2 for chromatic laser beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Fang; Xin Ye; Jinfu Niu; Jianqiu Xu

    2006-01-01

    The concept of the beam propagation factor M2 is extended for chromatic laser beams. The definition of the beam propagation factor can be generalized with the weighted effective wavelength. Using the new definition of factor M2, the propagation of chromatic beams can be analyzed by the beam propagation factor M2 as same as that of monochromatic beams. A simple method to measure the chromatic beam factor M2 is demonstrated. The chromatic factor M2 is found invariable while the laser beam propagates through the dispersion-free ABCD system.

  6. A subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors plays a critical role in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, Jongrye; Nielsen, Ditte Dencker; Wörtwein, Gitta;

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) regulates many key functions of the CNS by activating cell surface receptors referred to as muscarinic ACh receptors (M(1)-M(5) mAChRs). Like other mAChR subtypes, the M(4) mAChR is widely expressed in different regions of the forebrain. Interestingly, M(4) mAChRs are coexpres....... Since enhanced central dopaminergic neurotransmission is a hallmark of several severe disorders of the CNS, including schizophrenia and drug addiction, our findings have substantial clinical relevance....

  7. Left-Right Symmetric Model from Geometrical Formulation of Gauge Theory in $M_{4} \\times Z_{2} \\times Z_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Konisi, G; Mäki, Z; Nakahara, M

    1999-01-01

    The left-right symmetric model (LRSM) with gauge group $SU(2)_{L} \\times SU(2)_{R} \\times U(1)_{B-L}$ is reconstructed from the geometric formulation of gauge theory in $M_4 \\times Z_2 \\times Z_2$ where $M_4$ is the four-dimensional Minkowski space and $Z_2 \\times Z_2$ the discrete space with four points. The geometrical structure of this model becomes clearer compared with other works based on noncommutative geometry. As a result, the Yukawa coupling terms and the Higgs potential are derived in more restricted forms than in the standard LRSM.

  8. M4/12 package project - development of a package for transport of new MOX fuel in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, B.R.; Porter, I.; Ashley, P. [BNFL, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL has a requirement to deliver new MOX fuel from the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) to its customers in mainland Europe. To satisfy this requirement, a transport system has been developed which complies with national and international regulations and conventions relating to the transport of Category 1 materials. Fundamental to this system is the transport package. BNFL has designed, developed, and is manufacturing a new transport package, the M4/12, This paper gives a brief overview of the overall transport system and then goes on to describe the development of the M4/12 package with particular emphasis on the novel features of the design.

  9. Comparison of Allergenicity at Gly m 4 and Gly m Bd 30K of Soybean after Genetic Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jaw-Ji; Chang, Ching-Yun; Liao, En-Chih

    2017-02-15

    Despite rapid growth of genetically modified (GM) crops, effective evaluations of genetic modification on allergenicity are still lacking. Gly m Bd 30K is cross-reactive with cow's milk protein casein, Gly m 4, and with birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Here we compared the allergenicity between GM and non-GM soybeans with respect to the foci Gly m 4 and Gly m Bd 30K. Recombinant allergens of Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m 4 were generated and polyclonal antibodies raised to identify these two allergenic components in soybeans. GM soybean was first PCR-confirmed using 35S promoter. A total of 20 soybeans (half GM, half non-GM) obtained from a food market were used to assess their allergenicity based on IgE-binding and histamine release. The concentrations of Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m 4 in soybeans were then determined. Most soybean-allergic patients (9 of 10) showed IgE-positive reactions to the allergen of 30 kDa in molecular weight. That allergen turned out to be Glycine max Gly m Bd 30K based on LC-MS/MS analyses. Gly m Bd 30K is therefore the major allergen in the soybean. An increase in the transcription of both the Gly m 4 (stress-induced protein SAM22) and Gly m Bd 28K (soybean allergen precursor) was found after genetic modification. The protein concentrations of Gly m 4 and Gly m Bd 30K were not statistically significant different between non-GM and GM soybeans. There were also no statistical significances between them in the tests of IgE binding and histamine release. In conclusion, soybeans showed similar concentrations of Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m 4 regardless of genetic modification or absence thereof. The allergenicity of both Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m 4 was therefore not altered after genetic modification. Patients showing hypersensitivity to soybeans and who had pre-existing allergy to birch pollen and cow's milk casein might not further increase their allergic reactions following exposures to the GM soybeans.

  10. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Dencker, Ditte;

    2014-01-01

    an antipsychotic drug-like profile in rodents after amphetamine challenge. Previous studies suggest that enhanced cholinergic activity may also improve cognitive function and reverse deficits observed with reduced signaling through the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor (NMDAR) in the central...... PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801...

  11. Effects of bimetallic doping on small cyclic and tubular boron clusters: B7M2 and B14M2 structures with M = Fe, Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hung Tan; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2015-07-14

    Using density functional theory with the TPSSh functional and the 6-311+G(d) basis set, we extensively searched for the global minima of two metallic atoms doped boron clusters B6M2, B7M2, B12M2 and B14M2 with transition metal element M being Co and Fe. Structural identifications reveal that B7Co2, B7Fe2 and B7CoFe clusters have global minima in a B-cyclic motif, in which a perfectly planar B7 is coordinated with two metallic atoms placed along the C7 axis. The B6 cluster is too small to form a cycle with the presence of two metals. Similarly, the B12 cluster is not large enough to stabilize the metallic dimer within a double ring 2 × B6 tube. The doped B14M2 clusters including B14Co2, B14Fe2 and B14CoFe have a double ring 2 × B7 tubular shape in which one metal atom is encapsulated by the B14 tube and the other is located at an exposed position. Dissociation energies demonstrate that while bimetallic cyclic cluster B7M2 prefers a fragmentation channel that generates the B7 global minimum plus metallic dimer, the tubular structure B14M2 tends to dissociate giving a bimetallic cyclic structure B7M2 and a B@B6 cluster. The enhanced stability of the bimetallic doped boron clusters considered can be understood from the stabilizing interactions between the anti-bonding MOs of metal-metal dimers and the levels of a disk aromatic configuration (for bimetallic cyclic structures), or the eigenstates of the B14 tubular form (in case of bimetallic tubular structure).

  12. Kinematic analysis of a sample of X-ray luminous distant galaxy clusters. The $L_X$ - $\\sigma_v$ relation in the $z>0.6$ universe

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasi, Alessandro; Fassbender, Rene; de Hoon, Arjen; Lamer, Georg; Mohr, Joseph J; Padilla, Nelson; Pratt, Gabriel W; Quintana, Hernan; Rosati, Piero; Santos, Joana S; Schwope, Axel D; Šuhada, Robert; Verdugo, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Observations and cosmological simulations show galaxy clusters as a family of nearly self-similar objects with properties that can be described by scaling relations as a function of e.g. mass and time. Here we study the scaling relations between the galaxy velocity dispersion and X-ray quantities like X-ray bolometric luminosity and temperature in galaxy clusters at high redshifts (0.64 $\\leq$ z $\\leq$ 1.46). We also compare our results with the similar study of the local HIFLUGCS sample. For the analysis, we use a set of 15 distant galaxy clusters extracted from the literature plus a sample of 10 newly discovered clusters selected in X-rays by the \\XMM Distant Cluster Project (XDCP) with more than 10 confirmed spectroscopic members per cluster. We also study the evolution of this scaling relation by comparing the high redshift results with the data from the local HIFLUGCS sample. We also investigated the $L_X - T_X$ and the $\\sigma_v - T_X$ relations for the 15 clusters in the literature sample. We report th...

  13. QTAIM investigation of bis(pyrazol-1-ylmethane derivative and its Zn(II complexes (ZnLX2, X=Cl, Br or I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehestani Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topological analyses of the electron density using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM have been carried out at the B3PW91/6-31g (d theoretical level, on bis(pyrazol-1-ylmethanes derivatives 9-(4-(di (1H-pyrazol-1-yl-methylphenyl-9H-carbazole (L and its zinc(II complexes: ZnLCl2 (1, ZnLBr2 (2 and ZnLI2 (3. The topological parameters derived from Bader theory were also analyzed; these are characteristics of Zn-bond critical points and also of ring critical points. The calculated structural parameters are the frontier molecular orbital energies highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO, hardness (η, softness (S, the absolute electronegativity (χ, the electrophilicity index (ω and the fractions of electrons transferred (ΔN from ZnLX2 complexes to L. The numerous correlations and dependencies between energy terms of the Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory approach (SAPT, geometrical, topological and energetic parameters were detected and described.

  14. Accumulation characteristics of soluble algal products (SAP) by a freshwater microalga Scenedesmus sp. LX1 during batch cultivation for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yin; Hu, Hong-Ying; Li, Xin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Zhang, Xue; Jia, Sheng-Lan

    2012-04-01

    Algae cultivation is the essential basis for microalgal biofuel production. Soluble algal products (SAP) are significant obstacle to large-scale, high-cell-density cultivation processes. SAP accumulation during batch cultivation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 (a unique strain accumulating lipid substantially while growing fast under low-nutrient conditions) with different initial nitrogen concentrations (7.4-34.0mgNL(-1)) was investigated. The SAP content varied in the range of 3.4-17.4mgDOCL(-1) at stationary phase, with average yield per cell of 0.5-2.5pgDOCcell(-1). High SAP accumulation up to 15.2-17.4mgDOCL(-1) were observed with initial nitrogen above 20.2mgNL(-1). The maximum SAP production rate per unit culture volume (r(SAP)) was 2.6mgDOC(Ld)(-1) and that per cell (ν(SAP)) was 1.5pgDOC(celld)(-1). The r(SAP) increased with cell growth rate and decreased with cell density linearly. The SAP accumulation was majorly due to the release of growth-associated products.

  15. Sublingual immunization with M2-based vaccine induces broad protective immunity against influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Shik Shim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e of influenza A virus is a rationale target antigen candidate for the development of a universal vaccine against influenza as M2e undergoes little sequence variation amongst human influenza A strains. Vaccine-induced M2e-specific antibodies (Abs have been shown to display significant cross-protective activity in animal models. M2e-based vaccine constructs have been shown to be more protective when administered by the intranasal (i.n. route than after parenteral injection. However, i.n. administration of vaccines poses rare but serious safety issues associated with retrograde passage of inhaled antigens and adjuvants through the olfactory epithelium. In this study, we examined whether the sublingual (s.l. route could serve as a safe and effective alternative mucosal delivery route for administering a prototype M2e-based vaccine. The mechanism whereby s.l. immunization with M2e vaccine candidate induces broad protection against infection with different influenza virus subtypes was explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: A recombinant M2 protein with three tandem copies of the M2e (3M2eC was expressed in Escherichia coli. Parenteral immunizations of mice with 3M2eC induced high levels of M2e-specific serum Abs but failed to provide complete protection against lethal challenge with influenza virus. In contrast, s.l. immunization with 3M2eC was superior for inducing protection in mice. In the latter animals, protection was associated with specific Ab responses in the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that s.l. immunization with 3M2eC vaccine induced airway mucosal immune responses along with broad cross-protective immunity to influenza. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the M2-based vaccine approach to control epidemic and pandemic influenza infections.

  16. Cloning and characterization of a novel deletion mutant of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M4 from human dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To identify differentially expressed genes from antigen-stimulated human dendritic cells (DC), subtractive cloning was adopted and more than ten novel genes differentially expressed were cloned. One is a deletion mutant of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) M4 in which the residues from 159 to 197 of hnRNP M4 have been absent. The deletion mutant was shown to be co-expressed with hnRNP M4 in cell lines. The mutant was expressed in antigen-stimulated DC but not in normal DC. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of a major hnRNP M4 deletion mutant Mrna transcript of 2.4 kilobase with the highest levels in peripheral lymphocytes, lung, liver and spleen. It was also expressed in bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSC), BMSC treated with several cytokines but not in BMSC treated with TNF-a. The results revealed a new member of hnRNP family and suggested that hnRNP would participate in antigen process and presentation.

  17. Cloning and characterization of a novel deletion mutant of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M4 from human dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄欣; 赵忠良; 袁正隆; 张明徽; 朱学军; 陈国友; 曹雪涛

    2000-01-01

    To identify differentially expressed genes from antigen-stimulated human dendritic cells (DC), subtractive cloning was adopted and more than ten novel genes differentially expressed were cloned. One is a deletion mutant of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) M4 in which the residues from 159 to 197 of hnRNP M4 have been absent. The deletion mutant was shown to- be co-expressed with hnRNP M4 in cell lines. The mutant was expressed in antigen-stimulated DC but not in normal DC. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of a major hnRNP M4 deletion mutant mRNA transcript of 2.4 kilobase with the highest levels in peripheral lymphocytes, lung, liver and spleen. It was also expressed in bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSC), BMSC treated with several cytokines but not in BMSC treated with TNF-a. The results revealed a new member of hnRNP family and suggested that hnRNP would participate in antigen process and presentation.

  18. Cloning and characterization of a novel deletion mutant of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M4 from human dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To identify differentially expressed genes from antigen-stimulated human dendritic cells (DC), subtractive cloning was adopted and more than ten novel genes differentially expressed were cloned. One is a deletion mutant of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) M4 in which the residues from 159 to 197 of hnRNP M4 have been absent. The deletion mutant was shown to be co-expressed with hnRNP M4 in cell lines. The mutant was expressed in antigen-stimulated DC but not in normal DC. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of a major hnRNP M4 deletion mutant mRNA transcript of 2.4 kilobase with the highest levels in peripheral lymphocytes, lung, liver and spleen. It was also expressed in bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSC), BMSC treated with several cytokines but not in BMSC treated with TNF-a. The results revealed a new member of hnRNP family and suggested that hnRNP would participate in antigen process and presentation.

  19. 8s, a numerical simulator of the challenging optical calibration of the E-ELT adaptive mirror M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Pariani, Giorgio; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Tintori, Matteo; Lazzarini, Paolo; Spanò, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    8s stands for Optical Test TOwer Simulator (with 8 read as in italian 'otto'): it is a simulation tool for the optical calibration of the E-ELT deformable mirror M4 on its test facility. It has been developed to identify possible criticalities in the procedure, evaluate the solutions and estimate the sensitivity to environmental noise. The simulation system is composed by the finite elements model of the tower, the analytic influence functions of the actuators, the ray tracing propagation of the laser beam through the optical surfaces. The tool delivers simulated phasemaps of M4, associated with the current system status: actuator commands, optics alignment and position, beam vignetting, bench temperature and vibrations. It is possible to simulate a single step of the optical test of M4 by changing the system parameters according to a calibration procedure and collect the associated phasemap for performance evaluation. In this paper we will describe the simulation package and outline the proposed calibration procedure of M4.

  20. Quantum corrections to short folded superstring in AdS_3 x S^3 x M^4

    CERN Document Server

    Beccaria, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We consider integrable superstring theory on AdS_3 x S^3 x M^4 where M^4=T^4 or M^4=S^3 x S^1 with generic ratio of the radii of the two 3-spheres. We compute the one-loop energy of a short folded string spinning in AdS_3 and rotating in S^3. The computation is performed by world-sheet small spin perturbation theory as well as by quantizing the classical algebraic curve characterizing the finite-gap equations. The two methods give equal results up to regularization contributions that are under control. One important byproduct of the calculation is the part of the energy which is due to the dressing phase in the Bethe Ansatz. Remarkably, this contribution E_1^{dressing} turns out to be independent on the radii ratio. In the M^4=T^4 limit, we discuss how E_1^{dressing} relates to a recent proposal for the dressing phase tested in the su(2) sector. We point out some difficulties suggesting that quantization of the AdS_3 classical finite-gap equations could be subtler than the easier AdS_5 x S^5 case.

  1. Increased immunogenicity and protective efficacy of influenza M2e fused to a tetramerizing protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Carola Andersson

    Full Text Available The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared by diverse influenza A viruses, a vaccine (M2e-NSP4 was constructed linking M2e (in its consensus sequence to the rotavirus fragment NSP4(98-135; due to its coiled-coil region this fragment is known to form tetramers in aqueous solution and in this manner we hoped to mimick the natural configuration of M2e as presented in membranes. M2e-NSP4 was then evaluated side-by-side with synthetic M2e peptide for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine influenza challenge model. Here we demonstrate that M2e fused to the tetramerizing protein induces an accelerated, augmented and more broadly reactive antibody response than does M2e peptide as measured in two different assays. Most importantly, vaccination with M2e-NSP4 caused a significant decrease in lung virus load early after challenge with influenza A virus and maintained its efficacy against a lethal challenge even at very low vaccine doses. Based on the results presented in this study M2e-NSP4 merits further investigation as a candidate for or as a component of a universal influenza A vaccine.

  2. M5-branes on S 2 × M 4: Nahm's equations and 4d topological sigma-models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assel, Benjamin; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Wong, Jin-Mann

    2016-09-01

    We study the 6d N = (0 , 2) superconformal field theory, which describes multiple M5-branes, on the product space S 2 × M 4, and suggest a correspondence between a 2d N = (0 , 2) half-twisted gauge theory on S 2 and a topological sigma-model on the four-manifold M 4. To set up this correspondence, we determine in this paper the dimensional reduction of the 6d N = (0 , 2) theory on a two-sphere and derive that the four-dimensional theory is a sigma-model into the moduli space of solutions to Nahm's equations, or equivalently the moduli space of k-centered SU(2) monopoles, where k is the number of M5-branes. We proceed in three steps: we reduce the 6d abelian theory to a 5d Super-Yang-Mills theory on I × M 4, with I an interval, then non-abelianize the 5d theory and finally reduce this to 4d. In the special case, when M 4 is a Hyper-Kähler manifold, we show that the dimensional reduction gives rise to a topological sigma-model based on tri-holomorphic maps. Deriving the theory on a general M 4 requires knowledge of the metric of the target space. For k = 2 the target space is the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold and we twist the theory to obtain a topological sigma-model, which has both scalar fields and self-dual two-forms.

  3. Distributed Access Control Based on Proxy Signature in M2M Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the distributed access control based on proxy signature in M2M sensor networks M2M sensor networks. As M2M sensor networks are usually deployed in hostile environment, the global communication security of M2M sensor networks is and will continue to be a major concern. Although there are many related works on access control in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks, Ad-hoc networks, MANETs (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks and etc., they cannot be applied to M2M sensor networks directly. Motivated by this consideration, we develop a secure and distributed access control scheme based on proxy signature for M2M sensor networks, which provides strong authentication and achieves efficiency. Moreover, security of the proposed technique does not rely on availability of a secure channel.

  4. Increased immunogenicity and protective efficacy of influenza M2e fused to a tetramerizing protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie Carola; Håkansson, Kjell Ove; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    2012-01-01

    by diverse influenza A viruses, a vaccine (M2e-NSP4) was constructed linking M2e (in its consensus sequence) to the rotavirus fragment NSP4(98-135); due to its coiled-coil region this fragment is known to form tetramers in aqueous solution and in this manner we hoped to mimick the natural configuration of M2......The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared...... reactive antibody response than does M2e peptide as measured in two different assays. Most importantly, vaccination with M2e-NSP4 caused a significant decrease in lung virus load early after challenge with influenza A virus and maintained its efficacy against a lethal challenge even at very low vaccine...

  5. Solidification microstructure of M2 high speed steel by different casting technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Xuefeng; Fang Feng; Jiang Jianjing

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigated the solidification microstructure of AISI M2 high speed steel manufactured by different casting technologies, namely iron mould casting and continuous casting. The results revealed that the as-cast structure of the steel was composed of the iron matrix and the M2C eutectic carbide networks, which were greatly refined in the ingot made by continuous casting process, compared with that by the iron mould casting process. M2C eutectic carbides presented variation in ...

  6. M2M Communications for E-Health and Smart Grid: An Industry and Standard Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zhong; Haines, Russell J.; Kulkarni, Parag

    2013-01-01

    An overview of several standardization activities for machine-to-machine (M2M) communications is presented, analyzing some of the enabling technologies and applications of M2M in industry sectors such as Smart Grid and e-Health. This summary and overview of the ongoing work in M2M from the industrial and standardization perspective complements the prevalent academic perspective of such publications to date in this field.

  7. Increased immunogenicity and protective efficacy of influenza M2e fused to a tetramerizing protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie Carola; Håkansson, Kjell Ove; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech;

    2012-01-01

    The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared......e as presented in membranes. M2e-NSP4 was then evaluated side-by-side with synthetic M2e peptide for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine influenza challenge model. Here we demonstrate that M2e fused to the tetramerizing protein induces an accelerated, augmented and more broadly...

  8. Influencia del acabado superficial en la permeación de hidrógeno del acero API 5L-X52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réquiz, R.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface roughness on the corrosion and hydrogen permeation behaviour was evaluated on a type API 5L-X52 steel in deaerated 0.1 M Na2SO4 at pH=2. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were employed to determine the electrochemical behaviour of the steel, while the Devanathan-Stachurski technique was used to estimate the hydrogen permeation rate. Additionally, the surface roughness profiles were obtained in order to correlate the changes in the hydrogen permeation rate with different metal surface finishings. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that when the roughness parameters have larger values, the cathodic current of hydrogen evolution increases while the hydrogen entry rate decreases. This effect can be attributed to the microstructural defects induced at the steel surface, such as dislocations, which increase the catalytic activity of the atomic hydrogen favouring its recombination. Also, these defects could allow the atomic hydrogen to remain adsorbed on the steel surface. Both effects could hinder the hydrogen diffusion into the metal since the possibility for this atom of becoming absorbed has been reduced

    En el presente trabajo de investigación se evalúa la influencia del acabado superficial, tanto en la corrosión generalizada como en la permeación de hidrógeno del acero API 5L-X52 en solución de Na2SO4 0,1M, a pH=2. El comportamiento electroquímico del acero se estudió mediante las curvas de polarización potenciodinámicas, mientras que la susceptibilidad al daño por hidrógeno se evaluó mediante la técnica de permeación de Devanathan- Stachurski. Además, se determinaron los parámetros de rugosidad a las muestras de acero con diferentes acabados superficiales, para luego correlacionarlos con los cambios en las corrientes de permeación de hidrógeno. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran, claramente, que, cuando la rugosidad superficial del acero

  9. Characteristics of Hebei Xinyue 280m2 sinter project%河北鑫跃280m2烧结机的工艺特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宾蓉晖

    2012-01-01

    The process characteristics of bar screen, dust pneumatic conveying, and first mixing de-dusting system were introduced, and the influence on environment protection and energy saving of Hebei Xinyue 280m2 sinter projects were introduced.%介绍了河北鑫跃280m2烧结机工程棒条筛、除尘灰气力输送、一混除尘的工艺特点,以及产生的环保、节能影响.

  10. The M4.5V flare star AF Psc as seen in K2 engineering data

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    We present the light curve of the little studied flare star AF Psc (M4.5V) obtained using engineering data from the K2 mission. Data were obtained in Long Cadence mode giving an effective exposure of 29 min and nearly 9 d of coverage. A clear modulation on a period of 1.08 d was seen which is the signature of the stellar rotation period. We identify 14 flares in the light curve, with the most luminous flares apparently coming from the same active region. We compare the flare characteristics of AF Psc to two M4V flare stars studied using kepler data. The K2 mission, if given approval, will present a unique opportunity to study the rotation and flare properties of late type dwarf stars with different ages and mass.

  11. Seismicity Pattern Changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) Earthquake of August 16, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M = 4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics. PMID:24511288

  12. Precursory signatures in the radon and geohydrological borehole data for M4.9 Kharsali earthquake of Garhwal Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M., E-mail: vchoubey@wihg.res.in [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33 General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun 248001 (India); Kumar, Naresh; Arora, B.R. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33 General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun 248001 (India)

    2009-11-01

    Continuous recording of different geophysical parameters incorporated at a single location as a unified effort for earthquake precursory through geodynamical changes initiated for the first time in the Garhwal Himalaya, India. A 68 m deep borehole, penetrating into the water table is operated for continuous radon monitoring along with meteorological/geohydrological observations at two points, one at 10 m (in the air column) and the second one at 50 m (within water column) depths from surface. Preliminary studies reveal diagnostic short duration anomalies in radon concentration recorded few days before the occurrence of a nearby moderate M4.9 earthquake at Kharsali on the 23rd of July, 2007. For nearly half of the year, radon emanation at 10 m depth in the closed air column showed definite pattern of daily variations that may be due to the influence of tidal forces, meteorological and other geodynamical phenomena. This pattern is totally missing during June and July, 2007 when few anomalies for small durations were observed out of which two are unique. These two anomalies exceed 2{sigma} (standard deviation) from average radon concentration in both positive and negative sides. However, its emanation at 50 m depth (water radon) is almost constant throughout the year 2007 except some disturbances observed to the ending of June and during July. These abnormalities in radon emanation and other parameters in the borehole may be considered precursory to the M4.9 Kharsali earthquake of July 23, 2007 having an epicenter distance of 60 km. The empirical relation used for amount of radon anomaly with the epicenter distance predicts an earthquake of M4.6 and M4.7 with the observed anomaly at 10 m and 50 m observation points respectively after taking a 60 km epicenter distance.

  13. Kinetics of Proton Transport into Influenza Virions by the Viral M2 Channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanovic, Tijana; Rozendaal, Rutger; Floyd, Daniel L.; Popovic, Milos; Oijen, Antoine M. van; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    M2 protein of influenza A viruses is a tetrameric transmembrane proton channel, which has essential functions both early and late in the virus infectious cycle. Previous studies of proton transport by M2 have been limited to measurements outside the context of the virus particle. We have developed a

  14. Pilot Milt Thompson and the M2-F2 Lifting Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Jay L. King, Joseph D. Huxman and Orion D. Billeter assist NASA research pilot Milt Thompson (on the ladder) into the cockpit of the M2-F2 lifting body research aircraft at the NASA Flight Research Center (now the Dryden Flight Research Center). The M2-F2 is attached to a wing pylon under the wing of NASA's B-52 mothership.

  15. Wound administration of M2-polarized macrophages does not improve murine cutaneous healing responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Nadine; Roumans, Nadia; Gijbels, Marion J; Romano, Andrea; Post, Mark J; de Winther, Menno P J; van der Hulst, Rene R W J; Xanthoulea, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in all stages of cutaneous wound healing responses and dysregulation of macrophage function can result in derailed wound repair. The phenotype of macrophages is influenced by the wound microenvironment and evolves during healing from a more pro-inflammatory (M1) profile in early stages, to a less inflammatory pro-healing (M2) phenotype in later stages of repair. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of exogenous administration of M2 macrophages to promote wound healing in an experimental mouse model of cutaneous injury. Bone marrow derived macrophages were stimulated in-vitro with IL-4 or IL-10 to obtain two different subsets of M2-polarized cells, M2a or M2c respectively. Polarized macrophages were injected into full-thickness excisional skin wounds of either C57BL/6 or diabetic db/db mice. Control groups were injected with non-polarized (M0) macrophages or saline. Our data indicate that despite M2 macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype in-vitro, they do not improve wound closure in wild type mice while they delay healing in diabetic mice. Examination of wounds on day 15 post-injury indicated delayed re-epithelialization and persistence of neutrophils in M2 macrophage treated diabetic wounds. Therefore, topical application of ex-vivo generated M2 macrophages is not beneficial and contraindicated for cell therapy of skin wounds.

  16. Phonological Substitution Errors in L2 ASL Sentence Processing by Hearing M2L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua; Newman, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to investigate phonological substitution errors made by hearing second language (M2L2) learners of American Sign Language (ASL) during a sentence translation task. Learners saw sentences in ASL that were signed by either a native signer or a M2L2 learner. Learners were to simply translate the sentence from ASL to…

  17. De novo formal synthesis of (-)-virginiamycin M2 via the asymmetric hydration of dienoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Matthew S; Osbourn, Joshua M; O'Doherty, George A

    2007-08-02

    A de novo approach to the formal total synthesis of the macrolide natural product (-)-virginiamycin M2 has been achieved via a convergent approach. The absolute and relative stereochemistry of the nonpeptide portion of (-)-virginiamycin M2 was introduced by two Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation reactions.

  18. Solid State NMR Observation of Phenylalanine Residues in M2 Protein from Influenza a Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ The M2 protein from influenza A functions as a proton channel. It has been cloned and over-expressed in Escherchia coli. Large quantities of recombinant protein are purified by Ni2 affinity chromatography. The residues in M2 have been selectively labeled with 15N in an aromatic amino acid autotroph CT19.

  19. Almost optimal distributed M2M multicasting in wireless mesh networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Qin; Manne, Fredrik; Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    nodes. It is known that the computation of an optimal M2M multicasting schedule isNP-hard. We present a fully distributed deterministic algorithm for such an M2M multicasting problem and analyze its time complexity. We show that if the maximum hop distance between any two out of the k participants is d...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix M2 to Part 226 - Actual Repayment Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual Repayment Disclosures M2 Appendix M2 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... nearest whole year if the estimate contains a fractional year less than 0.5, and rounded up to the...

  1. Regional distribution of M1, M2 and non-M1, non-M2 subtypes of muscarinic binding sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, F.J.; Tran, L.P. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The distribution of subtypes of the muscarinic receptor in homogenates of the rat brain was investigated by measuring the competitive inhibition of the binding (3H)N-methylscopolamine by pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 (11((2-((diethylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one). In most brain regions, the competitive binding curves for AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine were consistent with a two-site model. The dissociation constant of pirenzepine for its high-affinity site (M1 receptor) was approximately 10(-8) M, whereas the dissociation constant of AF-DX 116 for its high affinity site (M2 receptor) was approximately 10(-7) M. In many regions, particularly those in the forebrain, the sum of the densities of the M1 and M2 binding sites was substantially less than 100% of the total sites, indicating the existence of a third population of sites lacking high affinity for both pirenzepine and AF-DX 116. We have designated these latter sites as non-M1, non-M2 muscarinic receptors. In general, the densities of the M1 and non-M1, non-M2 binding sites were highest in cerebral cortex, corpus striatum and hippocampus, intermediate in thalamus and hypothalamus, and lowest in midbrain, medulla-pons and cerebellum, whereas the M2 binding site had a relatively low, uniform density throughout the brain. The binding capacity of (3H)N-methylquinuclidinyl benzilate was estimated to be 20 to 30% lower than that of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in various regions of the forebrain, but not in more caudal regions of the brain where the two radioligands had approximately the same binding capacities.

  2. LX-10 Explosive Damage Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    Suite NAWCWD TM 8757 6 where P = System pressure Vs = System volume n = Covolume we = Weight of explosive burned F = Impetus, f...simultaneously ignited and regress uniformly, and the regression rate depends only on pressure and propellant temperature. 2. Heat losses from the bomb are...and fired in a manometric closed vessel. The pressure -time history was recorded, and an analysis of the data was performed to evaluate both the

  3. M2受体的细胞表征及其运动与心脏、血管M2受体研究进展%Cell Characterization of M2 Receptor and Research Advancement of Exercise Training and Cardiovascular M2 Receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田振军; 杜蕾

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨M2受体的细胞表征及其运动与心脏、血管M2受体的基础与应用前景.方法:采用文献回顾与前瞻性分析及逻辑推理相结合的方法,跟踪M2受体表征研究进展及其运动与心脏、血管M2受体表征在体育科学领域中的应用.结果与结论:M2受体在心肌、血管平滑肌等细胞上广泛分布,具有重要的生物学功能.不同运动强度和心肌细胞M2受体表征、运动后心率恢复与M2受体基因多态性、心脏运动康复与M2受体表征等的关系密切.积极开展M2受体基因变异与运动前预测心源性死亡风险,运动性心律失常与M2受体表征,运动性心肌损伤引起的心功能紊乱与M2受体表征,基于M2受体靶点的心脏、血管运动康复及其中药有效成份筛选等方面的研究,具有重要的基础研究价值和应用前景.对有效筛选心脏、血管运动康复方案和与M2受体相关药物有效成份具有重大意义.

  4. Kinked structures of isolated nicotinic receptor M2 helices: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararamakrishnan, R; Samsom, M S

    1994-12-01

    The pore-lining M2 helix of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor exhibits a pronounced kink when the corresponding ion channel is in a closed conformation [N. Unwin (1993) Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol. 229, pp. 1101-1124]. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of isolated 22-residue M2 helices in order to identify a possible molecular origin of this kink. In order to sample a wide range of conformational space, a simulated annealing protocol was used to generate five initial M2 helix structures, each of which was subsequently used as the basis of 300 ps MD simulations. Two helix sequences (M2 alpha and M2 delta) were studied in this manner, resulting in a total of ten 300 ps trajectories. Kinked helices present in the trajectories were identified and energy minimized to yield a total of five different stable kinked structures. For comparison, a similar molecular dynamics simulation of a Leu23 helix yielded no stable kinked structures. In four of the five kinked helices, the kink was stabilized by H bonds between the helix backbone and polar side-chain atoms. Comparison with data from the literature on site-directed mutagenesis of M2 residues suggests that such polar side-chain to main-chain H bonds may also contribute to kinking of M2 helices in the intact channel protein.

  5. Designing inhibitors of M2 proton channel against H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Shi Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: M2 proton channel of H1N1 influenza A virus is the target protein of anti-flu drugs amantadine and rimantadine. However, the two once powerful adamantane-based drugs lost their 90% bioactivity because of mutations of virus in recent twenty years. The NMR structure of the M2 channel protein determined by Schnell and Chou (Nature, 2008, 451, 591-595 may help people to solve the drug-resistant problem and develop more powerful new drugs against H1N1 influenza virus. METHODOLOGY: Docking calculation is performed to build the complex structure between receptor M2 proton channel and ligands, including existing drugs amantadine and rimantadine, and two newly designed inhibitors. The computer-aided drug design methods are used to calculate the binding free energies, with the computational biology techniques to analyze the interactions between M2 proton channel and adamantine-based inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The NMR structure of M2 proton channel provides a reliable structural basis for rational drug design against influenza virus. 2 The channel gating mechanism and the inhibiting mechanism of M2 proton channel, revealed by the NMR structure of M2 proton channel, provides the new ideas for channel inhibitor design. 3 The newly designed adamantane-based inhibitors based on the modeled structure of H1N1-M2 proton channel have two pharmacophore groups, which act like a "barrel hoop", holding two adjacent helices of the H1N1-M2 tetramer through the two pharmacophore groups outside the channel. 4 The inhibitors with such binding mechanism may overcome the drug resistance problem of influenza A virus to the adamantane-based drugs.

  6. Design of a Cortex-M4 based ultrasonic phased array detection system%基于Cortex-M4的超声相控阵探测系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵连睿; 杨济民; 李振江; 李玉坤

    2013-01-01

    We design an obstacle detection system with ultrasonic phased array detection and the microcontroller Cortex-M4 as a processor. Experiments show that the actual sound field strength of the focal area is greater than that of conventional ultrasonic technology and sound energy is more convergent. Its detection distance is from 0.3 to 5.5 m, and measurement accuracy is ±1 cm. The system is therefore effective and satisfactory.%设计了一种以Cortex-M4微控制器STM32F407为核心,采用超声相控阵技术对障碍物进行探测的系统.实验结果表明,该系统聚焦探测区域的实际声场强度大于常规的超声波技术,声波能量更为集中.系统的探测范围在0.3~5.5m,探测精度±1 cm,稳定性好,准确方便.

  7. 米曲霉Aspergillus oryzae M-4降解己烯雌酚的特性研究%Degradation Characteristics of Diethylstilbestrol by Aspergillus oryzae M-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凯弟; 邓维琴; 陈树平; 柴先杜; 刘爱平; 卓文杰; 刘书亮

    2016-01-01

    以1株分离自酱油曲的米曲霉(Aspergillus oryzae)M-4为材料,初步研究其降解己烯雌酚(diethylstilbestrol,DES)的特性.米曲霉M-4对DES的降解率与菌体生物量呈正相关,在基础盐培养基(mineral salt medium,MM)中培养9d对100mg/L的DES降解率为93%.动力学研究表明,该菌株降解DES的过程符合一级动力学方程,在所测试的培养温度、初始pH值、底物质量浓度范围内,DES半衰期为1.645~5.295d.培养温度30℃和偏酸性环境有利于其对DES的降解;底物质量浓度越高,其半衰期越长.

  8. Evaluation of secure capability-based access control in the M2M local cloud platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggorojati, Bayu; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    of multiple distributed M2M gateways, creating new challenges in the access control. Some existing access control systems lack in scalability and flexibility to manage access from users or entity that belong to different authorization domains, or fails to provide fine grained and flexible access right...... delegation. Recently, the capability based access control has been considered as method to manage access in the Internet of Things (IoT) or M2M domain. In this paper, the implementation and evaluation of a proposed secure capability based access control in the M2M local cloud platform is presented...

  9. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  10. Aggregation and Trunking of M2M Traffic via D2D Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigazzi, Giovanni; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications is one of the key enablers of the Internet of Things (IoT). Billions of devices are expected to be deployed in the near future for novel M2M applications demanding ubiquitous access and global connectivity. In order to cope with the massive number of machines......, there is a need for new techniques to coordinate the access and allocate the resources. Although the majority of the proposed solutions are focused on the adaptation of the traditional cellular networks to the M2M traffic patterns, novel approaches based on the direct communication among nearby devices may...

  11. From a 32 m2 system with 90 CPV modules to a 105 m2 system with 12 CPV modules - Soitec's new CPV system CX-S530

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Andreas; Wanka, Sven; Gerster, Eckart; van Riesen, Sascha; Neubauer, Martin; Lange, Gerrit; Hamidi, Amir; Burke, Thomas; Stör, Jakob; Aipperspach, Wolfgang; Taliercio, Cecile; Mader, Lucas; Valli, Alessandro; Ziegler, Martin; Hepp, Stefan; Heile, Inka; Gerstmaier, Tobias; Haarburger, Karl-Friedrich

    2012-10-01

    In 2008, Soitec started to launch a 32m2 CPV system which included 90 modules per tracker. In order to realize the fast installation of multi-MW power plants the CPV module CX-M500 with an aperture area of 7,84 m2 was developed together with the new tracker CX-T030 which is optimized for carrying 12 of the new modules. This paper gives an overview over the evolution of this CPV system. The module is based on components of the field proven earlier Concentrix module generations. The tracker is a classical pylon type with two AC motor powered slewing ring drives. A new control device was developed which uses the power-optimized sun tracking algorithm. The major development steps and their results are presented.

  12. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects ...... that xanomeline inhibits D-amphetamine- and (-)-apomorphine-induced behavior in Cebus apella monkeys at doses that do not cause EPS. These data further substantiate that muscarinic receptor agonists may be useful in the pharmacological treatment of psychosis....

  13. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Mangone

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth" can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH, a national text-message (SMS based health communication service in Tanzania.We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320 and at any possible break-even volume.In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs.These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners

  14. NXP出货高速Cortex—M4及Cortex—M3微控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    恩智浦半导体(NXP SemiconductorsN.V.)发布LPC4300数字信号控制器(DSC)——一款高速的ARMCortex—M4微控制器,其速度高达204MHz。LPC4300也是带有Cortex—MO协处理器的双核非对称架构DSC。恩智浦还同时将LPCI800系列的性能提升到180MHz。

  15. Trypsin, Tryptase, and Thrombin Polarize Macrophages towards a Pro-Fibrotic M2a Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J V White

    Full Text Available For both wound healing and the formation of a fibrotic lesion, circulating monocytes enter the tissue and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes and pro-fibrotic M2a macrophages, which together with fibroblasts form scar tissue. Monocytes can also differentiate into classically activated M1 macrophages and alternatively activated M2 macrophages. The proteases thrombin, which is activated during blood clotting, and tryptase, which is released by activated mast cells, potentiate fibroblast proliferation and fibrocyte differentiation, but their effect on macrophages is unknown. Here we report that thrombin, tryptase, and the protease trypsin bias human macrophage differentiation towards a pro-fibrotic M2a phenotype expressing high levels of galectin-3 from unpolarized monocytes, or from M1 and M2 macrophages, and that these effects appear to operate through protease-activated receptors. These results suggest that proteases can initiate scar tissue formation by affecting fibroblasts, fibrocytes, and macrophages.

  16. HF183/BFDrev and HumM2 qPCR data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Concentration estimates for HF183/BFDrev and HumM2 qPCR genetic markers in raw sewage collected from 54 geographic locations across the United States. This dataset...

  17. Vanishing Str M2 in the presence of anomalous U A(1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jorge L.; Nanopoulos, D. V.

    1996-02-01

    We show that the presence of an anomalous U A(1) factor in the gauge group of string-derived models may have the new and important phenomenological consequence of allowing the vanishing of Str M2 in the “shifted” vacuum that results in the process of cancelling the anomalous U A(1). The feasibility of this effect seems to be enhanced by a vanishing vacuum energy, and by a “small” value of Str M2 in the original vacuum. In the class of free-fermionic models with vanishing vacuum energy that we focus on, a necessary condition for this mechanism to be effective is that Str M2 > 0 in the original vacuum. A vanishing Str M2 ameliorates the cosmological constant problem and is a necessary element in the stability of the no-scale mechanism.

  18. Reliable Radio Access for Massive Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication is a term that identifies the emerging paradigm of interconnected systems, machines, and things that communicate and collaborate without human intervention. The characteristics of M2M Communications are small payloads and sporadic transmissions, while...... the service requirements can range from massive number of devices to ultra-reliable. This PhD thesis focuses on novel mechanisms to meet these requirements in a variety of wireless systems, from well-established technologies such as cellular networks, to emerging technologies like IEEE 802.11ah. Today...... an overwhelming 89% of the deployed M2M modules are GPRS-based. This motivates us to investigate the potential of GPRS as a dedicated M2M network. We show that by introducing minimal modifications to GPRS operation, a large number of devices can be reliably supported. Surprisingly, even though LTE is seen...

  19. Porous Photocatalytic Membrane Microreactor (P2M2): A new reactor concept for photochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aran, H.C.; Salamon, D.; Rijnaarts, T.; Mul, G.; Wessling, M.; Lammertink, R.G.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a new membrane microreactor concept for multiphase photocatalytic reactions is demonstrated. Microfabrication, photocatalyst immobilization and surface modification steps were performed to develop a Porous Photocatalytic Membrane Microreactor (P2M2). This concept benefits from a stabl

  20. Direct observation of the M2 phase with its Mott transition in a VO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Slusar, Tetiana V.; Wulferding, Dirk; Yang, Ilkyu; Cho, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Jeong, Yoon Hee; Kim, Hyun-Tak; Kim, Jeehoon

    2016-12-01

    In VO2, the explicit origin of the insulator-to-metal transition is still disputable between Peierls and Mott insulators. Along with the controversy, its second monoclinic (M2) phase has received considerable attention due to the presence of electron correlation in undimerized vanadium ions. However, the origin of the M2 phase is still obscure. Here, we study a granular VO2 film using conductive atomic force microscopy and Raman scattering. Upon the structural transition from monoclinic to rutile, we observe directly an intermediate state showing the coexistence of monoclinic M1 and M2 phases. The conductivity near the grain boundary in this regime is six times larger than that of the grain core, producing a donut-like landscape. Our results reveal an intra-grain percolation process, indicating that VO2 with the M2 phase is a Mott insulator.

  1. Porous Photocatalytic Membrane Microreactor (P2M2): A new reactor concept for photochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aran, H.C.; Salamon, David; Rijnaarts, Timon; Rijnaarts, T.; Mul, Guido; Wessling, Matthias; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a new membrane microreactor concept for multiphase photocatalytic reactions is demonstrated. Microfabrication, photocatalyst immobilization and surface modification steps were performed to develop a Porous Photocatalytic Membrane Microreactor (P2M2). This concept benefits from a

  2. The challenges of M2M massive access in wireless cellular networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biral, Andrea; Centenaro, Marco; Zanella, Andrea; Vangelista, Lorenzo; Zorzi, Michele

    2015-01-01

    .... Nonetheless, general consensus has been reached upon some specific challenges, such as the need for 5G wireless access networks to support massive access by MTDs, as a consequence of the proliferation of M2M services...

  3. M2 Polarization of Human Macrophages Favors Survival of the Intracellular Pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Buchacher

    Full Text Available Intracellular pathogens have developed various strategies to escape immunity to enable their survival in host cells, and many bacterial pathogens preferentially reside inside macrophages, using diverse mechanisms to penetrate their defenses and to exploit their high degree of metabolic diversity and plasticity. Here, we characterized the interactions of the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae with polarized human macrophages. Primary human monocytes were pre-differentiated with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor or macrophage colony-stimulating factor for 7 days to yield M1-like and M2-like macrophages, which were further treated with interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide or with interleukin-4 for 48 h to obtain fully polarized M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 and M2 cells exhibited distinct morphology with round or spindle-shaped appearance for M1 and M2, respectively, distinct surface marker profiles, as well as different cytokine and chemokine secretion. Macrophage polarization did not influence uptake of C. pneumoniae, since comparable copy numbers of chlamydial DNA were detected in M1 and M2 at 6 h post infection, but an increase in chlamydial DNA over time indicating proliferation was only observed in M2. Accordingly, 72±5% of M2 vs. 48±7% of M1 stained positive for chlamydial lipopolysaccharide, with large perinuclear inclusions in M2 and less clearly bordered inclusions for M1. Viable C. pneumoniae was present in lysates from M2, but not from M1 macrophages. The ability of M1 to restrict chlamydial replication was not observed in M1-like macrophages, since chlamydial load showed an equal increase over time for M1-like and M2-like macrophages. Our findings support the importance of macrophage polarization for the control of intracellular infection, and show that M2 are the preferred survival niche for C. pneumoniae. M1 did not allow for chlamydial proliferation, but failed to completely eliminate chlamydial infection

  4. Segal-Bargmann Transform and Paley-Wiener Theorems on $M(2)$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E K Narayanan; Suparna Sen

    2010-04-01

    We study the Segal–Bargmann transform on $M(2)$. The range of this transform is characterized as a weighted Bergman space. In a similar fashion Poisson integrals are investigated. Using a Gutzmer’s type formula we characterize the range as a class of functions extending holomorphically to an appropriate domain in the complexification of $M(2)$. We also prove a Paley–Wiener theorem for the inverse Fourier transform.

  5. Wound Administration of M2-Polarized Macrophages Does Not Improve Murine Cutaneous Healing Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Jetten; Nadia Roumans; Marion J. Gijbels; Andrea Romano; Post, Mark J.; de Winther, Menno P.J.; Van der Hulst, Rene R. W. J.; Sofia Xanthoulea

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in all stages of cutaneous wound healing responses and dysregulation of macrophage function can result in derailed wound repair. The phenotype of macrophages is influenced by the wound microenvironment and evolves during healing from a more pro-inflammatory (M1) profile in early stages, to a less inflammatory pro-healing (M2) phenotype in later stages of repair. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of exogenous administration of M2 macr...

  6. 10D massive type IIA supergravities as the uplift of parabolic M2-brane torus bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia del Moral, Maria Pilar [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Restuccia, Alvaro [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Dept. de Fisica

    2016-04-15

    We remark that the two 10D massive deformations of the N = 2 maximal type IIA supergravity (Romans and HLW supergravity) are associated to the low energy limit of the uplift to 10D of M2-brane torus bundles with parabolic monodromy linearly and non-linearly realized respectively. Romans supergravity corresponds to M2-brane compactified on a twice-punctured torus bundle. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. A novel M2e based flu vaccine formulation for dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Leclerc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The USA 2004 influenza virus outbreak H3N8 in dogs heralded the emergence of a new disease in this species. A new inactivated H3N8 vaccine was developed to control the spread of the disease but, as in humans and swine, it is anticipated that the virus will mutate shift and drift in the dog population. Therefore, there is a need for a vaccine that can trigger a broad protection to prevent the spread of the virus and the emergence of new strains. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The universal M2e peptide is identical in almost all the H3N8 influenza strains sequenced to date and known to infect dogs. This epitope is therefore a good choice for development of a vaccine to provide broad protection. Malva mosaic virus (MaMV nanoparticles were chosen as a vaccine platform to improve the stability of the M2e peptide and increase its immunogenicity in animals. The addition of an adjuvant (OmpC purified from Salmonella typhi membrane in the vaccine formulation increased the immune response directed to the M2e peptide significantly and enlarged the protection to include the heterosubtypic strain of influenza in a mouse model. An optimal vaccine formulation was also shown to be immunogenic in dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The MaMV vaccine platform triggered an improved immune response directed towards the universal M2e peptide. The adjuvant OmpC increased the immune response to the M2e peptide and protection to a heterosubtypic influenza strain that harbors a different M2e peptide in a mouse model. Antibodies generated by the vaccine formulation showed cross-reactivity with M2e peptides derived from influenza strains H9N2, H5N1 and H1N1. The vaccine formulation shows a potential for commercialization of a new M2e based vaccine in dogs.

  8. M2 pyruvate kinase provides a mechanism for nutrient sensing and regulation of cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Hugh P; O'Reilly, Francis J; Wear, Martin A; O'Neill, J Robert; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Hupp, Ted; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2013-04-09

    We show that the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (M2PYK) exists in equilibrium between monomers and tetramers regulated by allosteric binding of naturally occurring small-molecule metabolites. Phenylalanine stabilizes an inactive T-state tetrameric conformer and inhibits M2PYK with an IC50 value of 0.24 mM, whereas thyroid hormone (triiodo-L-thyronine, T3) stabilizes an inactive monomeric form of M2PYK with an IC50 of 78 nM. The allosteric activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate [F16BP, AC50 (concentration that gives 50% activation) of 7 μM] shifts the equilibrium to the tetrameric active R-state, which has a similar activity to that of the constitutively fully active isoform M1PYK. Proliferation assays using HCT-116 cells showed that addition of inhibitors phenylalanine and T3 both increased cell proliferation, whereas addition of the activator F16BP reduced proliferation. F16BP abrogates the inhibitory effect of both phenylalanine and T3, highlighting a dominant role of M2PYK allosteric activation in the regulation of cancer proliferation. X-ray structures show constitutively fully active M1PYK and F16BP-bound M2PYK in an R-state conformation with a lysine at the dimer-interface acting as a peg in a hole, locking the active tetramer conformation. Binding of phenylalanine in an allosteric pocket induces a 13° rotation of the protomers, destroying the peg-in-hole R-state interface. This distinct T-state tetramer is stabilized by flipped out Trp/Arg side chains that stack across the dimer interface. X-ray structures and biophysical binding data of M2PYK complexes explain how, at a molecular level, fluctuations in concentrations of amino acids, thyroid hormone, and glucose metabolites switch M2PYK on and off to provide the cell with a nutrient sensing and growth signaling mechanism.

  9. Organophosphorus pesticides decrease M2 muscarinic receptor function in guinea pig airway nerves via indirect mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky J Proskocil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity.

  10. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio.

  11. M2C Precipitate in Isothermal Tempering of High Co-Ni Alloy Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ultra-strength alloy steel with high content of Co and Ni is typical tempering martensite steel, and the secondary hardening is accomplished by the precipitation of fine scale alloy carbides with black-white contrast until peak-hardening. The crystal structure of precipitates was well determined as M2C with hexagonal by micro-beam diffraction. Observing in HREM, M2C carbides were shown coherent with the ferrite matrix completely and have their own structure.

  12. Influence of cladding layer field of slab waveguide on M2 factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Lin(林斌); Xuejin Wen(文学金); Fuyuan Guo(郭福源)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theory of semiconductor laser pattern and the non-paraxial vectorial moment theory of lightbeam propagation, the beam quality factor M2 of TE0 propagating mode is analyzed and calculated.The result shows that when both core layer and cladding layer are considered, M2 > 1 is always obtained.Moreover, by analyzing the characteristic of real beams, this result is generalized to the multilayer isotropiclinear slab waveguides.

  13. Effect of organophosphorus insecticides on phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyin Li; Liming Zou; Carry Pope

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus insecticides may promote the accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses and the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity to cause disturbance of neural signal conduction and induce a toxic reaction. Organophosphorus insecticides may act on M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, whose combination with G proteins is regulated by phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of organophosphorus insecticides on the phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-mediated M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and to reveal other possible actions of organophosphorus insecticides.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An observational study, which was performed in the Central Laboratory of Shenyang Medical College, and Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University from June 2002 to December 2004.METHODS: The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor was extracted and purified from pig brain using affinity chromatography. Subsequently, the purified M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, and [OP32] ATP were incubated with different concentrations of paraoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon together. The mixture then underwent polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the gel film was dried and radioactively autographed to detect phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Finally, the radio-labeled phosphorylated M2 receptor protein band was excised for counting with an isotope liquid scintillation counter.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effects of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon, chlorpyrifos, and parathion in different concentrations on the phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor; effects of chlorpyrifos oxon on the phosphorylation of the adrenergic receptor.CONCLUSION: Different kinds of organophosphorus insecticides have different effects on the phosphorylation of the G protein

  14. Abundance, distribution, mobility and oligomeric state of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in live cardiac muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Nenasheva, Tatiana A.; Neary, Marianne; Gregory I. Mashanov; Birdsall, Nigel J.M.; Breckenridge, Ross A.; Molloy, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors modulate cardiac rhythm via regulation of the inward potassium current. To increase our understanding of M2 receptor physiology we used Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy to visualize individual receptors at the plasma membrane of transformed CHOM2 cells, a cardiac cell line (HL-1), primary cardiomyocytes and tissue slices from pre- and post-natal mice. Receptor expression levels between individual cells in dissociated cardiomyocytes and he...

  15. The role of exochitinase type A1 in the fungistatic activity of the rhizosphere bacterium Paenibacillus sp. M4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankiewicz Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to detect the activity and characterize potentially fungistatic chitinases synthesized by rhizosphere bacteria identified as Paenibacillus sp. M4. Maximum chitinolytic activity was achieved on the fifth day of culturing bacteria in a growth medium with 1% colloidal chitin. Analysis of a zymogram uncovered the presence of four activity bands in the crude bacterial extract. The used three-stage protein purification procedure resulted in a single band of chitinase activity on the zymogram. The purified enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 6.5 and temperature 45oC, and thermal stability at 40oC for 4 h. In terms of substrate specificity, it is an exochitinase (chitobiose. The amino acid sequence obtained after mass spectrometry showed similarity to chitinase A1 synthesized by Bacillus circulans. The M4 isolate demonstrated the highest growth inhibiting activity against plant pathogens belonging to the genera Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Alternaria. Fungistatic activity, although to a somewhat lesser degree, was also demonstrated by purified chitinase. The obtained results confirm the participation of the studied exochitinase in antagonism towards pathogenic molds. However, the lower fungistatic effectiveness of the chitinases points to the synergistic action of different metabolites in biocontrol by these bacteria.

  16. High-resolution CCD spectra of stars in globular clusters. III - M4, M13, and M22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, George; Leep, E. Myckky; Oke, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Spectra of 0.3 and 0.6 A resolution of stars in M4, M13 and M22 to derive abundances of various atomic species and the CN molecule. For M13, the usual Fe/H ratio and a surprisingly high aluminum abundance is found. The CN lines indicate a larger column density in the oxygen-rich star III-63 than in the oxygen-poor star II-67 by a factor of 10. It appears that II-67 is deficient in C, N, and O by about a factor 3 relative to iron for all three elements. For M4, Fe/H = -1.2 using solar f values derived via the Bell et al. (1976) model. This Fe abundance lies between earlier echelle values and photometric values. For two stars, CN data are obtained that can be understood if there was a slight excess of C/Fe and N/Fe prior to CN cycling and mixing. For M22, a large difference in CN is found between stars III-3 and IV-102. The origin of the CNO elements is discussed in terms of mass loss from an early generation of red giants and possibly Wolf-Rayet stars.

  17. Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase: a tumor marker and its clinical application in gastrointestinal malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Philip D; Ewald, Nils

    2008-09-01

    Proliferating cells, in particular tumor cells, express a dimeric isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase, termed Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase. In the last few years, much attention has been paid to this novel tumor marker that can be determined in EDTA-plasma and in the feces. It has been used in diagnosis and surveillance of a variety of malignant diseases. As compared with the established tumor markers, Tumor M2-PK in EDTA-plasma proves to have at least equal sensitivity in pancreatic, gastric, esophageal, colorectal and cholangiocellular cancer. In combination with established tumor markers, EDTA-plasma M2-PK is a useful tool in diagnosis and surveillance of gastrointestinal tumors. In colorectal cancer, M2-PK in EDTA-plasma even proves superiority as compared with CEA. Fecal Tumor M2-PK testing resembles a good noninvasive screening parameter for colorectal cancer with a reported sensitivity of 68.8-91.0% and a specificity of 71.9-100%. It is superior to fecal occult blood testing in colorectal cancer screening. Since it is effective, easy to handle and bears rather low costs, fecal Tumor M2-PK testing is recommended for large-scale CRC screening.

  18. Monocyte Differentiation towards Protumor Activity Does Not Correlate with M1 or M2 Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karina Chimal-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages facilitate breast cancer progression. Macrophages were initially classified as M1 or M2 based on their distinct metabolic programs and then expanded to include antitumoral (M1 and protumoral (M2 activities. However, it is still uncertain what markers define the pro- and antitumoral phenotypes and what conditions lead to their formation. In this study, monocytic cell lines and primary monocytes were subjected to commonly reported protocols of M1/M2 polarization and conditions known to engage monocytes into protumoral functions. The results showed that only IDO enzyme and CD86 M1 markers were upregulated correlating with M1 polarization. TNF-α, CCR7, IL-10, arginase I, CD36, and CD163 were expressed indistinguishably from M1 or M2 polarization. Similarly, protumoral engaging resulted in upregulation of both M1 and M2 markers, with conditioned media from the most aggressive breast cancer cell line promoting the greatest changes. In spite of the mixed phenotype, M1-polarized macrophages exhibited the highest expression/secretion of inflammatory mediators, many of which have previously been associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. These data argue that although the existence of protumoral macrophages is unquestionable, their associated phenotypes and the precise conditions driving their formation are still unclear, and those conditions may need both M1 and M2 stimuli.

  19. Reliable Reporting for Massive M2M Communications with Periodic Resource Pooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    This letter considers a wireless M2M communication scenario with a massive number of M2M devices. Each device needs to send its reports within a given deadline and with certain reliability, e.g., 99.99%. A pool of resources available to all M2M devices is periodically available for transmission....... The number of transmissions required by an M2M device within the pool is random due to two reasons - random number of arrived reports since the last reporting opportunity and requests for retransmission due to random channel errors. We show how to dimension the pool of M2M-dedicated resources in order...... to guarantee the desired reliability of the report delivery within the deadline. The fact that the pool of resources is used by a massive number of devices allows to base the dimensioning on the central limit theorem. The results are interpreted in the context of LTE, but they are applicable to any M2M...

  20. Study into the Applicability of Laser Beam Quality Factor M2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; TIAN Xiao-hong; XIN Jian-guo

    2006-01-01

    The applicable condition of single-frequency laser beam quality factor M2 is studied. Any real single-frequency laser beam can be classified as Gaussian mode and non-Gaussian mode according to the transverse field distribution. Non-Gaussian transverse field distribution can be analytically expressed as the sum of Hermite-Gaussian functions. The propagation function and M2 factor expression for non-Gaussian mode can be obtained by the second moment definition of laser beam spot. The analytical results show, the same as that of Gaussian mode, that the propagation function follows the hyperbolic law and the value of M2 factor is a constant for non-Gaussian mode. But, different non-Gaussian field distributions may have the same M2 value. That means M2 factor cannot reflect the quality of non-Gaussian laser beams correctly. We conclude that the M2 factor is applicable only to ideal Gaussian laser beam generated by stable resonators.

  1. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor (M2 plays a crucial role in the development of myopia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veluchamy A. Barathi

    2013-09-01

    Myopia is a huge public health problem worldwide, reaching the highest incidence in Asia. Identification of susceptible genes is crucial for understanding the biological basis of myopia. In this paper, we have identified and characterized a functional myopia-associated gene using a specific mouse-knockout model. Mice lacking the muscarinic cholinergic receptor gene (M2; also known as Chrm2 were less susceptible to lens-induced myopia compared with wild-type mice, which showed significantly increased axial length and vitreous chamber depth when undergoing experimental induction of myopia. The key findings of this present study are that the sclera of M2 mutant mice has higher expression of collagen type I and lower expression of collagen type V than do wild-type mice and mice that are mutant for other muscarinic subtypes, and, therefore, M2 mutant mice were resistant to the development of experimental myopia. Pharmacological blockade of M2 muscarinic receptor proteins retarded myopia progression in the mouse. These results suggest for the first time a role of M2 in growth-related changes in extracellular matrix genes during myopia development in a mammalian model. M2 receptor antagonists might thus provide a targeted therapeutic approach to the management of this refractive error.

  2. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition blocks M2 macrophage differentiation and suppresses metastasis in murine breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Rang Na

    Full Text Available Tumor cells are often associated with abundant macrophages that resemble the alternatively activated M2 subset. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and promote metastasis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibition is known to prevent breast cancer metastasis. This study hypothesized that COX-2 inhibition affects TAM characteristics potentially relevant to tumor cell metastasis. We found that the specific COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac, inhibited human M2 macrophage differentiation, as determined by decreased CD14 and CD163 expressions and increased TNFα production. Several key metastasis-related mediators, such as vascular endothelial growth factor-A, vascular endothelial growth factor-C, and matrix metalloproteinase-9, were inhibited in the presence of etodolac as compared to untreated M2 macrophages. Murine bone marrow derived M2 macrophages also showed enhanced surface MHCII IA/IE and CD80, CD86 expressions together with enhanced TNFα expressions with etodolac treatment during differentiation. Using a BALB/c breast cancer model, we found that etodolac significantly reduced lung metastasis, possibly due to macrophages expressing increased IA/IE and TNFα, but decreased M2 macrophage-related genes expressions (Ym1, TGFβ. In conclusion, COX-2 inhibition caused loss of the M2 macrophage characteristics of TAMs and may assist prevention of breast cancer metastasis.

  3. Monocyte Differentiation towards Protumor Activity Does Not Correlate with M1 or M2 Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. Karina; Espinoza-Sánchez, Nancy Adriana; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages facilitate breast cancer progression. Macrophages were initially classified as M1 or M2 based on their distinct metabolic programs and then expanded to include antitumoral (M1) and protumoral (M2) activities. However, it is still uncertain what markers define the pro- and antitumoral phenotypes and what conditions lead to their formation. In this study, monocytic cell lines and primary monocytes were subjected to commonly reported protocols of M1/M2 polarization and conditions known to engage monocytes into protumoral functions. The results showed that only IDO enzyme and CD86 M1 markers were upregulated correlating with M1 polarization. TNF-α, CCR7, IL-10, arginase I, CD36, and CD163 were expressed indistinguishably from M1 or M2 polarization. Similarly, protumoral engaging resulted in upregulation of both M1 and M2 markers, with conditioned media from the most aggressive breast cancer cell line promoting the greatest changes. In spite of the mixed phenotype, M1-polarized macrophages exhibited the highest expression/secretion of inflammatory mediators, many of which have previously been associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. These data argue that although the existence of protumoral macrophages is unquestionable, their associated phenotypes and the precise conditions driving their formation are still unclear, and those conditions may need both M1 and M2 stimuli. PMID:27376091

  4. Endogenous-Exogenous Money Supply and Trend-Stationary Process of M2——Dynamic growth path analysis of M2%货币供给内生性、外生性与M2退势平稳——M2动态增长路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟康

    2010-01-01

    本文发现M2是一个退势平稳过程,而非单位根过程.尽管M2具有较强的内生性,但同时也受外生货币政策因素冲击或影响.内生因素和外生因素共同作用使M2围绕一条稳态增长路径上下波动;并且M2偏离稳态增长路径会造成产出波动.于是本文利用2000年至2007年的M2月度数据,分别建立SARMA模型和含月度虚拟变量的组合模型,对这条动态增长路径进行拟合.利用2008年的最新数据评价模型的预测能力时,我们发现M2仍然处在这条动态增长路径上.

  5. 2014年河北涿鹿M4.3地震矩张量反演%Seismic Moment Tensor Inversion of 2014 Zhuolu M4.3 Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬圣; 李文军; 王艳荣; 贾炯; 蔡玲玲; 张从珍

    2016-01-01

    Using Three-component broadband digital waveform data from Hebei Digital Seismograph Net-work,we inversed the seismic moment tensor of Hebei Zhuolu M4.3 earthquake on September 6,2014 in time domain,obtain the optimum solution at the depth of 14km.The results show that the Variance (VR) is 92.2,the Double-couple (Pdc) value is 88,the Compensation linear vector dipole(CLVD) is 12 and the Residual/double-couple (RES/Pdc) is 9.54 × 10-12.The focal mechanism solution is of right-lateral strike-slip type which is consistent with the result from grid method.The seismogenic structure of the earth-quake is discussed combining with geological data and background tectonic of the Zhuolu area.%使用河北省遥测台网记录的三分量宽频带数字波形资料 ,在时间域反演2014年9月6日河北涿鹿 M4. 3地震的矩张量解 ,深度14 km时得到最佳解 ,Variance(VR)为92.2、Double-couple (Pdc)值为88、Compensation linear vector dipole(CLVD)值为12 ,Residual /double-couple(RES/Pdc)达到9.54 × 10-12 ,震源机制解呈右旋走滑 ,与格点尝试法计算结果一致 ,文章结合涿鹿地区的地质资料和构造背景对发震断层进行了讨论.

  6. The MHV68 M2 protein drives IL-10 dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Andrea M; Herskowitz, Jeremy H; Speck, Samuel H

    2008-04-01

    Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) establishes long-term latency in memory B cells similar to the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). EBV encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homolog and modulates cellular IL-10 expression; however, the role of IL-10 in the establishment and/or maintenance of chronic EBV infection remains unclear. Notably, MHV68 does not encode an IL-10 homolog, but virus infection has been shown to result in elevated serum IL-10 levels in wild-type mice, and IL-10 deficiency results in decreased establishment of virus latency. Here we show that a unique MHV68 latency-associated gene product, the M2 protein, is required for the elevated serum IL-10 levels observed at 2 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, M2 protein expression in primary murine B cells drives high level IL-10 expression along with increased secretion of IL-2, IL-6, and MIP-1alpha. M2 expression was also shown to significantly augment LPS driven survival and proliferation of primary murine B cells. The latter was dependent on IL-10 expression as demonstrated by the failure of IL10-/- B cells to proliferate in response to M2 protein expression and rescue of M2-associated proliferation by addition of recombinant murine IL-10. M2 protein expression in primary B cells also led to upregulated surface expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25) and the activation marker GL7, along with down-regulated surface expression of B220, MHC II, and sIgD. The cells retained CD19 and sIgG expression, suggesting differentiation to a pre-plasma memory B cell phenotype. These observations are consistent with previous analyses of M2-null MHV68 mutants that have suggested a role for the M2 protein in expansion and differentiation of MHV68 latently infected B cells-perhaps facilitating the establishment of virus latency in memory B cells. Thus, while the M2 protein is unique to MHV68, analysis of M2 function has revealed an important role for IL-10 in MHV68 pathogenesis-identifying a

  7. The MHV68 M2 protein drives IL-10 dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Siegel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 establishes long-term latency in memory B cells similar to the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein Barr Virus (EBV. EBV encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10 homolog and modulates cellular IL-10 expression; however, the role of IL-10 in the establishment and/or maintenance of chronic EBV infection remains unclear. Notably, MHV68 does not encode an IL-10 homolog, but virus infection has been shown to result in elevated serum IL-10 levels in wild-type mice, and IL-10 deficiency results in decreased establishment of virus latency. Here we show that a unique MHV68 latency-associated gene product, the M2 protein, is required for the elevated serum IL-10 levels observed at 2 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, M2 protein expression in primary murine B cells drives high level IL-10 expression along with increased secretion of IL-2, IL-6, and MIP-1alpha. M2 expression was also shown to significantly augment LPS driven survival and proliferation of primary murine B cells. The latter was dependent on IL-10 expression as demonstrated by the failure of IL10-/- B cells to proliferate in response to M2 protein expression and rescue of M2-associated proliferation by addition of recombinant murine IL-10. M2 protein expression in primary B cells also led to upregulated surface expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25 and the activation marker GL7, along with down-regulated surface expression of B220, MHC II, and sIgD. The cells retained CD19 and sIgG expression, suggesting differentiation to a pre-plasma memory B cell phenotype. These observations are consistent with previous analyses of M2-null MHV68 mutants that have suggested a role for the M2 protein in expansion and differentiation of MHV68 latently infected B cells-perhaps facilitating the establishment of virus latency in memory B cells. Thus, while the M2 protein is unique to MHV68, analysis of M2 function has revealed an important role for IL-10 in MHV68 pathogenesis

  8. THE CLUSTER AGES EXPERIMENT (CASE). V. ANALYSIS OF THREE ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J.; Rozyczka, M.; Krzeminski, W.; Pych, W. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Thompson, I. B.; Burley, G. S.; Shectman, S. A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); Dotter, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rucinski, S. M., E-mail: jka@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: mnr@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: wk@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: batka@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: pych@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: ian@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: burley@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: shec@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: aaron.dotter@gmail.com, E-mail: rucinski@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, David Dunlap Observatory, University of Toronto PO Box 360, Richmond Hill, ON L4C 4Y6 (Canada)

    2013-02-01

    We use photometric and spectroscopic observations of the eclipsing binaries V65, V66, and V69 in the field of the globular cluster M4 to derive masses, radii, and luminosities of their components. The orbital periods of these systems are 2.29, 8.11, and 48.19 days, respectively. The measured masses of the primary and secondary components (M{sub p} and M{sub s} ) are 0.8035 {+-} 0.0086 and 0.6050 {+-} 0.0044 M{sub Sun} for V65, 0.7842 {+-} 0.0045 and 0.7443 {+-} 0.0042 M{sub Sun} for V66, and 0.7665 {+-} 0.0053 and 0.7278 {+-} 0/0048 M{sub Sun} for V69. The measured radii (R{sub p} and R{sub s} ) are 1.147 {+-} 0.010 and 0.6110 {+-} 0.0092 R{sub Sun} for V66, 0.9347 {+-} 0.0048 and 0.8298 {+-} 0.0053 R{sub Sun} for V66, and 0.8655 {+-} 0.0097 and 0.8074 {+-} 0.0080 R{sub Sun} for V69. The orbits of V65 and V66 are circular, whereas that of V69 has an eccentricity of 0.38. Based on systemic velocities and relative proper motions, we show that all three systems are members of the cluster. We find that the distance to M4 is 1.82 {+-} 0.04 kpc-in good agreement with recent estimates based on entirely different methods. We compare the absolute parameters of V66 and V69 with two sets of theoretical isochrones in mass-radius and mass-luminosity diagrams, and for assumed [Fe/H] = -1.20, [{alpha}/Fe] = 0.4, and Y = 0.25 we find the most probable age of M4 to be between 11.2 and 11.3 Gyr. Color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting with the same parameters yields an age close to, or slightly in excess of, 12 Gyr. However, considering the sources of uncertainty involved in CMD fitting, these two methods of age determination are not discrepant. Age and distance determinations can be further improved when infrared eclipse photometry is obtained.

  9. Internalization and down-regulation of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes. Role of third intracellular m2 loop and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuga, H; Kameyama, K; Haga, T; Honma, T; Lameh, J; Sadée, W

    1998-02-27

    Internalization and down-regulation of human muscarinic acetylcholine m2 receptors (hm2 receptors) and a hm2 receptor mutant lacking a central part of the third intracellular loop (I3-del m2 receptor) were examined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells stably expressing these receptors and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). Agonist-induced internalization of up to 80-90% of hm2 receptors was demonstrated by measuring loss of [3H]N-methylscopolamine binding sites from the cell surface, and transfer of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites from the plasma membrane into the light-vesicle fractions separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Additionally, translocation of hm2 receptors with endocytic vesicles were visualized by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Agonist-induced down-regulation of up to 60-70% of hm2 receptors was demonstrated by determining the loss of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites in the cells. The half-time (t1/2) of internalization and down-regulation in the presence of 10(-4) M carbamylcholine was estimated to be 9.5 min and 2.3 h, respectively. The rates of both internalization and down-regulation of hm2 receptors in the presence of 10(-6) M or lower concentrations of carbamylcholine were markedly increased by coexpression of GRK2. Agonist-induced internalization of I3-del m2 receptors was barely detectable upon incubation of cells for 1 h, but agonist-induced down-regulation of up to 40-50% of I3-del m2 receptors occurred upon incubation with 10(-4) M carbamylcholine for 16 h. However, the rate of down-regulation was lower compared with wild type receptors (t1/2 = 9.9 versus 2.3 h). These results indicate that rapid internalization of hm2 receptors is facilitated by their phosphorylation with GRK2 and does not occur in the absence of the third intracellular loop, but down-regulation of hm2 receptors may occur through both GRK2-facilitating pathway and third intracellular loop-independent pathways.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide preconditioning facilitates M2 activation of resident microglia after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kentaro; Okazaki, Rentaro; Morioka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Kozo; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2014-12-01

    The inflammatory response following spinal cord injury (SCI) has both harmful and beneficial effects; however, it can be modulated for therapeutic benefit. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning, a well-established method for modifying the immune reaction, has been shown to attenuate damage induced by stroke and brain trauma in rodent models. Although such effects likely are conveyed by tissue-repairing functions of the inflammatory response, the mechanisms that control the effects have not yet been elucidated. The present study preconditioned C57BL6/J mice with 0.05 mg/kg of LPS 48 hr before inducing contusion SCI to investigate the effect of LPS preconditioning on the activation of macrophages/microglia. We found that LPS preconditioning promotes the polarization of M1/M2 macrophages/microglia toward an M2 phenotype in the injured spinal cord on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemical analyses. Flow cytometric analyses reveal that LPS preconditioning facilitates M2 activation in resident microglia but not in infiltrating macrophages. Augmented M2 activation was accompanied by vascularization around the injured lesion, resulting in improvement in both tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Furthermore, we found that M2 activation induced by LPS preconditioning is regulated by interleukin-10 gene expression, which was preceded by the transcriptional activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, as demonstrated by Western blotting and an IRF-3 binding assay. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LPS preconditioning has a therapeutic effect on SCI through the modulation of M1/M2 polarization of resident microglia. The present study suggests that controlling M1/M2 polarization through endotoxin signal transduction could become a promising therapeutic strategy for various central nervous system diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. M2 macrophages induce EMT through the TGF-β/Smad2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangying; Fu, Xiao; Chen, Xiang; Han, Xiaodong; Dong, Ping

    2017-09-01

    IPF is characterized by fibroblast accumulation, collagen deposition, and ECM remodeling, with myofibroblasts believed to be the effector cell type. Myofibroblasts develop due to EMT of lung alveolar epithelial cells, which can be induced by TGF-β. M2 macrophages, a macrophage subpopulation, secrete large amounts of TGF-β. To clarify the relationship between IPF, EMT, TGF-β, and M2 macrophages, a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model was used. Seventeen days after mice were treated with bleomycin, the successful establishment of a pulmonary fibrosis model was confirmed by HE stain and Masson's trichrome stain. We found evidence in support of EMT, such as elevated protein levels of α-SMA in lung tissue and decreased levels of E-cadherin and CK-18. Additionally, increased TGF-β levels and TGF-β/Smad2 signaling activation was observed. Macrophages were recruited to pulmonary alveoli. Alveolar macrophages were phenotyped and identified as M2 macrophages, with up-regulated CD206 on the cell surfaces. For in vitro studies, we treated RAW 264.7 cells with IL-4 for 24 h, and the cells were then utilized as M2 macrophages. TGF-β levels increased significantly in the culture supernatant. Forty-eight hours after lung epithelial cells (MLE-12) were co-cultured with the M2 macrophages, the expression of α-SMA increased, and E-cadherin and CK-18 decreased. When a TGF-β receptor inhibitor, LY2109761 was used, the EMT induced by M2 macrophages was blocked. In conclusion, we demonstrated that M2 macrophages induce EMT through the TGF-β/Smad2 signaling pathway. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  12. Granulocytic Sarcoma by AML M4eo (inv16 after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation without Bone Marrow Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Zaenker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma (GS represents a rare type of extramedullar manifestation from the acute myeloid leukaemia (AML. We report the case of a patient with recurrences of AML M4eo leukaemia in the uterus and the small intestine at 3 and 5 years, respectively, after matched related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT. The patient underwent the withdrawal of immunosuppression, hysterectomy, and local irradiation at first relapse, as well as systemic chemotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusions at second recurrence, inducing a second and third complete remission, respectively. At year six after transplantation, the patient experienced disease progression by meningeosis leukaemia to which she succumbed despite intrathecal chemotherapy. Following allogeneic stem cell transplantation, awareness for atypical manifestations of granulocytic sarcoma appears prudent, the cellular immunotherapy should aim at immunological disease control.

  13. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects......, stereotypies and arousal as well as apomorphine-induced stereotypies and arousal in drug-naive Cebus apella monkeys. Xanomeline did not induce EPS but vomiting occurred in some monkeys at high doses, in accordance with emetic events observed in Alzheimer patients following xanomeline administration. Even when...... that xanomeline inhibits D-amphetamine- and (-)-apomorphine-induced behavior in Cebus apella monkeys at doses that do not cause EPS. These data further substantiate that muscarinic receptor agonists may be useful in the pharmacological treatment of psychosis....

  14. Lithium abundance in the globular cluster M4: from the turn-off to the red giant branch bump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Salaris, M.; Lovisi, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Lucatello, S.; Gratton, R. G.

    2011-03-01

    We present Li and Fe abundances for 87 stars in the globular cluster M4, obtained by using high-resolution spectra collected with GIRAFFE at the Very Large Telescope. The targets range from the turn-off up to the red giant branch bump. The Li abundance in the turn-off stars is uniform, with an average value equal to A(Li)= 2.30 ± 0.02 dex (σ= 0.10 dex), consistent with the upper envelope of Li content measured in other globular clusters and in the halo field stars, confirming also for M4 the discrepancy with the primordial Li abundance predicted by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe+ big bang nucleosynthesis (WMAP+BBNS). The global behaviour of A(Li) as a function of the effective temperature allows us to identify the two main drops in the Li evolution due to the first dredge-up and to the extra-mixing episode after the red giant branch bump. The measured iron content of M4 results to [Fe/H]=-1.10 ± 0.01 dex (σ= 0.07 dex), with no systematic offsets between dwarf and giant stars. The behaviour of the Li and Fe abundances along the entire evolutionary path is incompatible with theoretical models including pure atomic diffusion, pointing out that an additional turbulent mixing below the convective region needs to be taken into account, able to inhibit the atomic diffusion. The measured value of A(Li) and its homogeneity in the turn-off stars allow us to put strong constraints on the shape of the Li profile inside the M4 turn-off stars. The global behaviour of A(Li) with the effective temperature can be reproduced with different pristine Li abundances, depending on the kind of adopted turbulent mixing. One cannot reproduce the global trend that starts from the WMAP+BBNS A(Li) and adopts the turbulent mixing described by Richard, Michaud & Richer with the same efficiency as that used by Korn et al. to explain the Li content in NGC 6397. In fact, such a solution is not able to well reproduce simultaneously the Li abundance observed in turn-off and red giant branch

  15. 英特尔蓝图大曝光 65纳米赛扬M 4XX系列

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    英特尔目前正准备发布主频为233GHz的Core Duo芯片T2700,其产品路线图包括速度更快的Core Solo芯片,快速低压的Core Duos和超低压Core Duo芯片,后者的主频为1.06GHz代号为U2500。此外,赛扬(Celoron)M 4XX也被纳入了英特尔最新的产品路线圈,这是一款从65纳米制程的Core Solo肃离下来的单核产品。

  16. Observations of the Ultraviolet-bright Star Y453 in the Globular Cluster M4 (NGC 6121)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William V.; Chayer, Pierre; Latour, Marilyn; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo Miguel; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2017-09-01

    We present a spectral analysis of the UV-bright star Y453 in M4. Model fits to the star’s optical spectrum yield {T}{eff} ∼ 56,000 K. Fits to the star’s FUV spectrum, obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal it to be considerably hotter, with {T}{eff} ∼ 72,000 K. We adopt {T}{eff} = 72,000 ± 2000 K and {log}g = 5.7 ± 0.2 as our best-fit parameters. Scaling the model spectrum to match the star’s optical and near-infrared magnitudes, we derive a mass {M}* =0.53+/- 0.24 {M}ȯ and luminosity {log}L/{L}ȯ =2.84+/- 0.05, consistent with the values expected of an evolved star in a globular cluster. Comparing the star with post-horizontal-branch evolutionary tracks, we conclude that it most likely evolved from the blue horizontal branch, departing the asymptotic giant branch before third dredge-up. It should thus exhibit the abundance pattern (O-poor and Na-rich) characteristic of the second-generation (SG) stars in M4. We derive the star’s photospheric abundances of He, C, N, O, Si, S, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni. CNO abundances are roughly 0.25 dex greater than those of the cluster’s SG stars, while the Si and S abundances match the cluster values. Abundances of the iron-peak elements (except for iron itself) are enhanced by 1–3 dex. Rather than revealing the star’s origin and evolution, this pattern reflects the combined effects of diffusive and mechanical processes in the stellar atmosphere.

  17. Tumor type M2 pyruvate kinase expression in gastric cancer,colorectal cancer and controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhang; Jian-Ying Chen; Dao-Da Chen; Guo-Bin Wang; Ping Shen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Tumor formation is generally linked to an expansion of glycolytic phosphometabolite pools and aerobic glycolytic flux rates. To achieve this, tumor cells generally overexpress a special glycolytic isoenzyme, termed pyruvate kinase type M2. The present study was designed to evaluate the use of a new tumor marker, tumor M2-PK, in discriminating gastrointestinal cancer patients from healthy controls, and to compare with the reference tumor markers CEA and CA72-4.METHODS: The concentration of tumor M2-PK in body fluids could be quantitatively determined by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-kit (ScheBo(R) Tech, Giessen, Germany). By using this kit, the tumor M2-PK concentration was measured in EDTA-plasma of 108 patients. For the healthy blood donors a cut-off value of 15 U/mL was evaluated, which corresponded to 90% specificity. Overall 108 patients were included in this study, 54 patients had a histological confirmed gastric cancer, 54 patients colorectal cancer, and 20 healthy volunteers served as controls.RESULTS: The cut-off value to discriminate patients from controls was established at 15 U/mL for tumor M2-PK. The mean tumor M2-PK concentration of gastric cancer was 26.937 U/mL. According to the TNM stage system, the mean tumor M2-PK concentration of stage Ⅰ was 16.324 U/mL, of stage Ⅱ 15.290 U/mL, of stage Ⅲ 30.289 U/mL, of stage Ⅳ127.31 U/mL, of non-metastasis 12.854 U/mL and of metastasis 35.711 U/mL. The mean Tumor M2-PK concentration of colorectal cancer was 30.588 U/mL. According to the Dukes stage system, the mean tumor M2-PK concentration of Dukes A was 16.638 U/mL, of Dukes B 22.070 U/mL, and of Dukes C 48.024 U/mL, of non-metastasis 19.501 U/mL, of metastasis 49.437 U/mL. The mean tumor M2-PK concentration allowed a significant discrimination of colorectal cancers (30.588 U/mL) from controls (10.965 U/mL) (P<0.01), and gastric cancer (26.937 U/mL) from controls (10.965 U/mL)(P<0.05). The overall

  18. Technological Transformation Practice of 105 m2 Sintering Machine%105 m2烧结机技术改造实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玮

    2015-01-01

    山钢股份莱芜分公司炼铁厂对3台105 m2烧结机进行了一系列技术改造,包括烧结熔剂破碎工艺优化,配料自动化控制系统改造,混合料温度提升,混合机筒体衬板及安装改造,烧结机漏风治理,单辊篦板保护帽改造等。改造后,烧结机作业率98.02%,烧结矿合格率98.19%,产量355.9万t。%A series of technological transformation for three 105 m2 sintering machines in Laiwu branch iron works has been made. That include to optimize sintering flux crushing process and transform automatic batching control, increase the temperature of mixture, reform of mixing machine barrel lining board and installation, control the air leakage of sinter, transform the single and grate plate protective cap. The sintering machine operating rate reached 98.02%, sinter and the qualified rate can reach 98.19%, sinter yield reached 355.9 million tons.

  19. 羊八井50m2 RPC地毯性能研究%Study on the Performance of YBJ 50m2 RPC Carpet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    利用羊八井50m2 RPC地毯(YBJ-ARGO实验原型)的测试数据对其性能进行了分析研究,包括原初粒子方位角分布、天顶角分布、地毯的角分辨、探测时间系统误差对方位角分布的正弦调制、探测时间系统误差的离线修正、几何不对称的小型地毯探测器上原初粒子到达方向重建误差造成的方位角分布的不均匀性等.%The characteristics of a 50m2 RPC carpet(prototype of YBJ-ARGO experiment)was analyzed using its test run data.A correction method of the systematic time error is suggested,and non-uniform azimuthal angle distribution possibly due to direction reconstruction error on an asymmetric carpet is reported.

  20. Dynamic Changes of Microglia/Macrophage M1 and M2 Polarization in Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Vanessa; Iskandar, Cut Dahlia; Kegler, Kristel; Hansmann, Florian; Elmarabet, Suliman Ahmed; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner; Beineke, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Microglia and macrophages play a central role for demyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) virus infection, a commonly used infectious model for chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to determine the dynamic changes of microglia/macrophage polarization in TME, the spinal cord of Swiss Jim Lambert (SJL) mice was investigated by gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence. Virus persistence and demyelinating leukomyelitis were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and histology. Electron microscopy revealed continuous myelin loss together with abortive myelin repair during the late chronic infection phase indicative of incomplete remyelination. A total of 59 genes out of 151 M1- and M2-related genes were differentially expressed in TME virus-infected mice over the study period. The onset of virus-induced demyelination was associated with a dominating M1 polarization, while mounting M2 polarization of macrophages/microglia together with sustained prominent M1-related gene expression was present during the chronic-progressive phase. Molecular results were confirmed by immunofluorescence, showing an increased spinal cord accumulation of CD16/32(+) M1-, arginase-1(+) M2- and Ym1(+) M2-type cells associated with progressive demyelination. The present study provides a comprehensive database of M1-/M2-related gene expression involved in the initiation and progression of demyelination supporting the hypothesis that perpetuating interaction between virus and macrophages/microglia induces a vicious circle with persistent inflammation and impaired myelin repair in TME.

  1. Beam quality M 2 factor matrix for non-circular symmetric laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yongzhao; Fu, Yuqing; Zheng, Chaoying

    2017-02-01

    It is standard to use Mx2 and My2 to characterize the beam quality of a non-circular symmetrical beam on its x-axis and y-axis orientation. However, we knew that the values of Mx2 and My2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this, a new beam quality characterization method, the M 2 factor matrix, is developed. It not only contains the beam quality terms, Mx2 and My2 , to characterize the beam quality along x-axis and y-axis orientation for the non-symmetric beam, but also introduces two additional cross terms, M xy and M yx , which are used to characterize the location relationship between the principal axis of the test beam and coordinate system in experiment. Moreover, M 2 factor matrix can be measured with a similar procedure to the traditional M 2 factor whose measurement instructions are described in ISO11146 by adding some additional image and signal processing procedure. The measurement principle and method is present and the experiment system for beam quality M 2 factor matrix is built to demonstrate the performance of M 2 factor matrix with real experiments.

  2. Differential Roles of M1 and M2 Microglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu; Le, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    One of the most striking hallmarks shared by various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Increasing evidence indicates that microglial activation in the central nervous system is heterogeneous, which can be categorized into two opposite types: M1 phenotype and M2 phenotype. Depending on the phenotypes activated, microglia can produce either cytotoxic or neuroprotective effects. In this review, we focus on the potential role of M1 and M2 microglia and the dynamic changes of M1/M2 phenotypes that are critically associated with the neurodegenerative diseases. Generally, M1 microglia predominate at the injury site at the end stage of disease, when the immunoresolution and repair process of M2 microglia are dampened. This phenotype transformation is very complicated in AD due to the phagocytosis of regionally distributed β-amyloid (Aβ) plaque and tangles that are released into the extracellular space. The endogenous stimuli including aggregated α-synuclein, mutated superoxide dismutase, Aβ, and tau oligomers exist in the milieu that may persistently activate M1 pro-inflammatory responses and finally lead to irreversible neuron loss. The changes of microglial phenotypes depend on the disease stages and severity; mastering the stage-specific switching of M1/M2 phenotypes within appropriate time windows may provide better therapeutic benefit.

  3. Large-Scale Mini-Magnetosphere Plasma Propulsion (M2P2) Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Slough, J.; Ziemba, T.; Euripides, P.; Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D.; Craven, P.; Tomlinson, W.; Cravens, J.; Burch, J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Mini-Magnetosphere Plasma Propulsion (M2P2) is an innovative plasma propulsion system that has the potential to propel spacecraft at unprecedented speeds of 50 to 80 km per second with a low-power requirement of approx. 1 kW per 100 kg of payload and approx. 1 kg of neutral gas [fuel] consumption per day of acceleration. Acceleration periods from several days to a few months are envisioned. High specific impulse and efficiency are achieved through coupling of the spacecraft to the 400 km per second solar wind through an artificial magnetosphere. The mini-magnetosphere or inflated magnetic bubble is produced by the injection of cold dense plasma into a spacecraft-generated magnetic field envelope. Magnetic bubble inflation is driven by electromagnetic processes thereby avoiding the material and deployment problems faced by mechanical solar sail designs, Here, we present the theoretical design of M2P2 as well as initial results from experimental testing of an M2P2 prototype demonstrating: 1) inflation of the dipole magnetic field geometry through the internal injection of cold plasma; and 2) deflection of and artificial solar wind by the prototype M2P2 system. In addition, we present plans for direct laboratory measurement of thrust imparted to a prototype M2P2 by an artificial solar wind during the summer of 2001.

  4. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of M2 internal tides in the Luzon Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bingtian; CAO Anzhou; LV Xianqing

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional isopycnic-coordinate internal tidal model is employed to investigate the generation, propagation, vertical structure and energy conversion of M2 internal tides in the Luzon Strait (LS) with mooring observations. Simulated results, especially the tidal current amplitudes, agree well with observations, demonstrating the reasonability and accuracy of the model. Results indicate that M2 internal tides mainly propagate into three directions horizontally, i.e., eastward towards the western Pacific Ocean, westward towards the Dongsha Island and southwestward towards the South China Sea Basin. In the horizontal direction, tidal current amplitudes decrease as distance increases away from the LS; in the vertical direction, they show an obvious decreasing tendency with depth. Between the double ridges of the LS, a clockwise gyre of M2 baroclinic energy flux appears, which is caused by reflections of M2 internal tides at supercritical topographies, and resonance of M2 internal tides happens along 19.5° and 21.5°N due to the heights and separation distance of the double ridges. The total energy conversion in the LS is about 14.20 GW.

  5. Estimates of global M2 internal tide energy fluxes using TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanwei; LIANG Xinfeng; TIAN Jiwei; YANG Lifen

    2009-01-01

    TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data from October 1992 to June 2002 are used to calculate the global barotropic M2 tidal currents using long-term tidal harmonic analysis. The tides calculated agree well with ADCP data obtained from the South China Sea (SCS). The maximum tide velocities along the semi-major axis and semi-minor axis can be computed from the tidal ellipse. The global distribution of M2 internal tide vertical energy flux from the sea bottom is calculated based on a linear internal wave generation model. The global vertical energy flux of M2 internal tide is 0.96 TW, with 0.36 TW in the Pacific, 0.31 TW in the Atlantic and 0.29 TW in the Indian Ocean, obtained in this study. The total horizontal energy flux of M2 internal tide radiating into the open ocean from the lateral boundaries is 0.13 TW, with 0.06 TW in the Pacific, 0.04TW in the Atlantic, and 0.03 TW in the Indian Ocean. The result shows that the principal lunar semi-diurnal tide M2 provides enough energy to maintain the large-scale thermohaline circulation of the ocean.

  6. Dynamic Environmental/Economic Scheduling for Microgrid Using Improved MOEA/D-M2M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental/economic dynamic scheduling for microgrids (MGs is a complex multiobjective optimization problem, which usually has dynamic system parameters and constraints. In this paper, a biobjective optimization model of MG scheduling is established. And various types of microsources (like the conventional sources, various types of renewable sources, etc., electricity markets, and dynamic constraints are considered. A recently proposed MOEA/D-M2M framework is improved (I-MOEA/D-M2M to solve the real-world MG scheduling problems. In order to deal with the constraints, the processes of solutions sorting and selecting in the original MOEA/D-M2M are revised. In addition, a self-adaptive decomposition strategy and a modified allocation method of individuals are introduced to enhance the capability of dealing with uncertainties, as well as reduce unnecessary computational work in practice and meet the time requirements for the dynamic optimization tasks. Thereafter, the proposed I-MOEA/D-M2M is applied to the independent MG scheduling problems, taking into account the load demand variation and the electricity price changes. The simulation results by MATLAB show that the proposed method can achieve better distributed fronts in much less running time than the typical multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs like the improved strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2 and the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII. Finally, I-MOEA/D-M2M is used to solve a 24-hour MG dynamic operation scheduling problem and obtains satisfactory results.

  7. Structural environment built by AKAP12+ colon mesenchymal cells drives M2 macrophages during inflammation recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Hye Shin; Seo, Ji Hae; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Gelman, Irwin H.; Lo, Eng H.; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages exhibit phenotypic plasticity, as they have the ability to switch their functional phenotypes during inflammation and recovery. Simultaneously, the mechanical environment actively changes. However, how these dynamic alterations affect the macrophage phenotype is unknown. Here, we observed that the extracellular matrix (ECM) constructed by AKAP12+ colon mesenchymal cells (CMCs) generated M2 macrophages by regulating their shape during recovery. Notably, rounded macrophages were present in the linear and loose ECM of inflamed colons and polarized to the M1 phenotype. In contrast, ramified macrophages emerged in the contracted ECM of recovering colons and mainly expressed M2 macrophage markers. These contracted structures were not observed in the inflamed colons of AKAP12 knockout (KO) mice. Consequently, the proportion of M2 macrophages in inflamed colons was lower in AKAP12 KO mice than in WT mice. In addition, clinical symptoms and histological damage were more severe in AKAP12 KO mice than in WT mice. In experimentally remodeled collagen gels, WT CMCs drove the formation of a more compacted structure than AKAP12 KO CMCs, which promoted the polarization of macrophages toward an M2 phenotype. These results demonstrated that tissue contraction during recovery provides macrophages with the physical cues that drive M2 polarization. PMID:28205544

  8. Wireless Access Control with Smart Antenna for M2M Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Bandai, Masaki; Watanabe, Takashi

    Machine to machine (M2M) is a promising technology to achieve an ubiquitous environment by uniting machines and machines over the Internet. The network used for M2M consists of core network and access network. This paper discusses effective controls of the wireless access network for M2M. Among typical examples of the wireless access network for M2M is a wireless sensor network (WSN). WSN for M2M may require energy efficiency, high reliability and throughput. For these requirements, in this paper, we propose a scheme to build a hierarchical sensor network using smart antenna. The proposed scheme uses omni-directional antennas together with smart antennas. Since smart antennas can extend communications distance, the proposed scheme enables reduction of number of hops to reduce the traffic load on relay nodes. As a result, the energy consumption, data collection ratio and throughput can be improved. We implement the proposed scheme on a real testbed. The testbed uses UNAGI as smart antenna nodes and Mica Mote as sensor nodes. In addition to the fundamental evaluation on the testbed, we simulate large-scale sensor networks. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical sensor network with smart antennas.

  9. Modelling packing interactions in parallel helix bundles: pentameric bundles of nicotinic receptor M2 helices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararamakrishnan, R; Sansom, M S

    1995-11-01

    The transbilayer pore of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is formed by a pentameric bundle of M2 helices. Models of pentameric bundles of M2 helices have been generated using simulated annealing via restrained molecular dynamics. The influence of: (a) the initial C alpha template; and (b) screening of sidechain electrostatic interactions on the geometry of the resultant M2 helix bundles is explored. Parallel M2 helices, in the absence of sidechain electrostatic interactions, pack in accordance with simple ridges-in-grooves considerations. This results in a helix crossing angle of ca. +12 degrees, corresponding to a left-handed coiled coil structure for the bundle as a whole. Tilting of M2 helices away from the central pore axis at their C-termini and/or inclusion of sidechain electrostatic interactions may perturb such ridges-in-grooves packing. In the most extreme cases right-handed coiled coils are formed. An interplay between inter-helix H-bonding and helix bundle geometry is revealed. The effects of changes in electrostatic screening on the dimensions of the pore mouth are described and the significance of these changes in the context of models for the nAChR pore domain is discussed.

  10. The challenges of M2M massive access in wireless cellular networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Biral

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The next generation of communication systems, which is commonly referred to as 5G, is expected to support, besides the traditional voice and data services, new communication paradigms, such as Internet of Things (IoT and Machine-to-Machine (M2M services, which involve communication between Machine-Type Devices (MTDs in a fully automated fashion, thus, without or with minimal human intervention. Although the general requirements of 5G systems are progressively taking shape, the technological issues raised by such a vision are still partially unclear. Nonetheless, general consensus has been reached upon some specific challenges, such as the need for 5G wireless access networks to support massive access by MTDs, as a consequence of the proliferation of M2M services. In this paper, we describe the main challenges raised by the M2M vision, focusing in particular on the problems related to the support of massive MTD access in current cellular communication systems. Then we analyze the most common approaches proposed in the literature to enable the coexistence of conventional and M2M services in the current and next generation of cellular wireless systems. We finally conclude by pointing out the research challenges that require further investigation in order to provide full support to the M2M paradigm.

  11. Prophylactic and therapeutic activity of fully human monoclonal antibodies directed against Influenza A M2 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwerder Myriam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Influenza virus infection is a prevalent disease in humans. Antibodies against hemagglutinin have been shown to prevent infection and hence hemagglutinin is the major constituent of current vaccines. Antibodies directed against the highly conserved extracellular domain of M2 have also been shown to mediate protection against Influenza A infection in various animal models. Active vaccination is generally considered the best approach to combat viral diseases. However, passive immunization is an attractive alternative, particularly in acutely exposed or immune compromized individuals, young children and the elderly. We recently described a novel method for the rapid isolation of natural human antibodies by mammalian cell display. Here we used this approach to isolate human monoclonal antibodies directed against the highly conserved extracellular domain of the Influenza A M2 protein. The identified antibodies bound M2 peptide with high affinities, recognized native cell-surface expressed M2 and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, therapeutic treatment up to 2 days after infection was effective, suggesting that M2-specific monoclonals have a great potential as immunotherapeutic agents against Influenza infection.

  12. Magnetic and electronic transport properties of the monophosphate tungsten bronze (PO 2) 4(WO 3) 2 m, m = 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teweldemedhin, Z. S.; Ramanujachary, K. V.; Greenblatt, M.

    1991-11-01

    Large plate-like dark-brown crystals of monophosphate tungsten bronze (PO 2) 4(WO 3) 2 m, m = 2 or PWO 5 were prepared by reacting stoichiometric mixtures of P 2O 5, WO 3, and W at 1200°C. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity along each of the three unique crystallographic axes of a single crystal shows semiconducting behavior down to 50 K with an activation energy of ˜0.084 eV. The room temperature resistivitity along the direction of corner sharing WO 6 octahedra is 5 × 10 -3 Ω · cm and about one to two orders of magnitude lower than along other unique directions, which implies quasi one-dimensional behavior. The magnetization study made on a batch of crystals in the temperature range of 2 to 300 K is indicative of antiferromagnetic ordering with a maximum at 15 K. An earlier theoretical study on the band electronic structure of (PO 2) 4(WO 3) 4 predicted both localized and delocalized electrons in narrow and dispersive bands, respectively. The observed magnetic moment of PWO 5 is consistent with the theoretical prediction, but the observed semiconductivity behavior is not. The difference in the observed electronic transport properties of PWO 5 from that of theoretically predicted behavior, as well as the anomalous magnetic and transport properties compared to the higher members of the series of the monophosphate tungsten bronzes {(PO 2) 4(WO 3) 2 m, m = 4, 6}, is discussed in terms of the unique structure of PWO 5.

  13. M2-KK6 System in ABJM Theory : Fuzzy $S^3$ and Wrapped KK6

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wung-Hong

    2011-01-01

    We study the properties of M2-KK6 solution in ABJM membrane theory. First, we find a new kind of BPS solution which has six coordinates, contrasts to our previous solutions which have four coordinates. Next, we argue that, after wrapping 2 sphere the new solution may correspond to the previous solution of four coordinates. We analyze the properties therein and conclude that M2-branes described in ABJM theory could expand into fuzzy three sphere plus a wrapped 2 sphere near the KK6 core. Especially, we show in detail how the fuzzy 3-sphere could arise in these solutions and discuss the property of wrapped KK6 and its relation to M5-brane. We also analyze the fluctuation of the M2-KK6 solution and see that it is U(1) field theory.

  14. Holographic cosmology from a system of M2–M5 branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.sepehri@uk.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Setare, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir [Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: afali@fsu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we analyze the holographic cosmology using a M2–M5 brane configuration. In this configuration, a M2-brane will be placed in between a M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane. The M2-brane will act as a channel for energy to flow from an anti-M5-brane to a M5-brane, and this will increase the degrees of freedom on the M5-brane causing inflation. The inflation will end when the M5-brane and anti-M5-brane get separated. However, at a later stage the distance between the M5-brane and the anti-M5-bran can reduce and this will cause the formation of tachyonic states. These tachyonic states will again open a bridge between the M5-branes and the anti-M5-branes, which will cause further acceleration of the universe.

  15. A Novel Voltage Sensor in the Orthosteric Binding Site of the M2 Muscarinic Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchad-Avitzur, Ofra; Priest, Michael F; Dekel, Noa; Bezanilla, Francisco; Parnas, Hanna; Ben-Chaim, Yair

    2016-10-04

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate many signal transduction processes in the body. The discovery that these receptors are voltage-sensitive has changed our understanding of their behavior. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2R) was found to exhibit depolarization-induced charge movement-associated currents, implying that this prototypical GPCR possesses a voltage sensor. However, the typical domain that serves as a voltage sensor in voltage-gated channels is not present in GPCRs, making the search for the voltage sensor in the latter challenging. Here, we examine the M2R and describe a voltage sensor that is comprised of tyrosine residues. This voltage sensor is crucial for the voltage dependence of agonist binding to the receptor. The tyrosine-based voltage sensor discovered here constitutes a noncanonical by which membrane proteins may sense voltage.

  16. Aggregation and Trunking of M2M Traffic via D2D Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigazzi, Giovanni; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    , there is a need for new techniques to coordinate the access and allocate the resources. Although the majority of the proposed solutions are focused on the adaptation of the traditional cellular networks to the M2M traffic patterns, novel approaches based on the direct communication among nearby devices may......Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications is one of the key enablers of the Internet of Things (IoT). Billions of devices are expected to be deployed in the near future for novel M2M applications demanding ubiquitous access and global connectivity. In order to cope with the massive number of machines...... generated packets is performed by a user device, which aggregates the machine-type data, supplements it with its own data and transmits all of them to the Base Station. We observe a fundamental trade-off between latency and the transmit power needed to deliver the aggregate traffic, in a sense that lower...

  17. Holographic cosmology from a system of M2-M5 branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Faizal, Mir; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the holographic cosmology using a M2-M5 brane configuration. In this configuration, a M2-brane will be placed in between a M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane. The M2-brane will act as a channel for energy to flow from an anti-M5-brane to a M5-brane, and this will increase the degrees of freedom on the M5-brane causing inflation. The inflation will end when the M5-brane and anti-M5-brane get separated. However, at a later stage the distance between the M5-brane and the anti-M5-bran can reduce and this will cause the formation of tachyonic states. These tachyonic states will again open a bridge between the M5-branes and the anti-M5-branes, which will cause further acceleration of the universe.

  18. Structure of the atypical bacteriocin pectocin M2 implies a novel mechanism of protein uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Zeth, Kornelius; Roszak, Aleksander W; McCaughey, Laura C; Cogdell, Richard J; Milner, Joel J; Kelly, Sharon M; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    The colicin-like bacteriocins are potent protein antibiotics that have evolved to efficiently cross the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria by parasitizing nutrient uptake systems. We have structurally characterized the colicin M-like bacteriocin, pectocin M2, which is active against strains of Pectobacterium spp. This unusual bacteriocin lacks the intrinsically unstructured translocation domain that usually mediates translocation of these bacteriocins across the outer membrane, containing only a single globular ferredoxin domain connected to its cytotoxic domain by a flexible α-helix, which allows it to adopt two distinct conformations in solution. The ferredoxin domain of pectocin M2 is homologous to plant ferredoxins and allows pectocin M2 to parasitize a system utilized by Pectobacterium to obtain iron during infection of plants. Furthermore, we identify a novel ferredoxin-containing bacteriocin pectocin P, which possesses a cytotoxic domain homologous to lysozyme, illustrating that the ferredoxin domain acts as a generic delivery module for cytotoxic domains in Pectobacterium.

  19. Water-mediated conformational transitions in nicotinic receptor M2 helix bundles: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararamakrishnan, R; Sansom, M S

    1995-12-27

    The ion channel of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a water-filled pore formed by five M2 helix segments, one from each subunit. Molecular dynamics simulations on bundles of five M2 alpha 7 helices surrounding a central column of water and with caps of water molecules at either end of the pore have been used to explore the effects of intrapore water on helix packing. Interactions of water molecules with the N-terminal polar sidechains lead to a conformational transition from right- to left-handed supercoils during these stimulations. These studies reveal that the pore formed by the bundle of M2 helices is flexible. A structural role is proposed for water molecules in determining the geometry of bundles of isolated pore-forming helices.

  20. Quantification and localization of M2 macrophages in human kidneys with acute tubular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer MB

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Matthew B Palmer,1 Alfred A Vichot,2 Lloyd G Cantley,2 Gilbert W Moeckel1 1Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: This study addresses for the first time the question whether there is significant macrophage population in human kidney sections from patients with acute tubular injury (ATI. We examined therefore the interstitial macrophage population in human kidney tissue with biopsy-proven diagnosis of ATI, minimal change disease (MCD, and MCD with ATI. Kidney biopsies from patients with the above diagnoses were stained with antibodies directed against CD68 (general macrophage marker, CD163 (M2 marker, and HLA-DR (M1 marker and their respective electron microscopy samples were evaluated for the presence of interstitial macrophages. Our study shows that patients with ATI have significantly increased numbers of interstitial CD68+ macrophages, with an increase in both HLA-DR+ M1 macrophages and CD163+ M2 macrophages as compared to patients with MCD alone. Approximately 75% of macrophages were M2 (CD163+ whereas only 25% were M1 (HLA-DR+. M2 macrophages, which are believed to be critical for wound healing, were found to localize close to the tubular basement membrane of injured proximal tubule cells. Ultra structural examination showed close adherence of macrophages to the basement membrane of injured tubular epithelial cells. We conclude that macrophages accumulate around injured tubules following ATI and exhibit predominantly an M2 phenotype. We further speculate that macrophage-mediated repair may involve physical contact between the M2 macrophage and the injured tubular epithelial cell. Keywords: macrophages, acute kidney injury, CD163, HLA-DR, CD68, electron microscopy

  1. Functional analysis of the stress-inducible soybean calmodulin isoform-4 (GmCaM-4) promoter in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Man Lyang; Kang, Yun Hwan; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Cheong, Mi Sun; Choi, Wonkyun; Lee, Sang Yeol; Cho, Moo Je; Kim, Min Chul; Chung, Woo Sik; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2009-04-30

    The transcription of soybean (Glycine max) calmodulin isoform-4 (GmCaM-4) is dramatically induced within 0.5 h of exposure to pathogen or NaCl. Core cis-acting elements that regulate the expression of the GmCaM-4 gene in response to pathogen and salt stress were previously identified, between -1,207 and -1,128 bp, and between -858 and -728 bp, in the GmCaM-4 promoter. Here, we characterized the properties of the DNA-binding complexes that form at the two core cis-acting elements of the GmCaM-4 promoter in pathogen-treated nuclear extracts. We generated GUS reporter constructs harboring various deletions of approximately 1.3-kb GmCaM-4 promoter, and analyzed GUS expression in tobacco plants transformed with these constructs. The GUS expression analysis suggested that the two previously identified core regions are involved in inducing GmCaM-4 expression in the heterologous system. Finally, a transient expression assay of Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that the GmCaM-4 promoter produced greater levels of GUS activity than did the CaMV35S promoter after pathogen or NaCl treatments, suggesting that the GmCaM-4 promoter may be useful in the production of conditional gene expression systems.

  2. Interaction of Tacrine at M1 and M2 Cholinoceptors in Guinea Pig Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    using the selective M, and M2 antagonists [3H]- pirenzepine ([3H]PZ) and [3H]AF-DX 384. The dissocia- tion constants were 0.36 nmol/I for the M...nmol/I) at 25*C with 200 ml homogenate made nist [3H]- pirenzepine ([3HJPZ) [4, 5] and the up to 2 ml with buffer. The incubation period was 2 h...tion constant; nH = Hill coefficient; n = number of experiments. pirenzepine indicate that its affinity for the T"M. 2. Dissociation constants for [3H

  3. CEMS-investigations of AISI M2 steel after nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uglov, V.V. E-mail: info@research.bsu.unibel.by; Kholmetskii, A.L.; Kuleshov, A.K.; Fedotova, J.A.; Rusalsky, D.P.; Khodasevich, V.V.; Ruebenbauer, K.; Richter, E.; Guenzel, R.; Parascandola, S

    1999-01-02

    Plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII) and high-current ion implantation (HCII) of nitrogen into M2 steel were carried out. The formation of a multilayer system consisting of a surface layer of austenite on top of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N nitride precipitates was manifested in M2 steel after PIII. HCII forms a thick (more than 14 {mu}m) layer with {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N precipitates. Apparently, the formation of the austenite layer after PIII is connected with a local tempering of the steel surface by the pulsed nitrogen ion beam.

  4. Spontaneous thermal motion of the GABA(A) receptor M2 channel-lining segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Amal K; Akabas, Myles H

    2005-10-21

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor channel opening involves translational and rotational motions of the five channel-lining, M2 transmembrane segments. The M2 segment's extracellular half is loosely packed and undergoes significant thermal motion. To characterize the extent of the M2 segment's motion, we used disulfide trapping experiments between pairs of engineered cysteines. In alpha1beta1 gamma2S receptors the single gamma subunit is flanked by an alpha and beta subunit. The gamma2 M2-14' position is located in the alpha-gamma subunit interface. Gamma2 13' faces the channel lumen. We expressed either the gamma2 14' or the gamma2 13' cysteine substitution mutants with alpha1 cysteine substitution mutants between 12' and 16' and wild-type beta1. Disulfide bonds formed spontaneously between gamma2 14'C and both alpha1 15'C and alpha1 16'C and also between gamma2 13'C and alpha1 13'C. Oxidation by copper phenanthroline induced disulfide bond formation between gamma2 14'C and alpha1 13'C. Disulfide bond formation rates with gamma2 14'C were similar in the presence and absence of GABA, although the rate with alpha1 13'C was slower than with the other two positions. In a homology model based on the acetylcholine receptor structure, alphaM2 would need to rotate in opposite directions by approximately 80 degrees to bring alpha1 13' and alpha1 15' into close proximity with gamma2 14'. Alternatively, translational motion of alphaM2 would reduce the extent of rotational motion necessary to bring these two alpha subunit residues into close proximity with the gamma2 14' position. These experiments demonstrate that in the closed state the M2 segments undergo continuous spontaneous motion in the region near the extracellular end of the channel gate. Opening the gate may involve similar but concerted motions of the M2 segments.

  5. Spontaneous mobility of GABAA receptor M2 extracellular half relative to noncompetitive antagonist action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ligong; Durkin, Kathleen A; Casida, John E

    2006-12-15

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor beta(3) homopentamer is spontaneously open and highly sensitive to many noncompetitive antagonists(NCAs) and Zn(2+). Our earlier study of the M2 cytoplasmic half (-1' to 10') established a model in which NCAs bind at pore-lining residues Ala(2)', Thr(6)', and Leu(9)'. To further define transmembrane 2 (M2) structure relative to NCA action, we extended the Cys scanning to the extra cellular half of the beta(3) homopentamer (11' to 20'). Spontaneous disulfides formed with T13'C, L18'C, and E20'C from M2/M2 cross-linking and with I14'C (weak), H17'C, and R19'Con bridging M2/M3 intersubunits, based on single (M2 Cys only) and dual (M2 Cys plus M3 C289S) mutations. Induced disulfides also formed with T16'C, but there were few or none with M11'C, T12'C, and N15'C. These findings show conformational flexibility/mobility in the M2 extracellular half 17' to 20' region interpreted as a deformed beta-like conformation in the open channel. The NCA radioligands used were [(3)H]1-(4-ethynylphenyl)-4-n-propyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane ([(3)H]EBOB) and [(3)H]3,3-bis-trifluoromethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,2-dicarbonitrile with essentially the same results. NCA binding was disrupted by individual Cys substitutions at 13',14',16',17', and 19'. The inactivity of T13'C/T13'S may have been due to disturbance of the channel gate; I14'S and T16'S showed much better binding activity than their Cys counterparts, and the low activities of H17'C and R19'C were reversed by dithiothreitol. Zn(2+) potency for inhibition of [(3)H]EBOB binding was lowered 346-fold by the mutation H17'A. We propose that NCAs enter their binding site both directly, through the channel pore, and indirectly, through the water cavity of adjacent subunits.

  6. 广雅SUNDAY三期7500元/m2起发售

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷

    2008-01-01

    本报讯 6月22日,SUNDAY三期发售,此前已有近300名买家进行购买登记,而发展商把300多套货量一并推出,以最低价格7000元/m2,最高也不超过1万元/m2的诱人价格,且发售当天买家可享受95折优惠。

  7. M2M monitoring terminal based on Cortex-M3%基于Cortex-M3的M2M监控终端

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 丁志刚; 郑树泉

    2011-01-01

    在对物联网在工业监控领域的应用研究后,针对目前工业监控终端体积大、容量小、功能简单等问题,设计并实现了一种微型化、大容量、强实时、多参数的M2M监控终端.该终端设计了基本的监控模块,且针对不同的应用环境预设了可配和选择模块,使适用范围更广.实现了网络动态配置接口,提高了终端的通用性.并借鉴传统数据采集模式,设计一种数据采集和数据传输优化方案,并对优化算法进行探讨,经应用结果分析,对系统开销、数据传输等指标有显著的改进.%After research of the application of Internet of Things (IOT) in industrial control field, according to the monitoring terminal problems that large volume, low-capacity and simple function, a miniaturized, high-capacity, strong realtime, multi-parameter M2M monitoring terminal was designed and implemented. The terminal designed a basic control module, and the default for different applications and options that could be equipped with modules and applied more broadly. It achieved dynamic configuration of network interfaces and improved the versatility of the terminal. Learning from the traditional mode of data acquisition, the paper devised a prioritization scheme of data acquisition and data transmission, and discussed optimization algorithm. The results of applications show that it is a noticeable improvement in the index of system overhead and data transmission.

  8. M2-F1 in flight over lakebed on tow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Following the first M2-F1 airtow flight on 16 August 1963, the Flight Research Center used the vehicle for both research flights and to check out new lifting-body pilots. These included Bruce Peterson, Don Mallick, Fred Haise, and Bill Dana from NASA. Air Force pilots who flew the M2-F1 included Chuck Yeager, Jerry Gentry, Joe Engle, Jim Wood, and Don Sorlie, although Wood, Haise, and Engle only flew on car tows. In the three years between the first and last flights of the M2-F1, it made about 400 car tows and 77 air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and

  9. Spectroscopy and Photometry of Multiple Populations along the Asymptotic Giant Branch of NGC 2808 and NGC 6121 (M4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P.; Yong, D.; Da Costa, G.; Asplund, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Jerjen, H.; Nardiello, D.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.; Shetrone, M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of multiple populations along the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) of the intermediate-metallicity globular clusters (GCs) NGC 2808 and NGC 6121 (M4). Chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, and Ce in AGB stars from high-resolution FLAMES+UVES@VLT spectra are reported for both clusters. Our spectroscopic results have been combined with multiwavelength photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope UV survey of Galactic GCs and ground-based photometry, as well as proper motions derived by combining stellar positions from ground-based images and Gaia DR1. Our analysis reveals that the AGBs of both clusters host multiple populations with different chemical compositions. In M4, we have identified two main populations of stars with different Na/O content lying on distinct AGBs in the {m}{{F}438{{W}}} versus {C}{{F}275{{W}},{{F}}336{{W}},{{F}}438{{W}}} and the V versus {C}{{U},{{B}},{{I}}} pseudo-color-magnitude diagrams. In the more massive and complex GC NGC 2808, three groups of stars with different chemical abundances occupy different locations on the so-called “chromosome map” photometric diagram constructed for AGB stars. The spectroscopic + photometric comparison of stellar populations along the AGB and the red giants of this GC suggests that the AGB hosts stellar populations with a range in helium abundances from primordial to high contents of Y˜ 0.32. By contrast, from our data set, there is no evidence for stars with extreme helium abundance (Y˜ 0.38) on the AGB, suggesting that the most He-rich stars of NGC 2808 do not reach this phase. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programs 093.D-0789 and 094.D-0455 and on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  10. Recent Development of QCD Factorization for B-> M1 M2

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Deshan

    2010-01-01

    After briefly introducing the framework of QCD factorization for B-> M1 M2 in the language of the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, we firstly address the recent efforts on higher-order radiative corrections in QCD factorization. Then we discuss some phenomenologies in B-> V V within the framework of QCD factorization.

  11. Kinetics of proton transport into influenza virions by the viral M2 channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Ivanovic

    Full Text Available M2 protein of influenza A viruses is a tetrameric transmembrane proton channel, which has essential functions both early and late in the virus infectious cycle. Previous studies of proton transport by M2 have been limited to measurements outside the context of the virus particle. We have developed an in vitro fluorescence-based assay to monitor internal acidification of individual virions triggered to undergo membrane fusion. We show that rimantadine, an inhibitor of M2 proton conductance, blocks the acidification-dependent dissipation of fluorescence from a pH-sensitive virus-content probe. Fusion-pore formation usually follows internal acidification but does not require it. The rate of internal virion acidification increases with external proton concentration and saturates with a pK(m of ∼4.7. The rate of proton transport through a single, fully protonated M2 channel is approximately 100 to 400 protons per second. The saturating proton-concentration dependence and the low rate of internal virion acidification derived from authentic virions support a transporter model for the mechanism of proton transfer.

  12. Tramadol differentially regulates M1 and M2 macrophages from human umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Liang; Sun, Yunyun; Li, Yuanhai

    2017-03-17

    Tramadol is an analgesic drug and relieves pain through activating μ-opioid receptors and inhibiting serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake. Emerging evidence shows that it also stimulates immune cells, including NK cells, splenocytes, and lymphocytes, and elevates IL-2 production. However, it remains unknown whether and how tramadol directly affects macrophages. To answer these questions, we collected human umbilical cord blood, isolated macrophages, and examined their responses to tramadol. Although tramadol did not alter resting macrophages and the antigen-presenting function in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, it regulated M1 and M2 macrophages, which are, respectively, transformed by IFN-γ and IL-4. Interestingly, tramadol inhibits production and secretion of cytokines in M1 macrophages, but facilitates the production of inflammation-responding molecules, synthesized in M2 macrophages. We also found that STAT6 cascade pathway in M2 macrophages was significantly enhanced by tramadol. Therefore, this study reveals that tramadol regulates inflammation by inhibiting M1 macrophages (killing process), but promoting the function of M2 macrophages (healing process).

  13. Embryonic stem cell-derived M2-like macrophages delay cutaneous wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreymueller, Daniela; Denecke, Bernd; Ludwig, Andreas; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2013-01-01

    In adults, repair of deeply injured skin wounds results in the formation of scar tissue, whereas in embryos wounds heal almost scar-free. Macrophages are important mediators of wound healing and secrete cytokines and tissue remodeling enzymes. In contrast to host defense mediated by inflammatory M1 macrophages, wound healing and tissue repair involve regulatory M2/M2-like macrophages. Embryonic/fetal macrophages are M2-like, and this may promote scar-free wound healing. In the present study, we asked whether atopical application of ex vivo generated, embryonic stem cell-derived macrophages (ESDM) improve wound healing in mice. ESDM were tested side by side with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Compared to BMDM, ESDM resembled a less inflammatory and more M2-like macrophage subtype as indicated by their reduced responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide, reduced expression of Toll-like receptors, and reduced bacterial phagocytosis. Despite this anti-inflammatory phenotype in cell culture, ESDM prolonged the healing of deep skin wounds even more than BMDM. Healed wounds had more scar formation compared to wounds receiving BMDM or cell-free treatment. Our data indicate that atopical application of ex vivo generated macrophages is not a suitable cell therapy of dermal wounds.

  14. NO EVIDENCE FOR A ROLE OF MUSCARINIC M(2) RECEPTORS IN FUNCTIONAL ANTAGONISM IN BOVINE TRACHEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; MEURS, H; ELZINGA, CRS; ZAAGSMA, J

    1 The functional antagonism between methacholine- or histamine-induced contraction and beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation was evaluated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle in vitro. In addition, the putative contribution of muscarinic M(2) receptors mediating inhibition of beta-adrenoceptor-induced

  15. Solidification microstructure of M2 high speed steel by different casting technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xuefeng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the solidification microstructure of AISI M2 high speed steel manufactured by different casting technologies, namely iron mould casting and continuous casting. The results revealed that the as-cast structure of the steel was composed of the iron matrix and the M2C eutectic carbide networks, which were greatly refined in the ingot made by continuous casting process, compared with that by the iron mould casting process. M2C eutectic carbides presented variation in their morphologies and growth characteristics in the ingots by both casting methods. In the ingot by iron mould casting, they have a plate-like morphology and grow anisotropically. However, in the ingot made by continuous casting, the carbides evolved into the fiber-like shape that exhibited little characteristics of anisotropic growth. It was noticed that the fiber-like M2C was much easier to decompose and spheroidize after heated, as a result, the carbides refined remarkably, compared with the case of plate-like carbides in the iron mould casting ingot.

  16. Modifications to 25m2 target-aligned research Heliostat mirror panels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roos, TH

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Several heliostat mirror panels of the CSIR 25m2 target-aligned heliostat suffered corrosion-related failure, prompting a panel redesign. Two test samples of the new design were subjected to mechanical and thermal cycling tests in an attempt...

  17. Molecular mechanisms that regulate the macrophage M1/M2 polarization balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan eWang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As an essential component of innate immunity, macrophages have multiple functions in both inhibiting or promoting cell proliferation and tissue repair. Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of macrophages. Classical M1 and alternative M2 activation of macrophages, mirroring the Th1–Th2 polarization of T cells, represent two extremes of a dynamic changing state of macrophage activation. M1-type macrophages release cytokines that inhibit the proliferation of surrounding cells and damage contiguous tissue, and M2-type macrophages release cytokines that promote the proliferation of contiguous cells and tissue repair. M1-M2 polarization of macrophage is a tightly controlled process entailing a set of signaling pathways, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory networks. An imbalance of macrophage M1-M2 polarization is often associated with various diseases or inflammatory conditions. Therefore identification of the molecules associated with the dynamic changes of macrophage polarization and understanding their interactions is crucial for elucidating the molecular basis of disease progression and designing novel macrophage-mediated therapeutic strategies.

  18. LTE-advanced random access mechanism for M2M communication: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Rashid; Sarowa, Sandeep; Jaglan, Reena Rathee; Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Agrawal, Sunil

    2016-03-01

    Machine Type Communications (MTC) enables one or more self-sufficient machines to communicate directly with one another without human interference. MTC applications include smart grid, security, e-Health and intelligent automation system. To support huge numbers of MTC devices, one of the challenging issues is to provide a competent way for numerous access in the network and to minimize network overload. In this article, the different control mechanisms for overload random access are reviewed to avoid congestion caused by random access channel (RACH) of MTC devices. However, past and present wireless technologies have been engineered for Human-to-Human (H2H) communications, in particular, for transmission of voice. Consequently the Long Term Evolution (LTE) -Advanced is expected to play a central role in communicating Machine to Machine (M2M) and are very optimistic about H2H communications. Distinct and unique characteristics of M2M communications create new challenges from those in H2H communications. In this article, we investigate the impact of massive M2M terminals attempting random access to LTE-Advanced all at once. We discuss and review the solutions to alleviate the overload problem by Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). As a result, we evaluate and compare these solutions that can effectively eliminate the congestion on the random access channel for M2M communications without affecting H2H communications.

  19. Chlorogenic acid inhibits glioblastoma growth through repolarizating macrophage from M2 to M1 phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Nina; Zhou, Qin; Ji, Ming; Jin, Jing; Lai, Fangfang; Chen, Ju; Zhang, Mengtian; Jia, Jing; Yang, Huarong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Wenbin; Jiang, Jiandong; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive tumor that is associated with distinctive infiltrating microglia/macrophages populations. Previous studies demonstrated that chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, CHA), a phenolic compound with low molecular weight, has an anti-tumor effect in multiple malignant tumors. In the present study, we focused on the macrophage polarization to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-glioma response of CHA in vitro and in vivo. We found that CHA treatment increased the expression of M1 markers induced by LPS/IFNγ, including iNOS, MHC II (I-A/I-E subregions) and CD11c, and reduced the expression of M2 markers Arg and CD206 induced by IL-4, resulting in promoting the production of apoptotic-like cancer cells and inhibiting the growth of tumor cells by co-culture experiments. The activations of STAT1 and STAT6, which are two crucial signaling events in M1 and M2-polarization, were significantly promoted and suppressed by CHA in macrophages, respectively. Furthermore, In G422 xenograft mice, CHA increased the proportion of CD11c-positive M1 macrophages and decreased the distribution of CD206-positive M2 macrophages in tumor tissue, consistent with the reduction of tumor weight observed in CHA-treated mice. Overall these findings indicated CHA as a potential therapeutic approach to reduce glioma growth through promoting M1-polarized macrophage and inhibiting M2 phenotypic macrophage. PMID:28045028

  20. Comparison of Plasma Tu-M2-PK and CA19-9 in Pancreatic Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Maiken Thyregod; Heegaard, Niels H H; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2009-01-01

    because of suspicion of pancreatic cancer. Of these, 51 patients had their conditions diagnosed as PDAC, whereas this diagnosis was ruled out in 52 after 12 months of follow-up. The performance of Tu-M2-PK was compared with that of CA19-9 using cutoff values 15 and 37 U/mL, respectively. RESULTS...

  1. Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Zhang, Cheng; Weis, William I.; Okada, Tetsuji; Kobilka, Brian K.; Haga, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Takuya (Stanford-MED); (Kyoto); (Gakushuin); (Kyushu)

    2012-03-15

    The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular function through activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structure of the antagonist-bound human M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally, to our knowledge. The antagonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation.

  2. Experimental Conditions: SE37_S16_M2_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opes SE37_S16 Blank (80% methanol) SE37_S16_M2 0mg [MassBase ID] MDLC1_43485 SE37_MS1 Metabolites extraction... with 80% methanol and analysis by LC-Orbitrap-MS SE37_DS1 Peak extraction for unlabeled data ...

  3. Serine is a natural ligand and allosteric activator of pyruvate kinase M2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaneton, Barbara; Hillmann, Petra; Zheng, Liang; Martin, Agnes C. L.; Maddocks, Oliver D. K.; Chokkathukalam, Achuthanunni; Coyle, Joseph E.; Jankevics, Andris; Holding, Finn P.; Vousden, Karen H.; Frezza, Christian; O'Reilly, Marc; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit several unique metabolic phenotypes that are critical for cell growth and proliferation(1). Specifically, they overexpress the M2 isoform of the tightly regulated enzyme pyruvate kinase (PKM2), which controls glycolytic flux, and are highly dependent on de novo biosynthesis of s

  4. Massive M2M Access with Reliability Guarantees in LTE Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2015-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are one of the major drivers of the cellular network evolution towards 5G systems. One of the key challenges is on how to provide reliability guarantees to each accessing device in a situation in which there is a massive number of almost-simultaneous arrivals...

  5. Medroxyprogesterone acetate drives M2 macrophage differentiation toward a phenotype of decidual macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Tseng, Joseph T; Wang, Chia-Yih; Su, Mei-Tsz; Huang, Jyun-Yuan; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2017-09-05

    M1 macrophage differentiation plays a crucial role in enhanced inflammation during pregnancy, which may lead to pregnancy complications. Therefore, modulation of macrophage differentiation toward the M2 phenotype is desirable to ensure a successful pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is a potent progestin with an anti-inflammatory property, but its effect on macrophage differentiation is unknown. This study aimed to examine whether MPA can induce an M2 macrophage differentiation by using the human monocytes cell line THP-1 or primary monocytes. THP-1 cells were primed with phorbol-12-myristate-13 acetate (PMA) to initiate macrophage differentiation. By incubating with MPA, the cells (denoted as MPA-pTHP-1) underwent M2 macrophage differentiation with downregulations of CD11c, IL-1β and TNF-α, and upregulations of CD163 and IL-10; while cells incubated with progesterone (P4) did not show the M2 phenotype. Primary monocytes treated with MPA also had the same M2 phenotype. Moreover, M1 macrophages derived from IFN-γ/LPS-treated THP-1 cells, which had high levels of IL-1b and iNOS, and low levels of IL-10 and IDO, were reversed to the M2 phenotype by the MPA treatment. We also found that the MPA-pTHP-1 promoted the decidualization of endometrial stromal cells and the invasion of trophoblast cells. To mimic conditions of exposure to various pathogens, MPA-pTHP-1 cells were stimulated by different types of TLR ligands. We found they produced lower levels of IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as a higher level of IL-10, compared to untreated cells. Finally, we found the level of phosphorylated ERK in the MPA-pTHP-1 cells was increased, but its IL-10 production was suppressed by either the progesterone/glucocorticoid antagonist (Mifepristone) or MEK inhibitor (U0126). Taken together, MPA could drive monocyte differentiation toward an M2 phenotype that mimics decidual macrophages. This finding holds great potential to combat chronic endometrial inflammation

  6. The M 4 Core Project with HST - V. Characterizing the PSFs of WFC3/UVIS by focus★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Bedin, L. R.

    2017-09-01

    As part of the astrometric Hubble Space Telescope (HST) large program GO-12911, we conduct an in-depth study to characterize the point spread function (PSF) of the Uv-VISual channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), as a necessary step to achieve the astrometric goals of the program. We extracted a PSF from each of the 589 deep exposures taken through the F467M filter over the course of a year and find that the vast majority of the PSFs lie along a 1-D locus that stretches continuously from one side of focus, through optimal focus, to the other side of focus. We constructed a focus-diverse set of PSFs and find that with only five medium-bright stars in an exposure it is possible to pin down the focus level of that exposure. We show that the focus-optimized PSF does a considerably better job fitting stars than the average 'library' PSF, especially when the PSF is out of focus. The fluxes and positions are significantly improved over the 'library' PSF treatment. These results are beneficial for a much broader range of scientific applications than simply the program at hand, but the immediate use of these PSFs will enable us to search for astrometric wobble in the bright stars in the core of the globular cluster M 4, which would indicate a dark, high-mass companion, such as a white dwarf, neutron star or black hole.

  7. Kepler Flares. IV. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Activity of the dM4e Star GJ 1243

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Steven M.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Davenport, James R. A.; Wisniewski, John P.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hilton, Eric J.

    2016-10-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the active dM4e star GJ 1243. We use previous observations and ground-based echelle spectroscopy to determine that GJ 1243 is a member of the Argus association of field stars, suggesting it is ∼ 30{--}50 {{Myr}} old. We analyze 11 months of 1 minute cadence data from Kepler, presenting Kepler flare frequency distributions, as well as determining correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time. We find that the exponent α of the power-law flare energy distribution varies in time, primarily due to completeness of sample and the low frequency of high-energy flares. We also find a deviation from a single power law at high energy. We use ground-based spectroscopic observations that were simultaneous with the Kepler data to provide simultaneous photometric and spectroscopic analysis of three low-energy flares, the lowest-energy dMe flares with detailed spectral analysis to date on any star. The spectroscopic data from these flares extend constraints for radiative hydrodynamic flare models to a lower energy regime than has previously been studied. We use this simultaneous spectroscopy and Kepler photometry to develop approximate conversions from the Kepler bandpass to the traditional U and B bands. This conversion will be a critical factor in comparing any Kepler flare analyses to the canon of previous ground-based flare studies.

  8. The M4 Core Project with HST - IV. Internal Kinematics from Accurate Radial Velocities of 2771 Cluster Members

    CERN Document Server

    Malavolta, L; Bedin, L R; Sneden, C; Nascimbeni, V; Sommariva, V

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the internal kinematics of the Galactic Globular Cluster M 4 (NGC 6121), by deriving the radial velocities from 7250 spectra for 2771 stars distributed from the upper part of the Red Giant Branch down to the Main Sequence. We describe new approaches to determine the wavelength solution from day-time calibrations and to determine the radial velocity drifts that can occur between calibration and science observations when observing with the GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. Two techniques to determine the radial velocity are compared, after a qualitative description of their advantages with respect to other commonly used algorithm, and a new approach to remove the sky contribution from the spectra obtained with fibre-fed spectrograph and further improve the radial velocity precision is presented. The average radial velocity of the cluster is $\\langle v \\rangle = 71.08 \\pm 0.08$ km s$^{-1}$ with an average dispersion of $\\mu_{v_c} = 3.97$ km s$^{-1}$. Using the same dataset and the same ...

  9. Kepler Flares IV: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Activity of the dM4e Star GJ 1243

    CERN Document Server

    Silverberg, Steven M; Davenport, James R A; Wisniewski, John P; Hawley, Suzanne L; Hilton, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the active dM4e star GJ 1243. We use previous observations and ground-based echelle spectroscopy to determine that GJ 1243 is a member of the Argus association of field stars, suggesting it is $\\sim 30-50$ Myr old. We analyze eleven months of 1-minute cadence data from Kepler, presenting Kepler flare frequency distributions, as well as determining correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time. We find that the exponent $\\alpha$ of the power-law flare energy distribution varies in time, primarily due to completeness of sample and the low frequency of high-energy flares. We also find a deviation from a single power law at high energy. We use ground-based spectroscopic observations simultaneous with the Kepler data to provide simultaneous photometric and spectroscopic analysis of three low-energy flares, the lowest-energy dMe flares with detailed spectral analysis to date on any star. The spectroscopic data from these flares extend constraints for radi...

  10. Synthesis, structure and properties of {M4O4} cubanes containing nickel(II) and cobalt(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isele, Katharina; Gigon, Fabienne; Williams, Alan F; Bernardinelli, Gérald; Franz, Patrick; Decurtins, Silvio

    2007-01-21

    A survey of the crystal structures containing simple {M4O4} cubane units is reported. It shows that the average M-M distance in these complexes is relatively constant for a given metal ion M. The structures are all distorted from the idealised cube to a T(d) structure, and most show a further distortion which, however, usually maintains some elements of symmetry. A system for classifying the different types of ligand in these complexes is proposed. Two new cubanes of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) with the ligand (R,R)-bis-1,2-(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)ethane-1,2-diol, (R,R)- or its enantiomer have been isolated and the crystal structure of the cobalt(II) complex confirms the cubane structure. Electronic, CD and (1)H NMR spectra and magnetic susceptibility data are reported. The magnetic data for these and other compounds in the literature are discussed in terms of the structural parameters.

  11. Chemotherapy toxicity in gynecologic cancer patients with a body surface area (BSA)>2 m2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joanna; Toste, Beth; Dizon, Don S

    2009-07-01

    Although many clinicians practice empiric dose reduction to prevent toxicity, it is unknown whether obese patients given chemotherapy dosed according to actual body weight (ABW) experience excess toxicity. At our institution, cancer patients receive chemotherapy dosed by ABW unless on a protocol capping doses at a maximum body surface area (BSA). We compared toxicities and dose modifications between women with a BSA>2 m(2) on uncapped versus capped paclitaxel as part of adjuvant paclitaxel/carboplatin for gynecologic malignancy. In this retrospective study, women with a BSA>2 m(2) treated with paclitaxel (P) and carboplatin (C) for endometrial and ovarian cancer between January 1999 and July 2007 were identified using the chemotherapy database. Records were reviewed for patient age, BSA, diagnosis, stage, standardized and actual doses for each cycle, adverse drug reactions, and dosing modifications. Statistical comparisons were made using Fisher's exact test. We identified 59 women with BSA>2 m(2) on adjuvant P/C for endometrial and ovarian cancers. 50 received paclitaxel dosed by ABW and 9 received paclitaxel capped at a BSA of 2 m(2). There were no statistically significant differences in rates of toxicity or dose modification. Obese women with a BSA>2 m(2) on paclitaxel dosed by ABW do not experience excess toxicity in comparison to women on paclitaxel capped at a maximum BSA or women in published trials of adjuvant P/C. Empiric dose reduction is unnecessary and may result in suboptimal treatment of obese patients. However, as this was a retrospective review, more research is needed to make definitive recommendations on this topic.

  12. Viral M2 ion channel protein: a promising target for anti-influenza drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, N S Hari Narayana; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Pratheepa, V

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus is an important RNA virus causing pandemics (Spanish Flu (1918), Asian Flu (1957), Hong Kong Flu (1968) and Swine Flu (2009)) over the last decades. Due to the spontaneous mutations of these viral proteins, currently available antiviral and anti-influenza drugs quickly develop resistance. To account this, only limited antiinfluenza drugs have been approved for the therapeutic use. These include amantadine and rimantadine (M2 proton channel blockers), zanamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir (neuraminidase inhibitors), favipravir (polymerase inhibitor) and laninamivir. This review provides an outline on the strategies to develop novel, potent chemotherapeutic agents against M2 proton channel. Primarily, the M2 proton channel blockers elicit pharmacological activity through destabilizing the helices by blocking the proton transport across the transmembrane. The biologically important compounds discovered using the scaffolds such as bisnoradmantane, noradamantane, triazine, spiroadamantane, isoxazole, amino alcohol, azaspiro, spirene, pinanamine, etc are reported to exhibit anti-influenza activity against wild or mutant type (S31N and V27A) of M2 proton channel protein. The reported studies explained that the adamantane based compounds (amantadine and rimantadine) strongly interact with His37 (through hydrogen bonding) and Ala30, Ile33 and Gly34 residues (hydrophobic interactions). The adamantane and the non-adamantane scaffolds fit perfectly in the active site pocket present in the wild type and the charged amino groups (ammonium) create positive electrostatic potential, which blocks the transport of protons across the pore. In the mutated proteins, larger or smaller binding pocket are created by small or large mutant residues, which do not allow the molecules fit in the active site. This causes the channel to be unblocked and the protons are allowed to transfer inside the pore. The structural analysis of the M2 proton channel blockers illustrated that

  13. Study on phylogenetic relationships, variability, and correlated mutations in M2 proteins of influenza virus A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly Le

    Full Text Available M2 channel, an influenza virus transmembrane protein, serves as an important target for antiviral drug design. There are still discordances concerning the role of some residues involved in proton transfer as well as the mechanism of inhibition by commercial drugs. The viral M2 proteins show high conservativity; about 3/4 of the positions are occupied by one residue in over 95%. Nine M2 proteins from the H3N2 strain and possibly two proteins from H2N2 strains make a phylogenic cluster closely related to 2RLF. The variability range is limited to 4 residues/position with one exception. The 2RLF protein stands out by the presence of 2 serines at the positions 19 and 50, which are in most other M2 proteins occupied by cysteines. The study of correlated mutations shows that there are several positions with significant mutational correlation that have not been described so far as functionally important. That there are 5 more residues potentially involved in the M2 mechanism of action. The original software used in this work (Consensus Constructor, SSSSg, Corm, Talana is freely accessible as stand-alone offline applications upon request to the authors. The other software used in this work is freely available online for noncommercial purposes at public services on bioinformatics such as ExPASy or NCBI. The study on mutational variability, evolutionary relationship, and correlated mutation presented in this paper is a potential way to explain more completely the role of significant factors in proton channel action and to clarify the inhibition mechanism by specific drugs.

  14. Dietary oleic acid increases m2 macrophages in the mesenteric adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Camell

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and leukocytes. In mice, short term high-fat feeding increases adipose tissue (AT leukocytes and alters the inflammatory profile of AT macrophages. We have seen that short term high fat feeding to C57BL/6J male mice increases palmitic and oleic acid within AT depots, but oleic acid increase is highest in the mesenteric AT (MAT. In vitro, oleic acid increases M2 macrophage markers (CD206, MGL1, and ARG1 in a murine macrophage cell line, while addition of palmitic acid is able to inhibit that increase. Three day supplementation of a chow diet, with oleic acid, induced an increase in M2 macrophage markers in the MAT, but not in the epididymal AT. We tested whether increases in M2 macrophages occur during short term ad lib feeding of a high fat diet, containing oleic acid. Experiments revealed two distinct populations of macrophages were altered by a three day high milk-fat diet. One population, phenotypically intermediate for F4/80, showed diet-induced increases in CD206, an anti-inflammatory marker characteristic of M2 macrophages intrinsic to the AT. Evidence for a second population, phenotypically F4/80(HICD11b(HI macrophages, showed increased association with the MAT following short term feeding that is dependent on the adhesion molecule, ICAM-1. Collectively, we have shown that short term feeding of a high-fat diet changes two population of macrophages, and that dietary oleic acid is responsible for increases in M2 macrophage polarization.

  15. M2-F1 in flight during low-speed car tow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 shown in flight during a low-speed car tow runs across the lakebed. Such tests allowed about two minutes to test the vehicle's handling in flight. NASA Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center) personnel conducted as many as 8 to 14 ground-tow flights in a single day either to test the vehicle in preparation for air tows or to train pilots to fly the vehicle before they undertook air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30

  16. Discovery and SAR of a novel series of potent, CNS penetrant M4 PAMs based on a non-enolizable ketone core: Challenges in disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Tarr, James C; Rodriguez, Alice L; Lamsal, Atin; Chang, Sichen; Foster, Jarrett J; Smith, Emery; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter S; Engers, Darren W; Niswender, Colleen M; Brandon, Nicholas J; Wood, Michael W; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-09-01

    This Letter describes the chemical optimization of a novel series of M4 PAMs based on a non-enolizable ketone core, identified from an MLPCN functional high-throughput screen. The HTS hit was potent, selective and CNS penetrant; however, the compound was highly cleared in vitro and in vivo. SAR provided analogs for which M4 PAM potency and CNS exposure were maintained; yet, clearance remained high. Metabolite identification studies demonstrated that this series was subject to rapid, and near quantitative, reductive metabolism to the corresponding secondary alcohol metabolite that was devoid of M4 PAM activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  18. Macrophage polarisation: an immunohistochemical approach for identifying M1 and M2 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique M Barros

    Full Text Available Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn's disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a

  19. Potent neutralization of influenza A virus by a single-domain antibody blocking M2 ion channel protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Wei

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus poses serious health threat to humans. Neutralizing antibodies against the highly conserved M2 ion channel is thought to offer broad protection against influenza A viruses. Here, we screened synthetic Camel single-domain antibody (VHH libraries against native M2 ion channel protein. One of the isolated VHHs, M2-7A, specifically bound to M2-expressed cell membrane as well as influenza A virion, inhibited replication of both amantadine-sensitive and resistant influenza A viruses in vitro, and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, M2-7A showed blocking activity for proton influx through M2 ion channel. These pieces of evidence collectively demonstrate for the first time that a neutralizing antibody against M2 with broad specificity is achievable, and M2-7A may have potential for cross protection against a number of variants and subtypes of influenza A viruses.

  20. Comprehensive photometric study of an extremely low mass ratio deep contact binary in the globular cluster M 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Hu, Shaoming; Chen, Xu; Guo, Difu

    2017-10-01

    A comprehensive photometric study and an investigation of the orbital period variation of V53 in the globular cluster M 4 are presented. The photometric study reveals that the mass ratio and the contact degree of V53 are q ˜ 0.078 and f ˜ 69%, respectively. The observed variation in the light curve can be explained by adjusting the spot parameters. V53 belongs to extreme mass ratio (q ≤ 0.25), deep contact (f ≥ 50%) binaries, and its mass ratio is close to the minimum mass ratio predicted by theoretical studies, making it a potential object for studying the evolution of binaries and the formation of blue stragglers and FK Com-type stars. The orbital period of V53 shows a long-term decrease at a rate of dp/dt = 5.89(±0.02) × 10-8 d yr-1. This secular period decrease may be caused by the combination of mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive component and an angular momentum loss via magnetic braking. As this mass transfer and angular momentum loss continues, V53 will ultimately evolve into a single fast-rotation star. By studying the statistics of all the contact binaries in globular clusters that have been analyzed, we found a possible correlation between the contact degree and whether or not a contact binary is a blue straggler. A contact binary is likely to become a blue straggler when its fill-out factor is more than 46.25(±2.05)%. More samples should be introduced to confirm this preliminary result in the future.

  1. Retinoic acid prevents virus-induced airway hyperreactivity and M2 receptor dysfunction via anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Verbout, Norah G.; Fryer, Allison D.; Jacoby, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors on airway parasympathetic nerves normally limit acetylcholine release. Viral infections decrease M2 receptor function, increasing vagally mediated bronchoconstriction. Since retinoic acid deficiency causes M2 receptor dysfunction, we tested whether retinoic acid would prevent virus-induced airway hyperreactivity and prevent M2 receptor dysfunction. Guinea pigs infected with parainfluenza virus were hyperreactive to electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves,...

  2. A Novel MLC Scheme with M2-QAM Constellations over AWGN and Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANDongfeng; ZHANGPeng; WayneE.Stark

    2003-01-01

    Optimal multilevel codes (MLC) with M2-QAM constellations are considered with focus on both AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels. With the proposition of three new set partitioning rules for M2-QAM constellations, a novel simplified MLC scheme with a very simple MSD (Multistage decoding) structure comes into being, which is operated on the capacity rule. Compared with traditional MLC/MSD scheme the new MLC/MSD structure greatly reduces the calculation of the individual capacities in MLC system because the new set partitioning rules ensure the independency of two dimensions symbols. Furthermore the new MLC/MSD system cannot enhance any performance loss and the time delay is just 1/2 of that with traditional partitioning rules. As an example 64-QAM constellation with three new set partitioning rules are provided. Their performance is simulated over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels by choosing BCH codes as the component codes.

  3. Characterization of M2X formed during 5 MeV Fe2+ irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Was, G. S.

    2017-03-01

    The growth of M2X phase in HT9 irradiated to high dpa was explored using self-ion irradiation. HT9 was pre-implanted with 10 appm He and irradiated with a raster-scanned Fe2+ beam with a damage rate of ∼1 × 10-3 dpa/s at 460 °C. The precipitation of M2X was observed and a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and diffraction analysis was used to characterize the Cr-rich carbide observed at 250 dpa and above. Cr2C was determined to be semi-coherent with the matrix such that [ 100 ] Cr2 C / /[100]α and [ 001 ] Cr2 C / /[ 10 1 bar ] α .with a = 2.71 Å and c = 2.82 Å.

  4. Foton-M2 Russian/US Biology Experiments - Development, Implementation, and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, Eugene A.; Tairbekov, Murad G.; Vasques, Marilyn F.; Skidmore, Michael G.

    2006-01-01

    The Russian Foton-M2 unmanned research satellite launched from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on May 31, 2005. The satellite was recovered 16 days later in northern Kazakhstan near Kustanay. Prior to this mission, the long history of joint NASA/IMBP research using Russian unmanned spacecraft was in danger of withering due to inactivity. This cooperative history included 9 Bion Russian spaceflights in the period from 1975 to 1997 where NASA had participated first as a guest and finally as a contractual partner. In an effort to reinvigorate this long-standing collaboration, the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IMBP) invited NASA participation in Russian experiments that had been manifested to fly on the Foton-M2 mission.

  5. The Mont Blanc mystery solved? A $m^2=-0.28 keV^2$ neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrlich, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is presented in support of a hypothesis made in 2013 predicting the existence of a tachyonic neutrino mass eigenstate doublet having $m^2\\approx -0.2 keV^2$ with $\\Delta m^2=1 eV^2.$ The evidence is based primarily on the puzzling LSD (Mont Blanc) neutrino burst observed on February 23, 1987, which the hypothesis thoroughly explains, with additional support from the Kamiokande-II events recorded on the same day. The probability of the null hypothesis, i.e., that background fluctuations can explain the noted features of the two data sets is estimated to be $4.2\\sigma$ (Mont Blanc), and $3.7\\sigma$ (K-II). Such a controversial hypothesis as a tachyonic neutrino requires absolutely definitive proof, and there may exist a test based on observing the neutrino spectrum from diffuse supernovae that could supply it.

  6. Unveiling the structure of the planetary nebula M 2-48 Kinematics and physical conditions

    CERN Document Server

    López-Martin, L; Esteban, C; Vázquez, R; Raga, A C; Torrelles, J M; Miranda, L F; Meaburn, J; Olguin, L

    2002-01-01

    The kinematics and physical conditions of the bipolar planetary nebula M 2-48 are analysed from high and low dispersion long-slit spectra. Previous CCD narrow-band optical observations have suggested that this nebula is mainly formed by a pair of symmetric bow-shocks, an off-center semi-circular shell, and an internal bipolar structure. The bipolar outflow has a complex structure, characterised by a series of shocked regions located between the bright core and the polar tips. There is an apparent kinematic discontinuity between the bright bipolar core and the outer regions. The fragmented ring around the bright bipolar region presents a low expansion velocity and could be associated to ejection in the AGB-PN transition phase, although its nature remains unclear. The chemical abundances of the central region are derived, showing that M 2-48 is a Type I planetary nebula (PN).

  7. Zebrafish M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: cloning, pharmacological characterization, expression patterns and roles in embryonic bradycardia

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Liao, Ching-Fong

    2002-01-01

    A zebrafish M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) gene was cloned. It encodes 495 amino acids in a single exon. The derived amino acid sequence is 73.5% identical to its human homologue.Competitive binding studies of the zebrafish M2 receptor and [3H]-NMS gave negative log dissociation constants (pKi) for each antagonist as follows: atropine (9.16)>himbacine (8.05)⩾4-DAMP (7.83)>AF-DX 116 (7.26)⩾pirenzepine (7.18)⩾tropicamide (6.97)⩾methoctramine (6.82)⩾p-F-HHSiD (6.67)>carbachol (5.20...

  8. M2 to D2 and vice versa by 3-Lie and Lie bialgebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aali-Javanangrouh, M.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Using the concept of a 3-Lie bialgebra, which has recently been defined in arXiv:1604.04475, we construct a Bagger-Lambert-Gustavson (BLG) model for the M2-brane on a Manin triple of a special 3-Lie bialgebra. Then by using the correspondence and the relation between those 3-Lie bialgebra with Lie bialgebra, we reduce this model to an N = (4,4) WZW model (D2-brane), such that its algebraic structure is a Lie bialgebra with one 2-cocycle. In this manner by using the correspondence of the 3-Lie bialgebra and Lie bialgebra (for this special 3-Lie algebra) one can construct the M2-brane from a D2-brane and vice versa. (orig.)

  9. Soft X-Ray Magneto-optical Faraday Effect around Ni M2,3 Edges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai; CUI Ming-Qi; YAN Fen; ZHAO Jia; SUN Li-Juan; ZHENG Lei; MA Chen-Yan; XI Shi-So; ZHAO Yi-Dong

    2008-01-01

    @@ We present magneto-optical (MO) Faraday spectra measured around the M2,3 edges (60-70eV) of Ni films at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF).A polarization analysis of the final state of the transmitted radiation from the Ni film is employed to determine the Faraday rotation at the edges.The MO effect becomes resonantly enhanced at the M2,3 edges,and accordingly large values for the rotation angle β of 1.85 ± 0.19°for this ferromagnetic Ni film with thickness of 31 nm are measured. Without the magnetic field,the azimuthal angles do not shift; with parallel and antiparallel magnetic field the rotation angles shift in the opposite way and they are symmetrical.The uncertainty of Faraday rotation angles mainly comes from the data fitting and the state change of the beamline when the angles are measured.

  10. Epitope Mapping of Avian Influenza M2e Protein: Different Species Recognise Various Epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Haliza Hasan

    Full Text Available A common approach for developing diagnostic tests for influenza virus detection is the use of mouse or rabbit monoclonal and/or polyclonal antibodies against a target antigen of the virus. However, comparative mapping of the target antigen using antibodies from different animal sources has not been evaluated before. This is important because identification of antigenic determinants of the target antigen in different species plays a central role to ensure the efficiency of a diagnostic test, such as competitive ELISA or immunohistochemistry-based tests. Interest in the matrix 2 ectodomain (M2e protein of avian influenza virus (AIV as a candidate for a universal vaccine and also as a marker for detection of virus infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA is the rationale for the selection of this protein for comparative mapping evaluation. This study aimed to map the epitopes of the M2e protein of avian influenza virus H5N1 using chicken, mouse and rabbit monoclonal or monospecific antibodies. Our findings revealed that rabbit antibodies (rAbs recognized epitope 6EVETPTRN13 of the M2e, located at the N-terminal of the protein, while mouse (mAb and chicken antibodies (cAbs recognized epitope 10PTRNEWECK18, located at the centre region of the protein. The findings highlighted the difference between the M2e antigenic determinants recognized by different species that emphasized the importance of comparative mapping of antibody reactivity from different animals to the same antigen, especially in the case of multi-host infectious agents such as influenza. The findings are of importance for antigenic mapping, as well as diagnostic test and vaccine development.

  11. Seamless communication in supply chains based on M2M technology

    OpenAIRE

    Walid Moneimne; Marcin Hajdul; Szymon Mikołajczak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Access to information is the key element in the successful and efficient organization of transport & logistic processes. The importance of real-time access to information is confirmed by a panel workshop carried out with support of design thinking methodology. There are two ways of gaining access to the right information - manual, where human agency is needed and fully automatic, where new M2M technology is implemented. Implementation of such technology improves seamless commu...

  12. Industry 4.0, M2m, Iot&S - All Equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrin, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Similarity between Industry 4.0, M2M, IOT&S. Advantages and disadvantages obtained using this three important methods. Decreasing costs while components are getting smaller and smaller in a world with better networking. Influence of business management applications integrated in smart factory logistic. The most important impacts in merging virtual and real production world, with the improvement of best processes having the same goal: creating value by open innovation

  13. Power Aware Mobility Management of M2M for IoT Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-to-Machine (M2M communications framework is evolving to sustain faster networks with the potential to connect millions of devices in the following years. M2M is one of the essential competences for implementing Internet of Things (IoT. Therefore, various organizations are now focusing on enhancing improvements into their standards to support M2M communications. Thus, Heterogeneous Mobile Ad Hoc Network (HetMANET can normally be considered appropriate for M2M challenges. These challenges incorporated when a mobile node (MN selects a target network in an energy efficient scanning for efficient handover. Therefore, to cope with these constraints, we proposed a vertical handover scheme for handover triggering and selection of an appropriate network. The proposed scheme is composed of two phases. Firstly, the MNs perform handover triggering based on the optimization of the Receive Signal Strength (RSS from an access point/base station (AP/BS. Secondly, the network selection process is performed by considering the cost and energy consumption of a particular application during handover. Moreover, if there are more networks available, then the MN selects the one provided with the highest quality of service (QoS. The decision regarding the selection of available networks is made on three metrics, that is, cost, energy, and data rate. Furthermore, the selection of an AP/BS of the selected network is made on five parameters: delay, jitter, Bit Error Rate (BER, communication cost, and response time. The numerical and experimental results are compared in the context of energy consumption by an MN, traffic management on an AP/BS, and QoS of the available networks. The proposed scheme efficiently optimizes the handoff related parameters, and it shows significant improvement in the existing models used for similar purpose.

  14. Description of $^{178}$Hf$^{m2}$ in the constrained relativistic mean field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Zhang; Shuang-Quan, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The properties of the ground state of $^{178}$Hf and the isomeric state $^{178}$Hf$^{m2}$ are studied within the adiabatic and diabatic constrained relativistic mean field (RMF) approaches. The RMF calculations reproduce well the binding energy and the deformation for the ground state of $^{178}$Hf. Using the ground state single-particle eigenvalues obtained in the present calculation, the lowest excitation configuration with $K^\\pi=16^+$ is found to be $\

  15. Relativistic electrons high doses at International Space Station and Foton M2/M3 satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, T. P.; Tomov, B.; Matviichuk, Yu.; Dimitrov, Pl.; Bankov, N.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents observation of relativistic electrons. Data are collected by the Radiation Risk Radiometer-Dosimeters (R3D) B2/B3 modifications during the flights of Foton M2/M3 satellites in 2005 and 2007 as well as by the R3DE instrument at the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) on the Columbus External Payload Adaptor at the International Space Station (ISS) in the period February 20 - April 28, 2008. On the Foton M2/M3 satellites relativistic electrons are observed more frequently than on the ISS because of higher (62.8°) inclination of the orbit. At both Foton satellites the usual duration of the observations are a few minutes long. On the ISS the duration usually is about 1 min or less. The places of observations of high doses due to relativistic electrons are distributed mainly at latitudes above 50° geographic latitude in both hemispheres on Foton M2/M3 satellites. A very high maximum is found in the southern hemisphere at longitudinal range 0°-60°E. At the ISS the maximums are observed between 45° and 52° geographic latitude in both hemispheres mainly at longitudes equatorward from the magnetic poles. The measured absolute maximums of dose rates generated by relativistic electrons are found to be as follows: 304 μGy h -1 behind 1.75 g cm -2 shielding at Foton M2, 2314 μGy h -1 behind 0.71 g cm -2 shielding at Foton M3 and 19,195 μGy h -1 (Flux is 8363 cm -2 s -1) behind les than 0.4 g cm -2 shielding at ISS.

  16. M2Align: parallel multiple sequence alignment with a multi-objective metaheuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Vega, Cristian; Nebro, Antonio J; García-Nieto, José; Aldana Montes, José F

    2017-05-24

    Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) is an NP-complete optimization problem found in computational biology, where the time complexity of finding an optimal alignment raises exponentially along with the number of sequences and their lengths. Additionally, to assess the quality of a MSA, a number of objectives can be taken into account, such as maximizing the sum-of-pairs, maximizing the totally conserved columns, minimizing the number of gaps, or maximizing structural information based scores such as STRIKE. An approach to deal with MSA problems is to use multi-objective metaheuristics, which are non-exact stochastic optimization methods that can produce high quality solutions to complex problems having two or more objectives to be optimized at the same time. Our motivation is to provide a multi-objective metaheuristic for MSA that can run in parallel taking advantage of multi-core based computers. The software tool we propose, called M2Align (Multi-objective Multiple Sequence Alignment), is a parallel and more efficient version of the three-objective optimizer for sequence alignments MO-SAStrE, able of reducing the algorithm computing time by exploiting the computing capabilities of common multicore CPU clusters. Our performance evaluation over datasets of the benchmark BAliBASE (v3.0) shows that significant time reductions can be achieved by using up to 20 cores. Even in sequential executions, M2Align is faster than MO-SAStrE, thanks to the encoding method used for the alignments. M2Align is an open source project hosted in GitHub, where the source code and sample datasets can be freely obtained: https://github.com/KhaosResearch/M2Align. antonio@lcc.uma.es. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. Granulin exacerbates lupus nephritis via enhancing macrophage M2b polarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lupus nephritis (LN, with considerable morbidity and mortality, is one of the most severe manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Yet, the pathogenic mechanisms of LN have not been clearly elucidated, and efficient therapies are still in great need. Granulin (GRN, a multifunctional protein linked to inflammatory diseases, has recently been reported to correlate with the disease activity of autoimmune diseases. However, the role of GRN in the pathogenic process of LN still remains obscure. In this study, we explored its potential role and underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of LN. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that serum GRN levels were significantly up-regulated and were positively correlated with the severity of LN. Overexpression of GRN in vivo by transgenic injection remarkably exacerbated LN, whereas down-regulation of GRN with shRNA ameliorated LN, firmly demonstrating the critical role of GRN in the pathogenesis of LN. Notably, macrophage phenotype analysis revealed that overexpression of GRN could enhance macrophage polarization to M2b, a key mediator of the initiation and progression of LN. On the contrary, down-regulation of GRN resulted in impaired M2b differentiation, thus ameliorating LN. Moreover, we found that MAPK signals were necessary for the effect of GRN on macrophage M2b polarization. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We first demonstrated that GRN could aggravate lupus nephritis (LN via promoting macrophage M2b polarization, which might provide insights into the pathogenesis of LN as well as potential therapeutic strategies against LN.

  18. Regional outbreak of CTX-M-2 β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Abe, Michiko; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Okamoto, Ryoichi

    2012-12-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection. Wild-type P. mirabilis strains are usually susceptible to penicillins and cephalosporins, but occurrences of P. mirabilis producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been recently reported. Here, we surveyed the prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis strains at seven different hospitals in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and investigated their molecular epidemiology to explain the mechanism of their spread. The prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis increased annually, from 10.1 % in 1998 to 23.1 % in 2003, and increased drastically in 2004, exceeding 40 %. We collected 105 consecutive and non-duplicate cefotaxime-resistant P. mirabilis isolates (MIC 16 to >256 µg ml(-1)) from these hospitals from June 2004 to May 2005 and characterized their profile. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that all resistant strains produced exclusively CTX-M-2 β-lactamase. PFGE analysis identified 47 banding patterns with 83 % or greater similarity. These results indicated that a regional outbreak of P. mirabilis producing CTX-M-2 β-lactamase has occurred in Japan and suggest that the epidemic spread occurred within and across hospitals and communities by extended clonal strains. Plasmid analysis revealed that 44.8 % of plasmids harboured by bla(CTX-M-2) isolates had common profiles, encoding ISEcp1, IS26 and Int1, and belonged to incompatibility group T. Spread of the resistant isolates in Japan resulted from dissemination of narrow-host-range plasmids of the IncT group encoding bla(CTX-M-2). These findings indicate the rapidly developing problem of treating the species to prevent dissemination of ESBL producers.

  19. Performance Analysis of SNR-Based HDAF M2M Cooperative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingwei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower bound on outage probability (OP of mobile-to-mobile (M2M cooperative networks over N-Nakagami fading channels is derived for SNR-based hybrid decode-amplify-forward (HDAF relaying. The OP performance under different conditions is evaluated through numerical simulation to verify the accuracy of the analysis. These results show that the fading coefficient, number of cascaded components, relative geometric gain, and power-allocation are important parameters that influence this performance.

  20. M2 Proton Channel: Toward a Model of a Primitive Proton Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chenyu; Pohorille, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Transmembrane proton transfer was essential to early cellular systems in order to transduce energy for metabolic functions. The reliable, efficient and controlled generation of proton gradients became possible only with the emergence of active proton pumps. On the basis of features shared by most modern proton pumps we identify the essential mechanistic steps in active proton transport. Further, we discuss the mechanism of action of a small, transmembrane M2 proton channel from influenza A virus as a model for proton transport in protocells. The M2 channel is a 94-residue long, α-helical tetramer that is activated at low pH and exhibits high selectivity and directionality. A shorter construct, built of transmembrane fragments that are only 24 amino acids in length, exhibits very similar proton transport properties. Molecular dynamics simulations on the microsecond time-scale carried out for the M2 channel provided atomic level details on the activation of the channel in response to protonation of the histidine residue, His37. The pathway of proton conduction is mediated by His37, which accepts and donates protons at different interconverting conformation states when pH is lower than 6.5. The Val27 and Trp41 gates and the salt bridge between Asp44 and Arg45 further enhance the directionality of proton transport. It is argued that the architecture and the mechanism of action similar to that found in the M2 channel might have been the perfect starting point for evolution towards the earliest proton pumps, indicating that active proton transport could have readily emerged from simple, passive proton channels.

  1. Chemerin aggravates DSS-induced colitis by suppressing M2 macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuli; Yang, Xuguang; Yue, Wenjie; Xu, Xiaofei; Li, Bingji; Zou, Linlin; He, Rui

    2014-07-01

    Chemerin is present in various inflammatory sites and is closely involved in tissue inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that chemerin treatment can cause either anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory effects according to the disease model being investigated. Elevated circulating chemerin was recently found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, the role of chemerin in intestinal inflammation remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the administration of exogenous chemerin (aa17-156) aggravated the severity of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, which was characterized by higher clinical scores, extensive mucosal damage and significantly increased local and systemic production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α and interferon (IFN-γ). Interestingly, chemerin did not appear to influence the magnitudes of inflammatory infiltrates in the colons, but did result in significantly decreased colonic expression of M2 macrophage-associated genes, including Arginase 1 (Arg-1), Ym1, FIZZ1 and IL-10, following DSS exposure, suggesting an impaired M2 macrophage skewing in vivo. Furthermore, an in vitro experiment showed that the addition of chemerin directly suppressed M2 macrophage-associated gene expression and STAT6 phosphorylation in IL-4-stimulated macrophages. Significantly elevated chemerin levels were found in colons from DSS-exposed mice and from ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and appeared to positively correlate with disease severity. Moreover, the in vivo administration of neutralizing anti-chemerin antibody significantly improved intestinal inflammation following DSS exposure. Taken together, our findings reveal a pro-inflammatory role for chemerin in DSS-induced colitis and the ability of chemerin to suppress the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage response. Our study also suggests that upregulated chemerin in inflamed colons may contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD.

  2. A picrotoxin-specific conformational change in the glycine receptor M2-M3 loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Rebecca; Lynch, Joseph W

    2005-10-28

    The external loop linking the M2 and M3 transmembrane domains is crucial for coupling agonist binding to channel gating in the glycine receptor chloride channel (GlyR). A substituted cysteine accessibility scan previously showed that glycine activation increased the surface accessibility of 6 contiguous residues (Arg271-Lys276) toward the N-terminal end of the homomeric alpha1 GlyR M2-M3 loop. In the present study we used a similar approach to determine whether the allosteric antagonist, picrotoxin, could impose conformational changes to this domain that cannot be induced by varying agonist concentrations alone. Picrotoxin slowed the reaction rate of a sulfhydryl-containing compound (MTSET) with A272C, S273C, and L274C. Before interpreting this as a picrotoxin-specific conformational change, it was necessary to eliminate the possibility of steric competition between picrotoxin and MTSET. Accordingly, we showed that picrotoxin and the structurally unrelated blocker, bilobalide, were both trapped in the R271C GlyR in the closed state and that a point mutation to the pore-lining Thr6' residue abolished inhibition by both compounds. We also demonstrated that the picrotoxin dissociation rate was linearly related to the channel open probability. These observations constitute a strong case for picrotoxin binding in the pore. We thus conclude that the picrotoxin-specific effects on the M2-M3 loop are mediated allosterically. This suggests that the M2-M3 loop responds differently to the occupation of different binding sites.

  3. Study of the solidification of M2 high speed steel Laser Cladding coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candel, J. J.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available High speed steel laser cladding coatings are complex because cracks appear and the hardness is lower than expected. In this paper AISI M2 tool steel coatings on medium carbon AISI 1045 steel substrate have been manufactured and after Laser Cladding (LC processing it has been applied a tempering heat treatment to reduce the amount of retained austenite and to precipitate secondary carbides. The study of metallurgical transformations by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD shows that the microstructure is extremely fine and complex, with eutectic transformations and MC, M2C and M6C precipitation. Therefore, after the laser coating is necessary to use post-weld heat treatments.Los recubrimientos de acero rápido por Laser Cladding (LC son complejos porque aparecen fisuras y la dureza es menor a la esperada. En este trabajo se han fabricado recubrimientos de acero AISI M2 sobre acero al carbono AISI 1045 y tras el procesado por láser, se han revenido para reducir la cantidad de austenita retenida y precipitar carburos secundarios. El estudio de las transformaciones metalúrgicas con Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (MEB y Difracción de Electrones Retrodispersados (EBSD muestra que la microestructura es extremadamente fina y compleja, presenta transformaciones eutécticas y precipitación de carburos MC, M2C y M6C. Por tanto, tras el recubrimiento por láser es necesario recurrir a tratamientos térmicos post-soldeo.

  4. Study of the solidification of M2 high speed steel Laser Cladding coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Candel Bou, Juan Jose; Franconetti Rodríguez, Patricia; Amigó Borrás, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    [EN] High speed steel laser cladding coatings are complex because cracks appear and the hardness is lower than expected. In this paper AISI M2 tool steel coatings on medium carbon AISI 1045 steel substrate have been manufactured and after laser cladding (LC) processing it has been applied a tempering heat treatment to reduce the amount of retained austenite and to precipitate secondary carbides. The study of metallurgical transformations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and backscattered...

  5. 不定方程m~4x(x+1)(x+2)(x+3)=(m~4-1)y(y+1)(y+2)(y+3)的整数解%Solutions of Diophantine Equation m~4x(x+1)(x+2)(x+3)=(m~4-1)y(y+1)(y+2)(y+3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑惠

    2012-01-01

    运用初等方法对不定方程ax(x+1)(x+2)(x+3)=by(y+1)(y+2)(y+3)的整数解进行了研究,得到了当a=m4,b=m4-1时方程的非负整数解仅有(x,y)=(0,0)。%The solution of Diophantine eqeation ax(x+1)(x+2)(x+3)=by(y+1)(y+2)(y+3) is discussed by using elementary methods.It is proved that the eqution has only non-negative integer solution(x,y)=(0,0) when a=m4,b=m4-1.

  6. TPL-2 Regulates Macrophage Lipid Metabolism and M2 Differentiation to Control TH2-Mediated Immunopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Lewis J.; Khoury, Hania; Papoutsopoulou, Stamatia; Mahmood, Radma; Mansour, Nuha R.; Ching-Cheng Huang, Stanley; Pearce, Edward J.; Pedro S. de Carvalho, Luiz; Ley, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent TH2 cytokine responses following chronic helminth infections can often lead to the development of tissue pathology and fibrotic scarring. Despite a good understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, there are very few therapeutic options available, highlighting a significant medical need and gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TH2-mediated immunopathology. In this study, we found that the Map3 kinase, TPL-2 (Map3k8; Cot) regulated TH2-mediated intestinal, hepatic and pulmonary immunopathology following Schistosoma mansoni infection or S. mansoni egg injection. Elevated inflammation, TH2 cell responses and exacerbated fibrosis in Map3k8–/–mice was observed in mice with myeloid cell-specific (LysM) deletion of Map3k8, but not CD4 cell-specific deletion of Map3k8, indicating that TPL-2 regulated myeloid cell function to limit TH2-mediated immunopathology. Transcriptional and metabolic assays of Map3k8–/–M2 macrophages identified that TPL-2 was required for lipolysis, M2 macrophage activation and the expression of a variety of genes involved in immuno-regulatory and pro-fibrotic pathways. Taken together this study identified that TPL-2 regulated TH2-mediated inflammation by supporting lipolysis and M2 macrophage activation, preventing TH2 cell expansion and downstream immunopathology and fibrosis. PMID:27487182

  7. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Popiolek-Barczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t. was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1 factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes.

  8. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Kolosowska, Natalia; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka M; Pilat, Dominika; Mika, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL) on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t.) was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker) but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker) on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS) and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1) factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes.

  9. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Kolosowska, Natalia; Makuch, Wioletta; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka M.; Pilat, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL) on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t.) was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker) but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker) on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS) and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1) factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes. PMID:26090236

  10. Access Control in IoT/M2M - Cloud Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggorojati, Bayu

    and quality of life. This paradigm, which is often called Internet of Things (IoT) or Machine-to-Machine (M2M), will provide an unprecedented opportunity to create applications and services that go far beyond the mere purpose of each participant. Many studies on the both technical and social aspects of IoT...... of a system can be accessed by other parties by means of a set of access policies. For an IoT system such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) that collects huge amounts of RFID events data and may store it in the cloud storage for tracking purpose, access control to such data becomes a critical point...... management in RFID system is of paramount importance. A distributed cloud platform approach for the IoT/M2M, which consists of a set of IoT/M2M gateways, is introduced to cope with some inherent issues of IoT network which is highly heterogeneous and distributed in nature. As aresult, access control becomes...

  11. Determination of Foton M-2 satellite attitude motion by the data of microacceleration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuselinck, T.; van Bavinchove, C.; Sazonov, V. V.; Chebukov, S. Yu.

    2009-12-01

    The results of reconstruction of uncontrolled attitude motion of the Foton M-2 satellite using measurements with the accelerometer TAS-3 are presented. The attitude motion of this satellite has been previously determined by the measurement data of the Earth’s magnetic field and the angular velocity. The TAS-3 data for this purpose are used for the first time. These data contain a well-pronounced additional component which made impossible their direct employment for the reconstruction of the attitude motion and whose origin was unknown several years ago. Later it has become known that the additional component is caused by the influence of the Earth’s magnetic field. The disclosure of this fact allowed us to take into account a necessary correction in processing of TAS-3 data and to use them for the reconstruction of the attitude motion of Foton M-2. Here, a modified method of processing TAS-3 data is described, as well as results of its testing and employing. The testing consisted in the direct comparison of the motion reconstructed by the new method with the motion constructed by the magnetic measurements. The new method allowed us to find the actual motion of Foton M-2 in the period June 9, 2005-June 14, 2005, when no magnetic measurements were carried out.

  12. TPL-2 Regulates Macrophage Lipid Metabolism and M2 Differentiation to Control TH2-Mediated Immunopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashaswini Kannan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent TH2 cytokine responses following chronic helminth infections can often lead to the development of tissue pathology and fibrotic scarring. Despite a good understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, there are very few therapeutic options available, highlighting a significant medical need and gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TH2-mediated immunopathology. In this study, we found that the Map3 kinase, TPL-2 (Map3k8; Cot regulated TH2-mediated intestinal, hepatic and pulmonary immunopathology following Schistosoma mansoni infection or S. mansoni egg injection. Elevated inflammation, TH2 cell responses and exacerbated fibrosis in Map3k8-/-mice was observed in mice with myeloid cell-specific (LysM deletion of Map3k8, but not CD4 cell-specific deletion of Map3k8, indicating that TPL-2 regulated myeloid cell function to limit TH2-mediated immunopathology. Transcriptional and metabolic assays of Map3k8-/-M2 macrophages identified that TPL-2 was required for lipolysis, M2 macrophage activation and the expression of a variety of genes involved in immuno-regulatory and pro-fibrotic pathways. Taken together this study identified that TPL-2 regulated TH2-mediated inflammation by supporting lipolysis and M2 macrophage activation, preventing TH2 cell expansion and downstream immunopathology and fibrosis.

  13. Fasciola hepatica tegumental antigens indirectly induce an M2 macrophage-like phenotype in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P N; Aldridge, A; Vukman, K V; Donnelly, S; O'Neill, S M

    2014-10-01

    The M2 subset of macrophages has a critical role to play in host tissue repair, tissue fibrosis and modulation of adaptive immunity during helminth infection. Infection with the helminth, Fasciola hepatica, is associated with M2 macrophages in its mammalian host, and this response is mimicked by its excretory-secretory products (FhES). The tegumental coat of F. hepatica (FhTeg) is another major source of immune-modulatory molecules; we have previously shown that FhTeg can modulate the activity of both dendritic cells and mast cells inhibiting their ability to prime a Th1 immune response. Here, we report that FhTeg does not induce Th2 immune responses but can induce M2-like phenotype in vivo that modulates cytokine production from CD4(+) cells in response to anti-CD3 stimulation. FhTeg induces a RELMα expressing macrophage population in vitro, while in vivo, the expression of Arg1 and Ym-1/2 but not RELMα in FhTeg-stimulated macrophages was STAT6 dependent. To support this finding, FhTeg induces RELMα expression in vivo prior to the induction of IL-13. FhTeg can induce IL-13-producing peritoneal macrophages following intraperitoneal injection This study highlights the important role of FhTeg as an immune-modulatory source during F. hepatica infection and sheds further light on helminth-macrophage interactions.

  14. Characterization of the hrpZ gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicolaM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Mejía, César; Rodríguez-Ríos, Dalia; Hernández-Guzmán, Gustavo; López-Ramírez, Varinia; Valenzuela-Soto, Humberto; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola is a natural pathogen of members of the Brassicaceae plant family. Using a transposon-based mutagenesis strategy in Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 (PsmM2), we conducted a genetic screen to identify mutants that were capable of growing in M9 medium supplemented with a crude extract from the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. A mutant containing a transposon insertion in the hrpZ gene (PsmMut8) was unable to infect adult plants from Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica oleracea, suggesting a loss of pathogenicity. The promotorless cat reporter present in the gene trap was expressed if PsmMut8 was grown in minimal medium (M9) supplemented with the leaf extract but not if grown in normal rich medium (KB). We conducted phylogenetic analysis using hrpAZB genes, showing the classical 5-clade distribution, and nucleotide diversity analysis, showing the putative position for selective pressure in this operon. Our results indicate that the hrpAZB operon from Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 is necessary for its pathogenicity and that its diversity would be under host-mediated diversifying selection. PMID:26413080

  15. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST Machine-to-Machine (M2M gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented.

  16. β-elemene inhibits tumor-promoting effect of M2 macrophages in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomu; Xu, Maoyi; Li, Na; Li, Zongjuan; Li, Hongye; Shao, Shujuan; Zou, Kun; Zou, Lijuan

    2017-08-19

    Macrophages in tumor are mostly M2-polarized and have been reported to promote tumorigenesis, which are also defined as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). β-elemene has therapeutic effects against several cancers, however, it remains unknown whether β-elemene could inhibit cancer by targeting TAMs. Herein, we examined the effect of β-elemene on macrophages to elucidate a novel mechanism of β-elemene in tumor therapy. We showed that the conditioned medium of M2 macrophages promoted lung cancer cells to migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition, which could be inhibited by β-elemene. Moreover, β-elemene regulated the polarization of macrophages from M2 to M1. β-elemene also inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion of lung cancer cells and enhanced its radiosensitivity. These results indicate β-elemene suppresses lung cancer by regulating both macrophages and lung cancer cells, it is a promising drug for combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tumor-derived interleukin-1 promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis through M2-type macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Watari

    Full Text Available Tumors formed by a highly metastatic human lung cancer cell line are characterized by activated signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C through its receptor (VEGFR-3 and aggressive lymph node metastasis. In this study, we examined how these highly metastatic cancers acquired aggressive lymph node metastasis. Compared with their lower metastatic counterparts, the highly metastatic tumors formed by this cell line expressed higher amounts of interleukin (IL-1α, with similarly augmented expression of IL-1α and IL-1β by tumor stromal cells and of VEGF-A and VEGF-C by tumor-associated macrophages. These tumor-associated macrophages were mainly of the M2 type. Administration of a macrophage-targeting drug suppressed the production of these potent angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors, resulting in decreased tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and lymph node metastasis. In Matrigel plug assays, the highly metastatic cells formed tumors that were extensively infiltrated by M2-type macrophages and exhibited enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. All of these responses were suppressed by the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R antagonist anakinra. Thus, the IL-1α-driven inflammatory activation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis seems to provide a highly metastatic tumor microenvironment favorable for lymph node metastasis through cross-talk with macrophages. Accordingly, the IL-1R/M2-type macrophage axis may be a good therapeutic target for patients with this form of lung cancer.

  18. Tumor-derived interleukin-1 promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis through M2-type macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Kosuke; Shibata, Tomohiro; Kawahara, Akihiko; Sata, Ken-ichi; Nabeshima, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Ai; Abe, Hideyuki; Azuma, Koichi; Murakami, Yuichi; Izumi, Hiroto; Takahashi, Takashi; Kage, Masayoshi; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    Tumors formed by a highly metastatic human lung cancer cell line are characterized by activated signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C through its receptor (VEGFR-3) and aggressive lymph node metastasis. In this study, we examined how these highly metastatic cancers acquired aggressive lymph node metastasis. Compared with their lower metastatic counterparts, the highly metastatic tumors formed by this cell line expressed higher amounts of interleukin (IL)-1α, with similarly augmented expression of IL-1α and IL-1β by tumor stromal cells and of VEGF-A and VEGF-C by tumor-associated macrophages. These tumor-associated macrophages were mainly of the M2 type. Administration of a macrophage-targeting drug suppressed the production of these potent angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors, resulting in decreased tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and lymph node metastasis. In Matrigel plug assays, the highly metastatic cells formed tumors that were extensively infiltrated by M2-type macrophages and exhibited enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. All of these responses were suppressed by the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) antagonist anakinra. Thus, the IL-1α-driven inflammatory activation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis seems to provide a highly metastatic tumor microenvironment favorable for lymph node metastasis through cross-talk with macrophages. Accordingly, the IL-1R/M2-type macrophage axis may be a good therapeutic target for patients with this form of lung cancer.

  19. Extracellular mycobacterial DnaK polarizes macrophages to the M2-like phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael L Lopes

    Full Text Available Macrophages are myeloid cells that play an essential role in inflammation and host defense, regulating immune responses and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Depending on the microenvironment, macrophages can polarize to two distinct phenotypes. The M1 phenotype is activated by IFN-γ and bacterial products, and displays an inflammatory profile, while M2 macrophages are activated by IL-4 and tend to be anti-inflammatory or immunosupressive. It was observed that DnaK from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has immunosuppressive properties, inducing a tolerogenic phenotype in dendritic cells and MDSCs, contributing to graft acceptance and tumor growth. However, its role in macrophage polarization remains to be elucidated. We asked whether DnaK was able to modulate macrophage phenotype. Murine macrophages, derived from bone marrow, or from the peritoneum, were incubated with DnaK and their phenotype compared to M1 or M2 polarized macrophages. Treatment with DnaK leads macrophages to present higher arginase I activity, IL-10 production and FIZZ1 and Ym1 expression. Furthermore, DnaK increased surface levels of CD206. Importantly, DnaK-treated macrophages were able to promote tumor growth in an allogeneic melanoma model. Our results suggest that DnaK polarizes macrophages to the M2-like phenotype and could constitute a virulence factor and is an important immunomodulator of macrophage responses.

  20. The outer envelopes of globular clusters - I. NGC 7089 (M2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, P. B.; Da Costa, G. S.; Mackey, A. D.; Roderick, T. A.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of a wide-field imaging survey of the periphery of the Milky Way globular cluster NGC 7089 (M2). Data were obtained with MegaCam on the Magellan Clay Telescope and the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco Telescope. We find that M2 is embedded in a diffuse stellar envelope extending to a radial distance of at least ˜60 arcmin (˜210 pc) - five times the nominal tidal radius of the cluster. The envelope appears nearly circular in shape, has a radial density decline well described by a power law of index γ = -2.2 ± 0.2, and contains approximately 1.6 per cent of the luminosity of the entire system. While the origin of the envelope cannot be robustly identified using the presently available data, the fact that M2 also hosts stellar populations exhibiting a broad dispersion in the abundances of both iron and a variety of neutron capture elements suggests that this object might plausibly constitute the stripped nucleus of a dwarf galaxy that was long ago accreted and destroyed by the Milky Way.

  1. The Outer Envelopes of Globular Clusters. I. NGC 7089 (M2)

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzma, P B; Mackey, A D; Roderick, T A

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a wide-field imaging survey of the periphery of the Milky Way globular cluster NGC 7089 (M2). Data were obtained with MegaCam on the Magellan Clay Telescope, and the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco Telescope. We find that M2 is embedded in a diffuse stellar envelope extending to a radial distance of at least $\\sim 60^{\\prime}$ ($\\sim 210$ pc) -- five times the nominal tidal radius of the cluster. The envelope appears nearly circular in shape, has a radial density decline well described by a power law of index $\\gamma = -2.2 \\pm 0.2$, and contains approximately $1.6\\%$ of the luminosity of the entire system. While the origin of the envelope cannot be robustly identified using the presently available data, the fact that M2 also hosts stellar populations exhibiting a broad dispersion in the abundances of both iron and a variety of neutron capture elements suggests that this object might plausibly constitute the stripped nucleus of a dwarf Galaxy that was long ago accreted and destroyed...

  2. Moldeo por inyección del acero rápido M2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Román, J. M.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the feasibility of Powder Injection Molding in order to obtain M2 High Speed Steels with higher performances than those obtained by conventional P/M. With this object trials have been carried out in order to optimize all the process steps (mixing, injection, debinding and sintering, and to evaluate the mechanical properties (hardness and transverse tensile strengh of the manufactured M2 HSS sample.

    Se estudia la viabilidad de la tecnología de Moldeo por Inyección de Polvos (MIM en la fabricación con acero rápido M2 a fin de obtener componentes de este material de prestaciones superiores a las que se consiguen mediante métodos convencionales pulvimetalúrgicos. Los ensayos realizados se han dirigido a optimizar los parámetros de la eliminación del ligante y de la sinterización, con objeto de controlar el contenido de carbono y la densidad final de las piezas, así como evitar la aparición de los defectos típicos de esta tecnología.

  3. Measurement of M2-Curve for Asymmetric Beams by Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhao Du

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For asymmetric laser beams, the values of beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this non-uniqueness, a new beam quality characterization method named as M2-curve is developed. The M2-curve not only contains the beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 in the x-direction and y-direction, respectively; but also introduces a curve of M x α 2 versus rotation angle α of coordinate axis. Moreover, we also present a real-time measurement method to demonstrate beam propagation factor M2-curve with a modified self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer based-wavefront sensor (henceforth SRI-WFS. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment in multimode beams. The experimental results showed that the proposed measurement method is simple, fast, and a single-shot measurement procedure without movable parts.

  4. Conformational variability of the glycine receptor M2 domain in response to activation by different agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Stephan A; Dibas, Mohammed I; Lester, Henry A; Lynch, Joseph W

    2007-12-07

    Models describing the structural changes mediating Cys loop receptor activation generally give little attention to the possibility that different agonists may promote activation via distinct M2 pore-lining domain structural rearrangements. We investigated this question by comparing the effects of different ligands on the conformation of the external portion of the homomeric alpha1 glycine receptor M2 domain. Conformational flexibility was assessed by tethering a rhodamine fluorophore to cysteines introduced at the 19' or 22' positions and monitoring fluorescence and current changes during channel activation. During glycine activation, fluorescence of the label attached to R19'C increased by approximately 20%, and the emission peak shifted to lower wavelengths, consistent with a more hydrophobic fluorophore environment. In contrast, ivermectin activated the receptors without producing a fluorescence change. Although taurine and beta-alanine were weak partial agonists at the alpha1R19'C glycine receptor, they induced large fluorescence changes. Propofol, which drastically enhanced these currents, did not induce a glycine-like blue shift in the spectral emission peak. The inhibitors strychnine and picrotoxin elicited fluorescence and current changes as expected for a competitive antagonist and an open channel blocker, respectively. Glycine and taurine (or beta-alanine) also produced an increase and a decrease, respectively, in the fluorescence of a label attached to the nearby L22'C residue. Thus, results from two separate labeled residues support the conclusion that the glycine receptor M2 domain responds with distinct conformational changes to activation by different agonists.

  5. Seamless communication in supply chains based on M2M technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Moneimne

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to information is the key element in the successful and efficient organization of transport & logistic processes. The importance of real-time access to information is confirmed by a panel workshop carried out with support of design thinking methodology. There are two ways of gaining access to the right information - manual, where human agency is needed and fully automatic, where new M2M technology is implemented. Implementation of such technology improves seamless communication during transport execution and allows real-time access to needed information. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the influence of the effectiveness of using M2M technology and traditional way of communication as well as data gathering in order to ensure seamless communication in the supply chain. Methods: Survey, design thinking, desk research and real case study results were used in the paper. Results and conclusions: Seamless communication and implementation of M2M technology within the whole supply (including modes of transport and transport units chain is a backbone of the lean and reliable digital supply chain.

  6. The M4 Transmembrane α-Helix Contributes Differently to Both the Maturation and Function of Two Prokaryotic Pentameric Ligand-gated Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault, Camille M; Juranka, Peter F; Baenziger, John E

    2015-10-09

    The role of the outermost transmembrane α-helix in both the maturation and function of the prokaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, GLIC and ELIC, was examined by Ala scanning mutagenesis, deletion mutations, and mutant cycle analyses. Ala mutations at the M4-M1/M3 interface lead to loss-of-function phenotypes in GLIC, with the largest negative effects occurring near the M4 C terminus. In particular, two aromatic residues at the M4 C terminus form a network of π-π and/or cation-π interactions with residues on M3 and the β6-β7 loop that is essential for both maturation and function. M4-M1/M3 interactions appear to be optimized in GLIC with even subtle structural changes at this interface leading to detrimental effects. In contrast, mutations along the M4-M1/M3 interface of ELIC typically lead to gain-of-function phenotypes, suggesting that these interactions in ELIC are not optimized for channel function. In addition, no cluster of interacting residues involving the M4 C terminus, M3, and the β6-β7 loop was found, suggesting that the M4 C terminus plays little role in ELIC maturation or function. This study shows that M4 makes distinct contributions to the maturation and gating of these two closely related homologs, suggesting that GLIC and ELIC exhibit divergent features of channel function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Clinical significance of blood and fecal tumor M2-pyruvate kinase expression in patients with colorectal cancer%结直肠癌患者血清、粪便中M2-PK表达的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 王俊江

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨结直肠癌患者血清和粪便中肿瘤M2型丙酮酸激酶(M2-PK)表达的临床意义.方法 收集44例结直肠癌患者和22名健康人血液和粪便标本,采用ELISA方法检测tumor M2-PK表达水平.结果 血清M2-PK和粪便M2-PK对结直肠癌的诊断的敏感性分别为59.1%、63.6%,特异性分别为86.4%、81.8%.血清M2 -PK和粪便M2-PK的吻合度有统计学意义.结论 血清和粪便tumor M2-PK的检测对结直肠癌的诊断有重要价值,值得进一步研究.%Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of blood and fecal expression of tumor M2-pyruvate kinase (Tumor M2-PK) in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods With 22 healthy subjects as controls, 44 patients with CRC were examined for tumor M2-PK in serum and fecal samples using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Results The sensitivity of serum and fecal tumor M2-PK for detecting CRC was 59.1% and 63.6% with a specificity of 86.4% and 81.8%, respectively. The serum and fecal levels of tumor M2-PK showed a significant correlation in CRC patients. Conclusions Tumor M2-PK has good sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CRC.

  8. Source parameters of a M4.8 and its accompanying repeating earthquakes off Kamaishi, NE Japan: Implications for the hierarchical structure of asperities and earthquake cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, N.; Matsuzawa, T.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Imanishi, K.; Okada, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    2007-01-01

    We determine the source parameters of a M4.9 ?? 0.1 'characteristic earthquake' sequence and its accompanying microearthquakes at ???50 km depth on the subduction plate boundary offshore of Kamaishi, NE Japan. The microearthquakes tend to occur more frequently in the latter half of the recurrence intervals of the M4.9 ?? 0.1 events. Our results show that the microearthquakes are repeating events and they are located not only around but also within the slip area for the 2001 M4.8 event. From the hierarchical structure of slip areas and smaller stress drops for the microearthquakes compared to the M4.8 event, we infer the small repeating earthquakes rupture relatively weak patches in and around the slip area for the M4.8 event and their activity reflects a stress concentration process and/or change in frictional property (healing) at the area. We also infer the patches for the M4.9 ?? 0.1 and other repeating earthquakes undergo aseismic slip during their interseismic period. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Thermal testing results of an electroformed nickel secondary (M2) mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Gale, David M.; Cabrera Cuevas, Lizeth; Lucero Álvarez, Maribel; Castro Santos, David; Olmos Tapia, Arak

    2016-07-01

    To support higher-frequency operation, the Large Millimeter Telescope/Gran Telescopio Milimetrico (or LMT/GTM) is replacing its existing monolithic aluminum secondary mirror (M2). The new mirror is a segmented design based on the same electroformed nickel reflector panel technology that is already in use for the primary reflector segments. While the new M2 is lighter and has better surface accuracy than the original mirror, the electroformed panels are more sensitive to high temperatures. During the design phase, concerns were raised over the level of temperature increase that could occur at M2 during daytime observations. Although the panel surface is designed to scatter visible light, the LMT primary mirror is large enough to cause substantial solar heating, even at significant angular separation from the Sun. To address these concerns, the project conducted a series of field tests, within the constraint of having minimum impact on night time observations. The supplier sent two coupon samples of a reflector panel prepared identically to their proposed M2 surface. Temperature sensors were mounted on the samples and they were temporarily secured to the existing M2 mirror at different distances from the center. The goal was to obtain direct monitoring of the surface temperature under site thermal conditions and the concentration effects from the primary reflector. With the sensors installed, the telescope was then commanded to track the Sun with an elevation offset. Initially, elevation offsets from as far as 40 degrees to as close as 6 degrees were tested. The 6 degree separation test quickly passed the target maximum temperature and the telescope was returned to a safer separation. Based on these initial results, a second set of tests was performed using elevation separations from 30 degrees to 8 degrees. To account for the variability of site conditions, the temperature data were analyzed using multiple metrics. These metrics included maximum temperature, final

  10. O EFEITO DO TRICLOSAN NO PROCESSO FIBROSANTE DE CÉLULAS HEPÁTICAS LX-2 MEDIANTE A AÇÃO NA SÍNTESE DE ÁCIDO GRAXO DE NOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fabiani Miranda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A fibrose hepática é uma condição clínica presente na maioria das doenças hepáticas, caracterizada pelo aumento na síntese dos componentes da matriz extracelular na tentativa de cicatrização do tecido lesionado. A principal célula responsável pelo desenvolvimento da fibrose hepática é a célula estrelada hepática, localizada no espaço de Disse. Esta apresenta dois fenótipos: o quiescente e o ativado. O metabolismo de lipídeo na célula estrelada está relacionado com o fornecimento de energia para a iniciação e perpetuação do seu estado ativado. Dentro deste contexto a ácido graxo sintase (FASN, proteína chave da síntese de ácido graxo de novo torna-se alvo do estudo, uma vez que o metabolismo de lipídeos está intimamente relacionado ao processo fibrosante em células estreladas hepáticas. Sabe-se que o fármaco triclosan (TCS é inibidor da proteína FASN na síntese de ácido graxo de novo, com potencial alteração do processo fibrosante em células estreladas hepáticas. Sendo assim, avaliamos os aspectos celulares e moleculares do efeito do fármaco TCS na modulação do metabolismo de lipídeo através da inibição da FASN em modelo de células estreladas hepáticas LX-2. Os resultados demonstraram que o TCS na concentração 50 µM em cultura celular LX-2 crescida em 10% de soro bovino fetal (SBF – estado ativado- promove alterações morfofuncionais nas células; tanto pela despolimerização dos filamentos de actina quanto pela formação de estruturas globulares de actina no citoesqueleto celular. Desta maneira, o fármaco TCS apresentou características possivelmente citotóxicas em células LX-2 com 10% de SBF. Por outro lado, o estudo da inibição da proteína FASN demonstrou resultados que sugerem uma transdiferenciação celular correlacionada com a reversão do quadro pró-fibrosante hepático em células LX-2, com o aumento das gotículas de lipídeo no citoplasma e aumento da expressão dos

  11. First Global Climate Model Simulations of the M2 Pliocene Glacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, A.; Haywood, A.; Hunter, S. J.; Tindall, J.; Valdes, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Pliocene Epoch (5.2 to 2.6 Ma) and specifically the PRISM interval (3.0 to 3.3 Ma) have frequently been targeted to investigate warm intervals in Earth history (e.g. Haywood et al., 2013). However, climate variability within the Pliocene is often overlooked. Although not as dramatic as the glacial and interglacial cycles that typified the Pleistocene, the Pliocene also exhibited climate variability and periods which were apparently cooler than modern (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005). Of particular interest is the major cooling event that occurred around 3.3 Ma during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2. This 'Pliocene glacial' punctuates an otherwise relatively warm background climate and has been referred to as a failed attempt of the climate to reach a full glacial state (De Schepper et al., 2009; Haug and Tiedemann, 1998). The onset of full Northern Hemisphere (NH) glaciation finally occurred at the end of the Pliocene (~ 2.75 Ma). Although numerous temperature reconstructions from around the world's oceans tend to capture the MIS M2 cooling event, the exact nature of M2 remains enigmatic. Sea level records vary but suggest a maximum sea level drop of ~65 m compared to modern, which in itself is significant enough to necessitate the growth of a NH ice sheet (Dwyer and Chandler, 2009). Previous ice sheet modelling suggests that ~8 m sea level equivalent (SLE) ice could be stored on Antarctica (Pollard and DeConto, 2009) and this larger ice sheet (compared to modern) is potentially supported by the increase in ice-rafted debris (IRD) found offshore of East Antarctica during this time (Passchier, 2011). IRD in the North Atlantic would suggest the presence of an ice sheet on Greenland (e.g. Kleiven et al., 2002), but the locations of other ice caps in the NH are not determined due to the destructive nature of subsequent Pleistocene ice sheet advances. Moreover, recent evidence questions whether the climate in the NH was favourable at all for the initiation of ice sheets

  12. Dale Reed with model in front of M2-F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Dale Reed with a model of the M2-F1 in front of the actual lifting body. Reed used the model to show the potential of the lifting bodies. He first flew it into tall grass to test stability and trim, then hand-launched it from buildings for longer flights. Finally, he towed the lifting-body model aloft using a powered model airplane known as the 'Mothership.' A timer released the model and it glided to a landing. Dale's wife Donna used a 9 mm. camera to film the flights of the model. Its stability as it glided--despite its lack of wings--convinced Milt Thompson and some Flight Research Center engineers including the center director, Paul Bikle, that a piloted lifting body was possible. The lifting body concept evolved in the mid-1950s as researchers considered alternatives to ballistic reentries of piloted space capsules. The designs for hypersonic, wingless vehicles were on the boards at NASA Ames and NASA Langley facilities, while the US Air Force was gearing up for its Dyna-Soar program, which defined the need for a spacecraft that would land like an airplane. Despite favorable research on lifting bodies, there was little support for a flight program. Dryden engineer R. Dale Reed was intrigued with the lifting body concept, and reasoned that some sort of flight demonstration was needed before wingless aircraft could be taken seriously. In February 1962, he built a model lifting body based upon the Ames M2 design, and air-launched it from a radio controlled 'mothership.' Home movies of these flights, plus the support of research pilot Milt Thompson, helped pursuade the facilities director, Paul Bikle, to give the go-ahead for the construction of a full-scale version, to be used as a wind-tunnel model and possibly flown as a glider. Comparing lifting bodies to space capsules, an unofficial motto of the project was, 'Don't be Rescued from Outer Space--Fly Back in Style.' The construction of the M2-F1 was a joint effort by Dryden and a local glider manufacturer, the

  13. Carboxyl- and amino-functionalized polystyrene nanoparticles differentially affect the polarization profile of M1 and M2 macrophage subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Ann-Kathrin; Syrovets, Tatiana; Haas, Karina A; Loos, Cornelia; Musyanovych, Anna; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Simmet, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages are key regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Exposure to microenvironmental stimuli determines their polarization into proinflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. M1 exhibit high expression of proinflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β, and M2 promote tissue repair, but likewise support tumor growth and cause immune suppression by expressing IL-10. Thus, the M1/M2 balance critically determines tissue homeostasis. By using carboxyl- (PS-COOH) and amino-functionalized (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles, the effects of surface decoration on the polarization of human macrophages were investigated. The nanoparticles did not compromise macrophage viability nor did they affect the expression of the M1 markers CD86, NOS2, TNF-α, and IL-1β. By contrast, in M2, both nanoparticles impaired expression of scavenger receptor CD163 and CD200R, and the release of IL-10. PS-NH2 also inhibited phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by both, M1 and M2. PS-COOH did not impair phagocytosis by M2, but increased protein mass in M1 and M2, TGF-β1 release by M1, and ATP levels in M2. Thus, nanoparticles skew the M2 macrophage polarization without affecting M1 markers. Given the critical role of the M1 and M2 polarization for the immunological balance in patients with cancer or chronic inflammation, functionalized nanoparticles might serve as tools for reprogramming the M1/M2 polarization.

  14. M2-F3 In-flight Launch from B-52

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This photo shows the M2-F3 Lifting Body being launched from NASA's B-52 mothership at the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC--now the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. A fleet of lifting bodies flown at the FRC from 1963 to l975 demonstrated the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land a wingless vehicle designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an aircraft at a pre-determined site. Early flight testing of the M2-F1 and M2-F2 lifting body reentry configurations had validated the concept of piloted lifting body reentry from space. When the M2-F2 crashed on May 10, 1967, valuable information had already been obtained and was contributing to new designs. NASA pilots said the M2-F2 had lateral control problems, so when the M2-F2 was rebuilt at Northrop and redesignated the M2-F3, it was modified with an additional third vertical fin -- centered between the tip fins -- to improve control characteristics. First flight of the M2-F3, with NASA pilot Bill Dana at the controls, was June 2, 1970. The modified vehicle exhibited much better lateral stability and control characteristics than before, and only three glide flights were necessary before the first powered flight on Nov. 25, 1970. Over the next 26 missions, the M2-F3 reached a top speed of l,064 mph (Mach 1.6). Highest altitude reached by vehicle was 7l,500 feet on Dec. 20, 1972, the date of its last flight, with NASA pilot John Manke at the controls. NASA donated The M2-F3 vehicle to the Smithsonian Institute in December 1973. It is currently hanging in the Air and Space Museum along with the X-15 aircraft number 1, which was its hangar partner from 1965 to 1969. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most

  15. Pharmacological effects of mitraphylline from Uncaria tomentosa in primary human monocytes: Skew toward M2 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S; de la Puerta, R; Fernandez-Arche, A; Quilez, A M; Muriana, F J G; Garcia-Gimenez, M D; Bermudez, B

    2015-07-21

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willdenow ex Roemer & Schultes) DC. (Rubiaceae) is a Peruvian thorny liana, commonly known as "cat׳s claw", and traditionally used in folk medicine to deal with several inflammatory diseases. Mitraphylline (MTP) is the most abundant pentacyclic oxindolic alkaloid (POA) from U. Tomentosa and has been reported to modify the inflammatory response. Herein, we have sought to identify the mechanisms underlying this modulatory effect of MTP on primary human monocytes and its ability to regulate differentiation processes on human primary monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophages. In vitro studies with human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages were performed. Monocytes and M0 macrophages were exposed to MTP (25μM) and LPS (100ng/mL). M0 macrophages were polarized to M1 and M2 phenotypes in the absence or presence of MTP. The activation state of monocytes/macrophages was assessed by flow cytometry, gene expression and protein analysis of different specific markers. In human primary monocytes, the incubation of MTP for 24h reduced the number of classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)) and intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) subsets when compared to untreated or LPS-treated cells. MTP also reduced the chemotactic capacity of human primary monocytes. In addition, MTP promoted the polarization of M0 macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, the abrogation of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-6 or IL-1β, as well as the restoration of markers for M2 macrophages in LPS-treated M1 macrophages. Our results suggest that MTP may be a key modulator for regulating the plasticity of monocytes/macrophages and the attenuation of the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bile acid-induced arrhythmia is mediated by muscarinic M2 receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti H Sheikh Abdul Kadir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a common disease affecting up to 5% of pregnancies and which can cause fetal arrhythmia and sudden intrauterine death. We previously demonstrated that bile acid taurocholate (TC, which is raised in the bloodstream of ICP, can acutely alter the rate and rhythm of contraction and induce abnormal calcium destabilization in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM. Apart from their hepatic functions bile acids are ubiquitous signalling molecules with diverse systemic effects mediated by either the nuclear receptor FXR or by a recently discovered G-protein coupled receptor TGR5. We aim to investigate the mechanism of bile-acid induced arrhythmogenic effects in an in-vitro model of the fetal heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Levels of bile acid transporters and nuclear receptor FXR were studied by quantitative real time PCR, western blot and immunostaining, which showed low levels of expression. We did not observe functional involvement of the canonical receptors FXR and TGR5. Instead, we found that TC binds to the muscarinic M(2 receptor in NRCM and serves as a partial agonist of this receptor in terms of inhibitory effect on intracellular cAMP and negative chronotropic response. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA-knockdown of the M(2 receptor completely abolished the negative effect of TC on contraction, calcium transient amplitude and synchronisation in NRCM clusters. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in NRCM the TC-induced arrhythmia is mediated by the partial agonism at the M(2 receptor. This mechanism might serve as a promising new therapeutic target for fetal arrhythmia.

  17. Interleukin-17 induces an atypical M2-like macrophage subpopulation that regulates intestinal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Interleukin 17 (IL-17 is a pleiotropic cytokine that acts on both immune and non-immune cells and is generally implicated in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Although IL-17 as well as their source, mainly but not limited to Th17 cells, is also abundant in the inflamed intestine, the role of IL-17 in inflammatory bowel disease remains controversial. In the present study, by using IL-17 knockout (KO mice, we investigated the role of IL-17 in colitis, with special focus on the macrophage subpopulations. Here we show that IL-17KO mice had increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis which was associated with decrease in expression of mRNAs implicated in M2 and/or wound healing macrophages, such as IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist, arginase 1, cyclooxygenase 2, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Lamina propria leukocytes from inflamed colon of IL-17KO mice contained fewer CD11b+Ly6C+MHC Class II+ macrophages, which were derived, at least partly, from blood monocytes, as compared to those of WT mice. FACS-purified CD11b+ cells from WT mice, which were more abundant in Ly6C+MHC Class II+ cells, expressed increased levels of genes associated M2/wound healing macrophages and also M1/proinflammatory macrophages. Depletion of this population by topical administration of clodronate-liposome in the colon of WT mice resulted in the exacerbation of colitis. These results demonstrate that IL-17 confers protection against the development of severe colitis through the induction of an atypical M2-like macrophage subpopulation. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism by which IL-17 exerts a protective function in colitis.

  18. Towards Efficient Mobile M2M Communications: Survey and Open Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos; Aguiar, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone's battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways. PMID:25333291

  19. Towards Efficient Mobile M2M Communications: Survey and Open Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Machine-to-Machine (M2M communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone’s battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways.

  20. Structural basis for tumor pyruvate kinase M2 allosteric regulation and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrauckas, Jill D; Santarsiero, Bernard D; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2005-07-12

    Four isozymes of pyruvate kinase are differentially expressed in human tissue. Human pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (hPKM2) is expressed in early fetal tissues and is progressively replaced by the other three isozymes, M1, R, and L, immediately after birth. In most cancer cells, hPKM2 is once again expressed to promote tumor cell proliferation. Because of its almost ubiquitous presence in cancer cells, hPKM2 has been designated as tumor specific PK-M2, and its presence in human plasma is currently being used as a molecular marker for the diagnosis of various cancers. The X-ray structure of human hPKM2 complexed with Mg(2+), K(+), the inhibitor oxalate, and the allosteric activator fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) has been determined to a resolution of 2.82 A. The active site of hPKM2 is in a partially closed conformation most likely resulting from a ligand-induced domain closure promoted by the binding of FBP. In all four subunits of the enzyme tetramer, a conserved water molecule is observed on the 2-si face of the prospective enolate and supports the hypothesis that a proton-relay system is acting as the proton donor of the reaction (1). Significant structural differences among the human M2, rabbit muscle M1, and the human R isozymes are observed, especially in the orientation of the FBP-activating loop, which is in a closed conformation when FBP is bound. The structural differences observed between the PK isozymes could potentially be exploited as unique structural templates for the design of allosteric drugs against the disease states associated with the various PK isozymes, especially cancer and nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia.

  1. Towards efficient mobile M2M communications: survey and open challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos; Aguiar, Ana

    2014-10-20

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone's battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways.

  2. Sistemas de gestión de sensores mediante tecnologías M2M

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Heredero, Miguel de

    2014-01-01

    En el proyecto se lleva a cabo un estudio práctico sobre dos escenarios donde intervienen dispositivos relacionados con el Internet de las cosas. También se puede situar como una solución de comunicación M2M. Comunicación máquina a máquina implica un sistema central que es capaz de conectarse con otros sistemas en varios lugares. La conexión permite que el sistema central recoja o envíe datos a cada lugar remoto para su procesamiento. El primer escenario consta de la configuración y montaj...

  3. Resonant Photoemission and M_{2,3}-Absorption Spectra in Nickel Dichloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, J.

    Ni 3p-resonant photoemission and Ni M_{2,3}-absorption spectra are calculated in detail on a cluster of (NiCl_6)^{4-} with the use of the transition matrix elements evaluated on the Herman-Skillman potential in Ni atom. Overall spectral shape agrees well with experiment, allowing a determination of the parameters which characterize Ni 3d and Cl 3p states. Resonance behavior is discussed near the Ni 3p-core level photothreshold. The resonant enhancement is found to be larger for the peak with higher binding energy in the d^7-multiplets.

  4. Putative M2 muscarinic receptors of rat heart have high affinity for organophosphorus anticholinesterases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, C.L.; Eldefrawi, A.T.; Eldefrawi, M.E. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The M2 subtype of muscarinic receptor is predominant in heart, and such receptors were reported to be located in muscles as well as in presynaptic cholinergic and adrenergic nerve terminals. Muscarinic receptors of rat heart were identified by the high affinity binding of the agonist (+)-(3H)cis-methyldioxolane ((3H)CD), which has been used to label a high affinity population of M2 receptors. A single population of sites was detected and (3H)CD binding was sensitive to the M2 antagonist himbacine but much less so to pirenzepine, the M1 antagonist. These cardiac receptors had different sensitivities to NiCl2 and N-ethylmaleimide from brain muscarinic receptors, that were also labeled with (3H)CD and considered to be of the M2 subtype. Up to 70% of the (3H)CD-labeled cardiac receptors had high affinities for several organophosphate (OP) anticholinesterases. (3H)CD binding was inhibited by the nerve agents soman, VX, sarin, and tabun, with K0.5 values of 0.8, 2, 20, and 50 nM, respectively. It was also inhibited by echothiophate and paraoxon with K0.5 values of 100 and 300 nM, respectively. The apparent competitive nature of inhibition of (3H)CD binding by both sarin and paraoxon suggests that the OPs bind to the acetylcholine binding site of the muscarinic receptor. Other OP insecticides had lower potencies, inhibiting less than 50% of 5 nM (3H)CD binding by 1 microM of EPN, coumaphos, dioxathion, dichlorvos, or chlorpyriphos. There was poor correlation between the potencies of the OPs in reversibly inhibiting (3H)CD binding, and their anticholinesterase activities and toxicities. Acetylcholinesterases are the primary targets for these OP compounds because of the irreversible nature of their inhibition, which results in building of acetylcholine concentrations that activate muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and desensitize them, thereby inhibiting respiration.

  5. Atmospheric Turbulence Measurements With the Automatic Mini UAV 'M2AV Carolo'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bange, J.; van den Kroonenberg, A. C.; Spieß, T.; Buschmann, M.; Krüger, L.; Heindorf, A.; Vörsmann, P.

    2007-05-01

    The limitations of manned airborne meteorological measurements led to the development of an autonomously operating mini aircraft, the Meteorological Mini-UAV (M2AV), at the Institute of Aerospace Systems, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. The task was to develop, test and verify a meteorological sensor package as payload for an already available automatic carrier aircraft, the UAV 'Carolo T200', which operates autonomously i.e. without remote control. The M2AV is a self constructed model aircraft with two electrically powered engines and a wingspan of two meters. The maximum take-off weight is 4.5~kg (the M2AV is therefore classified as an model plane which simplifies authority issues), including 1.5~kg of payload. It is hand-launched which makes operation of the aircraft easy. With an endurance of approximately 50 minutes, the range accounts for 60 km at a cruising speed of 20~m/s. The M2AV is capable of performing turbulence measurements (wind vector, temperature and humidity) within the troposphere and offers an economic component during meteorological campaigns. The meteorological sensors are mounted on a noseboom to minimise the aircraft's influence on the measurements and to position the sensors closely to each other. Wind is measured via a small five-hole probe, an inertia measurement unit and GPS. The flight mission (waypoints, altitudes, airspeed) is planned and assigned to the aircraft before the semi- automatic launch. The flight is only controlled by the on-board autopilot system which only communicates with a ground station (laptop PC) for the exchange of measured data and command updates like new waypoints etc. The talk gives details on the technical items, calibration and first missions. Results from first field experiments like the LAUNCH-2005 campaign near Berlin are used for data quality assessment by comparison with simultaneous lidar and sodar measurements. An in situ comparison with the highly accurate helicopter-borne turbulence

  6. $SU(N)$ BPS Monopoles in $\\mathcal{M}^2\\times S^2$

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We extend the investigation of BPS saturated t'Hooft-Polyakov monopoles in $\\mathcal{M}^{2}\\times S^{2}$ to the general case of $SU(N)$ gauge symmetry. This geometry causes the resulting $N-1$ coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations for the $N-1$ monopole profiles to become autonomous. One can also define a flat limit in which the curvature of the background metric is arbitrarily small but the simplifications brought in by the geometry remain. We prove analytically that non-trivial...

  7. An M/M/2 Queueing System with Heterogeneous Servers Including One with Working Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes an M/M/2 queueing system with two heterogeneous servers, one of which is always available but the other goes on vacation in the absence of customers waiting for service. The vacationing server, however, returns to serve at a low rate as an arrival finds the other server busy. The system is analyzed in the steady state using matrix geometric method. Busy period of the system is analyzed and mean waiting time in the stationary regime computed. Conditional stochastic decomposition of stationary queue length is obtained. An illustrative example is also provided.

  8. Clinical experience with autologous M2 macrophages in children with severe cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, Elena R; Kafanova, Marina Yu; Shevela, Ekaterina Ya; Sirota, Sergei I; Adonina, Elena I; Sakhno, Lyudmila V; Ostanin, Alexander A; Kozlov, Vladimir V

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy is considered to be a new approach for the treatment of cerebral palsy (CP). Given the potent anti-inflammatory activity and high regenerative potential of M2 macrophages, these cells may be an alternative source for cell transplantation. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of autologous M2 macrophages, we conducted a pilot clinical trial in 21 children with severe CP. The primary outcome measure was safety, which included assessment of mortality of any cause, immediate adverse reactions, and serious adverse effects and comorbidities during 5-year follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was functional improvement in Gross Motor Function Measure (66-item GMFM) test, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Fine Motor (PDMS-FM) test, Ashworth scale, MRC scale, and an easy-to-understand questionnaire for evaluation of cognitive functions in our modification. Intradural injection of M2 cells (in mean dose of 0.8 × 10(6)/kg) into the lumbar spinal area did not induce any serious adverse events. No cases of mortality, psychomotor worsening, exacerbation of seizures, and long-term comorbidities, including tumors, were observed during a 5-year follow-up. After 3 months, GMFM score increased from 13.7 ± 7.8 to 58.6 ± 14.6, PDMS-FM score improved from 0.76 ± 0.42 to 5.05 ± 0.97, and the Ashworth score decreased from 3.8 ± 0.21 to 3.3 ± 0.24. Along with gross and fine motor function enhancement, an improvement of cognitive activity (from 1.62 ± 0.41 to 4.05 ± 0.64, according to questionnaire assessment) and reduction of seizure syndrome were registered as well. The neurological improvements did not diminish during the 5-year follow-up period. The data obtained suggest that cell therapy based on M2 macrophages is safe, does not induce early adverse effects and long-term comorbidities, and is accompanied with a significant improvement of motor and cognitive activities in severe CP patients. This manuscript is

  9. Joint TAS and Power Allocation for SDF Relaying M2M Cooperative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingwei Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outage probability (OP performance of multiple-relay-based selective decode-and-forward (SDF relaying mobile-to-mobile (M2M networks with transmit antenna selection (TAS over N-Nakagami fading channels is investigated. The exact closed-form expressions for OP of the optimal and suboptimal TAS schemes are derived. The power allocation problem is formulated for performance optimization. Then, the OP performance under different conditions is evaluated through numerical simulations to verify the analysis. The simulation results showed that optimal TAS scheme has a better OP performance than suboptimal TAS scheme. Further, the power allocation parameter has an important influence on the OP performance.

  10. EcoM2 web portal: Collecting empirical data and supporting companies' ecodesign implementation and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.; Rozenfeld, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    of strengths and limitations; and the establishment of strategic roadmaps for improved ecodesign implementation. This paper describes the development of the EcoM2 web portal, which will allow for the framework to be tested on greater numbers of companies and at the same time to provide a quick diagnosis...... of their current ecodesign maturity profile. Analyses of the collected data will allow the establishment of patterns on ecodesign implementation in regards to criteria such as sector and size of companies and the improvement of empirical knowledge on ecodesign implementation and best practices....

  11. Strategic Thinking of the Internet of Things and M2M Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Qingzhong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Editor' s Desk: The Internet of Things is an important part of the emerging high-tech industry and has been recognized as one of the important technologies for addressing global financial crisis and revitalizing the economy. Therefore, at the beginning of the new year, we are honored to have invited Mr. Samuel Qi (Qi Qingzhong), a famous Chinese communication technology expert and GM of Shanghai Symphony Telecommunications Co., Ltd., to give his views on the development strategy of the Internet of Things and Machine to Machine (M2M) Communications.

  12. M2型巨噬细胞的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗冲; 杨锡强

    2010-01-01

    @@ 目前根据巨噬细胞活化状态及功能不同大致分为2种,即M1和M2型巨噬细胞[1-2].M1细胞即为经典活化巨噬细胞(classically activated macrophages,CAM),具有吞噬杀菌,释放炎症介质,提呈抗原和启动适应性免疫应答的功能,是机体抵御外物的重要防线[3].

  13. Distinct interneuron types express m2 muscarinic receptor immunoreactivity on their dendrites or axon terminals in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájos, N; Papp, E C; Acsády, L; Levey, A I; Freund, T F

    1998-01-01

    In previous studies m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-immunoreactive interneurons and various types of m2-positive axon terminals have been described in the hippocampal formation. The aim of the present study was to identify the types of interneurons expressing m2 receptor and to examine whether the somadendritic and axonal m2 immunostaining labels the same or distinct cell populations. In the CA1 subfield, neurons immunoreactive for m2 have horizontal dendrites, they are located at the stratum oriens/alveus border and have an axon that project to the dendritic region of pyramidal cells. In the CA3 subfield and the hilus, m2-positive neurons are multipolar and are scattered in all layers except stratum lacunosum-moleculare. In stratum pyramidale of the CA1 and CA3 regions, striking axon terminal staining for m2 was observed, surrounding the somata and axon initial segments of pyramidal cells in a basket-like manner. The co-localization of m2 with neurochemical markers and GABA was studied using the "mirror" technique and fluorescent double-immunostaining at the light microscopic level and with double-labelling using colloidal gold-conjugated antisera and immunoperoxidase reaction (diaminobenzidine) at the electron microscopic level. GABA was shown to be present in the somata of most m2-immunoreactive interneurons, as well as in the majority of m2-positive terminals in all layers. The calcium-binding protein parvalbumin was absent from practically all m2-immunoreactive cell bodies and dendrites. In contrast, many of the terminals synapsing on pyramidal cell somata and axon initial segments co-localized parvalbumin and m2, suggesting a differential distribution of m2 receptor immunoreactivity on the axonal and somadendritic membrane of parvalbumin-containing basket and axo-axonic cells. The co-existence of m2 receptors with the calcium-binding protein calbindin and the neuropeptides cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide was rare throughout the

  14. M2 macrophages or IL-33 treatment attenuate ongoing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, A. R.; Campos, L. W.; Fonseca, D. M.; Bertolini, T. B.; Gembre, A. F.; Prado, R. Q.; Alves-Filho, J. C.; Ramos, S. G.; Russo, M.; Bonato, V. L. D.

    2017-01-01

    The protective effects of mycobacterial infections on lung allergy are well documented. However, the inverse relationship between tuberculosis and type 2 immunity is still elusive. Although type 1 immunity is essential to protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis it might be also detrimental to the host due to the induction of extensive tissue damage. Here, we determined whether lung type 2 immunity induced by allergen sensitization and challenge could affect the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection. We used two different protocols in which sensitization and allergen challenge were performed before or after M. tuberculosis infection. We found an increased resistance to M. tuberculosis only when allergen exposure was given after, but not before infection. Infected mice exposed to allergen exhibited lower bacterial load and cellular infiltrates in the lungs. Enhanced resistance to infection after allergen challenge was associated with increased gene expression of alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) and IL-33 levels. Accordingly, either adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages or systemic IL-33 treatment was effective in attenuating M. tuberculosis infection. Notably, the enhanced resistance induced by allergen exposure was dependent on IL-33 receptor ST2. Our work indicates that IL-33 might be an alternative therapeutic treatment for severe tuberculosis. PMID:28128217

  15. Some results on 4~m2~n designs with clear two-factor interaction components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Clear effects criterion is one of the important rules for selecting optimal fractional factorial designs,and it has become an active research issue in recent years.Tang et al.derived upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions(2fi’s) in 2n-(n-k) fractional factorial designs of resolutions III and IV by constructing a 2n-(n-k) design for given k,which are only restricted for the symmetrical case.This paper proposes and studies the clear effects problem for the asymmetrical case.It improves the construction method of Tang et al.for 2n-(n-k) designs with resolution III and derives the upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interaction components(2fic’s) in 4m2n designs with resolutions III and IV.The lower bounds are achieved by constructing specific designs.Comparisons show that the number of clear 2fic’s in the resulting design attains its maximum number in many cases,which reveals that the construction methods are satisfactory when they are used to construct 4m2n designs under the clear effects criterion.

  16. Feedback mechanisms between M2 macrophages and Th17 cells in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hui; Pan, Fei; Guo, Hongxia; Bu, Fangfang; Xin, Tong; Chen, Shukun; Guo, Yajun

    2016-09-01

    IL-17 and IL-22 are linked to the development of intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the maintenance of IL-17 and IL-22 production, as well as the cell type (Th17) that mediates these cytokines in CRC patients, remains unknown. To examine this, untreated CRC patients and healthy controls were recruited in this study. We first observed that CRC patients contained significantly elevated levels of IL-17- and IL-22-producing CD4(+) T cells. The vast majority of IL-22-expressing CD4(+) T cells also expressed IL-17. We then found that the production of both IL-17 and IL-22 required support from autologous monocytes, since the depletion of monocytes significantly downregulated IL-17 and IL-22 secretion. Naive T cells from CRC patients did not secrete IL-17 or IL-22 initially, but long-term coculture with autologous monocytes significantly upregulated IL-17 and IL-22 production in an IL-6-dependent manner. Blockade of IL-6 significantly reduced the levels of both IL-17 and IL-22. We then observed that CD163(+) M2 macrophages were the main contributor of IL-6. Interestingly, incubation of monocytes with CCR4(+)CCR6(+) Th17 cells resulted in significantly higher levels of CD163(+) macrophages as well as higher IL-6 secretion, than incubation with non-Th17 CD4(+) T cells. Together, our study discovered a positive feedback mechanism between Th17 and M2 macrophages in CRC patients.

  17. An improved radiosynthesis of the muscarinic M2 radiopharmaceutical, [{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosten, Erik M. van [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6 (Canada); PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan A.; Stephenson, Karin A. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Mamo, David C. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Geriatric Mental Health Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 1001 Queen Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M6J 1H4 (Canada); Pollock, Bruce G.; Mulsant, Benoit H. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Geriatric Mental Health Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 1001 Queen Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M6J 1H4 (Canada); Yudin, Andrei K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Vasdev, Neil [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada)], E-mail: neil.vasdev@camhpet.ca

    2009-04-15

    The radioligand 3-(4-(3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropylthio)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl)-1-methyl-1,2,5, 6-tetrahydropyridine ([{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP) is an agonist with specificity towards subtype 2 of muscarinic acetylcholine (M2) receptors. It is currently the only radiotracer available for imaging M2 receptors in human subjects with positron emission tomography. The present study reports on an improved method for the synthesis of [{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP, automated using a GE TRACERlab{sup TM} FX{sub FN} radiosynthesis module. A key facet was the use of a new precursor, 3-(4-(1-methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-3-yl)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-ylthio) propyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. The precursor was fluorinated via nucleophilic displacement of the tosyloxy group by potassium cryptand [{sup 18}F]fluoride (K[{sup 18}F]/K{sub 222}) in CH{sub 3}CN at 80 deg. C for 5 min, and purified by HPLC. Formulated [{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP was prepared in an uncorrected radiochemical yield of 29{+-}4%, with a specific activity of 138{+-}41 GBq/{mu}mol (3732{+-}1109 mCi/{mu}mol) at the end of synthesis (35 min; n=3). This methodology offers higher yields, faster synthesis times, an optimized precursor, and simpler automation than previously reported.

  18. ISOMP: An Instant Service-Orchestration Mobile M2M Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholhong Im

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones have greater computing power than ever before, providing convenient applications to improve our lives. In general, people find it difficult to locate suitable applications and implementing new applications often requires professional skills. In this paper, we propose a new service platform that facilitates the implementation of new applications by composing prebuilt components that provide the context information of mobile devices such as location and contacts. Our platform introduces an innovative concept named context collaboration, in which smartphones exchange context information with each other, which in turn is used to deduct useful inferences. The concept is realized by instant orchestration, which assembles some components and implements a composite component. The interactive communication interface helps a mobile device to communicate with other devices using open APIs, such as SOAP and HTTP (REST. The platform also works in heterogeneous environments, for example, between Android and iOS operating systems. Throughout the platform, mobile devices can act as smart M2M machines with context awareness, enabling intelligent tasks on behalf of users. Our platform will open up a new and innovative pathway for both enhanced mobile context awareness and M2M, which is expected to be a fundamental feature of the next generation of mobile devices.

  19. Some results on 4m2n designs with clear two-factor interaction components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO ShengLi; ZHANG RunChu; LIU MinQian

    2008-01-01

    Clear effects criterion is one of the important rules for selecting optimal fractional factorial designs, and it has become an active research issue in recent years.Tang et al. derived upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions (2fi's) in 2n-(n-k)fractional factorial designs of resolutions Ⅲ and Ⅳ by constructing a 2n-(n-k) design for given k, which are only restricted for the symmetrical case. This paper proposes and studies the clear effects problem for the asymmetrical case. It improves the construction method of Tang et al. for 2n-(n-k)designs with resolution Ⅲ and derives the upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interaction components(2fic's) in 4m2n designs with resolutions Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The lower bounds are achieved by constructing specific designs. Comparisons show that the number of clear 2fic's in the resulting design attains its maximum number in many cases, which reveals that the construction methods are satisfactory when they are used to construct 4m2n designs under the clear effects criterion.

  20. Machine to machine (M2M) technology in demand responsive commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David S.; Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Motegi, Naoya; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    Machine to Machine (M2M) is a term used to describe the technologies that enable computers, embedded processors, smart sensors, actuators and mobile devices to communicate with one another, take measurements and make decisions--often without human intervention. M2M technology was applied to five commercial buildings in a test. The goal was to reduce electric demand when a remote price signal rose above a predetermine price. In this system, a variable price signal was generated from a single source on the Internet and distributed using the meta-language, XML (Extensible Markup Language). Each of five commercial building sites monitored the common price signal and automatically shed site-specific electric loads when the price increased above predetermined thresholds. Other than price signal scheduling, which was set up in advance by the project researchers, the system was designed to operate without human intervention during the two-week test period. Although the buildings responded to the same price signal, the communication infrastructures used at each building were substantially different. This study provides an overview of the technologies used at each building site, the price generator/server, and each link in between. Network architecture, security, data visualization and site-specific system features are characterized. The results of the test are discussed, including: functionality at each site, measurement and verification techniques, and feedback from energy managers and building operators. Lessons learned from the test and potential implications for widespread rollout are provided.

  1. Mid-infrared imaging of the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, M. W.; Sahai, R.; Davis, J.; Livingston, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States); Lykou, F. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Vienna (Austria); DE Buizer, J. [USRA SOFIA Science Center, M/S 211-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Division of Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Keller, L. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Adams, J.; Gull, G.; Henderson, C.; Herter, T.; Schoenwald, J., E-mail: Michael.W.Werner@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 μm. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's ∼4''-5'' beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 μm and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 μm is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al. and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small (<0.1 μm) and large (>1 μm) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that collisional processing within the bipolar outflow plays an important role in establishing the particle size distribution.

  2. DAMPAK KETIDAKSTABILAN NILAI TUKAR RUPIAH TERHADAP PERMINTAAN UANG M2 DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Puji Lestari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to estimate demand for M2 money in Indonesia using time series non-stationary technique in 1997.1 - 2006.4. There are four methods are used in research, first, VAR estimation used to forecast model which have interaction of data time series. Second, function impulse response to see response from every variable to structural innovation of the other variables at the same time. Third, variance decomposition to know dissociating variation change of shock from each variable to other variables in model. Fourth method, ADL ECM to see long-range adjustment in variable, before and after addition of variable. The result, there are non-stationary condition in the time series data in the research. Result of VAR estimation show that there is no causality relation two ways among fifth of variable. From impulse, response known that response of M2 variable to other variable very fluctuative but finally the condition will return to stabilize.

  3. Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Bipolar Planetary Nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M W; Davis, J; Livingston, J; Lykou, F; de Buizer, J; Morris, M R; Keller, L; Adams, J; Gull, G; Henderson, C; Herter, T; Schoenwald, J

    2013-01-01

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 $\\mu m$. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's $\\sim$ 4${''}$-to-5${''}$ beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 $\\mu m$ and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 $\\mu m$ is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small ($$ 1 $\\mu m$) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that co...

  4. A Rare Cytogenetic Presentation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML-M2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthappa Vijay Raghavendra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML with t(8;21(q22;q22 generating the AML1/ETO fusion gene on 8q22 is a distinct type of AML t(8;21 category (WHO/AML-M2 (FAB, generally associated with a favourable prognosis. Variant additional chromosomal abnormalities are frequently reported. We report three adult cases of this category with unusual karyotype. Bone marrow cytogenetics of case no. 1: 45,X,-Y, t(8;21(q13;q22 with a novel breakpoint of chromosome 8 at (q13. Case no. 2: 46,X,t(X;2(q22;q37,t(3;7(q21;q36,t(5;14(p15;q11,del(8(q22 a complex rearrangement without the involvement of chromosome 21. Case no. 3: 49,XX,+5, t(8;21(q22;q22, +16, +der(21t(8;21(q22;q22 with additional der(21. Endometrial in this case which was positive for myeloperoxidase (MPO and CD117 conforming the AML infiltration. All are morphologically AML with t(8;21. Relevant literature in cytogenetic of AML-M2 is reviewed. The molecular mechanism involved in unusual rearrangements and clinical significance of them are subjected for further studies

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Strategy for M2 Microglial Polarization Using Retinoic Acid-Loaded Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Machado-Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory mechanisms triggered by microglial cells are involved in the pathophysiology of several brain disorders, hindering repair. Herein, we propose the use of retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (RA-NP as a means to modulate microglia response towards an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective phenotype (M2. RA-NP were first confirmed to be internalized by N9 microglial cells; nanoparticles did not affect cell survival at concentrations below 100 μg/mL. Then, immunocytochemical studies were performed to assess the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Our results show that RA-NP inhibited LPS-induced release of nitric oxide and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and promoted arginase-1 and interleukin-4 production. Additionally, RA-NP induced a ramified microglia morphology (indicative of M2 state, promoting tissue viability, particularly neuronal survival, and restored the expression of postsynaptic protein-95 in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to an inflammatory challenge. RA-NP also proved to be more efficient than the free equivalent RA concentration. Altogether, our data indicate that RA-NP may be envisioned as a promising therapeutic agent for brain inflammatory diseases.

  6. Allosteric regulation of pyruvate kinase M2 isozyme involves a cysteine residue in the intersubunit contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Y; Noguchi, T

    1998-05-15

    Pyruvate kinase M2 isozyme mutants with amino acid substitutions in the subunit interface were prepared and characterized. The substitutions were made in the allosteric M2 isozyme by the corresponding residues of the nonallosteric M1 isozyme to identify the residue involved in the allosteric effects. The replacement of Cys-423 by Leu led to substantial loss of both homotropic and heterotropic allosteric effects while the substitutions at Phe-389, Arg-398, Ala-401, Pro-402, Thr-408, and Ile-427 did not. The altered kinetic properties of the Cys-423-substituted mutant resulted from the shift of the allosteric transition toward the active R-state since the mutant exhibits the allosteric properties in the presence of an allosteric inhibitor, L-phenylalanine. The inverse correlation between the hydrophobicity of residue 423 and the extent of stabilization of the R-state was found by analysis of mutants with un-ionizable amino acids at position 423. Furthermore, the modification of Cys-423 with methyl methanethiosulfonate led to a shift of the allosteric transition toward the R-state, probably the result of increased hydrophobicity of the residue. These results suggest that Cys-423 is involved in the allosteric regulation of the enzyme through hydrophobic interactions.

  7. Supersymmetric M2-branes with Englert fluxes, and the simple group PSL(2, 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fre, Pietro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino (Italy); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    A new class is introduced of M2-branes solutions of d=11 supergravity that include internal fluxes obeying Englert equation in 7-dimensions. A simple criterion for the existence of Killing spinors in such backgrounds is established. Englert equation is viewed as the generalization to d=7 of Beltrami equation defined in d=3 and it is treated accordingly. All 2-brane solutions of minimal d=7 supergravity can be uplifted to d=11 and have N≥4 supersymmetry. It is shown that the simple group PSL(2,7) is crystallographic in d=7 having an integral action on the A7 root lattice. By means of this point-group and of the T{sup 7} torus obtained quotiening R{sup 7} with the A7 root lattice we were able to construct new M2 branes with Englert fluxes and N≤4. In particular we exhibit here an N=1 solution depending on 4-parameters and admitting a large non abelian discrete symmetry, namely G{sub 21}≡

  8. Exact relations between M2-brane theories with and without Orientifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Masazumi

    2015-01-01

    We study partition functions of low-energy effective theories of M2-branes, whose type IIB brane constructions include orientifolds. We mainly focus on circular quiver superconformal Chern-Simons theory on S^3, whose gauge group is O(2N+1)x USp(2N)x ... x O(2N+1)x USp(2N). This theory is a natural generalization of N=5 ABJM theory with the gauge group O(2N+1)_{2k}x USp(2N)_{-k}. We find that the partition function of this type of theory has a simple relation to the one of the M2-brane theories without the orientifolds, whose gauge group is U(N)x ... x U(N). By using this relation, we determine an exact form of the grand partition function of the O(2N+1)_2 x USp(2N)_{-1} ABJM theory, where its supersymmetry is expected to enhance to N=6. As another interesting application, we discuss that our result gives a natural physical interpretation of a relation between grand partition functions of the U(N+1)_4 x U(N)_{-4} ABJ theory and U(N)_2 x U(N)_{-2} ABJM theory, recently conjectured by Grassi-Hatsuda-Marino. We a...

  9. Decisive disappearance search at high Δ m2 with monoenergetic muon neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axani, S.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spitz, J.; Wongjirad, T.

    2015-11-01

    "KPipe" is a proposed experiment which will study muon neutrino disappearance for a sensitive test of the Δ m2˜1 eV2 anomalies, possibly indicative of one or more sterile neutrinos. The experiment is to be located at the J-PARC Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility's spallation neutron source, which represents the world's most intense source of charged kaon decay-at-rest monoenergetic (236 MeV) muon neutrinos. The detector vessel, designed to measure the charged-current interactions of these neutrinos, will be 3 m in diameter and 120 m long, extending radially at a distance of 32 to 152 m from the source. This design allows a sensitive search for νμ disappearance associated with currently favored light sterile neutrino models and features the ability to reconstruct the neutrino oscillation wave within a single, extended detector. The required detector design, technology, and costs are modest. The KPipe measurements will be robust since they depend on a known energy neutrino source with low expected backgrounds. Further, since the measurements rely only on the measured rate of detected events as a function of distance, with no required knowledge of the initial flux and neutrino interaction cross section, the results will be largely free of systematic errors. The experimental sensitivity to oscillations, based on a shape-only analysis of the L /E distribution, will extend an order of magnitude beyond present experimental limits in the relevant high-Δ m2 parameter space.

  10. Meteorological profiling of the lower troposphere using the research UAV "M2AV Carolo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beyrich

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of temperature, humidity and wind up to a height of 1500 m a.g.l. (above ground level were measured with the automatically operating small unmanned research aircraft M2AV (Meteorological Mini Aerial Vehicle during the LITFASS-2009 (LIndenberg-To-Falkenberg: Aircraft, Scintillometer and large-eddy Simulation experiment. The campaign took place in July 2009 over the heterogeneous landscape around the Meteorologcial Observatory Lindenberg – Richard-Aßmann-Observatory in the eastern part of Germany. Due to a high vertical resolution of about 10 cm the M2AV data show details of the turbulent structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL. One profile takes about 10–15 min allowing for a continuous monitoring of certain phases of ABL development by successive ascents and descents during one flight (50–60 min duration. Two case studies of measurements performed during the morning and evening ABL transition periods are discussed in detail. Comparison of the aircraft-based temperature, humidity and wind profiles with tower, sodar/RASS, wind profiler/RASS, radiosoundings and microwave radiometer profiler measurements show good agreement taking into account the different sampling strategies of these measurement systems.

  11. Myeloid PTEN deficiency protects livers from ischemia reperfusion injury by facilitating M2 macrophage differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shi; Rao, Jianhua; Zhu, Jianjun; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Lu, Ling; Wang, Xuehao; Zhai, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Although the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in regulating cell proliferation is well established, its function in immune responses remains to be fully appreciated. In the current study, we analyzed myeloid-specific PTEN function in regulating tissue inflammatory immune response in a murine liver partial warm ischemia model. Myeloid-specific PTEN knockout (KO) resulted in liver protection from ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) by deviating the local innate immune response against ischemia reperfusion toward the regulatory type: expression of proinflammatory genes was selectively decreased and anti-inflammatory IL-10 was simultaneously increased in ischemia reperfusion livers of PTEN KO mice compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice. PI3K inhibitor and IL-10-neutralizing Abs, but not exogenous LPS, recreated liver IRI in these KO mice. At the cellular level, Kupffer cells and peritoneal macrophages isolated from KO mice expressed higher levels of M2 markers and produced lower TNF-α and higher IL-10 in response to TLR ligands than did their WT counterparts. They had enhanced Stat3- and Stat6-signaling pathway activation, but diminished Stat1-signaling pathway activation, in response to TLR4 stimulation. Inactivation of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride enhanced proinflammatory immune activation and increased IRI in livers of myeloid PTEN KO mice. Thus, myeloid PTEN deficiency protects livers from IRI by facilitating M2 macrophage differentiation.

  12. Oxysterol mixture and, in particular, 27-hydroxycholesterol drive M2 polarization of human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Barbara; Bellora, Francesca; Ricciarelli, Roberta; De Ciucis, Chiara; Furfaro, AnnaLisa; Leardi, Riccardo; Colla, Renata; Pacini, Davide; Traverso, Nicola; Moretta, Alessandro; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Bottino, Cristina; Domenicotti, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in atherosclerosis progression. Classically activated M1 macrophages have been found in rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques whereas alternatively activated macrophages, M2, localize in stable plaque. Macrophage accumulation of cholesterol and of its oxidized derivatives (oxysterols) leads to the formation of foam cells, a hallmark of atherosclerotic lesions. In this study, the effects of oxysterols in determining the functional polarization of human macrophages were investigated. Monocytes, purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors, were differentiated into macrophages (M0) and treated with an oxysterol mixture, cholesterol, or ethanol, every 4 H for a total of 4, 8, and 12 H. The administration of the compounds was repeated in order to maintain the levels of oxysterols constant throughout the treatment. Compared with ethanol treatment, the oxysterol mixture decreased the surface expression of CD36 and CD204 scavenger receptors and reduced the amount of reactive oxygen species whereas it did not affect either cell viability or matrix metalloprotease-9 activity. Moreover, the oxysterol mixture increased the expression of both liver X receptor α and ATP-binding cassette transporter 1. An enhanced secretion of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 accompanied these events. The results supported the hypothesis that the constant levels of oxysterols and, in particular, of 27-hydroxycholesterol stimulate macrophage polarization toward the M2 immunomodulatory functional phenotype, contributing to the stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques.

  13. Thermal Decomposition of Anhydrous Alkali Metal Dodecaborates M2B12H12 (M = Li, Na, K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqing He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal dodecaborates M2/nB12H12 are regarded as the dehydrogenation intermediates of metal borohydrides M(BH4n that are expected to be high density hydrogen storage materials. In this work, thermal decomposition processes of anhydrous alkali metal dodecaborates M2B12H12 (M = Li, Na, K synthesized by sintering of MBH4 (M = Li, Na, K and B10H14 have been systematically investigated in order to understand its role in the dehydrogenation of M(BH4n. Thermal decomposition of M2B12H12 indicates multistep pathways accompanying the formation of H-deficient monomers M2B12H12−x containing the icosahedral B12 skeletons and is followed by the formation of (M2B12Hzn polymers. The decomposition behaviors are different with the in situ formed M2B12H12 during the dehydrogenation of metal borohydrides.

  14. Asscessment of the clinical value of CK-M2 and oligosaccharide protein inserum from patients with gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Lan Zhao; Jie Lin; Shu You Peng; Qi Yun Li; Fan Zhou; Xian Sheng Chen; Xin You Xie; Yi Xiong Zheng

    2000-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the clinical value of creatine kinase macroisoenzyme type 2 (CK-M2) and oligosaccharideprotein (OP) in serum from patients with gastric carcinoma (GC).METHODS Serum level of CK-M2 was detected by agar gel electrophoresis. OP concentration was measuredby an enzyme immunoassay.RESULTS Serum levels of CK-M2 and OP in 57 cases of GC were significantly higher than those in 51 caseswith gastric precancerous lesion and 28 controls. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for GC with CK-M2 was 56.10% and 98.63% respectively. CK-M2 and OP were not associated with histologic type and degreeof differentiation.CONCLUSION These results suggest that CK-M2 may serve as a marker to diagnose GC, and the specificityis higher, whereas OP is not more significant for GC diagnosis, but it could be a useful indicator forevaluation the status of body immune.

  15. Optimum condition in Cr3+ bioleaching of tannery sludge with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5, Thiobacillus thiooxidans TS6 and Rhodotorula sp. R30%酵母菌与两种硫杆菌复合对污泥中三价铬的去除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世梅; 周立祥; 黄峰源

    2006-01-01

    研究了氧化亚铁硫杆菌LX5(Thiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5)、氧化硫硫杆菌TS6(Thiobacillus thiooxidans TS6)和耐酸性酵母菌R30(Rhodotorula sp.R30)对重金属铬(Cr3+)的耐受性.结果表明,700mg/L的Cr3+对硫杆菌LX5、TS6的生长和氧化活性影响不大,但Cr3+浓度大于500mg/L时明显抑制酵母菌R30的生长.酵母菌R30与硫杆菌LX5和TS6复合能明显加速污泥淋滤的进程,最佳复合比为酵母菌R30接种量2.0%,硫杆菌LX5和TS6接种量10%.分别用含酵母菌R30数量为104个/mL和102个/mL的酸化污泥作接种物进行污泥淋滤,发现淋滤过程中pH值下降的速度没有明显差异,而在淋滤起始时添加2.0%的酵母菌R30,则淋滤反应提前36h结束.由此可见,在其它条件相同的污泥淋滤中,污泥中所含耐酸性酵母菌的数量是加快淋滤的关键.

  16. Subcellular redistribution of m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in striatal interneurons in vivo after acute cholinergic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, V; Laribi, O; Levey, A I; Bloch, B

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of our work was to investigate how the cholinergic environment influences the targeting and the intracellular trafficking of the muscarinic receptor m2 (m2R) in vivo. To address this question, we have used immunohistochemical approaches at light and electron microscopic levels to detect the m2R in control rats and rats treated with muscarinic receptor agonists. In control animals, m2Rs were located mostly at postsynaptic sites at the plasma membrane of perikarya and dendrites of cholinergic and NPY-somatostatin interneurons as autoreceptors and heteroreceptors, respectively. Presynaptic receptors were also detected in boutons. The m2Rs were usually detected at extrasynaptic sites, but they could be found rarely in association with symmetrical synapses, suggesting that the cholinergic transmission mediated by m2R occurs via synaptic and nonsynaptic mechanisms. The stimulation of muscarinic receptors with oxotremorine provoked a dramatic alteration of m2R compartmentalization, including endocytosis with a decrease of the density of m2R at the membrane (-63%) and an increase of those associated with endosomes (+86%) in perikarya. The very strong increase of m2R associated with multivesicular bodies (+732%) suggests that oxotremorine activated degradation. The slight increase in the Golgi apparatus (+26%) suggests that the m2R stimulation had an effect on the maturation of m2R. The substance P receptor located at the membrane of the same neurons was unaffected by oxotremorine. Our data demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation dramatically influences the subcellular distribution of m2R in striatal interneurons in vivo. These events may have key roles in controlling abundance and availability of muscarinic receptors via regulation of receptor endocytosis, degradation, and/or neosynthesis. Further, the control of muscarinic receptor trafficking may influence the activity of striatal interneurons, including neurotransmitter release and/or electric activity.

  17. Impaired atrial M(2)-cholinoceptor function in obesity-related hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelat, M; Verwaerde, P; Merial, C; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L; Senard, J M

    1999-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of the parasympathetic limb of the baroreflex arch in a canine model of obesity-related hypertension. Twelve male beagle dogs were randomized into 2 groups. Six dogs were fed with normal canine food and 6 were submitted to a 10-week high-fat diet (HFD). We have evaluated the consequences of HFD on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) circadian cycles and methylscopolamine dose-response curves. Binding of [(3)H]-AF-DX 384 and adenylyl cyclase activity were investigated to determine the density and functionality of M(2)-cholinoceptors on right atrial membranes from control and HFD dogs. HFD induced a significant increase in body weight (15+/-1 vs 12+/-1 kg), systolic BP (161+/-5 vs 145+/-4 mm Hg), diastolic BP (92+/-3 vs 79+/-2 mm Hg), and HR (96+/-4 vs 81+/-3 bpm). Circadian rhythms of HR and BP observed in the baseline period were abolished after 9 weeks of HFD. After propranolol (1 mg/kg) pretreatment, the dose of methylscopolamine able to induce 50% maximum tachycardia was significantly increased after 9 weeks of HFD (7.4+/-0.3 vs 4.7+/-0.1 microg/kg). In the control group, the experimental period failed to modify these parameters. The numbers of M(2)-cholinoceptors measured in right atrial membranes were significantly lower in HFD than in control groups (54+/-6 vs 27+/-6 fmol/mg protein). The ability of carbachol to inhibit isoproterenol-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was significantly lower in HFD than in control groups (IC(50)=47+/-12 vs 6.4+/-1.4 micromol/L). However, the basal activity of adenylyl cyclase was unchanged by HFD. HFD decreases M(2)-cholinoceptor number and function in cardiomyocytes. This could explain the abolition of circadian rhythm of HR and the changes in chronotropic effect brought about by methylscopolamine.

  18. Plot of the distribution of the four-lepton invariant mass, m4l, for the selected candidates in the data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the four-lepton invariant mass, m4l, for the selected candidates in the data. The estimated background, as well as the expected SM Higgs boson signal for mH = 124.3 GeV (scaled by the signal strength obtained from fits to the data), are also shown. The single-resonant peak at m4l ∼ 90 GeV includes contribu- tions from s-channel Z/γ∗ and t-channel (Z∗/γ∗)(Z∗/γ∗) production.

  19. Evaluation of Component Activity in Molten MnO-SiO2-Al2O3-CaO System with Model SELF-SReM4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A sub-regular solution model SE LF-SReM4 used to evaluate activity of the components in a homogeneous region of a quaternary system has been developed in Shanghai Enhanced Laboratory of Ferrometallurgy. The application of SELF-SReM4 in C-Mn-Fe-Si system without the SiC formation has been introduced in previous paper. It′s application for molten slag of MnO-SiO2-Al2O3-CaO was introduced in this paper. They provide a basis for the prediction of the metal-slag equilibrium conditions.

  20. The Creation and Destruction of Hf-178m2 Isomer by Neutron Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hua [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); TechSource, Inc. Los Alamos, NM (United States); Talbert, Willard L. [TechSource, Inc. Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ward, Tom [TechSource, Inc. Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    The property of the isomer state in 178m2Hf was an interesting topic in nuclear structure studies during the time period 1970 to 1980. The state at 2.446 MeV with spin and parity Kπ = 16+, has a half-life of 31 years. The isomer is described as a four-quasi-particle state. The K forbidden deexcitatiion by gamma emission is the reason for long half-life. During 1980, the isomer became a troublesome issue for radiation safety workers, because this isomer can also be produced in the first wall of a fussion reactor containing tungsten and also in a tungsten beam stop of a high-energy accelerator.

  1. Spaceflight Effects on Hemopoiesis of Lower Vertebrates Flown on Foton-M2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaya, E. I.; Payushina, O. V.; Butorina, M. N.; Nikonova, T. M.; Grigorian, E. N.; Mitashov, V. I.; Tairbekov, M. G.; Almeida, E.; Khrushchov, N. G.

    2006-01-01

    Intact and operated newts Pleumdeles waltl flown on Foton-M2 for 16 days were used to study the effects of spaceflight as well as tail amputation and lensectomy on their hemopoiesis. The flight did not produce noticeable changes in the peripheral blood of nonoperated newts. However, in operated animals, the number of lymphocytes increased whereas that of neutrophils decreased. There were no morphological differences in hemopoietic organs (liver and spleen) between flown non-operated and operated animals or their controls. However, in both non-operated and operated newts the liver weight and the number of hemopoietic cells in it increased. In contrast to nonoperated newts, space-flown mammals typically showed significant changes in blood cell counts. Experiments with BrdU incorporation revealed labeled cells in the hemopoietic area of the liver as well as in blood and spleen. This observation gives evidence that the BrdU label can be used to study proliferation of hemopoietic cells.

  2. Neutron detection on the Foton-M2 satellite by a track etch detector stack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálfalvi, J K; Szabó, J; Dudás, B

    2007-01-01

    In the frame of a European Space Agency (ESA) project called 'Biology and Physics in Space', a returning satellite, Foton-M2, was orbiting a container, the BIOPAN-5, loaded with biological experiments and facilities for radiation dosimetry (RADO) in the open space. One of the RADO experiments was dedicated to the detection of the primary cosmic rays and secondary neutrons by a track etch detector stack. The system was calibrated at high-energy particle accelerators and neutron generators. The developed detectors were investigated by an image analyser, and from the track parameters the linear energy transfer spectra and the absorbed dose were determined (26 microGy/d). Also, the neutron flux was estimated below 5 MeV and found to be 2.4 cm(-2) s(-1) directly from the space. The construction of the stack allowed to investigate the neutrons also from the direction of the carrying satellite, where the flux was found somewhat higher.

  3. Energies and E1, M2 transition rates for Mo XXX

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Feng; Mei, Maofei; Yang, Jiamin

    2016-01-01

    Based on relativistic wavefunctions from multiconfigurational Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) and configuration interaction calculations, energy levels, radiative rates, and wavelengths are evaluated for all levels of 3s$^2$3p, 3s3p$^2$, 3s$^2$3d, 3p$^3$, 3s3p3d, 3p$^2$3d and 3s3d$^2$ configurations of Al-like Molybdenum ion (Mo XXX). Transition probabilities are reported for E1 and M2 transitions from the ground level. The valence-valence and core-valence correlation effects are accounted for in a systematic way. Breit interactions and quantum electrodynamics effects are estimated in subsequent relativistic configuration interaction calculations. Comparisons are made with the available data in the literature and good agreement has been found which confirms the reliability of our results.

  4. Dy$^{3+}$-activated M$_2$SiO$_4$ (M $=$ Ba, Mg, Sr)-type phosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ESRA ÖZTÜRK; ERKUL KARACAOGLU

    2017-02-01

    The alkaline orthosilicates of M$_2$SiO$_4$ (M $=$ Ba, Mg, Sr) activated with Dy$^{3+}$ and co-doped with Ho$^{3+}$ are prepared through conventional solid-state method, i.e., mixing and grinding of solid form precursors followedby high-temperature heat treatments of several hours in furnaces, generally under open atmosphere and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to get phase properties and photoluminescence (PL) analysis to get luminescenceproperties. The thermal behaviours of well-mixed samples were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA)/thermogravimetry (TG). The PL spectra show that the 478 and 572nm maximum emission bands are attributed, respectively, to ${}^{4}$F$_{9/2}$ $\\to$ ${}^{6}$H$_{15/2}$ and ${}^{4}$F$_{9/2}$ $\\to$ ${}^{6}$H$_{13/2}$ transitions of Dy$^{3+}$ ions.

  5. Thermoelectric Performance of the MXenes M2CO2 (M = Ti, Zr, or Hf)

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala

    2016-02-21

    We present the first report in which the thermoelectric properties of two-dimensional MXenes are calculated by considering both the electron and phonon transport. Specifically, we solve the transport equations of the electrons and phonons for three MXenes, M2CO2, where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf, in order to evaluate the effect of the metal M on the thermoelectric performance. The lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity, obtained from the phonon life times, is found to be lowest in Ti2CO2 and highest in Hf2CO2 in the temperature range from 300 K to 700 K. The highest figure of merit is predicted for Ti2CO2 . The heavy mass of the electrons due to flat conduction bands results in a larger thermopower in the case of n-doping in these compounds.

  6. M2-F1 lifting body and Paresev 1B on ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    In this photo of the M2-F1 lifting body and the Paresev 1B on the ramp, the viewer sees two vehicles representing different approaches to building a research craft to simulate a spacecraft able to land on the ground instead of splashing down in the ocean as the Mercury capsules did. The M2-F1 was a lifting body, a shape able to re-enter from orbit and land. The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) used a Rogallo wing that could be (but never was) used to replace a conventional parachute for landing a capsule-type spacecraft, allowing it to make a controlled landing on the ground. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop

  7. Spaceflight Effects on Hemopoiesis of Lower Vertebrates Flown on Foton-M2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaya, E. I.; Payushina, O. V.; Butorina, M. N.; Nikonova, T. M.; Grigorian, E. N.; Mitashov, V. I.; Tairbekov, M. G.; Almeida, E.; Khrushchov, N. G.

    2006-01-01

    Intact and operated newts Pleumdeles waltl flown on Foton-M2 for 16 days were used to study the effects of spaceflight as well as tail amputation and lensectomy on their hemopoiesis. The flight did not produce noticeable changes in the peripheral blood of nonoperated newts. However, in operated animals, the number of lymphocytes increased whereas that of neutrophils decreased. There were no morphological differences in hemopoietic organs (liver and spleen) between flown non-operated and operated animals or their controls. However, in both non-operated and operated newts the liver weight and the number of hemopoietic cells in it increased. In contrast to nonoperated newts, space-flown mammals typically showed significant changes in blood cell counts. Experiments with BrdU incorporation revealed labeled cells in the hemopoietic area of the liver as well as in blood and spleen. This observation gives evidence that the BrdU label can be used to study proliferation of hemopoietic cells.

  8. Carrier Current Line Systems Technologies in M2M Architecture for Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ching Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the Carrier Current Line Systems (CCLS technologies of Machine to Machine (M2M architecture which applied for mobile station coverage working with metro, high speed railway, and subway such as analysis for public transport of an indoor transition system. It is based on the theory and practical engineering principle which provide guidelines and formulas for link budget design to help designers fully control and analyze the single output power of uplink and downlink between Fiber Repeaters (FR and mobile station as well as base station. Finally, the results of this leakage cable system are successfully applied to indoor coverage design for metro rapid transit system which are easily installed cellular over fiber solutions for WCDMA/LTE access is becoming Ubiquitous Network to Internet of Thing (IOT real case hierarchy of telecommunication.

  9. Large-scale, realistic laboratory modeling of M2 internal tide generation at the Luzon Strait

    CERN Document Server

    Mercier, Matthieu J; Helfrich, Karl; Sommeria, Joël; Viboud, Samuel; Didelle, Henri; Saidi, Sasan; Dauxois, Thierry; Peacock, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The complex double-ridge system in the Luzon Strait in the South China Sea (SCS) is one of the strongest sources of internal tides in the oceans, associated with which are some of the largest amplitude internal solitary waves on record. An issue of debate, however, has been the specific nature of their generation mechanism. To provide insight, we present the results of a large-scale laboratory experiment performed at the Coriolis platform. The experiment was carefully designed so that the relevant dimensionless parameters, which include the excursion parameter, criticality, Rossby, and Froude numbers, closely matched the ocean scenario. The results advocate that a broad and coherent weakly nonlinear, three-dimensional, M2 internal tide that is shaped by the overall geometry of the double-ridge system is radiated into the South China Sea and subsequently steepens, as opposed to being generated by a particular feature or localized region within the ridge system.

  10. Nonmetabolic functions of pyruvate kinase isoform M2 in controlling cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhimin Lu

    2012-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase catalyzes the rate-limiting final step of glycolysis,generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and pyruvate.The M2 tumor-specific isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) promotes glucose uptake and lactate production in the presence of oxygen,known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect.As recently reported in Nature,PKM2,besides its metabolic function,has a nonmetabolic function in the direct control of cell cycle progression by activating β-catenin and inducing expression of the β-catenin downstream gene CCND1 (encoding for cyclin D1).This nonmetabolic function of PKM2 is essential for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation-induced tumorigenesis.

  11. Integrated memristor-MOS (M2) sensor for basic pattern matching applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavehei, Omid; Cho, Kyoung-Rok; Lee, Sang-Jin; Al-Sarawi, Said; Eshraghian, Kamran; Abbott, Derek

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces an integrated sensor circuit based on an analog Memristor-MOS (M2) pattern matching building block that calculates the similarity/dissimilarity between two analog values. A new approach for a pulse-width modulation pixel image sensor compatible with the memristive-MOS matching structure is introduced allowing direct comparison between incoming and stored images. The pulsed-width encoded information from the pixels is forwarded to a matching circuitry that provides an anti-Gaussian-like comparison between the states of memristors. The non-volatile and multi-state memory characteristics of memristor, together with the related ability to be programmed at any one of the intermediate states between logic '1' and logic '0' brings us closer to the implementation of bio-machines that can eventually emulate human-like sensory functions.

  12. Multi-wavelength view of an M2.2 Solar Flare on 26 November 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, R; Rani, S; Maurya, R A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of an M2.2 class solar flare of 26 November 2000 from NOAA AR 9236. The flare was well observed by various ground based observatories (ARIES, Learmonths Solar Observatory) and space borne instruments (SOHO, HXRS, GOES) in time interval between 02:30 UT to 04:00 UT. The flare started with long arc-shape outer flare ribbon. Afterwards the main flare starts with two main ribbons. Initially the outer ribbons start to expand with an average speed ($\\sim$ 20 km s$^{-1}$) and later it shows contraction. The flare was associated with partial halo coronal mass ejection (CMEs) which has average speed of 495 km s$^{-1}$. The SOHO/MDI observations show that the active region was in quadrupolar magnetic configuration. The flux cancellation was observed before the flare onset close to flare site. Our analysis indicate the flare was initiated by the magnetic breakout mechanism.

  13. A Decisive Disappearance Search at High-$\\Delta m^2$ with Monoenergetic Muon Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Axani, S; Conrad, JM; Shaevitz, MH; Spitz, J; Wongjirad, T

    2015-01-01

    "KPipe" is a proposed experiment which will study muon neutrino disappearance for a sensitive test of the $\\Delta m^2\\sim1 \\mathrm{eV}^2$ anomalies, possibly indicative of one or more sterile neutrinos. The experiment is to be located at the J-PARC Materials and Life Science Facility's spallation neutron source, which represents the world's most intense source of charged kaon decay-at-rest monoenergetic (236 MeV) muon neutrinos. The detector vessel, designed to measure the charged current interactions of these neutrinos, will be 3 m in diameter and 120 m long, extending radially at a distance of 32 m to 152 m from the source. This design allows a sensitive search for $\

  14. Multi-wavelength view of an M2.2 solar flare on 26 november 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R.; Verma, V. K.; Rani, S.; Maurya, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present a study of an M2.2 class solar flare of 26 November 2000 from NOAA AR 9236. The flare was well observed by various ground based observatories (ARIES, Learmonths Solar Observatory) and space borne instruments (SOHO, HXRS, GOES) in time interval between 02:30 UT to 04:00 UT. The flare started with long arc-shape outer flare ribbon. Afterwards the main flare starts with two main ribbons. Initially the outer ribbons start to expand with an average speed (∼20 km s-1) and later it shows contraction. The flare was associated with partial halo coronal mass ejection (CMEs) which has average speed of 495 km s-1. The SOHO/MDI observations show that the active region was in quadrupolar magnetic configuration. The flux cancellation was observed before the flare onset close to flare site. Our analysis indicate the flare was initiated by the magnetic breakout mechanism.

  15. Structure and Abrasive Wear of Composite HSS M2/WC Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Gnyusov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features of phase-structure formation and abrasive wear resistance of composite coatings “WC-M2 steel” worn against tungsten monocarbide have been investigated. It was established that adding 20 wt.% WC to the deposited powder mixture leads to the increase in M6C carbide content. These carbides show a multimodal size distribution consisting of ~5.9 μm eutectic carbides along the grain boundaries, ~0.25 μm carbides dispersed inside the grains. Also a greater amount of metastable austenite (~88 vol.% is found. The high abrasive wear resistance of these coatings is provided by γ→α′-martensitic transformation and multimodal size distribution of reinforcing particles.

  16. 一种面向物联网的M2M通信解决方案%A M2M Communication Solution for the Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 钱焕延

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of the M2M system architecture and working principle,using the advantages of NAT traversal technology for IoT,this paper proposed a M2M communication solution with user authentication function based on STUN and STUNT agreement.The experiments showed that communication and management between M2M nodes in the IoT could be achieved simply by embedding the STUN Client and the STUNT Client module into M2M devices without changing the original network structure.%在分析了M2M系统体系结构和工作原理的基础上,利用NAT穿越技术在物联网中的应用优势,提出了一种基于STUN和STUNT协议的、具有用户身份认证功能的M2M通信方案.经过实验测试,该方案不需要改变原有网络结构,只需要在M2M设备中嵌入STUN Client和STUNT Client模块,就能够实现物联网中不同M2M节点之间的通信与管理.

  17. The navigational experiments on microgravitational space platform “FOTON-M2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokonov, Igor V.; Semkin, Nikolay D.

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents the review of results of the navigating experiments which have been carried out during flight of microgravitational space platform (MSP) Foton-M2 in May-June 2005. The brief characteristic of the created MIRAGE-M equipment consisting from magnitometric system and satellite radionavigation receiver is given. The measurements have allowed to restore unguided MSP movement and to estimate a level of microaccelerations (microgravitations) onboard during flight, and have provided precision time-position binding of the research experiments. The data from the equipments transmitted on the telemetering channel have allowed testing the information technologies of virtual support of experiments in space. Flight testing of the equipment has allowed make a conclusion on usefulness of accommodation onboard the small-sized auxiliary navigating system focused for work with users of research experiments. The experiments on MSP Foton-M2 are the development of experiments with MIRAGE equipment carried out in 1999 during flight time of MSP Foton-12 [N.D. Semkin, V.V. Ivanov, V.I. Abrushkin, V.L. Balakin, I.V. Belokonov, K.E. Voronov, The experiments with magnetic fields formed by technical equipment inside Foton-12 spacecraft: the results of the MIRAGE experiments, in: Proceedings of International Conference "Scientific and Technological Experiments on Russian Foton/Bion Recoverable Satellites: Results, Problems and Outlooks", 25-30 June 2000, pp. 116-122; V.L. Balakin, I.V. Belokonov, V.V. Ivanov, "Determination of motion of spacecraft Foton-12 as a result of magnetic fields measurement in MIRAGE experiment", pp. 231-238 (published in the same place)]. Paper is executed within the framework of the grant of the Russian Fund of Fundamental Researches 06-08-00244.

  18. Inverse agonist activity of pirenzepine at M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeffler, L; Schmidlin, F; Gies, J P; Landry, Y

    1999-03-01

    1. The intrinsic properties of muscarinic ligands were studied through their binding properties and their abilities to modulate the GTPase activity of G proteins coupled to muscarinic M2 receptors in pig atrial sarcolemma. 2. Competition binding experiments were performed with [3H]-oxotremorine-M to assess the affinity of receptors coupled to G proteins (R*), with [3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]-NMS) to estimate the affinities of coupled and uncoupled receptors (R*+R) and with [3H]-NMS in the presence of GppNHp to assess the affinity of uncoupled receptors (R). 3. The ranking of Ki values for the agonist carbachol was R*pirenzepine was R*>R*+R>R (174, 155, 115 nM), suggesting inverse agonism. 4. The Vmax of the basal high affinity GTPase activity of pig atrial sarcolemma was increased by mastoparan and decreased by GPAnt-2 indicating the relevance of this activity to G proteins coupled to receptors (R*). The K(M) value (0.26-0.33 microM) was not modified by mastoparan or GPAnt-2. 5. Carbachol increased the Vmax of GTP hydrolysis (EC50 8.1+/-0.3 microM), whereas atropine and AF-DX 116, up to 1 mM, did not modify it. Pirenzepine decreased the Vmax of GTP hydrolysis (EC50 77.5+/-10.3 microM). This effect was enhanced when KCI was substituted for NaCl (EC50 11.0+/-0.8 microM) and was antagonized by atropine and AF-DX 116 (IC50 0.91+/-0.71 and 197+/-85 nM). 6. Pirenzepine is proposed as an inverse agonist and atropine and AF-DX 116 as neutral antagonists at the muscarinic M2 receptor.

  19. M2Di: Concise and efficient MATLAB 2-D Stokes solvers using the Finite Difference Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räss, Ludovic; Duretz, Thibault; Podladchikov, Yury Y.; Schmalholz, Stefan M.

    2017-02-01

    Recent development of many multiphysics modeling tools reflects the currently growing interest for studying coupled processes in Earth Sciences. The core of such tools should rely on fast and robust mechanical solvers. Here we provide M2Di, a set of routines for 2-D linear and power law incompressible viscous flow based on Finite Difference discretizations. The 2-D codes are written in a concise vectorized MATLAB fashion and can achieve a time to solution of 22 s for linear viscous flow on 10002 grid points using a standard personal computer. We provide application examples spanning from finely resolved crystal-melt dynamics, deformation of heterogeneous power law viscous fluids to instantaneous models of mantle flow in cylindrical coordinates. The routines are validated against analytical solution for linear viscous flow with highly variable viscosity and compared against analytical and numerical solutions of power law viscous folding and necking. In the power law case, both Picard and Newton iterations schemes are implemented. For linear Stokes flow and Picard linearization, the discretization results in symmetric positive-definite matrix operators on Cartesian grids with either regular or variable grid spacing allowing for an optimized solving procedure. For Newton linearization, the matrix operator is no longer symmetric and an adequate solving procedure is provided. The reported performance of linear and power law Stokes flow is finally analyzed in terms of wall time. All MATLAB codes are provided and can readily be used for educational as well as research purposes. The M2Di routines are available from Bitbucket and the University of Lausanne Scientific Computing Group website, and are also supplementary material to this article.

  20. [Prognostic impact of loss of sex chromosomes in children with acute myeloid leukemia subtype M2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yue-Ping; Zuo, Ying-Xi; Lu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Le-Ping; Liu, Gui-Lan

    2015-02-01

    To study the relationship between loss of sex chromosomes and prognosis in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M2 subtype. According to cytogenetic characteristics, 106 children with AML were divided into three groups: patients with normal karyotype (Group A, n=26), patients with abnormal karyotype who had no loss of sex chromosomes (Group B, n=52), and patients with abnormal karyotype who had loss of sex chromosomes (Group C, n=28). Prognosis was compared between the three groups. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rates of Groups A, B, and C were (38.9±11.2)%, (59.3±7.3)%, and (66.5±10.5)%, respectively; the EFS of Group C was significantly higher than that of Group A (P=0.035). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of Groups A, B, and C were (54.3±13.5)%, (68.1±7.7)%, and (77.9±9.8)%, respectively (P>0.05). The 5-year EFS of 58 patients with t(8;21) was (63.3±7.3)%, significantly higher than that of patients with normal karyotype (P=0.015). All the 28 cases in Group C had t(8;21), and their 5-year EFS was not significantly different from that of patients with t(8;21) in Group B (P>0.05). Loss of sex chromosomes is a favorable karyotype in children with AML M2 subtype and the patients in this group mostly have t(8;21). Why loss of sex chromosomes indicates a favorable prognosis is probably because it is accompanied by t(8;21) in the patients.

  1. Microwave and magnetic (M2 proteomics of a mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M. Evans

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Short-term increases in oxidative stress and decreases in motor function, including debilitating effects on balance and motor control, can occur following primary mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI. However, the long-term effects on motor unit impairment and integrity as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying secondary injuries are poorly understood. We hypothesized that changes in central nervous system-specific protein (CSP expression might correlate to these long-term effects. To test our hypothesis, we longitudinally assessed a closed-skull mTBI mouse model, vs. sham control, at 1, 7, 30, and 120 days post-injury. Motor impairment was determined by rotarod and grip strength performance measures, while motor unit integrity was determined using electromyography. Relative protein expression was determined by microwave and magnetic (M2 proteomics of ipsilateral brain tissue, as previously described. Isoprostane measurements were performed to confirm a primary oxidative stress response. Decoding the relative expression of 476 ± 56 top-ranked proteins for each specimen revealed statistically significant changes in the expression of two well-known CSPs at 1, 7 and 30 days post-injury: P < 0.001 for myelin basic protein (MBP and p < 0.05 for myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG. This was confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, MAG, αII-spectrin (SPNA2 and neurofilament light (NEFL expression at 30 days post-injury were directly related to grip strength (p < 0.05. While higher-powered studies of larger cohorts merit further investigation, this study supports the proof-of-concept that M2 proteomics is a rapid method to quantify putative protein biomarkers and therapeutic targets of mTBI and suggests the feasibility of CSP expression correlations to long-term effects on motor impairment.

  2. 基于文献研究的M2与房价关系分析%Studying in the relationship between M2 and the real estate price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭捷剑; 王振营

    2013-01-01

      In the literature studying the relationship between M2 and the real estate price, most of them using the intermediate target of M2 included the supply of credit and rate of interest to analyze the intermediate target’s effect on the real estate price . Also, the real estate price indexes have much different connotation. Most of the documents can prove the contribution of M2 to the real estate price rising, but others show the opposite conclusion or week correlation . This article based on collecting the relevant documents applies direct channel and indirect channel to analyze the effect of M2 on the real estate price. M2 affecting the real estate price is the direct channel ,while M2 affecting the variables such as real estate price rate of interest the supply of credit ,literature review which cause the real estate price changing is the indirect channel .%  在M2与房价关系研究的文献中,多数体现为M2的信贷量、利率等中介指标对房价的影响;并且所采用的房价指标内涵有着较大不同,多数文献研究的结论是M2将会推高房价,但也有一部分研究得出房价会影响M2或者是两者之间相关性不大的结论。本文基于对M2与房价关系研究的文献的梳理,通过直接和间接两种途径分析M2对房地产价格的影响:直接途径是M2直接作用于房价;间接途径是M2通过影响利率、信贷量、基础货币量、市场预期等变量进而影响房价。

  3. Influence of hybridization in the magnetic circular X-ray dichroism at the Ce-M(4,5) absorption edges of Ce-Fe systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finazzi, M; deGroot, FMF; Dias, AM; Kappler, JP; Schulte, O; Felsch, W; Krill, G

    We have performed a Magnetic Circular X-ray Dichroism (XMCD) study at the Ce-M(4,5) absorption edges on some Ce-Fe systems. We find that the dichroism signal in these systems is very sensitive to the degree of hybridization of the 4f electrons with the valence band. XMCD is able to demonstrate that

  4. Influence of hybridization in the magnetic circular X-ray dichroism at the Ce-M(4,5) absorption edges of Ce-Fe systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finazzi, M; deGroot, FMF; Dias, AM; Kappler, JP; Schulte, O; Felsch, W; Krill, G

    1996-01-01

    We have performed a Magnetic Circular X-ray Dichroism (XMCD) study at the Ce-M(4,5) absorption edges on some Ce-Fe systems. We find that the dichroism signal in these systems is very sensitive to the degree of hybridization of the 4f electrons with the valence band. XMCD is able to demonstrate that

  5. Dysfunctional muscarinic M(2) autoreceptors in vagally induced bronchoconstriction of conscious guinea pigs after the early allergic reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TenBerge, REJ; Krikke, M; Teisman, ACH; Roffel, AF; Zaagsma, J

    1996-01-01

    We studied the function of autoinhibitory muscarinic M(2) receptors on vagal nerve endings in the airways of conscious, unrestrained, ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs after the early and late allergic reaction. For this purpose, the effects of the selective muscarinic M(2) receptor antagonist gallam

  6. Fusion to chicken C3d enhances the immunogenicity of the M2 protein of avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current vaccines to avian influenzae virus (AIV, a highly contagious disease of birds, need to be constantly updated due to the high level of variation in the target antigens. Therefore, a vaccine that could induce broad cross protection against AIV is required. The M2 membrane protein is structurally conserved amongst AIV subtypes but tends in induce a poor immune response, whereas C3d has been shown in many species to enhance immunogenicity. In this study, we investigated the potential of M2-avian C3d fusion proteins to provide effective immunity. Results We fused chicken complement C3d to sM2 (M2 protein with the transmembrane region deleted of AIV and expressed four fusion proteins, GST (Glutathione S-transferase tagged proteins in pGEX expression vector -C3d-sM2, GST-C3d-L2-sM2, GST-C3d-L1-C3d-sM2 and GST-C3d-L1-C3d-L2-sM2 were used to immunize mice. In addition, Specific pathogen free (SPF chickens were inoculated with the plasmids pcDNA-sM2, pcDNA-C3d-L1-C3d-L2-sM2, GST-sM2 and GST-C3d-L1-C3d-L2-sM2. The immune response was monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for sM2 antibody, and all the test animals were challenged with A/chicken/Bei Jing/WD9/98 (H9N2 virus. Results revealed that the anti-sM2 antibody in mice and chickens vaccinated with these proteins was higher than the nonfused forms of sM2, the GST-C3d-L1-C3d-L2-sM2 groups have conferred the highest 30% and 20% protection ratio in mice and chickens respectively. In addition, the pcDNA-C3d-L1-C3d-L2-sM2 also enhances the antibody responses to sM2 compared to pcDNA-sM2 in chickens, and acquired 13.3% protection ratio. Conclusion These results indicated that chicken C3d enhanced the humoral immunity against AIV M2 protein either fused proteins expressed by the prokaryotic system or with the DNA vaccine. Nevertheless, in view of the poor protection ratio for these animals, we speculated that this is not a worthy developing of vaccine in these

  7. Stable expression of human muscle-specific kinase in HEp-2 M4 cells for automatic immunofluorescence diagnostics of myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sandra; Paulick, Silvia; Knütter, Ilka; Röber, Nadja; Hiemann, Rico; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Conrad, Karsten; Küpper, Jan-Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) belongs to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex which is targeted by pathogenic autoantibodies causing Myasthenia gravis. While up to 95% of patients with generalized Myasthenia gravis were shown to be positive for acetylcholine receptor-specific autoantibodies, up to 70% of the remaining patients develop autoantibodies against MuSK. Discrimination of the autoantibody specificity is important for therapy of Myasthenia gravis. Recently, the new automatic fluorescence assessment platform AKLIDES has been developed for immunofluorescence-based diagnostics of autoimmune diseases. In order to establish an AKLIDES procedure for the detection of MuSK-specific autoantibodies (anti-MuSK), we developed a recombinant HEp-2 cell clone expressing the human MuSK cDNA. Here we show at the mRNA and protein level that the cell clone HEp-2 M4 stably expresses human MuSK. We provide evidence for a localization of MuSK at the cell membrane. Using cell clone HEp-2 M4 on the AKLIDES system, we investigated 34 patient sera that were previously tested anti-MuSK positive by radioimmunoassay as positive controls. As negative controls, we tested 29 acetylcholine receptor-positive but MuSK-negative patient sera, 30 amytrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient sera and 45 blood donors. HEp-2 M4 cells revealed a high specificity for the detection of MuSK autoantibodies from 25 patient sera assessed by a specific pattern on HEp-2 M4 cells. By using appropriate cell culture additives, the fraction of cells stained positive with anti-MuSK containing sera can be increased from 2-16% to 10-48%, depending on the serum. In conclusion, we provide data showing that the novel recombinant cell line HEp-2 M4 can be used to screen for anti-MuSK with the automatic AKLIDES system.

  8. Turbulent Fluxes of Sensible Heat Measured by Research UAV 'M2AV Carolo'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Bange, J.

    2009-09-01

    Research aircraft equipped for turbulence measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are suitable platforms to measure area-representative mean values and statistical moments of second order - like variance, spectral distribution and turbulent fluxes - in situ i.e. without the use of any theoretical assumptions. Since manned research aircraft are expensive the use of small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or mini aerial vehicles (MAV) is attractive. Such research UAV are able to measure vertical profiles of the lower troposphere, for instance. The next, more challenging league is the measurement of the turbulent fluctuations of the wind vector and simultaneously at least one scalar quantity in order to calculate turbulent fluxes using eddy covariance. To do this, fast and accurate sensors are required, with small weight, small dimensions and small power consumption, in order to be operated on a small research UAV. Beside absolute and relative measurement accuracy, the response time of the sensors has to be short (in the order of several 10 Hz) to resolve turbulent eddies also in stable stratification (i.e. sub-metre range). Since light, small and fast sensors for air humidity and trace gases are not available currently, the first step is to measure the vertical flux of sensible heat H. Beside a slow (about 1 Hz) water vapour sensor, the automatically operating meteorological mini aerial vehicles (M2AV) are equipped with two temperature sensors and a wind measurement unit. One of the temperature sensors is slow but offers a high absolute accuracy, while the fast sensor (up to 100 Hz) has a high relative accuracy but is unstable in time. The two signals are blended using a complementary filter. The wind vector can be calculated using the inertial velocity (aircraft speed relative to the earth) and the true airspeed (aircraft speed relative to the airflow). The true airspeed of M2AV is computed from five-hole-probe pressure measurements whereas the aircraft

  9. MUC1-C oncoprotein regulates glycolysis and pyruvate kinase M2 activity in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Kosugi

    Full Text Available Aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells is regulated by multiple effectors that include Akt and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2. Mucin 1 (MUC1 is a heterodimeric glycoprotein that is aberrantly overexpressed by human breast and other carcinomas. Here we show that transformation of rat fibroblasts by the oncogenic MUC1-C subunit is associated with Akt-mediated increases in glucose uptake and lactate production, consistent with the stimulation of glycolysis. The results also demonstrate that the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain binds directly to PKM2 at the B- and C-domains. Interaction between the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain Cys-3 and the PKM2 C-domain Cys-474 was found to stimulate PKM2 activity. Conversely, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-mediated phosphorylation of the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain on Tyr-46 conferred binding to PKM2 Lys-433 and inhibited PKM2 activity. In human breast cancer cells, silencing MUC1-C was associated with decreases in glucose uptake and lactate production, confirming involvement of MUC1-C in the regulation of glycolysis. In addition, EGFR-mediated phosphorylation of MUC1-C in breast cancer cells was associated with decreases in PKM2 activity. These findings indicate that the MUC1-C subunit regulates glycolysis and that this response is conferred in part by PKM2. Thus, the overexpression of MUC1-C oncoprotein in diverse human carcinomas could be of importance to the Warburg effect of aerobic glycolysis.

  10. FAST, LOW-IONIZATION EMISSION REGIONS OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA M2-42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danehkar, A.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Steffen, W., E-mail: ashkbiz.danehkar@cfa.harvard.edu [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P.22860, Ensenada (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    Spatially resolved observations of the planetary nebula M2-42 (PN G008.2−04.8) obtained with the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope have revealed the remarkable features of bipolar collimated jets emerging from its main structure. Velocity-resolved channel maps derived from the [N ii] λ6584 emission line disentangle different morphological components of the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model, which consists of an equatorial dense torus and a pair of asymmetric bipolar outflows. The expansion velocity of about 20 km s{sup −1} is measured from the spectrum integrated over the main shell. However, the deprojected velocities of the jets are found to be in the range of 80–160 km s{sup −1} with respect to the nebular center. It is found that the mean density of the collimated outflows, 595 ± 125 cm{sup −3}, is five times lower than that of the main shell, 3150 cm{sup −3}, whereas their singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur abundances are about three times higher than those determined from the dense shell. The results indicate that the features of the collimated jets are typical of fast, low-ionization emission regions.

  11. Experiment "Regeneration" Performed Aboard the Russian Spacecraft Foton-M2 in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Elonora; Almeida, Eduardo; Domaratskaya, Elena; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Aleinikova, Karina; Tairbekov, Murad; Mitashov, Victor

    2006-01-01

    The experiments on the newts performed earlier aboard Russian biosate llites showed that the rate of lens and tail regeneration in space wa s greater than on the ground. In parallel it was found that the numbe r of cells in S-phase was greater in space-flown animals than in the ground controls. However, it was unclear whether cell proliferation stimulation was induced by micro-g per se. Molecular mechanisms under lying the change also remained obscure. These issues were addressed b y the joint Russian-American experiment "Regeneration" flown on Foton -M2 in 2005. The method for in-flight delivering DNA precursor BrdU was developed. The experiment showed that during the flight the numbe r of S-phase cells in the regenerating eyes and tails increased. Thes e data together with those obtained earlier suggest that cell prolife ration increases in response to the effects of both micro-g and 1-g a fter return to Earth. The expression of bFGF in regenerating tissues of "flown" newts and ground controls was examined using immuno-histo chemistry. Obtained results suggest that this growth factor is a part icipant of the promotional effect of space flight upon cell prolifera tion in lens and tail regenerates.

  12. Analysis of Cell Proliferation in Newt (Pleurodeles waltl) Tissue Regeneration during Spaceflight in Foton M-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E. A. C.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Yusuf, R.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Tairbekov, M.; Grigoryan, N.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight expe rience musculoskeletal degeneration. It is still not understood if lo nger-term exposures to microgravity induce degeneration in other tiss ues, and if these effects are also observed in neutrally buoyant aqu atic organisms that may be pre-adapted to mechanical unloading. The " Regeneration" experiment conducted collaboratively between Russian an d US scientists for 16 days in the Russian Foton M-2 spaceflight soug ht to test the hypothesis that microgravity alters the proliferation of cells in regenerating tail tissue of the newt Pleurodeles waltl. Our initial results indicate that we successfUlly delivered the proli feration marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxy Uridine (BrdU) during spaceflight, and that it was incorporated in the nuclei of cells in regenerating tis sues. Cells in spaceflight tail regenerates proliferated at a slight ly slower rate and were more undifferentiated than those in ground sy nchronous controls. In addition, the size of regenerating tails from spaceflight was smaller than synchronous controls. However, onboard temperature recordings show that the temperature in spaceflight was a bout 2 C lower than ground synchronous controls, possibly explaining the observed differences. Additional post-facto ground controls at ma tched temperatures will correctly determine the effects of spaceflig ht on regenerative cell proliferation in the newt.

  13. Nuclear pyruvate kinase M2 complex serves as a transcriptional coactivator of arylhydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shun; Adachi, Jun; Ihara, Masaru; Tanuma, Nobuhiro; Shima, Hiroshi; Kakizuka, Akira; Ikura, Masae; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Matsuda, Tomonari

    2016-01-29

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) regulate production of acetyl-CoA, which functions as an acetyl donor in diverse enzymatic reactions, including histone acetylation. However, the mechanism by which the acetyl-CoA required for histone acetylation is ensured in a gene context-dependent manner is not clear. Here we show that PKM2, the E2 subunit of PDC and histone acetyltransferase p300 constitute a complex on chromatin with arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor associated with xenobiotic metabolism. All of these factors are recruited to the enhancer of AhR-target genes, in an AhR-dependent manner. PKM2 contributes to enhancement of transcription of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), an AhR-target gene, acetylation at lysine 9 of histone H3 at the CYP1A1 enhancer. Site-directed mutagenesis of PKM2 indicates that this enhancement of histone acetylation requires the pyruvate kinase activity of the enzyme. Furthermore, we reveal that PDC activity is present in nuclei. Based on these findings, we propose a local acetyl-CoA production system in which PKM2 and PDC locally supply acetyl-CoA to p300 from abundant PEP for histone acetylation at the gene enhancer, and our data suggest that PKM2 sensitizes AhR-mediated detoxification in actively proliferating cells such as cancer and fetal cells.

  14. Switching of pyruvate kinase isoform L to M2 promotes metabolic reprogramming in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Chak-Lui Wong

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is an aggressive tumor, with a high mortality rate due to late symptom presentation and frequent tumor recurrences and metastasis. It is also a rapidly growing tumor supported by different metabolic mechanisms; nevertheless, the biological and molecular mechanisms involved in the metabolic reprogramming in HCC are unclear. In this study, we found that pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2 was frequently over-expressed in human HCCs and its over-expression was associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and poor prognosis of HCC patients. Furthermore, knockdown of PKM2 suppressed aerobic glycolysis and cell proliferation in HCC cell lines in vitro. Importantly, knockdown of PKM2 hampered HCC growth in both subcutaneous injection and orthotopic liver implantation models, and reduced lung metastasis in vivo. Of significance, PKM2 over-expression in human HCCs was associated with a down-regulation of a liver-specific microRNA, miR-122. We further showed that miR-122 interacted with the 3UTR of the PKM2 gene. Re-expression of miR-122 in HCC cell lines reduced PKM2 expression, decreased glucose uptake in vitro, and suppressed HCC tumor growth in vivo. Our clinical data and functional studies have revealed a novel biological mechanism involved in HCC metabolic reprogramming.

  15. On the spectral properties of multi-branes, M2 and M5 branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia del Moral, M.P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007, Oviedo (Spain); Restuccia, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Antofagasta, Aptdo 02800 (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In this note we summarize some of the properties found in [1-3]. We characterize spectral properties of the quantum mechanical hamiltonian of theories with fermionic degrees of freedom beyond semiclassical approximation. We obtain a general class of bosonic polynomial potentials for which the Schroeedinger operator has a discrete spectrum. This class includes all the scalar potentials in membrane, 5-brane, p-branes, multiple M2 branes, BLG and ABJM theories. We also give a sufficient condition for discreteness of the spectrum for supersymmmetric and non supersymmetric theories with a fermionic contribution. We characterize then the spectral properties of different theories: the BMN matrix model, the supermembrane with central charges and a bound state of N D2 with m D0. We show that, while the first two models have a purely discrete spectrum with finite multiplicity, the latter has a continuous spectrum starting from a constant given in terms of the monopole charge. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Carbon and nitrogen abundances of stellar populations in the globular cluster M 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lardo, C; Mucciarelli, A; Milone, A P

    2012-01-01

    We present CH and CN index analysis and C and N abundance calculations based on the low-resolution blue spectra of red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 7089 (M 2). Our main goal is to investigate the C-N anticorrelation for this intermediate metallicity cluster. The data were collected with DOLORES, the multiobject, low-resolution facility at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Spectroscopic data were coupled with UV photometry obtained during the spectroscopic run. We found a considerable star-to-star variation in both A(C) and A(N) at all luminosities for our sample of 35 targets. These abundances appear to be anticorrelated, with a hint of bimodality in the C content for stars with luminosities below the RBG bump (V~15.7), while the range of variations in N abundances is very large and spans almost ~ 2 dex. We find additional C depletion as the stars evolve off the RGB bump, in fairly good agreement with theoretical predictions for metal-poor stars in the course of normal stellar...

  17. Form factors of descendant operators: Reduction to perturbed $M(2,2s+1)$ models

    CERN Document Server

    Lashkevich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the algebraic approach to form factors in two-dimensional integrable models of quantum field theory we consider the reduction of the sine-Gordon model to the $\\Phi_{13}$\\=/perturbation of minimal conformal models of the $M(2,2s+1)$ series. We find in an algebraic form the condition of compatibility of local operators with the reduction. We propose a construction that make it possible to obtain reduction compatible local operators in terms of screening currents. As an application we obtain exact multiparticle form factors for the compatible with the reduction conserved currents $T_{\\pm2k}$, $\\Theta_{\\pm(2k-2)}$, which correspond to the spin $\\pm(2k-1)$ integrals of motion, for any positive integer~$k$. Furthermore, we obtain all form factors of the operators $T_{2k}T_{-2l}$, which generalize the famous $T\\bar T$ operator. The construction is analytic in the $s$ parameter and, therefore, makes sense in the sine-Gordon theory.

  18. First passage times in M2[X ]|G |1 |R queue with hysteretic overload control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechinkin, Alexander V.; Razumchik, Rostislav R.; Zaryadov, Ivan S.

    2016-06-01

    One of the reported approaches towards the solution of overload problem in networks of SIP servers is the implementation of multi-level hysteretic control of arrivals in SIP servers. Each level, being the parameter of the policy, specifies operation mode of SIP server i.e. it implicitly indicates what SIP server must do with the arriving packets. The choice of parameters' values is not guided by standards and is usually left for the network owner. In general, all operation modes of the considered policy can be grouped into two groups: normal mode (when all arriving packets are accepted) and congested mode (when part or all arriving packets are being dropped). Such grouping may serve as the criteria for choosing parameters' values of the policy: pick those values which minimize SIP server sojourn time in congested mode. In this short note we propose some analytical results which facilitate the solution of stated minimization problem. The considered mathematical model of SIP server is the queueing system M2[X ]|G |1 |R with batch arrivals and bi-level hysteretic control policy, which specifies three operation modes: normal (customers both flows are accepted), overload (only customers from one flow are accepted), discard (customers from both flows are blocked/lost)). The switching between modes can occur only on service completions. Analytical method allowing computation of stationary sojourn times in different operation modes (as well as first passage times between modes) is presented in brief. Numerical example is given.

  19. Efficient Plasma Production in Low Background Neutral Pressures with the M2P2 Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, T.; Euripides, P.; Winglee, R.; Slough, J.; Giersch, L.

    2003-01-01

    Mini-Magnetospheric Plasma Propulsion (M2P2) seeks the creation of a large-scale (10 km radius) magnetic wall or bubble (i.e. a magnetosphere) by the electromagnetic inflation of a small-scale (20 cm radius) dipole magnet. The inflated magnetosphere will intercept the solar wind and thereby provide high-speed propulsion with modest power and fuel requirements due to the gain provided by the ambient medium. Magnetic field inflation is produced by the injection of plasma onto the dipole magnetic field eliminating the need for large mechanical structures and added material weight at launch. For successful inflation of the magnetic bubble a beta near unity must be achieved along the imposed dipole field. This is dependent on the plasma parameters that can be achieved with a plasma source that provide continuous operation at the desired power levels of 1 to 2 kilowatts. Over the last two years we have been developing a laboratory prototype to demonstrate the inflation of the magnetic field under space-like conditions. In this paper we will present some of the latest results from the prototype development at the University of Washington and show that the prototype can produce high ionization efficiencies while operating in near space like neutral background pressures producing electron temperatures of a few tens of electron volts. This allows for operation with propellant expenditures lower than originally estimated.

  20. Fast, low-ionization emission regions of the planetary nebula M2-42

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, A; Steffen, W

    2016-01-01

    Spatially resolved observations of the planetary nebula M2-42 (PN G008.2-04.8) obtained with the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope have revealed the remarkable features of bipolar collimated jets emerging from its main structure. Velocity-resolved channel maps derived from the [N II] $\\lambda$6584 emission line disentangle different morphological components of the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model, which consists of an equatorial dense torus and a pair of asymmetric bipolar outflows. The expansion velocity of about 20 km s$^{-1}$ is measured from the spectrum integrated over the main shell. However, the deprojected velocities of the jets are found to be in the range of 80-160 km s$^{-1}$ with respect to the nebular center. It is found that the mean density of the collimated outflows, 595 $\\pm$ 125 cm$^{-3}$, is five times lower than that of the main shell, 3150 cm$^{-3}$, whereas their singly ionized nitrogen and ...