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Sample records for m17a2 gas mask

  1. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a patient's...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5550 - Anesthetic gas mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthetic gas mask. 868.5550 Section 868.5550...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5550 Anesthetic gas mask. (a) Identification. An anesthetic gas mask is a device, usually made of conductive rubber, that is positioned over a...

  3. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial...

  4. Mid IR-fiber spectroscopy in the 2-17μm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyushenko, Viatcheslav G.; Bocharnikov, A.; Colquhoun, Gary; Leach, Clive A.; Lobachov, Vladimir; Pirogova, Lyudmila; Sakharova, Tatjana; Savitskij, Dmitrij; Ezhevskaya, Tatjana; Bublikov, Alexandr

    2007-10-01

    The latest development in IR-fibre optics enables us to expand the spectral range of process spectroscopy from 2μm out to 17μm (5000 to 600cm-1) i.e. into the most informative "finger-print" part of the spectrum. Mid-IR wavelength ranges from 2 to 6-10μm may be covered by Chalcogenide IR-glass CIR-fibres while Polycrystalline PIR-fibres made of Silver Halides solid solutions transmit 4-17 μm wavelength radiation. PIR-fibre immersion ATR probes and Transmission/Reflection probes had been manufactured and successfully tested with different FTIR spectrometers in the field of remote spectroscopy for forensic substances identification, chemical reaction control, and monitoring of exhaust or exhalation gases. Using these techniques no sample preparation is necessary for fibre probes to measure evanescent, reflection and transmission spectra, in situ and in real time. QCL spectrometer may be used as a portable device for multispectral gas analysis at 1ppb level of detectivity for various applications in environmental pollution monitoring.

  5. Comparison of Ventilation With One-Handed Mask Seal With an Intraoral Mask Versus Conventional Cuffed Face Mask in a Cadaver Model: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amack, Andrew J; Barber, Gary A; Ng, Patrick C; Smith, Thomas B; April, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    We compare received minute volume with an intraoral mask versus conventional cuffed face mask among medics obtaining a 1-handed mask seal on a cadaver model. This study comprised a randomized crossover trial of adult US Army combat medic volunteers participating in a cadaver laboratory as part of their training. We randomized participants to obtain a 1-handed mask seal during ventilation of a fresh unembalmed cadaver, first using either an intraoral airway device or conventional cuffed face mask. Participants obtained a 1-handed mask seal while a ventilator delivered 10 standardized 750-mL breaths during 1 minute. After a 5-minute rest period, they repeated the study with the alternative mask. The primary outcome measure was received minute volume as measured by a respirometer. Of 27 recruited participants, all completed the study. Median received minute volume was higher with the intraoral mask compared with conventional cuffed mask by 1.7 L (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.9 L; Pcadaver model. The intraoral mask may prove a useful airway adjunct for ventilation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring tidal volumes in preterm infants at birth: mask versus endotracheal ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vonderen, Jeroen J; Hooper, Stuart B; Krabbe, Vera B; Siew, Melissa L; Te Pas, Arjan B

    2015-01-01

    Upper airway distention during mask ventilation could reduce gas volumes entering the lung compared with ventilation via an endotracheal tube. Therefore, respiratory tract volumes were measured in lambs and tidal volumes were compared in preterm infants before and after intubation. In seven preterm lambs, volumes of the airways (oropharynx, trachea, lungs) were assessed. In 10 preterm infants, delta pressures, tidal volumes and leak were measured during ventilation 2 min before (mask ventilation) and 2 min after intubation (endotracheal ventilation). Inflations coinciding with breaths were excluded. Amount of upper airway distention in lambs and differences in inspiratory and expiratory tidal volume before and after intubation. In lambs, the combined trachea and oropharynx contributed to 14 (12-21) % (median (IQR), whereas the oropharynx contributed to 9 (7-10) % of the total tidal volume measured at the mouth. In preterm infants, inspiratory (11.1 (7.9-22.6) mL/kg vs 5.8 (3.9-9.6) mL/kg (p=0.01)) and expiratory (8.3 (6.8-15.4) mL/kg vs 4.9 (3.9-9.6) mL/kg (p=0.02)) tidal volumes were significantly larger during mask ventilation compared with endotracheal ventilation. Leak was 18.7 (3.3-28.7) % before versus 0 (0-2.3) % after intubation (p0.05). During mask ventilation, expiratory tidal volume increased from 10.0 (5.4-15.6) mL/kg to 11.3 (7.6-17.0) mL/kg (p=0.01), but remained unchanged during endotracheal ventilation. During neonatal mask ventilation, distention of the upper respiratory tract contributes to the tidal volumes measured and should be taken into account when targeting tidal volumes during mask ventilation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Intrinsic magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17-xMxNy/Cy (M=Al, Ga or Si)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, M.; Eckert, D.; Gebel, B.; Mueller, K.-H.; Schultz, L.

    2000-01-01

    Curie temperature T c , saturation polarization J s and anisotropy field H a of Sm 2 Fe 17-x M x N y /C y with M=Al, Ga or Si (x≤3, y∼3) were determined by thermomagnetic measurements and a numerical fitting procedure of demagnetization curves. An increasing amount of the substitutional element M leads to an increase of T c of the Sm 2 Fe 17-x M x parent compounds and generally to a decrease of T c , J s and H a for the interstitial nitrides and carbides. However, for small M contents, x≤1, an increased H a was observed compared to the substitution-free interstitial compounds. Gas-carburized and melt-carburized Sm 2 Fe 15 Ga 2 C y samples showed large differences in J s and H a but identical T c values

  8. Choosing an Oronasal Mask to Deliver Continuous Positive Airway Pressure May Cause More Upper Airway Obstruction or Lead to Higher Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Requirements than a Nasal Mask in Some Patients: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Justin R; Aiyappan, Vinod; Mercer, Jeremy; Catcheside, Peter G; Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li; McEvoy, R Doug; Antic, Nick

    2016-09-15

    The choice of mask interface used with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy can affect the control of upper airway obstruction (UAO) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We describe a case series of four patients with paradoxical worsening of UAO with an oronasal mask and the effect of changing to a nasal mask. We retrospectively reviewed the case histories of 4 patients and recorded patient demographics, in-laboratory and ambulatory CPAP titration data, CPAP therapy data, type of mask interface used and potential confounding factors. The 4 cases (mean ± SD: age = 59 ± 16 y; BMI = 30.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) had a high residual apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) (43 ± 14.2 events/h) and high CPAP pressure requirements (14.9 ± 6.6 cmH2O) with an oronasal mask. Changing to a nasal mask allowed adequate control of UAO with a significant reduction in the average residual AHI (3.1 ± 1.5 events/h). In two of the four cases, it was demonstrated that control of UAO was obtained at a much lower CPAP pressure compared to the oronasal mask (Case one = 17.5 cmH2O vs 12cmH2O; Case two = 17.9 cmH2O vs 7.8 cmH2O). Other potential confounding factors were unchanged. There are various physiological observations that may explain these findings but it is uncertain which individuals are susceptible to these mechanisms. If patients have OSA incompletely controlled by CPAP with evidence of residual UAO and/or are requiring surprisingly high CPAP pressure to control OSA with an oronasal mask, the choice of mask should be reviewed and consideration be given to a trial of a nasal mask. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1209. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  9. Evaluation of human body irradiation caused by radionuclides deposited in the filtration unit of gas mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, R.; Otahal, P.; Johnova, K.; Thinova, L.; Kluson, J.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive aerosol particles represent a serious risk for people facing the consequences of nuclear accident of any kind. The first responders to emergency situation need to be protected by personal protective equipment which includes radiation protection suit supplemented with gas mask. The purpose of this work is to estimate the dose to the organs of responder s body as a result of radionuclide deposition in the filtration unit of the gas mask. The problem was analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. The dose absorbed by different organs for five representative radionuclides and the dose distribution over the responder s body are presented in this paper. Based on presented MC simulations, we suggest a method of evaluating the irradiation of the responder by the radionuclides deposited in the filtration unit of the gas mask. (authors)

  10. Intrinsic magnetic properties of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-x}M{sub x}N{sub y}/C{sub y} (M=Al, Ga or Si)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, M.; Eckert, D.; Gebel, B.; Mueller, K.-H. E-mail: khm@ifw-dresden.de; Schultz, L

    2000-07-01

    Curie temperature T{sub c}, saturation polarization J{sub s} and anisotropy field H{sub a} of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-x}M{sub x}N{sub y}/C{sub y} with M=Al, Ga or Si (x{<=}3, y{approx}3) were determined by thermomagnetic measurements and a numerical fitting procedure of demagnetization curves. An increasing amount of the substitutional element M leads to an increase of T{sub c} of the Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-x}M{sub x} parent compounds and generally to a decrease of T{sub c}, J{sub s} and H{sub a} for the interstitial nitrides and carbides. However, for small M contents, x{<=}1, an increased H{sub a} was observed compared to the substitution-free interstitial compounds. Gas-carburized and melt-carburized Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Ga{sub 2}C{sub y} samples showed large differences in J{sub s} and H{sub a} but identical T{sub c} values.

  11. Validation of masks for determination of V̇O2 max in horses exercising at high intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, R H; Kirkpatrick, R; Renner, E; Gough, K; Katz, L M; Evans, D L; Bayly, W M

    2018-01-01

    The need for a horse to be ridden while wearing a measurement device that allows unrestricted ventilation and gas exchange has hampered accurate measurement of its maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O 2 max) under field conditions. Design and validate a facemask with the potential to measure V̇O 2 max accurately in the field. Experiment with 6 × 6 Latin square design. Two variations of a mask and associated electronic control module (ECM) were designed to enable breath-by-breath measurement of airflows through two 7.8 cm diameter pneumotachometers located 7.5 cm in front of each narus. The ECM was comprised of an analogue-to-digital converter and a lithium-ion battery that provided power and signal filtering to the pneumotachometers and an oxygen sensing cell, and powered a pump connected to gas sampling ports between the nares and pneumotachometers. Airflow and oxygen content of inspired and expired gases were recorded through the ECM and electronically transferred to a notebook. V̇O 2 was determined from these recordings using a customised software program. Mask B encased the lower jaw. Mask R left the jaw free so the horse could wear a bit if ridden. V̇O 2 max and arterial blood gases were measured in 6 horses during multiple treadmill tests. Each mask was worn twice and results compared to those from an established open flow-through system (O) by ANOVA-RM (Pmasks. V̇O 2 max measures were reproducible for each mask. Intraclass correlation coefficient between raters = 0.99. Some rebreathing of expired air from mask dead space. Masks capable of measuring V̇O 2 max during treadmill exercise were developed, tested and found to be accurate. Mask R has potential application to measurement of V̇O 2 max under field conditions. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Broadband transmission masks, gratings and filters for extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brose, S.; Danylyuk, S.; Juschkin, L.; Dittberner, C.; Bergmann, K.; Moers, J.; Panaitov, G.; Trellenkamp, St.; Loosen, P.; Grützmacher, D.

    2012-01-01

    Lithography and patterning on a nanometre scale with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray radiation allow creation of high resolution, high density patterns independent of a substrate type. To realize the full potential of this method, especially for EUV proximity printing and interference lithography, a reliable technology for manufacturing of the transmission masks and gratings should be available. In this paper we present a development of broadband amplitude transmission masks and gratings for extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray lithography based on free-standing niobium membranes. In comparison with a standard silicon nitride based technology the transmission masks demonstrate high contrast not only for in-band EUV (13.5 nm) radiation but also for wavelengths below Si L-absorption edge (12.4 nm). The masks and filters with free standing areas up to 1000 × 1000 μm 2 and 100 nm to 300 nm membrane thicknesses are shown. Electron beam structuring of an absorber layer with dense line and dot patterns with sub-50 nm structures is demonstrated. Diffractive and filtering properties of obtained structures are examined with EUV radiation from a gas discharge plasma source. - Highlights: ► Broadband transmission masks for EUV proximity and interference lithography. ► Technology for free standing niobium membranes with areas up to 1 mm 2 . ► High density patterns with periods of 100 nm and structure sizes below 40 nm. ► Measured diffraction efficiency at 11 nm is in agreement with the theory. ► Produced masks can be effectively used with wavelengths between 6 nm and 17 nm.

  13. Highly selective etching of silicon nitride to physical-vapor-deposited a-C mask in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CH2F2/H2 plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Kwon, B. S.; Heo, W.; Jung, C. R.; Park, J. S.; Shon, J. W.; Lee, N.-E.

    2010-01-01

    A multilevel resist (MLR) structure can be fabricated based on a very thin amorphous carbon (a-C) layer ( congruent with 80 nm) and Si 3 N 4 hard-mask layer ( congruent with 300 nm). The authors investigated the selective etching of the Si 3 N 4 layer using a physical-vapor-deposited (PVD) a-C mask in a dual-frequency superimposed capacitively coupled plasma etcher by varying the process parameters in the CH 2 F 2 /H 2 /Ar plasmas, viz., the etch gas flow ratio, high-frequency source power (P HF ), and low-frequency source power (P LF ). They found that under certain etch conditions they obtain infinitely high etch selectivities of the Si 3 N 4 layers to the PVD a-C on both the blanket and patterned wafers. The etch gas flow ratio played a critical role in determining the process window for infinitely high Si 3 N 4 /PVD a-C etch selectivity because of the change in the degree of polymerization. The etch results of a patterned ArF photoresisit/bottom antireflective coating/SiO x /PVD a-C/Si 3 N 4 MLR structure supported the idea of using a very thin PVD a-C layer as an etch-mask layer for the Si 3 N 4 hard-mask pattern with a pattern width of congruent with 80 nm and high aspect ratio of congruent with 5.

  14. Oral mask ventilation is more effective than face mask ventilation after nasal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioğlu, Dilek; Baran, Ilkay; Uzumcugil, Filiz; Ozturk, Ibrahim; Utebey, Gulten; Sayın, M Murat

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate and compare the face mask (FM) and oral mask (OM) ventilation techniques during anesthesia emergence regarding tidal volume, leak volume, and difficult mask ventilation (DMV) incidence. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Operating room, training and research hospital. American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II adult patients scheduled for nasal surgery. Patients in group FM-OM received FM ventilation first, followed by OM ventilation, and patients in group OM-FM received OM ventilation first, followed by FM ventilation, with spontaneous ventilation after deep extubation. The FM ventilation was applied with the 1-handed EC-clamp technique. The OM was placed only over the mouth, and the 1-handed EC-clamp technique was used again. A child's size FM was used for the OM ventilation technique, the mask was rotated, and the inferior part of the mask was placed toward the nose. The leak volume (MVleak), mean airway pressure (Pmean), and expired tidal volume (TVe) were assessed with each mask technique for 3 consecutive breaths. A mask ventilation grade ≥3 was considered DMV. DMV occurred more frequently during FM ventilation (75% with FM vs 8% with OM). In the FM-first sequence, the mean TVe was 249±61mL with the FM and 455±35mL with the OM (P=.0001), whereas in the OM-first sequence, it was 276±81mL with the FM and 409±37mL with the OM (P=.0001). Regardless of the order used, the OM technique significantly decreased the MVleak and increased the TVe when compared to the FM technique. During anesthesia emergence after nasal surgery the OM may offer an effective ventilation method as it decreases the incidence of DMV and the gas leak around the mask and provides higher tidal volume delivery compared with FM ventilation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Masking and Partial Masking in Listeners with a High-Frequency Hearing Loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.T.S.; Duifhuis, H.

    1982-01-01

    3 listeners with sensorineural hearing loss ranging from moderate to moderate-severe starting at frequencies higher than 1 kHz participated in two masking experiments and a partial masking experiment. In the first masking experiment, fM = 1 kHz and LM = 50 dB SPL, higher than normal masked

  16. What's in a mask? Information masking with forward and backward visual masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2011-10-01

    Three experiments tested how the physical format and information content of forward and backward masks affected the extent of visual pattern masking. This involved using different types of forward and backward masks with target discrimination measured by percentage correct in the first experiment (with a fixed target duration) and by an adaptive threshold procedure in the last two. The rationale behind the manipulation of the content of the masks stemmed from masking theories emphasizing attentional and/or conceptual factors rather than visual ones. Experiment 1 used word masks and showed that masking was reduced (a masking reduction effect) when the forward and backward masks were the same word (although in different case) compared to when the masks were different words. Experiment 2 tested the extent to which a reduction in masking might occur due to the physical similarity between the forward and backward masks by comparing the effect of the same content of the masks in the same versus different case. The result showed a significant reduction in masking for same content masks but no significant effect of case. The last experiment examined whether the reduction in masking effect would be observed with nonword masks--that is, having no high-level representation. No reduction in masking was found from same compared to different nonword masks (Experiment 3). These results support the view that the conscious perception of a rapidly displayed target stimulus is in part determined by high-level perceptual/cognitive factors concerned with masking stimulus grouping and attention.

  17. Impact of different nasal masks on CPAP therapy for obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzeret, Pierre-Charles; Morin, Laurent

    2017-11-01

    Patient interface is important for the success of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but few trials have examined the influence of mask choice on CPAP adherence. To compare the impact of different nasal masks on CPAP in patients with newly-diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). OSA patients were randomized in a 2:3 ratio to receive CPAP via different first-line nasal masks: ResMed Mirage FX® (MFX) or control mask (Fisher & Paykel Zest ® , HC407 ® or Philips EasyLife ® ). Mask acceptance, CPAP compliance and Home Care Provider (HCP) interventions were compared between groups after 3 months of CPAP therapy using modified intent-to-treat (mITT; after exclusion of patients with mouth leaks during CPAP initiation) and on-treatment (OT; CPAP adherent) analyses. Of 285 randomized patients, 90 requiring a full-face mask were excluded, leaving 195 and 151 in the mITT and OT analyses, respectively. Mask acceptance rate was higher in the MFX versus control group (mITT: 79% vs 68%, P = 0.067; OT: 90% vs 76%, P = 0.022). CPAP compliance was higher (5.9 ± 1.8 vs 5.1 ± 1.6 h/night, P = 0.011) and nasal mask issue-related HCP visits lower (3% vs 17%, P = 0.006) in the MFX group. Nasal mask failures due to mask discomfort (5% vs 1%) or unintentional leakage (5% vs 0%) were higher in control vs MFX group. Mask acceptance was significantly associated with fewer mask leaks (P = 0.002) and higher pressure therapy (P = 0.042). This study highlights differences between nasal masks for CPAP delivery and shows that initial mask selection can influence adherence and healthcare utilization during CPAP. © 2016 ResMed Germany Inc. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of mask dead space and occlusion of mask holes on delivery of nebulized albuterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinski, Ariel

    2014-08-01

    Infants and children with respiratory conditions are often prescribed bronchodilators. Face masks are used to facilitate the administration of nebulized therapy in patients unable to use a mouthpiece. Masks incorporate holes into their design, and their occlusion during aerosol delivery has been a common practice. Masks are available in different sizes and different dead volumes. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different degrees of occlusion of the mask holes and different mask dead space on the amount of nebulized albuterol available at the mouth opening in a model of a spontaneously breathing child. A breathing simulator mimicking infant (tidal volume [VT] = 50 mL, breathing frequency = 30 breaths/min, inspiratory-expiratory ratio [I:E] = 1:3), child (VT = 155 mL, breathing frequency = 25 breaths/min, I:E = 1:2), and adult (VT = 500 mL, breathing frequency = 15 breaths/min, I:E = 1:2) breathing patterns was connected to a collection filter hidden behind a face plate. A pediatric size mask and an adult size mask connected to a continuous output jet nebulizer were sealed to the face plate. Three nebulizers were loaded with albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/3 mL) and operated with 6 L/min compressed air for 5 min. Experiments were repeated with different degrees of occlusion (0%, 50%, and 90%). Albuterol was extracted from the filter and measured with a spectrophotometer at 276 nm. Occlusion of the holes in the large mask did not increase the amount of albuterol in any of the breathing patterns. The amount of albuterol captured at the mouth opening did not change when the small mask was switched to the large mask, except with the breathing pattern of a child, and when the holes in the mask were 50% occluded (P = .02). Neither decreasing the dead space of the mask nor occluding the mask holes increased the amount of nebulized albuterol captured at the mouth opening.

  19. Impacto do acoplamento de máscara facial sobre a oxigenação Impacto del acoplamiento de la máscara facial sobre la oxigenación Oxygenation: the impact of face mask coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Montoya de Gregori

    2005-10-01

    la CEO2, (concentración expirada de O2, la eficacia de la técnica de oxigenación con máscara facial, en las condiciones habitualmente empleadas por los anestesiólogos, simulando situaciones de vaciamientos progresivos. MÉTODO: Fueron estudiadas las CEO2 de 15 voluntarios, estado físico ASA I, sometidos a la técnica de oxigenación con ocho respiraciones profundas (capacidad vital en 60s con flujo de gas fresco de 10 L.min-1. La máscara facial fue bien acoplada con CIO2 del 100% (Ac100, variando del 50% a 90% (Ac50; Ac60; Ac70; Ac80; Ac90 y máscara acoplada por la gravedad y CIO2 100% (Grav; máscara a 1 cm de la faz y CIO2 a 100% (Afast. La CEO2 fue registrada en intervalos de 10s hasta 60s. En los tests estadísticos p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Different oxygenation techniques aim at promoting denitrogenation before apnea during induction. The main reason why CIO2 = 100% cannot be reached is the lack of adequate face mask coupling, allowing the entry of room air. Although anesthesiologists know this principle, not all of them apply it correctly, facilitating the entry of air in fresh gases flow and consequently diluting CIO2. This prospective study was performed to comparatively evaluate, through the variation of oxygen expired concentration (CEO2, the efficacy of the oxygenation technique via face mask in the conditions routinely used by anesthesiologists, simulating situations of progressive leaks. METHODS: Oxygen end-tidal concentrations of 15 volunteers, physical status ASA I, were studied with 8 deep breaths (vital capacity in 60 s with fresh gas flow of 10 L.min-1. The face mask was: tightly fitted with 100% CIO2 (Tf100 or varying from 50% to 90%, (Tf50, Tf60, Tf70, Tf80, Tf90; gravity-coupled to face and 100% CIO2 (Grav and moved 1 cm away from face with 100% CIO2 (Aw. CEO2 was recorded at 10 s intervals. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: CEO2 has increased for all groups (p < 0.001, but only Tf100 reached values close to

  20. Influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of bag-mask ventilation in a neonatal manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deindl, Philipp; O'Reilly, Megan; Zoller, Katharina; Berger, Angelika; Pollak, Arnold; Schwindt, Jens; Schmölzer, Georg M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical face mask with an air cushion rim might be placed accidentally in a false orientation on the newborn's face or filled with various amounts of air during neonatal resuscitation. Both false orientation as well as variable filling may reduce a tight seal and therefore hamper effective positive pressure ventilation (PPV). We aimed to measure the influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of PPV. Twenty neonatal staff members delivered PPV to a modified, leak-free manikin. Resuscitation parameters were recorded using a self-inflatable bag PPV with an Intersurgical anatomical air cushion rim face mask (IS) and a size 0/1 Laerdal round face mask. Three different positions of the IS were tested: correct position, 90° and 180° rotation in reference to the midline of the face. IS masks in each correct position on the face but with different inflation of the air cushion (empty, 10, 20 and 30 mL). Mask leak was similar with mask rotation to either 90° or 180° but significantly increased from 27 (13-73) % with an adequate filled IS mask compared to 52 (16-83) % with an emptied air cushion rim. Anatomical-shaped face mask had similar mask leaks compared to round face mask. A wrongly positioned anatomical-shaped mask does not influence mask leak. Mask leak significantly increased once the air cushion rim was empty, which may cause failure in mask PPV.

  1. Lateral spread of P+ ions implanted in silicon through the SiO2 mask window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, T.; Kawata, H.; Sato, T.; Hisatsugu, T.; Hashimoto, H.; Furuya, T.

    1979-01-01

    The lateral spread of implanted P + ions and the shape of the mask window have been observed simultaneously using the technique of staining the cleaved surface and scanning electron microscopy for the Si samples with the SiO 2 mask window with a tapered edge. The mask edge with a gradient of 45 0 or 78 0 to the Si surface and the implanted n-type region with a carrier concentration higher than 2 x 10 17 /cm 3 are observed in the same photograph. The observed maximum lateral spread when the gradient of the mask edge is 45 0 is about 1.6 times larger than that when the gradient is 78 0 . The calculated results of the lateral spread agree relatively well with the experimental data although the precise analysis based on the definite basis is necessary

  2. 6. Investigation of R2M17 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemans, J.B.A.A.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the different crystallographic forms that arise in the parent RM 5 (R rare earth including yttrium or thorium; M = Fe, Co or Ni) with CaCu 5 structure in which every third R is replaced by a pair of M. This results in the stoichiometric composition R 2 M 17 . Metallographic studies of well annealed and quenched specimens of CeFesub(x), HoFesub(x) and TmFesub(x) with x varying from 8 to 9.5 showed that only those with x = 8.5 consisted of one phase. Similar experiments with ThNisub(x) and YNisub(x), x varying from 6.5 to 8.5 revealed that in these cases, single phases were obtained with x = 7.5

  3. Continuous positive airway pressure with helmet versus mask in infants with bronchiolitis: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidini, Giovanna; Piastra, Marco; Marchesi, Tiziana; De Luca, Daniele; Napolitano, Luisa; Salvo, Ida; Wolfler, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo; Damasco, Mirco; Conti, Giorgio; Calderini, Edoardo

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is usually applied with a nasal or facial mask to treat mild acute respiratory failure (ARF) in infants. A pediatric helmet has now been introduced in clinical practice to deliver CPAP. This study compared treatment failure rates during CPAP delivered by helmet or facial mask in infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 30 infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF were randomized to receive CPAP by helmet (n = 17) or facial mask (n = 13). The primary endpoint was treatment failure rate (defined as due to intolerance or need for intubation). Secondary outcomes were CPAP application time, number of patients requiring sedation, and complications with each interface. Compared with the facial mask, CPAP by helmet had a lower treatment failure rate due to intolerance (3/17 [17%] vs 7/13 [54%], P = .009), and fewer infants required sedation (6/17 [35%] vs 13/13 [100%], P = .023); the intubation rates were similar. In successfully treated patients, CPAP resulted in better gas exchange and breathing pattern with both interfaces. No major complications due to the interfaces occurred, but CPAP by mask had higher rates of cutaneous sores and leaks. These findings confirm that CPAP delivered by helmet is better tolerated than CPAP delivered by facial mask and requires less sedation. In addition, it is safe to use and free from adverse events, even in a prolonged clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Electron cyclotron resonance ion stream etching of tantalum for x-ray mask absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Akira; Yoshihara, Hideo

    1993-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion stream etching of Ta film was investigated for preparing x-ray mask absorber patterns. Ta is etched by the system at a high rate and with high selectivity. Using Cl 2 as etching gas, the etch rate decreases rapidly with decreasing pattern width below 0.5 μm and large undercutting is observed. The problems are reduced by adding Ar or O 2 gas to the Cl 2 . Etching with a mixture of Cl 2 and O 2 produces highly accurate Ta absorber patterns for x-ray masks. The pattern width dependence of the etch rate and the undercutting were simulated with a model that takes account of the angular distribution of active species incident on the sample. The experimental results agree well with those calculated assuming that the incidence angles are distributed between -36 degrees and 36 degrees. The addition of O 2 or Ar enhances ion assisted etching. 16 refs., 16 figs

  5. Techniques of preoxygenation in patients with ineffective face mask seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kundra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ineffective face mask seal is the most common cause for suboptimal pre-oxygenation. Room air entrainment can be more with vital capacity (VC breaths when the mask is not a tight fit. Aims: This study was designed to compare 5 min tidal volume (TV breathing and eight VC breaths in patients with ineffective face mask seal. Methods: Twenty eight ASA I adults with ineffective face mask seal were randomized to breathe 100% oxygen at normal TV for 5 min (Group TV and eight VC breaths (Group VC in a cross over manner through circle system at 10 L/min. End tidal oxygen concentration (EtO 2 and arterial blood gas analysis was performed to evaluate oxygenation with each technique. Statistical Analysis: Data were analysed using SPSS statistical software, version 16. Friedman′s two-way analysis of variance by ranks was used for non-parametric data. Results: Significant increase in EtO 2 (median 90 and PaO 2 (228.85 was seen in group TV when compared to group VC (EtO 2 median 85, PaO 2 147.65, P<0.05. Mean total ventilation volume in 1 min in group VC was 9.4±3.3 L/min and more than fresh gas flow (10 L/min in seven patients. In group TV, the fresh gas flow (50 L/5 min was sufficient at normal TV (mean total ventilation in 5 min 36.7±6.3 L/min. Conclusions: TV breathing for 5 min provides better pre-oxygenation in patients with ineffective mask seal with fresh gas flow of 10 L/min delivered through a circle system.

  6. Fabrication of rectangular cross-sectional microchannels on PMMA with a CO2 laser and underwater fabricated copper mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shashi; Kumar, Subrata

    2017-09-01

    CO2 lasers are commonly used for fabricating polymer based microfluidic devices. Despite several key advantages like low cost, time effectiveness, easy to operate and no requirement of clean room facility, CO2 lasers suffer from few disadvantages like thermal bulging, improper dimensional control, difficulty to produce microchannels of other than Gaussian cross sectional shapes and inclined surface walls. Many microfluidic devices require square or rectangular cross-sections which are difficult to produce using normal CO2 laser procedures. In this work, a thin copper sheet of 40 μm was used as a mask above the PMMA (Polymethyl-methacrylate) substrate while fabricating the microchannels utilizing the raster scanning feature of the CO2 lasers. Microchannels with different width dimensions were fabricated utilizing a CO2 laser in with mask and without-mask conditions. A comparison of both the fabricating process has been made. It was found that microchannels with U shape cross section and rectangular cross-section can efficiently be produced using the with mask technique. In addition to this, this technique can provide perfect dimensional control and better surface quality of the microchannel walls. Such a microchannel fabrication process do not require any post-processing. The fabrication of mask using a nanosecond fiber laser has been discussed in details. An underwater laser fabrication method was adopted to overcome heat related defects in mask preparation. Overall, the technique was found to be easy to adopt and significant improvements were observed in microchannel fabrication.

  7. Development of single mask GEM foils in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, L.M.; Mohanty, A.K.; Pinto, O.J.; Gadhadharan, S.; Menon, Pradeep; Sharma, Archana; Oliveira, Rui De; )

    2014-01-01

    There are various techniques available around the globe for making punch through holes for Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs), such as Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). The GEM foils consists of 5 μm of Cu clad on both the sides of 50 μm polymide (PMMA/kapton) (5/50/5). At present these foils are developed in South Korea without having any adhesive between the Cu and polymide. The available techniques range from chemical etching, reactive plasma etching and laser etching. However, for GEM detectors, having an active area upto 5000 cm 2 , the chemical etching process using a Single Mask has been developed at CERN which is faster from the viewpoint of mass production of such foils for the upgrades which are foreseen in a couple of years with the Large Hadron Collider facility at CERN

  8. A nanohybrid system for taste masking of sildenafil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hee; Choi, Goeun; Oh, Yeon-Ji; Park, Je Won; Choy, Young Bin; Park, Mung Chul; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Chang, Hee Chul; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A nanohybrid was prepared with an inorganic clay material, montmorillonite (MMT), for taste masking of sildenafil (SDN). To further improve the taste-masking efficiency and enhance the drug-release rate, we coated the nanohybrid of SDN–MMT with a basic polymer, polyvinylacetal diethylaminoacetate (AEA). Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared experiments showed that SDN was successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of MMT. The AEA-coated SDN–MMT nanohybrid showed drug release was much suppressed at neutral pH (release rate, 4.70 ± 0.53%), suggesting a potential for drug taste masking at the buccal cavity. We also performed in vitro drug release experiments in a simulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.2) and compared the drug-release profiles of AEA-coated SDN–MMT and Viagra®, an approved dosage form of SDN. As a result, about 90% of SDN was released from the AEA-coated SDN–MMT during the first 2 hours while almost 100% of drug was released from Viagra®. However, an in vivo experiment showed that the AEA-coated SDN–MMT exhibited higher drug exposure than Viagra®. For the AEA-coated SDN–MMT, the area under the plasma concentration– time curve from 0 hours to infinity (AUC0-∞) and maximum concentration (Cmax) were 78.8 ± 2.32 μg · hour/mL and 12.4 ± 0.673 μg/mL, respectively, both of which were larger than those obtained with Viagra® (AUC0-∞ = 69.2 ± 3.19 μg · hour/mL; Cmax = 10.5 ± 0.641 μg/mL). Therefore, we concluded that the MMT-based nanohybrid is a promising delivery system for taste masking of SDN with possibly improved drug exposure. PMID:22619517

  9. Use of face masks by non-scrubbed operating room staff: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Croger, Sarah; Lister, Carolyn; Doidge, Michelle; Terry, Michael J; Jones, Ian

    2010-03-01

    Ambiguity remains about the effectiveness of wearing surgical face masks. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact on surgical site infections (SSIs) when non-scrubbed operating room staff did not wear surgical face masks. Eight hundred twenty-seven participants undergoing elective or emergency obstetric, gynecological, general, orthopaedic, breast or urological surgery in an Australian tertiary hospital were enrolled. Complete follow-up data were available for 811 patients (98.1%). Operating room lists were randomly allocated to a 'Mask group' (all non-scrubbed staff wore a mask) or 'No Mask group' (none of the non-scrubbed staff wore masks). The primary end point, SSI was identified using in-patient surveillance; post discharge follow-up and chart reviews. The patient was followed for up to six weeks. Overall, 83 (10.2%) surgical site infections were recorded; 46/401 (11.5%) in the Masked group and 37/410 (9.0%) in the No Mask group; odds ratio (OR) 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 1.21), p = 0.151. Independent risk factors for surgical site infection included: any pre-operative stay (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.43 (95% CI, 0.20; 0.95), high BMI aOR, 0.38 (95% CI, 0.17; 0.87), and any previous surgical site infection aOR, 0.40 (95% CI, 0.17; 0.89). Surgical site infection rates did not increase when non-scrubbed operating room personnel did not wear a face mask.

  10. The Effect of a Diving Mask on Intraocular Pressure in a Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherina Josephine Goenadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Swimming goggles increase the intraocular pressure (IOP via the periorbital frame pressure and suction effect. In comparison, diving masks have a larger frame rim and incorporate the nose. The exact effect(s of diving masks on IOP is unknown. This study evaluates the influence of diving masks on IOP in normal, healthy subjects. Methods: Tonometry was performed in both eyes of all subjects with an AVIA®Tono-Pen by a single investigator. Measurements were taken at baseline without the diving mask and with the subjects wearing a small-volume, double-window diving mask, but with the mask lenses removed. Two IOP readings in each eye were measured, and an additional reading was measured if the difference between the initial 2 was ≥2 mm Hg. Central corneal thickness (CCT was also measured in each eye, using a contact pachymeter (OcuScan®Alcon. Results: Forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (age 29.7 ± 9.3 years; range 21–52 were included. The mean CCT was 544.4 ± 43.5 µm. The mean IOP before the diving mask was worn had been 17.23 ± 2.18 mm Hg (n = 40. The IOP decreased by 0.43 mm Hg (p < 0.05 to 16.80 ± 2.57 mm Hg after the diving mask had been put on. There was no correlation between IOP change and age (r = 0.143, p = 0.337, gender (r = –0.174, p = 0.283 or CCT (r = –0.123, p = 0.445. Conclusion: There was no increase in IOP after the diving mask had been worn. A small but statistically significant decrease in IOP was observed. This study demonstrates that unlike swimming goggles, the strap tension and frame pressure on the periorbital tissue from a diving mask does not increase IOP. Diving masks may be a suitable alternative to swimming goggles for patients with advanced glaucoma or glaucoma filtration surgery.

  11. Visual masking & schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herzog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.

  12. A novel anti-influenza copper oxide containing respiratory face mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkow, Gadi; Zhou, Steve S; Page, Tom; Gabbay, Jeffrey

    2010-06-25

    Protective respiratory face masks protect the nose and mouth of the wearer from vapor drops carrying viruses or other infectious pathogens. However, incorrect use and disposal may actually increase the risk of pathogen transmission, rather than reduce it, especially when masks are used by non-professionals such as the lay public. Copper oxide displays potent antiviral properties. A platform technology has been developed that permanently introduces copper oxide into polymeric materials, conferring them with potent biocidal properties. We demonstrate that impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent biocidal properties in addition to their inherent filtration properties. Both control and copper oxide impregnated masks filtered above 99.85% of aerosolized viruses when challenged with 5.66+/-0.51 and 6.17+/-0.37 log(10)TCID(50) of human influenza A virus (H1N1) and avian influenza virus (H9N2), respectively, under simulated breathing conditions (28.3 L/min). Importantly, no infectious human influenza A viral titers were recovered from the copper oxide containing masks within 30 minutes (masks. Similarly, the infectious avian influenza titers recovered from the copper oxide containing masks were masks 5.03+/-0.54 log(10)TCID(50). The copper oxide containing masks successfully passed Bacterial Filtration Efficacy, Differential Pressure, Latex Particle Challenge, and Resistance to Penetration by Synthetic Blood tests designed to test the filtration properties of face masks in accordance with the European EN 14683:2005 and NIOSH N95 standards. Impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent anti-influenza biocidal properties without altering their physical barrier properties. The use of biocidal masks may significantly reduce the risk of hand or environmental contamination, and thereby subsequent infection, due to improper handling and disposal of the masks.

  13. Nasal mask ventilation is better than face mask ventilation in edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Mukul Chandra; Rana, Sandeep; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Vishal, Vindhya; Sikdar, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Face mask ventilation of the edentulous patient is often difficult as ineffective seating of the standard mask to the face prevents attainment of an adequate air seal. The efficacy of nasal ventilation in edentulous patients has been cited in case reports but has never been investigated. Consecutive edentulous adult patients scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, during a 17-month period, were prospectively evaluated. After induction of anesthesia and administration of neuromuscular blocker, lungs were ventilated with a standard anatomical face mask of appropriate size, using a volume controlled anesthesia ventilator with tidal volume set at 10 ml/kg. In case of inadequate ventilation, the mask position was adjusted to achieve best-fit. Inspired and expired tidal volumes were measured. Thereafter, the face mask was replaced by a nasal mask and after achieving best-fit, the inspired and expired tidal volumes were recorded. The difference in expired tidal volumes and airway pressures at best-fit with the use of the two masks and number of patients with inadequate ventilation with use of the masks were statistically analyzed. A total of 79 edentulous patients were recruited for the study. The difference in expiratory tidal volumes with the use of the two masks at best-fit was statistically significant (P = 0.0017). Despite the best-fit mask placement, adequacy of ventilation could not be achieved in 24.1% patients during face mask ventilation, and 12.7% patients during nasal mask ventilation and the difference was statistically significant. Nasal mask ventilation is more efficient than standard face mask ventilation in edentulous patients.

  14. Reduction of the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake on technetium-99m myocardial SPECT. Usefulness and problems of a mask processing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaki, Akihiro; Okada, Kazuhiro; Urata, Johji; Matsuda, Hirofumi; Takao, Yuji [Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a mask processing method for obtaining the true myocardial tracer distribution by eliminating the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake on myocardial SPECT images by using technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) blood flow agents. A SPECT imaging was performed with a two-head SPECT system (GCA-7200A/DI) in both phantom and clinical studies. The mask processing method was applied to the reconstructed and projection images. The phantom consisted of heart, lung, liver and spine. A defect was located in the inferior wall of the left ventricle and other parts of the heart and liver were filled with {sup 99m}Tc solution. For clinical study 10 patients with difficulty in the interpretation of the inferior wall were selected for the evaluation of usefulness of the mask method. In the phantom study, the mask processing method applied to the reconstructed images was able to remove the overlapped liver from the heart, but was not able to remove the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake. Nevertheless, the mask processing method applied to the projection images successfully eliminated not only the overlapped liver but also the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake. In the clinical study, the liver uptake could be removed from the uptake in the inferior wall in 8 of 10 patients with the mask processing methods. In 2 patients, the overlapped liver uptake could not be eliminated from the uptake in the inferior wall because the distance between the liver and heart was too short. The mask processing method applied to the projection images was thought to be superior to that applied to the reconstruction images in both phantom and clinical studies. The mask processing method, especially applied to the projection images, seems to be useful for the elimination of the liver uptake from the inferior wall of the myocardium on myocardial SPECT images using {sup 99m}Tc blood flow agents. (author)

  15. Reduction of the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake on technetium-99m myocardial SPECT. Usefulness and problems of a mask processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Akihiro; Okada, Kazuhiro; Urata, Johji; Matsuda, Hirofumi; Takao, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a mask processing method for obtaining the true myocardial tracer distribution by eliminating the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake on myocardial SPECT images by using technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) blood flow agents. A SPECT imaging was performed with a two-head SPECT system (GCA-7200A/DI) in both phantom and clinical studies. The mask processing method was applied to the reconstructed and projection images. The phantom consisted of heart, lung, liver and spine. A defect was located in the inferior wall of the left ventricle and other parts of the heart and liver were filled with 99m Tc solution. For clinical study 10 patients with difficulty in the interpretation of the inferior wall were selected for the evaluation of usefulness of the mask method. In the phantom study, the mask processing method applied to the reconstructed images was able to remove the overlapped liver from the heart, but was not able to remove the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake. Nevertheless, the mask processing method applied to the projection images successfully eliminated not only the overlapped liver but also the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake. In the clinical study, the liver uptake could be removed from the uptake in the inferior wall in 8 of 10 patients with the mask processing methods. In 2 patients, the overlapped liver uptake could not be eliminated from the uptake in the inferior wall because the distance between the liver and heart was too short. The mask processing method applied to the projection images was thought to be superior to that applied to the reconstruction images in both phantom and clinical studies. The mask processing method, especially applied to the projection images, seems to be useful for the elimination of the liver uptake from the inferior wall of the myocardium on myocardial SPECT images using 99m Tc blood flow agents. (author)

  16. Migration from full-head mask to "open-face" mask for immobilization of patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Lovelock, D Michael; Mechalakos, James; Rao, Shyam; Della-Biancia, Cesar; Amols, Howard; Lee, Nancy

    2013-09-06

    To provide an alternative device for immobilization of the head while easing claustrophobia and improving comfort, an "open-face" thermoplastic mask was evaluated using video-based optical surface imaging (OSI) and kilovoltage (kV) X-ray radiography. A three-point thermoplastic head mask with a precut opening and reinforced strips was developed. After molding, it provided sufficient visible facial area as the region of interest for OSI. Using real-time OSI, the head motion of ten volunteers in the new mask was evaluated during mask locking and 15minutes lying on the treatment couch. Using a nose mark with reference to room lasers, forced head movement in open-face and full-head masks (with a nose hole) was compared. Five patients with claustrophobia were immobilized with open-face masks, set up using OSI and kV, and treated in 121 fractions, in which 61 fractions were monitored during treatment using real-time OSI. With the open-face mask, head motion was found to be 1.0 ± 0.6 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in volunteers during the experiment, and 0.8 ± 0.3 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in patients during treatment. These agree with patient motion calculated from pre-/post-treatment OSI and kV data using different anatomical landmarks. In volunteers, the head shift induced by mask-locking was 2.3 ± 1.7 mm and 1.8° ± 0.6°, and the range of forced movements in the open-face and full-head masks were found to be similar. Most (80%) of the volunteers preferred the open-face mask to the full-head mask, while claustrophobic patients could only tolerate the open-face mask. The open-face mask is characterized for its immobilization capability and can immobilize patients sufficiently (< 2 mm) during radiotherapy. It provides a clinical solution to the immobilization of patients with head and neck (HN) cancer undergoing radiotherapy, and is particularly beneficial for claustrophobic patients. This new open-face mask is readily adopted in radiotherapy clinic as a superior alternative to

  17. High temperature reactive ion etching of iridium thin films with aluminum mask in CF4/O2/Ar plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pin Yeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive ion etching (RIE technology for iridium with CF4/O2/Ar gas mixtures and aluminum mask at high temperatures up to 350 °C was developed. The influence of various process parameters such as gas mixing ratio and substrate temperature on the etch rate was studied in order to find optimal process conditions. The surface of the samples after etching was found to be clean under SEM inspection. It was also shown that the etch rate of iridium could be enhanced at higher process temperature and, at the same time, very high etching selectivity between aluminum etching mask and iridium could be achieved.

  18. The peculiar radio source M17 JVLA 35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, L. F.; Carrasco-González, C. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Montes, G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Tapia, M. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, BC, CP 22830 (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    M17 JVLA 35 is a radio source detected in projection against the M17 H II region. In recent observations, its spectrum between 4.96 and 8.46 GHz was found to be positive and very steep, with α ≥ 2.9 ± 0.6 (S {sub ν}∝ν{sup α}). Here we present Very Large Array observations made in the 18.5 to 36.5 GHz region that indicate a spectral turnover at ∼13 GHz and a negative spectral index (α ≅ –2.0) at higher frequencies. The spectrum is consistent with that of an extragalactic high frequency peaker (HFP). However, M17 JVLA 35 has an angular size of ∼0.''5 at 8.46 GHz, while HFPs have extremely compact, milliarcsecond dimensions. We discuss other possible models for the spectrum of the source and do not find them feasible. Finally, we propose that M17 JVLA 35 is indeed an HFP but that its angular size becomes broadened by plasma scattering as its radiation travels across M17. If our interpretation is correct, accurate measurements of the angular size of M17 JVLA 35 across the centimeter range should reveal the expected ν{sup –2} dependence.

  19. Measurements and modeling of 16O12C17O spectroscopic parameters at 2 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemart, David; Sung, Keeyoon; Coleman, Max; Crawford, Timothy; Brown, Linda R.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    2017-12-01

    The lack of spectroscopic measurements for rare CO2 isotopologues was the main motivation of this work. In our present study we report line intensity measurements for 16O12C17O made with a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (Bruker IFS-125HR) and a 21 m path cryogenic Herriott cell at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For this, a 17O-enriched CO2 gas sample was used, which comes as a mixture of primary and several minor CO2 isotopologues. The mole fraction of the 16O12C17O isotopologue in the mixture was determined to be 0.3991 by mass spectrometry from a Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (SIRMS) under stochastic distribution assumption at thermal equilibrium. Since the collisional narrowing effect was observed, the Rautian molecular line shape profile was systematically adopted instead of the Voigt profile. Absolute line positions were also investigated by performing a wavenumber calibration based on CO, HCl and a few well-known 16O12C16O transitions. Finally, around 1000 transitions were studied between 4604 and 5126 cm-1 involving 15 bands of the 16O12C17O isotopologue. All the measured line intensities were renormalized to be the values for 100% pure isotopologue sample. Transition dipole moments and Herman-Wallis factors were derived enabling a global comparison with theoretical calculations and predictions for the 15 bands of the 16O12C17O isotopologue. For the measured line positions, the absolute accuracy is around 2×10-4 cm-1. The accuracies of retrieved line intensities are 2 - 5% for five cold and two hot bands, and 6-30% for eight other weaker hot bands. Results from this work were in a good agreement with HITRAN 2012 for positions, but showed rather significant discrepancies for line intensities. An extensive line list was generated from new experimental measurements in order to improve and validate spectroscopic knowledge of 12C16O17O isotopologue in support of atmospheric remote sensing for the Earth (e.g., OCO-2 mission), Mars and Venus.

  20. A new method of maintaining airway during nasotracheal intubation--the hand mask technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, R S; Wong, D S; Chung, P C; Tan, P P

    1993-09-01

    The efficacy of a new method (The hand mask technique) for airway maintenance during nasotracheal intubation was evaluated in our randomized crossover study. Sixty, age less than 50, ASA physical status class I-II patients undergoing surgery for the extremities with informed consent were randomly chosen for the study. Pulse oximeter, capnometer, EKG, blood pressure monitor and a peripheral nerve stimulator were attached to the patients before induction for continuous monitoring. An arterial cannula was inserted for intermittent blood gas sampling. After baseline room air blood gas data had been obtained from the spontaneously breathing patients, a flow rate of 6L/min pure oxygen was applied through a loosely fitted face mask and a semi-closed anesthesia breathing circuit for a period of 5 minutes. An arterial blood sample was drawn and the patients were put under general anesthesia with full muscle relaxation thereafter. Patients were then randomly assigned into two groups according to the ventilation technique used. Group A patients (n = 30) were manually ventilated first through a face mask for ten minutes and then the hand mask technique for another ten minutes. Blood gas data was sampled and heart rate, blood pressure, peak inspiratory airway pressure and end tidal CO2 were recorded immediately after each ventilation technique. For patients in Group B (n = 30), the sequence of the two ventilation technique were reversed. The results showed significant increases in PaO2 after artificial ventilation in both groups (No significant difference in results between the two groups) and less incidence of nasal bleeding in Group A.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Echelle observations of the spatially resolved kinematics of a region with high-speed motions in M17 (NGC 6618)-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meaburn, J.; Clayton, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    In a previous paper the authors reported the discovery of a 'jet' of ionized gas2 arcsec across emerging from a dark area of M17 with approaching speeds up to 115 km s -1 . The vicinity of this jet has now been observed in detail in the light of [O III] 5007 A with the Manchester echelle, with a five-element multi-slit, on the Isaac Newton Telescope. A variety of new high-speed phenomena has been discovered in the ionized gas. (author)

  2. Synchrotron radiation stimulated etching of SiO sub 2 thin films with a Co contact mask for the area-selective deposition of self-assembled monolayer

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C

    2003-01-01

    The area-selective deposition of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was demonstrated on a pattern structure fabricated by synchrotron radiation (SR) stimulated etching of a SiO sub 2 thin film on the Si substrate. The etching was conducted by irradiating the SiO sub 2 thin film with SR through a Co contact mask and using a mixture of SF sub 6 + O sub 2 as the reaction gas. The SR etching stopped completely at the SiO sub 2 /Si interface. After the SR etching, the Si surface and the SiO sub 2 surface beneath the Co mask were evaluated by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A dodecene SAM was deposited on the Si surface, and trichlorosilane-derived SAMs (octadecyltrichlorosilane, and octenyltrichlorosilane) were deposited on the SiO sub 2 surface beneath the Co mask. The structure of the deposited SAMs showed a densely packed and well-ordered molecular architecture, which was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. (author)

  3. Effects of hard mask etch on final topography of advanced phase shift masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortenbach, Olga; Rolff, Haiko; Lajn, Alexander; Baessler, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Continuous shrinking of the semiconductor device dimensions demands steady improvements of the lithographic resolution on wafer level. These requirements challenge the photomask industry to further improve the mask quality in all relevant printing characteristics. In this paper topography of the Phase Shift Masks (PSM) was investigated. Effects of hard mask etch on phase shift uniformity and mask absorber profile were studied. Design of experiments method (DoE) was used for the process optimization, whereas gas composition, bias power of the hard mask main etch and bias power of the over-etch were varied. In addition, influence of the over-etch time was examined at the end of the experiment. Absorber depth uniformity, sidewall angle (SWA), reactive ion etch lag (RIE lag) and through pitch (TP) dependence were analyzed. Measurements were performed by means of Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) using critical dimension (CD) mode with a boot-shaped tip. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) cross-section images were prepared to verify the profile quality. Finally CD analysis was performed to confirm the optimal etch conditions. Significant dependence of the absorber SWA on hard mask (HM) etch conditions was observed revealing an improvement potential for the mask absorber profile. It was found that hard mask etch can leave a depth footprint in the absorber layer. Thus, the etch depth uniformity of hard mask etch is crucial for achieving a uniform phase shift over the active mask area. The optimized hard mask etch process results in significantly improved mask topography without deterioration of tight CD specifications.

  4. A novel anti-influenza copper oxide containing respiratory face mask.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi Borkow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protective respiratory face masks protect the nose and mouth of the wearer from vapor drops carrying viruses or other infectious pathogens. However, incorrect use and disposal may actually increase the risk of pathogen transmission, rather than reduce it, especially when masks are used by non-professionals such as the lay public. Copper oxide displays potent antiviral properties. A platform technology has been developed that permanently introduces copper oxide into polymeric materials, conferring them with potent biocidal properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent biocidal properties in addition to their inherent filtration properties. Both control and copper oxide impregnated masks filtered above 99.85% of aerosolized viruses when challenged with 5.66+/-0.51 and 6.17+/-0.37 log(10TCID(50 of human influenza A virus (H1N1 and avian influenza virus (H9N2, respectively, under simulated breathing conditions (28.3 L/min. Importantly, no infectious human influenza A viral titers were recovered from the copper oxide containing masks within 30 minutes (< or = 0.88 log(10TCID(50, while 4.67+/-1.35 log(10TCID(50 were recovered from the control masks. Similarly, the infectious avian influenza titers recovered from the copper oxide containing masks were < or = 0.97+/-0.01 log(10TCID(50 and from the control masks 5.03+/-0.54 log(10TCID(50. The copper oxide containing masks successfully passed Bacterial Filtration Efficacy, Differential Pressure, Latex Particle Challenge, and Resistance to Penetration by Synthetic Blood tests designed to test the filtration properties of face masks in accordance with the European EN 14683:2005 and NIOSH N95 standards. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent anti-influenza biocidal properties without altering their physical

  5. A nanohybrid system for taste masking of sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH

    2012-03-01

    concentration (Cmax were 78.8 ± 2.32 µg • hour/mL and 12.4 ± 0.673 µg/mL, respectively, both of which were larger than those obtained with Viagra® (AUC0-∞ = 69.2 ± 3.19 µg • hour/mL; Cmax = 10.5 ± 0.641 µg/mL. Therefore, we concluded that the MMT-based nanohybrid is a promising delivery system for taste masking of SDN with possibly improved drug exposure.Keywords: montmorillonite, nanohybrids, polyvinylacetal diethylaminoacetate, sildenafil citrate, taste masking

  6. Ni-Al Alloys as Alternative EUV Mask Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Luong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme ultraviolet (EUV lithography is being industrialized as the next candidate printing technique for high-volume manufacturing of scaled down integrated circuits. At mask level, the combination of EUV light at oblique incidence, absorber thickness, and non-uniform mirror reflectance through incidence angle, creates photomask-induced imaging aberrations, known as mask 3D (M3D effects. A possible mitigation for the M3D effects in the EUV binary intensity mask (BIM, is to use mask absorber materials with high extinction coefficient κ and refractive coefficient n close to unity. We propose nickel aluminide alloys as a candidate BIM absorber material, and characterize them versus a set of specifications that a novel EUV mask absorber must meet. The nickel aluminide samples have reduced crystallinity as compared to metallic nickel, and form a passivating surface oxide layer in neutral solutions. Composition and density profile are investigated to estimate the optical constants, which are then validated with EUV reflectometry. An oxidation-induced Al L2 absorption edge shift is observed, which significantly impacts the value of n at 13.5 nm wavelength and moves it closer to unity. The measured optical constants are incorporated in an accurate mask model for rigorous simulations. The M3D imaging impact of the nickel aluminide alloy mask absorbers, which predict significant M3D reduction in comparison to reference absorber materials. In this paper, we present an extensive experimental methodology flow to evaluate candidate mask absorber materials.

  7. Nasal mask ventilation is better than face mask ventilation in edentulous patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, Mukul Chandra; Rana, Sandeep; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Vishal, Vindhya; Sikdar, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Face mask ventilation of the edentulous patient is often difficult as ineffective seating of the standard mask to the face prevents attainment of an adequate air seal. The efficacy of nasal ventilation in edentulous patients has been cited in case reports but has never been investigated. Material and Methods: Consecutive edentulous adult patients scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, during a 17-month period, were prospectively ev...

  8. Electrostatic mask for active targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J; Gangnant, P; Libin, J-F; Raabe, R; Roger, T; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Gibelin, J; Goth, M

    2012-01-01

    Active gas targets have been used in nuclear physics since 30 years. They are promising systems in view of the new exotic beams soon available at facilities like SPIRAL2 or FAIR, but the system can still be improved. One of the main limitation is the dynamic range in energy deposition. The energy deposited per unit length can be 3 decades higher for the beam than for the light reaction products and the risk to saturate the electronics or that the detector spark are not negligible. A simple solution using a wire plane to mask partially the beam is presented here. Some simulation has been realized and some experimental results are shown confirming the feasibility of this wire tunable mask. The mask can be used from full transparency to full opacity without degrading neither the drift electric field of the chamber nor the performances of detection of the beam or the light products.

  9. 37 CFR 211.2 - Recordation of documents pertaining to mask works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pertaining to mask works. 211.2 Section 211.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.2 Recordation of documents pertaining to mask works. The conditions prescribed in § 201.4 of this chapter for recordation of transfers...

  10. Growth suppression of colorectal cancer by plant-derived multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55 via inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Moussavou, Ghislain; Lee, Ju Hyoung; Heo, Sung Youn; Ko, Kisung; Hwang, Kyung-A; Jekal, Seung-Joo; Choo, Young-Kug

    2014-11-14

    We have generated the transgenic Tabaco plants expressing multiple monoclonal antibody (mAb) CO7-1A × BR55 by cross-pollinating with mAb CO17-1A and mAb BR55. We have demonstrated the anti-cancer effect of plant-derived multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55. We find that co-treatment of colorectal mAbs (anti-epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM), plant-derived monoclonal antibody (mAb(P)) CO17-1A and mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55) with RAW264.7 cells significantly inhibited the cell growth in SW620 cancer cells. In particular, multi mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 significantly and efficiently suppressed the growth of SW620 cancer cells compared to another mAbs. Apoptotic death-positive cells were significantly increased in the mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55-treated. The mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 treatment significantly decreased the expression of B-Cell lymphoma-2 (BCl-2), but the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and cleaved caspase-3 were markedly increased. In vivo, the mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 significantly and efficiently inhibited the growth of colon tumors compared to another mAbs. The apoptotic cell death and inhibition of pro-apoptotic proteins expression were highest by treatment with mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55. In addition, the mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 significantly inhibited the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in cancer cells and tumors. Therefore, this study results suggest that multiple mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 has a significant effect on apoptosis-mediated anticancer by suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in colon cancer compared to another mAbs. In light of these results, further clinical investigation should be conducted on mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 to determine its possible chemopreventive and/or therapeutic efficacy against human colon cancer.

  11. Noninvasive CPAP with face mask: comparison among new air-entrainment masks and the Boussignac valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistraletti, Giovanni; Giacomini, Matteo; Sabbatini, Giovanni; Pinciroli, Riccardo; Mantovani, Elena S; Umbrello, Michele; Palmisano, Debora; Formenti, Paolo; Destrebecq, Anne L L; Iapichino, Gaetano

    2013-02-01

    The performances of 2 noninvasive CPAP systems (high flow and low flow air-entrainment masks) were compared to the Boussignac valve in 3 different scenarios. Scenario 1: pneumatic lung simulator with a tachypnea pattern (tidal volume 800 mL at 40 breaths/min). Scenario 2: Ten healthy subjects studied during tidal breaths and tachypnea. Scenario 3: Twenty ICU subjects enrolled for a noninvasive CPAP session. Differences between set and effective CPAP level and F(IO(2)), as well as the lowest airway pressure and the pressure swing around the imposed CPAP level, were analyzed. The lowest airway pressure and swing were correlated to the pressure-time product (area of the airway pressure curve below the CPAP level) measured with the simulator. P(aO(2)) was a subject's further performance index. Lung simulator: Boussignac F(IO(2)) was 0.54, even if supplied with pure oxygen. The air-entrainment masks had higher swing than the Boussignac (P = .007). Pressure-time product correlated better with pressure swing (Spearman correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.97) than with lowest airway pressure (ρ = 0.92). In healthy subjects, the high-flow air-entrainment mask showed lower difference between set and effective F(IO(2)) (P mask had lower swing than the Boussignac valve (P = .03) with similar P(aO(2)) increase. High-flow air-entrainment mask showed the best performance in human subjects. During high flow demand, the Boussignac valve delivered lower than expected F(IO(2)) and showed higher dynamic hyper-pressurization than the air-entrainment masks. © 2013 Daedalus Enterprises.

  12. Migration from full‐head mask to “open‐face” mask for immobilization of patients with head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, D. Michael; Mechalakos, James; Rao, Shyam; Della‐Biancia, Cesar; Amols, Howard; Lee, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    To provide an alternative device for immobilization of the head while easing claustrophobia and improving comfort, an “open‐face” thermoplastic mask was evaluated using video‐based optical surface imaging (OSI) and kilovoltage (kV) X‐ray radiography. A three‐point thermoplastic head mask with a precut opening and reinforced strips was developed. After molding, it provided sufficient visible facial area as the region of interest for OSI. Using real‐time OSI, the head motion of ten volunteers in the new mask was evaluated during mask locking and 15 minutes lying on the treatment couch. Using a nose mark with reference to room lasers, forced head movement in open‐face and full‐head masks (with a nose hole) was compared. Five patients with claustrophobia were immobilized with open‐face masks, set up using OSI and kV, and treated in 121 fractions, in which 61 fractions were monitored during treatment using real‐time OSI. With the open‐face mask, head motion was found to be 1.0 ± 0.6 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in volunteers during the experiment, and 0.8 ± 0.3 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in patients during treatment. These agree with patient motion calculated from pre‐/post‐treatment OSI and kV data using different anatomical landmarks. In volunteers, the head shift induced by mask‐locking was 2.3 ± 1.7 mm and 1.8° ± 0.6°, and the range of forced movements in the open‐face and full‐head masks were found to be similar. Most (80%) of the volunteers preferred the open‐face mask to the full‐head mask, while claustrophobic patients could only tolerate the open‐face mask. The open‐face mask is characterized for its immobilization capability and can immobilize patients sufficiently (face mask is readily adopted in radiotherapy clinic as a superior alternative to the standard full‐head mask. PACS numbers: 87.19.xj, 87.63.L‐, 87.59.‐e, 87.55.tg, 87.55.‐x PMID:24036878

  13. The performances of standard and ResMed masks during bag-valve-mask ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Youn; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Lee, Byung Kook; Lee, Seung Joon; Jung, Yong Hun; Lee, Geo Sung; Min, Yong Il; Heo, Tag

    2013-01-01

    A tight mask seal is frequently difficult to obtain and maintain during single-rescuer bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation. The ResMed mask (Bella Vista, NSW, Australia) is a continuous-positive-airway-pressure mask (CM) designed for noninvasive ventilation. In this study, we compared the ventilation performances of a standard mask (SM) and a ResMed CM using a simulation manikin in an out-of-hospital single-rescuer BVM ventilation scenario. Thirty emergency medical technicians (EMTs) performed two 2-minute attempts to ventilate a simulation manikin using BVM ventilation, alternatively, with the SM or the ResMed CM in a randomized order. Ventilation parameters including tidal volume and peak airway pressure were measured using computer analysis software connected to the simulation manikin. Successful volume delivery was defined as delivery of 440-540 mL of tidal volume in accord with present cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines. BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM produced higher mean (± standard deviation) tidal volumes (452 ± 50 mL vs. 394 ± 113 mL, p = 0.014) and had a higher proportion of successful volume deliveries (65.3% vs. 26.7%, p < 0.001) than that using the SM. Peak airway pressure was higher in BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM (p = 0.035). Stomach insufflation did not occur during either method. Twenty-nine of the participants (96.7%) preferred BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM. BVM ventilations using ResMed CM resulted in a significantly higher proportion of successful volume deliveries meeting the currently recommended range of tidal volume. Clinical studies are needed to determine the value of the ResMed CM for BVM ventilation.

  14. Randomized crossover trial of a pressure sensing visual feedback system to improve mask fitting in noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Anne-Kathrin; Moghal, Mohammad; Morrell, Mary J; Simonds, Anita K

    2017-10-01

    A good mask fit, avoiding air leaks and pressure effects on the skin are key elements for a successful noninvasive ventilation (NIV). However, delivering practical training for NIV is challenging, and it takes time to build experience and competency. This study investigated whether a pressure sensing system with real-time visual feedback improved mask fitting. During an NIV training session, 30 healthcare professionals (14 trained in mask fitting and 16 untrained) performed two mask fittings on the same healthy volunteer in a randomized order: one using standard mask-fitting procedures and one with additional visual feedback on mask pressure on the nasal bridge. Participants were required to achieve a mask fit with low mask pressure and minimal air leak (mask fit and staff- confidence were measured. Compared with standard mask fitting, a lower pressure was exerted on the nasal bridge using the feedback system (71.1 ± 17.6 mm Hg vs 63.2 ± 14.6 mm Hg, P mask-fitting training, resulted in a lower pressure on the skin and better mask fit for the volunteer, with increased staff confidence. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  15. The difficult business model for mask equipment makers and mask infrastructure development support from consortia and governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Scott

    2005-11-01

    The extension of optical projection lithography through immersion to patterning features with half pitch face the challenge of being profitable in the small market for mask equipment while encountering significant R&D expenses to bring new generations of mask fabrication equipment to market. The total available market for patterned masks is estimated to be $2.5B to $2.9B per year. The patterned mask market is about 20% of the market size for lithography equipment and materials. The total available market for mask-making equipment is estimated to be about $800M per year. The largest R&D affordability issue arises for the makers of equipment for fabricating masks where total available sales are typically less than ten units per year. SEMATECH has used discounted cash flow models to predict the affordable R&D while maintaining industry accepted internal rates of return. The results have been compared to estimates of the total R&D cost to bring a new generation of mask equipment to market for various types of tools. The analysis revealed that affordability of the required R&D is a significant problem for many suppliers of mask-making equipment. Consortia such as SEMATECH and Selete have played an important role in cost sharing selected mask equipment and material development projects. Governments in the United States, in Europe and in Japan have also helped equipment suppliers with support for R&D. This paper summarizes the challenging business model for mask equipment suppliers and highlight government support for mask equipment and materials development.

  16. New Y2K problem for mask making (or, Surviving mask data problems after 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Roger

    1999-08-01

    The Y2K problem has analogies in the mask-making world. With the Y2K problem where a date field has just two bytes for the year, there are some cases of mask-making data in which the file size cannot exceed 2 gigabytes. Where a two-digit date field can only unambiguously use a limited range of values (00 to 99), design coordinates can only cover a range of about 4 billion values, which is getting a little uncomfortable for all of the new applications. In retrospect, with a degree of foresight and planning the Y2K date problem could have been easily solved if new encodings had been allowed in the two- digit field. Likewise, in the mask-making industry we currently have the opportunity to achieve far superior data compression if we allow some new forms of data encoding in our data. But this will require universal agreement. The correct way to look at the Y2K problem is that some information was left out of the data stream due to common understandings that made the additional information superfluous. But as the year 2000 approaches, it has become widely recognized that missing data needs to be stated explicitly, and any ambiguities in the representation of the data will need to be eliminated with precise specifications. In a similar way, old mask data generation methods have had numerous flaws that we have been able to ignore for a long time. But now is the time to fix theses flaws and provide extended capabilities. What is not yet clear is if the old data generation methods can be modified to meet these developing needs. Unilateral action is not likely to lead to much progress, so some united effort is required by all interested parties if success is to be achieved in the brief time that remains.

  17. Evaluation of a new pediatric positive airway pressure mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Clete A; Halbower, Ann C; Kryger, Meir H; Pelayo, Rafael; Assalone, Valerie; Cardell, Chia-Yu; Huston, Stephanie; Willes, Leslee; Wimms, Alison J; Mendoza, June

    2014-09-15

    The choice and variety of pediatric masks for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is limited in the US. Therefore, clinicians often prescribe modified adult masks. Until recently a mask for children aged mask for children aged 2-7 years (Pixi; ResMed Ltd, Sydney, Australia). Patients aged 2-7 years were enrolled and underwent in-lab baseline polysomnography (PSG) using their previous mask, then used their previous mask and the VPAP III ST-A flow generator for ≥ 10 nights at home. Thereafter, patients switched to the Pixi mask for ≥ 2 nights before returning for a PSG during PAP therapy via the Pixi mask. Patients then used the Pixi mask at home for ≥ 21 nights. Patients and their parents/guardians returned to the clinic for follow-up and provided feedback on the Pixi mask versus their previous mask. AHI with the Pixi mask was 1.1 ± 1.5/h vs 2.6 ± 5.4/h with the previous mask (p = 0.3538). Parents rated the Pixi mask positively for: restfulness of the child's sleep, trouble in getting the child to sleep, and trouble in having the child stay asleep. The Pixi mask was also rated highly for leaving fewer or no marks on the upper lip and under the child's ears, and being easy to remove. The Pixi mask is suitable for children aged 2-7 years and provides an alternative to other masks available for PAP therapy in this age group. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  18. Development for 2D pattern quantification method on mask and wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Toyoda, Yasutaka; Wang, Zhigang

    2010-03-01

    We have developed the effective method of mask and silicon 2-dimensional metrology. The aim of this method is evaluating the performance of the silicon corresponding to Hotspot on a mask. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. Currently, as semiconductor manufacture moves towards even smaller feature size, this necessitates more aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) to drive the super-resolution technology (RET). In other words, there is a trade-off between highly precise RET and mask manufacture, and this has a big impact on the semiconductor market that centers on the mask business. 2-dimensional Shape quantification is important as optimal solution over these problems. Although 1-dimensional shape measurement has been performed by the conventional technique, 2-dimensional shape management is needed in the mass production line under the influence of RET. We developed the technique of analyzing distribution of shape edge performance as the shape management technique. On the other hand, there is roughness in the silicon shape made from a mass-production line. Moreover, there is variation in the silicon shape. For this reason, quantification of silicon shape is important, in order to estimate the performance of a pattern. In order to quantify, the same shape is equalized in two dimensions. And the method of evaluating based on the shape is popular. In this study, we conducted experiments for averaging method of the pattern (Measurement Based Contouring) as two-dimensional mask and silicon evaluation technique. That is, observation of the identical position of a mask and a silicon was considered. It is possible to analyze variability of the edge of the same position with high precision. The result proved its detection accuracy and reliability of variability on two-dimensional pattern (mask and

  19. MC1R studies in dogs with melanistic mask or brindle patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, S M; Berryere, T G; Ellinwood, N M; Kerns, J A; Barsh, G S

    2003-01-01

    Black mask is a characteristic pattern in which red, yellow, tan, fawn, or brindle dogs exhibit a melanistic muzzle which may extend up onto the ears. Melanistic mask is inherited in several breeds as an autosomal dominant trait, and appears to be a fixed trait in a few breeds of dogs. A MC1R nonsense mutation, R306ter, has been shown to cause a completely red or yellow coat color in certain breeds such as Irish setters, yellow Labrador retrievers, and golden retrievers. The amino acid sequence for the melanocortin receptor 1 gene (MC1R) was examined in 17 dogs with melanistic masks from seven breeds, 19 dogs without melanistic masks, and 7 dogs in which their coat color made the mask difficult to distinguish. We also examined nine brindle dogs of four breeds, including three dogs who also had a black mask. No consistent amino acid change was observed in the brindle dogs. All dogs with a melanistic mask had at least one copy of a valine substitution for methionine at amino acid 264 (M264V) and none were homozygous for the premature stop codon (R306ter). These results suggest that black mask, but not brindle, is caused by a specific MC1R allele.

  20. Past and future challenges from a display mask writer perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Peter; von Sydow, Axel

    2012-06-01

    Since its breakthrough, the liquid crystal technology has continued to gain momentum and the LCD is today the dominating display type used in desktop monitors, television sets, mobile phones as well as other mobile devices. To improve production efficiency and enable larger screen sizes, the LCD industry has step by step increased the size of the mother glass used in the LCD manufacturing process. Initially the mother glass was only around 0.1 m2 large, but with each generation the size has increased and with generation 10 the area reaches close to 10 m2. The increase in mother glass size has in turn led to an increase in the size of the photomasks used - currently the largest masks are around 1.6 × 1.8 meters. A key mask performance criterion is the absence of "mura" - small systematic errors captured only by the very sensitive human eye. To eliminate such systematic errors, special techniques have been developed by Micronic Mydata. Some mura suppressing techniques are described in this paper. Today, the race towards larger glass sizes has come to a halt and a new race - towards higher resolution and better image quality - is ongoing. The display mask is therefore going through a change that resembles what the semiconductor mask went through some time ago: OPC features are introduced, CD requirements are increasing sharply and multi tone masks (MTMs) are widely used. Supporting this development, Micronic Mydata has introduced a number of compensation methods in the writer, such as Z-correction, CD map and distortion control. In addition, Micronic Mydata MMS15000, the world's most precise large area metrology tool, has played an important role in improving mask placement quality and is briefly described in this paper. Furthermore, proposed specifications and system architecture concept for a new generation mask writers - able to fulfill future image quality requirements - is presented in this paper. This new system would use an AOD/AOM writing engine and be

  1. Face mask sampling for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in expelled aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline M L; Cheah, Eddy S G; Malkin, Joanne; Patel, Hemu; Otu, Jacob; Mlaga, Kodjovi; Sutherland, Jayne S; Antonio, Martin; Perera, Nelun; Woltmann, Gerrit; Haldar, Pranabashis; Garton, Natalie J; Barer, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Although tuberculosis is transmitted by the airborne route, direct information on the natural output of bacilli into air by source cases is very limited. We sought to address this through sampling of expelled aerosols in face masks that were subsequently analyzed for mycobacterial contamination. In series 1, 17 smear microscopy positive patients wore standard surgical face masks once or twice for periods between 10 minutes and 5 hours; mycobacterial contamination was detected using a bacteriophage assay. In series 2, 19 patients with suspected tuberculosis were studied in Leicester UK and 10 patients with at least one positive smear were studied in The Gambia. These subjects wore one FFP30 mask modified to contain a gelatin filter for one hour; this was subsequently analyzed by the Xpert MTB/RIF system. In series 1, the bacteriophage assay detected live mycobacteria in 11/17 patients with wearing times between 10 and 120 minutes. Variation was seen in mask positivity and the level of contamination detected in multiple samples from the same patient. Two patients had non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. In series 2, 13/20 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis produced positive masks and 0/9 patients with extrapulmonary or non-tuberculous diagnoses were mask positive. Overall, 65% of patients with confirmed pulmonary mycobacterial infection gave positive masks and this included 3/6 patients who received diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavages. Mask sampling provides a simple means of assessing mycobacterial output in non-sputum expectorant. The approach shows potential for application to the study of airborne transmission and to diagnosis.

  2. Gadolinium heteropoly complex K 17[Gd(P 2W 17O 61) 2] as a potential MRI contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoying; Feng, Jianghua; Wu, Huifeng; Pei, Fengkui; Fang, Ke; Lei, Hao

    2004-10-01

    Gadolinium heteropoly complex K17[Gd(P2W17O61)2] has been evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments as a potential contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thermal analysis and conductivity study indicate that this complex has good thermal stability and wide pH stability range. The T1 relaxivity is 7.59 mM-1 s-1 in aqueous solution and 7.97 mM-1 s-1 in 0.725 mmol l-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution at 25 °C and 9.39 T, respectively. MR imaging of three male Sprague-Dawley rats showed remarkable enhancement in rat liver after intravenous injection, which persisted longer than with Gd-DTPA. The signal intensity increased by 57.1±16.9% during the whole imaging period at 0.082 mmol kg-1dose. Our preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that K17[Gd(P2W17O61)2] is a potential liver-specific MRI contrast agent.

  3. Comparison of Aerosol Delivery by Face Mask and Tracheostomy Collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugis, Alaa A; Sheard, Meryl M; Fink, James B; Harwood, Robert J; Ari, Arzu

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a tracheostomy collar, Wright mask, and aerosol mask attached to a jet nebulizer in facilitating aerosolized medication delivery to the lungs. We also compared albuterol delivery with open versus closed fenestration and determined the effect of inspiratory-expiratory ratio (I:E) on aerosol delivery. Albuterol (2.5 mg/3 mL) was administered to an in vitro model consisting of an adult teaching mannequin extrathoracic and upper airway with stoma intubated with an 8-mm fenestrated tracheostomy tube. The cuff was deflated. A collecting filter at the level of the bronchi was connected to a breathing simulator at a tidal volume of 400 mL, breathing frequency of 20 breaths/min, and I:E of 2:1 and 1:2. A jet nebulizer was operated with O2 at 8 L/min. Each interface was tested in triplicate. The flow was discontinued at the end of nebulization. For each test, the nebulizer was attached to a tracheostomy collar with the fenestration open or closed, a Wright mask, or an aerosol mask. Drug was analyzed by spectrophotometry (276 nm). A paired t test and analysis of variance were performed (P mask (4.1 ± 0.6%) and aerosol mask (3.5 ± 0.04%) were both less than with the tracheostomy collar under either condition (P mask (7.2 ± 0.6%), and aerosol mask (6.1 ± 0.5%). In an adult tracheostomy model, the tracheostomy collar delivered more aerosol to the bronchi than the Wright or aerosol mask. An I:E of 2:1 caused greater aerosol deposition compared with an I:E of 1:2. During aerosol administration via a tracheostomy collar, closing the fenestration improved aerosol delivery. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. How do different brands of size 1 laryngeal mask airway compare with face mask ventilation in a dedicated laryngeal mask airway teaching manikin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Mark Brian; Priyadarshi, Archana; Goel, Dimple; Lowe, Krista; Huvanandana, Jacqueline; Hinder, Murray

    2018-05-01

    International neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend the use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) with newborn infants (≥34 weeks' gestation or >2 kg weight) when bag-mask ventilation (BMV) or tracheal intubation is unsuccessful. Previous publications do not allow broad LMA device comparison. To compare delivered ventilation of seven brands of size 1 LMA devices with two brands of face mask using self-inflating bag (SIB). 40 experienced neonatal staff provided inflation cycles using SIB with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) (5 cmH 2 O) to a specialised newborn/infant training manikin randomised for each LMA and face mask. All subjects received prior education in LMA insertion and BMV. 12 415 recorded inflations for LMAs and face masks were analysed. Leak detected was lowest with i-gel brand, with a mean of 5.7% compared with face mask (triangular 42.7, round 35.7) and other LMAs (45.5-65.4) (p<0.001). Peak inspiratory pressure was higher with i-gel, with a mean of 28.9 cmH 2 O compared with face mask (triangular 22.8, round 25.8) and other LMAs (14.3-22.0) (p<0.001). PEEP was higher with i-gel, with a mean of 5.1 cmH 2 O compared with face mask (triangular 3.0, round 3.6) and other LMAs (0.6-2.6) (p<0.001). In contrast to other LMAs examined, i-gel had no insertion failures and all users found i-gel easy to use. This study has shown dramatic performance differences in delivered ventilation, mask leak and ease of use among seven different brands of LMA tested in a manikin model. This coupled with no partial or complete insertion failures and ease of use suggests i-gel LMA may have an expanded role with newborn resuscitation as a primary resuscitation device. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GMOS spectroscopic obs. of SNR candidates in M83 (Winkler+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, P. F.; Blair, W. P.; Long, K. S.

    2017-11-01

    We used the GMOS on the 8.2m Gemini-South telescope to obtain all the spectra reported here. Most were obtained in a classically scheduled observing run on 2011 April 7-9 (UT); masks 1-7. We later obtained spectra for two additional masks (which we refer to as masks 8 and 9 for simplicity) in a queue-scheduled program (GS-2015A-Q-90) during the 2015A semester. (6 data files).

  6. Radio brightness distribution of M 17 and Orion A at 3.5-mm wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Yasuo; Iguchi, Tetsuo.

    1977-01-01

    Two bright galactic H-2 regions, M 17 and Ori A, have been mapped at 3.5 mm wave length (87 GHz) with resolution of 2 min. The features were found, which are not seen in centimeter- and longer millimeter-wave maps. It is possible that these components are very compact H-2 regions with the emission measure of about 10 11 pc cm -6 . Observations were made from December 1974 to March 1975 with the 6-m millimeter-wave telescope at Tokyo Astronomic Observatory. The data were taken in beam switching mode. Strip maps were made from a set of right ascension scans at 1 min-intervals in declination, and 50 to 150 scans were made at each declination. The scanned area was from -16 deg. 5 min. to -16 deg. 19 min. in the declination for M 17 and from -5 deg. 21 min. to -5 deg. 30 min. for Orion A. The central right ascension was 18 h 17 m 30 s for M 17 and 5 h 32 m 50 s for Orion A, the distance scanned was 100 s in right ascension. In discussion, the dust hypothesis was abandoned, but the thermal bremsstrahlung was adopted as the most probable explanation. In this case, it is possible that M 17 E is a high density ''cocoon star'' though this explanation is not free from difficulty. At the position of M 17 E, no H 2 O or OH maser emission has been detected. The exciting star must be very massive and young according to the theoretical consideration. As for the elongation N in Orion A, similar consideration can be applied. (Iwakiri, K.)

  7. Hyper-realistic face masks: a new challenge in person identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jet Gabrielle; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Minemoto, Kazusa; Noyes, Eilidh; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Jenkins, Rob

    2017-01-01

    We often identify people using face images. This is true in occupational settings such as passport control as well as in everyday social environments. Mapping between images and identities assumes that facial appearance is stable within certain bounds. For example, a person's apparent age, gender and ethnicity change slowly, if at all. It also assumes that deliberate changes beyond these bounds (i.e., disguises) would be easy to spot. Hyper-realistic face masks overturn these assumptions by allowing the wearer to look like an entirely different person. If unnoticed, these masks break the link between facial appearance and personal identity, with clear implications for applied face recognition. However, to date, no one has assessed the realism of these masks, or specified conditions under which they may be accepted as real faces. Herein, we examined incidental detection of unexpected but attended hyper-realistic masks in both photographic and live presentations. Experiment 1 (UK; n = 60) revealed no evidence for overt detection of hyper-realistic masks among real face photos, and little evidence of covert detection. Experiment 2 (Japan; n = 60) extended these findings to different masks, mask-wearers and participant pools. In Experiment 3 (UK and Japan; n = 407), passers-by failed to notice that a live confederate was wearing a hyper-realistic mask and showed limited evidence of covert detection, even at close viewing distance (5 vs. 20 m). Across all of these studies, viewers accepted hyper-realistic masks as real faces. Specific countermeasures will be required if detection rates are to be improved.

  8. Comparison of face masks in the bag-mask ventilation of a manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, D; Rassam, S; Stacey, M R; Mecklenburgh, J S

    2006-02-01

    We conducted a study investigating the effectiveness of four face mask designs in the bag-mask ventilation of a special manikin adapted to simulate a difficult airway. Forty-eight anaesthetists volunteered to bag-mask ventilate the manikin for 3 min with four different face masks. The primary outcome of the study was to calculate mean percentage leak from the face masks over 3 min. Anaesthetists were also asked to rate the face masks using a visual analogue score. The single-use scented intersurgical face mask had the lowest mean leak (20%). This was significantly lower than the mean leak from the single-use, cushioned 7,000 series Air Safety Ltd. face mask (24%) and the reusable silicone Laerdal face mask (27%) but not significantly lower than the mean leak from the reusable anatomical intersurgical face mask (23%). There was a large variation in both performance and satisfaction between anaesthetists with each design. This highlights the importance of having a variety of face masks available for emergency use.

  9. Comparison of setup deviations for two thermoplastic immobilization masks in glottis cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hong [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was compare to the patient setup deviation of two different type thermoplastic immobilization masks for glottis cancer in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A total of 16 glottis cancer cases were divided into two groups based on applied mask type: standard or alternative group. The mean error (M), three-dimensional setup displacement error (3D-error), systematic error (Σ), random error (σ) were calculated for each group, and also analyzed setup margin (mm). The 3D-errors were 5.2 ± 1.3 mm and 5.9 ± 0.7 mm for the standard and alternative groups, respectively; the alternative group was 13.6% higher than the standard group. The systematic errors in the roll angle and the x, y, z directions were 0.8°, 1.7 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm in the alternative group and 0.8°, 1.1 mm, 1.8 mm, and 2.0 mm in the alternative group. The random errors in the x, y, z directions were 10.9%, 1.7%, and 23.1% lower in the alternative group than in the standard group. However, absolute rotational angle (i.e., roll) in the alternative group was 12.4% higher than in the standard group. For calculated setup margin, the alternative group in x direction was 31.8% lower than in standard group. In contrast, the y and z direction were 52.6% and 21.6% higher than in the standard group. Although using a modified thermoplastic immobilization mask could be affect patient setup deviation in terms of numerical results, various point of view for an immobilization masks has need to research in terms of clinic issue.

  10. A coded mask telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmore, A.P.; Skinner, G.K.; Eyles, C.J.; Ramsey, B.

    1984-01-01

    A dual coded mask telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission is now in the final stages of preparation at Birmingham University. It is due for launch in late 1984/early 1985 and will be by far the largest and most sophisticated such instrument to be flown in this time-frame. The design and capabilities of the telescope will be described. (orig.)

  11. Extending CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning for advanced optical and EUV mask cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Ivin; Bowers, Charles W.; Balooch, Mehdi

    2011-11-01

    Cryogenic CO2 aerosol cleaning being a dry, chemically-inert and residue-free process is used in the production of optical lithography masks. It is an attractive cleaning option for the mask industry to achieve the requirement for removal of all printable soft defects and repair debris down to the 50nm printability specification. In the technique, CO2 clusters are formed by sudden expansion of liquid from high to almost atmospheric pressure through an optimally designed nozzle orifice. They are then directed on to the soft defects or debris for momentum transfer and subsequent damage free removal from the mask substrate. Unlike aggressive acid based wet cleaning, there is no degradation of the mask after processing with CO2, i.e., no critical dimension (CD) change, no transmission/phase losses, or chemical residue that leads to haze formation. Therefore no restriction on number of cleaning cycles is required to be imposed, unlike other cleaning methods. CO2 aerosol cleaning has been implemented for several years as full mask final clean in production environments at several state of the art mask shops. Over the last two years our group reported successful removal of all soft defects without damage to the fragile SRAF features, zero adders (from the cleaning and handling mechanisms) down to a 50nm printability specification. In addition, CO2 aerosol cleaning is being utilized to remove debris from Post-RAVE repair of hard defects in order to achieve the goal of no printable defects. It is expected that CO2 aerosol cleaning can be extended to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks. In this paper, we report advances being made in nozzle design qualification for optimum snow properties (size, velocity and flux) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) technique. In addition the two new areas of focus for CO2 aerosol cleaning i.e. pellicle glue residue removal on optical masks, and ruthenium (Ru) film on EUV masks are presented. Usually, the residue left over after the pellicle

  12. Fabrication and measurement of gas electron multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Minglong; Xia Yiben; Wang Linjun; Gu Beibei; Wang Lin; Yang Ying

    2005-01-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) with special performance has been widely used in the field of radiation detectors. In this work, GEM film was fabricated using a 50 μm -thick kapton film by the therma evaporation and laser masking drilling technique. GEM film has many uniformly arrayed holes with a diameter of 100 μm and a gap of 223 μm. It was then set up to a gas-flowing detector with an effective area of 3 x 3 cm 2 , 5.9 keV X-ray generated from a 55 Fe source was used to measure the pulse height distribution of GEM operating at various high voltage and gas proportion. The effect of high potential and gas proportion on the count rate and the energy resolution was discussed in detail. The results indicate that GEM has a very high ratio of signal to noise and better energy resolution of 18.2%. (authors)

  13. A randomised controlled trial on the effect of mask choice on residual respiratory events with continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, Matthew R; Narizhnaya, Mariya; Segal, Alan Z; Barone, Daniel; Krieger, Ana C

    2014-06-01

    It has been found that mask style can affect the amount of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) required to reduce an apnoea/hyponoea index (AHI) to mask style to another post titration could affect the residual AHI with CPAP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in residual AHI with CPAP treatment between oronasal and nasal masks. Twenty-one subjects (age mean (M)=62.9, body mass index (BMI) M=29.6 kg/m2) were randomised (14 subjects completed the protocol) to undergo an in-laboratory CPAP titration with either a nasal mask or an oronasal mask. Subjects were then assigned this mask for 3weeks of at-home CPAP use with the optimal treatment pressure determined on the laboratory study (CPAP M=8.4 cm of H2O). At the end of this 3-week period, data were collected from the CPAP machine and the subject was given the other mask to use with the same CPAP settings for the next 3weeks at home (if the nasal mask was given initially, the oronasal one was given later and vice versa). On completion of the second 3-week period, data on residual AHI were again collected and compared with the first 3-week period on CPAP. A Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test (two-tailed) revealed that residual AHI with CPAP treatment was significantly higher with the oronasal compared with the nasal mask (z = -3.296, pmask, and 50% of the subjects had a residual AHI >10/h in the oronasal mask condition, even though all of these subjects were titrated to an AHI of mask compared with a nasal mask. Switching to an oronasal mask post titration results in an increase in residual AHI with CPAP treatment, and pressure adjustment may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mask ventilation with two different face masks in the delivery room for preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, D; Mian, Q; Cheung, P-Y; O'Reilly, M; Aziz, K; van Os, S; Pichler, G; Schmölzer, G M

    2015-07-01

    If an infant fails to initiate spontaneous breathing after birth, international guidelines recommend a positive pressure ventilation (PPV). However, PPV by face mask is frequently inadequate because of leak between the face and mask. Despite a variety of available face masks, none have been prospectively compared in a randomized fashion. We aimed to evaluate and compare leak between two commercially available round face masks (Fisher & Paykel (F&P) and Laerdal) in preterm infants mask PPV in the delivery room routinely had a flow sensor placed between the mask and T-piece resuscitator. Infants were randomly assigned to receive PPV with either a F&P or Laerdal face mask. All resuscitators were trained in the use of both face masks. We compared mask leak, airway pressures, tidal volume and ventilation rate between the two groups. Fifty-six preterm infants (n=28 in each group) were enrolled; mean±s.d. gestational age 28±3 weeks; birth weight 1210±448 g; and 30 (52%) were male. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were 5±3 and 7±2, respectively. Infants randomized to the F&P face mask and Laerdal face mask had similar mask leak (30 (25-38) versus 35 (24-46)%, median (interquartile range), respectively, P=0.40) and tidal volume (7.1 (4.9-8.9) versus 6.6 (5.2-8.9) ml kg(-1), P=0.69) during PPV. There were no significant differences in ventilation rate, inflation time or airway pressures between groups. The use of either face mask during PPV in the delivery room yields similar mask leak in preterm infants <33 weeks gestational age.

  15. Silicon germanium as a novel mask for silicon deep reactive ion etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed Y.

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports on the use of p-type polycrystalline silicon germanium (poly-Si1-xGex) thin films as a new masking material for the cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of silicon. We investigated the etching behavior of various poly-Si1-xGex:B (0a wide temperature range (250°C to 600°C). Etching selectivity for silicon, silicon oxide, and photoresist was determined at different etching temperatures, ICP and RF powers, and SF6 to O2 ratios. The study demonstrates that the etching selectivity of the SiGe mask for silicon depends strongly on three factors: Ge content; boron concentration; and etching temperature. Compared to conventional SiO2 and SiN masks, the proposed SiGe masking material exhibited several advantages, including high etching selectivity to silicon (>1:800). Furthermore, the SiGe mask was etched in SF6/O2 plasma at temperatures ≥ - 80°C and at rates exceeding 8 μm/min (i.e., more than 37 times faster than SiO2 or SiN masks). Because of the chemical and thermodynamic stability of the SiGe film as well as the electronic properties of the mask, it was possible to deposit the proposed film at CMOS backend compatible temperatures. The paper also confirms that the mask can easily be dry-removed after the process with high etching-rate by controlling the ICP and RF power and the SF6 to O2 ratios, and without affecting the underlying silicon substrate. Using low ICP and RF power, elevated temperatures (i.e., > - 80°C), and an adjusted O2:SF6 ratio (i.e., ~6%), we were able to etch away the SiGe mask without adversely affecting the final profile. Ultimately, we were able to develop deep silicon- trenches with high aspect ratio etching straight profiles. © 1992-2012 IEEE.

  16. Infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of M(N2)n(+) (M = Y, La, Ce; n = 7-8) in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Shi, Lei; Xing, Xiaopeng; Tang, Zichao

    2016-02-14

    M(N2)n(+) (M = Y, La, Ce; n = 7-8) complexes have been studied by infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The experimental results indicate that the N-N stretching vibrational frequencies are red-shifted from the gas-phase N2 value. The π back-donation is found to be a main contributor in these systems. IRPD spectra and DFT calculations reveal the coexistence of two isomers in the seven-coordinate M(N2)7(+) and eight-coordinate M(N2)8(+) complexes, respectively. The present studies on these metal-nitrogen complexes shed light on the interactions and coordinations toward N2 with transition and lanthanide metals.

  17. Reusable High Aspect Ratio 3-D Nickel Shadow Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandhi, M.M.H.; Leber, M.; Hogan, A.; Warren, D.J.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Shadow Mask technology has been used over the years for resistless patterning and to pattern on unconventional surfaces, fragile substrate and biomaterial. In this work, we are presenting a novel method to fabricate high aspect ratio (15:1) three-dimensional (3D) Nickel (Ni) shadow mask with vertical pattern length and width of 1.2 mm and 40 μm respectively. The Ni shadow mask is 1.5 mm tall and 100 μm wide at the base. The aspect ratio of the shadow mask is 15. Ni shadow mask is mechanically robust and hence easy to handle. It is also reusable and used to pattern the sidewalls of unconventional and complex 3D geometries such as microneedles or neural electrodes (such as the Utah array). The standard Utah array has 100 active sites at the tip of the shaft. Using the proposed high aspect ratio Ni shadow mask, the Utah array can accommodate 300 active sites, 200 of which will be along and around the shaft. The robust Ni shadow mask is fabricated using laser patterning and electroplating techniques. The use of Ni 3D shadow mask will lower the fabrication cost, complexity and time for patterning out-of-plane structures. PMID:29056835

  18. Association of masked hypertension and left ventricular remodeling with the hypertensive response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, James E; Hare, James L; Thomas, Scott; Davies, Justin E; Leano, Rodel; Jenkins, Carly; Marwick, Thomas H

    2011-08-01

    A hypertensive response to exercise (HRE; defined as normal clinic blood pressure (BP) and exercise systolic BP (SBP) ≥210 mm Hg in men or ≥190 mm Hg in women, or diastolic BP (DBP) ≥105 mm Hg) independently predicts mortality. The mechanisms remain unclear but may be related to masked hypertension. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of masked hypertension and its association with cardiovascular risk factors, including left ventricular (LV) mass, in patients with a HRE. Comprehensive clinical and echocardiographic evaluation (including central BP, aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry) and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) were performed in 72 untreated patients with HRE (aged 54 ± 9 years; 60% male; free from coronary artery disease confirmed by exercise stress echocardiography). Masked hypertension was defined according to guidelines as daytime ABPM ≥135/85 mm Hg and clinic BP hypertension was present in 42 patients (58%). These patients had higher LV mass index (41.5 ± 8.7 g/m(2.7) vs. 35.9 ± 8.5 g/m(2.7); P = 0.01), LV relative wall thickness (RWT; 0.42 ± 0.09 vs. 0.37 ± 0.06; P = 0.004) and exercise SBP (222 ± 17 mm Hg vs. 212 ± 14 mm Hg; P = 0.01), but no significant difference in aortic pulse wave velocity or central pulse pressure (P > 0.05 for both). The strongest independent determinant of LV mass index was the presence of masked hypertension (unstandardized β = 5.6; P = 0.007), which was also independently related to LV RWT (unstandardized β = 0.04; P = 0.03). Masked hypertension is highly prevalent in HRE patients with a normal resting office BP and is associated with increased LV mass index and RWT. Clinicians should consider measuring ABPM or home BP in HRE patients.

  19. Infrared Spectroscopy of Gas-Phase M+(CO2)n (M = Co, Rh, Ir) Ion-Molecule Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra, Andreas; Gentleman, Alexander S; Kartouzian, Aras; Kent, Michael J; Sharp, Alastair P; Mackenzie, Stuart R

    2017-01-12

    The structures of gas-phase M + (CO 2 ) n (M = Co, Rh, Ir; n = 2-15) ion-molecule complexes have been investigated using a combination of infrared resonance-enhanced photodissociation (IR-REPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory. The results provide insight into fundamental metal ion-CO 2 interactions, highlighting the trends with increasing ligand number and with different group 9 ions. Spectra have been recorded in the region of the CO 2 asymmetric stretch around 2350 cm -1 using the inert messenger technique and their interpretation has been aided by comparison with simulated infrared spectra of calculated low-energy isomeric structures. All vibrational bands in the smaller complexes are blue-shifted relative to the asymmetric stretch in free CO 2 , consistent with direct binding to the metal center dominated by charge-quadrupole interactions. For all three metal ions, a core [M + (CO 2 ) 2 ] structure is identified to which subsequent ligands are less strongly bound. No evidence is observed in this size regime for complete activation or insertion reactions.

  20. Design of Polymeric Nanofiber Gauze Mask to Prevent Inhaling PM2.5 Particles from Haze Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhou Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 micron or less has become a major health hazard from the polluted air in many cities in China. The regular gauze masks are used to prevent inhaling the PM2.5 fine particles; however, those masks are not able to filter out the PM2.5 because of the large porosity of the mask materials. Some well-prevented masks usually have poor breathability, which increases other health risks. In this study, a polysulfone based nanofiber for mask filtration material was synthesized by electrospinning. That nanofiber mask material was characterized by SEM, air permeability test, and PM2.5 trapping experiment. The results indicate that nanofiber mask material can efficiently filter out the PM2.5 particles and simultaneously preserve a good breathability. We attribute such improvement to the nanoscaled fibers, having the same porosity as that of regular gauze mask but with extremely reduced local interfiber space.

  1. Mask Ventilation during Induction of General Anesthesia: Influences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shin; Hasegawa, Makoto; Okuyama, Megumi; Okazaki, Junko; Kitamura, Yuji; Sato, Yumi; Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Sato, Yasunori; Isono, Shiroh

    2017-01-01

    Depending on upper airway patency during anesthesia induction, tidal volume achieved by mask ventilation may vary. In 80 adult patients undergoing general anesthesia, the authors tested a hypothesis that tidal volume during mask ventilation is smaller in patients with sleep-disordered breathing priorly defined as apnea hypopnea index greater than 5 per hour. One-hand mask ventilation with a constant ventilator setting (pressure-controlled ventilation) was started 20 s after injection of rocuronium and maintained for 1 min during anesthesia induction. Mask ventilation efficiency was assessed by the breath number needed to initially exceed 5 ml/kg ideal body weight of expiratory tidal volume (primary outcome) and tidal volumes (secondary outcomes) during initial 15 breaths (UMIN000012494). Tidal volume progressively increased by more than 70% in 1 min and did not differ between sleep-disordered breathing (n = 42) and non-sleep-disordered breathing (n = 38) patients. In post hoc subgroup analyses, the primary outcome breath number (mean [95% CI], 5.7 [4.1 to 7.3] vs. 1.7 [0.2 to 3.2] breath; P = 0.001) and mean tidal volume (6.5 [4.6 to 8.3] vs. 9.6 [7.7 to 11.4] ml/kg ideal body weight; P = 0.032) were significantly smaller in 20 sleep-disordered breathing patients with higher apnea hypopnea index (median [25th to 75th percentile]: 21.7 [17.6 to 31] per hour) than in 20 non-sleep disordered breathing subjects with lower apnea hypopnea index (1.0 [0.3 to 1.5] per hour). Obesity and occurrence of expiratory flow limitation during one-hand mask ventilation independently explained the reduction of efficiency of mask ventilation, while the use of two hands effectively normalized inefficient mask ventilation during one-hand mask ventilation. One-hand mask ventilation is difficult in patients with obesity and severe sleep-disordered breathing particularly when expiratory flow limitation occurs during mask ventilation.

  2. The Attentional Blink Is Not Affected by Backward Masking of T2, T2-Mask SOA, or Level of T2 Impoverishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Ali; Spalek, Thomas M.; Lagroix, Hayley E. P.; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Identification of the second of two targets (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). This "attentional blink" (AB) is thought to arise from a delay in T2 processing during which T2 is vulnerable to masking. Conventional studies have measured T2 accuracy which is constrained by the 100% ceiling. We avoided this problem by using…

  3. Orientation tuning of contrast masking caused by motion streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Deborah; Cass, John; Alais, David

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether the oriented trails of blur left by fast-moving dots (i.e., "motion streaks") effectively mask grating targets. Using a classic overlay masking paradigm, we varied mask contrast and target orientation to reveal underlying tuning. Fast-moving Gaussian blob arrays elevated thresholds for detection of static gratings, both monoptically and dichoptically. Monoptic masking at high mask (i.e., streak) contrasts is tuned for orientation and exhibits a similar bandwidth to masking functions obtained with grating stimuli (∼30 degrees). Dichoptic masking fails to show reliable orientation-tuned masking, but dichoptic masks at very low contrast produce a narrowly tuned facilitation (∼17 degrees). For iso-oriented streak masks and grating targets, we also explored masking as a function of mask contrast. Interestingly, dichoptic masking shows a classic "dipper"-like TVC function, whereas monoptic masking shows no dip and a steeper "handle". There is a very strong unoriented component to the masking, which we attribute to transiently biased temporal frequency masking. Fourier analysis of "motion streak" images shows interesting differences between dichoptic and monoptic functions and the information in the stimulus. Our data add weight to the growing body of evidence that the oriented blur of motion streaks contributes to the processing of fast motion signals.

  4. Quality control of a 2 m{sup 2} Micromegas detector for the ATLAS muon spectrometer upgrade project using contact CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biebel, Otmar; Hertenberger, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine [LMU, Munich (Germany); Wellenstein, Hermann [Brandeis University, Waltham (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The inner endcap region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, the Small Wheel, will be upgraded in 2019 using Micromegas detectors to retain the tracking performance after the LHC luminosity upgrade. In the new Small Wheel Micromegas detectors will be arranged in trapezoidal quadruplets of four active layers each and 2-3 m{sup 2} in size. Guaranteeing the design spatial resolution of 100 μm poses a huge challenge for the mechanical precision of each readout plane and the alignment between the 4 planes. We report about a novel optical alignment tool based on Contact CCDs and coded masks which will be used for the quality control during the construction of the Micromegas detectors. Using pictures of an arbitrary cutout of a coded mask on a readout board taken by a Contact CCD the relative position of the mask with respect to the center of the Contact-CCD can be determined on sub μm accuracy. Together with a calibrated reference device the position of masks within a single plane but also within a quadruplet can be measured with high precision allowing to monitor the relative position of the 3 PowerCircuitBoards within a single plane and the relative alignment between the different planes in a quadruplet. In this presentation the ideas of this new optical alignment tool are shown as well as first quality control studies using a Contact-CCD.

  5. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and...

  6. AlGaInAs narrow stripe selective growth on substrates patterned with different mask designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, W; Pan, J Q; Yang, H; Hou, L P; Zhou, F; Zhao, L J; Zhu, H L; Wang, W

    2006-01-01

    We have performed a narrow stripe selective growth of oxide-free AlGaInAs waveguides on InP substrates patterned with pairs of SiO 2 mask stripes under optimized growth conditions. The mask stripe width varied from 0 to 40 μm, while the window region width between a pair of mask stripes was fixed at 1.5, 2.5 or 3.5 μm. Flat and smooth AlGaInAs waveguides covered by specific InP layers are successfully grown on substrates patterned with different mask designs. The thickness enhancement ratio and the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the AlGaInAs narrow stripe waveguides are strongly dependent on the mask stripe width and the window region width. In particular, a large PL wavelength shift of 79 nm and a PL FWHM of less than 64 meV are obtained simultaneously with a small mask stripe width varying from 0 to 40 μm when the window region width is 1.5 μm. We present some possible interpretations of the experimental observations in considering both the migration effect from a masked region and the lateral vapour diffusion effect

  7. Rates of initial acceptance of PAP masks and outcomes of mask switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachour, Adel; Vitikainen, Pirjo; Maasilta, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we noticed a considerable development in alleviating problems related to positive airway pressure (PAP) masks. In this study, we report on the initial PAP mask acceptance rates and the effects of mask switching on mask-related symptoms. We prospectively collected all cases of mask switching in our sleep unit for a period of 14 months. At the time of the study, we used ResMed™ CPAP devices and masks. Mask switching was defined as replacing a mask used for at least 1 day with another type of mask. Changing to a different size but keeping the same type of mask did not count as mask switching. Switching outcomes were considered failed if the initial problem persisted or reappeared during the year that followed switching. Our patient pool was 2768. We recorded 343 cases of mask switching among 267 patients. Of the 566 patients who began new PAP therapy, 108 (39 women) had switched masks, yielding an initial mask acceptance rate of 81 %. The reason for switching was poor-fit/uncomfortable mask in 39 %, leak-related in 30 %, outdated model in 25 %, and nasal stuffiness in 6 % of cases; mask switching resolved these problems in 61 %. Mask switching occurred significantly (p = 0.037) more often in women and in new PAP users. The odds ratio for abandoning PAP therapy within 1 year after mask switching was 7.2 times higher (interval 4.7-11.1) than not switching masks. The initial PAP mask acceptance rate was high. Patients who switched their masks are at greater risk for abandoning PAP therapy.

  8. Analysis of the Catecholaminergic Phenotype in Human SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 Neuroblastoma Cell Lines upon Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Filograna

    Full Text Available Human cell lines are often used to investigate cellular pathways relevant for physiological or pathological processes or to evaluate cell toxicity or protection induced by different compounds, including potential drugs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the differentiating activities of three agents (retinoic acid, staurosporine and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 cell lines; the first cell line is largely used in the field of neuroscience, while the second is still poorly characterized. After evaluating their effects in terms of cell proliferation and morphology, we investigated their catecholaminergic properties by assessing the expression profiles of the major genes involved in catecholamine synthesis and storage and the cellular concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline. Our results demonstrate that the two cell lines possess similar abilities to differentiate and acquire a neuron-like morphology. The most evident effects in SH-SY5Y cells were observed in the presence of staurosporine, while in BE(2-M17 cells, retinoic acid induced the strongest effects. Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 cells are characterized by the production of both NA and DA, but their levels are considerably higher in BE(2-M17 cells. Moreover, the NAergic phenotype appears to be more pronounced in SH-SY5Y cells, while BE(2-M17 cells have a more prominent DAergic phenotype. Finally, the catecholamine concentration strongly increases upon differentiation induced by staurosporine in both cell lines. In conclusion, in this work the catecholaminergic phenotype of the human BE(2-M17 cell line upon differentiation was characterized for the first time. Our data suggest that SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 represent two alternative cell models for the neuroscience field.

  9. Analysis of the Catecholaminergic Phenotype in Human SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 Neuroblastoma Cell Lines upon Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filograna, Roberta; Civiero, Laura; Ferrari, Vanni; Codolo, Gaia; Greggio, Elisa; Bubacco, Luigi; Beltramini, Mariano; Bisaglia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Human cell lines are often used to investigate cellular pathways relevant for physiological or pathological processes or to evaluate cell toxicity or protection induced by different compounds, including potential drugs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the differentiating activities of three agents (retinoic acid, staurosporine and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 cell lines; the first cell line is largely used in the field of neuroscience, while the second is still poorly characterized. After evaluating their effects in terms of cell proliferation and morphology, we investigated their catecholaminergic properties by assessing the expression profiles of the major genes involved in catecholamine synthesis and storage and the cellular concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline. Our results demonstrate that the two cell lines possess similar abilities to differentiate and acquire a neuron-like morphology. The most evident effects in SH-SY5Y cells were observed in the presence of staurosporine, while in BE(2)-M17 cells, retinoic acid induced the strongest effects. Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 cells are characterized by the production of both NA and DA, but their levels are considerably higher in BE(2)-M17 cells. Moreover, the NAergic phenotype appears to be more pronounced in SH-SY5Y cells, while BE(2)-M17 cells have a more prominent DAergic phenotype. Finally, the catecholamine concentration strongly increases upon differentiation induced by staurosporine in both cell lines. In conclusion, in this work the catecholaminergic phenotype of the human BE(2)-M17 cell line upon differentiation was characterized for the first time. Our data suggest that SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 represent two alternative cell models for the neuroscience field.

  10. Low background gas flow beta counting system [Paper No.:M2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abani, M.C.; Anilkumar, S.; Bhende, D.R.; Krishnan, Narayani; Babu, D.A.R.

    1993-01-01

    It is difficult to count beta samples of low specific activity in conventional types of counting systems which have inherently high background. This is specially true in case of environmental samples. A gas flow type beta counter has been developed which have the twin advantage of high efficiency and low background. This system uses a gas flow type main counter and another gas flow type guard counter working on the same principle in anticoincidence mode. Both counters are operated in G.M. region. With this anticoincidence arrangement and lead shielding of 3 inch, the system has the background of the order of 1 cpm and efficiency of 40% for 40 K beta and 14% for 14 C beta. The electronics developed includes a quenching cum coincidence-anticoincidence unit, EHT and a counter timer. This paper describes in detail the development and operational experience with the system. A number of units are already operational at BARC and at Environmental Survey Laboratories set up by Department of Atomic Energy and at various other institutions. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs

  11. Masking responses to light in period mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S; Yamazaki, Shin

    2011-10-01

    Masking is an acute effect of an external signal on an overt rhythm and is distinct from the process of entrainment. In the current study, we investigated the phase dependence and molecular mechanisms regulating masking effects of light pulses on spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. The circadian genes, Period1 (Per1) and Per2, are necessary components of the timekeeping machinery and entrainment by light appears to involve the induction of the expression of Per1 and Per2 mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). We assessed the roles of the Per genes in regulating masking by assessing the effects of light pulses on nocturnal locomotor activity in C57BL/6J Per mutant mice. We found that Per1(-/-) and Per2(-/-) mice had robust negative masking responses to light. In addition, the locomotor activity of Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice appeared to be rhythmic in the light-dark (LD) cycle, and the phase of activity onset was advanced (but varied among individual mice) relative to lights off. This rhythm persisted for 1 to 2 days in constant darkness in some Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice. Furthermore, Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice exhibited robust negative masking responses to light. Negative masking was phase dependent in wild-type mice such that maximal suppression was induced by light pulses at zeitgeber time 14 (ZT14) and gradually weaker suppression occurred during light pulses at ZT16 and ZT18. By measuring the phase shifts induced by the masking protocol (light pulses were administered to mice maintained in the LD cycle), we found that the phase responsiveness of Per mutant mice was altered compared to wild-types. Together, our data suggest that negative masking responses to light are robust in Per mutant mice and that the Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) SCN may be a light-driven, weak/damping oscillator.

  12. A 30 m Resolution Surface Water Mask Including Estimation of Positional and Thematic Differences Using Landsat 8, SRTM and OpenStreetMap: A Case Study in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadii Donchyts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate maps of surface water are essential for many environmental applications. Surface water maps can be generated by combining measurements from multiple sources. Precise estimation of surface water using satellite imagery remains a challenging task due to the sensor limitations, complex land cover, topography, and atmospheric conditions. As a complementary dataset, in the case of hilly landscapes, a drainage network can be extracted from high-resolution digital elevation models. Additionally, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI initiatives, such as OpenStreetMap, can also be used to produce high-resolution surface water masks. In this study, we derive a high-resolution water mask using Landsat 8 imagery and OpenStreetMap as well as (potential a drainage network using 30 m SRTM. Our approach to derive a surface water mask from Landsat 8 imagery comprises the use of a lower 15% percentile of Landsat 8 Top of Atmosphere (TOA reflectance from 2013 to 2015. We introduce a new non-parametric unsupervised method based on the Canny edge filter and Otsu thresholding to detect water in flat areas. For hilly areas, the method is extended with an additional supervised classification step used to refine the water mask. We applied the method across the Murray-Darling basin, Australia. Differences between our new Landsat-based water mask and the OpenStreetMap water mask regarding positional differences along the rivers and overall coverage were analyzed. Our results show that about 50% of the OpenStreetMap linear water features can be confirmed using the water mask extracted from Landsat 8 imagery and the drainage network derived from SRTM. We also show that the observed distances between river features derived from OpenStreetMap and Landsat 8 are mostly smaller than 60 m. The differences between the new water mask and SRTM-based linear features and hilly areas are slightly larger (110 m. The overall agreement between OpenStreetMap and Landsat 8 water

  13. New method of 2-dimensional metrology using mask contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Yamagata, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling and measuring of a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, this edge detection method is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. This method realizes two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern that had been difficult to measure conventionally by utilizing high precision contour profile. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. This is to say, demands for quality is becoming strenuous because of enormous quantity of data growth with increasing of refined pattern on photo mask manufacture. In the result, massive amount of simulated error occurs on mask inspection that causes lengthening of mask production and inspection period, cost increasing, and long delivery time. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method of a DFM solution using two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern.

  14. Rare gas constraints on the history of Boulder 1, Station 2, Apollo 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leich, D.A.; Kahl, S.B.; Kirschbaum, A.R.; Niemeyer, S.; Phinney, D.

    1975-01-01

    Rare gas isotopic analyses have been performed on both pile-irradiated and unirradiated samples from Boulder 1, Station 2. Two samples from rock 72255, the Civet Cat clast and a sample of adjacent breccia, have concordant 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages of 3.99 +- 0.03 b.y. and 4.01 +- 0.03 b.y., respectively. Several samples from rock 72275 have complex thermal release patterns with no datable features, but an intermediate temperature plateau from the dark rim material of the Marble Cake clast yields an age of 3.99 +- 0.03 b.y., indistinguishable from the age of rock 72255. We regard these ages as upper limits on the time of the Serenitatis basin-forming event. The absence of fossil solar-wind trapped gases in the breccia samples implies that a prior existence for the boulder as near-surface regolith material can be regarded as extremely unlikely. Instead, the small trapped rare-gas components have isotopic and elemental compositions diagnostic of the terrestrial-type trapped component which has previously been identified in several Apollo 16 breccias and in rock 14321. Excess fission Xe is found in all Boulder 1 samples in approximately 1:1 proportions with Xe from spontaneous fission of 238 U. This excess fission Xe is attributed to spontaneous fission of 244 Pu in situ. Cosmic-ray exposure ages for samples from rocks 72215 and 72255 are concordant with mean 81 Kr-Kr exposure ages of 41.4 +- 1.4 m.y. and 44.1 +- 3.3 m.y., respectively. However, a distinctly different 81 Kr-Kr exposure age of 52.5 +- 1.4 m.y. is obtained for samples from rock 72275. A two-stage exposure model is developed to account for this discordance and for the remaining cosmogenic rare-gas data. The first stage was initiated at least 55 m.y. ago, probably as a result of the excavation of the boulder source-crop. A discrete change in shielding depths approx. 35 m.y. ago probably corresponds to the dislodgement of Boulder 1 from the South Massif and emplacement in its present position

  15. A respiratory mask for resting and exercising dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavert, D M; Reischl, P; O'Loughlin, B J

    1982-02-01

    A respiratory face mask has been developed for use with unsedated beagles trained to run on a treadmill. The latex rubber mask, shaped to fit the animal's muzzle, incorporates two modified, commercially available, pulmonary valves for separating inspiratory and expiratory flows. The mask has a dead space of 30 cm3 and a flow resistance below 1 cmH2O . 1(-1) . s. The flexible mask is used to measure breath-by-breath respiratory variables over extended periods of time during rest and exercise.

  16. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods... Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  17. A super-high angular resolution principle for coded-mask X-ray imaging beyond the diffraction limit of a single pinhole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chen; Zhang Shuangnan

    2009-01-01

    High angular resolution X-ray imaging is always useful in astrophysics and solar physics. In principle, it can be performed by using coded-mask imaging with a very long mask-detector distance. Previously, the diffraction-interference effect was thought to degrade coded-mask imaging performance dramatically at the low energy end with its very long mask-detector distance. The diffraction-interference effect is described with numerical calculations, and the diffraction-interference cross correlation reconstruction method (DICC) is developed in order to overcome the imaging performance degradation. Based on the DICC, a super-high angular resolution principle (SHARP) for coded-mask X-ray imaging is proposed. The feasibility of coded mask imaging beyond the diffraction limit of a single pinhole is demonstrated with simulations. With the specification that the mask element size is 50 x 50 μm 2 and the mask-detector distance is 50 m, the achieved angular resolution is 0.32 arcsec above about 10 keV and 0.36 arcsec at 1.24 keV (λ = 1 nm), where diffraction cannot be neglected. The on-axis source location accuracy is better than 0.02 arcsec. Potential applications for solar observations and wide-field X-ray monitors are also briefly discussed. (invited reviews)

  18. Green binary and phase shifting mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, S. L.; Hong, Chao-Sin; Wu, Cheng-San; Chen, S. J.; Wu, Hung-Yu; Ting, Yung-Chiang

    2009-12-01

    SixNy/Ni thin film green mask blanks were developed , and are now going to be used to replace general chromium film used for binary mask as well as to replace molydium silicide embedded material for AttPSM for I-line (365 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm) and Contact/Proximity lithography. A bilayer structure of a 1 nm thick opaque, conductive nickel layer and a SixNy layer is proposed for binary and phase-shifting mask. With the good controlling of plasma CVD of SixNy under silane (50 sccm), ammonia (5 sccm) and nitrogen (100 sccm), the pressure is 250 mTorr. and RF frequency 13.56 MHz and power 50 W. SixNy has enough deposition latitude to meet the requirements as an embedded layer for required phase shift 180 degree, and the T% in 193, 248 and 365 nm can be adjusted between 2% to 20% for binary and phase shifting mask usage. Ni can be deposited by E-gun, its sheet resistance Rs is less than 1.435 kΩ/square. Jeol e-beam system and I-line stepper are used to evaluate these thin film green mask blanks, feature size less than 200 nm half pitch pattern and 0.558 μm pitch contact hole can be printed. Transmission spectrums of various thickness of SixNy film are inspected by using UV spectrometer and FTIR. Optical constants of the SixNy film are measured by n & k meter and surface roughness is inspected by using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).

  19. Evasion of immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria by IgM masking of protective IgG epitopes in infected erythrocyte surface-exposed PfEMP1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Dalgaard, Michael B; Pleman, Suzan T

    2011-01-01

    1 (PfEMP1) family is central to both. Here, we present evidence of a P. falciparum evasion mechanism not previously documented: the masking of PfEMP1-specific IgG epitopes by nonspecific IgM. Nonspecific IgM binding to erythrocytes infected by parasites expressing the PfEMP1 protein VAR2CSA...

  20. Improvement in the cloud mask for Terra MODIS mitigated by electronic crosstalk correction in the 6.7 μm and 8.5 μm channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, S.; Wang, M.

    2016-09-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a remarkable heritage sensor in the fleet of Earth Observing System for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in space orbit on two spacecrafts. They are the Terra (T) and Aqua (A) platforms which tracks the Earth in the morning and afternoon orbits. T-MODIS has continued to operate over 15 years easily surpassing the 6 year design life time on orbit. Of the several science products derived from MODIS, one of the primary derivatives is the MODIS Cloud Mask (MOD035). The cloud mask algorithm incorporates several of the MODIS channels in both reflective and thermal infrared wavelengths to identify cloud pixels from clear sky. Two of the thermal infrared channels used in detecting clouds are the 6.7 μm and 8.5 μm. Based on a difference threshold with the 11 μm channel, the 6.7 μm channel helps in identifying thick high clouds while the 8.5 μm channel being useful for identifying thin clouds. Starting 2010, it had been observed in the cloud mask products that several pixels have been misclassified due to the change in the thermal band radiometry. The long-term radiometric changes in these thermal channels have been attributed to the electronic crosstalk contamination. In this paper, the improvement in cloud detection using the 6.7 μm and 8.5 μm channels are demonstrated using the electronic crosstalk correction. The electronic crosstalk phenomena analysis and characterization were developed using the regular moon observation of MODIS and reported in several works. The results presented in this paper should significantly help in improving the MOD035 product, maintaining the long term dataset from T-MODIS which is important for global change monitoring.

  1. The efficacy of three different mask styles on a PAP titration night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, Matthew R; Oyegbile, Temitayo; Pollak, Charles P

    2012-06-01

    This study compared the efficacy of three different masks, nasal pillows, nasal masks and full face (oronasal) masks, during a single night of titration with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Fifty five subjects that included men (n=33) and women (n=22) were randomly assigned to one of three masks and underwent a routine titration with incremental CPAP applied through the different masks. CPAP applied through the nasal pillows and nasal mask was equally effective in treating mild, moderate, and severe sleep apnea. However, CPAP applied through the oronasal mask required a significantly higher pressure compared to nasal masks to treat moderately severe (2.8 cm of H(2)O ± 2.1 SD) and severe (6.0 cm of H(2)O ± 3.2 SD) obstructive sleep apnea. CPAP applied with either nasal mask was effective in treating mild, moderate, and severe sleep apnea. The oronasal mask required significantly higher pressures in subjects with moderate to severe disease. Therefore, when changing from a nasal to an oronasal mask, a repeat titration is required to ensure effective treatment of sleep apnea, especially in patients with moderate to severe disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A new mask to prevent environmental contamination during radio aerosol mouth-piece inhalation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Francisco Jose Hossri Nogueira.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental contamination is frequent during labelled aerosol mouth-piece inhalation procedures. Previous personnel data showed that in 18/18 situations air background activity has increased after inhalation and this may create serious routine and economical problems. We have tested a new adherent mask made of 3 M's TEGADERM in sixty 99 m Tc-DTPA inhalation studies and the results indicates that the use of such a mask may eliminate the problem of environmental contamination. The device is useful but not entirely efficient in cases when good skin adherence cannot be obtained. 48 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Fast mask writers: technology options and considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Lloyd C.; Groves, Timothy; Hughes, Greg

    2011-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is under constant pressure to reduce production costs even as the complexity of technology increases. Lithography represents the most expensive process due to its high capital equipment costs and the implementation of low-k1 lithographic processes, which have added to the complexity of making masks because of the greater use of optical proximity correction, pixelated masks, and double or triple patterning. Each of these mask technologies allows the production of semiconductors at future nodes while extending the utility of current immersion tools. Low-k1 patterning complexity combined with increased data due to smaller feature sizes is driving extremely long mask write times. While a majority of the industry is willing to accept times of up to 24 hours, evidence suggests that the write times for many masks at the 22 nm node and beyond will be significantly longer. It has been estimated that funding on the order of 50M to 90M for non-recurring engineering (NRE) costs will be required to develop a multiple beam mask writer system, yet the business case to recover this kind of investment is not strong. Moreover, funding such a development poses a high risk for an individual supplier. The structure of the mask fabrication marketplace separates the mask writer equipment customer (the mask supplier) from the final customer (wafer manufacturer) that will be most effected by the increase in mask cost that will result if a high speed mask writer is not available. Since no individual company will likely risk entering this market, some type of industry-wide funding model will be needed.

  4. Gas-cooled reactor thermal-hydraulics using CAST3M and CRONOS2 codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studer, E.; Coulon, N.; Stietel, A.; Damian, F.; Golfier, H.; Raepsaet, X.

    2003-01-01

    The CEA R and D program on advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR) relies on different concepts: modular High Temperature Reactor (HTR), its evolution dedicated to hydrogen production (Very High Temperature Reactor) and Gas Cooled Fast Reactors (GCFR). Some key safety questions are related to decay heat removal during potential accident. This is strongly connected to passive natural convection (including gas injection of Helium, CO 2 , Nitrogen or Argon) or forced convection using active safety systems (gas blowers, heat exchangers). To support this effort, thermal-hydraulics computer codes will be necessary tools to design, enhance the performance and ensure a high safety level of the different reactors. Accurate and efficient modeling of heat transfer by conduction, convection or thermal radiation as well as energy storage are necessary requirements to obtain a high level of confidence in the thermal-hydraulic simulations. To achieve that goal a thorough validation process has to ve conducted. CEA's CAST3M code dedicated to GCR thermal-hydraulics has been validated against different test cases: academic interaction between natural convection and thermal radiation, small scale in-house THERCE experiments and large scale High Temperature Test Reactor benchmarks such as HTTR-VC benchmark. Coupling with neutronics is also an important modeling aspect for the determination of neutronic parameters such as neutronic coefficient (Doppler, moderator,...), critical position of control rods...CEA's CAST3M and CRONOS2 computer codes allow this coupling and a first example of coupled thermal-hydraulics/neutronics calculations has been performed. Comparison with experimental data will be the next step with High Temperature Test Reactor experimental results at nominal power

  5. Masking Responses to Light in Period Mutant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2013-01-01

    Masking is an acute effect of an external signal on an overt rhythm and is distinct from the process of entrainment. In the current study, we investigated the phase dependence and molecular mechanisms regulating masking effects of light pulses on spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. The circadian genes, Period1 (Per1) and Per2, are necessary components of the timekeeping machinery and entrainment by light appears to involve the induction of the expression of Per1 and Per2 mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). We assessed the roles of the Per genes in regulating masking by assessing the effects of light pulses on nocturnal locomotor activity in C57BL/6J Per mutant mice. We found that Per1−/− and Per2−/− mice had robust negative masking responses to light. In addition, the locomotor activity of Per1−/−/Per2−/− mice appeared to be rhythmic in the light-dark (LD) cycle, and the phase of activity onset was advanced (but varied among individual mice) relative to lights off. This rhythm persisted for 1 to 2 days in constant darkness in some Per1−/−/Per2−/− mice. Furthermore, Per1−/−/Per2−/− mice exhibited robust negative masking responses to light. Negative masking was phase dependent in wild-type mice such that maximal suppression was induced by light pulses at zeitgeber time 14 (ZT14) and gradually weaker suppression occurred during light pulses at ZT16 and ZT18. By measuring the phase shifts induced by the masking protocol (light pulses were administered to mice maintained in the LD cycle), we found that the phase responsiveness of Per mutant mice was altered compared to wild-types. Together, our data suggest that negative masking responses to light are robust in Per mutant mice and that the Per1−/−/Per2−/− SCN may be a light-driven, weak/damping oscillator. PMID:21793695

  6. Mechanical alignment of substrates to a mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Honan, Michael; Amato, Luigi G.; Grant, Christopher Neil; Strassner, James D.

    2016-11-08

    A plurality of masks is attached to the underside of a mask frame. This attachment is made such that each mask can independently move relative to the mask frame in three directions. This relative movement allows each mask to adjust its position to align with respective alignment pins disposed on a working surface. In one embodiment, each mask is attached to the mask frame using fasteners, where the fasteners have a shaft with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the mounting hole disposed on the mask. A bias element may be used to allow relative movement between the mask and the mask frame in the vertical direction. Each mask may also have kinematic features to mate with the respective alignment pins on the working surface.

  7. Anthropogenic effects on greenhouse gas (CH4 and N2O) emissions in the Guadalete River Estuary (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgos, M.; Sierra, A.; Ortega, T.; Forja, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Dissolved concentrations of CH 4 and N 2 O have been measured seasonally during 2013 in the Guadalete River Estuary, which flows into the Cadiz Bay (southwestern Spanish coast). It has been intensely contaminated since 1970. Currently it receives wastewater effluents from cities and direct discharges from nearby agriculture crop. Eight sampling stations have been established along 18 km of the estuary. CH 4 and N 2 O were measured using a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Additional parameters such as organic matter, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and chlorophyll were determinate as well, in order to understand the relationship between physicochemical and biological processes. Gas concentrations increased from the River mouth toward the inner part, closer to the wastewater treatment plant discharge. Values varied widely within 21.8 and 3483.4 nM for CH 4 and between 9.7 and 147.6 nM for N 2 O. Greenhouse gas seasonal variations were large influenced by the precipitation regime, masking the temperature influence. The Guadatete Estuary acted as a greenhouse gas source along the year, with mean fluxes of 495.7 μmol m2 d −1 and 92.8 μmol m2 d −1 for CH 4 and N 2 O, respectively. - Highlights: • The estuary acts as a source of atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide. • Anthropogenic inputs affect the distribution of the greenhouse gases. • Dissolved gases presented an important longitudinal gradient. • Seasonal variations highly depended on the precipitation regimen

  8. Significant breakthrough in proprietary deepwater natural gas exploration in the northern South China Sea and its inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Xie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, Zhanjiang Branch of CNOOC Limited obtained high oil and gas flows (160 × 104 m3/d in Well LS 17-2-1 in northern South China Sea. The tested formation is the Neogene Upper Miocene Huangliu Fm. This is the first self-explored natural gas field in deep water area in China. Exploration in this area underwent three periods: (1 Reconnaissance exploration period (before 2002: Limited by techniques, the major exploration was in shallow water areas; (2 Foreign cooperative exploration period (2002–2012: As the discovered reserve scale was small, and there is no economic benefit, the partners successively gave up their exploration equities in the deep water area of western South China Sea; however, the high quality source rocks and reservoirs were confirmed in the deep water area of the South China Sea, revealing the mask of hydrocarbon exploration in this region; (3 Self-exploration period (since 2013: Relying on national science and technology major projects and its scientific research and production, Zhanjiang Company of CNOOC conducted several scientific researches on seismic data acquisition and processing, high-quality reservoir distribution, key factors for hydrocarbon accumulation in deep water areas, optimized and confirmed Lingshui 17-2 structure as the first drilling target, and obtained significant exploration breakthrough. Lingshui 17-2 structure is located in the Ledong-Lingshui section of the Central Canyon. Its major target layer is the Huangliu Fm. Its total thickness is over 150 m, with sandstone ratio of 75.4%, maximum single layer thickness of 52 m, porosity ranging 30.0%–33.7% (31.5% averagely, permeability ranging 293–2512 mD (633 mD averagely, belonging to reservoir with ultrahigh porosity and high-ultrahigh permeability. The exploration breakthrough in Lingshui 17-2 shows the giant potentiality of hydrocarbon exploration in this deep water area.

  9. Hydrogen gas production is associated with reduced interleukin-1β mRNA in peripheral blood after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamasawa, Atsuko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Hariya, Natsuyo; Saito, Miyoko; Ishida, Hidenori; Doguchi, Satako; Yanagiya, Syoko; Osonoi, Takeshi

    2015-09-05

    Acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, leads to the production of hydrogen gas, which reduces oxidative stress. In this study, we examined the effects of a single dose of acarbose immediately before a test meal on postprandial hydrogen gas in breath and peripheral blood interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA expression in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Sixteen Japanese patients (14 men, 2 women) participated in this study. The mean±standard deviation age, hemoglobin A1c and body mass index were 52.1±15.4 years, 10.2±2.0%, and 27.7±8.0kg/m(2), respectively. The patients were admitted into our hospital for 2 days and underwent test meals at breakfast without (day 1) or with acarbose (day 2). We performed continuous glucose monitoring and measured hydrogen gas levels in breath, and peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA levels before (0min) and after the test meal (hydrogen gas: 60, 120, 180, and 300min; IL-1β: 180min). The induction of hydrogen gas production and the reduction in peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA after the test meal were not significant between days 1 (without acarbose) and 2 (with acarbose). However, the changes in total hydrogen gas production from day 1 to day 2 were closely and inversely associated with the changes in peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA levels. Our results suggest that an increase in hydrogen gas production is inversely associated with a reduction of the peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA level after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Contact printed masks for 3D microfabrication in negative resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häfliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded into the ......We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded...... into the negative resist to protect buried material from UV-exposure. Unlike direct evaporation-deposition of a mask onto the SU-8, printing avoids high stress and radiation, thus preventing resist wrinkling and prepolymerization. We demonstrate effective monolithic fabrication of soft, 4-μm thick and 100-μm long...

  11. A new suction mask to reduce leak during neonatal resuscitation: a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Laila; Maxfield, Dominic A; Dawson, Jennifer A; Kamlin, C Omar F; McGrory, Lorraine; Thio, Marta; Donath, Susan M; Davis, Peter G

    2016-09-01

    Leak around the face mask is a common problem during neonatal resuscitation. A newly designed face mask using a suction system to enhance contact between the mask and the infant's face might reduce leak and improve neonatal resuscitation. The aim of the study is to determine whether leak is reduced using the suction mask (Resusi-sure mask) compared with a conventional mask (Laerdal Silicone mask) in a manikin model. Sixty participants from different professional categories (neonatal consultants, fellows, registrars, nurses, midwives and students) used each face mask in a random order to deliver 2 min of positive pressure ventilation to a manikin. Delivered airway pressures were measured using a pressure line. Inspiratory and expiratory flows were measured using a flow sensor, and expiratory tidal volumes and mask leaks were derived from these values. A median (IQR) leak of 12.1 (0.6-39.0)% was found with the conventional mask compared with 0.7 (0.2-4.6)% using the suction mask (p=0.002). 50% of the participants preferred to use the suction mask and 38% preferred to use the conventional mask. There was no correlation between leak and operator experience. A new neonatal face mask based on the suction system reduced leak in a manikin model. Clinical studies to test the safety and effectiveness of this mask are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Inert gas investigations of the Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The inert gas contents in size fractions of the following fines from the Apollo 15 site: 15071, 15501, 15511, 15421, and 15080 has been determined. In addition, the same for size fractions of fines 79221, 79241, and 79261 from depths of 0 to 2 cm, 2 to 7 cm, and 7 to 17 cm in a trench near Van Serg Crater at the Apollo 17 site was determined. The very low gas contents and lack of anticorrelation with grain diameter of 15421 suggests that these fines are undersaturated with respect to solar wind irradiation. The decrease in slope of the curves for gas concentration vs grain diameter of 15071 for successively heavier gases is interpreted to be the effects of the Rosiwal principle + comminution + agglutinate formation. Evidence for heavily irradiated (with respect to cosmic rays) zones deep within or beneath the regolith exists at both Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites. This may in part explain the ''missing'' cosmic ray record. Scatter between ''young'' and ''old'' age limits in 40 Ar vs 36 Ar plots exists for 15511, and the 3 trench fines from the Apollo 17 landing site. In the case of 15511 the observed ratios suggest that these may be the result of large impacts on the Apennine Front contributing material to the site where 15511 was collected. The observed 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratios in the trench fines may be the result of excavation of materials with high 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratios during the Van Serg event. The low apparent 40 K-- 40 Ar ages of the Apollo 15 fines are interpreted to be the result of addition of young 40 K-- 40 Ar age material (less than 1.8 by) from Autolycus and Aristillus, two large craters north of the site, to the older (3.3 by) mare materials

  13. Comparison of the OxyMask and Venturi mask in the delivery of supplemental oxygen: Pilot study in oxygen-dependent patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecroft, Jaime M; Hanly, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The OxyMask (Southmedic Inc, Canada) is a new face mask for oxygen delivery that uses a small ‘diffuser’ to concentrate and direct oxygen toward the mouth and nose. The authors hypothesized that this unique design would enable the OxyMask to deliver oxygen more efficiently than a Venturi mask (Hudson RCI, USA) in patients with chronic hypoxemia. METHODS: Oxygen-dependent patients with chronic, stable respiratory disease were recruited to compare the OxyMask and Venturi mask in a randomized, single-blind, cross-over design. Baseline blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) was established breathing room air, followed in a random order by supplemental oxygen through the OxyMask or Venturi mask. Oxygen delivery was titrated to maintain SaO2 4% to 5% and 8% to 9% above baseline for two separate 30 min periods of stable breathing. Oxygen flow rate, partial pressure of inspired and expired oxygen (PO2) and carbon dioxide (PCO2), minute ventilation, heart rate, nasal and oral breathing, SaO2 and transcutaneous PCO2 were collected continuously. The study was repeated following alterations to the OxyMask design, which improved clearance of carbon dioxide. RESULTS: Thirteen patients, aged 28 to 79 years, were studied initially using the original OxyMask. Oxygen flow rate was lower, inspired PO2 was higher and expired PO2 was lower while using the OxyMask. Minute ventilation and inspired and expired PCO2 were significantly higher while using the OxyMask, whereas transcutaneous PCO2, heart rate and the ratio of nasal to oral breathing did not change significantly throughout the study. Following modification of the OxyMask, 13 additional patients, aged 18 to 79 years, were studied using the same protocol. The modified OxyMask provided a higher inspired PO2 at a lower flow rate, without evidence of carbon dioxide retention. CONCLUSIONS: Oxygen is delivered safely and more efficiently by the OxyMask than by the Venturi mask in stable oxygen-dependent patients. PMID:16896425

  14. How the global layout of the mask influences masking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Tandra; Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-12-10

    In visual backward masking, the perception of a target is influenced by a trailing mask. Masking is usually explained by local interactions between the target and the mask representations. However, recently it has been shown that the global spatial layout of the mask rather than its local structure determines masking strength (Hermens & Herzog, 2007). Here, we varied the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues. We presented a vernier target followed by a mask with 25 elements. Performance deteriorated when the length of the two mask elements neighboring the target vernier was doubled. However, when the length of every second mask element was doubled, performance improved. When the luminance of the neighboring elements was doubled, performance also deteriorated but no improvement in performance was observed when every second element had a double luminance. For temporal manipulations, a complex nonmonotonic masking function was observed. Hence, changes in the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues lead to highly different results.

  15. Beyond a mask and against the bottleneck: retroactive dual-task interference during working memory consolidation of a masked visual target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Wyble, Brad

    2014-06-01

    While studies on visual memory commonly assume that the consolidation of a visual stimulus into working memory is interrupted by a trailing mask, studies on dual-task interference suggest that the consolidation of a stimulus can continue for several hundred milliseconds after a mask. As a result, estimates of the time course of working memory consolidation differ more than an order of magnitude. Here, we contrasted these opposing views by examining if and for how long the processing of a masked display of visual stimuli can be disturbed by a trailing 2-alternative forced choice task (2-AFC; a color discrimination task or a visual or auditory parity judgment task). The results showed that the presence of the 2-AFC task produced a pronounced retroactive interference effect that dissipated across stimulus onset asynchronies of 250-1,000 ms, indicating that the processing elicited by the 2-AFC task interfered with the gradual consolidation of the earlier shown stimuli. Furthermore, this interference effect occurred regardless of whether the to-be-remembered stimuli comprised a string of letters or an unfamiliar complex visual shape, and it occurred regardless of whether these stimuli were masked. Conversely, the interference effect was reduced when the memory load for the 1st task was reduced, or when the 2nd task was a color detection task that did not require decision making. Taken together, these findings show that the formation of a durable and consciously accessible working memory trace for a briefly shown visual stimulus can be disturbed by a trailing 2-AFC task for up to several hundred milliseconds after the stimulus has been masked. By implication, the current findings challenge the common view that working memory consolidation involves an immutable central processing bottleneck, and they also make clear that consolidation does not stop when a stimulus is masked. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. White-coat, masked and sustained hypertension detected by home blood pressure monitoring in adolescents: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Carneiro, Carolina de Souza; Morais, Polyana; Roriz, Vanessa; Mendonça, Karla Lorena; Nascente, Flávia Miquetichuc; Póvoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Kunz Sebba; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo César Veiga

    2018-06-01

    Population-based studies estimating prevalence's of white-coat, masked and sustained hypertension in non-European adolescents are needed, particularly in developing countries. Aiming to determine these estimates and, additionally identify factors associated to these conditions this study was conducted. Cross-sectional study with a representative sample of secondary school students from a Brazilian state capital. Office measurements were performed with validated semi-automatic devices. Home BP (blood pressure) monitoring protocol included two day-time and two evening-time measurements over 6 days. Adolescents' were classified as: normotensives (office and home BP coat hypertensives (office BP ≥95th percentile and home BP coat, masked and sustained hypertension. In a sample of 1024 adolescents, prevalence of white-coat, masked and sustained hypertension was 7.5%, 2.2% and 1.7%, respectively. Male sex was positively associated with white-coat hypertension (OR 2.68; 95%CI 1.58-4.54; p coat (OR 1.23; 95%CI 1.16-1.30; p coat hypertension, masked and sustained hypertension in a population of non-European adolescents assessed by home BP monitoring was 7.5%, 2.2% and 1.7% respectively. Male sex was positively associated with white-coat hypertension in these adolescents while BMI was positively associated with both white-coat and sustained hypertension.

  17. Demagnifying electron projection with grid masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politycki, A.; Meyer, A.

    1978-01-01

    Tightly toleranced micro- and submicrostructures with smooth edges were realized by using transmission masks with an improved supporting grid (width of traverses 0.8 μm). Local edge shift due to the proximity effect is kept at a minimum. Supporting grids with stil narrower traverses (0.5 μm) were prepared by generating the grid pattern by electron beam writing. Masks of this kind allow projection at a demagnification ratio of 1:4, resulting in large image fields. (orig.) [de

  18. Gas phase dispersion in a small rotary kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1981-07-01

    A study was made of nonideal flow of gas in a rotary kiln reactor. A rotating tube 0.165 m in diameter by 2.17 m long, with internal lifting flights, was operated at room temperature. Rotational speeds from 2.0 to 7.0 rpm, air flow rates from 0.351 to 4.178 m 3 /h, and solid contents of 0.0, 5.1, and 15.3% of tube volume were studied. Residence time distribution of the gas was measured by means of the pulse injection technique using a helium tracer. A model was developed based on dispersive flow that exchanges with a deadwater region. Two parameters, a dispersion number describing bulk gas flow and an interchange factor describing exchange between the flow region and the gas trapped in the solids bed, were sufficient to correlate the data, but these parameters are sensitive to experimental error. The model is applicable to analysis of other flow systems, such as packed beds

  19. Neopuff T-piece resuscitator mask ventilation: Does mask leak vary with different peak inspiratory pressures in a manikin model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Rajesh; Tracy, Mark; Hinder, Murray; Wright, Audrey

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare mask leak with three different peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) settings during T-piece resuscitator (TPR; Neopuff) mask ventilation on a neonatal manikin model. Participants were neonatal unit staff members. They were instructed to provide mask ventilation with a TPR with three PIP settings (20, 30, 40 cm H 2 O) chosen in a random order. Each episode was for 2 min with 2-min rest period. Flow rate and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) were kept constant. Airway pressure, inspiratory and expiratory tidal volumes, mask leak, respiratory rate and inspiratory time were recorded. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. A total of 12 749 inflations delivered by 40 participants were analysed. There were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in the mask leak with the three PIP settings. No statistically significant differences were seen in respiratory rate and inspiratory time with the three PIP settings. There was a significant rise in PEEP as the PIP increased. Failure to achieve the desired PIP was observed especially at the higher settings. In a neonatal manikin model, the mask leak does not vary as a function of the PIP when the flow rate is constant. With a fixed rate and inspiratory time, there seems to be a rise in PEEP with increasing PIP. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Effective EUVL mask cleaning technology solutions for mask manufacturing and in-fab mask maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter; Waehler, Tobias; Singh, Sherjang; Jonckheere, Rik; Baudemprez, Bart

    2011-03-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is considered the leading lithography technology choice for semiconductor devices at 16nm HP node and beyond. However, before EUV Lithography can enter into High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) of advanced semiconductor devices, the ability to guarantee mask integrity at point-of-exposure must be established. Highly efficient, damage free mask cleaning plays a critical role during the mask manufacturing cycle and throughout the life of the mask, where the absence of a pellicle to protect the EUV mask increases the risk of contamination during storage, handling and use. In this paper, we will present effective EUVL mask cleaning technology solutions for mask manufacturing and in-fab mask maintenance, which employs an intelligent, holistic approach to maximize Mean Time Between Cleans (MBTC) and extend the useful life span of the reticle. The data presented will demonstrate the protection of the capping and absorber layers, preservation of pattern integrity as well as optical and mechanical properties to avoid unpredictable CD-linewidth and overlay shifts. Experiments were performed on EUV blanks and pattern masks using various process conditions. Conditions showing high particle removal efficiency (PRE) and minimum surface layer impact were then selected for durability studies. Surface layer impact was evaluated over multiple cleaning cycles by means of UV reflectivity metrology XPS analysis and wafer prints. Experimental results were compared to computational models. Mask life time predictions where made using the same computational models. The paper will provide a generic overview of the cleaning sequence which yielded best results, but will also provide recommendations for an efficient in-fab mask maintenance scheme, addressing handling, storage, cleaning and inspection.

  1. Dysprosium-doped PbGa2S4 laser generating at 4.3 μm directly pumped by 1.7 μm laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínková, Helena; Doroshenko, Maxim E; Jelínek, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Badikov, Valerii V; Badikov, Dmitrii V

    2013-08-15

    In this Letter, we demonstrate the pulsed and CW operation of the Dy:PbGa(2)S(4) laser directly pumped by the 1.7 μm laser diode. In the pulsed regime (pulse duration 5 ms; repetition rate 20 Hz), the maximum mean output power of 9.5 mW was obtained with the slope efficiency of 9.3% with respect to the absorbed pump power. The generated wavelength was 4.32 μm, and the laser beam cross section was approximately Gaussian on both axes. Stable CW laser generation was also successfully obtained with the maximum output power of 67 mW and the slope efficiency of 8%. Depopulation of the lower laser level by 1.7 μm pump radiation absorption followed by 1.3 μm upconversion fluorescence was demonstrated. These results show the possibility of construction of the compact diode-pumped solid-state pulsed or CW laser generating at 4.3 μm in the power level of tens mW operating at room temperature.

  2. GLEBUS SAINCIUC’S PAPIER-MÂCHÉ PORTRAIT MASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN ANA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The portrait masks created by Glebus Sainciuc (1919-2012 portray painters, sculptors, musicians, writers, actors, playwrights,filmmakers etc., and they are a proof of the fact that the individual contribution of these persons to the artistic development of our country has not been forgotten. Morphologically, the papier-mâché portrait masks of master Glebus Sainciuc are situated at the limit of painting, graphic drawing and sculpture; the masks were created by the master using the papier-mâché techniques. We should mention that the author’s predilection for the fauvist and naïve techniques in portrait representation, together with the style of his caricatures and small size drawings, infl uenced the caricatures style of his masks. The first portrait masks were created by Glebus Sainciuc in 1957, and by the end of his artistic activity his collection consisted of 350 masks – all depicting different persons, but all sharing the same portrait techniques and showing the inner charm of these persons.

  3. Anthropogenic effects on greenhouse gas (CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) emissions in the Guadalete River Estuary (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, M.; Sierra, A.; Ortega, T.; Forja, J.M.

    2015-01-15

    Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Dissolved concentrations of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O have been measured seasonally during 2013 in the Guadalete River Estuary, which flows into the Cadiz Bay (southwestern Spanish coast). It has been intensely contaminated since 1970. Currently it receives wastewater effluents from cities and direct discharges from nearby agriculture crop. Eight sampling stations have been established along 18 km of the estuary. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were measured using a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Additional parameters such as organic matter, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and chlorophyll were determinate as well, in order to understand the relationship between physicochemical and biological processes. Gas concentrations increased from the River mouth toward the inner part, closer to the wastewater treatment plant discharge. Values varied widely within 21.8 and 3483.4 nM for CH{sub 4} and between 9.7 and 147.6 nM for N{sub 2}O. Greenhouse gas seasonal variations were large influenced by the precipitation regime, masking the temperature influence. The Guadatete Estuary acted as a greenhouse gas source along the year, with mean fluxes of 495.7 μmol m{sup −2} d{sup −1} and 92.8 μmol m{sup −2} d{sup −1} for CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, respectively. - Highlights: • The estuary acts as a source of atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide. • Anthropogenic inputs affect the distribution of the greenhouse gases. • Dissolved gases presented an important longitudinal gradient. • Seasonal variations highly depended on the precipitation regimen.

  4. Extension of optical lithography by mask-litho integration with computational lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, T.; Gronlund, K.; Wiley, J.

    2010-05-01

    Wafer lithography process windows can be enlarged by using source mask co-optimization (SMO). Recently, SMO including freeform wafer scanner illumination sources has been developed. Freeform sources are generated by a programmable illumination system using a micro-mirror array or by custom Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). The combination of freeform sources and complex masks generated by SMO show increased wafer lithography process window and reduced MEEF. Full-chip mask optimization using source optimized by SMO can generate complex masks with small variable feature size sub-resolution assist features (SRAF). These complex masks create challenges for accurate mask pattern writing and low false-defect inspection. The accuracy of the small variable-sized mask SRAF patterns is degraded by short range mask process proximity effects. To address the accuracy needed for these complex masks, we developed a highly accurate mask process correction (MPC) capability. It is also difficult to achieve low false-defect inspections of complex masks with conventional mask defect inspection systems. A printability check system, Mask Lithography Manufacturability Check (M-LMC), is developed and integrated with 199-nm high NA inspection system, NPI. M-LMC successfully identifies printable defects from all of the masses of raw defect images collected during the inspection of a complex mask. Long range mask CD uniformity errors are compensated by scanner dose control. A mask CD uniformity error map obtained by mask metrology system is used as input data to the scanner. Using this method, wafer CD uniformity is improved. As reviewed above, mask-litho integration technology with computational lithography is becoming increasingly important.

  5. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-27

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  6. venice: Mask utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupon, Jean

    2018-02-01

    venice reads a mask file (DS9 or fits type) and a catalogue of objects (ascii or fits type) to create a pixelized mask, find objects inside/outside a mask, or generate a random catalogue of objects inside/outside a mask. The program reads the mask file and checks if a point, giving its coordinates, is inside or outside the mask, i.e. inside or outside at least one polygon of the mask.

  7. Acidic sweep gas with carbonic anhydrase coated hollow fiber membranes synergistically accelerates CO2 removal from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazawa, D T; Kimmel, J D; Finn, M C; Federspiel, W J

    2015-10-01

    The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is well established as a therapy for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Development of next generation low blood flow (carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilized bioactive hollow fiber membrane (HFM) which significantly accelerates CO2 removal from blood in model gas exchange devices by converting bicarbonate to CO2 directly at the HFM surface. This present study tested the hypothesis that dilute sulfur dioxide (SO2) in oxygen sweep gas could further increase CO2 removal by creating an acidic microenvironment within the diffusional boundary layer adjacent to the HFM surface, facilitating dehydration of bicarbonate to CO2. CA was covalently immobilized onto poly (methyl pentene) (PMP) HFMs through glutaraldehyde activated chitosan spacers, potted in model gas exchange devices (0.0151 m(2)) and tested for CO2 removal rate with oxygen (O2) sweep gas and a 2.2% SO2 in oxygen sweep gas mixture. Using pure O2 sweep gas, CA-PMP increased CO2 removal by 31% (258 mL/min/m(2)) compared to PMP (197 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval by 17% (230 mL/min/m(2)) compared to pure oxygen sweep gas control (Premoval increased by 109% (411 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval, and when used in combination with bioactive CA-HFMs has a synergistic effect to more than double CO2 removal while maintaining physiologic pH. Through these technologies the next generation of intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices can remove more CO2 with smaller blood contacting surface areas. A clinical need exists for more efficient respiratory assist devices which utilize low blood flow rates (removal efficiency by shifting equilibrium from bicarbonate to gaseous CO2, through either a bioactive carbonic anhydrase enzyme coating or bulk blood acidification with lactic acid. In this study we demonstrate a novel approach to local blood acidification using an acidified sweep gas in combination with a bioactive coating to more than double CO2 removal

  8. Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway versus Face Mask during Neonatal Resuscitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Cavallin, Francesco; Nguyen, Loi Ngoc; Nguyen, Tien Viet; Tran, Linh Dieu; Tran, Chien Dinh; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Micaglio, Massimo; Moccia, Luciano

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of supreme laryngeal mask airway (SLMA) over face mask ventilation for preventing need for endotracheal intubation at birth. We report a prospective, randomized, parallel 1:1, unblinded, controlled trial. After a short-term educational intervention on SLMA use, infants ≥34-week gestation and/or expected birth weight ≥1500 g requiring positive pressure ventilation (PPV) at birth were randomized to resuscitation by SLMA or face mask. The primary outcome was the success rate of the resuscitation devices (SLMA or face mask) defined as the achievement of an effective PPV preventing the need for endotracheal intubation. We enrolled 142 patients (71 in SLMA and 71 in face mask group, respectively). Successful resuscitation rate was significantly higher with the SLMA compared with face mask ventilation (91.5% vs 78.9%; P = .03). Apgar score at 5 minutes was significantly higher in SLMA than in face mask group (P = .02). Neonatal intensive care unit admission rate was significantly lower in SLMA than in face mask group (P = .02). No complications related to the procedure occurred. In newborns with gestational age ≥34 weeks and/or expected birth weight ≥1500 g needing PPV at birth, the SLMA is more effective than face mask to prevent endotracheal intubation. The SLMA is effective in clinical practice after a short-term educational intervention. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01963936. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Particulate face masks for protection against airborne pathogens - one size does not fit all: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Susan; Thomas, Jane H; Stephens, Dianne P; Davis, Joshua S

    2010-03-01

    To determine the proportion of hospital staff who pass fit tests with each of three commonly used particulate face masks, and factors influencing preference and fit test results. Observational study. 50 healthy hospital staff volunteers in an 18-bed general intensive care unit in an Australian teaching hospital. Participants were administered a questionnaire about mask use and their preferred mask and underwent qualitative fit-testing with each of three different particulate masks: Kimberly-Clark Tecnol FluidShield N95 particulate filter respirator (KC), 3M Flat Fold 9320 particulate respirator and 3M 8822 particulate respirator with exhalation valve. Participants who failed fittesting were trained in correct mask donning, and fittesting was repeated. Proportion of participants who passed the fit test for each mask and the effect of training. The proportion of participants who passed a fit test was low for all three masks tested (KC, 16%; flat fold, 28%; and valved, 34%). Rates improved after training: the first mask tested fitted in 18% of participants pre-training and 40% post-training (P = 0.02). None of the masks fitted for 28% of participants. There were no significant predictors of fit-test results. A large proportion of individuals failed a fit test with any given mask, and we were not able to identify any factors that predicted mask fit in individuals. Training on mask use improved the rates of adequate fit. Hospitals should carry a range of P2 masks, and should conduct systematic P2 mask training and fit-testing programs for all staff potentially exposed to airborne pathogens.

  10. Gestalt grouping and common onset masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Todd A; Mathis, Katherine M

    2002-11-01

    A four-dot mask that surrounds and is presented simultaneously with a briefly presented target will reduce a person's ability to identity that target if the mask persists beyond target offset and attention is divided (Enns & Di Lollo, 1997, 2000). This masking effect, referred to as common onset masking, reflects reentrant processing in the visual system and can best be explained with a theory of object substitution (Di Lollo, Enns, & Rensink, 2000). In the present experiments, we investigated whether Gestalt grouping variables would influence the strength of common onset masking. The results indicated that (1) masking was impervious to grouping by form, similarity of color, position, luminance polarity, and common region and (2) masking increased with the number of elements in the masking display.

  11. Serotonin dependent masking of hippocampal sharp wave ripples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Haq, Rizwan; Anderson, Marlene L; Hollnagel, Jan-Oliver; Worschech, Franziska; Sherkheli, Muhammad Azahr; Behrens, Christoph J; Heinemann, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    Sharp wave ripples (SPW-Rs) are thought to play an important role in memory consolidation. By rapid replay of previously stored information during slow wave sleep and consummatory behavior, they result from the formation of neural ensembles during a learning period. Serotonin (5-HT), suggested to be able to modify SPW-Rs, can affect many neurons simultaneously by volume transmission and alter network functions in an orchestrated fashion. In acute slices from dorsal hippocampus, SPW-Rs can be induced by repeated high frequency stimulation that induces long-lasting LTP. We used this model to study SPW-R appearance and modulation by 5-HT. Although stimulation in presence of 5-HT permitted LTP induction, SPW-Rs were "masked"--but appeared after 5-HT wash-out. This SPW-R masking was dose dependent with 100 nM 5-HT being sufficient--if the 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor citalopram was present. Fenfluramine, a serotonin releaser, could also mask SPW-Rs. Masking was due to 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/C receptor activation. Neither membrane potential nor membrane conductance changes in pyramidal cells caused SPW-R blockade since both remained unaffected by combining 5-HT and citalopram. Moreover, 10 and 30 μM 5-HT mediated SPW-R masking preceded neuronal hyperpolarization and involved reduced presynaptic transmitter release. 5-HT, as well as a 5-HT1A agonist, augmented paired pulse facilitation and affected the coefficient of variance. Spontaneous SPW-Rs in mice hippocampal slices were also masked by 5-HT and fenfluramine. While neuronal ensembles can acquire long lasting LTP during higher 5-HT levels, lower 5-HT levels enable neural ensembles to replay previously stored information and thereby permit memory consolidation memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of M=Al, Ga and Si on microstructure and HDDR-processing of Sm2(Fe,M)17 and magnetic properties of their nitrides and carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, M.; Gutfleisch, O.; Gebel, B.; Mueller, K.-H.; Schultz, L.

    1999-01-01

    Microstructural investigations by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that the formation of high amounts of α-Fe in as-cast Sm 2 (Fe,M) 17 alloys can be suppressed by using the substitutions M=Al or Si together with excess Sm. Ga, on the other hand, does not induce this beneficial effect. The hydrogen absorption and desorption behaviour was investigated by temperature-pressure-analysis and hydrogen differential thermal analysis. Decreasing amounts of hydrogen were absorbed in Sm 2 (Fe,M) 17 for increasing contents of all substitutions M=Ga, Al and Si due to their stabilising effect on the 2:17 phase with regard to its disproportionation. Compared with the homogenised alloys, the as-cast materials show a weaker interstitial hydrogen absorption and a stronger disproportionation reaction at lower temperatures due to the higher content of Sm-rich phases in the as-cast alloys. A second cycle of the hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) process leads to a faster disproportionation reaction at lower temperatures due to the grain refinement during the first cycle. Magnetic properties of as-cast and homogenised materials were investigated after HDDR treatment and nitrogenation or carburisation of pre-milled powders. Nitrogenated and carburised samples showed coercivities up to 3.0 T and 2.3 T, respectively. There were only slight differences of the magnetic properties of materials prepared from homogenised and from as-cast samples. (orig.)

  13. Mask quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Larry; Paulson, Neil; Reynolds, James A.

    1994-02-01

    Product quality and timely delivery are two of the most important parameters, determining the success of a mask manufacturing facility. Because of the sensitivity of this data, however, very little is known about industry performance in these areas. Using Arthur Andersen & Co. to protect contributor identity, the authors have conducted a blind quality survey of mask shops which represents over 75% of the total merchant and captive mask volume in the US. Quantities such as return rate, plate survival yield, performance to schedule and reason for return were requested from 1988 through Q2 1993. Data is analyzed and conclusions are presented.

  14. A Masked Photocathode in a Photoinjector

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Ji

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a masked photocathode inside a photoinjector for generating high brightness electron beam. Instead of mounting the photocathode onto an electrode, an electrode with small hole is used as a mask to shield the photocathode from the accelerating vacuum chamber. Using such a masked photocathode will make the replacement of photocathode material easy by rotating the photocathode behind the electrode into the hole. Furthermore, this helps reduce the dark current or seconda...

  15. Thermal stress analysis of the SLAC moveable mask. Addendum 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray beams emerging from the new SLAC electron-positron storage ring (PEP) can impinge on the walls of tangential divertor channels. A moveable mask made of 6061-T6 aluminum is installed in the channel to limit wall heating. The mask is cooled with water flowing axially at 30 0 C. Beam strikes on the mask cause highly localized heating in the channel structure. Analyses were completed to determine the temperatures and thermally-induced stresses due to this heating. The current design and operating conditions should result in the entrance to the moveable mask operating at a peak temperature of 88 0 C with a peak thermal stress at 19% of the yield of 6061-T6 aluminum

  16. Individual SnO2 nanowire transistors fabricated by the gold microwire mask method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jia; Tang Qingxin; Lu Aixia; Jiang Xuejiao; Wan Qing

    2009-01-01

    A gold microwire mask method is developed for the fabrication of transistors based on single lightly Sb-doped SnO 2 nanowires. Damage of the nanowire's surface can be avoided without any thermal annealing and surface modification, which is very convenient for the fundamental electrical and photoelectric characterization of one-dimensional inorganic nanomaterials. Transport measurements of the individual SnO 2 nanowire devices demonstrate the high-performance n-type field effect transistor characteristics without significant hysteresis in the transfer curves. The current on/off ratio and the subthreshold swing of the nanowire transistors are found to be 10 6 and 240 mV/decade, respectively.

  17. MODIS/Terra Land Water Mask Derived from MODIS and SRTM L3 Global 250m SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS 250 m land-water mask (Short Name: MOD44W) is an improvement over the existing MODIS Nadir Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)-Adjusted...

  18. Massively-parallel FDTD simulations to address mask electromagnetic effects in hyper-NA immersion lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu Azpiroz, Jaione; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Rosenbluth, Alan E.; Hibbs, Michael

    2008-03-01

    In the Hyper-NA immersion lithography regime, the electromagnetic response of the reticle is known to deviate in a complicated manner from the idealized Thin-Mask-like behavior. Already, this is driving certain RET choices, such as the use of polarized illumination and the customization of reticle film stacks. Unfortunately, full 3-D electromagnetic mask simulations are computationally intensive. And while OPC-compatible mask electromagnetic field (EMF) models can offer a reasonable tradeoff between speed and accuracy for full-chip OPC applications, full understanding of these complex physical effects demands higher accuracy. Our paper describes recent advances in leveraging High Performance Computing as a critical step towards lithographic modeling of the full manufacturing process. In this paper, highly accurate full 3-D electromagnetic simulation of very large mask layouts are conducted in parallel with reasonable turnaround time, using a Blue- Gene/L supercomputer and a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) code developed internally within IBM. A 3-D simulation of a large 2-D layout spanning 5μm×5μm at the wafer plane (and thus (20μm×20μm×0.5μm at the mask) results in a simulation with roughly 12.5GB of memory (grid size of 10nm at the mask, single-precision computation, about 30 bytes/grid point). FDTD is flexible and easily parallelizable to enable full simulations of such large layout in approximately an hour using one BlueGene/L "midplane" containing 512 dual-processor nodes with 256MB of memory per processor. Our scaling studies on BlueGene/L demonstrate that simulations up to 100μm × 100μm at the mask can be computed in a few hours. Finally, we will show that the use of a subcell technique permits accurate simulation of features smaller than the grid discretization, thus improving on the tradeoff between computational complexity and simulation accuracy. We demonstrate the correlation of the real and quadrature components that comprise the

  19. Tunable Direct Writing of FBGs into a Non-Photosensitive Tm-Doped Fiber Core with an fs Laser and Phase Mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng-Wei, Song; Yang, Wang; Yun-Jun, Zhang; You-Lun, Ju

    2009-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are successfully written in a non-photosensitive Tm-doped single-mode fiber by a 800 nm fs laser and a 2.7 μm period phase mask. The intra-core FBGs are written using the phase mask ±1 order interference, and have a period of 1.35 μm, which responds to the second-order reflective central wavelength at 1946.4 nm. Based on the magnification tuning writing technology, the tunable writing technology is also experimentally investigated. The distance between the phase mask and the fiber, between the phase mask and the tuning lens, and the focal length of the tuning lens all have an influence on the tunable characteristics. Four different FBGs tuning refiective central wavelengths located at 1958.7 nm, 1970.8 nm, 1882.5 nm and 1899.7 nm are obtained

  20. Selective-area growth of GaN nanowires on SiO{sub 2}-masked Si (111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, J. E.; Doundoulakis, G. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology–Hellas, N. Plastira 100, 70013 Heraklion (Greece); Lymperakis, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Eftychis, S.; Georgakilas, A., E-mail: alexandr@physics.uoc.gr [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Adikimenakis, A.; Tsagaraki, K.; Androulidaki, M.; Konstantinidis, G. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology–Hellas, N. Plastira 100, 70013 Heraklion (Greece); Olziersky, A.; Dimitrakis, P.; Ioannou-Sougleridis, V.; Normand, P. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, Patriarchou Grigoriou and Neapoleos 27, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Koukoula, T.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-06-14

    We analyze a method to selectively grow straight, vertical gallium nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at sites specified by a silicon oxide mask, which is thermally grown on silicon (111) substrates and patterned by electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching. The investigated method requires only one single molecular beam epitaxy MBE growth process, i.e., the SiO{sub 2} mask is formed on silicon instead of on a previously grown GaN or AlN buffer layer. We present a systematic and analytical study involving various mask patterns, characterization by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, as well as numerical simulations, to evaluate how the dimensions (window diameter and spacing) of the mask affect the distribution of the nanowires, their morphology, and alignment, as well as their photonic properties. Capabilities and limitations for this method of selective-area growth of nanowires have been identified. A window diameter less than 50 nm and a window spacing larger than 500 nm can provide single nanowire nucleation in nearly all mask windows. The results are consistent with a Ga diffusion length on the silicon dioxide surface in the order of approximately 1 μm.

  1. Mask_explorer: A tool for exploring brain masks in fMRI group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdoš, Martin; Mikl, Michal; Mareček, Radek

    2016-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of the human brain are appearing in increasing numbers, providing interesting information about this complex system. Unique information about healthy and diseased brains is inferred using many types of experiments and analyses. In order to obtain reliable information, it is necessary to conduct consistent experiments with large samples of subjects and to involve statistical methods to confirm or reject any tested hypotheses. Group analysis is performed for all voxels within a group mask, i.e. a common space where all of the involved subjects contribute information. To our knowledge, a user-friendly interface with the ability to visualize subject-specific details in a common analysis space did not yet exist. The purpose of our work is to develop and present such interface. Several pitfalls have to be avoided while preparing fMRI data for group analysis. One such pitfall is spurious non-detection, caused by inferring conclusions in the volume of a group mask that has been corrupted due to a preprocessing failure. We describe a MATLAB toolbox, called the mask_explorer, designed for prevention of this pitfall. The mask_explorer uses a graphical user interface, enables a user-friendly exploration of subject masks and is freely available. It is able to compute subject masks from raw data and create lists of subjects with potentially problematic data. It runs under MATLAB with the widely used SPM toolbox. Moreover, we present several practical examples where the mask_explorer is usefully applied. The mask_explorer is designed to quickly control the quality of the group fMRI analysis volume and to identify specific failures related to preprocessing steps and acquisition. It helps researchers detect subjects with potentially problematic data and consequently enables inspection of the data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aluminum oxide mask fabrication by focused ion beam implantation combined with wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengjun; Iltanen, Kari; Chekurov, Nikolai; Tittonen, Ilkka; Grigoras, Kestutis

    2013-01-01

    A novel aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) hard mask fabrication process with nanoscale resolution is introduced. The Al 2 O 3 mask can be used for various purposes, but in this work it was utilized for silicon patterning using cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The patterning of Al 2 O 3 is a two-step process utilizing focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation combined with wet chemical etching. Gallium (Ga + ) FIB maskless patterning confers wet etch selectivity between the irradiated region and the non-irradiated one on the Al 2 O 3 layer, and mask patterns can easily be revealed by wet etching. This method is a modification of Ga + FIB mask patterning for the silicon etch stop, which eliminates the detrimental lattice damage and doping of the silicon substrate in critical devices. The shallow surface gallium FIB irradiated Al 2 O 3 mask protects the underlying silicon from Ga + ions. The performance of the masking capacity was tested by drawing pairs consisting of a line and an empty space with varying width. The best result was seven such pairs for 1 μm. The smallest half pitch was 59 nm. This method is capable of arbitrary pattern generation. The fabrication of a freestanding single-ended tuning fork resonator utilizing the introduced masking method is demonstrated. (paper)

  3. Benchmarking EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.; Naulleau, P.; Gunion, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4 x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-(micro)m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured σ values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA

  4. Bio-mimic design of PM2.5 anti-smog masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic property of anti-smog masks is to block PM2.5 with excellent air permeability. A multi-layer nanofiber woven fabric with hierarchical structure is the best candidate for this purpose.

  5. Self-Rescue Mask Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Nine new self-rescue mask instructors have been trained since early 2013, which provides CERN with a total of 26 self-rescue mask instructors to date. This will allow us to meet the increasing training needs caused by the Long Shut Down LS1.   The self-rescue mask instructors have trained 1650 persons in 2012 and about 500 persons since the beginning of the year on how to wear the masks properly. We thank all the instructors and all the persons that made this training possible. Please remember that the self-rescue masks training sessions are scheduled as follows: Basic course: Tuesday and Thursday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration:  1.30 hour, in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue – Course code 077Y00. Refresher training : Monday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration: 1.30 hour , in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue &...

  6. Patterning of light-extraction nanostructures on sapphire substrates using nanoimprint and ICP etching with different masking materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Qi; Chou, Stephen Y

    2015-02-27

    Sapphire nanopatterning is the key solution to GaN light emitting diode (LED) light extraction. One challenge is to etch deep nanostructures with a vertical sidewall in sapphire. Here, we report a study of the effects of two masking materials (SiO2 and Cr) and different etching recipes (the reaction gas ratio, the reaction pressure and the inductive power) in a chlorine-based (BCl3 and Cl2) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of deep nanopillars in sapphire, and the etching process optimization. The masking materials were patterned by nanoimprinting. We have achieved high aspect ratio sapphire nanopillar arrays with a much steeper sidewall than the previous etching methods. We discover that the SiO2 mask has much slower erosion rate than the Cr mask under the same etching condition, leading to the deep cylinder-shaped nanopillars (122 nm diameter, 200 nm pitch, 170 nm high, flat top, and a vertical sidewall of 80° angle), rather than the pyramid-shaped shallow pillars (200 nm based diameter, 52 nm height, and 42° sidewall) resulted by using Cr mask. The processes developed are scalable to large volume LED manufacturing.

  7. EVIDENCE FOR DELAYED MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE M17 PROTO-OB ASSOCIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povich, Matthew S.; Whitney, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Through analysis of archival images and photometry from the Spitzer GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys combined with Two Micron All Sky Survey and MSX data, we have identified 488 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the giant molecular cloud M17 SWex, which extends ∼50 pc southwest from the prominent Galactic H II region M17. Our sample includes >200 YSOs with masses >3 M sun that will become B-type stars on the main sequence. Extrapolating over the stellar initial mass function (IMF), we find that M17 SWex contains >1.3 x 10 4 young stars, representing a proto-OB association. The YSO mass function is significantly steeper than the Salpeter IMF, and early O stars are conspicuously absent from M17 SWex. Assuming M17 SWex will form an OB association with a Salpeter IMF, these results reveal the combined effects of (1) more rapid circumstellar disk evolution in more massive YSOs and (2) delayed onset of massive star formation.

  8. Is Sm2Fe17Nx a two-phase system?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, S.; Skomski, R.; Qi Qinian; Coey, J.M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Interstitial nitrides Sm 2 Fe 17 N x with x≤3 form gas-solid solutions independent of whether NH 3 or N 2 is used to produce them. The volume of well homogenised samples follows Vegard's law, and the Curie temperature is also linear in x. Ammonia facilitates the initial stage of the reaction by improving the effective surface activity of the metallic powder. A clear distinction is made between nitrides allowed to reach quasi-equlibrium at 425 C and those quenched to stop the reaction. ((orig.))

  9. Translucency and masking properties of two ceramic materials for heat-press technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Șoim, Alexandra; Strîmbu, Maria; Burde, Alexandru V; Culic, Bogdan; Dudea, Diana; Gasparik, Cristina

    2018-03-01

    To assess the translucency of two pressable ceramics and to analyze their masking property when placed on different tooth-shaded backgrounds. Thirty discs (1-mm thickness) were fabricated using two pressable ceramics (shade/translucency): 1M1T/HT, 1M2T/HT, 2M2T (VITA PM9), and A1LT/HT, B1LT/HT, A2LT (e.max Press). Color measurements of discs were performed with a dental spectrophotometer on tooth-colored backgrounds (A1/A2/A3/A3.5/A4), and black and white backings. The masking property was calculated as the color difference (CIEDE2000) between parameters of discs on control (A1, A2) and test backgrounds (A3, A3.5, A4). One-way ANOVA was used for assessing differences in translucency parameter (TP) between ceramics. Two-way ANOVA was used for detecting differences among groups when measured over tooth-shaded backgrounds (α = 0.05, Bonferroni correction). TP ranged between 14.96 (B1LT) and 25.18 (1M1HT). A significant difference in TP was found between tested ceramics (F = 949.949, P  .05), 1M1T, A1HT and B1HT (P > .05), 1M2T, 2M2T, and A2HT (P > .05). A significant interaction effect of underlying background on color of ceramic discs was found (F = 107.994, P ceramics. Except A1LT, all ceramic materials evaluated showed poor masking properties on A4 background. Highly translucent ceramics should be wisely used for restoring the appearance of dental structures since background color has a large effect upon these materials. The more recently introduced pressable ceramics showed high levels of translucency. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. New data on masking reagents in complexometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurist, I.M.; Talmud, M.M.; Zajtsev, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent literature data on employing inorganic and organic oxygen-, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing substances as masking reagents (MR) in complexonometry of alkali earths, rare earths and transition elements are reviewed for the period of 1971-1983. Effectiveness of any type of MR is shown to be dependent on the electron configuration of a cation being masked. Sr, La, Th, V(6), Zr, Hf, V(5), Nb(5), Ta(5), Mo(6), W(6) a.o. are masked by oxygen-containing ligands. Zn, Cd, Fe(2, 3), Co(2, 3), Ni, etc. are masked by nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing ligands. Thiocompounds mask mainly In, Tl(3), Sn(2), Pb, Bi

  11. Microporous metal organic framework [M2(hfipbb)2(ted)] (M=Zn, Co; H2hfipbb=4,4-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(benzoic acid); ted=triethylenediamine): Synthesis, structure analysis, pore characterization, small gas adsorption and CO2/N2 separation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, William W.; Pramanik, Sanhita; Zhang, Zhijuan; Emge, Thomas J.; Li, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that is a major contributor to global warming. Developing methods that can effectively capture CO2 is the key to reduce its emission to the atmosphere. Recent research shows that microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are emerging as a promising family of adsorbents that may be promising for use in adsorption based capture and separation of CO2 from power plant waste gases. In this work we report the synthesis, crystal structure analysis and pore characterization of two microporous MOF structures, [M2(hfipbb)2(ted)] (M=Zn (1), Co (2); H2hfipbb=4,4-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(benzoic acid); ted=triethylenediamine). The CO2 and N2 adsorption experiments and IAST calculations are carried out on [Zn2(hfipbb)2(ted)] under conditions that mimic post-combustion flue gas mixtures emitted from power plants. The results show that the framework interacts with CO2 strongly, giving rise to relatively high isosteric heats of adsorption (up to 28 kJ/mol), and high adsorption selectivity for CO2 over N2, making it promising for capturing and separating CO2 from CO2/N2 mixtures.

  12. Prevention of oral bacterial flora transmission by using mouth-to-mask ventilation during CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydulka, R K; Connor, P J; Myers, T F; Pavza, G; Parker, M

    1991-01-01

    The Emergency Cardiac Care Committee of the American Heart Association has recently recommended utilizing protective barrier precautions during CPR (1,2). We assessed 17 mask and faceshield resuscitation devices for adequacy of barrier protection. Eight of the devices were faceshields (CPR Microshield, Hygenic, MedCare Mask, Resusci, Samaritan, Sealeasy, Portex); 8 were mask devices (Laerdal, Dyna Med, MTM Emergency Lung Ventilator, MTM Emergency Resuscitator, Res-Q-Flo, Rightway Mouth-to-Mask Resuscitation, Trufit), and one of the devices did not meet the criteria for either faceshield or mask (Lifesaver). All masks were disinfected, applied to the investigator's face as directed by the manufacturers' instructions, and then cultured for oral aerobic bacterial flora on the rescuer side. No mask devices cultured positive for oral aerobic bacterial flora, while 6 of 8 faceshield devices cultured positive for oral aerobic bacterial flora (P less than 0.007). The CPR Microshield and the Portex faceshield were the only devices that did not develop a positive culture. We conclude that all ventilation devices with a one-way valve, except the Sealeasy device, provide adequate barrier type protection from oral aerobic bacterial flora when simulating mouth-to-barrier type protection when performing mouth-to-mouth ventilation.

  13. A masking index for quantifying hidden glitches

    OpenAIRE

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Loh, J. M.; Dasu, T.

    2015-01-01

    Data glitches are errors in a dataset. They are complex entities that often span multiple attributes and records. When they co-occur in data, the presence of one type of glitch can hinder the detection of another type of glitch. This phenomenon is called masking. In this paper, we define two important types of masking and propose a novel, statistically rigorous indicator called masking index for quantifying the hidden glitches. We outline four cases of masking: outliers masked by missing valu...

  14. Microstructure and gas sensitive properties of alpha-Fe2O3-MO2 (M: Sn and Ti) materials prepared by ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Lin, R.; Mørup, Steen

    1998-01-01

    Metastable alpha-Fe2O3-MO2 (M: Sn and Ti) solid solutions can be synthesized by mechanical alloying. The alloy formation, microstructure, and gas sensitive properties of mechanically milled alpha-Fe2O3-SnO2 materials are discussed. Tin ions in alpha-Fe2O3 are found to occupy the empty octahedral...... holes in the alpha-Fe2O3 lattice. This interstitial model can also describe the structure of alpha-Fe2O3-TiO2 solid solutions. Finally, a correlation of gas sensitive properties with microstructure of alpha-Fe2O3-SnO2 materials is presented....

  15. The implementation of Mask-Ed: reflections of academic participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Searl, Kerry; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Cooper, Simon; Happell, Brenda

    2014-09-01

    This paper profiles the findings from a study that explored the perspectives and experiences of nurse educators who implemented a novel simulation approach termed Mask-Ed. The technique involves the educator wearing a silicone mask and or body parts and transforming into a character. The premise of this approach is that the masked educator has domain specific knowledge related to the simulation scenario and can transmit this to learners in a way that is engaging, realistic, spontaneous and humanistic. Nurse educators charged with the responsibility of implementing Mask-Ed in three universities were invited to participate in the study by attending an introductory workshop, implementing the technique and then journaling their experiences, insights and perspectives over a 12 month period. The journal entries were then thematically analysed. Key themes were categorised under the headings of Preparation, Implementation and Impact; Reflexivity and Responsiveness; Student Engagement and Ownership; and Teaching and Learning. Mask-Ed is a simulation approach which allows students to interact with the 'characters' in humanistic ways that promote person-centred care and therapeutic communication. This simulation approach holds previously untapped potential for a range of learning experiences, however, to be effective, adequate resourcing, training, preparation and practice is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct weakening of tropical circulations from masked CO2 radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlis, Timothy M

    2015-10-27

    Climate models robustly simulate weakened mean circulations of the tropical atmosphere in direct response to increased carbon dioxide (CO2). The direct response to CO2, defined by the response to radiative forcing in the absence of changes in sea surface temperature, affects tropical precipitation and tropical cyclone genesis, and these changes have been tied to the weakening of the mean tropical circulation. The mechanism underlying this direct CO2-forced circulation change has not been elucidated. Here, I demonstrate that this circulation weakening results from spatial structure in CO2's radiative forcing. In regions of ascending circulation, such as the intertropical convergence zone, the CO2 radiative forcing is reduced, or "masked," by deep-convective clouds and high humidity; in subsiding regions, such as the subtropics, the CO2 radiative forcing is larger because the atmosphere is drier and deep-convective clouds are infrequent. The spatial structure of the radiative forcing reduces the need for the atmosphere to transport energy. This, in turn, weakens the mass overturning of the tropical circulation. The previously unidentified mechanism is demonstrated in a hierarchy of atmospheric general circulation model simulations with altered radiative transfer to suppress the cloud masking of the radiative forcing. The mechanism depends on the climatological distribution of clouds and humidity, rather than uncertain changes in these quantities. Masked radiative forcing thereby offers an explanation for the robustness of the direct circulation weakening under increased CO2.

  17. Challenges in evaluating PM concentration levels, commuting exposure, and mask efficacy in reducing PM exposure in growing, urban communities in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disa; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James; Maidin, Alimin

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) contributes to an increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, and preterm birth complications. This project assessed PM exposure in Eastern Indonesia's largest city, where air quality has not been comprehensively monitored. We examined the efficacy of wearing masks as an individual intervention effort to reduce in-transit PM exposures. Handheld particulate counters were used to investigate ambient air quality for spatial analysis, as well as the differences in exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 (μg/m(3)) by different transportation methods [e.g. motorcycle (n=97), pete-pete (n=53), and car (n=55); note: n=1 means 1m(3) of air sample]. Mask efficacy to reduce PM exposure was evaluated [e.g. surgical masks (n=39), bandanas (n=52), and motorcycle masks (n=39)]. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to provide a range of uncertainty in exposure assessment. Overall PM10 levels (91±124 μg/m(3)) were elevated compared to the World Health Organization (WHO)'s 24-hour air quality guideline (50 μg/m(3)). While average PM2.5 levels (9±14 μg/m(3)) were below the WHO's guideline (25 μg/m(3)), measurements up to 139 μg/m(3) were observed. Compared to cars, average motorcycle and pete-pete PM exposures were four and three times higher for PM2.5, and 13 and 10 times higher for PM10, respectively. Only surgical masks were consistent in lowering PM2.5 and PM10 (pmasks. Individual interventions can effectively reduce individual PM exposures; however, policy interventions will be needed to improve the overall air quality and create safer transportation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermoanalytical investigation of the hydrogen absorption behaviour of Sm2Fe17-xGax at high hydrogen pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handstein, A.; Kubis, M.; Gebel, B.; Mueller, K.-H.; Schultz, L.; Gutfleisch, O.; Harris, I.R.; Birmingham Univ.

    1998-01-01

    The complete disproportionation of Sm 2 Fe 17-x Ga x during annealing in hydrogen is hindered due to an increased stability of the compounds with a higher Ga content (x ≥ 1). Therefore the HD process as the first step of HDDR (hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination) has to be carried out at a high hydrogen pressure for x ≥ 1. The hydrogen absorption behaviour of Sm 2 Fe 17-x Ga x (x = 0, 0.5, 1 and 2) was investigated by means of hydrogen differential thermal analysis (HDTA) and high pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HPDSC) at hydrogen pressures up to 70 bar. A dependency of hydrogenation and disproportionation temperatures on hydrogen pressure and Ga content was found. The comparison with other substituents (M = Al and Si) instead of M = Ga showed an increased stability of Sm 2 Fe 17-x M x compounds against disproportionation by hydrogen in the sequence Al, Ga and Si. The Curie temperatures of the interstitially hydrogenated Th 2 Zn 17 -type materials increase with the hydrogen pressure. In order to produce coercive and thermally stable Sm 2 Fe 15 Ga 2 C y powder by means of the HDDR process, we recombined material disproportionated at different hydrogen pressures. Preliminary results of magnetic properties of this HDDR treated and gas-carburized Sm 2 Fe 15 Ga 2 C y are discussed. (orig.)

  19. An etching mask and a method to produce an etching mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to an etching mask comprising silicon containing block copolymers produced by self-assembly techniques onto silicon or graphene substrate. Through the use of the etching mask, nanostructures having long linear features having sub-10 nm width can be produced....

  20. High-resolution structural and functional assessments of cerebral microvasculature using 3D Gas ΔR2*-mMRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Chiao-Chi V; Siow, Tiing-Yee; Hsu, Sheng-Hsiou S; Hsu, Yi-Hua; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The ability to evaluate the cerebral microvascular structure and function is crucial for investigating pathological processes in brain disorders. Previous angiographic methods based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast offer appropriate visualization of the cerebral vasculature, but these methods remain to be optimized in order to extract more comprehensive information. This study aimed to integrate the advantages of BOLD MRI in both structural and functional vascular assessments. The BOLD contrast was manipulated by a carbogen challenge, and signal changes in gradient-echo images were computed to generate ΔR2* maps. Simultaneously, a functional index representing the regional cerebral blood volume was derived by normalizing the ΔR2* values of a given region to those of vein-filled voxels of the sinus. This method is named 3D gas ΔR2*-mMRA (microscopic MRA). The advantages of using 3D gas ΔR2*-mMRA to observe the microvasculature include the ability to distinguish air-tissue interfaces, a high vessel-to-tissue contrast, and not being affected by damage to the blood-brain barrier. A stroke model was used to demonstrate the ability of 3D gas ΔR2*-mMRA to provide information about poststroke revascularization at 3 days after reperfusion. However, this technique has some limitations that cannot be overcome and hence should be considered when it is applied, such as magnifying vessel sizes and predominantly revealing venous vessels.

  1. Gilded Silver Mask

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    This gilded silver mask from the Liao Dynasty is 31 cm long and 22.2 cm wide. The plump oval face was designed with a protruding brow ridge, narrow eyes, high-bridged nose and closed mouth. The chin is slightly round against a thin neck, the ears are long and the hair can be clearly seen from the finely carved lines. The use of masks was recorded as

  2. HM{sup +}–RG complexes (M = group 2 metal; RG = rare gas): Physical vs. chemical interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Joe P.; Dodson, Hannah; Wright, Timothy G., E-mail: Tim.Wright@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Breckenridge, W. H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2015-04-21

    Previous work on the HM{sup +}–He complexes (M = Be–Ra) has been extended to the cases of the heavier rare gas atoms, HM{sup +}–RG (RG = Ne–Rn). Optimized geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been calculated using MP2 theory and quadruple-ζ quality basis sets. Dissociation energies for the loss of the rare gas atom have been calculated at these optimized geometries using coupled cluster with single and double excitations and perturbative triples, CCSD(T)theory, extrapolating interaction energies to the basis set limit. Comparisons are made between the present data and the previously obtained helium results, as well as to those of the bare HM{sup +} molecules; furthermore, comparisons are made to the related M{sup +}–RG and M{sup 2+}–RG complexes. Partial atomic charge analyses have also been undertaken, and these used to test a simple charge-induced dipole model. Molecular orbital diagrams are presented together with contour plots of the natural orbitals from the quadratic configuration with single and double excitations (QCISD) density. The conclusion is that the majority of these complexes are physically bound, with very little sharing of electron density; however, for M = Be, and to a lesser extent M = Mg, some evidence for chemical effects is seen in HM{sup +}–RG complexes involving RG atoms with the higher atomic numbers.

  3. A 3D-RBS study of irradiation-induced deformation and masking properties of ordered colloidal nanoparticulate masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolnai, Z.; Deak, A.; Nagy, N.; Toth, A.L.; Kotai, E.; Battistig, G.

    2010-01-01

    The 500 keV Xe 2+ irradiation-induced anisotropic deformation of ordered colloidal silica nanoparticulate masks is followed using 2 MeV 4 He + Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) with different measurement geometries and the improved data analysis capabilities of the RBS-MAST spectrum simulation code. The three-dimensional (3D) geometrical transformation from spherical to oblate ellipsoidal and polygonal shape and the decrease of the mask's hole size is described. The masking properties of the silica monolayer and the depth distribution of Xe in the underlying Si substrate vs. the irradiated Xe 2+ fluence are discussed. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) is applied as complementary characterization tool. Our results give contribution to clarify the impact of ion-nanoparticle interactions on the potentials and limits of nanosphere lithography. We also show the capability of the conventional RBS technique to characterize laterally ordered submicron-sized three-dimensional structures.

  4. Clay Mask Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Masks can represent so many things, such as emotions (happy, sad, fearful) and power. The familiar "comedy and tragedy" masks, derived from ancient Greek theater, are just one example from mask history. Death masks from the ancient Egyptians influenced the ancient Romans into creating similar masks for their departed. Masks can represent many…

  5. Emergency Face-Mask Removal Effectiveness: A Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Football Helmet Face-Mask Attachment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E.; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C.; Armstrong, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. Objective: To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Applied biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. Intervention(s): The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Main Outcome Measure(s): Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Results: Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F4,20  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F4,20  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected

  6. Emergency face-mask removal effectiveness: a comparison of traditional and nontraditional football helmet face-mask attachment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C; Armstrong, Charles W

    2010-01-01

    Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Controlled laboratory study. Applied biomechanics laboratory. Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F(4,20)  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected in RPE during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  43.20, P  =  .001), with participants reporting average

  7. A Comparison of MODIS/VIIRS Cloud Masks over Ice-Bearing River: On Achieving Consistent Cloud Masking and Improved River Ice Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kraatz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The capability of frequently and accurately monitoring ice on rivers is important, since it may be possible to timely identify ice accumulations corresponding to ice jams. Ice jams are dam-like structures formed from arrested ice floes, and may cause rapid flooding. To inform on this potential hazard, the CREST River Ice Observing System (CRIOS produces ice cover maps based on MODIS and VIIRS overpass data at several locations, including the Susquehanna River. CRIOS uses the respective platform’s automatically produced cloud masks to discriminate ice/snow covered grid cells from clouds. However, since cloud masks are produced using each instrument’s data, and owing to differences in detector performance, it is quite possible that identical algorithms applied to even nearly identical instruments may produce substantially different cloud masks. Besides detector performance, cloud identification can be biased due to local (e.g., land cover, viewing geometry, and transient conditions (snow and ice. Snow/cloud confusions and large view angles can result in substantial overestimates of clouds and ice. This impacts algorithms, such as CRIOS, since false cloud cover precludes the determination of whether an otherwise reasonably cloud free grid consists of water or ice. Especially for applications aiming to frequently classify or monitor a location it is important to evaluate cloud masking, including false cloud detections. We present an assessment of three cloud masks via the parameter of effective revisit time. A 100 km stretch of up to 1.6 km wide river was examined with daily data sampled at 500 m resolution, examined over 317 days during winter. Results show that there are substantial differences between each of the cloud mask products, especially while the river bears ice. A contrast-based cloud screening approach was found to provide improved and consistent cloud and ice identification within the reach (95%–99% correlations, and 3%–7% mean

  8. Design of TOPAZ masking system using EGS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Shoji

    1991-01-01

    There are two sources of the beam background in the e + e - collider experiments. One source is the synchrotron radiation from many magnets. Another source comes from the spent-electron hitting the beam pipe near the interaction region. To reduce the these background, TOPAZ masking system was designed using EGS4 code. The designed masking system consists of two pairs of masks which are called mask-1 and mask-2. The mask-1 is placed to intercept the spent-electron. The aperture of the mask-2 was determined for the synchrotron radiation photons not to hit the mask-1 directly. After these masks were installed, we are taking the data in the small beam background. (author)

  9. mTOR is involved in 17β-estradiol-induced, cultured immature boar Sertoli cell proliferation via regulating the expression of SKP2, CCND1, and CCNE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Rong; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Xian-Zhong

    2015-04-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is known to be involved in mammalian cell proliferation, while S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) plays a vital role in the cell cycle. Within the testis, estrogen also plays an important role in Sertoli cell proliferation, although it is not clear how. The present study asked if mTOR is involved in 17β-estradiol-dependent Sertoli cell proliferation. We specifically assessed if extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and/or phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) exert convergent effects toward the activation of mTOR signaling, and if this signaling regulates the expression of SKP2 through retinoblastoma (RB) and early mitotic inhibitor 1 (EMI1) protein and on CCNE1 and CCND1 mRNA levels. Treatment with 17β-estradiol for 15-90 min activated mTOR, with mTOR phosphorylation peaking after 30 min. U0126 (5 μM), a specific inhibitor of (MEK1/2), and 10-DEBC (2 μM), a selective inhibitor of AKT, both significantly reduced 17β-estradiol-induced phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin suppressed 17β-estradiol-induced Sertoli cell proliferation, appearing to act by reducing the abundance of SKP2, CCND1, and CCNE1 mRNA as well as RB and EMI1 protein. These data indicated that 17β-estradiol enhances Sertoli cell proliferation via mTOR activation, which involves both ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling. Activated mTOR subsequently increases SKP2 mRNA and protein expression by enhancing the expression of CCND1 and CCNE1, and inhibits SKP2 protein degradation by increasing EMI1 abundance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Gas expanders at M/R Stations in the natural gas distribution network. Pre-project, subreport; Gasexpandere paa distributionsnettets M/R-stationer. Forprojekt, delrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Niels Bjarne

    2010-05-15

    Danish Gas Technology Centre has been carrying out a feasibility project to clarify the possibilities of installing gas expanders at M/R-stations (Measuring and Regulating) in the Distribution system of the natural gas grid. A large number of such expanders are installed around the world. The novelty of this project is to use a heat pump to perform the necessary heating of the gas before the expander, and to ''export'' to the electricity grid the remaining electricity from the generator connected to the expander. The present project includes the small M/R-stations at the gas Distribution grid where pressure is reduced from 40 or 20 bar to 4 bar. The preliminary project (year 1 of project) has investigated whether components for such smaller systems can be found, and it has investigated prices for different quantities. A technical feasibility study has been done. Also, preliminary calculations of payback times has been carried out. A large potential of CO{sub 2}-reduction is present with this technology based on saving of natural gas combustion and on new electricity production displacing existing production without any use of primary energy. The main results and conclusions are: 1) There are component suppliers for expander systems suitable to the size of distribution network M/R stations. 2) Pressure regulators provided at the stations are laid out with significant overcapacity, enabling a simplified installation of the expander systems. 3) If the system is being rolled out across the Danish distribution grid, the realistic saving potential is approx. 2.3 million Nm3 of gas per year and a production of almost 40 million kWh of electricity. 4) If the price is 0.60 DKK/kWh for electricity sold, the simple pay-back is 6-7 years on average, covering a variation from 3 to 16 years at the various stations. The smallest stations are omitted. The best stations covering more than half of the gas flow have a pay-back time between 3 and 6 years. 5) The

  11. Objective measures of binaural masking level differences and comodulation masking release based on late auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Bastian; Yasin, Ifat; Verhey, Jesko L

    2013-12-01

    The audibility of important sounds is often hampered due to the presence of other masking sounds. The present study investigates if a correlate of the audibility of a tone masked by noise is found in late auditory evoked potentials measured from human listeners. The audibility of the target sound at a fixed physical intensity is varied by introducing auditory cues of (i) interaural target signal phase disparity and (ii) coherent masker level fluctuations in different frequency regions. In agreement with previous studies, psychoacoustical experiments showed that both stimulus manipulations result in a masking release (i: binaural masking level difference; ii: comodulation masking release) compared to a condition where those cues are not present. Late auditory evoked potentials (N1, P2) were recorded for the stimuli at a constant masker level, but different signal levels within the same set of listeners who participated in the psychoacoustical experiment. The data indicate differences in N1 and P2 between stimuli with and without interaural phase disparities. However, differences for stimuli with and without coherent masker modulation were only found for P2, i.e., only P2 is sensitive to the increase in audibility, irrespective of the cue that caused the masking release. The amplitude of P2 is consistent with the psychoacoustical finding of an addition of the masking releases when both cues are present. Even though it cannot be concluded where along the auditory pathway the audibility is represented, the P2 component of auditory evoked potentials is a candidate for an objective measure of audibility in the human auditory system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 μm wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  13. Influence of M=Al, Ga and Si on microstructure and HDDR-processing of Sm{sub 2}(Fe,M){sub 17} and magnetic properties of their nitrides and carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, M.; Gutfleisch, O.; Gebel, B.; Mueller, K.-H.; Schultz, L. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallische Werkstoffe; Harris, I.R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    1999-02-01

    Microstructural investigations by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that the formation of high amounts of {alpha}-Fe in as-cast Sm{sub 2}(Fe,M){sub 17} alloys can be suppressed by using the substitutions M=Al or Si together with excess Sm. Ga, on the other hand, does not induce this beneficial effect. The hydrogen absorption and desorption behaviour was investigated by temperature-pressure-analysis and hydrogen differential thermal analysis. Decreasing amounts of hydrogen were absorbed in Sm{sub 2}(Fe,M){sub 17} for increasing contents of all substitutions M=Ga, Al and Si due to their stabilising effect on the 2:17 phase with regard to its disproportionation. Compared with the homogenised alloys, the as-cast materials show a weaker interstitial hydrogen absorption and a stronger disproportionation reaction at lower temperatures due to the higher content of Sm-rich phases in the as-cast alloys. A second cycle of the hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) process leads to a faster disproportionation reaction at lower temperatures due to the grain refinement during the first cycle. Magnetic properties of as-cast and homogenised materials were investigated after HDDR treatment and nitrogenation or carburisation of pre-milled powders. Nitrogenated and carburised samples showed coercivities up to 3.0 T and 2.3 T, respectively. There were only slight differences of the magnetic properties of materials prepared from homogenised and from as-cast samples. (orig.) 21 refs.

  14. Hydrogen migration dynamics in hydrated Al clusters: The Al17(−)·H2O system as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Barcia, S.; Flores, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Al m (−) ·(H 2 O) n systems are known to undergo water splitting processes in the gas phase giving H k Al m (OH) k (−) ·(H 2 O) n−k systems, which can generate H 2 . The migration of H atoms from one Al atom to another on the cluster's surface is of critical importance to the mechanism of the complete H 2 production process. We have applied a combination of Molecular Dynamics and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory including tunneling effects to study the gas-phase evolution of HAl 17 (OH) (−) , which can be considered a model system. First, we have performed an extensive search for local minima and the connecting saddle points using a density functional theory method. It is found that in the water-splitting process Al 17 (−) ·(H 2 O) → HAl 17 (OH) (−) , the H atom which bonds to the Al cluster losses rather quickly its excess energy, which is easily “absorbed” by the cluster because of its flexibility. This fact ultimately determines that long-range hydrogen migration is not a very fast process and that, probably, tunneling only plays a secondary role in the migration dynamics, at least for moderate energies. Reduction of the total energy results in the process being very much slowed down. The consequences on the possible mechanisms of H 2 generation from the interaction of Al clusters and water molecules are discussed

  15. Method for making a single-step etch mask for 3D monolithic nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishina, D A; Harteveld, C A M; Vos, W L; Woldering, L A

    2015-01-01

    Current nanostructure fabrication by etching is usually limited to planar structures as they are defined by a planar mask. The realization of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures by etching requires technologies beyond planar masks. We present a method for fabricating a 3D mask that allows one to etch three-dimensional monolithic nanostructures using only CMOS-compatible processes. The mask is written in a hard-mask layer that is deposited on two adjacent inclined surfaces of a Si wafer. By projecting in a single step two different 2D patterns within one 3D mask on the two inclined surfaces, the mutual alignment between the patterns is ensured. Thereby after the mask pattern is defined, the etching of deep pores in two oblique directions yields a three-dimensional structure in Si. As a proof of concept we demonstrate 3D mask fabrication for three-dimensional diamond-like photonic band gap crystals in silicon. The fabricated crystals reveal a broad stop gap in optical reflectivity measurements. We propose how 3D nanostructures with five different Bravais lattices can be realized, namely cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic and hexagonal, and demonstrate a mask for a 3D hexagonal crystal. We also demonstrate the mask for a diamond-structure crystal with a 3D array of cavities. In general, the 2D patterns on the different surfaces can be completely independently structured and still be in perfect mutual alignment. Indeed, we observe an alignment accuracy of better than 3.0 nm between the 2D mask patterns on the inclined surfaces, which permits one to etch well-defined monolithic 3D nanostructures. (paper)

  16. SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH PROPERTIES IN M17SW REVEALED BY SPITZER /IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, A.; Kohno, M. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, T.; Ohashi, S. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagayama, T.; Matsuo, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Fujita, S. [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Tsuda, Y., E-mail: yamagish@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-0042 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    We present Spitzer /IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br γ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST {sup 13}CO ( J = 1–0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2  μ m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Br γ and the molecular cloud traced by {sup 13}CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer /IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7  μ m/PAH 11.3  μ m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of PAH ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the PAH 12.0  μ m, 12.7  μ m, 13.5  μ m, and 14.2  μ m features to the PAH 11.3  μ m feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of PAHs through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular PAHs near the M17 center.

  17. Low flow anesthesia: Efficacy and outcome of laryngeal mask airway versus pressure-optimized cuffed-endotracheal tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Seify Zeinab

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low flow anesthesia can lead to reduction of anesthetic gas and vapor consumption. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA has proved to be an effective and safe airway device. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of laryngeal mask airway during controlled ventilation using low fresh gas flow (1.0 L/min as compared to endotracheal tube (ETT. Patients and Methods : Fifty nine non-smoking adult patients; ASA I or II, being scheduled for elective surgical procedures, with an expected duration of anesthesia 60 minutes or more, were randomly allocated into two groups - Group I (29 patients had been ventilated using LMA size 4 for females and 5 for males respectively; and Group II (30 patients were intubated using ETT. After 10 minutes of high fresh gas flow, the flow was reduced to 1 L/min. Patients were monitored for airway leakage, end-tidal CO 2 (ETCO 2 , inspiratory and expiratory isoflurane and nitrous oxide fraction concentrations, and postoperative airway-related complications Results : Two patients in the LMA-group developed initial airway leakage (6.9% versus no patient in ETT-group. Cough and sore throat were significantly higher in ETT patients. There were no evidences of differences between both groups regarding ETCO 2 , uptake of gases, nor difficulty in swallowing. Conclusion : The laryngeal mask airway proved to be effective and safe in establishing an airtight seal during controlled ventilation under low fresh gas flow of 1 L/min, inducing less coughing and sore throat during the immediate postoperative period than did the ETT, with continuous measurement and readjustment of the tube cuff pressure.

  18. "The Mask Who Wasn't There": Visual Masking Effect with the Perceptual Absence of the Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Amandine Eve; Riou, Benoit; Muller, Dominique; Dabic, Stéphanie; Versace, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Does a visual mask need to be perceptually present to disrupt processing? In the present research, we proposed to explore the link between perceptual and memory mechanisms by demonstrating that a typical sensory phenomenon (visual masking) can be replicated at a memory level. Experiment 1 highlighted an interference effect of a visual mask on the…

  19. Surgical Face Masks Worn by Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphahlele, Matsie; Stoltz, Anton; Venter, Kobus; Mathebula, Rirhandzu; Masotla, Thabiso; Lubbe, Willem; Pagano, Marcello; First, Melvin; Jensen, Paul A.; van der Walt, Martie; Nardell, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Drug-resistant tuberculosis transmission in hospitals threatens staff and patient health. Surgical face masks used by patients with tuberculosis (TB) are believed to reduce transmission but have not been rigorously tested. Objectives: We sought to quantify the efficacy of surgical face masks when worn by patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Methods: Over 3 months, 17 patients with pulmonary MDR-TB occupied an MDR-TB ward in South Africa and wore face masks on alternate days. Ward air was exhausted to two identical chambers, each housing 90 pathogen-free guinea pigs that breathed ward air either when patients wore surgical face masks (intervention group) or when patients did not wear masks (control group). Efficacy was based on differences in guinea pig infections in each chamber. Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-nine of 90 control guinea pigs (76.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 68–85%) became infected, compared with 36 of 90 intervention guinea pigs (40%; 95% CI, 31–51%), representing a 56% (95% CI, 33–70.5%) decreased risk of TB transmission when patients used masks. Conclusions: Surgical face masks on patients with MDR-TB significantly reduced transmission and offer an adjunct measure for reducing TB transmission from infectious patients. PMID:22323300

  20. Development and characterization of clay facial mask containing turmeric extract solid dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan-On, Suchiwa; Rujivipat, Soravoot; Ounaroon, Anan; Tiyaboonchai, Waree

    2018-04-01

    To develop clay facial mask containing turmeric extract solid dispersion (TESD) for enhancing curcumin water solubility and permeability and to determine suitable clay based facial mask. The TESD were prepared by solvent and melting solvent method with various TE to polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30 mass ratios. The physicochemical properties, water solubility, and permeability were examined. The effects of clay types on physical stability of TESD, water adsorption, and curcumin adsorption capacity were evaluated. The TESD prepared by solvent method with a TE to PVP K30 mass ratio of 1:2 showed physically stable, dry powders, when mixed with clay. When TESD was dissolved in water, the obtained TESD micelles showed spherical shape with mean size of ∼100 nm resulting in a substantial enhancement of curcumin water solubility, ∼5 mg/ml. Bentonite (Bent) and mica (M) showed the highest water adsorption capacity. The TESD's color was altered when mixed with Bent, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO) indicating curcumin instability. Talcum (Talc) showed the greatest curcumin adsorption followed by M and kaolin (K), respectively. Consequently, in vitro permeation studies of the TESD mixed with Talc showed lowest curcumin permeation, while TESD mixed with M or K showed similar permeation profile as free TESD solutions. The developed TESD-based clay facial mask showed lower curcumin permeation as compared to those formulations with Tween 80. The water solubility and permeability of curcumin in clay based facial mask could be improved using solid dispersion technique and suitable clay base composed of K, M, and Talc.

  1. AutoMOPS- B2B and B2C in mask making: Mask manufacturing performance and customer satisfaction improvement through better information flow management using generic models and standardized languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filies, Olaf; de Ridder, Luc; Rodriguez, Ben; Kujiken, Aart

    2002-03-01

    Semiconductor manufacturing has become a global business, in which companies of different size unite in virtual enterprises to meet new opportunities. Therefore Mask manufacturing is a key business, but mask ordering is a complex process and is always critical regarding design to market time, even though mask complexity and customer base are increasing using a wide variety of different mask order forms which are frequently faulty and very seldom complete. This is effectively blocking agile manufacturing and can tie wafer fabs to a single mask The goal of the project is elimination of the order verification through paperless, electronically linked information sharing/exchange between chip design, mask production and production stages, which will allow automation of the mask preparation. To cover these new techniques and their specifications as well as the common ones with automated tools a special generic Meta-model will be generated, based on the current standards for mask specifications, including the requirements from the involved partners (Alcatel Microelectronics, Altis, Compugraphics, Infineon, Nimble, Sigma-C), the project works out a pre-normative standard. The paper presents the current status of work. This work is partly funded by the Commission of the European Union under the Fifth Framework project IST-1999-10332 AutoMOPS.

  2. A procedure and program to calculate shuttle mask advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinski, A.; Cetin, J.; Kahng, A.; Xu, X.

    2006-10-01

    A well-known recipe for reducing mask cost component in product development is to place non-redundant elements of layout databases related to multiple products on one reticle plate [1,2]. Such reticles are known as multi-product, multi-layer, or, in general, multi-IP masks. The composition of the mask set should minimize not only the layout placement cost, but also the cost of the manufacturing process, design flow setup, and product design and introduction to market. An important factor is the quality check which should be expeditious and enable thorough visual verification to avoid costly modifications once the data is transferred to the mask shop. In this work, in order to enable the layer placement and quality check procedure, we proposed an algorithm where mask layers are first lined up according to the price and field tone [3]. Then, depending on the product die size, expected fab throughput, and scribeline requirements, the subsequent product layers are placed on the masks with different grades. The actual reduction of this concept to practice allowed us to understand the tradeoffs between the automation of layer placement and setup related constraints. For example, the limited options of the numbers of layer per plate dictated by the die size and other design feedback, made us consider layer pairing based not only on the final price of the mask set, but also on the cost of mask design and fab-friendliness. We showed that it may be advantageous to introduce manual layer pairing to ensure that, e.g., all interconnect layers would be placed on the same plate, allowing for easy and simultaneous design fixes. Another enhancement was to allow some flexibility in mixing and matching of the layers such that non-critical ones requiring low mask grade would be placed in a less restrictive way, to reduce the count of orphan layers. In summary, we created a program to automatically propose and visualize shuttle mask architecture for design verification, with

  3. Monolithic photonic integration technology platform and devices at wavelengths beyond 2 μm for gas spectroscopy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latkowski, S.; van Veldhoven, P.J.; Hänsel, A.; D'Agostino, D.; Rabbani-Haghighi, H.; Docter, B.; Bhattacharya, N.; Thijs, P.J.A.; Ambrosius, H.P.M.M.; Smit, M.K.; Williams, K.A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a generic monolithic photonic integration technology platform and tunable laser devices for gas sensing applications at 2 μm will be presented. The basic set of long wavelength optical functions which is fundamental for a generic photonic integration approach is realized using planar,

  4. Interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F and asthma in Saudi Arabia: mRNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win-07

    IL17A and IL17F were significantly higher in asthma patients compared to controls [IL17A: 1.112 (2.088) vs 0.938 ... Asthma is a frequently encountered chronic airway in- ... transcription was performed, in 20 μl reaction volume using the.

  5. Failed tracheal intubation using a laryngoscope and intubating laryngeal mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, T; Hirose, T; Shingu, K

    2000-04-01

    To report unexpected failed tracheal intubation using a laryngoscope and an intubating laryngeal mask, and difficult ventilation via a facemask, laryngeal mask and intubating laryngeal mask, in a patient with an unrecognized lingual tonsillar hypertrophy. A 63-yr-old woman, who had undergone clipping of an aneurysm seven weeks previously, was scheduled for ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. At the previous surgery, there had been no difficulty in ventilation or in tracheal intubation. Her trachea remained intubated nasally for 11 days after surgery. Preoperatively, her consciousness was impaired. There were no restrictions in head and neck movements or mouth opening. The thyromental distance was 7 cm. After induction of anesthesia, manual ventilation via a facemask with a Guedel airway was suboptimal and the chest expanded insufficiently. At laryngoscopy using a Macintosh or McCoy device, only the tip of the epiglottis, but not the glottis, could be seen, and tracheal intubation failed. There was a partial obstruction during manual ventilation through either the intubating laryngeal mask or conventional laryngeal mask; intubation through each device failed. Digital examination of the pharynx, after removal of the laryngeal mask, indicated a mass occupying the vallecula. Lingual tonsillar hypertrophy (1 x 1 x 2 cm) was found to be the cause of the failure. Awake fibrescope-aided tracheal intubation was accomplished. Unexpected lingual tonsillar hypertrophy can cause both ventilation and tracheal intubation difficult, and neither the laryngeal mask nor intubating laryngeal mask may be helpful in the circumstances.

  6. Design, development, installation and commissioning of water-cooled pre-masks for undulator front-ends of Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuvanshi, V.K.; Prasad, Vijendra; Garg, S.R.; Jain, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Recently two undulators U1 and U2 are installed in Indus-2 storage ring at RRCAT, Indore. When U1 and U2 are put in operation, a bright synchrotron radiation (SR) is produced which is transmitted through the zero degree port of the dipole vacuum chamber. In addition, a part of SR beam from the bending magnets, at the upstream and downstream of the undulator, is also overlapped with the undulator SR beam and transmitted in to the front-end through the same port. The front-end is a long ultra high vacuum (UHV) assembly consisting of water-cooled pre-mask, water-cooled shutters, UHV valves, diagnostic devices, safety shutter, vacuum pumps etc which acts as an interface between Indus-2 ring and beamline. Water-cooled pre- masks have been designed to cut a part of unwanted SR beam from the bending magnets. The pre-mask is a first active component in the undulator front-end which is also capable of absorbing high thermal load due to mis-steering of the SR beam from the undulator in the worst case scenario. The watercooled pre-mask consists of a copper block which has fixed aperture with slant faces to distribute the heat flux over a large surface area. The cooling channels are made on outer periphery of the block. The copper block is vacuum brazed with two conflat flanges of stainless steel at the two ends. The pre-mask is designed to absorb thermal load of 3 kW of synchrotron beam from undulator U1 and 2 kW of synchrotron beam from undulator U2. The thermal analysis of the pre-masks was carried out with the help of ANSYS® and the design was optimized with different cooling configurations. The main design criteria was to limit the maximum temperature of the mask less than 60 °C. This is to avoid substantial thermal outgassing from the heated portion which may deteriorate the ultra high vacuum. Pre-masks have been successfully tested, installed and commissioned with synchrotron beam in the undulator front-ends and are operating under vacuum of 5x10 -10 mbar. (author)

  7. High Efficiency Mask Based Laser Materials Processing with TEA-CO2 - and Excimer Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review of the ...... line marking with TEA-CO2 laser of high speed canning lines. The second one is manufactured for marking or microdrilling with excimer laser....

  8. Binaural masking level differences in nonsimultanuous masking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlrausch, A.G.; Fassel, R.; Gilkey, R.H.; Anderson, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter investigates the extent to which binaural unmasking occurs with nonsimultaneous presentation of masker and signal, particularly in forward masking. The majority of previous studies that addressed this question found that there is a substantial binaural masking level difference (BMLD) in

  9. Nanoparticle and nanosphere mask for etching of ITO nanostructures and their reflection properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Cigang; Deng, Ligang; Holder, Adam; Bailey, Louise R.; Proudfoot, Gary; Thomas, Owain; Gunn, Robert; Cooke, Mike; Leendertz, Caspar; Bergmann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Au nanoparticles and polystyrene nanospheres were used as mask for plasma etching of indium tin oxide (ITO) layer. By reactive ion etching (RIE) processes, the morphology of polystyrene nanospheres can be tuned through chemical or physical etching, and Au nanoparticle mask can result in ITO nanostructures with larger aspect ratio than nanosphere mask. During inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processes, Au nanoparticle mask was not affected by the thermal effect of plasma, whereas temperature of the substrate was essential to protect nanospheres from the damaging effect of plasma. Physical bombardment in the plasma can also modify the nanospheres. It was observed that under the same process conditions, the ratio of CH 4 and H 2 in the process gas can affect the etching rate of ITO without completely etching the nanospheres. The morphology of ITO nanostructures also depends on process conditions. The resulting ITO nanostructures show lower reflection in a spectral range of 400-1000 nm than c-Si and conventional antireflection layer of SiN x film. ITO nanostructures obtained after etching (scale bar = 200 nm). (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. An interactive tool for gamut masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying; Lau, Cheryl; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Artists often want to change the colors of an image to achieve a particular aesthetic goal. For example, they might limit colors to a warm or cool color scheme to create an image with a certain mood or feeling. Gamut masking is a technique that artists use to limit the set of colors they can paint with. They draw a mask over a color wheel and only use the hues within the mask. However, creating the color palette from the mask and applying the colors to the image requires skill. We propose an interactive tool for gamut masking that allows amateur artists to create an image with a desired mood or feeling. Our system extracts a 3D color gamut from the 2D user-drawn mask and maps the image to this gamut. The user can draw a different gamut mask or locally refine the image colors. Our voxel grid gamut representation allows us to represent gamuts of any shape, and our cluster-based image representation allows the user to change colors locally.

  11. Evaluation of stainless steel cathodes and a bicarbonate buffer for hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells using a new method for measuring gas production

    KAUST Repository

    Ambler, Jack R.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are often examined for hydrogen production using non-sustainable phosphate buffered solutions (PBS), although carbonate buffers have been shown to work in other bioelectrochemical systems with a platinum (Pt) catalyst. Stainless steel (SS) has been shown to be an effective catalyst for hydrogen evolution in MECs, but it has not been tested with carbonate buffers. We evaluated the combined using of SS cathodes and a bicarbonate buffer (BBS) at the applied voltages of 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 V using a new inexpensive method for measuring gas production called the gas bag method (GBM). This method achieved an average error of only 5.0% based on adding known volumes of gas to the bag. Using the GBM, hydrogen production with SS and a BBS was 26.6 ± 1.8 mL which compared well to 26.4 ± 2.8 mL using Pt and BBS, and 26.8 ± 2.5 mL with a Pt cathode and PBS. Electrical energy efficiency was highest with a SS cathode and BBS at 159 ± 17%, compared to 126 ± 14% for the Pt cathode and BBS, and 134 ± 17% for a Pt cathode and PBS. The main disadvantage of the SS was a lower gas production rate of 1.1 ± 0.3 m3 H2-m-3 d-1 with BBS and 1.2 ± 0.3 m3 H2-m-3 d -1 with PBS, compared to 1.7 ± 0.4 m3 H 2-m-3 d-1 with Pt and PBS. These results show that the GBM is an effective new method for measuring gas production of anaerobic gas production processes, and that SS and bicarbonate buffers can be used to effectively produce hydrogen in MECs. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ferromagnetic shadow mask for spray coating of polymer patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Bosco, Filippo; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We present the fabrication of a wafer-scale shadow mask with arrays of circular holes with diameters of 150–400 μm. Standard UV photolithography is used to define 700 μm thick SU-8 structures followed by electroplating of nickel and etching of the template. The ferromagnetic properties of the sha......We present the fabrication of a wafer-scale shadow mask with arrays of circular holes with diameters of 150–400 μm. Standard UV photolithography is used to define 700 μm thick SU-8 structures followed by electroplating of nickel and etching of the template. The ferromagnetic properties...

  13. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-08-10

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during semiconductor manufacturing for deep reactive etches. Such a manufacturing process may include depositing a first mask material on a substrate; depositing a second mask material on the first mask material; depositing a third mask material on the second mask material; patterning the third mask material with a pattern corresponding to one or more trenches for transfer to the substrate; transferring the pattern from the third mask material to the second mask material; transferring the pattern from the second mask material to the first mask material; and/or transferring the pattern from the first mask material to the substrate.

  14. Efficacy of a Ventilatory Training Mask to Improve Anaerobic and Aerobic Capacity in Reserve Officers' Training Corps Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, John H; Monaghan, Taylor P; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Jacobson, Bert H; Pope, Zachary K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a ventilatory training mask to improve anaerobic and aerobic fitness in reserve officers' training corps (ROTC) cadets. Seventeen ROTC cadets from a Midwest university completed pre- and postassessments consisting of anthropometry, a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), and a maximal aerobic capacity test (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). A 6-week intervention training period was used during which time participants completed their mandatory physical training (PT) sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (MASK; n = 9) or the control group (CON; n = 8). The ventilatory training masks were adjusted to simulate an altitude of 2,750 m. There was no significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) between groups on fatigue index, anaerobic capacity, peak power, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, or time to exhaustion. These results suggest that the use of the ventilatory training mask during mandatory PT did not elicit superior aerobic or anaerobic adaptations in ROTC cadets. Therefore, it is recommended that more established simulated altitude training methods be used when incorporating intermittent hypoxic training.

  15. Complete separation of the tube from the mask of a reusable classic laryngeal mask airway: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shahriari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available 2">

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA is an important addition to the anesthetist's equipments. However, its usage may involve some complications. We have encountered an unusual and potentially serious complication using this equipment. A 45-year old man underwent cataract surgery under general anesthesia. After the induction of anesthesia, a size 4 of the reusable classic LMA was inserted without any difficulties and the cuff was inflated. After a little manipulation, the proximal tube of the LMA was separated from the distal part, leaving the distal mask inside the pharynx. The exit of the remaining portion of the LMA was very difficult and made the ventilation of the patient impossible. The patient’s oxygen saturation decreased to 40%. The remaining portion of the LMA was removed by a great clamp and with an extreme effort. Then, an endotracheal tube was inserted and the patient was ventilated with 100% oxygen. After 6 hours, the patient was discharged with no apparent complications. The autoclave was used several times for the sterilization of the LMA.

    KEY WORDS: 2">Laryngeal mask airway, autoclave.

  16. A 18 m 2 cylindrical tracking detector made of 2.6 m long, stereo mylar straw tubes with 100 μm resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Ghezzo, A.; Guaraldo, C.; Lanaro, A.; Locchi, P.; Lu, J.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaisar, N.; Ricciardi, A.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.; Trasatti, L.; Volkov, A.; Zia, A.

    1998-12-01

    An array of 2424 2.6 m-long, 15 mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire. A correction of the systematic effects which are introduced by gravitational sag and electrostatics, thus dominating the detector performance especially with long straws, allows to determine wire position from drift-time distribution. The correction has been applied to reach a space resolution of 40 μm with DME, 100 μm with Ar+C 2H 6, and 100-200 μm with CO 2. Such a resolution is the best ever obtained for straws of these dimensions. A study of the gas leakage for the straw system has been performed, and results are reported. The array is being commissioned as a subdetector of the FINUDA spectrometer, and tracking performances are being studied with cosmic rays.

  17. Attentional capture by masked colour singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Horstmann, Gernot; Worschech, Franziska

    2010-09-15

    We tested under which conditions a colour singleton of which an observer is unaware captures attention. To prevent visual awareness of the colour singleton, we used backward masking. We find that a masked colour singleton cue captures attention if it matches the observer's goal to search for target colours but not if it is task-irrelevant. This is also reflected in event-related potentials to the visible target: the masked goal-matching cue elicits an attentional potential (N2pc) in a target search task. By contrast, a non-matching but equally strong masked colour singleton cue failed to elicit a capture effect and an N2pc. Results are discussed with regard to currently pertaining conceptions of attentional capture by colour singletons. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A 18 m2 cylindrical tracking detector made of 2,6 m long, stereo mylar straw tubes with 100 μm resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Ghezzo, A.; Guaraldo, C.; Lanaro, A.; Locchi, P.; Lu, J.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaisar, N.; Ricciardi, A.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.; Trasatti, L.; Volkov, A.; Zia, A.

    1998-01-01

    An array of 2424 2.6 m-long, 15 mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire. An under-standing of the systematic effects which are introduced by gravitational sag and electrostatics, thus dominating the detector performance especially with long straws, allows to determine wire position from drift-time distribution. The correction has been applied to reach a space resolution of 40 μm with DME, 100 μm with Ar + C 2 H 6 , and 100-200 μm with CO 2 . Such a resolution is the best ever obtained for straws of these dimensions. A study of the gas leakage for the straw system has been performed, and results are reported. The array is being commissioned as a subdetector of the FINUDA spectrometer, and tracking performances are being studied with cosmic rays. (author)

  19. Is tinnitus an early voice of masked hypertension? High masked hypertension rate in patients with tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Taylan; Özkan, Selçuk; Yavuz, Bunyamin

    2018-04-23

    Tinnitus is hearing a sound without any external acoustic stimulus. There are some clues of hypertension can cause tinnitus in different ways. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between tinnitus and masked hypertension including echocardiographic parameters and severity of tinnitus. This study included 88 patients with tinnitus of at least 3 months duration and 85 age and gender-matched control subjects. Tinnitus severity index was used to classify the patients with tinnitus. After a complete medical history, all subjects underwent routine laboratory examination, office blood pressure measurement, hearing tests and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Masked hypertension is defined as normal office blood pressure measurement and high ambulatory blood pressure level. Baseline characteristics in patients and controls were similar. Prevalence of masked hypertension was significantly higher in patients with tinnitus than controls (18.2% vs 3.5%, p = 0.002). Office diastolic BP (76 ± 8.1 vs. 72.74 ± 8.68, p = 0.01), ambulatory 24-H diastolic BP (70.2 ± 9.6 vs. 66.9 ± 6.1, p = 0.07) and ambulatory daytime diastolic BP (73.7 ± 9.5 vs. 71.1 ± 6.2, p = 0.03) was significantly higher in patients with tinnitus than control group. Tinnitus severity index in patients without masked hypertension was 0 and tinnitus severity index in patients with masked hypertension were 2 (1-5). This study demonstrated that masked hypertension must be kept in mind if there is a complaint of tinnitus without any other obvious reason.

  20. Study Impact of Gas Delivery Systems on Imaging Studies of Human Cerebral Blood Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, J.R.; Parkes, L.M.; Jackson, A.; Parkes, L.M.; Eadsforth, P.; Beards, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    To compare a semiopen breathing circuit with a non-rebreathing (Hudson mask) for MRI experiments involving gas delivery. Methods and Materials. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by quantitative phase contrast angiography of the internal carotid and basilar arteries in 18 volunteers (20-31 years). In 8 subjects, gases were delivered via a standard non-re breathing (Hudson mask). In 10 subjects, gases were delivered using a modified “Mapleson A” semiopen anesthetic gas circuit and mouthpiece. All subjects were given 100% O 2 , medical air, and carbogen gas (95% O 2 and 5% CO 2 ) delivered at 15 L/min in a random order. Results. The Hudson mask group showed significant increases in CBF in response to increased FiCO 2 compared to air (+9.8%). A small nonsignificant reduction in CBF (-2.4%) was seen in response to increased inspired concentrations of oxygen (FiO 2 ). The Mapleson A group showed significantly larger changes in CBF in response to both increased inspired concentrations of carbon dioxide (FiCO 2 ) (+32.2%, Ρ<0.05) and FiO 2 (-14.6%, Ρ<0.01). Conclusions. The use of an anaesthetic gas delivery circuit avoids entrainment of room air and re breathing effects that may otherwise adversely affect the experimental results.

  1. Airway obstruction and gas leak during mask ventilation of preterm infants in the delivery room.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-07-01

    Preterm infants with inadequate breathing receive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) by mask with variable success. The authors examined recordings of PPV given to preterm infants in the delivery room for prevalence of mask leak and airway obstruction.

  2. Simulation-based MDP verification for leading-edge masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bo; Syrel, Oleg; Pomerantsev, Michael; Hagiwara, Kazuyuki; Pearman, Ryan; Pang, Leo; Fujimara, Aki

    2017-07-01

    For IC design starts below the 20nm technology node, the assist features on photomasks shrink well below 60nm and the printed patterns of those features on masks written by VSB eBeam writers start to show a large deviation from the mask designs. Traditional geometry-based fracturing starts to show large errors for those small features. As a result, other mask data preparation (MDP) methods have become available and adopted, such as rule-based Mask Process Correction (MPC), model-based MPC and eventually model-based MDP. The new MDP methods may place shot edges slightly differently from target to compensate for mask process effects, so that the final patterns on a mask are much closer to the design (which can be viewed as the ideal mask), especially for those assist features. Such an alteration generally produces better masks that are closer to the intended mask design. Traditional XOR-based MDP verification cannot detect problems caused by eBeam effects. Much like model-based OPC verification which became a necessity for OPC a decade ago, we see the same trend in MDP today. Simulation-based MDP verification solution requires a GPU-accelerated computational geometry engine with simulation capabilities. To have a meaningful simulation-based mask check, a good mask process model is needed. The TrueModel® system is a field tested physical mask model developed by D2S. The GPU-accelerated D2S Computational Design Platform (CDP) is used to run simulation-based mask check, as well as model-based MDP. In addition to simulation-based checks such as mask EPE or dose margin, geometry-based rules are also available to detect quality issues such as slivers or CD splits. Dose margin related hotspots can also be detected by setting a correct detection threshold. In this paper, we will demonstrate GPU-acceleration for geometry processing, and give examples of mask check results and performance data. GPU-acceleration is necessary to make simulation-based mask MDP verification

  3. Quality of patient positioning during cerebral tomotherapy irradiation using different mask systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzen, C.; Wilhelm-Buchstab, T.; Garbe, S.; Luetter, C.; Muedder, T.; Simon, B.; Schild, H.H.; Schueller, H. [Universitaetsklinik Bonn, Radiologische Klinik, FE Strahlentherapie, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Patient immobilization during brain tumor radiotherapy is achieved by employing different mask systems. Two innovative mask systems were developed to minimize the problems of claustrophobic patients. Our aim was to evaluate whether the quality of patient immobilization using the new mask systems was equivalent to the standard mask system currently in use. Thirty-three patients with cerebral target volumes were irradiated using the Hi-Art II tomotherapy system between 2010 and 2012. Each group of 11 patients was fitted with one of the two new mask systems (Crystal {sup registered} or Open Face {sup registered} mask, Orfit) or the standard three-point mask (Raycast {sup registered} -HP, Orfit) and a total of 557 radiotherapy fractions were evaluated. After positioning was checked by MV-CT, the necessary table adjustments were noted. Data were analyzed by comparing the groups, and safety margins were calculated for nonimage-guided irradiation. The mean values of the table adjustments were: (a) lateral (mm): -0.22 (mask 1, standard deviation (σ): 2.15); 1.1 (mask 2, σ: 2.4); -0.64 (mask 3, σ: 2.9); (b) longitudinal (mm): -1 (mask 1, σ: 2.57); -0.5 (mask 2, σ: 4.7); -1.22 (mask 3, σ: 2.52); (c) vertical (mm): 0.62 (mask 1, σ: 0.63); 1.2 (mask 2, σ: 1.0); 0.57 (mask 3, σ: 0.28); (d) roll: 0.35 (mask 1, σ: 0.75); 0 (mask 2, σ: 0.8); 0.02 (mask 3, σ: 1.12). The outcomes suggest necessary safety margins of 5.49-7.38 mm (lateral), 5.4-6.56 mm (longitudinal), 0.82-3.9 mm (vertical), and 1.93-4.5 (roll). There were no significant differences between the groups. The new mask systems improve patient comfort while providing consistent patient positioning. (orig.)

  4. Quality of patient positioning during cerebral tomotherapy irradiation using different mask systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitzen, C.; Wilhelm-Buchstab, T.; Garbe, S.; Luetter, C.; Muedder, T.; Simon, B.; Schild, H.H.; Schueller, H.

    2014-01-01

    Patient immobilization during brain tumor radiotherapy is achieved by employing different mask systems. Two innovative mask systems were developed to minimize the problems of claustrophobic patients. Our aim was to evaluate whether the quality of patient immobilization using the new mask systems was equivalent to the standard mask system currently in use. Thirty-three patients with cerebral target volumes were irradiated using the Hi-Art II tomotherapy system between 2010 and 2012. Each group of 11 patients was fitted with one of the two new mask systems (Crystal registered or Open Face registered mask, Orfit) or the standard three-point mask (Raycast registered -HP, Orfit) and a total of 557 radiotherapy fractions were evaluated. After positioning was checked by MV-CT, the necessary table adjustments were noted. Data were analyzed by comparing the groups, and safety margins were calculated for nonimage-guided irradiation. The mean values of the table adjustments were: (a) lateral (mm): -0.22 (mask 1, standard deviation (σ): 2.15); 1.1 (mask 2, σ: 2.4); -0.64 (mask 3, σ: 2.9); (b) longitudinal (mm): -1 (mask 1, σ: 2.57); -0.5 (mask 2, σ: 4.7); -1.22 (mask 3, σ: 2.52); (c) vertical (mm): 0.62 (mask 1, σ: 0.63); 1.2 (mask 2, σ: 1.0); 0.57 (mask 3, σ: 0.28); (d) roll: 0.35 (mask 1, σ: 0.75); 0 (mask 2, σ: 0.8); 0.02 (mask 3, σ: 1.12). The outcomes suggest necessary safety margins of 5.49-7.38 mm (lateral), 5.4-6.56 mm (longitudinal), 0.82-3.9 mm (vertical), and 1.93-4.5 (roll). There were no significant differences between the groups. The new mask systems improve patient comfort while providing consistent patient positioning. (orig.)

  5. Competing for Consciousness: Prolonged Mask Exposure Reduces Object Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    In object substitution masking (OSM) a sparse, temporally trailing 4-dot mask impairs target identification, even though it has different contours from, and does not spatially overlap with the target. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown characteristic of OSM: Observers show reduced masking at prolonged (e.g., 640 ms) relative to intermediate…

  6. The Synergy Effect of Ni-M (M = Mo, Fe, Co, Mn or Cr Bicomponent Catalysts on Partial Methanation Coupling with Water Gas Shift under Low H2/CO Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Dong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ni-M (M = Mo, Fe, Co, Mn or Cr bicomponent catalysts were prepared through the co-impregnation method for upgrading low H2/CO ratio biomass gas into urban gas through partial methanation coupling with water gas shift (WGS. The catalysts were characterized by N2 isothermal adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD, H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR, H2 temperature programmed desorption (H2-TPD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermogravimetry (TG. The catalytic performances demonstrated that Mn and Cr were superior to the other three elements due to the increased fraction of reducible NiO particles, promoted dispersion of Ni nanoparticles and enhanced H2 chemisorption ability. The comparative study on Mn and Cr showed that Mn was more suitable due to its smaller carbon deposition rate and wider adaptability to various H2/CO and H2O/CO conditions, indicating its better synergy effect with Ni. A nearly 100 h, the lifetime test and start/stop cycle test further implied that 15Ni-3Mn was stable for industrial application.

  7. The Precise Mechanisms of a High-Speed Ultrasound Gas Sensor and Detecting Human-Specific Lung Gas Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Toda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose and develop a new real-time human respiration process analysis method using a high-time-sampling gas concentration sensor based on ultrasound. A unique point about our proposed gas concentration sensor is its 1 kHz gas concentration sampling speed. This figure could not have been attained by previously proposed gas concentration measurement methods such as InfraRed, semiconductor gas sensors, or GC-MS, because the gas analysis speeds were a maximum of a few hundred milliseconds. First, we describe the proposed new ultrasound sound speed measurement method and the signal processing, and present the measurement circuit diagram. Next, we analyse the human respiration gas variation patterns of five healthy subjects using a newly developed gas-mask-type respiration sensor. This reveals that the rapid gas exchange from H2O to CO2 contains air specific to the human being. In addition, we also measured medical symptoms in subjects suffering from asthma, hyperventilation and bronchial asthma. The millisecond level high-speed analysis of the human respiration process will be useful for the next generation of healthcare, rehabilitation and sports science technology.

  8. EUV mask manufacturing readiness in the merchant mask industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael; Choi, Yohan; Ham, Young; Kamberian, Henry; Progler, Chris; Tseng, Shih-En; Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Miyazaki, Junji; Lammers, Ad; Chen, Alek

    2017-10-01

    As nodes progress into the 7nm and below regime, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) becomes critical for all industry participants interested in remaining at the leading edge. One key cost driver for EUV in the supply chain is the reflective EUV mask. As of today, the relatively few end users of EUV consist primarily of integrated device manufactures (IDMs) and foundries that have internal (captive) mask manufacturing capability. At the same time, strong and early participation in EUV by the merchant mask industry should bring value to these chip makers, aiding the wide-scale adoption of EUV in the future. For this, merchants need access to high quality, representative test vehicles to develop and validate their own processes. This business circumstance provides the motivation for merchants to form Joint Development Partnerships (JDPs) with IDMs, foundries, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and other members of the EUV supplier ecosystem that leverage complementary strengths. In this paper, we will show how, through a collaborative supplier JDP model between a merchant and OEM, a novel, test chip driven strategy is applied to guide and validate mask level process development. We demonstrate how an EUV test vehicle (TV) is generated for mask process characterization in advance of receiving chip maker-specific designs. We utilize the TV to carry out mask process "stress testing" to define process boundary conditions which can be used to create Mask Rule Check (MRC) rules as well as serve as baseline conditions for future process improvement. We utilize Advanced Mask Characterization (AMC) techniques to understand process capability on designs of varying complexity that include EUV OPC models with and without sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs). Through these collaborations, we demonstrate ways to develop EUV processes and reduce implementation risks for eventual mass production. By reducing these risks, we hope to expand access to EUV mask capability for

  9. PBX 9502 Gas Generation Progress Report FY17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Matthew David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Erickson, Michael Andrew Englert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-03

    The self-ignition (“cookoff”) behavior of PBX 9502 depends on the dynamic evolution of gas permeability and physical damage in the material. The time-resolved measurement of product gas generation yields insight regarding the crucial properties that dominate cookoff behavior. We report on small-scale laboratory testing performed in FY17, in which small unconfined samples of PBX 9502 were heated in a small custom-built sealed pressure vessel to self-ignition. We recorded time-lapse video of the evolving physical changes in the sample, quasi-static long-duration pressure rise, then high-speed video and dynamic pressure rise of the cookoff event. We report the full pressure attained during the cookoff of a 1.02g sample in a free volume of 62.5 cm3.

  10. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  11. Influence of premium vs masked cigarette brand names on the experienced taste of a cigarette after tobacco plain packaging in Australia: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaczkowski, Gemma; Durkin, Sarah; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2018-03-12

    Few studies have experimentally assessed the contribution of branding to the experience of smoking a cigarette, compared with the inherent properties of the product. This study examined the influence of cigarette brand name on the sensory experience of smoking a cigarette. Seventy-five Australian smokers aged 18-39 years smoked two 'premium' cigarettes, one with the brand variant name shown and one with the brand variant name masked (which provided 'objective' ratings). Unknown to participants, the two cigarettes were identical. At recruitment, participants rated their expected enjoyment, quality and harshness of several premium cigarette brands. Branded cigarettes were rated as having a significantly more favorable taste (M(SE) = 64.14(2.21)) than masked cigarettes (M(SE) = 58.53(2.26), p = .031). Branded cigarettes were also rated as being less stale (M(SE) = 36.04(2.62)) than masked cigarettes (M(SE) = 43.90(2.60), p = .011). Purchase intent tended to be higher among those shown the branded cigarette compared to the masked cigarette (χ 2 (1) = 3.00, p = .083). Expected enjoyment and quality of the brand variant (enjoyment: b = 0.31, 95%CI = 0.11, 0.51, p  .05). This pattern was not observed for cigarette harshness. A premium brand variant name can enhance the subjective experience of a cigarette. Further, smokers' expectations of such brand variants contribute to the smoking experience as much, if not more than, the actual qualities of the product.

  12. Mask effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing peak statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui; Wang, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    With numerical simulations, we analyze in detail how the bad data removal, i.e., the mask effect, can influence the peak statistics of the weak-lensing convergence field reconstructed from the shear measurement of background galaxies. It is found that high peak fractions are systematically enhanced because of the presence of masks; the larger the masked area is, the higher the enhancement is. In the case where the total masked area is about 13% of the survey area, the fraction of peaks with signal-to-noise ratio ν ≥ 3 is ∼11% of the total number of peaks, compared with ∼7% of the mask-free case in our considered cosmological model. This can have significant effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing convergence peak statistics, inducing a large bias in the parameter constraints if the effects are not taken into account properly. Even for a survey area of 9 deg 2 , the bias in (Ω m , σ 8 ) is already intolerably large and close to 3σ. It is noted that most of the affected peaks are close to the masked regions. Therefore, excluding peaks in those regions in the peak statistics can reduce the bias effect but at the expense of losing usable survey areas. Further investigations find that the enhancement of the number of high peaks around the masked regions can be largely attributed to the smaller number of galaxies usable in the weak-lensing convergence reconstruction, leading to higher noise than that of the areas away from the masks. We thus develop a model in which we exclude only those very large masks with radius larger than 3' but keep all the other masked regions in peak counting statistics. For the remaining part, we treat the areas close to and away from the masked regions separately with different noise levels. It is shown that this two-noise-level model can account for the mask effect on peak statistics very well, and the bias in cosmological parameters is significantly reduced if this model is applied in the parameter fitting.

  13. AutoMOPS--B2B and B2C in mask making: mask manufacturing performance and customer satisfaction improvement through better information flow management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Luc; Filies, Olaf; Rodriguez, Ben; Kuijken, Aart

    2001-04-01

    Through application of modern supply chain concepts in combination with state-of-the-art information technology, mask manufacturing performance and customer satisfaction can be improved radically. The AutoMOPS solution emphasizes on the elimination of the order verification through paperless, electronically linked information sharing/exchange between chip design, mask production and prototype production stages.

  14. Submillimeter and far-infrared line observations of M17 SW - A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzki, J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Stacey, G. J.; Jaffe, D. T.

    1988-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far-IR spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are reported. Strong forbidden C II 158 micron and CO J = 7 - 6 line emission arises in an H II region/molecular cloud interface of several pc thickness. Weaker forbidden C II emission appears to be extended over 15 pc throughout the molecular cloud. CO J = 14 - 13 and forbidden O I 145 micron spectra indicate high temperatures and densities for both molecular and atomic gas in the interface. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. The extended forbidden C II emission throughout the molecular cloud has a level around 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. The high gas temperature of molecular material in the UV-illuminated interface region suggests that CO self-shielding and heating of CO by photoelectrons are important.

  15. 2013 mask industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive survey was sent to merchant and captive mask shops to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. 2013 marks the 12th consecutive year for this process. Historical topics including general mask profile, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, maintenance, and returns were included and new topics were added. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. While each year's survey includes minor updates based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics, the bulk of the survey and reporting structure have remained relatively constant. A series of improvements is being phased in beginning in 2013 to add value to a wider audience, while at the same time retaining the historical content required for trend analyses of the traditional metrics. Additions in 2013 include topics such as top challenges, future concerns, and additional details in key aspects of mask masking, such as the number of masks per mask set per ground rule, minimum mask resolution shipped, and yield by ground rule. These expansions beyond the historical topics are aimed at identifying common issues, gaps, and needs. They will also provide a better understanding of real-life mask requirements and capabilities for comparison to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

  16. Objective measures of binaural masking level differences and comodulation masking release based on late auditory evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Yasin, Ifat; Verhey, Jesko L.

    2013-01-01

    at a fixed physical intensity is varied by introducing auditory cues of (i) interaural target signal phase disparity and (ii) coherent masker level fluctuations in different frequency regions. In agreement with previous studies, psychoacoustical experiments showed that both stimulus manipulations result......The audibility of important sounds is often hampered due to the presence of other masking sounds. The present study investigates if a correlate of the audibility of a tone masked by noise is found in late auditory evoked potentials measured from human listeners. The audibility of the target sound...... in a masking release (i: binaural masking level difference; ii: comodulation masking release) compared to a condition where those cues are not present. Late auditory evoked potentials (N1, P2) were recorded for the stimuli at a constant masker level, but different signal levels within the same set of listeners...

  17. Evaluation of an optoacoustic based gas analysing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markmann, Janine; Lange, Birgit; Theisen-Kunde, Dirk; Danicke, Veit; Mayorov, Fedor; Eckert, Sebastian; Kettmann, Pascal; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2017-07-01

    The relative occurrence of volatile organic compounds in the human respiratory gas is disease-specific (ppb range). A prototype of a gas analysing device using two tuneable laser systems, an OPO-laser (2.5 to 10 μm) and a CO2-laser (9 to 11 μm), and an optoacoustic measurement cell was developed to detect concentrations in the ppb range. The sensitivity and resolution of the system was determined by test gas measurements, measuring ethylene and sulfur hexafluoride with the CO2-laser and butane with the OPO-laser. System sensitivity found to be 13 ppb for sulfur hexafluoride, 17 ppb for ethylene and Respiratory gas samples of 8 healthy volunteers were investigated by irradiation with 17 laser lines of the CO2-laser. Several of those lines overlap with strong absorption bands of ammonia. As it is known that ammonia concentration increases by age a separation of people 35 was striven for. To evaluate the data the first seven gas samples were used to train a discriminant analysis algorithm. The eighth subject was then assigned correctly to the group >35 years with the age of 49 years.

  18. Development of movable mask system to cope with high beam current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsugu, Y.; Shibata, K.; Sanami, T.; Kageyama, T.; Takeuchi, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The KEK B factory (KEKB), a high current electron-positron collider, has a movable mask (or collimator) system to reduce the background noise in the BELLE detector coming from spent particles. The early movable masks, however, had severe problems of heating, arcing, and vacuum leaks over the stored beam current of several hundred mA. The cause is intense trapped higher order modes (HOMs) excited at the mask head, where the cross section of the beam chamber changed drastically. The mask head, made of copper-tungsten alloy or pure copper, was frequently damaged by hitting of the high energy beam at the same time. Since the problems of the mask were revealed, several kinds of improved masks have been designed employing rf technologies in dealing with the HOM and installed to the ring step by step. Much progress has come from adopting a trapped-mode free structure, where the mask was a bent chamber itself. Recently the further improved mask with a reduced HOM design or HOM dampers was developed to suppress the heating of vacuum components near the mask due to the HOM traveling from the mask. To avoid damage to the mask head, on the other hand, a titanium mask head was tried. The latest masks are working as expected now at the stored beam current of 1.5 A. Presented are the problems and experiences on the movable mask system for the KEKB, which are characteristic of and common in a high intensity accelerator

  19. Magnetic excitations in Ho2Co17 and Ho2Fe17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, K.N.

    1981-01-01

    The low energy part ( 2 Co 17 and Ho 2 Fe 17 have been measured along the three high symmetry directions at a temperature of 4.2 K, using the inelastic neutron scattering technique. The resulting magnon dispersion relations have been interpreted using linear spin wave theory with a Hamiltonian including single ion crystal field anisotropy and isotropic exchange between spatially well localized spins. The R 2 T 17 structure contains two different Ho sites, with the same point symmetry, and from the spin wave results it was concluded that the crystal field anisotropy of the two Ho sites in both Ho 2 Co 17 and Ho 2 Fe 17 were identical. The deduced crystal field parameters for Ho 2 Fe 17 were slightly larger than for Ho 2 Co 17 , and the parameters were of the same order of magnitude as for pure Ho. For Ho 2 Fe 17 the Fe-Fe exchange was found to be anisotropic, and for both compounds the magnetic ordering temperatures of 1178 K for Ho 2 Co 17 and 335 K for Ho 2 Fe 17 were determined by the strong positive 3d-3d exchange. (Auth.)

  20. Surgical face masks worn by patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: impact on infectivity of air on a hospital ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S; Mphahlele, Matsie; Stoltz, Anton; Venter, Kobus; Mathebula, Rirhandzu; Masotla, Thabiso; Lubbe, Willem; Pagano, Marcello; First, Melvin; Jensen, Paul A; van der Walt, Martie; Nardell, Edward A

    2012-05-15

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis transmission in hospitals threatens staff and patient health. Surgical face masks used by patients with tuberculosis (TB) are believed to reduce transmission but have not been rigorously tested. We sought to quantify the efficacy of surgical face masks when worn by patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Over 3 months, 17 patients with pulmonary MDR-TB occupied an MDR-TB ward in South Africa and wore face masks on alternate days. Ward air was exhausted to two identical chambers, each housing 90 pathogen-free guinea pigs that breathed ward air either when patients wore surgical face masks (intervention group) or when patients did not wear masks (control group). Efficacy was based on differences in guinea pig infections in each chamber. Sixty-nine of 90 control guinea pigs (76.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 68-85%) became infected, compared with 36 of 90 intervention guinea pigs (40%; 95% CI, 31-51%), representing a 56% (95% CI, 33-70.5%) decreased risk of TB transmission when patients used masks. Surgical face masks on patients with MDR-TB significantly reduced transmission and offer an adjunct measure for reducing TB transmission from infectious patients.

  1. Rapid iconic erasure without masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijus, Charles Albert; Reeves, Adam

    2004-01-01

    We report on the erasure of the iconic memory of an array of 12 black letters flashed on a continuously- present white field. Erasure is accomplished by replacing the 16 ms letter array (frame 1) with a blank white frame for 16 ms (frame 2). The letter array returns in frame 3, with from one to six letters missing. Report of the missing letters is accurate without the blank white frame but is impoverished with it, as if interposing the blank erases the icon. Erasure occurs without any obvious luminance masking, 'mud splashes', pattern masking (backward, forward, or metacontrast), lateral masking, or masking by object substitution. Erasure is greatly decreased if the blank is presented one frame earlier or later. We speculate that erasure is due to a rapid reset of the icon produced by an informational mis-match.

  2. Excitation of the 4.3-μm bands of CO2 by low-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, R.R.; Phelps, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the excitation of the 4.3-μm bands of CO 2 by low-energy electrons in CO 2 have been measured using a drift-tube technique. The CO 2 density [(1.5 to 7) x 10 17 molecules/cm 3 ] was chosen to maximize the radiation reaching the detector. Line-by-line transmission calculations were used to take into account the absorption of 4.3-μm radiation. A small fraction of the approximately 10 -8 W of the 4.3-μm radiation produced by the approximately 10 -7 -A electron current was incident on an InSb photovoltaic detector. The detector calibration and absorption calculations were checked by measuring the readily calculated excitation coefficients for vibrational excitation of N 2 containing a small concentration of CO 2 . For pure CO 2 the number of molecules capable of emitting 4.3-μm radiation produced per cm of electron drift and per CO 2 molecule varied from 10 -17 cm -2 at E/N = 6 x 10 -17 V cm 2 to 5.4 x 10 -16 cm -2 at E/N = 4 x 10 -16 V cm 2 . Here E is the electric field and N is total gas density. The excitation coefficients at lower E/N are much larger than estimated previously. A set of vibrational excitation cross sections is obtained for CO 2 which is consistent with the excitation coefficient data and with most of the published electron-beam data

  3. Formulation, evaluation and 3(2) full factorial design-based optimization of ondansetron hydrochloride incorporated taste masked microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, Vandana; Saharan, Vikas Anand; Dev, Kapil; Jadhav, Hemant; Purohit, Suresh

    2014-11-01

    Masking the bitter taste of Ondansetron hydrochloride (ONS) may improve palatability, acceptance and compliance of ONS products. ONS-loaded, taste-masked microspheres were prepared with a polycationic pH-sensitive polymer and 3(2) full factorial design (FFD) was applied to optimize microsphere batches. Solvent evaporation, in acetone--methanol/liquid paraffin system, was used to prepare taste-masked ONS microspheres. The effect of varying drug/polymer (D/P) ratios on microspheres characteristics were studied by 3(2) FFD. Desirability function was used to search the optimum formulation. Microspheres were evaluated by FTIR, XRD and DSC to examine interaction and effect of microencapsulation process. In vitro taste assessment approach based on bitterness threshold and drug release was used to assess bitterness scores. Prepared ONS microspheres were spherical and surface was wrinkled. ONS was molecularly dispersed in microspheres without any incompatibility with EE100. In hydrochloric acid buffer pH 1.2, ONS released completely from microsphere in just 10 min. Contrary to this, ONS release at initial 5 min from taste-masked microspheres was less than the bitterness threshold. Full factorial design and in vitro taste assessment approach, coupled together, was successfully applied to develop and optimize batches of ONS incorporated taste-masked microspheres.

  4. Screening the Medicines for Malaria Venture "Malaria Box" against the Plasmodium falciparum aminopeptidases, M1, M17 and M18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paiardini

    Full Text Available Malaria is a parasitic disease that remains a global health burden. The ability of the parasite to rapidly develop resistance to therapeutics drives an urgent need for the delivery of new drugs. The Medicines for Malaria Venture have compounds known for their antimalarial activity, but not necessarily the molecular targets. In this study, we assess the ability of the "MMV 400" compounds to inhibit the activity of three metalloaminopeptidases from Plasmodium falciparum, PfA-M1, PfA-M17 and PfM18 AAP. We have developed a multiplex assay system to allow rapid primary screening of compounds against all three metalloaminopeptidases, followed by detailed analysis of promising compounds. Our results show that there were no PfM18AAP inhibitors, whereas two moderate inhibitors of the neutral aminopeptidases PfA-M1 and PfA-M17 were identified. Further investigation through structure-activity relationship studies and molecular docking suggest that these compounds are competitive inhibitors with novel binding mechanisms, acting through either non-classical zinc coordination or independently of zinc binding altogether. Although it is unlikely that inhibition of PfA-M1 and/or PfA-M17 is the primary mechanism responsible for the antiplasmodial activity reported for these compounds, their detailed characterization, as presented in this work, pave the way for their further optimization as a novel class of dual PfA-M1/PfA-M17 inhibitors utilising non-classical zinc binding groups.

  5. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  6. Effect of metronome rates on the quality of bag-mask ventilation during metronome-guided 30:2 cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A randomized simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ji Ung; Han, Sang Kuk; Choi, Pil Cho; Shin, Dong Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    Metronome guidance is a feasible and effective feedback technique to improve the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The rate of the metronome should be set between 100 to 120 ticks/minute and the speed of ventilation may have crucial effect on the quality of ventilation. We compared three different metronome rates (100, 110, 120 ticks/minute) to investigate its effect on the quality of ventilation during metronome-guided 30:2 CPR. This is a prospective, randomized, crossover observational study using a RespiTrainer○ r . To simulate 30 chest compressions, one investigator counted from 1 to 30 in cadence with the metronome rate (1 count for every 1 tick), and the participant performed 2 consecutive ventilations immediately following the counting of 30. Thirty physicians performed 5 sets of 2 consecutive (total 10) bag-mask ventilations for each metronome rate. Participants were instructed to squeeze the bag over 2 ticks (1.0 to 1.2 seconds depending on the rate of metronome) and deflate the bag over 2 ticks. The sequence of three different metronome rates was randomized. Mean tidal volume significantly decreased as the metronome rate was increased from 110 ticks/minute to 120 ticks/minute (343±84 mL vs. 294±90 mL, P =0.004). Peak airway pressure significantly increased as metronome rate increased from 100 ticks/minute to 110 ticks/minute (18.7 vs. 21.6 mmHg, P =0.006). In metronome-guided 30:2 CPR, a higher metronome rate may adversely affect the quality of bag-mask ventilations. In cases of cardiac arrest where adequate ventilation support is necessary, 100 ticks/minute may be better than 110 or 120 ticks/minute to deliver adequate tidal volume during audio tone guided 30:2 CPR.

  7. Identification and Validation of a Potent Dual Inhibitor of the P. falciparum M1 and M17 Aminopeptidases Using Virtual Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ruggeri

    Full Text Available The Plasmodium falciparum PfA-M1 and PfA-M17 metalloaminopeptidases are validated drug targets for the discovery of antimalarial agents. In order to identify dual inhibitors of both proteins, we developed a hierarchical virtual screening approach, followed by in vitro evaluation of the highest scoring hits. Starting from the ZINC database of purchasable compounds, sequential 3D-pharmacophore and molecular docking steps were applied to filter the virtual 'hits'. At the end of virtual screening, 12 compounds were chosen and tested against the in vitro aminopeptidase activity of both PfA-M1 and PfA-M17. Two molecules showed significant inhibitory activity (low micromolar/nanomolar range against both proteins. Finally, the crystal structure of the most potent compound in complex with both PfA-M1 and PfA-M17 was solved, revealing the binding mode and validating our computational approach.

  8. Technique for rapid at-wavelength inspection of extreme ultraviolet mask blanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, S. J.; White, D. L.; Tennant, D. M.; Ocola, L. E.; Novembre, A. E.; Peabody, M. L.; Wood, O. R. II

    1999-01-01

    We have developed two new methods for at-wavelength inspection of mask blanks for extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. In one method an EUV photoresist is applied directly to a mask blank which is then flood exposed with EUV light and partially developed. In the second method, the photoresist is applied to an EUV transparent membrane that is placed in close proximity to the mask and then exposed and developed. Both reflectivity defects and phase defects alter the exposure of the resist, resulting in mounds of resist at defect sites that can then be located by visual inspection. In the direct application method, a higher contrast resist was shown to increase the height of the mounds, thereby improving the sensitivity of the technique. In the membrane method, a holographic technique was used to reconstruct an image of the mask, revealing the presence of very small defects, approximately 0.2 μm in size. The demonstrated clean transfer of phase and amplitude defects to resist features on a membrane will be important when flagging defects in an automatic inspection tool. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  9. Health care workers' influenza vaccination: motivations and mandatory mask policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorribo, V; Lazor-Blanchet, C; Hugli, O; Zanetti, G

    2015-12-01

    Vaccination of health care workers (HCW) against seasonal influenza (SI) is recommended but vaccination rate rarely reach >30%. Vaccination coverage against 2009 pandemic influenza (PI) was 52% in our hospital, whilst a new policy requiring unvaccinated HCW to wear a mask during patient care duties was enforced. To investigate the determinants of this higher vaccination acceptance for PI and to look for an association with the new mask-wearing policy. A retrospective cohort study, involving HCW of three critical departments of a 1023-bed, tertiary-care university hospital in Switzerland. Self-reported 2009-10 SI and 2009 PI vaccination statuses, reasons and demographic data were collected through a literature-based questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, uni- and multivariate analyses were then performed. There were 472 respondents with a response rate of 54%. Self-reported vaccination acceptance was 64% for PI and 53% for SI. PI vaccination acceptance was associated with being vaccinated against SI (OR 9.5; 95% CI 5.5-16.4), being a physician (OR 7.7; 95% CI 3.1-19.1) and feeling uncomfortable wearing a mask (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-2.8). Main motives for refusing vaccination were: preference for wearing a surgical mask (80% for PI, not applicable for SI) and concerns about vaccine safety (64%, 50%) and efficacy (44%, 35%). The new mask-wearing policy was a motivation for vaccination but also offered an alternative to non-compliant HCW. Concerns about vaccine safety and efficiency and self-interest of health care workers are still main determinants for influenza vaccination acceptance. Better incentives are needed to encourage vaccination amongst non-physician HCW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.

  11. FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (FUGIN). III. Possible evidence for formation of NGC 6618 cluster in M 17 by cloud-cloud collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Atsushi; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Fujita, Shinji; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Hattori, Yusuke; Kohno, Mikito; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuda, Yuya; Kuriki, Mika; Kuno, Nario; Torii, Kazufumi; Tsutsumi, Daichi; Okawa, Kazuki; Sano, Hidetoshi; Tachihara, Kengo; Ohama, Akio; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    We present 12CO (J = 1-0), 13CO (J = 1-0), and C18O (J = 1-0) images of the M 17 giant molecular clouds obtained as part of the FUGIN (FOREST Ultra-wide Galactic Plane Survey In Nobeyama) project. The observations cover the entire area of the M 17 SW and M 17 N clouds at the highest angular resolution (˜19″) to date, which corresponds to ˜0.18 pc at the distance of 2.0 kpc. We find that the region consists of four different velocity components: a very low velocity (VLV) clump, a low velocity component (LVC), a main velocity component (MVC), and a high velocity component (HVC). The LVC and the HVC have cavities. Ultraviolet photons radiated from NGC 6618 cluster penetrate into the N cloud up to ˜5 pc through the cavities and interact with molecular gas. This interaction is correlated with the distribution of young stellar objects in the N cloud. The LVC and the HVC are distributed complementarily after the HVC is displaced by 0.8 pc toward the east-southeast direction, suggesting that collision of the LVC and the HVC created the cavities in both clouds. The collision velocity and timescale are estimated to be 9.9 km s-1 and 1.1 × 105 yr, respectively. The high collision velocity can provide a mass accretion rate of up to 10^{-3} M_{⊙}yr-1, and the high column density (4 × 1023 cm-2) might result in massive cluster formation. The scenario of cloud-cloud collision likely explains well the stellar population and the formation history of the NGC 6618 cluster proposed by Hoffmeister et al. (2008, ApJ, 686, 310).

  12. Comparison of Comfort and Effectiveness of Total Face Mask and Oronasal Mask in Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure: A Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Somayeh; Fakharian, Atefeh; Nasri, Peiman; Kiani, Arda

    2017-01-01

    Background . There is a growing controversy about the use of oronasal masks (ONM) or total facemask (TFM) in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), so we designed a trial to compare the uses of these two masks in terms of effectiveness and comfort. Methods . Between February and November 2014, a total of 48 patients with respiratory failure were studied. Patients were randomized to receive NPPV via ONM or TFM. Data were recorded at 60 minutes and six and 24 hours after intervention. Patient comfort was assessed using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t -test and chi-square test. Repeated measures ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare clinical and laboratory data. Results . There were no differences in venous blood gas (VBG) values between the two groups ( P > 0.05). However, at six hours, TFM was much more effective in reducing the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) ( P = 0.04). Patient comfort and acceptance were statistically similar in both groups ( P > 0.05). Total time of NPPV was also similar in the two groups ( P > 0.05). Conclusions . TFM was superior to ONM in acute phase of respiratory failure but not once the patients were out of acute phase.

  13. Comparison of Comfort and Effectiveness of Total Face Mask and Oronasal Mask in Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Sadeghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a growing controversy about the use of oronasal masks (ONM or total facemask (TFM in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV, so we designed a trial to compare the uses of these two masks in terms of effectiveness and comfort. Methods. Between February and November 2014, a total of 48 patients with respiratory failure were studied. Patients were randomized to receive NPPV via ONM or TFM. Data were recorded at 60 minutes and six and 24 hours after intervention. Patient comfort was assessed using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t-test and chi-square test. Repeated measures ANOVA and Mann–Whitney U test were used to compare clinical and laboratory data. Results. There were no differences in venous blood gas (VBG values between the two groups (P>0.05. However, at six hours, TFM was much more effective in reducing the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 (P=0.04. Patient comfort and acceptance were statistically similar in both groups (P>0.05. Total time of NPPV was also similar in the two groups (P>0.05. Conclusions. TFM was superior to ONM in acute phase of respiratory failure but not once the patients were out of acute phase.

  14. Enhanced 2.7 μm emission from Er3+ doped oxyfluoride tellurite glasses for a diode-pump mid-infrared laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fluoride and shielding gas (O2 or Ar on the physical and spectroscopic properties of Er3+ doped TeO2-ZnO-ZnF2 glass system is investigated. The larger electronegativity of F than O accounts for the gradual decrease of refractive index, density, and J-O parameters with increasing ZnF2. An analysis on Fourier transform infrared transmission spectra reveals that the absorption coefficient of OH− around 3 μm as low as 0.247 cm−1 can be achieved when 30 mol% ZnF2 containing sample is treated with Ar gas during glass melting process. The reduction of OH− groups combined with the low multiphonon relaxation rate (207 s−1 contributes to the enhanced emissions at 1.5 and 2.7 μm, along with prolonged lifetimes of 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 levels. A high branching ratio (17.95% corresponding to the Er3+: 4I11/2 → 4I13/2 transition, the large absorption and emission cross section (0.44 × 10−20 cm2 and 0.45 × 10−20 cm2, and good gain cross section demonstrate that oxyfluoride tellurite glass could be a promising material for a diode-pump 2.7 μm fiber laser.

  15. Summary of FY 17 Assessments Sandia National Laboratories: Evaluation of FY16 SNL FCT M2 Milestone Deliverables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, Gordon John

    2017-03-01

    This report is the milestone deliverable M4FT-17SN111102091 “Summary of Assessments Performed FY17 by SNL QA POC” for work package FT-17SN11110209 titled “Quality Assurance – SNL”. This report summarizes the FY17 assessment performed on Fuel Cycle Technologies / Spent Fuel and Waste Disposition efforts.

  16. Assessment of a respiratory face mask for capturing air pollutants and pathogens including human influenza and rhinoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S Steve; Lukula, Salimatu; Chiossone, Cory; Nims, Raymond W; Suchmann, Donna B; Ijaz, M Khalid

    2018-03-01

    Prevention of infection with airborne pathogens and exposure to airborne particulates and aerosols (environmental pollutants and allergens) can be facilitated through use of disposable face masks. The effectiveness of such masks for excluding pathogens and pollutants is dependent on the intrinsic ability of the masks to resist penetration by airborne contaminants. This study evaluated the relative contributions of a mask, valve, and Micro Ventilator on aerosol filtration efficiency of a new N95 respiratory face mask. The test mask was challenged, using standardized methods, with influenza A and rhinovirus type 14, bacteriophage ΦΧ174, Staphylococcus aureus ( S . aureus ), and model pollutants. The statistical significance of results obtained for different challenge microbial agents and for different mask configurations (masks with operational or nonoperational ventilation fans and masks with sealed Smart Valves) was assessed. The results demonstrate >99.7% efficiency of each test mask configuration for exclusion of influenza A virus, rhinovirus 14, and S . aureus and >99.3% efficiency for paraffin oil and sodium chloride (surrogates for PM 2.5 ). Statistically significant differences in effectiveness of the different mask configurations were not identified. The efficiencies of the masks for excluding smaller-size (i.e., rhinovirus and bacteriophage ΦΧ174) vs. larger-size microbial agents (influenza virus, S . aureus ) were not significantly different. The masks, with or without features intended for enhancing comfort, provide protection against both small- and large-size pathogens. Importantly, the mask appears to be highly efficient for filtration of pathogens, including influenza and rhinoviruses, as well as the fine particulates (PM 2.5 ) present in aerosols that represent a greater challenge for many types of dental and surgical masks. This renders this individual-use N95 respiratory mask an improvement over the former types of masks for protection against

  17. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  18. 2012 Mask Industry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.

    2012-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

  19. Shadows Alter Facial Expressions of Noh Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Background A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers’ recognition of the emotional expressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. Conclusions/Significance Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa’s smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art “yugen (profound grace and subtlety)”, which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness. PMID:23940748

  20. Masking Period Patterns & Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-related effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H.; Menezes, Denise C.; Porter, Heather L.; Griz, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Design Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-aged (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions, and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. Results The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. Conclusions This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated non-simultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise. PMID:26230495

  1. Modulation cues influence binaural masking-level difference in masking-pattern experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschmann, Marc; Verhey, Jesko L

    2012-03-01

    Binaural masking patterns show a steep decrease in the binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) when masker and signal have no frequency component in common. Experimental threshold data are presented together with model simulations for a diotic masker centered at 250 or 500 Hz and a bandwidth of 10 or 100 Hz masking a sinusoid interaurally in phase (S(0)) or in antiphase (S(π)). Simulations with a binaural model, including a modulation filterbank for the monaural analysis, indicate that a large portion of the decrease in the BMLD in remote-masking conditions may be due to an additional modulation cue available for monaural detection. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  2. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  3. PI3K-Akt-mTORC1-S6K1/2 Axis Controls Th17 Differentiation by Regulating Gfi1 Expression and Nuclear Translocation of RORγ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kurebayashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 axis contributes to the activation, survival, and proliferation of CD4+ T cells upon stimulation through TCR and CD28. Here, we demonstrate that the suppression of this axis by deletion of p85α or PI3K/mTORC1 inhibitors as well as T cell-specific deletion of raptor, an essential component of mTORC1, impairs Th17 differentiation in vitro and in vivo in a S6K1/2-dependent fashion. Inhibition of PI3K-Akt-mTORC1-S6K1 axis impairs the downregulation of Gfi1, a negative regulator of Th17 differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that S6K2, a nuclear counterpart of S6K1, is induced by the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 axis, binds RORγ, and carries RORγ to the nucleus. These results point toward a pivotal role of PI3K-Akt-mTORC1-S6K1/2 axis in Th17 differentiation.

  4. Mitigating mask roughness via pupil filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylav, B.; Maloney, C.; Levinson, Z.; Bekaert, J.; Vaglio Pret, A.; Smith, B.

    2014-03-01

    The roughness present on the sidewalls of lithographically defined patterns imposes a very important challenge for advanced technology nodes. It can originate from the aerial image or the photoresist chemistry/processing [1]. The latter remains to be the dominant group in ArF and KrF lithography; however, the roughness originating from the mask transferred to the aerial image is gaining more attention [2-9], especially for the imaging conditions with large mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) values. The mask roughness contribution is usually in the low frequency range, which is particularly detrimental to the device performance by causing variations in electrical device parameters on the same chip [10-12]. This paper explains characteristic differences between pupil plane filtering in amplitude and in phase for the purpose of mitigating mask roughness transfer under interference-like lithography imaging conditions, where onedirectional periodic features are to be printed by partially coherent sources. A white noise edge roughness was used to perturbate the mask features for validating the mitigation.

  5. Vibrotactile masking through the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2014-09-01

    Touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations on the opposite side of the body. These interactions suggest an intimate connection between the two sides of the body. Here, we explore the effect of masking not across the body but through the body by measuring the effect of a masking stimulus on the back on the tactile sensitivity of the corresponding point on the front. Tactile sensitivity was measured on each side of the stomach, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to one side of the front and to points on the back including the point directly behind the test point on the front. Results were compared to sensitivity, while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the shoulder. A reduction in sensitivity of about .8 dB was found that required the masking stimulus to be within about 2 cm of the corresponding point on the back.

  6. Artifact Reduction of Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging Using a Short-Echo Phase Mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimori, Y.; Monma, M.; Kohno, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is utilized in magnetic resonance (MR) venography and other applications, but can include artifacts caused by the phase-masking process. Purpose: To demonstrate risks of filter processes used in making phase masks for SWI, and to propose a simple method for reducing artifacts. Material and Methods: Phase linearity related to echo time (TE) was evaluated for the original phase and high-pass-filtered phase using a CuSO 4 -doped water phantom. Effect of filter size of the Hanning window and background homogeneity were also evaluated in a phantom study. Use of a phase mask generated by data with differing magnitudes of TE was attempted in a human study. Shorter TE was used for making the phase mask, and the number of multiplications was increased. As short and long TEs were necessary simultaneously for phase mask and T2* contrast, a dual-echo technique was used. Results: Linearity of TE and phase value collapsed, and an unexpected negative phase appeared in the high-pass-filtered phase. Using a short-TE phase mask, phase-aliasing artifacts were reduced and visibility of deep veins was equivalent to that under conventional methods with an increased number of multiplications. Conclusion: Use of a short-echo phase mask in SWI is useful for reducing artifacts

  7. Gas separation performance of carbon molecular sieve membranes based on 6FDA-mPDA/DABA (3:2) polyimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wulin; Zhang, Kuang; Li, Fuyue Stephanie; Zhang, Ke; Koros, William J

    2014-04-01

    6FDA-mPDA/DABA (3:2) polyimide was synthesized and characterized for uncross-linked, thermally crosslinked, and carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes. The membranes were characterized with thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and gas permeation tests. Variations in the d spacing, the formation of pore structures, and changes in the pore sizes of the CMS membranes were discussed in relation to pyrolysis protocols. The uncross-linked polymer membranes showed high CO2 /CH4 selectivity, whereas thermally crosslinked membranes exhibited significantly improved CO2 permeability and excellent CO2 plasticization resistance. The CMS membranes showed even higher CO2 permeability and CO2 /CH4 selectivity. An increase in the pyrolysis temperature resulted in CMS membranes with lower gas permeability but higher selectivity. The 550 °C pyrolyzed CMS membranes showed CO2 permeability as high as 14 750 Barrer with CO2 /CH4 selectivity of approximately 52. Even 800 °C pyrolyzed CMS membranes still showed high CO2 permeability of 2610 Barrer with high CO2 /CH4 selectivity of approximately 118. Both polymer membranes and the CMS membranes are very attractive in aggressive natural gas purification applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Robust source and mask optimization compensating for mask topography effects in computational lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lam, Edmund Y

    2014-04-21

    Mask topography effects need to be taken into consideration for a more accurate solution of source mask optimization (SMO) in advanced optical lithography. However, rigorous 3D mask models generally involve intensive computation and conventional SMO fails to manipulate the mask-induced undesired phase errors that degrade the usable depth of focus (uDOF) and process yield. In this work, an optimization approach incorporating pupil wavefront aberrations into SMO procedure is developed as an alternative to maximize the uDOF. We first design the pupil wavefront function by adding primary and secondary spherical aberrations through the coefficients of the Zernike polynomials, and then apply the conjugate gradient method to achieve an optimal source-mask pair under the condition of aberrated pupil. We also use a statistical model to determine the Zernike coefficients for the phase control and adjustment. Rigorous simulations of thick masks show that this approach provides compensation for mask topography effects by improving the pattern fidelity and increasing uDOF.

  9. Ga+ focused-ion-beam implantation-induced masking for H2 etching of ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hsin-Chiao; Huang, Jun-Han; Chu, Wen-Huei; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2010-01-01

    Gallium implantation of ZnO by a focused-ion beam is used to create a mask for ZnO dry etching with hydrogen. Effects of Ga + fluence on the etch stop properties and the associated mechanisms are investigated. The fluence of 2.8 x 10 16 cm -2 is determined to be optimum to render the best mask quality. While lower fluences would cause less etching selectivity, higher fluences would cause erosion of the surface and particles to be precipitated on the surface after H 2 treatment at high temperature. In contrast to the commonly adopted gallium oxide formation on Si, transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals that, for the fluences ≤ 2.8 x 10 16 cm -2 , Ga + ions are incorporated as dopants into ZnO without any second phases or precipitates, indicating the Ga-doped ZnO layer behaves as a mask for H 2 etching due to the higher electronegativity of Ga + towards oxygen. However, for the fluences ≥ 4.6 x 10 16 cm -2 , the surface particles are responsible for the etch stop and are identified as ZnGa 2 O 4 . We finally demonstrate a complicated pattern of 'NCKU' on ZnO by using this technique. The study not only helps clarify the related mechanisms, but also suggests a feasible extension of the etch stop process that can be applied to more functional material.

  10. [Patients' reaction to pharmacists wearing a mask during their consultations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Eri; Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2013-01-01

      This study sought to determine the effect of pharmacists wearing a mask on the consultation intention of patients who do not have a trusting relationship with the pharmacists. We conducted a questionnaire survey of customers at a Tokyo drugstore in August 2012. Subjects answered a questionnaire after watching two medical teaching videos, one in which the pharmacist was wearing a mask and the other in which the pharmacist was not wearing a mask. Data analysis was performed using a paired t-test and multiple logistic regression. The paired t-test revealed a significant difference in 'Maintenance Problem' between the two pharmacist situations. After excluding factors not associated with wearing a mask, multiple logistic regression analysis identified three independent variables with a significant effect on participants not wanting to consult with a pharmacist wearing a mask. Positive factors were 'active-inactive' and 'frequency mask use', a negative factor was 'age'. Our study has shown that pharmacists wearing a mask may be a factor that prevents patients from consulting with pharmacist. Those patients whose intention to consult might be affected by the pharmacists wearing a mask tended to be younger, to have no habit of wearing masks preventively themselves, and to form a negative opinion of such pharmacists. Therefore, it was estimated that pharmacists who wear masks need to provide medical education by asking questions more positively than when they do not wear a mask in order to prevent the patient worrying about oneself.

  11. AN IMAGE-PLANE ALGORITHM FOR JWST'S NON-REDUNDANT APERTURE MASK DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. [Johns Hopkins University Department of Physics and Astronomy 3400 North Charles, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lacour, Sylvestre [LESIA, CNRS/UMR-8109, Observatoire de Paris, UPMC, Université Paris Diderot 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France)

    2015-01-10

    The high angular resolution technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) or aperture masking interferometry (AMI) has yielded images of faint protoplanetary companions of nearby stars from the ground. AMI on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) has a lower thermal background than ground-based facilities and does not suffer from atmospheric instability. NIRISS AMI images are likely to have 90%-95% Strehl ratio between 2.77 and 4.8 μm. In this paper we quantify factors that limit the raw point source contrast of JWST NRM. We develop an analytic model of the NRM point spread function which includes different optical path delays (pistons) between mask holes and fit the model parameters with image plane data. It enables a straightforward way to exclude bad pixels, is suited to limited fields of view, and can incorporate effects such as intra-pixel sensitivity variations. We simulate various sources of noise to estimate their effect on the standard deviation of closure phase, σ{sub CP} (a proxy for binary point source contrast). If σ{sub CP} < 10{sup –4} radians—a contrast ratio of 10 mag—young accreting gas giant planets (e.g., in the nearby Taurus star-forming region) could be imaged with JWST NIRISS. We show the feasibility of using NIRISS' NRM with the sub-Nyquist sampled F277W, which would enable some exoplanet chemistry characterization. In the presence of small piston errors, the dominant sources of closure phase error (depending on pixel sampling, and filter bandwidth) are flat field errors and unmodeled variations in intra-pixel sensitivity. The in-flight stability of NIRISS will determine how well these errors can be calibrated by observing a point source. Our results help develop efficient observing strategies for space-based NRM.

  12. Set Size and Mask Duration Do Not Interact in Object-Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Ioannis; Gellatly, Angus; Pilling, Michael; Carter, Wakefield

    2013-01-01

    Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a mask, such as four dots that surround a brief target item, onsets simultaneously with the target and offsets a short time after the target, rather than simultaneously with it. OSM is a reduction in accuracy of reporting the target with the temporally trailing mask, compared with the simultaneously…

  13. Masking Period Patterns and Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-Related Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Menezes, Denise C; Porter, Heather L; Griz, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-age (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated nonsimultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data, suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise.

  14. Simulation based mask defect repair verification and disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Eric; Zhao, Shirley; Zhang, Skin; Qian, Sandy; Cheng, Guojie; Vikram, Abhishek; Li, Ling; Chen, Ye; Hsiang, Chingyun; Zhang, Gary; Su, Bo

    2009-10-01

    As the industry moves towards sub-65nm technology nodes, the mask inspection, with increased sensitivity and shrinking critical defect size, catches more and more nuisance and false defects. Increased defect counts pose great challenges in the post inspection defect classification and disposition: which defect is real defect, and among the real defects, which defect should be repaired and how to verify the post-repair defects. In this paper, we address the challenges in mask defect verification and disposition, in particular, in post repair defect verification by an efficient methodology, using SEM mask defect images, and optical inspection mask defects images (only for verification of phase and transmission related defects). We will demonstrate the flow using programmed mask defects in sub-65nm technology node design. In total 20 types of defects were designed including defects found in typical real circuit environments with 30 different sizes designed for each type. The SEM image was taken for each programmed defect after the test mask was made. Selected defects were repaired and SEM images from the test mask were taken again. Wafers were printed with the test mask before and after repair as defect printability references. A software tool SMDD-Simulation based Mask Defect Disposition-has been used in this study. The software is used to extract edges from the mask SEM images and convert them into polygons to save in GDSII format. Then, the converted polygons from the SEM images were filled with the correct tone to form mask patterns and were merged back into the original GDSII design file. This merge is for the purpose of contour simulation-since normally the SEM images cover only small area (~1 μm) and accurate simulation requires including larger area of optical proximity effect. With lithography process model, the resist contour of area of interest (AOI-the area surrounding a mask defect) can be simulated. If such complicated model is not available, a simple

  15. Human or monitor feedback to improve mask ventilation during simulated neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Corinna; Schmölzer, Georg M; O'Reilly, Megan; Schwaberger, Bernhard; Urlesberger, Berndt; Pichler, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    To investigate if external chest compressions (ECC) increase mask leak, and if human or technical feedback improves mask ventilation during simulated neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In this observational study, 32 participants delivered positive pressure ventilation (PPV) to a modified, leak-free manikin via facemask. Mask leak, tidal volume (VT), positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and respiratory rate (RR) were measured with a respiratory function monitor (RFM). Participants had to perform four studies. In the first study, participants performed PPV alone as baseline. Thereafter, three studies were performed in random order. In the PPV+ECC+manometer group, participants had to observe the manometer while the RFM was covered; in the PPV+ECC+RFM group, the RFM was used while the manometer was covered; and in the PPV+ECC+verbal feedback group, the RFM and manometer were covered while a team leader viewed the RFM and provided verbal feedback to the participants. Median (IQR) mask leak of all studies was 15% (5-47%). Comparing the studies, PPV+ECC+RFM and PPV+ECC+verbal feedback had significantly less mask leak than PPV+ECC+manometer. Mean (SD) VT of all studies was 9.5±3.5 mL. Comparing all studies, PPV+ECC+RFM had a significantly higher VT than PPV and PPV+ECC+manometer. As well, PPV+ECC+verbal feedback had a significantly higher VT than PPV. PEEP and RR were within our target, mean (SD) PEEP was 6±2 cmH2O and RR was 36±13/min. During simulated neonatal CPR, ECCs did not influence mask leak, and a RFM and verbal feedback were helpful methods to reduce mask leak and increase VT significantly.

  16. Unmasking Zorro: functional importance of the facial mask in the Masked Shrike (Lanius nubicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Reuven Yosef; Piotr Zduniak; Piotr Tryjanowski

    2012-01-01

    The facial mask is a prominent feature in the animal kingdom. We hypothesized that the facial mask of shrikes allows them to hunt into the sun, which accords them detection and surprise-attack capabilities. We conducted a field experiment to determine whether the mask facilitated foraging while facing into the sun. Male shrikes with white-painted masks hunted facing away from the sun more than birds with black-painted masks, which are the natural color, and more than individuals in the contro...

  17. Characterization of 17-4PH stainless steel powders produced by supersonic gas atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Ming; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Xue-Xin; Zhang, Shao-Ming; Zhao, Wen-Dong; Yuan, Guo-Liang

    2012-01-01

    17-4PH stainless steel powders were prepared using a supersonic nozzle in a close-coupled gas atomization system. The characteristics of powder particles were carried out by means of a laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The results show that the mass median particle diameter is about 19.15 μm. Three main types of surface microstructures are observed in the powders: well-developed dendrite, cellular, and cellular dendrite structure. The XRD measurements show that, as the particle size decreases, the amount of fcc phase gradually decreases and that of bcc phase increases. The cooling rate is inversely related to the particle size, i.e., it decreases with an increase in particle size.

  18. Noise masking of S-cone increments and decrements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanhong; Richters, David P; Eskew, Rhea T

    2014-11-12

    S-cone increment and decrement detection thresholds were measured in the presence of bipolar, dynamic noise masks. Noise chromaticities were the L-, M-, and S-cone directions, as well as L-M, L+M, and achromatic (L+M+S) directions. Noise contrast power was varied to measure threshold Energy versus Noise (EvN) functions. S+ and S- thresholds were similarly, and weakly, raised by achromatic noise. However, S+ thresholds were much more elevated by S, L+M, L-M, L- and M-cone noises than were S- thresholds, even though the noises consisted of two symmetric chromatic polarities of equal contrast power. A linear cone combination model accounts for the overall pattern of masking of a single test polarity well. L and M cones have opposite signs in their effects upon raising S+ and S- thresholds. The results strongly indicate that the psychophysical mechanisms responsible for S+ and S- detection, presumably based on S-ON and S-OFF pathways, are distinct, unipolar mechanisms, and that they have different spatiotemporal sampling characteristics, or contrast gains, or both. © 2014 ARVO.

  19. Evaluation of taste-masking effects of pharmaceutical sweeteners with an electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Du Hyung; Kim, Nam Ah; Nam, Tack Soo; Lee, Sangkil; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2014-03-01

    Electronic tongue systems have been developed for taste measurement of bitter drug substances in accurate taste comparison to development palatable oral formulations. This study was to evaluate the taste masking effect of conventional pharmaceutical sweeteners such as neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucrose, sucralose and aspartame. The model drugs were acetaminophen, ibuprofen, tramadol hydrochloride, and sildenafil citrate (all at 20 mM). The degree of bitterness was measured by a multichannel taste sensor system (an electronic tongue). The data was collected by seven sensors and analyzed by a statistical method of principal components analysis (PCA). The effect of taste masking excipient was dependent on the type of model drug. Changing the concentration of taste masking excipients affected the sensitivity of taste masking effect according to the type of drug. As the excipient concentration increased, the effect of taste masking increased. Moreover, most of the sensors showed a concentration-dependent pattern of the taste-masking agents as higher concentration provided higher selectivity. This might indicate that the sensors can detect small concentration changes of a chemical in solution. These results suggest that the taste masking could be evaluated based on the data of the electronic tongue system and that the formulation development process could be performed in a more efficient way.

  20. Review: study of single-pellet injection experiments and development of pellet injector in JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Miura, Yukitoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Sengoku, Seio

    1987-10-01

    The single pellet injector developed for JFT-2M and the improvement of plasma characteristics in the auxiliary-heated discharges by single-pellet injection are reviewed for the period 1982 - 1986. The pellet injector is a pneumatic type and the designed pellet size is 1.65 mmD x 1.65 mmL and 1 mmD x 1 mmL. The hydrogen, deuterium and mixed (H 2 + D 2 ) pellets can be produced with good reproducibility. Maximum pellet velocity is about 970 m/s (pellet is deuterium and propellant gas is hydrogen). In the pellet injection experiments into auxiliary-heated (NB, ICRF) divertor or limiter discharges, the plasma confinement time is improved by a factor of 1.4 - 1.7 compared with the confinement time in the Ohmic discharges. The achieved confinement time is longer than that on the high confinement mode (H-mode) in gas fueled discharges, although the phenomena are transient. (author)

  1. A Particle-In-Cell approach to particle flux shaping with a surface mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kawamura

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Particle-In-Cell simulation code PICS has been developed to study plasma in front of a surface with two types of masks, step-type and roof-type. Parameter scans with regard to magnetic field angle, electron density, and mask height were carried out to understand their influence on ion particle flux distribution on a surface. A roof-type mask with a small mask height yields short decay length in the flux distribution which is consistent with that estimated experimentally. A roof-type mask with a large height yields very long decay length and the flux value does not depend on a mask height or an electron density, but rather on a mask length and a biasing voltage of the surface. Mask height also changes the flux distribution apart from the mask because of the shading effect of the mask. Electron density changes the distribution near the mask edge according to the Debye length. Dependence of distribution on parameters are complicated especially for a roof-type mask, and simulation study with various parameters are useful to understand the physical reasons of dependence and also is useful as a tool for experiment studies.

  2. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential effect of visual masking in perceptual categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélie, Sébastien; Cousineau, Denis

    2015-06-01

    This article explores the visual information used to categorize stimuli drawn from a common stimulus space into verbal and nonverbal categories using 2 experiments. Experiment 1 explores the effect of target duration on verbal and nonverbal categorization using backward masking to interrupt visual processing. With categories equated for difficulty for long and short target durations, intermediate target duration shows an advantage for verbal categorization over nonverbal categorization. Experiment 2 tests whether the results of Experiment 1 can be explained by shorter target duration resulting in a smaller signal-to-noise ratio of the categorization stimulus. To test for this possibility, Experiment 2 used integration masking with the same stimuli, categories, and masks as Experiment 1 with a varying level of mask opacity. As predicted, low mask opacity yielded similar results to long target duration while high mask opacity yielded similar results to short target duration. Importantly, intermediate mask opacity produced an advantage for verbal categorization over nonverbal categorization, similar to intermediate target duration. These results suggest that verbal and nonverbal categorization are affected differently by manipulations affecting the signal-to-noise ratio of the stimulus, consistent with multiple-system theories of categorizations. The results further suggest that verbal categorization may be more digital (and more robust to low signal-to-noise ratio) while the information used in nonverbal categorization may be more analog (and less robust to lower signal-to-noise ratio). This article concludes with a discussion of how these new results affect the use of masking in perceptual categorization and multiple-system theories of perceptual category learning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. K2-155: A Bright Metal-poor M Dwarf with Three Transiting Super-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Dai, Fei; Livingston, John H.; Fujii, Yuka; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Gandolfi, Davide; Redfield, Seth; Winn, Joshua N.; Guenther, Eike W.; Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Albrecht, Simon; Barragan, Oscar; Cabrera, Juan; Cauley, P. Wilson; Csizmadia, Szilard; Deeg, Hans; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Fridlund, Malcolm; Fukui, Akihiko; Grziwa, Sascha; Hatzes, Artie P.; Korth, Judith; Narita, Norio; Nespral, David; Niraula, Prajwal; Nowak, Grzegorz; Pätzold, Martin; Palle, Enric; Persson, Carina M.; Rauer, Heike; Ribas, Ignasi; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Van Eylen, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    We report on the discovery of three transiting super-Earths around K2-155 (EPIC 210897587), a relatively bright early M dwarf (V = 12.81 mag) observed during Campaign 13 of the NASA K2 mission. To characterize the system and validate the planet candidates, we conducted speckle imaging and high-dispersion optical spectroscopy, including radial velocity measurements. Based on the K2 light curve and the spectroscopic characterization of the host star, the planet sizes and orbital periods are {1.55}-0.17+0.20 {R}\\oplus and 6.34365 ± 0.00028 days for the inner planet; {1.95}-0.22+0.27 {R}\\oplus and 13.85402 ± 0.00088 days for the middle planet; and {1.64}-0.17+0.18 {R}\\oplus and 40.6835 ± 0.0031 days for the outer planet. The outer planet (K2-155d) is near the habitable zone, with an insolation 1.67 ± 0.38 times that of the Earth. The planet’s radius falls within the range between that of smaller rocky planets and larger gas-rich planets. To assess the habitability of this planet, we present a series of three-dimensional global climate simulations, assuming that K2-155d is tidally locked and has an Earth-like composition and atmosphere. We find that the planet can maintain a moderate surface temperature if the insolation proves to be smaller than ∼1.5 times that of the Earth. Doppler mass measurements, transit spectroscopy, and other follow-up observations should be rewarding, as K2-155 is one of the optically brightest M dwarfs known to harbor transiting planets.

  5. Phase mask coronagraphy at JPL and Palomar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serabyn E.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For the imaging of faint companions, phase mask coronagraphy has the dual advantages of a small inner working angle and high throughput. This paper summarizes our recent work in developing phase masks and in demonstrating their capabilities at JPL. Four-quadrant phase masks have been manufactured at JPL by means of both evaporation and etching, and we have been developing liquid crystal vortex phase masks in partnership with a commercial vendor. Both types of mask have been used with our extreme adaptive optics well-corrected subaperture at Palomar to detect known brown dwarf companions as close as ~ 2.5 λ/D to stars. Moreover, our recent vortex masks perform very well in laboratory tests, with a demonstrated infrared contrast of about 10−6 at 3 λ/D, and contrasts of a few 10−7 with an initial optical wavelength device. The demonstrated performance already meets the needs of ground-based extreme adaptive optics coronagraphy, and further planned improvements are aimed at reaching the 10−10 contrast needed for terrestrial exoplanet detection with a space-based coronagraph.

  6. "Slit Mask Design for the Giant Magellan Telescope Multi-object Astronomical and Cosmological Spectrograph"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Darius; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Schmidt, Luke M.; Prochaska, Travis; DePoy, Darren L.

    2018-01-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope Multi-object Astronomical and Cosmological Spectrograph (GMACS) is currently in development for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). GMACS will employ slit masks with a usable diameter of approximately 0.450 m for the purpose of multi-slit spectroscopy. Of significant importance are the design constraints and parameters of the multi-object slit masks themselves as well as the means for mapping astronomical targets to physical mask locations. Analytical methods are utilized to quantify deformation effects on a potential slit mask due to thermal expansion and vignetting of target light cones. Finite element analysis (FEA) is utilized to simulate mask flexure in changing gravity vectors. The alpha version of the mask creation program for GMACS, GMACS Mask Simulator (GMS), a derivative of the OSMOS Mask Simulator (OMS), is introduced.

  7. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong; Wu, Shu-Qun; Yu, Yao; Liu, Lin; Lu, Xin-Pei; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-01

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10 μm. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics.

  8. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao; Liu, Lin; Wu, Shu-Qun; Lu, Xin-Pei; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10 μm. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics

  9. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao, E-mail: ensiyu@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wu, Shu-Qun; Lu, Xin-Pei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wu, Yue [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10 μm. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics.

  10. Discrete functions of mTOR signaling in iNKT cell development and NKT17 fate decision

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Jun; Yang, Kai; Chi, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been recently classified into NKT1, NKT2 and NKT17 lineages with distinct transcription factor and cytokine profiles, but mechanisms underlying such fate decisions remain elusive. Here, we report crucial roles of mTOR signaling especially mTORC2 in iNKT cell development and fate determination of NKT17 cells. Loss of Rictor, an obligatory component of mTORC2, decreased thymic and peripheral iNKT cells, associated with defective survival. Strikingly,...

  11. Artifact Reduction of Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging Using a Short-Echo Phase Mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimori, Y.; Monma, M. (Dept. of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural Univ. of Health Sciences, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki (Japan)); Kohno, Y. (Dept. of Neurology, Ibaraki Prefectural Univ. of Health Sciences, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki (Japan))

    2009-11-15

    Background: Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is utilized in magnetic resonance (MR) venography and other applications, but can include artifacts caused by the phase-masking process. Purpose: To demonstrate risks of filter processes used in making phase masks for SWI, and to propose a simple method for reducing artifacts. Material and Methods: Phase linearity related to echo time (TE) was evaluated for the original phase and high-pass-filtered phase using a CuSO{sub 4}-doped water phantom. Effect of filter size of the Hanning window and background homogeneity were also evaluated in a phantom study. Use of a phase mask generated by data with differing magnitudes of TE was attempted in a human study. Shorter TE was used for making the phase mask, and the number of multiplications was increased. As short and long TEs were necessary simultaneously for phase mask and T2 contrast, a dual-echo technique was used. Results: Linearity of TE and phase value collapsed, and an unexpected negative phase appeared in the high-pass-filtered phase. Using a short-TE phase mask, phase-aliasing artifacts were reduced and visibility of deep veins was equivalent to that under conventional methods with an increased number of multiplications. Conclusion: Use of a short-echo phase mask in SWI is useful for reducing artifacts

  12. Clinical efficacy and safety of a light mask for prevention of dark adaptation in treating and preventing progression of early diabetic macular oedema at 24 months (CLEOPATRA): a multicentre, phase 3, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, Sobha; Vasconcelos, Joana C; Prevost, A Toby; Holmes, Helen; Hykin, Philip; George, Sheena; Murphy, Caroline; Kelly, Joanna; Arden, Geoffrey B

    2018-05-01

    We aimed to assess 24-month outcomes of wearing an organic light-emitting sleep mask as an intervention to treat and prevent progression of non-central diabetic macular oedema. CLEOPATRA was a phase 3, single-blind, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial undertaken at 15 ophthalmic centres in the UK. Adults with non-centre-involving diabetic macular oedema were randomly assigned (1:1) to wearing either a light mask during sleep (Noctura 400 Sleep Mask, PolyPhotonix Medical, Sedgefield, UK) or a sham (non-light) mask, for 24 months. Randomisation was by minimisation generated by a central web-based computer system. Outcome assessors were masked technicians and optometrists. The primary outcome was the change in maximum retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT) at 24 months, analysed using a linear mixed-effects model incorporating 4-monthly measurements and baseline adjustment. Analysis was done using the intention-to-treat principle in all randomised patients with OCT data. Safety was assessed in all patients. This trial is registered with Controlled-Trials.com, number ISRCTN85596558. Between April 10, 2014, and June 15, 2015, 308 patients were randomly assigned to wearing the light mask (n=155) or a sham mask (n=153). 277 patients (144 assigned the light mask and 133 the sham mask) contributed to the mixed-effects model over time, including 246 patients with OCT data at 24 months. The change in maximum retinal thickness at 24 months did not differ between treatment groups (mean change -9·2 μm [SE 2·5] for the light mask vs -12·9 μm [SE 2·9] for the sham mask; adjusted mean difference -0·65 μm, 95% CI -6·90 to 5·59; p=0·84). Median compliance with wearing the light mask at 24 months was 19·5% (IQR 1·9-51·6). No serious adverse events were related to either mask. The most frequent adverse events related to the assigned treatment were discomfort on the eyes (14 with the light mask vs seven with the sham mask), painful, sticky, or

  13. Mask strategy at International SEMATECH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2002-08-01

    International SEMATECH (ISMT) is a consortium consisting of 13 leading semiconductor manufacturers from around the globe. Its objective is to develop the infrastructure necessary for its member companies to realize the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) through efficiencies of shared development resources and knowledge. The largest area of effort is lithography, recognized as a crucial enabler for microelectronics technology progress. Within the Lithography Division, most of the efforts center on mask-related issues. The development strategy at International SEMATCH will be presented and the interlock of lithography projects clarified. Because of the limited size of the mask production equipment market, the business case is weak for aggressive investment commensurate with the pace of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. With masks becoming the overwhelming component of lithography cost, new ways of reducing or eliminating mask costs are being explored. Will mask technology survive without a strong business case? Will the mask industry limit the growth of the semiconductor industry? Are advanced masks worth their escalating cost? An analysis of mask cost from the perspective of mask value imparted to the user is presented with examples and generic formulas for the reader to apply independently. A key part to the success for both International SEMATECH and the industry globally will be partnerships on both the local level between mask-maker and mask-user, and the macro level where global collaborations will be necessary to resolve technology development cost challenges.

  14. Thermoanalytical investigation of the hydrogen absorption behaviour of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-x}Ga{sub x} at high hydrogen pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handstein, A.; Kubis, M.; Gebel, B.; Mueller, K.-H.; Schultz, L. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallische Werkstoffe; Gutfleisch, O.; Harris, I.R. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallische Werkstoffe]|[Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Metallurgy and Materials

    1998-07-01

    The complete disproportionation of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-x}Ga{sub x} during annealing in hydrogen is hindered due to an increased stability of the compounds with a higher Ga content (x {>=} 1). Therefore the HD process as the first step of HDDR (hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination) has to be carried out at a high hydrogen pressure for x {>=} 1. The hydrogen absorption behaviour of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-x}Ga{sub x} (x = 0, 0.5, 1 and 2) was investigated by means of hydrogen differential thermal analysis (HDTA) and high pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HPDSC) at hydrogen pressures up to 70 bar. A dependency of hydrogenation and disproportionation temperatures on hydrogen pressure and Ga content was found. The comparison with other substituents (M = Al and Si) instead of M = Ga showed an increased stability of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-x}M{sub x} compounds against disproportionation by hydrogen in the sequence Al, Ga and Si. The Curie temperatures of the interstitially hydrogenated Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}-type materials increase with the hydrogen pressure. In order to produce coercive and thermally stable Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Ga{sub 2}C{sub y} powder by means of the HDDR process, we recombined material disproportionated at different hydrogen pressures. Preliminary results of magnetic properties of this HDDR treated and gas-carburized Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Ga{sub 2}C{sub y} are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Radiation protect during the ventilation scintigraphy of Tc99m DTPA radioaerosol in pediatric application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Dai, Zen-Kong; Huang, Ying-Fong; Jong, Shiang-Bing

    2000-01-01

    Lung ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy is of great value for the management of patients with both primary lung disease and heart disease, by proving patho- physiological information of importance for the diagnosis, follow-up and functional evaluation of the patients. Krypton 81m radioactive gas is preferable for pediatric application due to its short half-life. However, the rubidium-krypton 81m generator is not popular in hospital of our country. Tc99m DTPA radioaerosol ventilation scintigraphy has its unique convenient for clinical application. But, the most disadvantage of clinical application of Tc99m DTPA radioaerosol is contamination of environment when the poor-cooperative patient can't breathe by mouth. For this reason, we design the certain procedure to reduce the radioaerosol contamination. During May to Aug., 1999, we collect 36 pediatric patients (male to female ratio 2:1, age from 6 months to 20 years old) with clinical history of lung or heart disease, including congenital heart disease, asthma and so on. Before the cases receive 10 to 15 mCi Tc99m DTPA radioaerosol ventilation scan, all of them were trained with breath training. And during the ventilation scintigraphy, the special mouth mask is designed to prevent the radioaerosol leakage into atmosphere. Then Geiger-Muller survey meter was arranged to detect the environmental contamination of radioaerosol in the mask, one and two metes away from the mask every 10 minutes during ventilation scintigraphy procedure and 1 hour after finishing image. Two nuclear medicine physicians evaluated imaging quality of ventilation scintigraphy. Results: Among thirty-six pediatric patients with prior breath training, thirty-two cases are successful to proceed the Tc99m DTPA ventilation scintigraphy. The other four cases that were under three-year-old fail to receive ventilation scintigraphy. There is limited detectable radioactivity in the mouth mask at early 10 minute by Geiger-Muller counter. No significant

  16. Unraveling a molecular determinant for clathrin-independent internalization of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min; Zhang, Wenhua; Tian, Yangli; Xu, Chanjuan; Xu, Tao; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Rongying

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis and postendocytic sorting of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is important for the regulation of both their cell surface density and signaling profile. Unlike the mechanisms of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE), the mechanisms underlying the control of GPCR signaling by clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) remain largely unknown. Among the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), the M4 mAChR undergoes CDE and recycling, whereas the M2 mAChR is internalized through CIE and targeted to lysosomes. Here we investigated the endocytosis and postendocytic trafficking of M2 mAChR based on a comparative analysis of the third cytoplasmic domain in M2 and M4 mAChRs. For the first time, we identified that the sequence 374KKKPPPS380 servers as a sorting signal for the clathrin-independent internalization of M2 mAChR. Switching 374KKKPPPS380 to the i3 loop of the M4 mAChR shifted the receptor into lysosomes through the CIE pathway; and therefore away from CDE and recycling. We also found another previously unidentified sequence that guides CDE of the M2 mAChR, 361VARKIVKMTKQPA373, which is normally masked in the presence of the downstream sequence 374KKKPPPS380. Taken together, our data indicate that endocytosis and postendocytic sorting of GPCRs that undergo CIE could be sequence-dependent. PMID:26094760

  17. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m 3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m 3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  18. Masks in Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, David

    2016-01-01

    In Drama Education mask work is undertaken and presented as both a methodology and knowledge base. There are numerous workshops and journal articles available for teachers that offer knowledge or implementation of mask work. However, empirical examination of the context or potential implementation of masks as a pedagogical tool remains…

  19. Far-infrared observations of M17: The interaction of an H II region with a molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, I.; Becklin, E.E.; Sellgren, K.; Werner, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    The central 15' of the M17 H II region--molecular cloud complex has been mapped with 1' resolution simultaneously at 30, 50, and 100 μm. The data suggest that the bulk of the luminosity radiated in the far-infrared is supplied by the exciting stars of the H II region; the far-infrared radiation is thermal emission from dust grains located chiefly outside the ionized gas. Large-scale systematic gradients in both the temperature and the column density of the dust are seen across the source. The appearance of the source in the far-infrared reflects the markedly nonuniform distribution of matter around the exciting stars; the H II region is bounded by the molecular cloud to the southwest. The core of the molecular cloud is heated primarily by infrared radiation from dust within and adjacent to the H II region; no evidence is seen for substantial luminosity sources embedded within the molecular cloud

  20. Gingival mask: A case report on enhancing smiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashritha Shenava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal attachment loss in the maxillary anterior region can often lead to esthetic and functional clinical problems including disproportional and elongated clinical crowns and visible interdental embrasures. Gingival replacement prosthesis has historically been used to replace lost tissue. A gingival mask is an easily constructed and practical device to optimize the esthetic and functional outcome in these special situations while permitting cleansibility of the prosthesis and supporting tissues. This is a case report of a young female patient treated using silicon gingival veneer with a 2-year follow-up. The silicon gingival mask has enabled the patient to regain her lost smile and face people with newly found confidence also enhancing the esthetic appearance. Virtually, no problem was encountered during the 2 years of usage of the veneer and the patient continues to use it comfortably.

  1. A conceptual approach to the masking effect of measures of disproportionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maignen, Francois; Hauben, Manfred; Hung, Eric; Holle, Lionel Van; Dogne, Jean-Michel

    2014-02-01

    Masking is a statistical issue by which true signals of disproportionate reporting are hidden by the presence of other products in the database. Masking is currently not perfectly understood. There is no algorithm to identify the potential masking drugs to remove them for subsequent analyses of disproportionality. The primary objective of our study is to develop a mathematical framework for assessing the extent and impact of the masking effect of measures of disproportionality. We have developed a masking ratio that quantifies the masking effect of a given product. We have conducted a simulation study to validate our algorithm. The masking ratio is a measure of the strength of the masking effect whether the analysis is performed at the report or event level, and the manner in which reports are allocated to cells in the contingency table significantly impact the masking mechanisms. The reports containing both the product of interest and the masking product need to be handled appropriately. The proposed algorithm can use simplified masking provided that underlying assumptions (in particular the size of the database) are verified. For any event, the strongest masking effect is associated with the drug with the highest number of records (reports excluding the product of interest). Our study provides significant insights with practical implications for real-world pharmacovigilance that are supported by both real and simulated data. The public health impact of masking is still unknown. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. α-Synuclein overexpression increases dopamine toxicity in BE(2-M17 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller David W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD. A plausible source of oxidative stress in nigral dopaminergic neurons is the redox reactions that specifically involve dopamine and produce various toxic molecules, i.e., free radicals and quinone species. α-Synuclein, a protein found in Lewy bodies characteristic of PD, is also thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of PD and point mutations and multiplications in the gene coding for α-synuclein have been found in familial forms of PD. Results We used dopaminergic human neuroblastoma BE(2-M17 cell lines stably transfected with WT or A30P mutant α-synuclein to characterize the effect of α-synuclein on dopamine toxicity. Cellular toxicity was analyzed by lactate dehydrogenase assay and by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. Increased expression of either wild-type or mutant α-synuclein enhances the cellular toxicity induced by the accumulation of intracellular dopamine or DOPA. Conclusions Our results suggest that an interplay between dopamine and α-synuclein can cause cell death in a neuron-like background. The data presented here are compatible with several models of cytotoxicity, including the formation of α-synuclein oligomers and impairment of the lysosomal degradation.

  3. Posleslovije k "Zolotoi maske" / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Vene draamafestivali "Kuldne mask Eestis" lavastusest : "September.doc", lav. Mihhail Ugarov, I. Võrõpajevi "Hapnik" lav. Viktor Rõzhakov Teatr.doc esituses, Sophoklese "Kuningas Oidipus" lav. Andrei Prikotenko Peterburi Teatri Liteinõi esituses, M. Ugarovi lavastus "OblomOFF"

  4. Gas Separation Performance of Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes Based on 6FDA-mPDA/DABA (3:2) Polyimide

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Wulin

    2014-02-23

    6FDA-mPDA/DABA (3:2) polyimide was synthesized and characterized for uncross-linked, thermally crosslinked, and carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes. The membranes were characterized with thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and gas permeation tests. Variations in the d spacing, the formation of pore structures, and changes in the pore sizes of the CMS membranes were discussed in relation to pyrolysis protocols. The uncross-linked polymer membranes showed high CO 2/CH4 selectivity, whereas thermally crosslinked membranes exhibited significantly improved CO2 permeability and excellent CO2 plasticization resistance. The CMS membranes showed even higher CO2 permeability and CO2/CH4 selectivity. An increase in the pyrolysis temperature resulted in CMS membranes with lower gas permeability but higher selectivity. The 550 °C pyrolyzed CMS membranes showed CO2 permeability as high as 14 750 Barrer with CO 2/CH4 selectivity of approximately 52. Even 800 °C pyrolyzed CMS membranes still showed high CO2 permeability of 2610 Barrer with high CO2/CH4 selectivity of approximately 118. Both polymer membranes and the CMS membranes are very attractive in aggressive natural gas purification applications. Permeating through: Polyimide-based uncross-linked, thermally crosslinked, and carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes are prepared. Variations in the d spacing, the formation of pore structures, and changes in the pore sizes of the CMS membranes are discussed in relation to pyrolysis protocols. Both the polymer and CMS membranes are very attractive in aggressive natural gas purification applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Masked hypertension, a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.J.; Thien, Th.; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2007-01-01

    Masked hypertension (blood pressure that is normal in the physicians' office but elevated elsewhere) is a common phenomenon as prevalence among studies varies from 8 to 45% and is seen at all ages. large discrepancies, however, exist between studies that have dealt with masked hypertension. It is of

  6. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  7. A simple method of fabricating mask-free microfluidic devices for biological analysis.

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Xin

    2010-09-07

    We report a simple, low-cost, rapid, and mask-free method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip for biological analysis researches. In this fabrication process, a laser system is used to cut through paper to form intricate patterns and differently configured channels for specific purposes. Bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin, the prepared paper sheet is sandwiched between glass slides (hydrophilic) or polymer-based plates (hydrophobic) to obtain a multilayer structure. In order to examine the chip\\'s biocompatibility and applicability, protein concentration was measured while DNA capillary electrophoresis was carried out, and both of them show positive results. With the utilization of direct laser cutting and one-step gas-sacrificing techniques, the whole fabrication processes for complicated 2D and 3D microfluidic devices are shorten into several minutes which make it a good alternative of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic chips used in biological analysis researches.

  8. Lensless digital holography with diffuse illumination through a pseudo-random phase mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, Stefan; Harm, Walter; Jesacher, Alexander; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2011-12-05

    Microscopic imaging with a setup consisting of a pseudo-random phase mask, and an open CMOS camera, without an imaging objective, is demonstrated. The pseudo random phase mask acts as a diffuser for an incoming laser beam, scattering a speckle pattern to a CMOS chip, which is recorded once as a reference. A sample which is afterwards inserted somewhere in the optical beam path changes the speckle pattern. A single (non-iterative) image processing step, comparing the modified speckle pattern with the previously recorded one, generates a sharp image of the sample. After a first calibration the method works in real-time and allows quantitative imaging of complex (amplitude and phase) samples in an extended three-dimensional volume. Since no lenses are used, the method is free from lens abberations. Compared to standard inline holography the diffuse sample illumination improves the axial sectioning capability by increasing the effective numerical aperture in the illumination path, and it suppresses the undesired so-called twin images. For demonstration, a high resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) is programmed to act as the pseudo-random phase mask. We show experimental results, imaging microscopic biological samples, e.g. insects, within an extended volume at a distance of 15 cm with a transverse and longitudinal resolution of about 60 μm and 400 μm, respectively.

  9. Flue gas CO{sub 2} capture by a green liquid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg; Lihong Bao; Stefanie L. Goldman; David A. Smith; Xiaoqiu Wu [Carbozyme, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    We have designed, developed, modeled and tested several different membrane-based, facilitated transport carbonate / bicarbonate reactors (conjoint absorber-strippers) for the post-combustion extraction of CO{sub 2} from both air and flue gas. We have assessed separately the reactive chemistry, the reactor design and the process engineering. Facilitation is achieved by means of the most efficient CO{sub 2} conversion catalyst, the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Experimental data mirror model predictions very closely. CO{sub 2} permeance value for 10% feed stream (balanced dry air) is 3.35E-8 mole/m{sup 2} s Pa, and the selectivity vs. N{sub 2} and vs. O{sub 2} were 250 and 150. The only moving elements in this design are the feed gas and the sweep gas streams. Gas separation is driven by partial pressure difference alone. As a consequence, this design is extremely energy efficient. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A high-Q low threshold thulium-doped silica microsphere laser in the 2 μm wavelength region designed for gas sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Atasi; Chen, Shu Ying; Sun, Tong; Grattan, K T V; Sen, Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    A high-Q and low threshold laser resonator, operating in the 2 μm wavelength region, has been demonstrated by coupling a thulium-doped silica microsphere to a tapered fibre. Microspheres with diameters ranging from fifty to a few hundred micrometres were carefully fabricated for this purpose by melting an etched-clad thulium-doped silica fibre tip using a focused beam from a CO 2 laser, while the tapered fibre with waist diameter in the desired range of 2 μm was fabricated by using heating and stretching of standard single-mode telecommunication fibre. The tapered fibre served the dual purpose of transporting pump power into the sphere and allowing the extraction of the resulting laser emission. Under excitation at a wavelength of ∼1.6 μm, lasing occurred at wavelengths over the range from 1.9 to 2.0 μm. Single-mode laser operation was obtained by exciting the fundamental whispering gallery mode resonance of the microsphere, while multi-mode lasing occurred for non-fundamental mode excitation. The threshold power of the laser was measured to be about 50 μW delivered pump power, and a maximum laser power of 0.8 mW at around 1.94 μm was observed for a 6 mW pump power, operating at wavelengths around 1.6 μm. The laser was designed as a low threshold and compact source for miniaturized gas sensing devices operating over this important wavelength region. (letter)

  11. Negative ion source improvement by introduction of a shutter mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchenko, Yu.I.; Oka, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Asano, E.; Kawamoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of a multicusp source were recently done at the National Institute for Fusion Science by plasma grid masking. The maximal H - ion yield is ∼1.4 times greater for the shutter mask case than that for the standard source. Negative ion current evolution during the cesium feed to the masked plasma grid evidenced that about 60% of negative ions are produced on the shutter mask surface, while about 30% are formed on the plasma grid emission hole edges, exposed by cesium with the mask open

  12. Diagnostic significance of lung ventilation study with sup(81m)Kr gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Isamu; Ito, Yasuhiko; Ohtsuka, Nobuaki; Muranaka, Akira; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo

    1979-01-01

    Lung ventilation study was performed on 43 patients by the continuous inhalation of sup(81m)Kr gas from a 81 Rb-sup(81m)Kr generator (Nihon Mediphysics Inc. Hyogo Japan). The patients were measured in a sitting position using a scintillation camera in conjunction with a data processor. In 37 cases, scintigraphic findings were compared with those of sup(99m)Tc-MAA images. We discussed the ventilation/perfusion mismatching cases, especially in those of the pulmonary arterial abnormarity and lung cancer. In some of the discrepancy between ventilation and perfusion, nuclear angiography with sup(99m)Tc-HSA was performed. The following results were obtained by those studies. 1) The distribution of sup(81m)Kr gas within the lung is considered proportional to regional ventilation because of a short half life of sup(81m)Kr (13 seconds). 2) The ventilation image with sup(81m)Kr gas was clearly visualized because of the lower gamma-ray energy and much accumulation of activity. 3) Combined use of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy and nuclear angiography often gave us new additional informations about the pathophysiological condition of lung. 4) In mismatching cases of lung cancer, perfusion was usually more impaired than ventilation. (author)

  13. Integrated approach to gas accumulation identification in Field M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshevskaya, K; Rukavishnikov, V; Belozerov, B; Podnebesnikh, A

    2015-01-01

    The given paper describes how the integration of different methods, such as core data, well logs, production logging, seismic data and well test analysis, was used to solve the problem of determining gas accumulation boundaries in sediment complex PK1-3 of Field M. This paper is devoted to the block with wells 2, 36, 49, 85, 127, 148 of the field, since it is characterized by high uncertainty, sc. recently drilled wells 1V, 2V and 120 have produced oil, although according to the present-day geological concept they were considered to be gas saturated in the intervals investigated with production logging. Besides, well 127 that was presumably oil saturated has produced gas. By accounting mismatching production data and the geological concept, the authors have supposed that PK1-3 gas accumulation is characterized by a more complex structure than it was supposed by the predecessors and it is represented by reservoir compartmentalization and high heterogeneity. Therefore, the main goal of the work was to revise the distribution of gas saturated reservoir within the PK1-3 sediment complex. To achieve this goal, the authors have set the following tasks: to revise the geological correlation and gas oil contact; to carry out fault interpretation by means of seismic and well test data; to determine areal facies distribution on the basis of integrated core, perform a log motifs and seismic facies analysis. Thus, the estimation of the gas saturated reservoir portion was implemented in two stages: defining the boundary of gas accumulation in depth on the basis of well logs, production data and fault interpretation; reservoir distribution determination on the basis of the seismic facies analysis within the derived gas accumulation boundary

  14. Changes of serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ levels after treatment with 131I-17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin in VX2 rabbit models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Wen; Liu Lu; Zhou Yun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of 131 I-17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin( 131 I-17-AAG) therapy on immune function in VX2 rabbit models with transplanted liver cancer. Methods: Serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ levels were measured with RIA in 8 VX2 rabbit models with transplanted liver cancer 1-2 weeks after 10mCi 131 I-17-AAG treatment as well as in 8 controls rabbits (models with tumor but without treatment). Results: 1 week after 10mCi 131 I treatment, the serum IL - 2 and IFN-γ levels were significantly lower in the treated rabbits than those in controls (P 0.05). Serum IL-4 and IL-10 levels in the treated rabbits (both at 1 and 2 week) were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05). Conclusion: 131 I-17-AAG treatment had transient effects on cellular immunity with no influence on humoral immunity. As a whole, it is a safe to treat VX2 rabbit models with this preparation. (authors)

  15. Beyond a Mask and Against the Bottleneck: Retroactive Dual-Task Interference During Working Memory Consolidation of a Masked Visual Target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Wyble, Brad

    While studies on visual memory commonly assume that the consolidation of a visual stimulus into working memory is interrupted by a trailing mask, studies on dual-task interference suggest that the consolidation of a stimulus can continue for several hundred milliseconds after a mask. As a result,

  16. A feasibility study on the bioconversion of CO2 and H2 to biomethane by gas sparging through polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, I; Pérez, C; Alfaro, N; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the potential of a pilot hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor for the conversion of H2 and CO2 to CH4 was evaluated. The system transformed 95% of H2 and CO2 fed at a maximum loading rate of 40.2 [Formula: see text] and produced 0.22m(3) of CH4 per m(3) of H2 fed at thermophilic conditions. H2 mass transfer to the liquid phase was identified as the limiting step for the conversion, and kLa values of 430h(-1) were reached in the bioreactor by sparging gas through the membrane module. A simulation showed that the bioreactor could upgrade biogas at a rate of 25m(3)/mR(3)d, increasing the CH4 concentration from 60 to 95%v. This proof-of-concept study verified that gas sparging through a membrane module can efficiently transfer H2 from gas to liquid phase and that the conversion of H2 and CO2 to biomethane is feasible on a pilot scale at noteworthy load rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Continuous CO2 gas monitoring to clarify natural pattern and artificial leakage signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joun, W.; Ha, S. W.; Joo, Y. J.; Lee, S. S.; Lee, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous CO2 gas monitoring at shallow aquifer is significant for early detection and immediate handling of an aquifer impacted by leaking CO2 gas from the sequestration reservoir. However, it is difficult to decide the origin of CO2 gas because detected CO2 includes not only leaked CO2 but also naturally emitted CO2. We performed CO2 injection and monitoring tests in a shallow aquifer. Before the injection of CO2 infused water, we have conducted continuous monitoring of multi-level soil CO2 gas concentration and physical parameters such as temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. The monitoring data represented that CO2 gas concentrations in unsaturated soil zone borehole showed differences at depths and daily variation (360 to 6980 ppm volume). Based on the observed data at 5 m and 8 m depths, vertical flux of gas was calculated as 0.471 L/min (LPM) for inflow from 5 m to 8 m and 9.42E-2 LPM for outflow from 8 m to 5 m. The numerical and analytical models were used to calculate the vertical flux of gas and to compare with observations. The results showed that pressure-based modeling could not explain the rapid change of CO2 gas concentration in borehole. Acknowledgement Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003)

  18. Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Patients Wearing Nasal-Oral Versus Full-Face Noninvasive Ventilation Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallom, Marilyn; Cracchiolo, Lisa; Falker, Antoinette; Foster, Jennifer; Hager, JoAnn; Morehouse, Tamara; Watts, Peggy; Weems, Linda; Kollef, Marin

    2015-07-01

    Device-related pressure ulcers from noninvasive ventilation masks alter skin integrity and cause patients discomfort. To examine the incidence, location, and stage of pressure ulcers and patients' comfort with a nasal-oral mask compared with a full-face mask. A before-after study of a convenience sample of patients with noninvasive ventilation orders in 5 intensive care units was conducted. Two groups of 100 patients each received either the nasal-oral mask or the full-face mask. Skin was assessed before the mask was applied and every 12 hours after that or upon mask removal. Comfort levels were assessed every 12 hours on a Likert scale of 1 to 5 (1, most comfortable). A pressure ulcer developed in 20% of patients in the nasal-oral mask group and 2% of patients in the full-face mask group (P face mask (mean [SD], 1.9 [1.1]) than with the nasal-oral mask (mean [SD], 2.7 [1.2], P face mask and 25 (SD, 20.7) and 92% for nasal-oral mask. No patients who had a pressure ulcer develop with the nasal-oral mask had a pressure ulcer develop with the full-face mask. The full-face mask resulted in significantly fewer pressure ulcers and was more comfortable for patients. The full-face mask is a reasonable alternative to traditional nasal-oral masks for patients receiving noninvasive ventilation. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  19. Development of an Operational Land Water Mask for MODIS Collection 6, and Influence on Downstream Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M. L.; DiMiceli, C. M.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Sohlberg, R. A.; Elders, A. I.; Devadiga, S.; Sayer, A. M.; Levy, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS)on-board the Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua satellites are processed using a land water mask to determine when an algorithm no longer needs to be run or when an algorithm needs to follow a different pathway. Entering the fourth reprocessing (Collection 6 (C6)) the MODIS team replaced the 1 km water mask with a 500 m water mask for improved representation of the continental surfaces. The new water mask represents more small water bodies for an overall increase in water surface from 1 to 2 of the continental surface. While this is still a small fraction of the overall global surface area the increase is more dramatic in certain areas such as the Arctic and Boreal regions where there are dramatic increases in water surface area in the new mask. MODIS products generated by the on-going C6 reprocessing using the new land water mask show significant impact in areas with high concentrations of change in the land water mask. Here differences between the Collection 5 (C5) and C6 water masks and the impact of these differences on the MOD04 aerosol product and the MOD11 land surface temperature product are shown.

  20. ON-SKY DEMONSTRATION OF A LINEAR BAND-LIMITED MASK WITH APPLICATION TO VISUAL BINARY STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepp, J.; Ge, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Serabyn, E.; Carson, J.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed and built the first band-limited coronagraphic mask used for ground-based high-contrast imaging observations. The mask resides in the focal plane of the near-infrared camera PHARO at the Palomar Hale telescope and receives a well-corrected beam from an extreme adaptive optics system. Its performance on-sky with single stars is comparable to current state-of-the-art instruments: contrast levels of ∼10 -5 or better at 0.''8 in K s after post-processing, depending on how well non-common-path errors are calibrated. However, given the mask's linear geometry, we are able to conduct additional unique science observations. Since the mask does not suffer from pointing errors down its long axis, it can suppress the light from two different stars simultaneously, such as the individual components of a spatially resolved binary star system, and search for faint tertiary companions. In this paper, we present the design of the mask, the science motivation for targeting binary stars, and our preliminary results, including the detection of a candidate M-dwarf tertiary companion orbiting the visual binary star HIP 48337, which we are continuing to monitor with astrometry to determine its association.

  1. Selective mGAT2 (BGT-1) GABA Uptake Inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Jørgensen, Lars; Madsen, Karsten Kirkegaard

    2013-01-01

    β-Amino acids sharing a lipophilic diaromatic side chain were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically on mouse GABA transporter subtypes mGAT1−4. The parent amino acids were also characterized. Compounds 13a, 13b, and 17b displayed more than 6-fold selectivity for mGAT2 over mGAT1. Compou...... 17b displayed anticonvulsive properties inferring a role of mGAT2 in epileptic disorders. These results provide new neuropharmacological tools and a strategy for designing subtype selective GABA transport inhibitors....

  2. Mask leak increases and minute ventilation decreases when chest compressions are added to bag ventilation in a neonatal manikin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Mark B; Shah, Dharmesh; Hinder, Murray; Klimek, Jan; Marceau, James; Wright, Audrey

    2014-05-01

    To determine changes in respiratory mechanics when chest compressions are added to mask ventilation, as recommended by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) guidelines for newborn infants. Using a Laerdal Advanced Life Support leak-free baby manikin and a 240-mL self-inflating bag, 58 neonatal staff members were randomly paired to provide mask ventilation, followed by mask ventilation with chest compressions with a 1:3 ratio, for two minutes each. A Florian respiratory function monitor was used to measure respiratory mechanics, including mask leak. The addition of chest compressions to mask ventilation led to a significant reduction in inflation rate, from 63.9 to 32.9 breaths per minute (p mask leak of 6.8% (p mask ventilation, in accordance with the ILCOR guidelines, in a manikin model is associated with a significant reduction in delivered ventilation and increase in mask leak. If similar findings occur in human infants needing an escalation in resuscitation, there is a potential risk of either delay in recovery or inadequate response to resuscitation. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Energy enhancer for mask based laser materials processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    A device capable of drastically improving the energy efficiency of present mask based laser materials processing systems is presented. Good accordance between experiments and simulations for a TEA-CO2 laser system designed for laser marking has been demonstrated. The energy efficiency may...... be improved with a factor of 2 - 4 for typical mask transmittances between 10 - 40%....

  4. Hydrogen migration dynamics in hydrated Al clusters: The Al{sub 17}{sup (−)}·H{sub 2}O system as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Barcia, S.; Flores, J. R., E-mail: flores@uvigo.es [Facultad de Química, Universidad de Vigo, E-36310-Vigo (Pontevedra) (Spain)

    2014-02-28

    The Al{sub m}{sup (−)}·(H{sub 2}O){sub n} systems are known to undergo water splitting processes in the gas phase giving H{sub k}Al{sub m}(OH){sub k}{sup (−)}·(H{sub 2}O){sub n−k} systems, which can generate H{sub 2}. The migration of H atoms from one Al atom to another on the cluster's surface is of critical importance to the mechanism of the complete H{sub 2} production process. We have applied a combination of Molecular Dynamics and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory including tunneling effects to study the gas-phase evolution of HAl{sub 17}(OH){sup (−)}, which can be considered a model system. First, we have performed an extensive search for local minima and the connecting saddle points using a density functional theory method. It is found that in the water-splitting process Al{sub 17}{sup (−)}·(H{sub 2}O) → HAl{sub 17}(OH){sup (−)}, the H atom which bonds to the Al cluster losses rather quickly its excess energy, which is easily “absorbed” by the cluster because of its flexibility. This fact ultimately determines that long-range hydrogen migration is not a very fast process and that, probably, tunneling only plays a secondary role in the migration dynamics, at least for moderate energies. Reduction of the total energy results in the process being very much slowed down. The consequences on the possible mechanisms of H{sub 2} generation from the interaction of Al clusters and water molecules are discussed.

  5. Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y.

    1998-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed

  6. Universal Mask Usage for Reduction of Respiratory Viral Infections After Stem Cell Transplant: A Prospective Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Anthony D; Sung, Julia A M; Thomas, Samantha; Hyslop, Terry; Gasparetto, Cristina; Long, Gwynn; Rizzieri, David; Sullivan, Keith M; Corbet, Kelly; Broadwater, Gloria; Chao, Nelson J; Horwitz, Mitchell E

    2016-10-15

    Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are frequent complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Surgical masks are a simple and inexpensive intervention that may reduce nosocomial spread. In this prospective single-center study, we instituted a universal surgical mask policy requiring all individuals with direct contact with HSCT patients to wear a surgical mask, regardless of symptoms or season. The primary endpoint was the incidence of RVIs in the mask period (2010-2014) compared with the premask period (2003-2009). RVIs decreased from 10.3% (95/920 patients) in the premask period to 4.4% (40/911) in the mask period (P mask group compared with the premask group (0.19-0.85, P = .02). In contrast, no decrease was observed during this same period in an adjacent hematologic malignancy unit, which followed the same infection control practices except for the mask policy. The majority of this decrease was in parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) (8.3% to 2.2%, P mask is associated with a reduction in RVIs, particularly PIV3, during the most vulnerable period following HSCT. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Spin-polarized electron gas in Co2MSi/SrTiO3(M= Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, S.

    2016-06-08

    Spin-polarized density functional theory is used to study the TiO2 terminated interfaces between the magnetic Heusler alloys Co2Si (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) and the non-polar band insulator SrTiO3. The structural relaxation at the interface turns out to depend systematically on the lattice mis- match. Charge transfer from the Heusler alloys (mainly the M 3d orbitals) to the Ti dxy orbitals of the TiO2 interface layer is found to gradually grow from M = Ti to Fe, resulting in an electron gas with increasing density of spin-polarized charge carriers. (© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  8. Mask versus Nasal Tube for Stabilization of Preterm Infants at Birth: Respiratory Function Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vonderen, Jeroen J; Kamlin, C Omar; Dawson, Jennifer A; Walther, Frans J; Davis, Peter G; te Pas, Arjan B

    2015-07-01

    To compare the nasal tube with face mask as interfaces for stabilization of very preterm infants at birth by using physiological measurements of leak, obstruction, and expired tidal volumes during positive pressure ventilation (PPV). In the delivery room, 43 infants face mask. Respiratory function, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were measured. Occurrence of obstruction, amount of leak, and tidal volumes were compared using a Mann-Whitney U test or a Fisher exact test. The first 5 minutes after initiation of PPV were analyzed (1566 inflations in the nasal tube group and 1896 inflations in the face mask group). Spontaneous breathing coincided with PPV in 32% of nasal tube and 34% of face mask inflations. During inflations, higher leak was observed using nasal tube compared with face mask (98% [33%-100%] vs 14 [0%-39%]; P face mask (0.0 [0.0-3.1] vs 9.9 [5.5-12.8] mL/kg; P 0.05). Heart rate was not significantly different between groups, but oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the nasal tube group the first 2 minutes after start of respiratory support. The use of a nasal tube led to large leak, more obstruction, and inadequate tidal volumes compared with face mask. Trial registration Registered with the Dutch Trial Registry (NTR 2061) and the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ACTRN 12610000230055). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experiences and future plans of movable mask system for the high current collider KEK B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsugu, Yusuke; Kageyama, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Yasunao; Kanazawa, Ken-ichi; Satoh, Kotarou; Sanami, Toshiya; Hirayama, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    The movable mask is a special device for an accelerator that cuts off spent particles near the beam orbit and reduces background of the detector. For the KEKB, an electron/positron collider with two rings, sixteen movable masks had been installed for each ring. The originally designed masks, however, revealed severe troubles of heating, arcing and vacuum leaks at the stored beam currents of several hundreds mA. Several kinds of improved masks had been designed employing RF technologies and were installed to the ring step by step. The latest masks are working well except for the grooves on the mask head. Here the problems of movable masks so far are summarized and the structures of the latest movable masks and their status are presented. (author)

  10. Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nano structures using a nano x-ray shadow mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Seung S

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nano structures (HAR-nano structures) using a nano x-ray shadow mask and deep x-ray lithography (DXRL). The nano x-ray shadow mask is fabricated by depositing an x-ray absorber layer (Au, 3 µm) onto the back side of a nano shadow mask. The nano shadow mask is produced with nano-sized apertures whose dimensions are reduced to several tens of nanometers by the accumulation of low-stress silicon nitride (Si x N y ) using the LPCVD process on the shadow mask. A shadow mask containing apertures with a size of 1 µm is fabricated on a bulk micromachined Si x N y membrane. The thickness of an absorber layer must be in the range of several tens of micrometers in order to obtain a contrast of more than 100 for the conventional DXRL process at the Pohang Light Source (PLS). However, a 3 µm thick absorber layer can provide a sufficient contrast if the modified DXRL of the central beam-stop method is used, which blocks high-energy x-rays. A nano shadow mask with 30 nm sized apertures is fabricated and a nano x-ray shadow mask with 250 nm sized apertures is fabricated by depositing a 3 µm thick absorber layer on a nano shadow mask with 500 nm sized apertures. HAR-nano structures (circles with a diameter of 420 nm and lines with a width of 274 nm) with aspect ratios of over 10:1 on a 3.2 µm SU-8 are successfully fabricated by using the nano x-ray shadow mask and the central beam-stop method

  11. The bright-star masks for the HSC-SSP survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupon, Jean; Czakon, Nicole; Bosch, James; Komiyama, Yutaka; Medezinski, Elinor; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune

    2018-01-01

    We present the procedure to build and validate the bright-star masks for the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Strategic Subaru Proposal (HSC-SSP) survey. To identify and mask the saturated stars in the full HSC-SSP footprint, we rely on the Gaia and Tycho-2 star catalogues. We first assemble a pure star catalogue down to GGaia SSP, finding that our star catalogue is 99.2% pure down to GGaia SSP observations at "ftp://obsftp.unige.ch/pub/coupon/brightStarMasks/HSC-SSP/".

  12. A simple self-breaking 2 MV gas switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Capua, M.S.; Freytag, E.K.; Dixon, W.R.; Hawley, R.A.

    1987-06-29

    We describe a simple self-breaking 2 MV gas master switch for the LLNL 2 MV general purpose relativistic electron beam (REB) accelerator. The switch cavity has been hollowed out in a 17.8 cm-thick acrylic slab. The switch gap is 3.55 cm. At 2 MV the maximum field at the cathode is 740 kV cm/sup -1/ and the maximum envelope field is 172 kV cm/sup -1/. The maximum measured switching voltage is 1.90 +- 0.1 MV (10 bar abs). The minimum switching voltage is 1.1 MV (4.3 bar abs). The operating characteristics break away from the 89 kV/(cm atm) dc breakdown strength of SF/sub 6/ at 5 bar abs. Careful electrical and mechanical design as well as strict quality control during assembly and operation have resulted in reliable and reproducible operation.

  13. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks. II. Gas Disk Radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; Trapman, L.; van Terwisga, S. E.; Facchini, S.; Manara, C. F.; van der Marel, N.; Miotello, A.; Tazzari, M.; Hogerheijde, M.; Guidi, G.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2018-05-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-Millimeter Array (ALMA) Band 6 observations of a complete sample of protoplanetary disks in the young (∼1–3 Myr) Lupus star-forming region, covering the 1.33 mm continuum and the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 2–1 lines. The spatial resolution is ∼0.″25 with a medium 3σ continuum sensitivity of 0.30 mJy, corresponding to M dust ∼ 0.2 M ⊕. We apply Keplerian masking to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios of our 12CO zero-moment maps, enabling measurements of gas disk radii for 22 Lupus disks; we find that gas disks are universally larger than millimeter dust disks by a factor of two on average, likely due to a combination of the optically thick gas emission and the growth and inward drift of the dust. Using the gas disk radii, we calculate the dimensionless viscosity parameter, α visc, finding a broad distribution and no correlations with other disk or stellar parameters, suggesting that viscous processes have not yet established quasi-steady states in Lupus disks. By combining our 1.33 mm continuum fluxes with our previous 890 μm continuum observations, we also calculate the millimeter spectral index, α mm, for 70 Lupus disks; we find an anticorrelation between α mm and millimeter flux for low-mass disks (M dust ≲ 5), followed by a flattening as disks approach α mm ≈ 2, which could indicate faster grain growth in higher-mass disks, but may also reflect their larger optically thick components. In sum, this work demonstrates the continuous stream of new insights into disk evolution and planet formation that can be gleaned from unbiased ALMA disk surveys.

  14. Mechanism of the Dual Activities of Human CYP17A1 and Binding to Anti-Prostate Cancer Drug Abiraterone Revealed by a Novel V366M Mutation Causing 17,20 Lyase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Fernández-Cancio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The CYP17A1 gene regulates sex steroid biosynthesis in humans through 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase activities and is a target of anti-prostate cancer drug abiraterone. In a 46, XY patient with female external genitalia, together with a loss of function mutation S441P, we identified a novel missense mutation V366M at the catalytic center of CYP17A1 which preferentially impaired 17,20 lyase activity. Kinetic experiments with bacterially expressed proteins revealed that V366M mutant enzyme can bind and metabolize pregnenolone to 17OH-pregnenolone, but 17OH-pregnenolone binding and conversion to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA was impaired, explaining the patient’s steroid profile. Abiraterone could not bind and inhibit the 17α-hydroxylase activity of the CYP17A1-V366M mutant. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations showed that V366M creates a “one-way valve” and suggests a mechanism for dual activities of human CYP17A1 where, after the conversion of pregnenolone to 17OH-pregnenolone, the product exits the active site and re-enters for conversion to dehydroepiandrosterone. The V366M mutant also explained the effectiveness of the anti-prostate cancer drug abiraterone as a potent inhibitor of CYP17A1 by binding tightly at the active site in the WT enzyme. The V366M is the first human mutation to be described at the active site of CYP17A1 that causes isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency. Knowledge about the specificity of CYP17A1 activities is of importance for the development of treatments for polycystic ovary syndrome and inhibitors for prostate cancer therapy.

  15. Simultaneous pure-tone masking : the dependence of masking asymmetries on intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogten, L.L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Phase locking between probe and masker was used in a series of pure-tone masking experiments. The masker was a stationary sine wave of variable frequency; the probe a fixed-frequency tone burst. We have observed that for small frequency separation the masking behaves asymmetrically around the probe

  16. Active galactic nucleus and quasar science with aperture masking interferometry on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, K. E. Saavik; McKernan, Barry [Department of Science, Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, New York, NY 10007 (United States); Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Martel, André R.; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lafrenière, David [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Parmentier, Sébastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Due to feedback from accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to play a key role in ΛCDM cosmology and galaxy formation. However, AGNs extreme luminosities and the small angular size of their accretion flows create a challenging imaging problem. We show that the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (JWST-NIRISS) Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode will enable true imaging (i.e., without any requirement of prior assumptions on source geometry) at ∼65 mas angular resolution at the centers of AGNs. This is advantageous for studying complex extended accretion flows around SMBHs and in other areas of angular-resolution-limited astrophysics. By simulating data sequences incorporating expected sources of noise, we demonstrate that JWST-NIRISS AMI mode can map extended structure at a pixel-to-pixel contrast of ∼10{sup –2} around an L = 7.5 point source, using short exposure times (minutes). Such images will test models of AGN feedback, fueling, and structure (complementary with ALMA observations), and are not currently supported by any ground-based IR interferometer or telescope. Binary point source contrast with NIRISS is ∼10{sup –4} (for observing binary nuclei in merging galaxies), significantly better than current ground-based optical or IR interferometry. JWST-NIRISS's seven-hole non-redundant mask has a throughput of 15%, and utilizes NIRISS's F277W (2.77 μm), F380M (3.8 μm), F430M (4.3 μm), and F480M (4.8 μm) filters. NIRISS's square pixels are 65 mas per side, with a field of view ∼2' × 2'. We also extrapolate our results to AGN science enabled by non-redundant masking on future 2.4 m and 16 m space telescopes working at long-UV to near-IR wavelengths.

  17. Masked Photocathode for Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2010-01-01

    In this research note, we propose a scheme to insert a photocathode inside a photoinjector for generating high brightness electron beam. Instead of mounting the photocathode onto the electrode, a masked electrode with small hole is used to shield the photocathode from the accelerating vacuum chamber. Using such a masked photocathode will make the replacement of photocathode material very simple by rotating the photocathode behind the mask into the hole. This will significantly increase the usage lifetime of a photocathode. Furthermore, this also helps reduce the dark current or secondary electron emission from the photocathode. The hole on the mask also provides a transverse cut-off to the Gaussian laser profile which can be beneficial from the beam dynamics point of view.

  18. SEMATECH EUVL mask program status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Henry; Goodwin, Frank; Huh, Sungmin; Orvek, Kevin; Cha, Brian; Rastegar, Abbas; Kearney, Patrick

    2009-04-01

    As we approach the 22nm half-pitch (hp) technology node, the industry is rapidly running out of patterning options. Of the several lithography techniques highlighted in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the leading contender for the 22nm hp insertion is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). Despite recent advances with EUV resist and improvements in source power, achieving defect free EUV mask blank and enabling the EUV mask infrastructure still remain critical issues. To meet the desired EUV high volume manufacturing (HVM) insertion target date of 2013, these obstacles must be resolved on a timely bases. Many of the EUV mask related challenges remain in the pre-competitive stage and a collaborative industry based consortia, such as SEMATECH can play an important role to enable the EUVL landscape. SEMATECH based in Albany, NY is an international consortium representing several of the largest manufacturers in the semiconductor market. Full members include Intel, Samsung, AMD, IBM, Panasonic, HP, TI, UMC, CNSE (College of Nanoscience and Engineering), and Fuller Road Management. Within the SEMATECH lithography division a major thrust is centered on enabling the EUVL ecosystem from mask development, EUV resist development and addressing EUV manufacturability concerns. An important area of focus for the SEMATECH mask program has been the Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC). At the MBDC key issues in EUV blank development such as defect reduction and inspection capabilities are actively pursued together with research partners, key suppliers and member companies. In addition the mask program continues a successful track record of working with the mask community to manage and fund critical mask tools programs. This paper will highlight recent status of mask projects and longer term strategic direction at the MBDC. It is important that mask technology be ready to support pilot line development HVM by 2013. In several areas progress has been

  19. Detection of gas-charged sediments and gas hydrate horizons along the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Vora, K.H.; Wagle, B.G.; Almeida, F.

    in the inner shelf. These maskings suggest the presence of gas-charged sediments. Further seaward on the outer shelf-middle slope, pockmarks and prominent plumes in the overlying water column indicate a significant seepage of gas from the slope sediments...

  20. Overlay improvement by exposure map based mask registration optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Irene; Guo, Eric; Chen, Ming; Lu, Max; Li, Gordon; Li, Rivan; Tian, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Along with the increased miniaturization of semiconductor electronic devices, the design rules of advanced semiconductor devices shrink dramatically. [1] One of the main challenges of lithography step is the layer-to-layer overlay control. Furthermore, DPT (Double Patterning Technology) has been adapted for the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, corresponding overlay budget becomes even tighter. [2][3] After the in-die mask registration (pattern placement) measurement is introduced, with the model analysis of a KLA SOV (sources of variation) tool, it's observed that registration difference between masks is a significant error source of wafer layer-to-layer overlay at 28nm process. [4][5] Mask registration optimization would highly improve wafer overlay performance accordingly. It was reported that a laser based registration control (RegC) process could be applied after the pattern generation or after pellicle mounting and allowed fine tuning of the mask registration. [6] In this paper we propose a novel method of mask registration correction, which can be applied before mask writing based on mask exposure map, considering the factors of mask chip layout, writing sequence, and pattern density distribution. Our experiment data show if pattern density on the mask keeps at a low level, in-die mask registration residue error in 3sigma could be always under 5nm whatever blank type and related writer POSCOR (position correction) file was applied; it proves random error induced by material or equipment would occupy relatively fixed error budget as an error source of mask registration. On the real production, comparing the mask registration difference through critical production layers, it could be revealed that registration residue error of line space layers with higher pattern density is always much larger than the one of contact hole layers with lower pattern density. Additionally, the mask registration difference between layers with similar pattern density

  1. Method for measuring the focal spot size of an x-ray tube using a coded aperture mask and a digital detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paolo; Mettivier, Giovanni

    2011-04-01

    kVp and M = 6.1, with a detector entrance exposure as low as 1.82 mR (0.125 mA s tube load). The slit camera indicated a focal spot of 0.112 mm x 0.104 mm at 35 kVp and M = 3.15, with an exposure at the detector of 72 mR. Focal spot measurements with the coded mask could be performed up to 80 kVp. Tolerance to angular misalignment with the reference beam up to 7 degrees in in-plane rotations and 1 degrees deg in out-of-plane rotations was observed. The axial distance of the focal spot from the coded mask could also be determined. It is possible to determine the beam intensity via measurement of the intensity of the decoded image of the focal spot and via a calibration procedure. Coded aperture masks coupled to a digital area detector produce precise determinations of the focal spot of an x-ray tube with reduced tube loading and measurement time, coupled to a large tolerance in the alignment of the mask.

  2. Metal oxide multilayer hard mask system for 3D nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongmei; Salmi, Emma; Vehkamäki, Marko; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the preparation and exploitation of multilayer metal oxide hard masks for lithography and 3D nanofabrication. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and focused ion beam (FIB) technologies are applied for mask deposition and mask patterning, respectively. A combination of ALD and FIB was used and a patterning procedure was developed to avoid the ion beam defects commonly met when using FIB alone for microfabrication. ALD grown Al2O3/Ta2O5/Al2O3 thin film stacks were FIB milled with 30 keV gallium ions and chemically etched in 5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide at 50 °C. With metal evaporation, multilayers consisting of amorphous oxides Al2O3 and Ta2O5 can be tailored for use in 2D lift-off processing, in preparation of embedded sub-100 nm metal lines and for multilevel electrical contacts. Good pattern transfer was achieved by lift-off process from the 2D hard mask for micro- and nano-scaled fabrication. As a demonstration of the applicability of this method to 3D structures, self-supporting 3D Ta2O5 masks were made from a film stack on gold particles. Finally, thin film resistors were fabricated by utilizing controlled stiction of suspended Ta2O5 structures.

  3. Transmucosal gas-loss rates in middle ears initially filled with O2 or CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Romain E; Vérillaud, Benjamin; Ars, Bernard; Tran Ba Huy, Patrice; Herman, Philippe; Ar, Amos

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the role of different gases in clearance of gas in the middle ear cavity (ME) by its mucosal blood flow. A rat model was used to measure gas volume changes in the ME cavity at constant pressure without ventilation. We disturbed the normal gas composition of the ME by filling it with O 2 or CO 2 , measured the consequent changes in gas volume over time and compared these results with previously obtained ones for air and N 2 . The first 5 min of the primary transient phase (phase I) for O 2 or CO 2 was characterized by a volume loss decrease of -0.49 ± 0.34 μL and -46.28 ± 8.49 μL, respectively, with volume loss increase for air and N 2 differing greatly, at +0.17 ± 0.17 and +2.31 ± 0.81, respectively. The CO 2 value of -46.28 μL showed that a volume of gas equivalent to that of the ME cleft volume was eliminated within the first 5 min. In the second phase (phase II), all gases showed a linear decrease in volume, which presumably represents a steady-state gas loss rate. However, the gas loss rate of -0.307 ± 0.170 μL min -1 for O 2 -filled MEs was significantly higher than the mean of -0.124 μL min -1 for all other gases. We used a previously established mathematical model to calculate the effective ME mucosal blood flow rate under steady-state (phase II) conditions. The blood flow results for O 2 -filled MEs differed greatly from those of the other gases (89.0 ± 49.28 vs. 26.5 μL min -1 , on average), which suggest that the model used to calculate blood flow should be modified if used with O 2 -filled MEs. Further work should involve a comparison of our method with different methods to verify ME blood flow rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Masking with faces in central visual field under a variety of temporal schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Marwan; Wilson, Hugh R

    2015-11-01

    With a few exceptions, previous studies have explored masking using either a backward mask or a common onset trailing mask, but not both. In a series of experiments, we demonstrate the use of faces in central visual field as a viable method to study the relationship between these two types of mask schedule. We tested observers in a two alternative forced choice face identification task, where both target and mask comprised synthetic faces, and show that a simple model can successfully predict masking across a variety of masking schedules ranging from a backward mask to a common onset trailing mask and a number of intermediate variations. Our data are well accounted for by a window of sensitivity to mask interference that is centered at around 100 ms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Highly Stable Porous Covalent Triazine-Piperazine Linked Nanoflower as a Feasible Adsorbent for Flue Gas CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar

    2016-02-11

    Here, we report a porous covalent triazine-piperazine linked polymer (CTPP) featuring 3D nanoflower morphology and enhanced capture/removal of CO2, CH4 from air (N2), essential to control greenhouse gas emission and natural gas upgrading. 13C solid-state NMR and FTIR analyses and CHN and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) elemental analyses confirmed the integration of triazine and piperazine components in the network. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses revealed a relatively uniform particle size of approximately 400 to 500 nm with 3D nanoflower microstructure, which was formed by the self-assembly of interwoven and slight bent nanoflake components. The material exhibited outstanding chemical robustness under acidic and basic medium and high thermal stability up to 773 K. The CTPP possess high surface area (779 m2/g) and single-component gas adsorption study exhibited enhanced CO2 and CH4 uptake of 3.48 mmol/g, 1.09 mmol/g, respectively at 273 K, 1 bar; coupled with high sorption selectivities for CO2/N2 and CH4/N2 of 128 and 17, respectively. The enriched Lewis basicity of the CTPP favors the interaction with CO2, which results in an enhanced CO2 adsorption capacity and high CO2/N2 selectivity. The binary mixture breakthrough study for the flue gas composition at 298 K showed a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 82. CO2 heats of adsorption for the CTPP (34 kJ mol−1) were realized at the borderline between strong physisorption and weak chemisorption (QstCO2; 25−50 kJ mol−1) and low Qst value for N2 (22.09 kJ mol−1), providing the ultimate validation for the high selectivity of CO2 over N2.

  6. ADAM-17 is a poor prognostic indicator for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma and is regulated by FoxM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaodong; Yu, Wenlong; Qian, Jianxin; Chen, Ying; Wei, Peilian; Fang, Wenzheng; Yu, Guanzhen

    2018-05-18

    A-disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are members of a family of multidomain transmembrane and secreted proteins. Specific ADAMs are upregulated in human cancers and correlated with tumor progression and poor outcome, but rarely studied in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). This study aimed to explore the expression profiles of ADAMs and their potential underlying mechanisms promoting cancer progression. mRNA expression of ADAM-9, - 10, - 11, - 12, - 15, - 17, - 28, and - 33 was analyzed in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) samples. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was used to detect the expression of ADAM-10, - 17, - 28, and FoxM1 in HC. The regulation of ADAM-17 by FoxM1 and their functional study was investigated in vivo and in vitro. ADAM-10, - 17, and - 28 were upregulated in tumors compared with matched non-cancerous tissues. IHC analysis revealed increased expression of ADAM-10, - 17, and - 28 in HC cells, and ADAM17 seems to be an independent prognostic factor. ADAM-17 is regulated by FoxM1. A decrease in the expression of ADAM-17 by silencing FoxM1 led to an inhibition of cell proliferation, tumor growth, and the production of tumor necrosis factor α. IHC analysis showed co-expression of FoxM1 and ADAM-17 in HC specimens. The findings of the present study show an important role of the cross-talk among FoxM1, ADAM-17, and TNFa in HC development and progression.

  7. Th17/Treg immunoregulation and implications in treatment of sulfur mustard gas-induced lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman, Maryam; Rezaei, Ramazan; Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Shariati, Parvin; Kheradmand, Farrah; Salimian, Jafar

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an extremely toxic gas used in chemical warfare to cause massive lung injury and death. Victims exposed to SM gas acutely present with inhalational lung injury, but among those who survive, some develop obstructive airway diseases referred to as SM-lung syndrome. Pathophysiologically, SM-lung shares many characteristics with smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including airway remodeling, goblet cell metaplasia, and obstructive ventilation defect. Some of the hallmarks of COPD pathogenesis, which include dysregulated lung inflammation, neutrophilia, recruitment of interleukin 17A (IL -17A) expressing CD4 + T cells (Th17), and the paucity of lung regulatory T cells (Tregs), have also been described in SM-lung. Areas covered: A literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases inclusive of all literature prior to and including May 2017. Expert commentary: Here we review some of the recent findings that suggest a role for Th17 cell-mediated inflammatory changes associated with pulmonary complications in SM-lung and suggest new therapeutic approaches that could potentially alter disease progression with immune modulating biologics that can restore the lung Th17/Treg balance.

  8. Multiple beam mask writers: an industry solution to the write time crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Lloyd C.

    2010-09-01

    The semiconductor industry is under constant pressure to reduce production costs even as technology complexity increases. Lithography represents the most expensive process due to its high capital equipment costs and the implementation of low-k1 lithographic processes, which has added to the complexity of making masks through the greater use of optical proximity correction, pixelated masks, and double or triple patterning. Each of these mask technologies allows the production of semiconductors at future nodes while extending the utility of current immersion tools. Low k1 patterning complexity combined with increased data due to smaller feature sizes is driving extremely long mask write times. While a majority of the industry is willing to accept mask write times of up to 24 hours, evidence suggests that the write times for many masks at the 22 nm node and beyond will be significantly longer. It has been estimated that $50M+ in non-recurring engineering (NRE) costs will be required to develop a multiple beam mask writer system, yet the business case to recover this kind of investment is not strong. Moreover, funding such a development is a high risk for an individual supplier. The problem is compounded by a disconnect between the tool customer (the mask supplier) and the final mask customer that will bear the increased costs if a high speed writer is not available. Since no individual company will likely risk entering this market, some type of industry-wide funding model will be needed. Because SEMATECH's member companies strongly support a multiple beam technology for mask writers to reduce the write time and cost of 193 nm and EUV masks, SEMATECH plans to pursue an advanced mask writer program in 2011 and 2012. In 2010, efforts will focus on identifying a funding model to address the investment to develop such a technology.

  9. Evaluation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-generation during oxygen reduction at electrodeposited Pt particles on mask scratched electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Akira; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp

    2013-08-15

    In this study, the Pt particle deposition was systematically performed by our proposed mask scratch and subsequent Pt electrodeposition in order to investigate the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-byproduct generation efficiency during O{sub 2} reduction. By peeling a part of polymer layer coated on a glassy carbon substrate using an atomic force microscope cantilever, scratched areas are regularly made. The Pt particles are deposited only on the above-mentioned scratched areas, indicating that the controlled Pt deposition has been achieved. The background cyclic voltammetry of the prepared electrodes showed that the deposited nanoparticles are certainly composed of Pt. Moreover, the electrochemical surface area of the deposited Pt (Pt-ESA) linearly increases with the increasing scratched area, revealing that the Pt-ESAs can be controlled by the mask scratch-based Pt electrodeposition method. It should be noted that an increase in the Pt-ESA not only increases the O{sub 2} reduction currents, but also enhances the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation efficiency.

  10. A Phase II Trial of 17-Allylamino-17-Demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) in Patients with Hormone-Refractory Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Elisabeth I.; Hillman, David W.; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Sheng, Shijie; Sarkar, Fazlul; Harper, Felicity; Gaskins, Melvin; Pitot, Henry C.; Tan, Winston; Ivy, S. Percy; Pili, Roberto; Carducci, Michael A.; Liu, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose 17-Allylamino-17-Demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic with anti-proliferative activity in several mouse xenograft models including prostate cancer models. A two-stage phase II study was conducted to assess the activity and toxicity profile of 17-AAG administered to patients with metastatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Experimental Design Patients with at least one prior systemic therapy and a rising PSA were eligible. Patients received 17-AAG at a dose of 300 mg/m2 IV weekly for three out of four weeks. The primary objective was to assess the PSA response. Secondary objectives were to determine overall survival, to assess toxicity, to measure IL-6, IL-8 and maspin levels and quality of life. Results Fifteen eligible patients were enrolled. The median age was 68 years and the median PSA was 261 ng/mL. Patients received 17-AAG for a median number of 2 cycles. Severe adverse events included: grade 3 fatigue (4 pts), grade 3 lymphopenia (2 pts) and grade 3 back pain (2 pts). The median PSA progression free survival was 1.8 months (95% CI: 1.3–3.4 months). The six-month overall survival was 71% (95% CI: 52%–100%). Conclusion 17-AAG did not show any activity with regards to PSA response. Due to insufficient PSA response, enrollment was stopped at end of first stage per study design. The most significant severe toxicity was grade 3 fatigue. Further evaluation of 17-AAG at a dose of 300 mg/m2 IV weekly as a single agent in patients with metastatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer who received at least one prior systemic therapy is not warranted. PMID:19047126

  11. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slope be utilized in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However, comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of the masking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated...... with the same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be the audio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise. Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noise maskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths are fixed...... in accordance with psycho-acoustical principles. Masker frequencies of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz have been investigated, and the masking of pure tone probes has been determined in the first four 1/3 octaves above the masker. Modulation frequencies between 6 and 20 Hz were used with a modulation depth of 0...

  12. Inter- and intra-observer reliability of masking in plantar pressure measurement analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, K; Birch, I; Mc Innes, J; Desloovere, K; Matricali, G A

    2009-10-01

    Plantar pressure measurement is an important tool in gait analysis. Manual placement of small masks (masking) is increasingly used to calculate plantar pressure characteristics. Little is known concerning the reliability of manual masking. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of masking on 2D plantar pressure footprints, in a population with forefoot deformity (i.e. hallux valgus). Using a random repeated-measure design, four observers identified the third metatarsal head on a peak-pressure barefoot footprint, using a small mask. Subsequently, the location of all five metatarsal heads was identified, using the same size of masks and the same protocol. The 2D positional variation of the masks and the peak pressure (PP) and pressure time integral (PTI) values of each mask were calculated. For single-masking the lowest inter-observer reliability was found for the distal-proximal direction, causing a clear, adverse impact on the reliability of the pressure characteristics (PP and PTI). In the medial-lateral direction the inter-observer reliability could be scored as high. Intra-observer reliability was better and could be scored as high or good for both directions, with a correlated improved reliability of the pressure characteristics. Reliability of multi-masking showed a similar pattern, but overall values tended to be lower. Therefore, small sized masking in order to define pressure characteristics in the forefoot should be done with care.

  13. Trial manufacture of round mask for TV fluoroscopic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Shoji; Matsumoto, Yukio

    1977-01-01

    Demands for revision of existing medical law were described together with an introduction of TV fluoroscopic unit. Round mask, which does not always press out the bottom face of used x-ray beam from the effective primary fluorescent face of photomultiplier inspite of shifting of a spot in time of TV fluoroscopy, was manufactured for trial, and it was furnished with already established fluoroscopic stand. It is used in daily examination without any trouble. Round mask was divided into two parts, and opened upward and downward quickly by lod motor in time of photographing. Multiple iris was operated in order to fit to film size, and round mask was closed at the same time of the finishment of photographing and fluoroscopy was performed again. Item 3 of Para 2 of Art 30 of the existing medical low states that it is good not to press out, the distance between x-ray focus and fluorescent screen, and used x-ray beam from fluorescent screen. However, a regulation, which states that x-ray beam should not be pressed out from effective primary fluorescent face in x-ray fluoroscopy using photomultiplier, must be added. Improvement of the existing unit is expected, and decrease of unnecessary exposure even in small amount is proposed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  14. Masks: The Artist in Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Whether masks are made from cardboard, papier-mache, metal, wood, leather, fabric, clay or any combination of these materials, they bring out the artist in people. Young children like to wear masks when they play to pretend they were another person or animal. Masks let them fantasize and be creative. The author's students made masks representing…

  15. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  16. Exploiting Small Leakages in Masks to Turn a Second-Order Attack into a First-Order Attack and Improved Rotating Substitution Box Masking with Linear Code Cosets

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTrano, Alexander; Karimi, Naghmeh; Karri, Ramesh; Guo, Xiaofei; Carlet, Claude; Guilley, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Masking countermeasures, used to thwart side-channel attacks, have been shown to be vulnerable to mask-extraction attacks. State-of-the-art mask-extraction attacks on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm target S-Box recomputation schemes but have not been applied to scenarios where S-Boxes are precomputed offline. We propose an attack targeting precomputed S-Boxes stored in nonvolatile memory. Our attack targets AES implemented in software protected by a low entropy masking scheme and recovers the masks with 91% success rate. Recovering the secret key requires fewer power traces (in fact, by at least two orders of magnitude) compared to a classical second-order attack. Moreover, we show that this attack remains viable in a noisy environment or with a reduced number of leakage points. Eventually, we specify a method to enhance the countermeasure by selecting a suitable coset of the masks set. PMID:26491717

  17. Fabrication technique for a custom face mask for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Ronald S; Colquitt, Tom

    2016-05-01

    The development of the positive airway pressure custom mask (TAP-PAP CM) has changed the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. The TAP-PAP CM is used in continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) and is fabricated from the impression of the face. This mask is then connected to a post screwed into the mechanism of the TAP3 (Thornton Anterior Positioner) oral appliance. This strapless CPAP face mask features an efficient and stable CPAP interface with mandibular stabilization (Hybrid Therapy). A technique with a 2-stage polyvinyl siloxane face impression is described that offers improvements over the established single-stage face impression. This 2-stage impression technique eliminates problems inherent in the single-stage face impression, including voids, compressed tissue, inadequate borders, and a rushed experience due to the setting time of the single stage. The result is a custom mask with an improved seal to the CPAP device. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-defect reflective mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, S C; Cerjarn, C; Kearney, P; Mirkarimi, P; Ray-Chaudhuri, A; Walton, C.

    1999-01-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithgraphy (EUVL) is an emerging technology for fabrication of sub-100 nm feature sizes on silicon, following the SIA road map well into the 21st century. The specific EUVL system described is a scanned, projection lithography system with a 4:1 reduction, using a laser plasma EUV source. The mask and all of the system optics are reflective, multilayer mirrors which function in the extreme ultraviolet at 13.4 nm wavelength. Since the masks are imaged to the wafer exposure plane, mask defects greater than 80% of the exposure plane CD (for 4:1 reduction) will in many cases render the mask useless, whereas intervening optics can have defects which are not a printing problem. For the 100 nm node, we must reduce defects to less than 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; at sign 80nm or larger to obtain acceptable mask production yields. We have succeeded in reducing the defects to less than 0.1/cm ampersand sup2; for defects larger than 130 nm detected by visible light inspection tools, however our program goal is to achieve 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; in the near future. More importantly though, we plan to have a detailed understanding of defect origination and the effect on multilayer growth in order to mitigate defects below the 10 -2 /cm ampersand sup2; level on the next generation of mask blank deposition systems. In this paper we will discuss issues and results from the ion-beam multilayer deposition tool, details of the defect detection and characterization facility, and progress on defect printability modeling

  19. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  20. Mask-less deposition of Au–SnO_2 nanocomposites on CMOS MEMS platform for ethanol detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, S; Sinha, A K; Ray, S K; De Luca, A; Udrea, F; Ali, S Z; Gardner, J W; Guha, P K

    2016-01-01

    Here we report on the mask-less deposition of Au–SnO_2 nanocomposites with a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) platform through the use of dip pen nanolithography (DPN) to create a low-cost ethanol sensor. MEMS technology is used in order to achieve low power consumption, by the employment of a membrane structure formed using deep reactive ion etching technique. The device consists of an embedded tungsten micro-heater with gold interdigitated electrodes on top of the SOI membrane. The tungsten micro-heater is used to raise the membrane temperature up to its operating temperature and the electrodes are used to measure the resistance of the nanocomposite sensing layer. The CMOS MEMS devices have high electro-thermal efficiency, with 8.2 °C temperature increase per mW power of consumption. The sensing material (Au–SnO_2 nanocomposite) was synthesised starting from SnO nanoplates, then Au nanoparticles were attached chemically to the surface of SnO nanoplates, finally the mixture was heated at 700 °C in an oven in air for 4 h. This composite material was sonicated for 2 h in terpineol to make a viscous homogeneous slurry and then ‘written’ directly across the electrode area using the DPN technique without any mask. The devices were characterised by exposure to ethanol vapour in humid air in the concentration range of 100–1000 ppm. The sensitivity varied from 1.2 to 0.27 ppm"−"1 for 100–1000 ppm of ethanol at 10% relative humid air. Selectivity measurements showed that the sensors were selective towards ethanol when they were exposed to acetone and toluene. (paper)

  1. Mapping the Heiles Supershell GSH 90-28-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Sharon Lynn; Beckey, Jacob Lucas; Welsh, Barry; Kuehne, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Large-diameter shells of neutral gas called superbubbles were first detected by the 21-cm radio surveys of Heiles (1979,1984) and are likely formed by stellar winds and supernova explosions. Some of these interstellar voids (including GSH 90-28-17) span more than 10 degrees of the sky. However, only a few studies have been able to identify the power source of a particular Heiles shell. The problem is that HI 21cm emission can arise at all distances along a given sight-line, so while we many know the speed at which neutral gas is moving, we do not know the distance of this gas. Indeed, a given line of sight may penetrate multiple shell walls making the interpretation of the radio data very challenging.Here we report on an absorption study of the interstellar absorption lines of NaI, CaII, CaI, CH and CH+ detected towards nine stellar continuum sources with sight-line distances increasing from 90 pc to >1kpc in the direction of the supershell GSH 90-28-17. Our observations, recorded with the Sandiford echelle spectrograph on the 2.1m telescope at the McDonald Observatory (Texas) in August 2016, reveal gas components with velocities between -10 and -50 km/s orginating from distances >400 pc that we can associate with the expansion of the GSH 90-28-17 shell.

  2. Summation versus suppression in metacontrast masking: On the potential pitfalls of using metacontrast masking to assess perceptual-motor dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Waszak, Florian

    2014-07-01

    A briefly flashed target stimulus can become "invisible" when immediately followed by a mask-a phenomenon known as backward masking, which constitutes a major tool in the cognitive sciences. One form of backward masking is termed metacontrast masking. It is generally assumed that in metacontrast masking, the mask suppresses activity on which the conscious perception of the target relies. This assumption biases conclusions when masking is used as a tool-for example, to study the independence between perceptual detection and motor reaction. This is because other models can account for reduced perceptual performance without requiring suppression mechanisms. In this study, we used signal detection theory to test the suppression model against an alternative view of metacontrast masking, referred to as the summation model. This model claims that target- and mask-related activations fuse and that the difficulty in detecting the target results from the difficulty to discriminate this fused response from the response produced by the mask alone. Our data support this alternative view. This study is not a thorough investigation of metacontrast masking. Instead, we wanted to point out that when a different model is used to account for the reduced perceptual performance in metacontrast masking, there is no need to postulate a dissociation between perceptual and motor responses to account for the data. Metacontrast masking, as implemented in the Fehrer-Raab situation, therefore is not a valid method to assess perceptual-motor dissociations.

  3. [Thermoplastic mask in radiotherapy: a source of anxiety for the patient?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arino, C; Stadelmaier, N; Dupin, C; Kantor, G; Henriques de Figueiredo, B

    2014-12-01

    The thermoplastic mask often used to immobilize patients in radiotherapy can cause varying levels of stress and anxiety. This study aimed at evaluating the anxiety related to the use of radiotherapy masks and the coping strategies adopted by patients. Nineteen patients treated with radiotherapy mask for head and neck cancer, a brain tumour or a lymphoma, were met twice by a psychologist, either after the making of the mask and the first course of radiotherapy, or in the middle and at the end of treatment. Thirty-four semi-structured interviews were treated using a thematic content analysis and 13 patients answered to anxiety (STAI-YB) and coping (WCC) scales. The STAI-YB anxiety scores related to wearing the masks were low during the radiotherapy treatment period, and were confirmed by the remarks of patients recorded during the semi-structured interviews. Most patients had a positive perception of the mask, and considered it as a friend or protection. Twelve out of the 13 patients admitting to anxiety benefited from problem focused coping strategies. Thermoplastic mask-related anxiety is low and possibly lies in the positive representation patients have about the mask. The explanations provided by health professionals on the radiotherapy mask possibly have a very positive effect on this perception. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. MOLECULAR GAS ALONG A BRIGHT H α FILAMENT IN 2A 0335+096 REVEALED BY ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vantyghem, A. N.; McNamara, B. R.; Hogan, M. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Russell, H. R.; Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Edge, A. C. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Nulsen, P. E. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Combes, F.; Salomé, P. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, PSL Univ., 61 avenue de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Baum, S. A.; O’Dea, C. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Donahue, M.; Voit, G. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 567 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Main, R. A.; Murray, N. W.; Parrish, I. J [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); O’Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400235, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Oonk, J. B. R. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, NL-7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Sanders, J. S. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tremblay, G., E-mail: a2vantyg@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, 217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We present ALMA CO(1–0) and CO(3–2) observations of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the 2A 0335+096 galaxy cluster ( z  = 0.0346). The total molecular gas mass of 1.13 ± 0.15 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙} is divided into two components: a nuclear region and a 7 kpc long dusty filament. The central molecular gas component accounts for 3.2 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙} of the total supply of cold gas. Instead of forming a rotationally supported ring or disk, it is composed of two distinct, blueshifted clumps south of the nucleus and a series of low-significance redshifted clumps extending toward a nearby companion galaxy. The velocity of the redshifted clouds increases with radius to a value consistent with the companion galaxy, suggesting that an interaction between these galaxies <20 Myr ago disrupted a pre-existing molecular gas reservoir within the BCG. Most of the molecular gas, 7.8 ± 0.9 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙}, is located in the filament. The CO emission is co-spatial with a 10{sup 4} K emission-line nebula and soft X-rays from 0.5 keV gas, indicating that the molecular gas has cooled out of the intracluster medium over a period of 25–100 Myr. The filament trails an X-ray cavity, suggesting that the gas has cooled from low-entropy gas that has been lifted out of the cluster core and become thermally unstable. We are unable to distinguish between inflow and outflow along the filament with the present data. Cloud velocities along the filament are consistent with gravitational free-fall near the plane of the sky, although their increasing blueshifts with radius are consistent with outflow.

  5. Correction: Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2011-11-30

    ABSTRACT: Following the publication of our article [Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2011, 5:122] it was brought to our attention that we inadvertently used the registered trademark of the Laryngeal Mask Company Limited (LMA) as the abbreviation for laryngeal mask airway. A Portex(R) Soft Seal(R) Laryngeal Mask was used and not a device manufactured by the Laryngeal Mask Company.

  6. GAS SURFACE DENSITY, STAR FORMATION RATE SURFACE DENSITY, AND THE MAXIMUM MASS OF YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN A DISK GALAXY. II. THE GRAND-DESIGN GALAXY M51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass and surface densities of total gasgas ), molecular gas (Σ H 2 ), neutral gas (Σ H I ), and star formation rate (Σ SFR ) in the grand-design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. By comparing the two-dimensional distribution of cluster masses and gas surface densities, we find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M 3rd ∝Σ H I 0.4±0.2 , whereM 3rd is the median of the five most massive clusters. There is no correlation withΣ gas ,Σ H2 , orΣ SFR . For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M 3rd ∝Σ H I 0.6±0.1 and M 3rd ∝Σ gas 0.5±0.2 ; there is no correlation with either Σ H 2 orΣ SFR . The results could hardly be more different from those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but we have determined M 3rd ∝Σ gas 3.8±0.3 , M 3rd ∝Σ H 2 1.2±0.1 , and M 3rd ∝Σ SFR 0.9±0.1 . For the older sample in M51, the lack of tight correlations is probably due to the combination of strong azimuthal variations in the surface densities of gas and star formation rate, and the cluster ages. These two facts mean that neither the azimuthal average of the surface densities at a given radius nor the surface densities at the present-day location of a stellar cluster represent the true surface densities at the place and time of cluster formation. In the case of the younger sample, even if the clusters have not yet traveled too far from their birth sites, the poor resolution of the radio data compared to the physical sizes of the clusters results in measuredΣ that are likely quite diluted compared to the actual densities relevant for the formation of the clusters.

  7. Fourier phasing with phase-uncertain mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannjiang, Albert; Liao, Wenjing

    2013-01-01

    Fourier phasing is the problem of retrieving Fourier phase information from Fourier intensity data. The standard Fourier phase retrieval (without a mask) is known to have many solutions which cause the standard phasing algorithms to stagnate and produce wrong or inaccurate solutions. In this paper Fourier phase retrieval is carried out with the introduction of a randomly fabricated mask in measurement and reconstruction. Highly probable uniqueness of solution, up to a global phase, was previously proved with exact knowledge of the mask. Here the uniqueness result is extended to the case where only rough information about the mask’s phases is assumed. The exponential probability bound for uniqueness is given in terms of the uncertainty-to-diversity ratio of the unknown mask. New phasing algorithms alternating between the object update and the mask update are systematically tested and demonstrated to have the capability of recovering both the object and the mask (within the object support) simultaneously, consistent with the uniqueness result. Phasing with a phase-uncertain mask is shown to be robust with respect to the correlation in the mask as well as the Gaussian and Poisson noises. (paper)

  8. Model-based virtual VSB mask writer verification for efficient mask error checking and optimization prior to MDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Robert C.; Standiford, Keith; Lukanc, Todd; Ning, Guo Xiang; Verma, Piyush; Batarseh, Fadi; Chua, Gek Soon; Fujimura, Akira; Pang, Linyong

    2014-10-01

    A methodology is described wherein a calibrated model-based `Virtual' Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) mask writer process simulator is used to accurately verify complex Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) and Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) mask designs prior to Mask Data Preparation (MDP) and mask fabrication. This type of verification addresses physical effects which occur in mask writing that may impact lithographic printing fidelity and variability. The work described here is motivated by requirements for extreme accuracy and control of variations for today's most demanding IC products. These extreme demands necessitate careful and detailed analysis of all potential sources of uncompensated error or variation and extreme control of these at each stage of the integrated OPC/ MDP/ Mask/ silicon lithography flow. The important potential sources of variation we focus on here originate on the basis of VSB mask writer physics and other errors inherent in the mask writing process. The deposited electron beam dose distribution may be examined in a manner similar to optical lithography aerial image analysis and image edge log-slope analysis. This approach enables one to catch, grade, and mitigate problems early and thus reduce the likelihood for costly long-loop iterations between OPC, MDP, and wafer fabrication flows. It moreover describes how to detect regions of a layout or mask where hotspots may occur or where the robustness to intrinsic variations may be improved by modification to the OPC, choice of mask technology, or by judicious design of VSB shots and dose assignment.

  9. A DETECTION OF GAS ASSOCIATED WITH THE M31 STELLAR STREAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Andreas [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Danforth, Charles W.; Keeney, Brian A. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rich, R. Michael [Physics and Astronomy Building, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ibata, Rodrigo [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11, rue de l’Université, F-67000, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-07-10

    Detailed studies of stellar populations in the halos of the Milky Way and the Andromeda (M31) galaxies have shown increasing numbers of tidal streams and dwarf galaxies, attesting to a complicated and on-going process of hierarchical structure formation. The most prominent feature in the halo of M31 is the Giant Stellar Stream, a structure ∼4.°5 in extent along the sky, which is close to, but not coincident with the galaxy's minor axis. The stars that make up this stream are kinematically and chemically distinct from the other stars in the halo. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph high-resolution ultraviolet absorption spectra of three active galactic nuclei sight lines which probe the M31 halo, including one that samples gas in the main southwestern portion of the Giant Stream. We see two clear absorption components in many metal species at velocities typical of the M31 halo and a third, blueshifted component which arises in the stream. Photoionization modeling of the column density ratios in the different components shows gas in an ionization state typical of that seen in other galaxy halo environments and suggests solar to slightly super-solar metallicity, consistent with previous findings from stellar spectroscopy.

  10. 17O solid-state NMR spectroscopy of A2B2O7 oxides: quantitative isotopic enrichment and spectral acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Arantxa; Moran, Robert F; Sneddon, Scott; Dawson, Daniel M; McKay, David; Bignami, Giulia P M; Blanc, Frédéric; Whittle, Karl R; Ashbrook, Sharon E

    2018-02-13

    The potential of 17 O NMR spectroscopy for the investigation of A 2 B 2 O 7 ceramic oxides important in the encapsulation of radioactive waste is demonstrated, with post-synthetic enrichment by exchange with 17 O 2 gas. For Y 2 Sn 2 O 7 , Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 and La 2 Sn 2 O 7 pyrochlores, enrichment of the two distinct O species is clearly non quantitative at lower temperatures (∼700 °C and below) and at shorter times, despite these being used in prior work, with preferential enrichment of OA 2 B 2 favoured over that of OA 4 . At higher temperatures, the 17 O NMR spectra suggest that quantitative enrichment has been achieved, but the integrated signal intensities do not reflect the crystallographic 1 : 6 (O1 : O2) ratio until corrected for differences in T 1 relaxation rates and, more importantly, the contribution of the satellite transitions. 17 O NMR spectra of Y 2 Zr 2 O 7 and Y 2 Hf 2 O 7 defect fluorites showed little difference with any variation in enrichment temperature or time, although an increase in the absolute level of enrichment (up to ∼7.5%) was observed at higher temperature. DFT calculations show that the six distinct resonances observed cannot be assigned unambiguously, as each has contributions from more than one of the five possible next nearest neighbour environments. For La 2 Ti 2 O 7 , which adopts a layered perovskite-like structure, little difference in the spectral intensities is observed with enrichment time or temperature, although the highest absolute levels of enrichment (∼13%) were obtained at higher temperature. This work demonstrates that 17 O NMR has the potential to be a powerful probe of local structure and disorder in oxides, but that considerable care must be taken both in choosing the conditions for 17 O enrichment and the experimental acquisition parameters if the necessary quantitative measurements are to be obtained for more complex systems.

  11. On a two-layer Si_3N_4/SiO_2 dielectric mask for low-resistance ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunyan, S. S.; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Pavlov, B. Yu.; Tomosh, K. N.; Fedorov, Yu. V.

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of a two-layer Si_3N_4/SiO_2 dielectric mask and features of its application in the technology of non-fired epitaxially grown ohmic contacts for high-power HEMTs on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are described. The proposed Si_3N_4/SiO_2 mask allows the selective epitaxial growth of heavily doped ohmic contacts by nitride molecular-beam epitaxy and the fabrication of non-fired ohmic contacts with a resistance of 0.15–0.2 Ω mm and a smooth surface and edge morphology.

  12. Increased IL-17 and 22 mRNA expression in pediatric patients with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Eun; Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sung Su; Shim, Haeng Seon; Kim, Min Gyeong; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2016-11-01

    Middle ear effusion has been reported to be associated with immune responses in patients with otitis media with effusion (OME). Although various cytokines are involved in immunologic responses in patients with OME, no study to date has assessed the involvement of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22. This study analyzed the levels of expression of IL-17 and IL-22 in the middle ear effusion of patients with OME. Patients aged Effusion fluid samples were obtained during surgery and levels of IL-17 and IL-22 mRNAs assessed by real-time PCR. IL-17 and IL-22 mRNA levels were compared in patients with effusion fluid positive and negative for bacteria; in patients with and without accompanying diseases, recurrent disease, and re-operation; and relative to fluid characteristics. The study cohort included 70 pediatric patients, 46 boys and 24 girls, of mean age 4.31 ± 2.11 years. The levels of IL-17 and IL-22 mRNA were higher in patients with than without sinusitis, but only IL-22 mRNA levels differed significantly (p < 0.05). The level of IL-17 mRNA was significantly higher in patients who did than did not undergo T&A (p < 0.05). The level of IL-22 expression was significantly higher in mucoid and purulent middle ear fluid samples than in serous fluid samples (p < 0.05). IL-17 and IL-22 mRNAs are involved in the pathophysiology of OME and are significantly higher in subjects with than without accompanying diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigations of X-ray response of single wire anode Ar-N2 flow type gas scintillation proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.P.; Sharma, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The X-ray response of single wire anode gas scintillation proportional counters of two different geometries operated with argon+nitrogen gases in continuous flow has been investigated with wire anodes of diameters 25 μm to 1.7 mm. An energy resolution of 19% is obtained for 5.9 keV X-rays entering the counter perpendicular to the anode in pill-box geometry with 25 μm diameter anode. With cylindrical geometry counters energy obtained at 5.9 keV are 18%, 24% and 33% for 50 μm, 0.5 mm and 1.7 mm diameter anodes respectively. An analysis of the observed resolution shows that the contribution from photon counting statistics to the relative variance of scintillation pulses even for X-rays in Ar-N 2 single wire anode gas scintillation proportional counters is small and is not a limiting factor. The energy resolution with thicker anodes, where the contribution from the variance of the charge multiplication factor also has been minimised, is found to deteriorate mainly by the interaction in the scintillation production region. Comments are made on the possibility of improvement in energy resolution by suppression of pulses due to such interactions with the help of the pulse risetime discrimination technique. (orig.)

  14. A pattern-based method to automate mask inspection files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal Baharin, Ezni Aznida Binti; Muhsain, Mohamad Fahmi Bin; Ahmad Ibrahim, Muhamad Asraf Bin; Ahmad Noorhani, Ahmad Nurul Ihsan Bin; Sweis, Jason; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Hurat, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Mask inspection is a critical step in the mask manufacturing process in order to ensure all dimensions printed are within the needed tolerances. This becomes even more challenging as the device nodes shrink and the complexity of the tapeout increases. Thus, the amount of measurement points and their critical dimension (CD) types are increasing to ensure the quality of the mask. In addition to the mask quality, there is a significant amount of manpower needed when the preparation and debugging of this process are not automated. By utilizing a novel pattern search technology with the ability to measure and report match region scan-line (edge) measurements, we can create a flow to find, measure and mark all metrology locations of interest and provide this automated report to the mask shop for inspection. A digital library is created based on the technology product and node which contains the test patterns to be measured. This paper will discuss how these digital libraries will be generated and then utilized. As a time-critical part of the manufacturing process, this can also reduce the data preparation cycle time, minimize the amount of manual/human error in naming and measuring the various locations, reduce the risk of wrong/missing CD locations, and reduce the amount of manpower needed overall. We will also review an example pattern and how the reporting structure to the mask shop can be processed. This entire process can now be fully automated.

  15. Taming the Wildness of "Trojan-Horse" Peptides by Charge-Guided Masking and Protease-Triggered Demasking for the Controlled Delivery of Antitumor Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Nian-Qiu; Qi, Xian-Rong

    2017-03-29

    Cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), also called "Trojan Horse" peptide, has become a successful approach to deliver various payloads into cells for achieving the intracellular access. However, the "Trojan Horse" peptide is too wild, not just to "Troy", but rather widely distributed in the body. Thus, there is an urgent need to tame the wildness of "Trojan Horse" peptide for targeted delivery of antineoplastic agents to the tumor site. To achieve this goal, we exploit a masked CPP-doxorubicin conjugate platform for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs using charge-guided masking and protease-triggered demasking strategies. In this platform, the cell-penetrating function of the positively CPP (d-form nonaarginine) is abrogated by a negatively shielding peptide (masked CPP), and between them is a cleavable substrate peptide by the protease (MMP-2/9). Protease-triggered demasking would occur when the masked CPP reached the MMP-2/9-riched tumor. The CPP-doxorubicin conjugate (CPP-Dox) and the masked CPP-Dox conjugate (mCPP-Dox) were used as models for the evaluation of masking and demasking processes. It was found that exogenous MMP-2/9 could effectively trigger the reversion of CPP-cargo in this conjugate, and this trigger adhered to the Michaelis-Menten kinetics profile. This conjugate was sensitive to the trigger of endogenous MMP-2/9 and could induce enhanced cytotoxicity toward MMP-2/9-rich tumor cells. In vivo antitumor efficacy revealed that this masked conjugate had considerable antitumor activity and could inhibit the tumor growth at a higher level relative to CPP-cargo. Low toxicity in vivo showed the noticeably decreased wildness of this conjugate toward normal tissues and more controllable entry of antitumor agents into "Troy". On the basis of analyses in vitro and in vivo, this mCPP-cargo conjugate delivery system held an improved selectivity toward MMP-2/9-rich tumors and would be a promising strategy for tumor-targeted treatment.

  16. Laser micromachined wax-covered plastic paper as both sputter deposition shadow masks and deep-ultraviolet patterning masks for polymethylmethacrylate-based microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-12-16

    We report a technically innovative method of fabricating masks for both deep-ultraviolet (UV) patterning and metal sputtering on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for microfluidic systems. We used a CO2 laser system to cut the required patterns on wax-covered plastic paper; the laser-patterned wax paper will either work as a mask for deep-UV patterning or as a mask for metal sputtering. A microfluidic device was also fabricated to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The device has two layers: the first layer is a 1-mm thick PMMA substrate that was patterned by deep-UV exposure to create microchannels. The mask used in this process was the laser-cut wax paper. The second layer, also a 1-mm thick PMMA layer, was gold sputtered with patterned wax paper as the shadow mask. These two pieces of PMMA were then bonded to form microchannels with exposed electrodes. This process is a simple and rapid method for creating integrated microfluidic systems that do not require cleanroom facilities.

  17. 1995 mask industry quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Strott, Al

    1995-12-01

    The third annual mask industry assessment will again survey various industry companies for key performance measurements in the areas of quality and delivery. This year's assessment is enhanced to include the area of safety and further breakdown of the data into 5-inch vs. 6- inch. The data compiled includes shipments, customer return rate, customer return reason, performance to schedule, plate survival yield, and throughput time (TPT) from 1988 through Q2, 1995. Contributor identities remain protected by utilizing Arthur Andersen & Company to ensure participant confidentiality. Participation in the past included representation of over 75% of the total merchant and captive mask volume in the United States. This year's assessment is expected to result in expanded participation by again inviting all mask suppliers domestically to participate as well as an impact from inviting international suppliers to participate.

  18. Electron multibeam technology for mask and wafer writing at 0.1 nm address grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzgummer, Elmar; Klein, Christof; Loeschner, Hans

    2013-07-01

    IMS Nanofabrication realized a 50 keV electron multibeam proof-of-concept (POC) tool confirming writing principles with 0.1 nm address grid and lithography performance capability. The POC system achieves the predicted 5 nm 1 sigma blur across the 82 μm×82 μm array of 512×512 (262,144) programmable 20 nm beams. 24-nm half pitch (HP) has been demonstrated and complex patterns have been written in scanning stripe exposure mode. The first production worthy system for the 11-nm HP mask node is scheduled for 2014 (Alpha), 2015 (Beta), and first-generation high-volume manufacturing multibeam mask writer (MBMW) tools in 2016. In these MBMW systems the max beam current through the column is 1 μA. The new architecture has also the potential for 1× mask (master template) writing. Substantial further developments are needed for maskless e-beam direct write (EBDW) applications as a beam current of >2 mA is needed to achieve 100 wafer per hour industrial targets for 300 mm wafer size. Necessary productivity enhancements of more than three orders of magnitude are only possible by shrinking the multibeam optics such that 50 to 100 subcolumns can be placed on the area of a 300 mm wafer and by clustering 10 to 20 multicolumn tools. An overview of current EBDW efforts is provided.

  19. Titanium dioxide fine structures by RF magnetron sputter method deposited on an electron-beam resist mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Hideomi; Miyazaki, Yuta; Matsushita, Sachiko

    2013-09-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been draw attention for wide range of applications from photonic crystals for visible light range by its catalytic characteristics to tera-hertz range by its high refractive index. We present an experimental study of fabrication of fine structures of TiO2 with a ZEP electron beam resist mask followed by Ti sputter deposition techniques. A TiO2 thin layer of 150 nm thick was grown on an FTO glass substrate with a fine patterned ZEP resist mask by a conventional RF magnetron sputter method with Ti target. The deposition was carried out with argon-oxygen gases at a pressure of 5.0 x 10 -1 Pa in a chamber. During the deposition, ratio of Ar-O2 gas was kept to the ratio of 2:1 and the deposition ratio was around 0.5 Å/s to ensure enough oxygen to form TiO2 and low temperature to avoid deformation of fine pattern of the ZPU resist mask. Deposited TiO2 layers are white-transparent, amorphous, and those roughnesses are around 7 nm. Fabricated TiO2 PCs have wider TiO2 slabs of 112 nm width leaving periodic 410 x 410 nm2 air gaps. We also studied transformation of TiO2 layers and TiO2 fine structures by baking at 500 °C. XRD measurement for TiO2 shows that the amorphous TiO2 transforms to rutile and anatase forms by the baking while keeping the same profile of the fine structures. Our fabrication method can be one of a promising technique to optic devices on researches and industrial area.

  20. Computing Challenges in Coded Mask Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This slide presaentation reviews the complications and challenges in developing computer systems for Coded Mask Imaging telescopes. The coded mask technique is used when there is no other way to create the telescope, (i.e., when there are wide fields of view, high energies for focusing or low energies for the Compton/Tracker Techniques and very good angular resolution.) The coded mask telescope is described, and the mask is reviewed. The coded Masks for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) instruments are shown, and a chart showing the types of position sensitive detectors used for the coded mask telescopes is also reviewed. Slides describe the mechanism of recovering an image from the masked pattern. The correlation with the mask pattern is described. The Matrix approach is reviewed, and other approaches to image reconstruction are described. Included in the presentation is a review of the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) / High Energy Telescope (HET), with information about the mission, the operation of the telescope, comparison of the EXIST/HET with the SWIFT/BAT and details of the design of the EXIST/HET.

  1. Optimum design of a coded mask X-ray telescope for rocket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunson, J.; Polychronopulos, B.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the principles of current X-ray telescopes is made with particular emphasis on two-step imaging techniques involving coding masks. The merits and limitations of the various types of coding masks in use are examined in detail. The limitations are shown to arise from the finite nature of practical masks. By postulating periodicity, 'optimum masks' can be constructed with ideal imaging qualities. The theory for the design of such masks and the practical considerations involved in the design of a rocket-borne X-ray telescope system are discussed in full, with particular attention paid to resolution, field of view and image noise. The main emphasis throughout the paper is on one-dimensional masks but two-dimensional masks are also studied. It is concluded that optimum masks could prove very valuable in astronomical applications and also in other fields such as radiography, where high imaging quality coupled with high sensitivity and low cost are of utmost importance. (author)

  2. Brightness masking is modulated by disparity structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Vassilis; Ban, Hiroshi; Welchman, Andrew E

    2015-05-01

    The luminance contrast at the borders of a surface strongly influences surface's apparent brightness, as demonstrated by a number of classic visual illusions. Such phenomena are compatible with a propagation mechanism believed to spread contrast information from borders to the interior. This process is disrupted by masking, where the perceived brightness of a target is reduced by the brief presentation of a mask (Paradiso & Nakayama, 1991), but the exact visual stage that this happens remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether brightness masking occurs at a monocular-, or a binocular-level of the visual hierarchy. We used backward masking, whereby a briefly presented target stimulus is disrupted by a mask coming soon afterwards, to show that brightness masking is affected by binocular stages of the visual processing. We manipulated the 3-D configurations (slant direction) of the target and mask and measured the differential disruption that masking causes on brightness estimation. We found that the masking effect was weaker when stimuli had a different slant. We suggest that brightness masking is partly mediated by mid-level neuronal mechanisms, at a stage where binocular disparity edge structure has been extracted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. A common deletion in the uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) 2B17 gene is a strong determinant of androgen excretion in healthy pubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Sørensen, K; Aksglaede, L

    2008-01-01

    2B17 genotypes on urinary excretion of androgen metabolites in pubertal boys. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical study of 116 healthy boys aged 8-19 yr. UGT2B17 genotyping was performed using quantitative PCR. Serum FSH, LH, T, estradiol (E2), and SHBG were analyzed by immunoassays, and urinary levels......BACKGROUND: Testosterone (T) is excreted in urine as water-soluble glucuronidated and sulfated conjugates. The ability to glucuronidate T and other steroids depends on a number of different glucuronidases (UGT) of which UGT2B17 is essential. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of UGT...... of androgen metabolites were quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in all subjects. RESULTS: Ten of 116 subjects (9%) presented with a homozygote deletion of the UGT2B17 gene (del/del), whereas 52 and 54 boys were hetero- and homozygous carriers of the UGT2B17 gene (del/ins and ins...

  4. A mask quality control tool for the OSIRIS multi-object spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, J. C.; Vaz Cedillo, Jacinto Javier; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Ángel; González Escalera, Víctor

    2012-09-01

    OSIRIS multi object spectrograph uses a set of user-customised-masks, which are manufactured on-demand. The manufacturing process consists of drilling the specified slits on the mask with the required accuracy. Ensuring that slits are on the right place when observing is of vital importance. We present a tool for checking the quality of the process of manufacturing the masks which is based on analyzing the instrument images obtained with the manufactured masks on place. The tool extracts the slit information from these images, relates specifications with the extracted slit information, and finally communicates to the operator if the manufactured mask fulfills the expectations of the mask designer. The proposed tool has been built using scripting languages and using standard libraries such as opencv, pyraf and scipy. The software architecture, advantages and limits of this tool in the lifecycle of a multiobject acquisition are presented.

  5. SU-E-T-65: A Prospective Trial of Open Face Masks for Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiant, D; Squire, S; Maurer, J; Liu, H; Hayes, L; Sintay, B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Open face head and neck masks allow for active patient monitoring during treatment and may reduced claustrophobia and anxiety compared to closed masks. The ability of open masks to limit intrafraction motion and to preserve the patient shape/position from simulation over protracted treatments should be considered. Methods: Thirty-two head and neck patients were prospectively randomized to treatment in a closed mask or a novel open face mask. All patients received daily volumetric imaging. The daily images were automatically rigidly registered to the planning CT’s offline using a commercial image processing tool. The shifts needed to optimize the registration, the mutual information coefficient (MI), and the Pearson correlation (PC) coefficients were recorded to evaluate shape preservation. The open group was set-up and monitored with surface imaging at treatment. The real time surface imaging information was recorded to evaluate intrafraction motion. Results: Sixteen patients were included in each group. Evaluations were made over a total of 984 fractions. The mean MI and PC showed significantly higher shape preservation for the open group than for the closed group (p = 0). The mean rotations for the open group were smaller or < 0.15° larger versus the closed group. The mean intrafraction motion for the open group was 0.93 +/−0.99 mm (2 SD). The maximum single fraction displacement was 3.2 mm. Fourteen of 16 patients showed no significant correlation of motion with fraction number (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The open masks preserved shape as well as the closed masks, and they limited motion to < 2 mm for 95% of the treated fractions. These results are consistent over treatment courses of up to 35 fractions. The open mask is suitable for treatment with or without active monitoring. This work was partially supported by Qfix

  6. SU-E-T-65: A Prospective Trial of Open Face Masks for Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, D; Squire, S; Maurer, J; Liu, H; Hayes, L; Sintay, B [Cone Health Cancer Center, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Open face head and neck masks allow for active patient monitoring during treatment and may reduced claustrophobia and anxiety compared to closed masks. The ability of open masks to limit intrafraction motion and to preserve the patient shape/position from simulation over protracted treatments should be considered. Methods: Thirty-two head and neck patients were prospectively randomized to treatment in a closed mask or a novel open face mask. All patients received daily volumetric imaging. The daily images were automatically rigidly registered to the planning CT’s offline using a commercial image processing tool. The shifts needed to optimize the registration, the mutual information coefficient (MI), and the Pearson correlation (PC) coefficients were recorded to evaluate shape preservation. The open group was set-up and monitored with surface imaging at treatment. The real time surface imaging information was recorded to evaluate intrafraction motion. Results: Sixteen patients were included in each group. Evaluations were made over a total of 984 fractions. The mean MI and PC showed significantly higher shape preservation for the open group than for the closed group (p = 0). The mean rotations for the open group were smaller or < 0.15° larger versus the closed group. The mean intrafraction motion for the open group was 0.93 +/−0.99 mm (2 SD). The maximum single fraction displacement was 3.2 mm. Fourteen of 16 patients showed no significant correlation of motion with fraction number (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The open masks preserved shape as well as the closed masks, and they limited motion to < 2 mm for 95% of the treated fractions. These results are consistent over treatment courses of up to 35 fractions. The open mask is suitable for treatment with or without active monitoring. This work was partially supported by Qfix.

  7. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Metacontrast masking is processed before grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Michael Patrick; Bridgeman, Bruce; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the physiological mechanism of grapheme-color synesthesia using metacontrast masking. A metacontrast target is rendered invisible by a mask that is delayed by about 60 ms; the target and mask do not overlap in space or time. Little masking occurs, however, if the target and mask are simultaneous. This effect must be cortical, because it can be obtained dichoptically. To compare the data for synesthetes and controls, we developed a metacontrast design in which nonsynesthete controls showed weaker dichromatic masking (i.e., the target and mask were in different colors) than monochromatic masking. We accomplished this with an equiluminant target, mask, and background for each observer. If synesthetic color affected metacontrast, synesthetes should show monochromatic masking more similar to the weak dichromatic masking among controls, because synesthetes could add their synesthetic color to the monochromatic condition. The target-mask pairs used for each synesthete were graphemes that elicited strong synesthetic colors. We found stronger monochromatic than dichromatic U-shaped metacontrast for both synesthetes and controls, with optimal masking at an asynchrony of 66 ms. The difference in performance between the monochromatic and dichromatic conditions in the synesthetes indicates that synesthesia occurs at a later processing stage than does metacontrast masking.

  9. The gas-liquid chromatography of carboxylic acid esters of the urinary 11-deoxy-17-oxo steroids. Determination as n-butyrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, P A; Kellie, A E

    1967-06-01

    1. The gas-liquid-chromatographic separations of the acetate, propionate, n-butyrate, isobutyrate and n-valerate esters of androsterone, aetiocholanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone were studied on a 1% neopentyl glycol sebacate column. The n-butyrate, isobutyrate and n-valerate esters were well resolved. 2. The three steroids derived from hydrolysed urinary 17-oxo steroid conjugate extracts were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography after conversion into their n-butyrate esters. The results were compared with independent determinations involving chromatography on alumina.

  10. The Moody Mask Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarke Alexander; Andkjær, Kasper Ingdahl; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new relation model, called "The Moody Mask model", for Interactive Digital Storytelling (IDS), based on Franceso Osborne's "Mask Model" from 2011. This, mixed with some elements from Chris Crawford's Personality Models, is a system designed for dynamic interaction between ch...

  11. Effect of ring rotation upon gas adsorption in SIFSIX-3-M (M = Fe, Ni) pillared square grid networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaidi, Sameh K; Mohamed, Mona H; Simon, Cory M; Braun, Efrem; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Xu, Wenqian; Banerjee, Debasis; Space, Brian; Zaworotko, Michael J; Thallapally, Praveen K

    2017-03-01

    Dynamic and flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that respond to external stimuli, such as stress, light, heat, and the presence of guest molecules, hold promise for applications in chemical sensing, drug delivery, gas separations, and catalysis. A greater understanding of the relationship between flexible constituents in MOFs and gas adsorption may enable the rational design of MOFs with dynamic moieties and stimuli-responsive behavior. Here, we detail the effect of subtle structural changes upon the gas sorption behavior of two "SIFSIX" pillared square grid frameworks, namely SIFSIX-3-M (M = Ni, Fe). We observe a pronounced inflection in the Xe adsorption isotherm in the Ni variant. With evidence from X-ray diffraction studies, density functional theory, and molecular simulations, we attribute the inflection to a disordered to ordered transition of the rotational configurations of the pyrazine rings induced by sorbate-sorbent interactions. We also address the effect of cage size, temperature, and sorbate on the guest-induced ring rotation and the adsorption isotherms. The absence of an inflection in the Xe adsorption isotherm in SIFSIX-3-Fe and in the Kr, N 2 , and CO 2 adsorption isotherms in SIFSIX-3-Ni suggest that the inflection is highly sensitive to the match between the size of the cage and the guest molecule.

  12. Thermal behavior of TAXN and TCDXM D2 collimator mask, Finite element studies

    CERN Document Server

    Sklariks, Stepans

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to perform thermal loading simulations of TCDXM (D2 collimator mask) and TAXN so as to allow the preliminary evaluation of the suitability of the given parts for the upcoming high luminosity upgrade that is to be performed in LHC in the nearest future.

  13. Deep reactive ion etching of fused silica using a single-coated soft mask layer for bio-analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Tathagata; Zhu, Haixin; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we present our results from process development and characterization of reactive ion etching (RIE) of fused silica using a single-coated soft masking layer (KMPR® 1025, Microchem Corporation, Newton, MA). The effects of a number of fluorine-radical-based gaseous chemistries, the gas flow rate, RF power and chamber pressure on the etch rate and etching selectivity of fused silica were studied using factorial experimental designs. RF power and pressure were found to be the most important factors in determining the etch rate. The highest fused silica etch rate obtained was about 933 Å min −1 by using SF 6 -based gas chemistry, and the highest etching selectivity between the fused silica and KMPR® 1025 was up to 1.2 using a combination of CF 4 , CHF 3 and Ar. Up to 30 µm deep microstructures have been successfully fabricated using the developed processes. The average area roughness (R a ) of the etched surface was measured and results showed it is comparable to the roughness obtained using a wet etching technique. Additionally, near-vertical sidewalls (with a taper angle up to 85°) have been obtained for the etched microstructures. The processes developed here can be applied to any application requiring fabrication of deep microstructures in fused silica with near-vertical sidewalls. To our knowledge, this is the first note on deep RIE of fused silica using a single-coated KMPR® 1025 masking layer and a non-ICP-based reactive ion etcher. (technical note)

  14. APPLICATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF PLANAR STRUCTURES IN MANUFACTURING MASTER MASKS OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS ON PHOTO-MASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Avakov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the concept of defect-free manufacturing of master masks of IC on photo-masks, two Belarusian sets of optomechanical equipment for 0,3 5 p and 90 nanometers are presented in the paper. Each of the sets comprises:   • Multi-channel laser pattern generator; • Automatic mask defect inspection system; • Laser-based mask defect repair system.The paper contains description of automatic mask defect inspection process during photo-mask manufacturing and respective basic technological operations of the processes.Advantages of a complex approach to the development of a set of opto-mechanical equipment for defect-free manufacturing of photo-masks have been analyzed in the paper. 

  15. Respiratory source control using a surgical mask: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajeev B; Skaria, Shaji D; Mansour, Mohamed M; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2016-07-01

    Cough etiquette and respiratory hygiene are forms of source control encouraged to prevent the spread of respiratory infection. The use of surgical masks as a means of source control has not been quantified in terms of reducing exposure to others. We designed an in vitro model using various facepieces to assess their contribution to exposure reduction when worn at the infectious source (Source) relative to facepieces worn for primary (Receiver) protection, and the factors that contribute to each. In a chamber with various airflows, radiolabeled aerosols were exhaled via a ventilated soft-face manikin head using tidal breathing and cough (Source). Another manikin, containing a filter, quantified recipient exposure (Receiver). The natural fit surgical mask, fitted (SecureFit) surgical mask and an N95-class filtering facepiece respirator (commonly known as an "N95 respirator") with and without a Vaseline-seal were tested. With cough, source control (mask or respirator on Source) was statistically superior to mask or unsealed respirator protection on the Receiver (Receiver protection) in all environments. To equal source control during coughing, the N95 respirator must be Vaseline-sealed. During tidal breathing, source control was comparable or superior to mask or respirator protection on the Receiver. Source control via surgical masks may be an important adjunct defense against the spread of respiratory infections. The fit of the mask or respirator, in combination with the airflow patterns in a given setting, are significant contributors to source control efficacy. Future clinical trials should include a surgical mask source control arm to assess the contribution of source control in overall protection against airborne infection.

  16. Filter penetration and breathing resistance evaluation of respirators and dust masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Joel; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the filter performance of a representative selection of uncertified dust masks relative to the filter performance of a set of NIOSH-approved N95 filtering face-piece respirators (FFRs). Five different models of commercially available dust masks were selected for this study. Filter penetration of new dust masks was evaluated against a sodium chloride aerosol. Breathing resistance (BR) of new dust masks and FFRs was then measured for 120 min while challenging the dust masks and FFRs with Arizona road dust (ARD) at 25°C and 30% relative humidity. Results demonstrated that a wide range of maximum filter penetration was observed among the dust masks tested in this study (3-75% at the most penetrating particle size (p masks did not vary greatly (8-13 mm H 2 O) but were significantly different (p mask. Microscopic analysis of the external layer of each dust mask and FFR suggests that different collection media in the external layer influences the development of the dust layer and therefore affects the increase in BR differently between the tested models. Two of the dust masks had penetration values masks, those with penetration > 15%, had quality factors ranging between 0.04-0.15 primarily because their initial BR remained relatively high. These results indicate that some dust masks analysed during this research did not have an expected very low BR to compensate for their high penetration.

  17. Pattern transfer with stabilized nanoparticle etch masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, Charles R; Majetich, Sara A; Picard, Yoosuf N; Narasimhan, Amrit; Bain, James A

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembled nanoparticle monolayer arrays are used as an etch mask for pattern transfer into Si and SiO x substrates. Crack formation within the array is prevented by electron beam curing to fix the nanoparticles to the substrate, followed by a brief oxygen plasma to remove excess carbon. This leaves a dot array of nanoparticle cores with a minimum gap of 2 nm. Deposition and liftoff can transform the dot array mask into an antidot mask, where the gap is determined by the nanoparticle core diameter. Reactive ion etching is used to transfer the dot and antidot patterns into the substrate. The effect of the gap size on the etching rate is modeled and compared with the experimental results. (paper)

  18. GABAA agonist reduces visual awareness : a masking-EEG experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Anouk M; Scholte, H Steven; van Gaal, Simon; van der Hoort, Björn J J; Lamme, Victor A F

    Consciousness can be manipulated in many ways. Here, we seek to understand whether two such ways, visual masking and pharmacological intervention, share a common pathway in manipulating visual consciousness. We recorded EEG from human participants who performed a backward-masking task in which they

  19. High-Temperature Corrosion of AlCrSiN Film in Ar-1%SO2 Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Yadav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AlCrSiN film with a composition of 29.1Al-17.1Cr-2.1Si-51.7N in at. % was deposited on a steel substrate by cathodic arc ion plating at a thickness of 1.8 μm. It consisted of nanocrystalline hcp-AlN and fcc-CrN, where a small amount of Si was dissolved. Corrosion tests were carried out at 800 °C for 5–200 h in Ar-1%SO2 gas. The major corrosion reaction was oxidation owing to the high oxygen affinity of Al and Cr in the film. The formed oxide scale consisted primarily of (Al,Cr2O3, within which Fe, Si, and S were dissolved. Even after corrosion for 200 h, the thickness of the scale was about 0.7–1.2 μm, indicating that the film had good corrosion resistance in the SO2-containing atmosphere.

  20. MASKED AREAS IN SHEAR PEAK STATISTICS: A FORWARD MODELING APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, D.; Kratochvil, J. M.; Dawson, W.

    2016-01-01

    The statistics of shear peaks have been shown to provide valuable cosmological information beyond the power spectrum, and will be an important constraint of models of cosmology in forthcoming astronomical surveys. Surveys include masked areas due to bright stars, bad pixels etc., which must be accounted for in producing constraints on cosmology from shear maps. We advocate a forward-modeling approach, where the impacts of masking and other survey artifacts are accounted for in the theoretical prediction of cosmological parameters, rather than correcting survey data to remove them. We use masks based on the Deep Lens Survey, and explore the impact of up to 37% of the survey area being masked on LSST and DES-scale surveys. By reconstructing maps of aperture mass the masking effect is smoothed out, resulting in up to 14% smaller statistical uncertainties compared to simply reducing the survey area by the masked area. We show that, even in the presence of large survey masks, the bias in cosmological parameter estimation produced in the forward-modeling process is ≈1%, dominated by bias caused by limited simulation volume. We also explore how this potential bias scales with survey area and evaluate how much small survey areas are impacted by the differences in cosmological structure in the data and simulated volumes, due to cosmic variance

  1. Comparison of the OxyMask and Venturi Mask in the Delivery of Supplemental Oxygen: Pilot Study in Oxygen-Dependent Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Beecroft, Jaime M; Hanly, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The OxyMask (Southmedic Inc, Canada) is a new face mask for oxygen delivery that uses a small ‘diffuser’ to concentrate and direct oxygen toward the mouth and nose. The authors hypothesized that this unique design would enable the OxyMask to deliver oxygen more efficiently than a Venturi mask (Hudson RCI, USA) in patients with chronic hypoxemia.METHODS: Oxygen-dependent patients with chronic, stable respiratory disease were recruited to compare the OxyMask and Venturi mask in a ra...

  2. X ray reflection masks: Manufacturing, characterization and first tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Stephen

    1992-09-01

    SXPL (Soft X-ray Projection Lithography) multilayer mirrors are characterized, laterally structured and then used as reflection masks in a projecting lithography procedure. Mo/Si-multilayer mirrors with a 2d in the region of 14 nm were characterized by Cu-k(alpha) grazing incidence as well as soft X-ray normal incidence reflectivity measurements. The multilayer mirrors were patterned by reactive ion etching with CF4 using a photoresist as etch mask, thus producing X-ray reflection masks. The masks were tested at the synchrotron radiation laboratory of the electron accelerator ELSA. A double crystal X-ray monochromator was modified so as to allow about 0.5 sq cm of the reflection mask to be illuminated by white synchrotron radiation. The reflected patterns were projected (with an energy of 100 eV) onto a resist and structure sizes down to 8 micrometers were nicely reproduced. Smaller structures were distorted by Fresnel-diffraction. The theoretically calculated diffraction images agree very well with the observed images.

  3. A new laryngeal mask supraglottic airway device with integrated balloon line: a descriptive and comparative bench study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou YH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available YingHai Zhou,1 Korinne Jew2 1Research & Development, Patient Monitoring & Recovery, Medtronic Technology Center, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Medical Affairs, Minimally Invasive Therapies Group, Medtronic, Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: Laryngeal masks are invasive devices for airway management placed in the supraglottic position. The Shiley™ laryngeal mask (Shiley™ LM features an integrated inflation tube and airway shaft to facilitate product insertion and reduce the chance of tube occlusion when patients bite down. This study compared the Shiley LM to two other disposable laryngeal mask devices, the Ambu® AuraStraight™ and the LMA Unique™. Overall device design, tensile strength, flexibility of various structures, and sealing performance were measured. The Shiley LM is structurally stronger and its shaft is more resistant to compression than the other devices. The Shiley LM is generally less flexible than the other devices, but this relationship varies with device size. Sealing performance of the devices was similar in a bench assay. The results of this bench study demonstrate that the new Shiley LM resembles other commercially available laryngeal mask devices, though it exhibits greater tensile strength and lower flexibility. Keywords: laryngeal mask, supraglottic airway, supralaryngeal device

  4. Mask Phenomenon in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎丽璇

    2013-01-01

    People sometimes wear masks. Abusive expression may be used to convey love while polite words can be exchanged among enemies. This essay describes and discusses this special phenomenon in communication and analyzes the elements that con-tribute to the success of a mask communication.

  5. Growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanostructures using anodized aluminum as the growth mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. P.; Chen, Z.; Lam, H.; Surya, C.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we report the growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanostructures by co-electrodeposition technique using CuCl2, SnCl2 and ZnCl2 as sources and choline-based ionic liquid (IL) as the electrolyte. X-ray diffraction analysis of CZTS thin films grown by this technique indicated that the films have a kesterite structure with preferred grain orientation along (112). It is found that the energy bandgap of the material is about 1.49eV and the optical absorption coefficient is in the order of 104cm-1. Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanostructures. Anodization of the aluminum foil was carried out in phosphoric acid solution at 1°C and a potential of 40 to 100V was applied. Sulfurization of the rods was performed in elemental sulfur vapor at 450°C for four hours using N2 as the ambient gas. Experimental results show that nanotubes were formed using the technique and the diameter can be well controlled by varying the applied potential in the anodization process. Electron diffraction experiments show that a mixture of single- and poly-crystalline nanostructures was found.

  6. Data on clinical significance of GAS2 in colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chao Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2 was cloned and found to be upregulated in the feces of recurrent CRC patients. This overexpressed GAS2 induced different patterns of gene expressions in CRC cells. Briefly, one cell proliferation marker, Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67, was upregulated in the cells with overexpressed GAS2, “Correlation between proliferation markers: PCNA, Ki-67, MCM-2 and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in colorectal cancer” [1]. Whereas, the expression of another cell proliferation marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, changed insignificantly [1]. In addition, the mRNA level of one cyclin involving in both cell cycle G1/S and G2/M transitions was also not affected by GAS2 overexpression, “Cdc20 and Cks direct the spindle checkpoint-independent destruction of cyclin A” [2]. The experimental design and procedures in this article can be helpful for understanding the molecular significance of GAS2 in SW480 and SW620 CRC cells.

  7. 21 CFR 868.5570 - Nonrebreathing mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonrebreathing mask. 868.5570 Section 868.5570...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5570 Nonrebreathing mask. (a) Identification. A nonrebreathing mask is a device fitting over a patient's face to administer oxygen. It utilizes...

  8. Mask materials in powderblasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1999-01-01

    Powderblasting has the opportunity to become a standard technology in micromachining. To machine small details with powderbalsting, it is necessary to use a suiabled mask. In this paper four mask types ares examined. BF400 resist foil is most suitable for standard use in powderblasting for reason of

  9. M4SF-17LL010301071: Thermodynamic Database Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, Physical & Life Sciences; Wolery, T. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Akima Infrastructure Services, LLC

    2017-09-05

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4SF-17LL010301071) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Argillite Disposal R&D Work Package Number M4SF-17LL01030107. The DR Argillite Disposal R&D control account is focused on the evaluation of important processes in the analysis of disposal design concepts and related materials for nuclear fuel disposal in clay-bearing repository media. The objectives of this work package are to develop model tools for evaluating impacts of THMC process on long-term disposal of spent fuel in argillite rocks, and to establish the scientific basis for high thermal limits. This work is contributing to the GDSA model activities to identify gaps, develop process models, provide parameter feeds and support requirements providing the capability for a robust repository performance assessment model by 2020.

  10. Masked Speech Recognition and Reading Ability in School-Age Children: Is There a Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gabrielle; Lewis, Barbara; Benchek, Penelope; Buss, Emily; Calandruccio, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between reading (decoding) skills, phonological processing abilities, and masked speech recognition in typically developing children was explored. This experiment was designed to evaluate the relationship between phonological processing and decoding abilities and 2 aspects of masked speech recognition in typically…

  11. 17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial accounting and... of General Application § 210.4-10 Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing... section prescribes financial accounting and reporting standards for registrants with the Commission...

  12. Heterologous expression of Ralp3 in Streptococcus pyogenes M2 and M6 strains affects the virulence characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Ralp3 is a transcriptional regulator present in a serotype specific fashion on the chromosome of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS). In serotypes harbouring the ralp3 gene either positive or negative effects on important metabolic and virulence genes involved in colonization and immune evasion in the human host were observed. A previous study revealed that deletion of ralp3 in a GAS M49 serotype significantly attenuated many virulence traits and caused metabolic disadvantages. This leads to two questions: (i) which kind of consequences could Ralp3 expression have in GAS serotypes naturally lacking this gene, and (ii) is Ralp3 actively lost during evolution in these serotypes. We investigated the role of Ralp3 in GAS M2 and M6 pathogenesis. Both serotypes lack ralp3 on their chromosome. The heterologous expression of ralp3 in both serotypes resulted in reduced attachment to and internalization into the majority of tested epithelial cells. Both ralp3 expression strains showed a decreased ability to survive in human blood and exclusively M2::ralp3 showed decreased survival in human serum. Both mutants secreted more active SpeB in the supernatant, resulting in a higher activity compared to wild type strains. The respective M2 and M6 wild type strains outcompeted the ralp3 expression strains in direct metabolic competition assays. The phenotypic changes observed in the M2:ralp3 and M6:ralp3 were verified on the transcriptional level. Consistent with the virulence data, tested genes showed transcript level changes in the same direction. Together these data suggest that Ralp3 can take over transcriptional control of virulence genes in serotypes lacking the ralp3 gene. Those serotypes most likely lost Ralp3 during evolution since obviously expression of this gene is disadvantageous for metabolism and pathogenesis.

  13. A possible mechanism in the recruitment of eosinophils and Th2 cells through CD163(+) M2 macrophages in the lesional skin of eosinophilic cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Furudate, Sadanori; Kakizaki, Aya; Aiba, Setsuya

    2014-01-01

    M2 macrophages play a critical role in the recruitment of T helper 2 (Th2) regulatory T cells (Treg). To study the role of M2 macrophages and Treg cells in eosinophilic celulitis. We employed immunohistochemical staining for CD163( )and CD206 (macrophages) as well as FoxP3 (Treg), in lesional skin of four cases of eosinophilic cellulitis. CD163(+) CD206(+) M2 macrophages, which were previously reported to produce CCL17 to induce Th2 cells and Treg cells, were predominantly infiltrating the subcutaneous tissues and interstitial area of the dermis. M2 macrophages derived from PBMC showed significantly increased expression of CCL11, CCL17, CCL24 and CCL26 mRNA and production of CCL17 and CCL24, when stimulated by IL-4 or IL- 13. In addition, CCL17-producing cells and CCL24-producing cells were prominent in the lesional skin of EC. Our study sheds light on one of the possible immunological mechanisms of eosinophilic cellulitis.

  14. Theoretical study of magnetic pattern replication by He+ ion irradiation through stencil masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devolder, T.; Chappert, C.; Bernas, H.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed an irradiation technique that allows us to tune the magnetic properties of Co/Pt multilayers without affecting their roughness. The planarity and the ability to independently control nanostructure size and coercivity make our technique very appealing for magnetic recording. We study the irradiation-induced 1:1 replication of features drilled in a stencil mask. Both the 'gap' G between the magnetic film and the mask, and the aspect ratio (AR) of the mask features are analyzed, in view of the ion straggling in the mask resulting in collateral damages. Optimal gap is such that D<< G<< D/tan(α) (typically 0.1<< G<<25 μm), where the D is the feature size. The replication quality is best for AR≥3. Since the allowed gap interval is wide, we anticipate that mask fast positioning will be possible for the applications to magnetic recording

  15. 21 CFR 868.5590 - Scavenging mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scavenging mask. 868.5590 Section 868.5590 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5590 Scavenging mask. (a) Identification. A scavenging mask is a device positioned over a patient's nose to deliver anesthetic or analgesic gases to the...

  16. Are Masking-Based Models of Risk Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisiner, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    As our understanding of directly observable effects from anthropogenic sound exposure has improved, concern about "unobservable" effects such as stress and masking have received greater attention. Equal energy models of masking such as power spectrum models have the appeal of simplicity, but do they offer biologically realistic assessments of the risk of masking? Data relevant to masking such as critical ratios, critical bandwidths, temporal resolution, and directional resolution along with what is known about general mammalian antimasking mechanisms all argue for a much more complicated view of masking when making decisions about the risk of masking inherent in a given anthropogenic sound exposure scenario.

  17. Design of Data Masking Architecture and Analysis of Data Masking Techniques for Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar G K,; Manjunath T. N,; Ravindra S. Hegadi,; Archana.R.A

    2011-01-01

    Data masking is the process of obscuring-masking, specific data elements within data stores. It ensures that sensitive data is replaced with realistic but not real data. The goal is that sensitive customer information is not available outside of the authorized environment. Data masking is typically done while provisioning nonproduction environments so that copies created to support test and development processes are not exposing sensitive information and thus avoiding risks of leaking. Maskin...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5600 - Venturi mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venturi mask. 868.5600 Section 868.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5600 Venturi mask. (a) Identification. A venturi mask is a...

  19. Emission of Gas and Al2O3 Smoke in Gas-Al Particle Deflagration: Experiments and Emission Modeling for Explosive Fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranc-Darbord, Isabelle; Baudin, Gérard; Genetier, Marc; Ramel, David; Vasseur, Pierre; Legrand, Julien; Pina, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    Emission of gas and Al2O3 smoke within the deflagration of H2{-}O2-{N2{-}CO2}-Al particles has been studied in a closed combustion chamber at pressures of up to 18 bar and at gas temperatures of up to 3700 K. Measurements of radiance intensity were taken using a five wavelength pyrometer (0.660 μ m, 0.850 μ m, 1.083 μ m, 1.260 μ m, 1.481 μ m) and a grating spectrometer in the range (4.10 μ m to 4.30 μ m). In order to characterize the aluminum oxide smoke size and temperature, an inversion method has been developed based on the radiation transfer equation and using pyrometer measurements and thermochemical calculations of Al2O3 smoke volume fractions. Temperatures in combustion gas have been determined using a method based on the assumed blackbody head of the 4.26 μ m CO2 emission line and on its spectral shift with pressure and temperature. For validation purpose, this method has been applied to measurements obtained when calibrated alumina particles are injected in a combustion chamber prior to gaseous deflagrations. This mathematical inversion method was developed to investigate explosive fireballs.

  20. Ion Beam Etching: Replication of Micro Nano-structured 3D Stencil Masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Patrick; Guibert, Edouard; Mikhailov, Serguei; Bruegger, Juergen; Villanueva, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    Ion beam LIGA allows the etching of 3D nano-structures by direct writing with a nano-sized beam. However, this is a relatively time consuming process. We propose here another approach for etching structures on large surfaces and faster, compared to the direct writing process. This approach consists of replicating 3D structured masks, by scanning an unfocused ion beam. A polymer substrate is placed behind the mask, as in UV photolithography. But the main advantage is that the 3D structure of the mask can be replicated into the polymer. For that purpose, the masks (developped at LMIS1, EPFL) are made of a silicon nitride membrane 100 nm thick, on which 3D gold structures up to 200 nm thick, are deposited. The 3D Au structures are made with the nanostencil method, based on successive gold deposition. The IMA institute, from HE-Arc, owns a High Voltage Engineering 1.7 MV Tandetron with both solid and gaseous negative ion sources, able to generate ions from almost every chemical element in a broad range of energies comprised between 400 keV and 6.8 MeV. The beam composition and energy are chosen in such a way, that ions lose a significant fraction of their energy when passing through the thickest regions of the mask. Ions passing through thinner regions of the mask loose a smaller fraction of their energy and etch the polymer with larger thicknesses, allowing a replication of the mask into the polymer. For our trials, we have used a carbon beam with an energy of 500 keV. The beam was focussed to a diameter of 5 mm with solid slits, in order to avoid border effects and thus ensure a homogeneous dose distribution on the beam diameter. The feasibility of this technique has been demonstrated, allowing industrial applications for micro-mould fabrication, micro-fluidics and micro-optics.

  1. A further test of the linearity of temporal summation in forward masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Christopher J; Carcagno, Samuele; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2007-10-01

    An experiment tested the hypothesis that the masking effects of two nonoverlapping forward maskers are summed linearly over time. First, the levels of individual noise maskers required to mask a brief 4-kHz signal presented at 10-, 20-, 30-, or 40-dB sensation level (SL) were found. The hypothesis predicts that a combination of the first masker presented at the level required to mask the 10-dB SL signal and the second masker presented at the level required to mask the 20-dB SL signal, should produce the same amount of masking as the converse situation (i.e., the first masker presented at the level required to mask the 20-dB SL signal and the second masker presented at the level required to mask the 10-dB SL signal), and similarly for the 30- and 40-dB SL signals. The results were consistent with the predictions.

  2. A novel micromachined shadow mask system with self-alignment and gap control capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jung Moo; Zou Jun

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel micromachined shadow mask system, which is capable of accurate self-alignment and mask-substrate gap control. The shadow mask system consists of a silicon shadow mask and a silicon carrier wafer with pyramidal cavities fabricated with bulk micromachining. Self-alignment and gap control of the shadow mask and the fabrication substrate can readily be achieved by using matching pairs of pyramidal cavities and steel spheres placed between. The layer-to-layer alignment accuracy of the new shadow mask system has been experimentally characterized and verified using both optical and atomic force microscopic measurements. As an application of this new shadow mask system, an organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) using pentacene as the semiconductor layer has been successfully fabricated and tested

  3. Laser spectrometry applied to the simultaneous determination of the δ2H, δ17O, and δ18O isotope abundances in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstel, E.R.T.; Trigt, R. van; Dam, N.; Reuss, J.; Meijer, H.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate the first successful application of infrared laser spectrometry to the accurate, simultaneous determination of the relative 2 H/ 1 H, 17 O/ 16 O, and 18 O/ 16 O isotope abundance ratios in natural water. The method uses a narrow line width color center laser to record the direct absorption spectrum of low-pressure gas-phase water samples (presently 10 μl liquid) in the 3μm spectral region. The precision of the spectroscopic technique is shown to be 0.7 per mille for δ 2 H and 0.5 per mille for δ 17 O and δ 18 O, while the calibrated accuracy for natural waters amounts to about 3 per mille and 1 per mille, respectively. (author)

  4. Pengaruh penambahan Ca(OH2 pada Proses Pirolisis terhadap Hasil Gasifikasi Batubara Bituminus dengan medium Gas CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saripah Sobah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan batubara melalui proses gasifikasi perlu dikembangkan lebih lanjut karena proses ini dapat dijadikan alternatif untuk menggantikan peranan  gas alam sebagai sumber gas sintesis. Di samping itu, proses ini dapat mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan karena teknologi gasifikasi merupakan teknologi yang bersih dan dapat mengurangi jumlah gas CO2 yang dibuang ke lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Ca(OH2 pada proses pirolisis terhadap hasil gasifikasi arang batubara bituminus dengan medium gas CO2. Reaksi karbon dari arang batubara dengan gas CO2 pada proses gasifikasi merupakan reaksi endotermis dan berlangsung sangat lambat pada suhu di bawah 1000oC sehingga digunakan Ca(OH2 sebagai katalisator. Proses gasifikasi batubara dijalankan dalam reaktor fixed bed. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gasifikasi arang batubara dengan penambahan Ca(OH2 pada proses pirolisis memberikan pengaruh terhadap komposisi gas hasil yaitu berkurangnya kadar gas CO2 dan menyebabkan berkurangnya kadar belerang pada arang hasil pirolisis dan gasifikasi. Proses ini juga dapat mengurangi kadar gas CO2 sebesar 63,17% dan untuk  gasifikasi tanpa Ca(OH2 , CO2 dapat dikurangi kadarnya sampai 35,2%.

  5. Horizontal drilling in a natural gas storage horizon of 4 m thickness using reservoir navigation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastert, Thomas [E.ON Gas Storage GmbH, Essen (Germany); Liewert, Mathias; Rohde, Uwe [Baker Hughes INTEQ GmbH, Celle (Germany); Haberland, Joachim

    2010-09-15

    With a working gas capacity of 1,44 billion m{sup 3} (Vn) the natural gas storage facility at Bierwang is one of the largest storage facilities of E.ON Gas Storage (in Germany) and also one of the largest porous rock storages in Germany. The natural gas is stored in the tertiary storage horizons of the Chattian Hauptsand and Nebensand. To increase the storage capacity a second development well was planned for the Chattian Nebensand II (approx. 1680 m below ground). Following a comprehensive technical investigation the BW 502 well was planned as a horizontal well intended to provide a 300 m exposed section length through the reservoir. In a first step a pilot well was drilled to examine the Nebensand II which had been explored only to a limited extent before; the pilot well was also to provide accurate data on depth, thickness and dip. The results obtained indicated that the Nebensand II was only 4 m thick instead of 6 m as originally assumed. An azimuthal LWD resistivity tool was therefore used for reservoir navigation to allow horizontal drilling despite the lower thickness found. The technology allowed drilling of the horizontal well over its entire length of 315 m within a max. 1.5 m corridor relative to the reservoir top. Drilling confirmed that the actual formation found corresponded to the reservoir formation plan. Drilling operations were completed successfully. The well has been commissioned in the spring of 2010. (orig.)

  6. 21 CFR 868.5580 - Oxygen mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen mask. 868.5580 Section 868.5580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5580 Oxygen mask. (a) Identification. An oxygen mask is a device...

  7. Room temperature H{sub 2}S gas sensing characteristics of platinum (Pt) coated porous alumina (PoAl) thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, P.S., E-mail: p_smore@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Mumbai 400 032 (India); Raut, R.W. [Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Mumbai 400 032 (India); Ghuge, C.S. [Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Mumbai 400 032 (India)

    2014-02-14

    The study reports H{sub 2}S gas sensing characteristics of platinum (Pt) coated porous alumina (PoAl) films. The porous alumina (PoAl) thick layers were formed in the dark on aluminum substrates using an electrochemical anodization method. Thin semitransparent platinum (Pt) films were deposited on PoAl samples using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The films were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thicknesses of coated and bare films were measured using ellipsometry. The sensing properties such as sensitivity factor (S.F.), response time, recovery time and repeatability were measured using a static gas sensing system for H{sub 2}S gas. The EDAX studies confirmed the purity of Pt–PoAl film and indicated the formation of pure platinum (Pt) phase. The ellipsometry studies revealed the thickness of PoAl layer of about 15–17 μm on aluminum substrates. The SEM studies demonstrated uniform distribution of spherical pores with a size between 0.250 and 0.500 μm for PoAl film and nearly spherical platinum particles with average particle size ∼100 nm for Pt–PoAl film. The gas-sensing properties of these samples were studied in a home-built static gas characterization system. The H{sub 2}S gas sensing properties of Pt–PoAl at 1000 ppm of H{sub 2}S gave maximum sensitivity factor (S.F.) = 1200. The response time and recovery time were found to be 2–3 min and ∼1 min respectively. Further, the measurement of H{sub 2}S gas sensing properties clearly indicated the repeatability of gas sensing response of Pt–PoAl film. The present study indicated the significant potential of Pt coated PoAl films for H{sub 2}S gas sensing applications in diverse areas. - Highlights: • Electrochemical anodization, cheap and effective method for fabrication of PoAl. • Chemical bath deposition, a simple and effective method for deposition of Pt on PoAl. • A nano-composite film sensor with high sensitivity

  8. Barriers to mask wearing for influenza-like illnesses among urban Hispanic households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferng, Yu-hui; Wong-McLoughlin, Jennifer; Barrett, Angela; Currie, Leanne; Larson, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    To identify barriers to mask wearing and to examine the factors associated with the willingness to wear masks among households. We used data sources from a study assessing the impact of 3 nonpharmaceutical interventions on the rates of influenza: exit interviews; home visits with a subset of the mask group; and a focus group. Risk perception score, univariate analysis, and logistic regression were conducted to identify the characteristics and predictors of mask use. Thematic barriers to mask wearing were identified from qualitative data obtained at home visits and focus group. Respondents from the mask group, when compared with the nonmask group, demonstrated higher risk perception scores concerning influenza (maximum score: 60, means: 37.6 and 30.2, pmask wearing (maximum score: 10, means: 7.8 and 7.3, p=.043). There was no significant association between demographic, attitudinal, or knowledge variables and adherence to wearing masks. Thematic barriers were identified such as social acceptability of mask use, comfort and fit, and perception of the risk/need for masks. Face masks may not be an effective intervention for seasonal or pandemic influenza unless the risk perception of influenza is high. Dissemination of culturally appropriate mask use information by health authorities and providers must be emphasized when educating the public. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The McDonald Observatory Faint Comet Survey - Gas production in 17 comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Anita L.; Barker, Edwin S.; Ramseyer, Tod F.; Storrs, Alex D.

    1992-01-01

    The complete Intensified Dissector Scanner data set on 17 comets is presented, and production rates are derived and analyzed. It is shown that there is a strong degree of homogenization in the production rate ratios of many comets. It also appears that the ratio of the production rates of the various species has no heliocentric distance dependence, except for the case of NH2. When speaking of the gas in the coma of a comet, it appears that comets must have been formed under remarkably uniform conditions, and that they must have evolved and formed their comae in a similar manner. The data presented here constitute strong evidence that the minor species must be bound up in a lattice and that the interior of a comet must be reasonably uniform.

  10. Image differencing using masked CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrooke, J.G.; Ansorge, R.E.; Webber, C.J. St. J.

    1987-01-01

    A charge coupled device has some of its ''pixels'' masked by a material which is opaque to the radiation to which the device is to be exposed, each masked region being employed as a storage zone into which the charge pattern from the unmasked pixels can be transferred to enable a subsequent charge pattern to be established on further exposure of the unmasked pixels. The components of the resulting video signal corresponding to the respective charge patterns read-out from the CCD are subtracted to produce a video signal corresponding to the difference between the two images which formed the respective charge patterns. Alternate rows of pixels may be masked, or chequer-board pattern masking may be employed. In an X-ray imaging system the CCD is coupled to image intensifying and converting means. (author)

  11. 37 CFR 211.3 - Mask work fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mask work fees. 211.3 Section... PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.3 Mask work fees. (a) Section 201.3 of this chapter prescribes the fees or charges established by the Register of Copyrights for services relating to mask works. (b) Section...

  12. Individuals and Their Masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Altuna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay works on the opposition between face and mask, where ‘face’ is understood as that which makes every human being singular, and makes visible her or his unique worth, while ‘mask’ is understood as whatever hides that singularity, and refers to a category, stereotype or cliché. The etymological history that relates face and mask to the concept of person, and the history of modern portrait painting, which alternates representations of face and mask, both lead to a discussion with authors who diagnose a contemporary “defeat of the face” as a result of the crisis of humanism and of ethical individualism, which give meaning and dignity to that face.

  13. A light-gas gun for acceleration of pellets of solid D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordskov, A.; Skovgaard, H.; Soerensen, H.; Weisberg, K.V.

    1980-10-01

    A gun has been designed and built to be used for injecting solid D 2 pellets into a small tokamak for pellet-plasma interaction studies. The pellets are formed and accelerated at temperatures close to those of liquid helium. They are propelled with pressurised H 2 -gas; the pressure arises when a quantity of solid H 2 placed in the gun barrel behind the pellet is pulse heated. Pellet velocities up to 240 m/s have been obtained. The directional accuracy is better than 0.2deg and the repetition rate is one firing every five minutes. The pellet volume is 0.6 mm 3 (2 x 10 19 molecules) while the quantity of propeller gas used is around 12 x 10 19 molecules. (author)

  14. Defect Functionalization of MoS2 nanostructures as toxic gas sensors: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    Toxic gas sensing plays an important role in many parts of our life from environmental protection, human health, agriculture to biomedicine. The importance of detecting toxic gases in the environment cannot be minimised in today’s highly polluted world and the reality of global warming. Carbon monoxide and NO gas are highly toxic air pollutants and can cause serious health problems. Therefore, materials able to detect these toxic gases are urgently needed. Doping and defect substitution is a versatile and new tool for changing the chemical and electronic properties of 2D layered materials and boosting the applications of these materials. Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) as a 2D layered material has unique properties and applications due its semiconducting nature, bandgap and layered structure. In the past decade, although, extensive research of Graphene as a gas sensor was conducted, the zero bandgap limited its potential and applicability. This is overcome in MoS2 nanostructures (MSNs) and the current focus is defect engineering of MSNs. The large surface to volume ratio, bandgap and cheapness makes MSNs very attractive for gas sensor applications. The idea is fuelled by the recent finding of Ding et al [16] of successful doping strategies on monolayer MoS2 for enhanced NO detection. Moreover, the work of Luo et al [17] shows that substitutional doping is the new way of boosting and engineering the properties of ML MoS2. A short and focused report in this exciting field is presented in this review.

  15. A quantitative evaluation of the masking effect arising from proximity of injection site to the adjacent lymph nodes in lymphoscintigraphy: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbir Ahmed, A.S.M.; Demir, M.; Sayman, H.B.; Uslu, I.; Demir, B.; Tugrul, A.B.; Dirlik, E.

    2006-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy essentially requires appropriate choice of collimators for resolving relatively small amounts of radio tracer in the sentinel nodes against injection-site. A novel flat phantom made of Plexiglass with multiple holes (simulating lymph nodes) has been designed to determine the range and intensity of masking effect of the injection site (IS) on surrounding pixels for in-plane and gradually deeper placed hotspots. The newly developed phantom has 18 holes, one central hole with 3700 KBq Tc-99m pertechnetate and 17 other holes, each with 37 KBq of Tc- 99m pertechnetate. The in-plane hotspots (number 10, hotspots with equal depth) are arranged in a helical fashion at distances of 5, 10, 15... 50 mm from the centre. The gradually deeper placed hotspots (number 7) are arranged in a linear array with equal linear distances from each other. The study was conducted by placing the phantom at different depths (1, 3, 5, and 7 cm) in a container filled with water without/with background activity (to simulate 1-day and 2-day protocols) of 370 KBq of Tc-99m pertechnetate/5 Litres of water. The study was performed with Siemens Orbiter 7500 Digitrac gamma camera using 3 separate collimators consecutively: low energy all purpose (LEAP), low energy high resolution (LEHR) and medium energy all purpose (MEAP). The static images of 1M counts were acquired in 256x256 matrix, word mode on to an ADAC Pegasys (II) computer system for processing. Relative intensity per pixel for each hotspot (both for in-plane and gradually deeper hotspots) and the count/pixel values for doughnut shaped circular ROIs were calculated. The image-profiles for the linear hotspots were generated to calculate full widths at half maximum (FWHM) using ADAC Pegasys software program, and the visualizing status of the gradually deeper placed hotspots was studied at different color-contrast windows. No significant difference was observed between 1-day and 2-day protocol. The cutoff distance for blurring

  16. Masked Hypertension and Incident Clinic Hypertension among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Marwah; Booth, John N.; Seals, Samantha R.; Spruill, Tanya M.; Viera, Anthony J.; Diaz, Keith M.; Sims, Mario; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Masked hypertension, defined as non-elevated clinic blood pressure and elevated out-of-clinic blood pressure may be an intermediary stage in the progression from normotension to hypertension. We examined the associations of out-of-clinic blood pressure and masked hypertension using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with incident clinic hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, a prospective cohort of African Americans. Analyses included 317 participants with clinic blood pressure hypertension was defined as mean daytime blood pressure ≥135/85mmHg; masked nighttime hypertension as mean nighttime blood pressure ≥120/70mmHg; and masked 24-hour hypertension as mean 24-hour blood pressure ≥130/80mmHg. Incident clinic hypertension, assessed at study visits in 2005–2008 and 2009–2012, was defined as the first visit with clinic systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg or antihypertensive medication use. During a median follow-up of 8.1 years, there were 187 (59.0%) incident cases of clinic hypertension. Clinic hypertension developed in 79.2% and 42.2% of participants with and without any masked hypertension, 85.7% and 50.4% with and without masked daytime hypertension, 79.9% and 43.7% with and without masked nighttime hypertension and 85.7% and 48.2% with and without masked 24-hour hypertension, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) of incident clinic hypertension for any masked hypertension and masked daytime, nighttime, and 24-hour hypertension were 2.13 (1.51–3.02), 1.79 (1.24–2.60), 2.22 (1.58–3.12), and 1.91 (1.32–2.75), respectively. These findings suggest that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can identify African Americans at increased risk for developing clinic hypertension. PMID:27185746

  17. Unmasking the effects of masking on performance: The potential of multiple-voice masking in the office environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keus van de Poll, Marijke; Carlsson, Johannes; Marsh, John E; Ljung, Robert; Odelius, Johan; Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Sundin, Gunilla; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-08-01

    Broadband noise is often used as a masking sound to combat the negative consequences of background speech on performance in open-plan offices. As office workers generally dislike broadband noise, it is important to find alternatives that are more appreciated while being at least not less effective. The purpose of experiment 1 was to compare broadband noise with two alternatives-multiple voices and water waves-in the context of a serial short-term memory task. A single voice impaired memory in comparison with silence, but when the single voice was masked with multiple voices, performance was on level with silence. Experiment 2 explored the benefits of multiple-voice masking in more detail (by comparing one voice, three voices, five voices, and seven voices) in the context of word processed writing (arguably a more office-relevant task). Performance (i.e., writing fluency) increased linearly from worst performance in the one-voice condition to best performance in the seven-voice condition. Psychological mechanisms underpinning these effects are discussed.

  18. SU-E-T-71: A Radiochromic Film Based Quantitative Assessment of Thermoplastic Mask Bolus Effect in Head and Neck IMRT/VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalavagunta, C; Lin, M; Snider, J; Xu, H; Schrum, A; Vadnais, P; Marter, K; Suntharalingam, M; Prado, K [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the factors leading to thermoplastic mask bolus-associated-increased skin dose in head and neck IMRT/VMAT using EBT2 film. Methods: EBT2 film placed beneath a dual layer 3-point ORFIT head, neck and shoulder mask was used to test the effect of mask thickness, beam modulation, air gap, and beam obliquity on bolus effect. Mask thickness was varied based on the distribution of 1.6mm Orfilight layer on top of 2 mm Efficast layer. Beam modulation was varied by irradiating the film with an open field (no beam modulation) and a step and shoot field (beam modulation). Air gap between mask and film was varied from 0 to 5mm. Beam obliquity was varied by irradiating the film at gantry angles of 0°, 35°, and 70°.Finally, film strips placed on a Rando phantom under an Orfit mask, in regions of expected high dose, were irradiated using 5 IMRT and 5 VMAT plans with various modulation levels (modulation factor 2 to 5) and the results were compared with those obtained placing OSLDs at the same locations. Results: An 18–34% increase in mask bolus effect was observed for three factors where the effect of beam obliquity ≥ beam modulation > mask thickness. No increase in mask bolus effect was observed for change in air gap. A 6–13% increase in dose due to mask bolus effect was observed on film strips. Conclusion: This work underlines the role of beam obliquity and beam modulation combined with thermoplastic mask thickness in increasing mask bolus-associated skin dose in head and neck IMRT/VMAT. One possible method of dose reduction, based on knowledge gained from this work, is inclusion of skin as an avoidance structure in treatment planning. Another approach is to design a mask with the least amount of thermoplastic material necessary for immobilization.

  19. SU-E-T-71: A Radiochromic Film Based Quantitative Assessment of Thermoplastic Mask Bolus Effect in Head and Neck IMRT/VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalavagunta, C; Lin, M; Snider, J; Xu, H; Schrum, A; Vadnais, P; Marter, K; Suntharalingam, M; Prado, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the factors leading to thermoplastic mask bolus-associated-increased skin dose in head and neck IMRT/VMAT using EBT2 film. Methods: EBT2 film placed beneath a dual layer 3-point ORFIT head, neck and shoulder mask was used to test the effect of mask thickness, beam modulation, air gap, and beam obliquity on bolus effect. Mask thickness was varied based on the distribution of 1.6mm Orfilight layer on top of 2 mm Efficast layer. Beam modulation was varied by irradiating the film with an open field (no beam modulation) and a step and shoot field (beam modulation). Air gap between mask and film was varied from 0 to 5mm. Beam obliquity was varied by irradiating the film at gantry angles of 0°, 35°, and 70°.Finally, film strips placed on a Rando phantom under an Orfit mask, in regions of expected high dose, were irradiated using 5 IMRT and 5 VMAT plans with various modulation levels (modulation factor 2 to 5) and the results were compared with those obtained placing OSLDs at the same locations. Results: An 18–34% increase in mask bolus effect was observed for three factors where the effect of beam obliquity ≥ beam modulation > mask thickness. No increase in mask bolus effect was observed for change in air gap. A 6–13% increase in dose due to mask bolus effect was observed on film strips. Conclusion: This work underlines the role of beam obliquity and beam modulation combined with thermoplastic mask thickness in increasing mask bolus-associated skin dose in head and neck IMRT/VMAT. One possible method of dose reduction, based on knowledge gained from this work, is inclusion of skin as an avoidance structure in treatment planning. Another approach is to design a mask with the least amount of thermoplastic material necessary for immobilization

  20. CdO Doped Indium Oxide Thick Film as a Low Temperature H2S Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. CHAVAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The thick films of AR grade In2O3 were prepared by standard screen-printing technique. The gas sensing performance of thick film was tested for various gases. It showed maximum gas response to ethanol vapor at 350 oC for 80 ppm. To improve the gas response and selectivity of the film towards a particular gas, In2O3 thick films were modified by dipping them in an aqueous solution of 0.1 M CdCl2 for different intervals of time. The surface modified (10 min In2O3 thick film showed maximum response to H2S gas (10 ppm than pure In2O3 thick film at 150 oC. Cadmium oxide on the surface of the film shifts the gas response from ethanol vapor to H2S gas. A systematic study of sensing performance of the thick films indicates the key role played by cadmium oxide on the surface of thick films. The selectivity, gas response and recovery time of the thick films were measured and presented.

  1. Suicidal nitrogen inhalation by use of scuba full-face diving mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Lubomir; Novomesky, Frantisek; Gavel, Anton; Mlynar, Juraj; Hejna, Petr

    2013-09-01

    A 29-year-old man was found dead lying on the bed in a hotel room in a famous Slovak mountain resort. He had a full-face diving mask on his face, connected through a diving breath regulator to a valve of an industrial (nondiving) high-pressure tank containing pure 100% nitrogen. The breath regulator (open-circuit type) used allowed inhalation of nitrogen without addition of open air, and the full-face diving mask assured aspiration of the gas even during the time of unconsciousness. At autopsy, we found the typical signs of suffocation. Toxicological analysis revealed 94.7% content of nitrogen in alveolar air. Following the completion of the police investigation, the manner of death was classified as a suicide. Within the medico-legal literature, there has been only one similar case of suicidal nitrogen inhalation described. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Chirped fiber Bragg gratings written with ultrashort pulses and a tunable phase mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtländer, Christian; Thomas, Jens; Wikszak, Elodie; Dannberg, Peter; Nolte, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2009-06-15

    We report a fabrication technique for chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBGs) using a flexible setup based on a poly(methyl-methacrylate) phase mask. The period of the phase mask can be thermally tuned during the inscription process, allowing the grating period of uniform fiber Bragg gratings to be shifted about 7 nm by a temperature change of 74 K. In addition, CFBGs with bandwidths up to 2 nm are demonstrated in non-photosensitive fibers by IR femtosecond inscription.

  3. Sinusoidal masks for single channel speech separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show...... that the proposed method is able to minimize the target speech distortion while suppressing the crosstalk to a predetermined threshold. It is observed that compared to the STFTbased masks, the proposed sinusoidal masks improve the separation performance in terms of objective measures (SSNR and PESQ) and are mostly...

  4. White Coat Hypertension and Masked Hypertension Among Omani Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital for Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Al-Hashmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our study aimed to estimate the rate of white coat hypertension (WCH and effect, and masked hypertension in patients attending a tertiary care hospital for 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM. Methods: A total of 231 adult patients were referred to the Department of Clinical Physiology at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, for ABPM, between January 2010 and June 2012. The following data were gathered and analyzed: demographic data, clinic blood pressure (BP measurements, and 24-h BP profile from ABPM. Thirty-two patients were excluded and the final analysis included 199 patients. Results: There were 105 (52.8% women and 94 (47.2% men studied. The mean age of patients was 46±15 years and most patients were overweight with a mean BMI of 29.6±5kg/m2. Around half of patients (53.8% were on one or more antihypertensive medications. WCH was found in 10.6% and white coat effect was found in 16% of patients. The majority of patients (57% with WCH were aged 40 years or above. Masked hypertension was present in 6% of patients and masked uncontrolled hypertension in 8.5% of patients. Conclusions: Our study showed that WCH and effect, and masked hypertension are common in hypertensive patients. Identifying these patients will have an impact on their management. However, the results of the study should be interpreted within the context of its limitations. Prospective randomized community and hospital-based studies should be conducted to estimate the true prevalence in the general population as well as in hypertensive patients.

  5. [Contamination levels to room air arising from the use of 99mTc-gas and prevention from the contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatani, A; Akutsu, T; Yamaguchi, K; Onodera, Y; Manaka, Y; Takahashi, K

    1996-04-01

    99mTc-gas (TECHNEGAS) is a 99mTc-labeled micro-aerosol which is considered to have different behavior from 133Xe or 81mKr gas. In order to estimate contamination levels to room air arising from the use of 99mTc-gas, filtered expired air during administration and 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 min after the administration were collected in each polyethylene bag. Radioactivities of the polyethylene bags, used filter and the lung were measured with 3-head scintillation camera. The activity of the expired air diminished within 6-10 min and about 5% of whole discharged 99mTc-gas was released to room air. The activity of the used filter was two times of the lung. According to these results, it is recommended that the 99mTc-gas may be administrated in a exclusive room. The administrated patient and used filter must be remain in the exclusive room.

  6. Effect of taste masking technology on fast dissolving oral film: dissolution rate and bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; You, Xinru; Huang, Keqing; Raza, Faisal; Lu, Xin; Chen, Yuejian; Dhinakar, Arvind; Zhang, Yuan; Kang, Yang; Wu, Jun; Ge, Liang

    2018-07-01

    Fast dissolving oral film is a stamp-style, drug-loaded polymer film with rapid disintegration and dissolution. This new kind of drug delivery system requires effective taste masking technology. Suspension intermediate and liposome intermediate were prepared, respectively, for the formulation of two kinds of fast dissolving oral films with the aim of studying the effect of taste masking technology on the bioavailability of oral films. Loratadine was selected as the model drug. The surface pH of the films was close to neutral, avoiding oral mucosal irritation or side effects. The thickness of a 2 cm × 2 cm suspension oral film containing 10 mg of loratadine was 100 μm. Electron microscope analysis showed that liposomes were spherical before and after re-dissolution, and drugs with obvious bitterness could be masked by the encapsulation of liposomes. Dissolution of the two films was superior to that of the commercial tablets. Rat pharmacokinetic experiments showed that the oral bioavailability of the suspension film was significantly higher than that of the commercial tablets, and the relative bioavailability of the suspension film was 175%. Liposomal film produced a certain amount of improvement in bioavailability, but lower than that of the suspension film.

  7. Validating the accuracy of SO2 gas retrievals in the thermal infrared (8-14 μm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Andrea; Porter, John N.; Wright, Robert; Lucey, Paul G.

    2017-11-01

    Quantifying sulfur dioxide (SO2) in volcanic plumes is important for eruption predictions and public health. Ground-based remote sensing of spectral radiance of plumes contains information on the path-concentration of SO2. However, reliable inversion algorithms are needed to convert plume spectral radiance measurements into SO2 path-concentrations. Various techniques have been used for this purpose. Recent approaches have employed thermal infrared (TIR) imaging between 8 μm and 14 μm to provide two-dimensional mapping of plume SO2 path-concentration, using what might be described as "dual-view" techniques. In this case, the radiance (or its surrogate brightness temperature) is computed for portions of the image that correspond to the plume and compared with spectral radiance obtained for adjacent regions of the image that do not (i.e., "clear sky"). In this way, the contribution that the plume makes to the measured radiance can be isolated from the background atmospheric contribution, this residual signal being converted to an estimate of gas path-concentration via radiative transfer modeling. These dual-view approaches suffer from several issues, mainly the assumption of clear sky background conditions. At this time, the various inversion algorithms remain poorly validated. This paper makes two contributions. Firstly, it validates the aforementioned dual-view approaches, using hyperspectral TIR imaging data. Secondly, it introduces a new method to derive SO2 path-concentrations, which allows for single point SO2 path-concentration retrievals, suitable for hyperspectral imaging with clear or cloudy background conditions. The SO2 amenable lookup table algorithm (SO2-ALTA) uses the MODTRAN5 radiative transfer model to compute radiance for a variety (millions) of plume and atmospheric conditions. Rather than searching this lookup table to find the best fit for each measured spectrum, the lookup table was used to train a partial least square regression (PLSR) model

  8. Measurements from preterm infants to guide face mask size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Joyce E; Thio, Marta; Owen, Louise S; Wong, Connie; Dawson, Jennifer A; Davis, Peter G

    2016-07-01

    International guidelines recommend that an appropriately sized face mask for providing positive pressure ventilation should cover the mouth and nose but not the eyes and should not overlap the chin. This study aimed to measure the dimensions of preterm infants' faces and compare these with the size of the most commonly available face masks (external diameter 50 mm) and the smallest masks available (external diameters 35 and 42 mm). Infants 24-33 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) were photographed in a standardised manner. Images were analysed using ImageJ software (National Institute of Health, USA) to calculate the distance from the nasofrontal groove to the mental protuberance. This facial measurement corresponds to the external diameter of an optimally fitting mask. A cohort of 107 infants between 24 and 33 weeks' gestational age, including at least 10 infants per week of gestation, was photographed within 72 h after birth and weekly until 33 weeks' PMA. 347 photographs were analysed. Infants of 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32 weeks' PMA had mean (SD) facial measurements of 32 (2), 36 (3), 38 (4), 41 (2) and 43 (4) mm, respectively. There were no significant differences when examined by gender or when small for gestational age infants were excluded. The smallest size of some brands of mask is too large for many preterm infants. Masks of 35 mm diameter are suitable for infants Masks of 42 mm diameter are suitable for infants 27-33 weeks' PMA or 750-2500 g. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Improved Mask Protected DES using RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Latha S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The data encryption standard is a pioneering and farsighted standard which helped to set a new paradigm for encryption standards. But now DES is considered to be insecure for some application. Asymmetric mask protected DES is an advanced encryption method for effectively protecting the advanced DES. There are still probabilities to improve its security. This paper propose a method, which introduce a RSA key generation scheme in mask protected DES instead of plain key, which result in enhancement in the security of present asymmetric mask protected DES. We further propose a Vedic mathematical method of RSA implementation which reduce the complexity of computation in RSA block thereby resulting in reduced delay (four timesthat improves the performance of overall system. The software implementation was performed using Xilinx 13.2 and Model-Sim was used for the simulation environment.

  10. Integration of mask and silicon metrology in DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. We have inspected the high accuracy, stability and reproducibility in the experiments of integration. The accuracy is comparable with that of the mask and silicon CD-SEM metrology. In this report, we introduce the experimental results and the application. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device advances, OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) goes aggressively dense in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). However, from the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), the cost of data process for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) and mask producing is a problem. Such trade-off between RET and mask producing is a big issue in semiconductor market especially in mask business. Seeing silicon device production process, information sharing is not completely organized between design section and production section. Design data created with OPC and MDP should be linked to process control on production. But design data and process control data are optimized independently. Thus, we provided a solution of DFM: advanced integration of mask metrology and silicon metrology. The system we propose here is composed of followings. 1) Design based recipe creation: Specify patterns on the design data for metrology. This step is fully automated since they are interfaced with hot spot coordinate information detected by various verification methods. 2) Design based image acquisition: Acquire the images of mask and silicon automatically by a recipe based on the pattern design of CD-SEM.It is a robust automated step because a wide range of design data is used for the image acquisition. 3) Contour profiling and GDS data generation: An image profiling process is applied to the acquired image based

  11. Prediction and outcomes of impossible mask ventilation: a review of 50,000 anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheterpal, Sachin; Martin, Lizabeth; Shanks, Amy M; Tremper, Kevin K

    2009-04-01

    There are no existing data regarding risk factors for impossible mask ventilation and limited data regarding its incidence. The authors sought to determine the incidence, predictors, and outcomes associated with impossible mask ventilation. The authors performed an observational study over a 4-yr period. For each adult patient undergoing a general anesthetic, preoperative patient characteristics, detailed airway physical exam, and airway outcome data were collected. The primary outcome was impossible mask ventilation defined as the inability to exchange air during bag-mask ventilation attempts, despite multiple providers, airway adjuvants, or neuromuscular blockade. Secondary outcomes included the final, definitive airway management technique and direct laryngoscopy view. The incidence of impossible mask ventilation was calculated. Independent (P impossible mask ventilation were identified by performing a logistic regression full model fit. Over a 4-yr period from 2004 to 2008, 53,041 attempts at mask ventilation were recorded. A total of 77 cases of impossible mask ventilation (0.15%) were observed. Neck radiation changes, male sex, sleep apnea, Mallampati III or IV, and presence of beard were identified as independent predictors. The receiver-operating-characteristic area under the curve for this model was 0.80 +/- 0.03. Nineteen impossible mask ventilation patients (25%) also demonstrated difficult intubation, with 15 being intubated successfully. Twelve patients required an alternative intubation technique, including two surgical airways and two patients who were awakened and underwent successful fiberoptic intubation. Impossible mask ventilation is an infrequent airway event that is associated with difficult intubation. Neck radiation changes represent the most significant clinical predictor of impossible mask ventilation in the patient dataset.

  12. A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Post-Compression Water Injection in a Rolls-Royce M250 Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    ROLLS-ROYCE M250 GAS TURBINE ENGINE by Midshipman 1/C Brian R. He United States Naval Academy Annapolis, Maryland...Injection in a Rolls- Royce M250 Gas Turbine Engine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) He...output, efficiency, operating conditions, and emissions of injecting water at the compressor discharge of a Rolls-Royce M250 . The results

  13. Vibrotactile masking experiments reveal accelerated somatosensory processing in congenitally blind braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Ye, Amanda J; Lisak, Joy A; Vargas, Maria G; Goldreich, Daniel

    2010-10-27

    Braille reading is a demanding task that requires the identification of rapidly varying tactile patterns. During proficient reading, neighboring characters impact the fingertip at ∼100 ms intervals, and adjacent raised dots within a character at 50 ms intervals. Because the brain requires time to interpret afferent sensorineural activity, among other reasons, tactile stimuli separated by such short temporal intervals pose a challenge to perception. How, then, do proficient Braille readers successfully interpret inputs arising from their fingertips at such rapid rates? We hypothesized that somatosensory perceptual consolidation occurs more rapidly in proficient Braille readers. If so, Braille readers should outperform sighted participants on masking tasks, which demand rapid perceptual processing, but would not necessarily outperform the sighted on tests of simple vibrotactile sensitivity. To investigate, we conducted two-interval forced-choice vibrotactile detection, amplitude discrimination, and masking tasks on the index fingertips of 89 sighted and 57 profoundly blind humans. Sighted and blind participants had similar unmasked detection (25 ms target tap) and amplitude discrimination (compared with 100 μm reference tap) thresholds, but congenitally blind Braille readers, the fastest readers among the blind participants, exhibited significantly less masking than the sighted (masker, 50 Hz, 50 μm; target-masker delays, ±50 and ±100 ms). Indeed, Braille reading speed correlated significantly and specifically with masking task performance, and in particular with the backward masking decay time constant. We conclude that vibrotactile sensitivity is unchanged but that perceptual processing is accelerated in congenitally blind Braille readers.

  14. A proposal for M2-brane-anti-M2-brane action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garousi, Mohammad R.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a manifestly SO(8) invariant BF type Lagrangian for describing the dynamics of M2-brane-anti-M2-brane system in flat spacetime. When one of the scalars which satisfies a free-scalar equation takes a large expectation value, the M2-brane-anti-M2-brane action reduces to the tachyon DBI action of D2-brane-anti-D2-brane system in flat spacetime.

  15. 25 CFR 309.17 - What are examples of woodwork that are Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of woodwork that are Indian products... INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.17 What are examples of woodwork that are Indian products? (a..., hunting hats, spirit masks, bows and arrows, atlatls, redwood dug out canoes, war clubs, flutes, dance...

  16. Schizophrenia and visual backward masking: a general deficit of target enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Herzog

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The obvious symptoms of schizophrenia are of cognitive and psychopathological nature. However, schizophrenia affects also visual processing which becomes particularly evident when stimuli are presented for short durations and are followed by a