WorldWideScience

Sample records for m16 rifle review

  1. Review of Rifle Marksmanship Training Research. CRESST Report 783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Delacruz, Girlie C.; Lee, John J.; Wainess, Richard; Baker, Eva L.

    2011-01-01

    The UCLA National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) is under contract from the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to conduct research on assessment models and tools designed to support Marine Corps rifle marksmanship. In this deliverable, we first review the literature on known-distance rifle marksmanship…

  2. Report of the M16 Rifle Review Panel. Volume 10, Appendix 9. Audit Trail of Chief of Staff, Army Actions and Decisions Concerning the M16

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-06-01

    REPTILES REQUIREMENTS RESCUE BEACONS RESCUE EQUIPMENT RESCUE VEHICLES RESCUES RESEARCH AIRCRAFT RESEARCH FACILITIES RESEARCH MANAGEMENT...REGULATORS SPERMATOGENESIS SPHERES SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY SPHERICAL WAVES SPHEROMETERS SPHERULITES SPIDERS SPIKES SPILLING SPILLWAYS SPIN DOWN SPIN

  3. An Experimental Review of Basic Combat Rifle Marksmanship: MARKSMAN, Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, James W.; And Others

    Commanding officers in Vietnam and others have indicated that individual rifle marksmanship training needed attention. Furthermore, no comprehensive, systematic study of Army rifle marksmanship has been conducted since the Work Unit TRAINFIRE studies conducted by HumRRO in 1954. Phase 1 of the MARKSMAN research dealt with basic rifle marksmanship.…

  4. Recommended Alternate Qualification Courses for the M16 Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    Services AREA & WORK U71T NUMBERS Litton Systems, Inc. 2Q263743A794M P.O. Box 7113, Mountai.n View, CA 94039-7113 322(:2 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...Record Fire and the KDAC require soldiers to apply the tour fundamentals of marksmanship (steady position, trigger squeeze, breath control , and...34, Thet Alteraste Ceurse wI be used only when standard rccrdW Miread Knamt Dsim V441a14% rerge are unsira ,Iee "thadfris tee 2 m ew "ar. e ~tltnet Prior

  5. Influence of Organizational Culture on the Acquisition of the M16 Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    23-25. 9 M. Fortun and S. S. Schweber. “Scientists and the Legacy of World War II: The Case of Operations Research (OR),” Social Studies of Science 23...War II: The Case of Operations Research (OR),” Social Studies of Science 23, no. 4 (Nov.): 595-642. Howe, Walter J. and E.H. Harrison, “The AR-15

  6. Analysis of M16A2 Rifle Characteristics and Recommended Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    target and finds he needs to make an elevation change, depending upon which sight/target combination is being used, one click of the front sight will move...targets being fielded and our recommended sights will result in all sight movements of one click moving the bullet one square on the new zero target or one

  7. Adequacy of M16A1 Rifle Performance and Its Implications for Marksmanship Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    distance from the center of the zeroing circle (i.e., until the weapon was zeroed to within one click of elevation and windage of zero). The center of the...approximately .3 to .4 cm, indicating the weapons were adequately zeroed for that range (i.e., within the one click zeroing criterion). Figure 5 includes... one click error with ab- normally severe tilts of the weapon. Vertical displacement was below 43 a WNW In I w 04 0 r-40 44 0 C a. > aito gui0 ZIaa ’o

  8. Universal Infantry Weapons Trainer (UIWT). Volume 1. M-16 Rifle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    source used in the system is a semiconductor, gallium arsenide laser. The laser is collimated by a simple plano convex lens. The laser is attached where...UfSATSOATA LITE~tlY ’%.CH’, /s PIF#, 3-48 OF 80/2P MAUAL U5MRTSSTATUS LITERALLY 6ED9’, /* PiE 3-44 *./ EcC LITERALLY ’±R; /* AS(I I "EsCFm * ZERO LITERALLY...H EI E CHIP CT 9026 15 1 EN I E6t E EXTEIEI INTEPRUPTS 41? A 2 WRIT: NOY R,R2 ,GET PIE STATUS *218 627 93 JZ WRIT ,IF 0lJETE ENPTY NO ACTION 𔄁 𔄂

  9. Analysis of gun barrel rifling twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Chen, Guangsong; Qian, Linfang; Liu, Taisu

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the problem of gun barrel rifling twist, the constraint relation between rifling and projectile is investigated. The constraint model of rifling and projectile is established and the geometric relation between the twist and the motion of projectile is analyzed. Based on the constraint model, according to the rotating band that is fired, the stress and the motion law of the rotating band in bore are analyzed. The effects to rotating band (double rotating band or wide driving band) caused by different rifling (rib rifling, increasing rifling and combined rifling) are also investigated. The model is demonstrated by several examples. The results of numerical examples and the constraint mode show that the uncertainty factors will be brought in the increasing rifling and combined rifling during the projectile move in the bore. According to the amplitude and the strength of the twist acting on rotating band, the steady property of rotational motion of the projectile, the rib rifling is a better choose.

  10. Effects of Shivering on Rifle Shooting Performance in U. S. Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    M-16A2 rifle [Fig. 1 (B)], and a control switch interfaced with a desktop computer. The subjects aimed and fired at a solid black bull’s-eye...shivering response, as noted by an increase in myoelectric activity and visual observation, began 5 to 30 min after exposure to the cold environment

  11. Basic Rifle Markmanship Trainer’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Effeotiveness of Improved Dealo Rifle IHarksmanihiy Training Proreams, ARI/Litton-4ellonlos Drift Rese~roh Report, January iWO. 3. Osborne, Horsy , and Smith, op...alt. 4. Smith, Thompson, Evans, Osborne, Maxey, and Horsy , Zffaots of Down-Rwa6 Feedbaok and the ARI Zeroing Target in Rifle Harksmanshi Training...Rifle and Rifle Harksmansho, June 1974. 8. Osborne, Horsy , and Smith, op. cit. 9. Thompson, et. al., op. ait. c-i

  12. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

  13. Ballistics examination of air rifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  14. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bogiel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  15. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  16. Effects of Rifle Handling, Target Acquisition, and Trigger Control on Simulated Shooting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    performance with the M16A1 rifle. Study 1. A validation of the artificial intelligence direct fire weapons research test bed. Orlando, FL: U.S...communication and superior performance in skilled marksmen: An EEG coherence analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 25(2... PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  17. Cost Effective LOGMARS (Logistics Applications of Automated Marking and Reading Symbols) Marking of the M16 Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    amortization period. 70 CP = .288 :REM SAVINGS/WPN/MONTH FOR INVENTORY BY 0-1 0 -2! 80 QOPT1 = 480 :REM Optimum quantity of wpns shippE, i" ie., 1 dromedary full...90 QOPT2 = 240 :REM Optimum quantity of wpns shipped; ie., I dromedary full. 100 SOPT1 = .0236 :REM Shipping cost/weapon/mi for optimum ship qty

  18. Correlation of Breech Erosion Gage to Accuracy for M16A1 Rifle with Chrome Plated Barrel Bores

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    b.0 0 V 4 0 0 0 wl + - -4M 0.0 4’ 1 it 0 If 11 N1 NIf A Q0 0: .0 m0 J=O3 04A L 1 1 C14 02 o 44 .0 .0 x0 .0 .0 000*~l N m % ~0 r- 000\\ .0.0. .0.0...0 C4 9-4 VNN -4 9-4 VcMi-vc ~ ~ ~ C Oc 0 C’- E. N Et~N -4 E-4 E~N-4 14’ ’A., -.;; 25 igated closely for the best performing gage. All the larger diF

  19. Training Aids for Basic Combat Skills: Obtaining a 200 M Zero with M16 Rifle and M4 Carbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    zeroing procedures. Because peer learning requires all individuals (i.e., peers) to be engaged in the learning process (Tomasello, 1999; Vygotsky , 1978...Trends in peer learning. Educational Psychology, 25, 631-645. Vygotsky , L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological

  20. Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator Development to Improve Soldier Shooting Skills with the M16A3 Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    101 ( ot SF11.! its CIP 1(2024 IVf SFC TEI IHISTI ID! 123 DIE SCLIO TIC SFC lID 1121 IDE 00 LDE SE4 SEE030 IDE (SFI), .Y TIGET I Cl? V1 115110 $TE SID...DUFFSl IF Slots IDE SIC CI? I’D fill ID0E 1255 :IS EYCl. IT loVE ltI 101 EDC 10 119 iIT040 VATTI DIE BUFFER IF Slots IS ODD SIT SFC HIMTJ I if0 0SET Dit...Of BUFFER lED. LDA (SFB( ,T CLC $?I EVIL :SET UP Fot :50 STOPOFF II III. CLC IDC SIB L1 -10 ADDITIOE OF 119111 i5! SPIT ABC 0! PAL ICC GITIO :OFFSET

  1. A Guide to Instruction in the Shooting Sports-Rifles; Air Rifles; Shotguns; Pistols; Hunter Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Roy K.; And Others

    Prepared for instruction in the use of rifles, air guns, shotguns, pistols, and hunter safety, this guide supplements other materials which are available from the National Rifle Association of America, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, industry, and other sources. The…

  2. Acute Renal Failure in Patients with Severe Falciparum Malaria: Using the WHO 2006 and RIFLE Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipa Thanachartwet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data on the application of the RIFLE criteria among patients with severe malaria. This retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 257 medical records of adult hospitalized patients with severe falciparum malaria at the Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak province in the northern part of Thailand. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF in patients with severe falciparum malaria and its association with RRT as well as in-hospital mortality. Using the WHO 2006 criteria, ARF was the second most common complication with incidence of 44.7% (115 patients. The requirement for RRT was 45.2% (52 patients and the in-hospital mortality was 31.9% (36 patients. Using the RIFLE criteria, 73.9% (190 patients had acute kidney injury (AKI. The requirement for RRT was 11.6% (5 patients in patients with RIFLE-I and 44.9% (48 patients in patients with RIFLE-F. The in-hospital mortality gradually increased with the severity of AKI. The requirement for RRT (P<0.05 and the in-hospital mortality (P<0.05 were significantly higher in ARF patients with severe falciparum malaria using both criteria. In conclusion, the RIFLE criteria could be used for diagnosing AKI and predicting outcomes in patients with severe malaria similar to the WHO 2006 criteria.

  3. 75 FR 18403 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO AGENCY... E airspace at Rifle, CO. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Rifle, CO...

  4. CFD Studies on Multi Lead Rifled [MLR] Boiler Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr T C Mohankumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the merits of multi lead rifled [MLR] tubes in vertical water tube boiler using CFD tool. Heat transfer enhancement of MLR tubes was mainly taken in to consideration. Performance of multi lead rifled tube was studied by varying its influencing geometrical parameter like number of rifling, height of rifling, length of pitch of rifling for a particular length. The heat transfer analysis was done at operating conditions of an actual coal fired water tube boiler situated at Apollo Tyres LTD, Chalakudy, India for saturated process steam production. The results showed that the heat transfer increased when compared with existing inner plane wall water tubes.

  5. Marine Corps Expeditionary Rifle Platoon Energy Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    18  Figure 2.  Typical Platoon Flashlight and NVGs .............................................................33  x THIS...Terrain and Troops MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit MRP Marine Rifle Platoon NVG Night Vision Goggles SAW Squad automatic weapon SPOD Seaport...conditions may be such that pickup from a central point is impossible, and supplies are therefore delivered by helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft (HQ USMC

  6. Marine Corps expeditionary rifle platoon energy burden

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 2009, the Commandant of the Marine Corps declared energy a top priority and created the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Expeditionary Energy Office to develop an energy strategy to reduce and optimize energy usage throughout the Marine Corps. This thesis examines the operational tasks and capabilities that drive the current USMC rifle platoon’s energy burdens using an Expeditionary Warrior 2012 war-game scenario. The primary conclusion of ...

  7. Recurrent posterior shoulder instability after rifle shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Chung, Nam-Su; Song, Hyung-Keun; Lee, Doo-Hyung

    2012-11-01

    Rifle shooting produces a sudden counterforce against the body thorough the anterior shoulder, which may produce a traumatic injury in soldiers. Posterior instability of the shoulder can occur in soldiers who practice rifle shooting. To the authors' knowledge, few reports have examined shooting-related injuries in soldiers. This article describes the case of a 27-year-old male soldier who presented with left shoulder pain and instability after rifle training. He developed symptoms, and presented radiographic findings consistent with a posterior Bankart lesion. Intraoperatively, while in the lateral decubitus position, a posterior portal was created 3 cm inferior and 2 cm lateral to the posterolateral corner of acromion for making a proper angle for inserting anchors. A reverse bony Bankart lesion and adjacent cartilage breakdown at the glenoid rim were noted. An arthroscopic capsulolabral repair was performed with 3-mm bioabsorbable anchors to the glenoid rim. No gross reverse Hill-Sachs lesion or hyaline cartilage lesion was noted. Postoperatively, the arm was supported in a sling with an abduction pillow for 5 weeks. Codman's exercises, scapular protraction exercises, and elbow and wrist exercises were started. Physical therapy focused on reestablishing glenohumeral range of motion and rotator cuff and periscapular muscle strength. Six months postoperatively, the patient had normal scapular kinesis and reported no shoulder pain or symptoms of instability associated with a reverse bony Bankart lesion. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Relationships between postural balance, rifle stability and shooting accuracy among novice rifle shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mononen, K; Konttinen, N; Viitasalo, J; Era, P

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between shooting accuracy and shooters' behavioral performance, i.e., postural balance and gun barrel stability, among novice rifle shooters in intra- and inter-individual levels. Postural balance and rifle stability were assessed in terms of anteroposterior (VEL(AP)) and mediolateral (VEL(ML)) sway velocity of the movement of center of pressure, and horizontal (DEV(H)) and vertical (DEV(V)) deviation of the aiming point. The participants (n=58) performed 30 shots in the standing position at a distance of 10 m from the target. The data showed that shooting accuracy was related to postural balance and rifle stability, but only at the inter-individual level. The correlation coefficients between shooting score and behavioral performance variables ranged from -0.29 to -0.45. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the VEL(ML) and the DEV(H) as independent variables accounted for 26% of the variance in the shooting score. The results also suggested that postural balance is related to the shooting accuracy both directly and indirectly through rifle stability. As the role of postural balance appeared to be important in shooting performance, the use of additional balance training programs to improve a shooter's postural skills should be encouraged.

  9. Using human-centered design to improve the assault rifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Cheng-Lang; Yuan, Cheng-Kang; Liu, Bor-Shong

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to interview infantry soldiers to determine their preferences with respect to rifle design and to examine the effect of buttstocks on shooting performance. Factor analysis showed that seven main factors should be considered in rifle redesign including tactics necessary, interface design, saving weight, bullpup configuration, sight design, other devices, and bayonet lug. For the shooting experiment, a total of four shooting trials were performed with the T-91 rifle, with buttstock lengths of 26 mm, 34 mm, self-adjusting stock, and bullpup stock. The analysis revealed that buttstock length had a significant effect on shooting performance. The redesigned rifle weight and total length should be reduced to 3.2 kg and 750 mm, respectively. The rifle buttstock should be a non-adjustable bullpup style. The buttstock shape should be curved and the hand-guard type should be more deeply and density seams, while the trigger handle shape should be slanted.

  10. The RIFLE versus AKIN classification for incidence and mortality of acute kidney injury in critical ill patients: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jiachuan; Tang, Xi; Hu, Zhangxue; Nie, Ling; Wang, Yiqin; Zhao, Jinghong

    2015-12-07

    The sensitivity and accuracy of the Risk/Injury/Failure/Loss/End-stage (RIFLE) versus acute kidney injury Network (AKIN) criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients remains uncertain. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the incidence and prognostic value of the RIFLE versus AKIN criteria for AKI in critically ill patients. Literatures were identified by searching Medline, Embase, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database. Nineteen studies with 171,889 participants were included. The pooled estimates of relative risk (RR) were analyzed. We found that the RIFLE and AKIN criteria is different for the incidence of AKI in intensive care unit (ICU) patients (P = 0.02, RR = 0.88), while not for cardiac surgery patients (P = 0.30, RR = 0.93). For AKI-related hospital mortality, the AKIN criteria did not show a better ability in predicting hospital mortality in either ICU (P = 0.19, RR = 1.01) or cardiac surgery patients (P = 0.61, RR = 0.98) compared to RIFLE criteria. Our findings supported that the AKIN criteria can identify more patients in classifying AKI compared to RIFLE criteria, but not showing a better ability in predicting hospital mortality. Moreover, both RIFLE and AKIN criteria for AKI in cardiac surgery patients had better predictive ability compared with the ICU patients.

  11. Evaluation of acute kidney injury (AKI) with RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO in critically ill trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülger, F; Pehlivanlar Küçük, M; Küçük, A O; İlkaya, N K; Murat, N; Bilgiç, B; Abanoz, H

    2017-07-17

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of AKI development on mortality with four different classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN, CK, KDIGO) in critically ill trauma patients followed in the intensive care unit. A retrospective review of 2034 patients in our intensive care unit was conducted between July 2010 and August 2013. A total of 198 patients with primary trauma were included in the study to evaluate the development of AKI. When the presence of AKI was investigated according to the four criteria (RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO), the highest incidence of AKI was found according to the KDIGO classification (74.2%), followed by AKIN (72.2%), RIFLE (69.7%), and CK (59.1%). It was observed that more AKI developed according to KDIGO in patients with multiple trauma and thoracic trauma (p = 0.031, p = 0.029). Sixty-two (31%) of the 198 trauma patients monitored in the intensive care unit died; mortality was frequently found high in AKI stage 2 and 3 patients. According to the CK classification, there was a significant increase in mortality in patients with AKI on the first day (p = 0.045). AKI classifications by RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO were independently associated with the risk of in-hospital death. In this study, the presence of AKI was found to be an independent risk factor in the development of in-hospital mortality according to all classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO) in critically traumatic patients followed in ICU, and the compatibility between RIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO was the highest among the classification systems.

  12. Rifle Pits at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the rifle pits used by the 7th Cavalry at the Reno-Benteen Battlefield at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI)....

  13. Gyroscopic Stability of Open Tipped Match Style Rifle Bullets

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya R

    2014-01-01

    Earlier work has produced formulas for predicting stability of rifle bullets of near uniform density and also for plastic-tipped rifle bullets. These formulas have been shown to be accurate to within 5%. However, the original Miller twist formula for metal bullets of near uniform density underestimates the stability of match style open tipped rifle bullets having a significant empty volume in the tip. This paper presents a new formula for accurately estimating the stability of these open tipped match style rifle bullets from parameters easily obtained such as the bullet mass, length, and depth of the empty space in the tip. The formula is tested by measuring the aerodynamic drag vs. predicted stability of several bullets over a range of stabilities.

  14. [The determination of the ballistics of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlakov, A V; Sotin, A V; Nagornov, M N

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are considered to determine the shooting range of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet from the specific features of gunshot injuries inflicted by container-type Poleba-3 bullets for hunting rifles.

  15. 77 FR 71493 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airway V-8 in the Vicinity of Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Vicinity of Rifle, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule, technical... Rifle, CO, to correct the description contained in part 71 to ensure it matches the information... realigned over the Rifle, CO, VHF Omnidirectional Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation...

  16. Hydrogen Peroxide in Groundwater at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X.; Nico, P. S.; Williams, K. H.; Hobson, C.; Davis, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as a reactive transient presenting ubiquitously in natural surface waters, can react with a large suite of biologically important and redox-sensitive trace elements. The dominant source of H2O2 in natural waters has long been thought to be photo-oxidation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by molecular oxygen to produce superoxide radical, which then proceeds via dismutation to generate H2O2. However, recent studies have indicated that dark production of H2O2 in deep seawater, principally by biological production, is potentially on par with photochemical generation. Here, we present evidence for abiotic dark generation of H2O2 in groundwater in an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO. Background H2O2 concentrations were determined in situ using a sensitive chemiluminescence-based method. Our results suggest H2O2 concentrations ranged from lower than the detection limit (1 nM) to 54 nM in different monitoring wells at the site, and the concentrations exhibited close correlations with profiles of dissolved oxygen and iron concentrations in the wells, indicating a possible metal redox cycling mechanism. In addition, dissolved natural organic matter, which could potentially coordinate the interconversion of ferric and ferrous species, might also play an important role in H2O2 formation. While biologically mediated activities have been recognized as the major sink of H2O2, the detected H2O2 pattern in groundwater suggests the existence of a balance between H2O2 source and decay, which potentially involves a cascade of biogeochemically significant processes, including the interconversion of ferrous/ferric species, the generation of more reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radical, the depletion of dissolved oxygen and further transformation of natural organic matter and other chemical pollutants.

  17. Predictive value of the RIFLE urine output criteria on contrast-induced nephropathy in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocine, Aldjia; Defrance, Pierre; Lalmand, Jacques; Delcour, Christian; Biston, Patrick; Piagnerelli, Michaël

    2016-03-28

    To investigate the predictive value of decreased urine output based on the Risk of renal dysfunction, Injury to the kidney, Failure of kidney function, Loss of kidney function and End-stage renal disease (RIFLE) classification on contrast- induced acute kidney injury (CA-AKI) in intensive care (ICU) patients. All patients who received contrast media (CM) injection for CT scan or coronary angiography during a 3-year period in a 24 bed medico-surgical ICU were reviewed. Daily serum creatinine concentrations and diuresis were measured for 3 days after CM injection. We identified 23 cases of CA-AKI in the 149 patients included (15.4 %). Patients who developed CA-AKI were more likely to require renal replacement therapy and had higher ICU mortality rates. At least one RIFLE urine output criteria was observed in 45 patients (30.2 %) and 14 of these 45 patients (31.1 %) developed CA-AKI based on creatinine concentrations. In 30 % of these cases, urine output decreased or didn't change after the increase in creatinine concentrations. The RIFLE urine output criteria had low sensitivity (39.1 %) and specificity (67.9 %) for prediction of CA-AKI, a low positive predictive value of 50 % and a negative predictive value of 87.2 %. The maximal dose of vasopressors before CM was the only independent predictive factor for CA-AKI. CA-AKI is a frequent pathology observed in ICU patients and is associated with increased need for renal replacement therapy and increased mortality. The predictive value of RIFLE urine output criteria for the development of CA-AKI based on creatinine concentrations was low, which limits its use for assessing the effects of therapeutic interventions on the development and progression of AKI.

  18. Economic evaluation of inactive uranium mill tailings, Old Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teel, J H [Mountain States Research and Development, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Mountain States Research and Development was contracted on March 1, 1981 to make an economic evaluation study at each of 12 abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in the western states. The objective of this work was to obtain the data necessary at each site to determine the possible revenue that could be derived from reprocessing the tailings. To accomplish this objective a drilling and sampling program was established for each site to determine the total amount of tailings and subbase material available for treatment and the amount of recoverable uranium, vanadium and molybdenum. These three metals were selected due to their common occurrence in uranium ores and common extractability in the leaching process. Laboratory leaching was then conducted on the samples obtained to determine the extractability of each of these metals and the optimum plant process to be applied. As the metal contents were generally low and represented mineral that had not been leached during previous processing, the economic evaluation is limited to consideration of the direct capital and operating costs required in connection with processing of each respective site material. Excavating, transportation and disposal of the material from each site in an environmentally acceptable location and manner was not within the scope of this project. It will be necessary to complete a separate study of these areas in order to determine the total costs involved. This report contains the results of the investigations of the Old Rifle Site.

  19. Environmental Audit, Rifle, Gunnison and Grand Junction UMTRA Project Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-08-01

    This report documents the results of the comprehensive baseline Environmental Audit completed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites at Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. Included in the Audit were the actual abandoned mill sites, associated transportation and disposal cell facilities, and representative examples of the more than 4,000 known vicinity properties. Sites investigated include: Climax Mill Site, Truck/Train Haul Route, Cotter Transfer Station, Cheney Disposal Cell, Rifle Mill Sites (Old and New Rifle), Gunnison Mill Site, Vicinity Properties, and Estes Gulch and Proposed Landfill Site No. 1 Disposal Cells. The UMTRA Audit was a comprehensive baseline audit which considered all environmental programs and the activities associated with ongoing and planned remediation at the UMTRA sites listed above. Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was not considered during this investigation. The Audit Team looked at the following technical disciplines: air, surface water/drinking water, groundwater, soil/sediment/biota, waste management, toxic and chemical materials, quality assurance, radiation, inactive waste sites, and environmental management. 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Determinants of elite-level air rifle shooting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, S; Kuitunen, S; Mononen, K; Linnamo, V

    2016-03-01

    This study focused on identifying the most important factors determining performance in elite-level air rifle shooting technique. Forty international- and national-level shooters completed a simulated air rifle shooting competition series. From a total of 13 795 shots in 319 tests, shooting score and 17 aiming point trajectory variables were measured with an optoelectronic device and six postural balance variables were measured with force platform. Principal component analysis revealed six components in the air rifle shooting technique: aiming time, stability of hold, measurement time, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering. Multiple regression analysis identified four of those, namely stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering as the most important predictors of shooting performance, accounting for 81% of the variance in shooting score. The direct effect of postural balance on performance was small, accounting for less than 1% of the variance in shooting score. Indirectly, the effect can be greater through a more stable holding ability, to which postural balance was correlated significantly (R = 0.55, P < 0.001). The results of the present study can be used in assessing athletes' technical strengths and weaknesses and in directing training programs on distinct shooting technical components. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The forensic aspects of contemporary disintegrating rifle bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lucien C

    2013-03-01

    A relatively new type of rifle bullet has appeared in the last few years that contains no lead and rapidly disintegrates into very small particles and jacket fragments immediately upon entry into soft tissue. These bullets are intended for use by 'varmint' hunters in high-velocity centerfire rifles where the effect on such animals as prairie dogs, gophers, ground hogs, and other similarly sized animals is nothing short of explosive. The shooting of much larger animals to include human beings will typically result in nonperforating wounds with short wound paths. X-ray views of a decedent or gunshot victim will lack any recognizable bullet or projectile. Only 1 jacket fragment among the many present in the wound tract is suitable for subsequent firearms identification purposes, namely, the small copper disc that represents the base or heel of the bullet jacket. This small circular fragment bears vestiges of the rifling marks of the responsible firearm.This article will aid the forensic pathologist in recognizing gunshot wounds produced by these atypical bullets and the importance of recovering the base portion of the disintegrated bullet jacket.

  2. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    This volume contains appendices D6 through D8 containing laboratory test data: from MK-F investigation, 1987, Old Rifle and New Rifle sites; on bentonite amended radon barrier material; and from MK-F investigation, 1987, riprap tests.

  3. Effects of Concentration Disruption on Simulated Basic Rifle Marksmanship Scores among Stryker Brigade Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that the presence of anxiety symptoms is less related to simulated basic rifle marksmanship (S-BRM) performance than is cognitive disruption. The sample was comprised of 82 Stryker Brigade Soldiers at a large military post in the Pacific Northwest. Simulated rifle marksmanship was assessed using the Engagement…

  4. Development of Sensor-Based Measures of Rifle Marksmanship Skill and Performance. CRESST Report 756

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Paul D.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Parks, Daniel; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of rifle marksmanship skill and performance were developed using a prototype instrumented laser-based training system. Measures of performance were derived from laser strikes on a video-projected target. Measures of rifle marksmanship skill--breath control, trigger control, and muzzle wobble--were developed from shooters' breathing and…

  5. Effects of Concentration Disruption on Simulated Basic Rifle Marksmanship Scores among Stryker Brigade Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that the presence of anxiety symptoms is less related to simulated basic rifle marksmanship (S-BRM) performance than is cognitive disruption. The sample was comprised of 82 Stryker Brigade Soldiers at a large military post in the Pacific Northwest. Simulated rifle marksmanship was assessed using the Engagement…

  6. Does Polishing a Rifle Bore Reduce Bullet Drag?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    thus lower drag. A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat...drag on the bullets. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ballistic coefficient, aerodynamic drag, rifle bore, bore polishing, Remington 700 5R 16. SECURITY...A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat Tail and a 125

  7. IUE observations of high velocity gas towards the M16 nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, B. Y.

    1984-03-01

    The star HD 168183, which is part of the giant H II region-molecular cloud complex of M16 (NGC 6611), has been observed at high resolution using the IUE satellite. High velocity interstellar absorption components have been detected at velocities of -83, -38 and +40 km s-1 and it is proposed that a stellar wind-driven shock-front, interacting with the ambient neutral interstellar gas, is responsible for such complex velocity structure. Strong absorption from five of the 12C16O UV molecular lines has also been detected and the present UV absorption line data seem consistent with radio observations of M16 in which the Tenorio-Tagle 'champagne' model has been invoked to explain the ionized and neutral gas outflows from the nebula.

  8. Preclinical Immunomodulation by the Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in Early Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Adrover, Maria del Mar; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the maturation of the intestinal and circulating immune system during suckling. In order to achieve this purpose, neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with the probiotic strain from the 6th to the 18th day of life. The animals were weighed during the study, and faecal samples were obtained and evaluated daily. On day 19, rats were euthanized and intestinal wash samples, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, splenocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were obtained. The probiotic supplementation in early life did not modify the growth curve and did not enhance the systemic immune maturation. However, it increased the proportion of cells bearing TLR4 in the MLN and IEL, and enhanced the percentage of the integrin αEβ7+ and CD62L+ cells in the MLN and that of the integrin αEβ7+ cells in the IEL, suggesting an enhancement of the homing process of naïve T lymphocytes to the MLN, and the retention of activated lymphocytes in the intraepithelial compartment. Interestingly, B. breve M-16V enhanced the intestinal IgA synthesis. In conclusion, supplementation with the probiotic strain B. breve M-16V during suckling improves the development of mucosal immunity in early life. PMID:27820846

  9. Clinical effects of pranayama on performance of rifle shooters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amte Snehal Shekhar, Mistry Hetal M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yoga has an enormous scientifically proven effect on man’s physical and psychological functioning. Pranayama constitute the most vital aspects of yoga. Various methods of pranayama have a sound scientific basis and are traditionally believed to produce equilibrium between psychic and somatic aspects of bodily functions. The link between body and mind is obligatory for the better performance of sports persons. Aim: The aim of the study is to find out the effect of pranayama on the performance of Rifle shooters by measuring the parameters like-breath holding time, lung functional capacity and shooting performance. Method: 52 state level shooters subjects were chosen from 2 centres between the age group of 15-30years. Out of them, 26 shooters were given training in the techniques of pranayama for 3weeks.The other 26 subjects served as control i.e. with out Pranayama training. Variables like shooting performance, breath holding time (BHT, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, respiratory rate (RR and pulse rate (PR were measured in both the groups. Results: The study showed highly significant improvement in all the five variables shooting performance (in mm, BHT, PEFR, RR and PR with p value of 3.62E-05, 2.78E-07, 1.31E-09, 0.013, 3.40E-04respectively. Conclusion: So it can be concluded that pranayama is efficacious for better performance of Rifle shooters and should be included in their training practice.

  10. RIFLE classification in geriatric patients with acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Ji; Rhee, Harin; Kim, Il Young; Song, Sang Heon; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Seong, Eun Young

    2016-06-01

    The RIFLE classification is widely used to assess the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI), but its application to geriatric AKI patients complicated by medical problems has not been reported. We investigated 256 geriatric patients (≥65 years old; mean age, 74.4 ± 6.3 years) who developed AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU) according to the RIFLE classification. Etiologic, clinical, and prognostic variables were analyzed. They were categorized into RIFLE-R (n = 53), RIFLE-I (n = 102), and RIFLE-F (n = 101) groups. The overall in-hospital mortality was 39.8 %. There were no significant differences in RIFLE category between survivors and non-survivors. Survivors had significantly less needs for a ventilator and vasopressor, and lower number of failing organs. Survivors had higher systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin level, and serum albumin levels. We performed a logistic regression analysis to identify the independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. In a univariate analysis, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, RIFLE classification, number of failing organs, need for a ventilator and vasopressor, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin level, and serum albumin levels were identified as prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality. However, in a multivariate analysis, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, number of failing organs, and serum albumin levels were independent risk factors, with no significant difference for in-hospital mortality with the RIFLE classification. The RIFLE classification might not be associated with mortality in geriatric AKI patients in the ICU. In geriatric patients with AKI, various factors besides severity of AKI should be considered to predict mortality.

  11. Mystery of the First Russian Rifle Naval Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1859 France completed the first ocean-going ironclad warship, «La Gloire», and changed the definition of naval power completely. Russia, as all the other Powers, found that her most powerful naval gun, the 60-pdr, was insufficient for modern warfare, and realized the future naval armament relied on heavy rifled artillery. Both the Army and Navy began purchasing such cannon from foreign providers until a suitable domestic weapon could be produced. The relationship between the Russian military and Krupp is well known. But there was another provided, the Blakely Ordnance Company in England sold many guns to the Army and Navy, beginning with 8-inch MLR in early 1863 to a large number of 9- and 11-inch guns. Deliveries began in November 1863 and continued until mid-1866. But no sources on the armament of Russian ships and fortresses mentions these guns. What happened to them is a mystery.

  12. Air rifle ammunition and its influence on wounding potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W D

    1985-03-01

    Two new types of air rifle pellet have been introduced; Prometheus, made from steel and nylon, and 'Sabo', made from lead alloy and plastic. Both have radio-opaque and radio-lucent components and their manufacturers claim better penetration. To establish their capabilities and the clinical implications a comparison of penetration was made between diablo, Prometheus and 'Sabo' pellets using gelatin 20% as a tissue simulant. Prometheus penetrated no further than diablo pellets but fragmented in up to 70% of cases. 'Sabo' penetrated 46% further than diablo (p = 0.001) and its plastic component did not penetrate at ranges greater than 0.5 m. Prometheus penetrated steel, unlike the other pellets, and is therefore potentially more dangerous in head injury. Because of fragmentation after impact it should be remembered that the radio-lucent sleeve is likely to be lying in the wound track. 'Sabo' would appear to be the most dangerous in soft and medium density materials.

  13. High-speed measurement of rifle primer blast waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of rifle primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Our key findings are: 1) Most of the primer models tested show 5-12% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) For most primer types tested, peak pressure magnitudes are well correlated with measured primer masses so that significant reductions in standard deviation are expected to result from sorting primers by mass. 3) A range of peak pressures from below 200 psi to above 500 psi is available in different primer types.

  14. Investigation into the fabrication of a composite top attack recoilless rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Kevin R.

    1990-01-01

    The fabrication of a lightweight, expendable recoilless rifle using composite materials was investigated. Filament winding and braiding were successfully employed in the construction of several of these shoulder-fired weapons.

  15. The influence of rifle carriage on the kinetics of human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, S A; Haslam, R A

    2008-06-01

    The influence that rifle carriage has on human gait has received little attention in the published literature. Rifle carriage has two main effects, to add load to the anterior of the body and to restrict natural arm swing patterns. Kinetic data were collected from 15 male participants, with 10 trials in each of four experimental conditions. The conditions were: walking without a load (used as a control condition); carrying a lightweight rifle simulator, which restricted arm movements but applied no additional load; wearing a 4.4 kg diving belt, which allowed arms to move freely; carrying a weighted (4.4 kg) replica SA80 rifle. Walking speed was fixed at 1.5 m/s (+/-5%) and data were sampled at 400 Hz. Results showed that rifle carriage significantly alters the ground reaction forces produced during walking, the most important effects being an increase in the impact peak and mediolateral forces. This study suggests that these effects are due to the increased range of motion of the body's centre of mass caused by the impeding of natural arm swing patterns. The subsequent effect on the potential development of injuries in rifle carriers is unknown.

  16. Association between eye dominance and training for rifle marksmanship: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L F; Classe, J G; Hester, M; Harris, K

    1996-02-01

    This pilot study was performed to determine the effect, if any, exerted by crossed dominance (contralateral hand and eye dominance) on the ability of novice riflemen to learn how to accurately shoot a rifle. Sighting dominance was used to determine the dominant eye. Hand dominance was determined by the arm used to shoulder the rifle in the shooting position. Subjects were 308 military recruits at the Fort Benning Army Base in Columbus, Georgia, who had undergone basic training in rifle marksmanship. Qualification scores obtained at the base rifle range were used to measure the subjects' ability to learn marksmanship skills. The subjects with right-hand/right-eye and left-hand/left-eye (uncrossed) dominance had qualification scores that were significantly higher (p = .009) than the subjects with right hand/left-eye and left-hand/right-eye (crossed) dominance. A significantly higher percentage of subjects with uncrossed dominance achieved rifle qualification (86.1 percent) than subjects with crossed dominance (56.5 percent) (p = .000). The learning of rifle marksmanship is influenced by eye dominance. Individuals who shoot right handed and are left-eye dominant or who shoot left handed and are right-eye dominant do not learn marksmanship skills as readily as individuals who have matched eye and hand dominance. Since crossed hand and eye dominance can be easily determined, it should be possible to identify cross dominant individuals and provide them with special training so that they can perform at a higher level of skill.

  17. Acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting: assessment using RIFLE and AKIN criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius José da Silva Nina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage Renal Failure and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria for diagnosis of acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: Retrospective cohort. 169 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting from January 2007 through December 2008 were analyzed. Information was entered into a database and analyzed using STATA 9.0. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 63.43 1 9.01 years old. Predominantly male patients (66.86% were studied. Acute Kidney Injury was present in 33.14% by AKIN and in 29.59% by RIFLE. Hemodialysis was required by 3.57% and 4.0% of the patients when AKIN and RIFLE were applied respectively. There was 4.0% and 3.57% mortality of patients with Acute Kidney Injury according to the RIFLE and AKIN criteria, respectively. In 88.76% of the cases, there was good agreement between the two methods in the detection (kappa=0.7380 and stratification (kappa=0.7515 of Acute Kidney Injury. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the RIFLE and AKIN criteria have a good agreement in the detection and stratification of acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting.

  18. STELLAR 'EGGS' EMERGE FROM MOLECULAR CLOUD (Star-Birth Clouds in M16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This eerie, dark structure, resembling an imaginary sea serpent's head, is a column of cool molecular hydrogen gas (two atoms of hydrogen in each molecule) and dust that is an incubator for new stars. The stars are embedded inside finger-like protrusions extending from the top of the nebula. Each 'fingertip' is somewhat larger than our own solar system. The pillar is slowly eroding away by the ultraviolet light from nearby hot stars, a process called 'photoevaporation'. As it does, small globules of especially dense gas buried within the cloud is uncovered. These globules have been dubbed 'EGGs' -- an acronym for 'Evaporating Gaseous Globules'. The shadows of the EGGs protect gas behind them, resulting in the finger-like structures at the top of the cloud. Forming inside at least some of the EGGs are embryonic stars -- stars that abruptly stop growing when the EGGs are uncovered and they are separated from the larger reservoir of gas from which they were drawing mass. Eventually the stars emerge, as the EGGs themselves succumb to photoevaporation. The stellar EGGS are found, appropriately enough, in the 'Eagle Nebula' (also called M16 -- the 16th object in Charles Messier's 18th century catalog of 'fuzzy' permanent objects in the sky), a nearby star-forming region 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Serpens. The picture was taken on April 1, 1995 with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The color image is constructed from three separate images taken in the light of emission from different types of atoms. Red shows emission from singly-ionized sulfur atoms. Green shows emission from hydrogen. Blue shows light emitted by doubly- ionized oxygen atoms. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo:

  19. Predictive value of RIFLE classification on prognosis of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-xiong; CHEN Hui-de; WANG Xiao-wen; ZHAO Song; CHEN Xiu-kai; ZHENG Yue; SONG Yang

    2009-01-01

    Background The optimal timing to start continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for acute kidney injury (AKI) patients has not been accurately established. The recently proposed risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria for diagnosis and classification of AKI may provide a method for clinicians to decide the "optimal timing" for starting CRRT under uniform guidelines. The present study aimed: (1) to analyze the correlation between RIFLE stage at the start of CRRT and 90-day survival rate after CRRT start, (2) to further investigate the correlation of RIFLE stage with the malignant kidney outcome in the 90-day survivors, and (3) to determine the influence of the timing of CRRT defined by RIFLE classification on the 90-day survival and malignant kidney outcome in 90-day survivors. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on the data of 106 critically ill patients with AKI, treated with CRRT during a 6-year period in a university affiliated surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Information such as sex, age, RIFLE stage, sepsis, sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, number of organ failures before CRRT, CRRT time during SiCU, survival, and kidney outcome conditions at 90 days after CRRT start was collected. According to their baseline severity of AKI at the start of CRRT, the patients were assigned to three groups according to the increasing severity of RIFLE stages: RIFLE-R (risk of renal dysfunction, R), RIFLE-I (injury to the kidney, I) and RIFLE-F (failure of kidney function, F) using RIFLE criteria. The malignant kidney outcome was classified as RIFLE-L (loss of kidney function, L) or RIFLE-E (end-stage kidney disease, E) using RIFLE criteria. The correlation between RIFLE stage and 90-day survival rate was analyzed among these three RIFLE-categorized groups. Additionally, the association between RIFLE stage and the malignant kidney outcome (RIFLE-L+RIFLF-E) in the 90-day survivors was analyzed

  20. 33 CFR 334.480 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek and Broad River, S.C.; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot rifle and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Broad River, S.C.; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot rifle and pistol ranges, Parris Island. 334.480..., S.C.; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot rifle and pistol ranges, Parris Island. (a) During periods when the rifle and pistol ranges on Parris Island are in use, the following areas will be restricted to...

  1. An Exploratory Investigation of the Effect of Individualized Computer-Based Instruction on Rifle Marksmanship Performance and Skill. CRESST Report 754

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, researchers examined whether individualized multimedia-based instruction would influence the development of rifle marksmanship skills in novice shooters with little or no prior rifle marksmanship experience. Forty-eight novice shooters used an M4 rifle training simulator system to shoot at an 8-inch target at a simulated distance…

  2. 33 CFR 334.100 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Atlantic...

  3. The Influence of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors on the Development of Rifle Marksmanship Skills. CRESST Report 753

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, researchers examined rifle marksmanship development within a skill development framework outlined by Chung, Delacruz, de Vries, Bewley, and Baker (2006). Thirty-three novice shooters used an M4 rifle training simulator system to learn to shoot an 8-inch target at a simulated distance of 200 yards. Cognitive, psychomotor, and…

  4. Incidence and mortality of acute kidney injury in acute myocardial infarction patients: a comparison between AKIN and RIFLE criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Yacov; Leshem-Rubinow, Eran; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Gal-Oz, Amir; Steinvil, Arie; Ben Assa, Eyal; Keren, Gad; Roth, Arie; Arbel, Yaron

    2014-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with adverse outcomes after acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The recently proposed AKI network (AKIN) suggested modifications to the consensus classification system for AKI known as the risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage (RIFLE) criteria. The aim of the current study was to compare the incidence and mortality (early and late) of AKI diagnosed by RIFLE and AKIN criteria in the STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous intervention (PCI). We retrospectively studied 1,033 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. Recruited patients were admitted between January 2008 and November 2012 to the cardiac intensive care unit with the diagnosis of acute STEMI. We compared the utilization of RIFLE and AKIN criteria for the diagnosis, classification, and prediction of mortality. The AKIN criteria allowed the identification of more patients as having AKI (9.6 vs. 3.9 %, p RIFLE) (7.6 vs. 1.9 %, p RIFLE criteria. Mortality was higher in AKI population defined by either RIFLE (46.3 vs. 6.8 %, OR 11.9, 95 % CI 6.15-23.1; p RIFLE and AKIN was an independent predictor of both 30-day and up to 5-year all-cause mortality. However, there was no significant statistical difference in the risk provided by these two scoring systems. AKIN criteria are more sensitive in defining AKI compared with the RIFLE criteria in STEMI. However, no difference exists in the mortality risk provided by these two scoring systems.

  5. Incidence and Mortality of Acute Kidney Injury after Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison between KDIGO and RIFLE Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando B.; Bruetto, Rosana G.; Torres, Ulysses S.; Otaviano, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) increases the risk of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Recently, a new AKI definition was proposed by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) organization. The aim of the current study was to compare the incidence and the early and late mortality of AKI diagnosed by RIFLE and KDIGO criteria in the first 7 days of hospitalization due to an AMI. Methods and Results In total, 1,050 AMI patients were prospectively studied. AKI defined by RIFLE and KDIGO occurred in 14.8% and 36.6% of patients, respectively. By applying multivariate Cox analysis, AKI was associated with an increased adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) for 30-day death of 3.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.35–5.25, pRIFLE and 3.99 (CI 2.59–6.15, pRIFLE and 2.43 (CI 1.62–3.62, pRIFLE but as AKI by KDIGO criteria had also an increased AHR for death of 2.55 (1.52–4.28) at 30 days and 2.28 (CI 1.46–3.54) at 1 year (pRIFLE among AMI patients. Patients diagnosed as AKI by KDIGO but not RIFLE criteria had a significantly higher early and late mortality. In this study KDIGO criteria were more suitable for AKI diagnosis in AMI patients than RIFLE criteria. PMID:23894572

  6. Geologic map of the Rifle Falls quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Egger, Anne

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Rifle Falls 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift. Bedrock strata include the Upper Cretaceous Iles Formation through Ordovician and Cambrian units. The Iles Formation includes the Cozzette Sandstone and Corcoran Sandstone Members, which are undivided. The Mancos Shale is divided into three members, an upper member, the Niobrara Member, and a lower member. The Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, and the Entrada Sandstone are present. Below the Upper Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, the easternmost limit of the Lower Jurassic and Upper Triassic Glen Canyon Sandstone is recognized. Both the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation and the Lower Triassic(?) and Permian State Bridge Formation are present. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Maroon Formation is divided into two members, the Schoolhouse Member and a lower member. All the exposures of the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Evaporite intruded into the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Valley Formation, which includes locally mappable limestone beds. The Middle and Lower Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and the Lower Mississippian Leadville Limestone are present. The Upper Devonian Chaffee Group is divided into the Dyer Dolomite, which is broken into the Coffee Pot Member and the Broken Rib Member, and the Parting Formation. Ordovician through Cambrian units are undivided. The southwest flank of the White River uplift is a late Laramide structure that is represented by the steeply southwest-dipping Grand Hogback, which is only present in the southwestern corner of the map area, and less steeply southwest-dipping older strata that flatten to nearly horizontal attitudes in the northern part of the map area. Between these two is a large-offset, mid

  7. Acute renal failure according to the RIFLE and AKIN criteria: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, G; Landa, M; Masevicius, D; Gianassi, S; San-Román, J E; Silva, L; Gimenez, M; Tejerina, O; Díaz-Cisneros, P; Ciccioli, F; do Pico, J L

    2014-01-01

    To determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) in critically ill patients using the RIFLE and AKIN criteria. A prospective, multicenter observational study with a duration of one year from February 2010 was carried out. RIFLE and AKIN were employed using the urinary (UC) and creatinine criteria (CC) jointly and separately. Nine polyvalent Critical Care Units (CCUs) in Argentina. A total of 627 critical patients over 18 years of age were admitted to the CCU for more than 48h. inability to quantify diuresis, surgical instrumentation of the urinary tract, and need for renal support therapy (RST). Calculated hourly diuresis (CHD) was used to apply the UC. The incidence of ARF was 69.4% and 51.8% according to RIFLE and AKIN, respectively. UC detected ARF in 59.5% of cases, while CC identified ARF in 34.7% (RIFLE) and 25.3% (AKIN). The mortality rate was 40.9% and 44.6% according to RIFLE and AKIN respectively, was significantly higher than in patients without ARF, and increased with disease severity (Data processing: Excel, SQL and SPSS. Levene test, comparison of means with Student t and chi-squared, with 95% confidence interval). RIFLE identified more cases of ARF. UC proved more effective than CC. The presence of ARF and severity levels were correlated to mortality but not to days of stay in the CCU. Implementation of the unified CHD was useful for implementing UC and achieving comparable results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of M16C62 SCM for Thrash-sign Controller System%M16C62单片机在激光打标控制器系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蔷

    2006-01-01

    介绍了一种激光打标控制器,该系统由M16C62单片机(SCM)、存储器接口、键盘和显示接口、串口通信接口和驱动电路接口等部分组成;该方案充分利用M16C62单片机的丰富功能,减少外围电路,提高系统稳定性,方便文件管理.

  9. Identification and predicting short-term prognosis of early cardiorenal syndrome type 1: KDIGO is superior to RIFLE or AKIN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilian Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF is usually type 1 of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition of AKI is critical. This study was to determine if the new KDIGO criteria (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes for identification and short-term prognosis of early CRS type 1 was superior to the previous RIFLE and AKIN criteria. METHODS: The association between AKI diagnosed by KDIGO but not by RIFLE or AKIN and in-hospital mortality was retrospectively evaluated in 1005 Chinese adult patients with AHF between July 2008 and May 2012. AKI was defined as RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria, respectively. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis of in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Within 7 days on admission, the incidence of CRS type 1 was 38.9% by KDIGO criteria, 34.7% by AKIN, and 32.1% by RIFLE. A total of 110 (10.9% cases were additional diagnosed by KDIGO criteria but not by RIFLE or AKIN. 89.1% of them were in Stage 1 (AKIN or Stage Risk (RIFLE. They accounted for 18.4% (25 cases of the overall death. After adjustment, this proportion remained an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality [odds ratios (OR3.24, 95% confidence interval(95%CI 1.97-5.35]. Kaplan-Meier curve showed AKI patients by RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO and [K(+R(-+K(+A(-] had lower hospital survival than non-AKI patients (Log Rank P<0.001. CONCLUSION: KDIGO criteria identified significantly more CRS type 1 episodes than RIFLE or AKIN. AKI missed diagnosed by RIFLE or AKIN criteria was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality, indicating the new KDIGO criteria was superior to RIFLE and AKIN in predicting short-term outcomes in early CRS type 1.

  10. U.S. Army Rifle and Carbine Adoption between 1865 and 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    which remained the standard for U.S. military rifles well into the 1960s. The .30-caliber rifle has resurfaced during the current war on terrorism as...the hip and the time limit was reduced to one minute for the second and third trials. The Krag proved capable of firing 15 shots in 32 seconds as a...magazine empty.” Rapidity at will – “Same as test I, except that piece will be fired from the hip , without aim at stop butt at short range; hits

  11. Perbandingan Angka Fertilitas dan Hambatan Perkembangan Embrio Mencit yang Dikultur dalam Medium M16 dan Human Tubal Fluid (THE COMPARISON OF MICE FERTILITY RATE AND EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT CELL BLOCK WHEN CULTURED IN M16 AND HUMAN TUBAL FLUID MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjiati .

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare the fertility rate and embryonic development cell block ofmice when cultured in M16 and Human Tubal Fluid (HTF media, respectively. Two months old femaleBalbC mice were super ovulated using Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG and Human ChorionicGonadotrophin (HCG prior to mating with vasectomies mice. At 17 hours post mating the mice wassacrificed for the collections of egg cells and spermatozoa. Egg cells were collected by tearing the fertilizationsac, while the sperm were collected from caudal epididymis. After the collection, both the egg cells andsperm were put in Petri dish containing M16 and HTF media and kept in 5% CO2 incubator at 370C for onehour prior to the in vitro fertilization (IVF was performed. In vitro fertilization was performed in 5% CO2 incubator at 370C and kept for 24 hours in M16 and in HTF culture media. The results showed thatfertilization rate was 98.09% and 99.57%; cell block embryonic development was 85.09% and 83.36%when cultured in M16 and HTF media, respectively. In conclusion, HTF media can be used for culturingmouse embryo.

  12. Post-sensitization administration of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V reduces allergic symptoms in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Abbring, Suzanne; Diks, Mara A P; Dingjan, Gemma M; Harthoorn, Lucien F; Vos, A Paul; Garssen, Johan

    2016-01-01

    To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept c

  13. Post-sensitization administration of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V reduces allergic symptoms in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Betty C A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304839256; Abbring, Suzanne; Diks, Mara A P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372617298; Dingjan, Gemma M; Harthoorn, Lucien F; Vos, A Paul|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341156698; Garssen, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086369962

    2016-01-01

    To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept c

  14. Post-sensitization administration of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V reduces allergic symptoms in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Abbring, Suzanne; Diks, Mara A P; Dingjan, Gemma M; Harthoorn, Lucien F; Vos, A Paul; Garssen, Johan

    To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept

  15. Thermal-Work Strain and Energy Expenditure during Marine Rifle Squad Operations in Afghanistan (August 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-10

    TECHNICAL REPORT NO. T15-7 DATE August 2015 ADA THERMAL-WORK STRAIN AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE ...USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T15-7 THERMAL-WORK STRAIN AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE DURING MARINE RIFLE SQUAD OPERATIONS IN AFGHANISTAN...0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for

  16. Colour-the-INSight : Combining a direct view rifle sight with fused intensified and thermal imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Jansen, C.; Toet, A.; Bijl, P.; Bakker, P.J.; Hiddema, A.C.; Vliet, S.F. van

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of a new demonstrator rifle sight viewing system containing direct view, red aim point and fusion of an (uncooled, LWIR) thermal sensor with a digital image intensifier. Our goal is to create a system that performs well under a wide variety of (weather) condition

  17. Marksmanship for Young Shooters: The Air Rifle as an Instructional Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julian W., Ed.

    The purposes of this manual, which is part of a series on outdoor education, are: (1) to show some ways in which the spring-type air rifle can be used as an instructional tool in the school curriculum (especially in the elementary school) and in recreational and agency programs involving young shooters and (2) to provide information on the…

  18. Spatial Distribution of an Uranium-Respiring Betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO Field Research Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koribanics, Nicole M.; Tuorto, Steven J.; Lopez-Chiaffarelli, Nora; McGuinness, Lora R.; Häggblom, Max M.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site (IFRC) at Rifle, Colorado was created to address the gaps in knowledge on the mechanisms and rates of U(VI) bioreduction in alluvial sediments. Previous studies at the Rifle IFRC have linked microbial processes to uranium immobilization during acetate amendment. Several key bacteria believed to be involved in radionuclide containment have been described; however, most of the evidence implicating uranium reduction with specific microbiota has been indirect. Here, we report on the cultivation of a microorganism from the Rifle IFRC that reduces uranium and appears to utilize it as a terminal electron acceptor for respiration with acetate as electron donor. Furthermore, this bacterium constitutes a significant proportion of the subsurface sediment community prior to biostimulation based on TRFLP profiling of 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that the microorganism is a betaproteobacterium with a high similarity to Burkholderia fungorum. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a betaproteobacterium capable of uranium respiration. Our results indicate that this microorganism occurs commonly in alluvial sediments located between 3-6 m below ground surface at Rifle and may play a role in the initial reduction of uranium at the site. PMID:25874721

  19. Effect of carrying a rifle on physiology and biomechanical responses in biathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Bishop, Phil; Höök, Martina; Willis, Sarah; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of carrying a rifle on the physiological and biomechanical responses of well-trained biathletes. Ten elite biathletes (five men and five women) performed ski skating with (R) or without a rifle (NR) on a treadmill using the V2 (5° incline) and V1 techniques (8°) at 8 and 6 km·h(-1), respectively, as well as at racing intensity (approximately 95% of peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak), 10.7 ± 0.8 and 7.7 ± 0.9 km·h(-1), respectively). V˙O2, ventilation (V˙(E)), HR, blood lactate concentration (BLa), and cycle characteristics as well as pole and leg kinetics were evaluated during these trials. Metabolic data were all higher for R than for NR, as follows: V˙O2, +2.5%; V˙(E), +8.1%; RER, +4.2%; all P rifle reduced cycle time and length, poling and arm swing times, and leg ground contact time and increased cycle rate, the peak and impulse of leg force, average cycle force, and impulse of forefoot force (all P rifle elevated physiological responses, accelerated cycle rate, and involved greater leg work, with no differences between the V1 and V2 techniques.

  20. Assessment of Rifle Marksmanship Skill Using Sensor-Based Measures. CRESST Report 755

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Sam O.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this report was to test the use of sensor-based skill measures in evaluating performance differences in rifle marksmanship. Ten shots were collected from 30 novices and 9 experts. Three measures for breath control and one for trigger control were used to predict skill classification. The data were fitted with a logistic regression…

  1. Colour-the-INSight : Combining a direct view rifle sight with fused intensified and thermal imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Jansen, C.; Toet, A.; Bijl, P.; Bakker, P.J.; Hiddema, A.C.; Vliet, S.F. van

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of a new demonstrator rifle sight viewing system containing direct view, red aim point and fusion of an (uncooled, LWIR) thermal sensor with a digital image intensifier. Our goal is to create a system that performs well under a wide variety of (weather)

  2. Identification and predicting short-term prognosis of early cardiorenal syndrome type 1: KDIGO is superior to RIFLE or AKIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhilian; Cai, Lu; Liang, Xinling; Du, Zhiming; Chen, Yuanhan; An, Shengli; Tan, Ning; Xu, Lixia; Li, Ruizhao; Li, Liwen; Shi, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) is usually type 1 of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition of AKI is critical. This study was to determine if the new KDIGO criteria (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) for identification and short-term prognosis of early CRS type 1 was superior to the previous RIFLE and AKIN criteria. The association between AKI diagnosed by KDIGO but not by RIFLE or AKIN and in-hospital mortality was retrospectively evaluated in 1005 Chinese adult patients with AHF between July 2008 and May 2012. AKI was defined as RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria, respectively. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis of in-hospital mortality. Within 7 days on admission, the incidence of CRS type 1 was 38.9% by KDIGO criteria, 34.7% by AKIN, and 32.1% by RIFLE. A total of 110 (10.9%) cases were additional diagnosed by KDIGO criteria but not by RIFLE or AKIN. 89.1% of them were in Stage 1 (AKIN) or Stage Risk (RIFLE). They accounted for 18.4% (25 cases) of the overall death. After adjustment, this proportion remained an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality [odds ratios (OR)3.24, 95% confidence interval(95%CI) 1.97-5.35]. Kaplan-Meier curve showed AKI patients by RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO and [K(+)R(-)+K(+)A(-)] had lower hospital survival than non-AKI patients (Log Rank PRIFLE or AKIN. AKI missed diagnosed by RIFLE or AKIN criteria was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality, indicating the new KDIGO criteria was superior to RIFLE and AKIN in predicting short-term outcomes in early CRS type 1.

  3. Does the RIFLE Classification Improve Prognostic Value of the APACHE II Score in Critically Ill Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M. Wahrhaftig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The RIFLE classification defines three severity criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI: risk, injury, and failure. It was associated with mortality according to the gradation of AKI severity. However, it is not known if the APACHE II score, associated with the RIFLE classification, results in greater discriminatory power in relation to mortality in critical patients. Objective. To analyze whether the RIFLE classification adds value to the performance of APACHE II in predicting mortality in critically ill patients. Methods. An observational prospective cohort of 200 patients admitted to the ICU from July 2010 to July 2011. Results. The age of the sample was 66 (±16.7 years, 53.3% female. ICU mortality was 23.5%. The severity of AKI presented higher risk of death: class risk (RR = 1.89 CI:0.97–3.38, , grade injury (RR = 3.7 CI:1.71–8.08, , and class failure (RR = 4.79 CI:2.10–10.6, . The APACHE II had C-statistics of 0.75, 95% (CI:0.68–0.80, and 0.80 (95% CI:0.74 to 0.86, after being incorporated into the RIFLE classification in relation to prediction of death. In the comparison between AUROCs, . Conclusion. The severity of AKI, defined by the RIFLE classification, was a risk marker for mortality in critically ill patients, and improved the performance of APACHE II in predicting the mortality in this population.

  4. CHANDRA/ACIS-I STUDY OF THE X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE NGC 6611 AND M16 STELLAR POPULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarcello, M. G.; Drake, J. J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS-67, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Caramazza, M.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Prisinzano, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2012-07-10

    Mechanisms regulating the origin of X-rays in young stellar objects and the correlation with their evolutionary stage are under debate. Studies of the X-ray properties in young clusters allow us to understand these mechanisms. One ideal target for this analysis is the Eagle Nebula (M16), with its central cluster NGC 6611. At 1750 pc from the Sun, it harbors 93 OB stars, together with a population of low-mass stars from embedded protostars to disk-less Class III objects, with age {<=}3 Myr. We study an archival 78 ks Chandra/ACIS-I observation of NGC 6611 and two new 80 ks observations of the outer region of M16, one centered on the Column V and the other on a region of the molecular cloud with ongoing star formation. We detect 1755 point sources with 1183 candidate cluster members (219 disk-bearing and 964 disk-less). We study the global X-ray properties of M16 and compare them with those of the Orion Nebula Cluster. We also compare the level of X-ray emission of Class II and Class III stars and analyze the X-ray spectral properties of OB stars. Our study supports the lower level of X-ray activity for the disk-bearing stars with respect to the disk-less members. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of M16 is similar to that of Orion, supporting the universality of the XLF in young clusters. Eighty-five percent of the O stars of NGC 6611 have been detected in X-rays. With only one possible exception, they show soft spectra with no hard components, indicating that mechanisms for the production of hard X-ray emission in O stars are not operating in NGC 6611.

  5. Chandra/ACIS-I study of the X-ray properties of the NGC 6611 and M16 stellar population

    CERN Document Server

    Guarcello, M G; Micela, G; Sciortino, S; Drake, J J; Prisinzano, L

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating the origin of X-rays in YSOs and the correlation with their evolutionary stage are under debate. Studies of the X-ray properties in young clusters allow to understand these mechanisms. One ideal target for this analysis is the Eagle Nebula (M16), with its central cluster NGC6611. At 1750 pc from the Sun, it harbors 93 OB stars, together with a population of low-mass stars from embedded protostars to disk-less Class III objects, with age <= 3Myrs. We study an archival 78 ksec Chandra/ACIS-I observation of NGC6611, and two new 80ksec observations of the outer region of M16, one centered on the Column V, and one on a region of the molecular cloud with ongoing star-formation. We detect 1755 point sources, with 1183 candidate cluster members (219 disk-bearing and 964 disk-less). We study the global X-ray properties of M16 and compare them with those of the Orion Nebula Cluster. We also compare the level of X-ray emission of Class II and Class III stars, and analyze the X-ray spectral prope...

  6. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  7. Incidence and mortality of acute kidney injury after myocardial infarction: a comparison between KDIGO and RIFLE criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI increases the risk of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Recently, a new AKI definition was proposed by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO organization. The aim of the current study was to compare the incidence and the early and late mortality of AKI diagnosed by RIFLE and KDIGO criteria in the first 7 days of hospitalization due to an AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 1,050 AMI patients were prospectively studied. AKI defined by RIFLE and KDIGO occurred in 14.8% and 36.6% of patients, respectively. By applying multivariate Cox analysis, AKI was associated with an increased adjusted hazard ratio (AHR for 30-day death of 3.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.35-5.25, p<0.001 by RIFLE and 3.99 (CI 2.59-6.15, p<0.001 by KDIGO and with an AHR for 1-year mortality of 1.84 (CI 1.12-3.01, p=0.016 by RIFLE and 2.43 (CI 1.62-3.62, p<0.001 by KDIGO. The subgroup of patients diagnosed as non-AKI by RIFLE but as AKI by KDIGO criteria had also an increased AHR for death of 2.55 (1.52-4.28 at 30 days and 2.28 (CI 1.46-3.54 at 1 year (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: KDIGO criteria detected substantially more AKI patients than RIFLE among AMI patients. Patients diagnosed as AKI by KDIGO but not RIFLE criteria had a significantly higher early and late mortality. In this study KDIGO criteria were more suitable for AKI diagnosis in AMI patients than RIFLE criteria.

  8. Non-lead rifle hunting ammunition: issues of availability and performance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Gremse, Carl; Kanstrup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Non-lead hunting rifle bullets were developed to make superior quality ammunition, and the need to reduce lead exposure of wildlife and humans. European and US hunters’ concerns about non-lead bullets involve perceptions of availability, costs, efficacy, accuracy, toxicity, and barrel fouling...... companies make non-lead bullets for traditional, rare, and novel rifle calibres. Local retail availability is now a function of consumer demand which relates, directly, to legal requirements for use. Costs of non-lead and equivalent lead-core hunting bullets are similar in Europe and pose no barrier to use....... Efficacy of non-lead bullets is equal to that of traditional lead-core bullets. Perceptions of reduced accuracy and greater barrel fouling must be addressed by industry and hunter organizations and, if verified, resolved. Non-lead bullets are made in fragmenting and non-fragmenting versions...

  9. Clinical characteristics of acoustic trauma caused by gunshot noise in mass rifle drills without ear protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, In Seok; Park, Sang-Yong; Park, Hyun Jin; Yang, Hoon-Shik; Hong, Sung-Jong; Lee, Won-Sang

    2011-10-01

    One of the major occupational hazards of working in military service is being subjected to intense impulse noise. We analyzed the clinical presentation of acoustic traumas, induced by mass rifle gunshot noise during military training, in unprotected patients. We evaluated 189 soldiers who had otologic symptoms after rifle shooting exercises without using any hearing protection. All soldiers had been training on the K2 rifle. We took medical histories; conducted physical examinations and hearing evaluations (pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and impedence audiometry); and distributed the Newmann's Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) survey. In addition, we evaluated a normal control group of 64 subjects of similar age who had never fired a rifle. In the patient group, the most common and irritating reported symptom was tinnitus (94.2%), and the average THI score in the patient group was 39.51 ± 14.87, which was significantly higher than the control group score (0.56 ± 3.94) (p < 0.001). Average outcomes of post-exposure air conduction thresholds were 21.33 ± 13.25 dB HL in the affected ears. These levels also were significantly higher than those of the control group (9.16 ± 4.07dB HL) (p < 0.001). Hearing loss was most prominent at high frequencies. An asymmetry of hearing loss related to head position during shooting was not observed. Acoustic trauma induced by gunshot noise can cause permanent tinnitus and hearing loss. Hearing protection (bilateral earplugs) and environmental reform are necessary.

  10. Assessment of a Hydroxyapatite Permeable Reactive Barrier to Remediate Uranium at the Old Rifle Site Colorado.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C.; Szecsody, James (PNNL); Rigali, Mark J.; Vermuel, Vince (PNNL); Leullen, Jon (AECOM)

    2016-02-01

    We have performed an initial evaluation and testing program to assess the effectiveness of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) permeable reactive barrier and source area treatment to decrease uranium mobility at the Department of Energy (DOE) former Old Rifle uranium mill processing site in Rifle, western Colorado. Uranium ore was processed at the site from the 1940s to the 1970s. The mill facilities at the site as well as the uranium mill tailings previously stored there have all been removed. Groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the site still contains elevated concentrations of uranium, and is currently used for field tests to study uranium behavior in groundwater and investigate potential uranium remediation technologies. The technology investigated in this work is based on in situ formation of apatite in sediment to create a subsurface apatite PRB and also for source area treatment. The process is based on injecting a solution containing calcium citrate and sodium into the subsurface for constructing the PRB within the uranium plume. As the indigenous sediment micro-organisms biodegrade the injected citrate, the calcium is released and reacts with the phosphate to form hydroxyapatite (precipitate). This paper reports on proof-of-principle column tests with Old Rifle sediment and synthetic groundwater.

  11. Stress fractures of forearm bones in military recruits of rifle drill training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun-Lin; Pan, Ru-Yu; Wu, Jia-Lin; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Shyu-Jye

    2009-10-01

    Stress fractures rarely occur in the forearms. These injuries usually occur in healthy young patients, which are usually neglected by patients or physicians. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to avoid late complications of these fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyze a case series of military recruits who participated in rifle drill training and presented with forearm stress fractures at our institution. We evaluated 216 military recruits of rifle drill training. Twelve patients were diagnosed with forearm stress fractures by typical history, physical examination, laboratory studies, serial radiographs, and bone scan examinations. Eighteen fractures were found in 12 patients. On initial radiographs, 11 had periosteal reactions, 4 had callus formation with complete fracture lines, and 3 were normal. All 18 fractures had increase radioactivity in the involved middle (15 of 18) or distal (2 of 18) ulnae and one middle radius (1 of 18). Stress fractures of the forearms in military rifle drill training usually occur in middle ulnae. Fifty percent of them were bilateral fractures. A high index of suspicion is the key to diagnosis. Early diagnosis with conservative treatment can achieve satisfactory results and avoid late complications of stress fractures.

  12. Fatal laryngeal oedema in an adult from an air rifle injury, and related ballistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojevic, Nemanja; Cukic, Dragana; Curovic, Ivana; Golubovic, Mileta

    2015-01-01

    Air guns (air pistols and rifles) are already recognized as being potentially lethal. The diabolo pellet has a calibre of .177 (4.5 mm), a 1250 fps velocity, is high energetic, and is most commonly used in such weapons. In the presented case, the victim sustained an air rifle injury to the neck. The pellet passed through the thyroid cartilage, subsequently causing the extensive laryngeal swelling with haematoma around the pellet channel which fatally obstructed the airway. It is estimated microscopically that at least a number of hours must have passed from the injury to the time of death. For this case, a shooting distance was estimated by using experimental shooting values compared to physics formulas for accelerated motion. The case under question has confirmed an applicable legal approach that can be utilized by countries to classify air rifles as being as harmful as other firearms, especially those with high muzzle velocities. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Real-time biomechanical biofeedback effects on top-level rifle shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullineaux, David R; Underwood, Stacy M; Shapiro, Robert; Hall, John W

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of training with real-time biomechanical biofeedback on technique and performance of rifle shooters. Top-level shooters were randomly assigned to biofeedback- (n = 5) and control- (n = 4) groups. Bi-weekly training of 20 shots air-rifle for 4 weeks, with pre- and post-tests of 20 shots air-rifle and smallbore, were performed. The biofeedback group received individualized real-time auditory biofeedback on postural- and barrel-stabilities. Results revealed a technique of reducing postural- and barrel-stabilities towards triggering (e.g. barrel speed 8.0 ± 1.2 mm/s at 3.0-1.0 s reducing to 5.4 ± 0.8 mm/s at 0.3-0.1 s). There were no changes pre- to post-tests and no differences between groups in these measures of stability. The biofeedback group showed meaningful improvements in performance measures, whereas the control group showed no improvement (e.g. smallbore shot group diameter change: biofeedback group -2.6 mm; control group 0.1 mm). Biomechanical biofeedback is proposed to have improved performance, possibly through training better decision making, but the actual cause requires further research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Defining acute kidney injury in dengue viral infection by conventional and novel classification systems (AKIN and RIFLE): a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain; Khan, Amer Hayat; Sarriff, Azmi; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Khan, Yusra Habib; Jummaat, Fauziah

    2016-02-01

    Several criteria have been used to stratify acute kidney injury (AKI) in dengue infection and have resulted in variations in its incidence as well as clinic-laboratory characteristics. The current study was aimed to compare three commonly used criteria of AKI among patients with dengue. 667 patients with dengue were defined and staged according to the conventional definition (CD), the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, End stage renal disease (RIFLE) criteria. Appropriate statistical methods were used to compare these three criteria. The incidence of AKI during dengue infection was 14.2% by AKIN criteria, 12.6% by RIFLE criteria and 4.2% by CD. AKIN and RIFLE criteria were comparable while AKIN-I identified 11 more patients with AKI than RIFLE-R (76.8% vs. 73.8%, p=0.023). CD was found to be less sensitive than AKIN and RIFLE due to stratification of only severe AKI cases with serum creatinine ≥176.8 µmol/L. Overall mortality was 1.2% and severe stages of AKI were associated with increased mortality (pRIFLE identified six and CD identified three risk factors. Old age, severe dengue and the use of nephrotoxic drugs were found to be independent predictors identified by all criteria while hypertension was only identified by AKIN. The incidence of AKI in dengue infection, the risk factors for its development and clinico-laboratory characteristics vary significantly according to the diagnostic criteria used. In our analysis, AKIN and RIFLE were comparable to each other and superior to CD with regard to early diagnosis and sensitivity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Acute kidney injury after infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: a comparison of AKIN and RIFLE criteria for risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, J-Y; Lee, J B; Yoon, Y; Seo, H-S; Song, J-G; Hwang, G S

    2014-12-01

    Although both Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage (RIFLE) kidney disease criteria are frequently used to diagnose acute kidney injury (AKI), they have rarely been compared in the diagnosis of AKI in patients undergoing surgery for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This study investigated the incidence of, and risk factors for, AKI, defined by AKIN and RIFLE criteria, and compared their ability to predict mortality after infrarenal AAA surgery. This study examined 444 patients who underwent infrarenal AAA surgery between January 1999 and December 2011. Risk factors for AKI were assessed by multivariable analyses, and the impact of AKI on overall mortality was assessed by a Cox's proportional hazard model with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was used to assess the performance of AKIN and RIFLE criteria in predicting overall mortality. AKI based on AKIN and RIFLE criteria occurred in 82 (18.5%) and 55 (12.4%) patients, respectively. The independent risk factors for AKI were intraoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and chronic kidney disease (CKD) by AKIN criteria, and age, intraoperative RBC transfusion, preoperative atrial fibrillation, and CKD by RIFLE criteria. After IPTW adjustment, AKI was related to 30 day mortality and overall mortality. NRI was 15.2% greater (P=0.04) for AKIN than for RIFLE criteria in assessing the risk of overall mortality. Although AKI defined by either AKIN or RIFLE criteria was associated with overall mortality, AKIN criteria showed better prediction of mortality in patients undergoing infrarenal AAA surgery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Using NMR, SIP, and MS measurements for monitoring subsurface biogeochemical reactions at the Rifle IFRC site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, C. L.; Keating, K.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Grunewald, E.; Walsh, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site is located on a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado (USA). Although removal of tailings and contaminated surface materials was completed in 1996, residual uranium contamination of groundwater and subsurface sediments remains. Since 2002, research at the site has primarily focused on quantifying uranium mobility associated with stimulated and natural biogeochemical processes. Uranium mobility at the Rifle IFRC site is typically quantified through direct sampling of groundwater; however, direct sampling does not provide information about the solid phase material outside of the borehole and continuous measurements are not always possible due to multiple constraints. Geophysical methods have been suggested as a minimally invasive alternative approach for long term monitoring of biogeochemical reactions associated with uranium remediation. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), spectral induced polarization (SIP), and magnetic susceptibility (MS) are considered as potential geophysical methods for monitoring the biogeochemical reactions occurring at the Rifle IFRC site. Additionally, a pilot field study using an NMR borehole-logging tool was carried out at the Rifle IFRC site. These methods are sensitive to changes in the chemical and physical subsurface properties that occur as a result of bioremediation efforts; specifically, changes in the redox state and chemical form of iron, production of iron sulfide minerals, production of the magnetic mineral magnetite, and associated changes in the pore geometry. Laboratory experiments consisted of monitoring changes in the NMR, SIP and MS response of an acetate-amended columns packed with sediments from the Rifle IFRC site over the course of two months. The MS values remained relatively stable throughout the course of the experiment suggesting negligible production of magnetic phases (e.g. magnetite, pyrrhotite) as a result of enhanced

  17. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 5, Addenda D6--D8 to Appendix D: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    This volume contains appendices D6 through D8 containing laboratory test data: from MK-F investigation, 1987, Old Rifle and New Rifle sites; on bentonite amended radon barrier material; and from MK-F investigation, 1987, riprap tests.

  18. RIFLE classification and mortality in obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit with acute kidney injury: a 3-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ebtesam M; Behery, Manal M El; Sayed, Gamal Abbas El; Abdulatif, Howaida K

    2014-10-01

    This study is to assess the correlation of risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal failure (RIFLE) classification with hospital mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) obstetric patients and to evaluate the relation of acute kidney injury (AKI) to other risk factors. The 4 stages of RIFLE (nonacute renal failure, risk, injury, and failure) were scored from 0 to 3 points, respectively. The prognostic performance of the RIFLE score was compared to the general ICU models. AKI occurred in 30 (5.88%) of patients admitted to ICU. The main causes of AKI were hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet syndrome 13 (43%), pregnancy-related hypertension 9 (30%), puerperal sepsis 3 (10%), abruption placentae 2 (6.6%), disseminated intravascular coagulopathy 2 (6.6%), and anesthetic complications 1 (3.3%). According to the RIFLE criteria, patients were classified into Risk (3.3%), Injury (16.6%), Failure (33.3%), and Loss (46.6%). Maternal mortality from total ICU admission occurred in 51 (10%) cases, of these 16 (31.3%) cases were due to AKI. Independent risk factors associated with mortality were hyperbilirubinemia, low levels of HCO3, and RIFLE. Receiver-operator characteristic curves for ICU patients according to RIFLE score showed area under the curve = 0.824. The RIFLE classification system could predict the risk of mortality from AKI in obstetric ICU patients and mortality was positively associated with high RIFLE classes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Influence of acute kidney injury on short- and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: risk factors and prognostic value of a modified RIFLE classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Delgado, Juan C; Esteve, Francisco; Torrado, Herminia; Rodríguez-Castro, David; Carrio, Maria L; Farrero, Elisabet; Javierre, Casimiro; Ventura, Josep L; Manez, Rafael

    2013-12-13

    The development of acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor outcome. The modified RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure) classification for AKI, which classifies patients with renal replacement therapy needs according to RIFLE failure class, improves the predictive value of AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Our aim was to assess risk factors for post-operative AKI and the impact of renal function on short- and long-term survival among all AKI subgroups using the modified RIFLE classification. We prospectively studied 2,940 consecutive cardiosurgical patients between January 2004 and July 2009. AKI was defined according to the modified RIFLE system. Pre-operative, operative and post-operative variables usually measured on and during admission, which included main outcomes, were recorded together with cardiac surgery scores and ICU scores. These data were evaluated for association with AKI and staging in the different RIFLE groups by means of multivariable analyses. Survival was analyzed via Kaplan-Meier and a risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model. A complete follow-up (mean 6.9 ± 4.3 years) was performed in 2,840 patients up to April 2013. Of those patients studied, 14% (n = 409) were diagnosed with AKI. We identified one intra-operative (higher cardiopulmonary bypass time) and two post-operative (a longer need for vasoactive drugs and higher arterial lactate 24 hours after admission) predictors of AKI. The worst outcomes, including in-hospital mortality, were associated with the worst RIFLE class. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed survival of 74.9% in the RIFLE risk group, 42.9% in the RIFLE injury group and 22.3% in the RIFLE failure group (P RIFLE injury (Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.347, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.122 to 4.907, P = 0.023) and RIFLE failure (HR = 3.093, 95% CI 1.460 to 6.550, P = 0.003) were independent predictors for long-term patient mortality

  20. Vibration transmissibility on rifle shooter: A comparison between accelerometer and laser Doppler vibrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, L.; Casacanditella, L.; Santolini, C.; Martarelli, M.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2014-05-01

    The transmission of mechanical vibrations from tools to human subjects is known to be potentially dangerous for the circulatory and neurological systems. It is also known that such damages are strictly depending on the intensity and the frequency range of the vibrational signals transferred to the different anatomical districts. In this paper, very high impulsive signals, generated during a shooting by a rifle, will be studied, being such signals characterised by a very high acceleration amplitude as well as high frequency range. In this paper, it will be presented an experimental setup aimed to collect experimental data relative to the transmission of the vibration signals from the rifle to the shoulder of subject during the shooting action. In particular the transmissibility of acceleration signals, as well as of the velocity signals, between the rifle stock and the subject's back shoulder will be measured using two piezoelectric accelerometers and a single point laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Tests have been carried out in a shooting lab where a professional shooter has conducted the experiments, using different experimental configurations: two different types of stocks and two kinds of bullets with different weights were considered. Two uniaxial accelerometers were fixed on the stock of the weapon and on the back of the shoulder of the shooter respectively. Vibration from the back shoulder was also measured by means of a LDV simultaneously. A comparison of the measured results will be presented and the pros and cons of the use of contact and non-contact transducers will be discussed taking into account the possible sources of the measurement uncertainty as unwanted sensor vibrations for the accelerometer.

  1. Data Validation Package June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Sampling Period: June 14–17 and July 7, 2016. Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Disposal/Processing Sites. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0216 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0655. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920). Monitoring well 0216 could not be sampled in June because it was surrounded by standing water due to the high river stage from spring runoff, it was later sampled in July. Monitoring well 0635 and surface location 0322 could not be sampled because access through the elk fence along Interstate 70 has not been completed at this time. Old Rifle Site Samples were collected at the Old Rifle site from eight monitoring wells and five surface locations in compliance with the December 2001 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site (GJ0-2000-177-TAR).

  2. Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection following rifle butt recoil chest injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mamatha; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Mukhaini, Mohammed; Al-Jufaili, Mahmood; Valiath, John

    2011-11-01

    Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection is not uncommon. We present a patient with left hemiplegia secondary to Stanford type A aortic dissection extending to the supra-aortic vessels, which was precipitated by rifle butt recoil chest injury. The diagnosis of aortic dissection was delayed due to various factors. Finally, the patient underwent successful Bentall procedure with complete resolution of symptoms. This case emphasizes the need for caution in the use of firearms for recreation and to take precautions in preventing such incidents. In addition, this case illustrates the need for prompt cardiovascular physical examination in patients presenting with stroke.

  3. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: national obligations and policy considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G.; Krone, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting......The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged...

  4. Using GRIN to save 50% lens weight for an 8x rifle scope design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, R. A.; Beadie, G.

    2017-05-01

    Starting with a literature-based design for a rifle scope, we demonstrate the potential to replace large, heavy glass lenses with polymer-based GRIN lenses with little optical penalty, while saving 50% of the lens weight in the system. Several properties of the primary design are chosen to favor manufacturability, such as leaving glass for the external surfaces and choosing polymers and GRIN geometries based on proven fabrication techniques. Compared to the reference design which weighed 154 g, the GRIN-substituted design weighed 78 g while maintaining visually constant performance from 0-40°C.

  5. Oxidative dissolution of biogenic uraninite in groundwater at Old Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Veeramani, Harish; Ulrich, Kai-Uwe; Blue, Lisa Y.; Giammar, Dianiel E.; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Suvorova, Elena; Yabusaki, Steve; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Mehta, Apurva; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Reductive bioremediation is currently being explored as a possible strategy for uranium-contaminated aquifers such as the Old Rifle site (Colorado). The stability of U(IV) phases under oxidizing conditions is key to the performance of this procedure. An in situ method was developed to study oxidative dissolution of biogenic uraninite (UO2), a desirable U(VI) bioreduction product, in the Old Rifle, CO, aquifer under different variable oxygen conditions. Overall uranium loss rates were 50–100 times slower than laboratory rates. After accounting for molecular diffusion through the sample holders, a reactive transport model using laboratory dissolution rates was able to predict overall uranium loss. The presence of biomass further retarded diffusion and oxidation rates. These results confirm the importance of diffusion in controlling in-aquifer U(IV) oxidation rates. Upon retrieval, uraninite was found to be free of U(VI), indicating dissolution occurred via oxidation and removal of surface atoms. Interaction of groundwater solutes such as Ca2+ or silicate with uraninite surfaces also may retard in-aquifer U loss rates. These results indicate that the prolonged stability of U(IV) species in aquifers is strongly influenced by permeability, the presence of bacterial cells and cell exudates, and groundwater geochemistry.

  6. [The forensic medical characteristics of the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic rifles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin, G A; Bondarchuk, A O; Perebetjuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the injurious action of three types of the bullets for the pneumatic weapons shot from different distances using the Gamo pump air pistol and the BAM B22-1 pneumatic rifle. The following four kinds of the bullets were tested: "the fireball", "Luman cap 0.3", "Luman Field Target 0.68" and "DIABOLO". It was experimentally shown that the injurious action of the bullets fired from the same distance from the pneumatic weapons depends on the type of both the bullet and the weapon, as well as the properties of the target material. Specifically, the action of bullets fired from the piston pneumatic rifle remained stable whereas that of the bullets shot from the gas-balloon air pistol decreased as the gas was exhausted. The studies by the contact-diffusion method have demonstrated that the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic weapons are surrounded by dispersed metal particles which makes it possible to estimate the shooting distance. Moreover, the bullets fired from the pneumatic weapons leave the muzzle face imprint on certain target materials.

  7. Floods of May 1959 in the Au Gres and Rifle River basins, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenoff, L.E.

    1960-01-01

    The floods of May 1959 in the Au Gres and Rifle River basins, Michigan, resulted from heavy rainfall during the night of May 19-20. Peak unit discharges for small drainage areas (less than about 15 square miles) were the highest ever measured in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, and for very small areas (about one square mile) were of the same order of magnitude as those for the record Ontonagon River flood of August 1942 in the Upper Peninsula.Because the flood area is sparsely populated, damages were largely confined to farm lands and facilities and to secondary roads and their appurtenant drainage structures.The U. S. Geological Survey, through the district office in Lansing, Michigan, operates a network of streamgaging stations and crest-stage stations in the area affected by this flood. Six recording rain gages are operated in the upper Rifle River basin. Most of the gaging stations have been in operation for 7 to 9 years giving systematic records of stage, discharge, and volume of flow covering the range from drought to flood. This report contains records of-stage and discharge at 9 gaging stations for the floodperiod, peak discharges at 7 crest-stage stationsand 2 miscellaneous sites within the flood area, andother data pertinent to the flood.

  8. Clay Mineralogy of Soils and Sediments from an Alluvial Aquifer, Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W. C.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Lim, D.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Alluvial aquifers along the Colorado River corridor in central to western Colorado contain legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial aquifers host important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface that are both significant on their own, but also influence contaminant behavior. Mineral phases likely active in the sequestration of metal contaminants are chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite, and smectite. These minerals are also important biogeofacies markers. The Colorado alluvial sediments include lenses of silt and clay that are commonly more reduced than coarser grained materials. The clay minerals that make up the alluvial aquifer sediments include these mineral phases important for metal sequestration (chlorite, smectite, illite), as well as kaolinite and quartz. More specifically, the clay mineralogy of soils derived from these sediments at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the alluvial sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade. The vermiculite-smectite intergrade is a weathering product of illite. The presence of illite and chlorite in both the sediments and the soils at Rifle reflect a mineralogically immature character of the source rocks. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate, indicative of mixed provence of immature (chlorite, smectite, illite) and mature (kaolinite) minerals relative to their source areas.

  9. Relation of Elite Rifle Shooters' Technique-Test Measures to Competition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Simo; Linnamo, Vesa; Mononen, Kaisu; Kuitunen, Sami

    2016-07-01

    To describe the long-term changes in shooting technique in relation to competition performances in elite air-rifle shooters. Seventeen elite shooters completed simulated air-rifle shooting-competition series in 3 consecutive seasons, participating on 15 ± 7 testing occasions. Shooting score and aiming-point-trajectory variables were obtained with an optoelectronic shooting device, and postural-balance variables were measured with force platform. Shooters' competition results were collected from all international and national competitions during the 3-y period. Mean test score, stability of hold, aiming accuracy, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance improved during the 3-y period (ANOVA, time, P < .05-.01). Seasonal mean test results in stability of hold (R = -.70, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = -.75, P = .000) were related to competition performances. Changes in stability of hold (R = -.61, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = -.39, P = .022) were also related to the changes in competition performances. Postural balance in shooting direction was more related to cleanness of triggering (R = .57, P = .000), whereas balance in cross-shooting direction was more related to stability of hold (R = .70, P = .000). The shooting-technique testing used in the current study seems to be a valid and useful tool for long-term performance assessment. Stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance can be further developed even at the elite level, resulting in improved competition performances.

  10. Numerical simulation of multi-rifled tube drawing - finding proper feedstock dimensions and tool geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, P.; Buček, P.; Ridzoň, M.; Mojžiš, M.; Parilák, L.'

    2017-02-01

    Production of multi-rifled seamless steel tubes is quite a new technology in Železiarne Podbrezová. Therefore, a lot of technological questions emerges (process technology, input feedstock dimensions, material flow during drawing, etc.) Pilot experiments to fine tune the process cost a lot of time and energy. For this, numerical simulation would be an alternative solution for achieving optimal parameters in production technology. This would reduce the number of experiments needed, lowering the overall costs of development. However, to claim the numerical results to be relevant it is necessary to verify them against the actual plant trials. Searching for optimal input feedstock dimension for drawing of multi-rifled tube with dimensions Ø28.6 mm × 6.3 mm is what makes the main topic of this paper. As a secondary task, effective position of the plug - die couple has been solved via numerical simulation. Comparing the calculated results with actual numbers from plant trials a good agreement was observed.

  11. Lead-free hunting rifle ammunition: product availability, price, effectiveness, and role in global wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon George

    2013-10-01

    Proposals to end the use of lead hunting ammunition because of the established risks of lead exposure to wildlife and humans are impeded by concerns about the availability, price, and effectiveness of substitutes. The product availability and retail prices of different calibers of lead-free bullets and center-fire rifle ammunition were assessed for ammunition sold in the USA and Europe. Lead-free bullets are made in 35 calibers and 51 rifle cartridge designations. Thirty-seven companies distribute internationally ammunition made with lead-free bullets. There is no major difference in the retail price of equivalent lead-free and lead-core ammunition for most popular calibers. Lead-free ammunition has set bench-mark standards for accuracy, lethality, and safety. Given the demonstrated wide product availability, comparable prices, and the effectiveness of high-quality lead-free ammunition, it is possible to phase out the use of lead hunting ammunition world-wide, based on progressive policy and enforceable legislation.

  12. Axial-Symmetry Numerical Approaches for Noise Predicting and Attenuating of Rifle Shooting with Suppressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The moving bullet out of a rifle barrel is propelled by a fired explosive charge. Subsequently, a disturbed muzzle blast wave is initiated which lasts several milliseconds. In this study, axially symmetric, unsteady, Large Eddy Simulation (LES, and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkins (FWH equations were solved by the implicit-time formulation. For the spatial discretization, second order upwind scheme was employed. In addition, dynamic mesh model was used to where the ballistic domain changed with time due to the motion of bullet. Results obtained for muzzle flow field and for noise recorded were compared with those obtained from experimental data; these two batches of results were in agreement. Five cases of gunshot including one model of an unsuppressed rifle and four models of suppressors were simulated. Besides, serial images of species distributions and velocity vectors-pressure contours in suppressors and near muzzle field were displayed. The sound pressure levels (dB in far field that were post-processed by the fast Fourier transform (FFT were compared. The proposed physical model and the numerical simulations used in the present work are expected to be extended to solve other shooting weapon problems with three-dimensional and complex geometries.

  13. Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

    The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

  14. Prospecting for natural attenuation: Coupled geophysical-biogeochemical studies at DOE's Rifle IFRC site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. H.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Long, P. E.; Flores Orozco, A.; Kemna, A.

    2011-12-01

    Research activities at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado (USA) are designed to integrate geochemical, biological, and hydrological studies to enhance our understanding of subsurface uranium mobility. While much of the research activities at the site have focused on stimulating subsurface microbial activity through acetate amendment, there is growing interest in the role that natural biogeochemical processes play in constraining uranium mobility in the aquifer. Such processes constitute a form of natural uranium attenuation in the subsurface and are inferred to result from elevated concentrations of natural organic matter associated with alluvial sediments. Referred to as naturally reduced zones (NRZ's), they are characterized by the presence of reduced and/or magnetic mineral phases (e.g. FeS, FeS2, and Fe3O4), elevated Fe(II), and refractory organic carbon compounds (e.g. roots, twigs, and cones). Elevated rates of microbial activity associated with NRZ's and their mineralogical makeup act to sequester uranium from groundwater at levels higher that background alluvium. Their unique composition within a matrix of relatively oxidized, low-bioactivity sediments constitutes a potential target for a variety of exploration geophysical techniques, such as induced polarization and magnetic susceptibility. Both methods have been successfully applied at the Rifle IFRC site to delineate the ubiquity and extent of NRZ's across the floodplain. Sediments recovered from drilling targets identified through the use of exploration geophysical techniques have identified elevated uranium concentrations associated with both magnetite and framboid pyrite; however, the extent to which such minerals are the direct product of in situ microbial activity remains unknown. While diverse, the microbial community composition of NRZ's suggest dominance by fermentative organisms capable of degrading lignitic carbon to low molecular weight organic

  15. Numerical Study of Modular 5.56 mm Standard Assault Rifle Referring to Dynamic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Płatek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes investigations carried out to verify a loading mechanism of a newly designed modular assault rifle MSBS-5.56. A complex character of interaction between its elements during a reloading process encouraged the authors implement a numerical approach based on the multibody system to specify the essential dynamic characteristics. The achieved results were compared to the data recorded during the experimental tests on the shooting range. Owing to the proposed modelling methodology, a good agreement between experimental and numerical studies has been achieved.A numerical model presented in the paper will be applied in further investigations to analyse strength parameters of the reloading mechanism and to conduct additional optimisation studies.

  16. Stunning effect of different rifle-bullets for slaughter of outdoor cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Retz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter method via gunshot implies a stunning of cattle by means of a targeted shot from a rifle and is as an alternative to regular slaughter at abattoirs. This method is only permitted under restricted circumstances and if the cattle is held on a pasture all the year. However, there is a considerable lack of specifications regulated by law concerning calibre and bullet-type. In this study, four different calibres, two bullet-types and two different shot placements were investigated with respect to their stunning efficiency. All of the calibres exhibited an entry-energy over 400 J and provided sufficient stunning potential. Yet, only calibre .22 Magnum caused no exit of the bullet out of the scull, which provides higher safety conditions for man and cattle.

  17. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: National obligations and policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G; Krone, Oliver; Gremse, Carl

    2016-09-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting are available at comparable cost to lead bullets, and have been demonstrated to be as effective. National adoption of lead-free bullets would complete the Danish transition to lead-free ammunition use. It would reduce the risk of lead exposure to scavenging wildlife, and humans who might eat lead-contaminated wild game meat. Opposition from hunting organizations would be expected.

  18. Clay Mineralogy of AN Alluvial Aquifer in a Mountainous, Semiarid Terrain, AN Example from Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W. C.; Lim, D.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Long, P. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Alluvial sediments deposited along the Colorado River corridor in the semi-arid regions of central to western Colorado can be important hosts for legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial sediments host aquifers which are thought to provide important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface. Relatively little is known about the clay mineralogy of these alluvial aquifers and the parent alluvial sediments in spite of the fact that they commonly include lenses of silt-clay materials. These lenses are typically more reduced than coarser grained materials, but zones of reduced and more oxidized materials are present in these alluvial aquifer sediments. The clay mineralogy of the non-reduced parent alluvial sediments of the alluvial aquifer located in Rifle, CO (USA) is composed of chlorite, smectite, illite, kaolinite and quartz. The clay mineralogy of non-reduced fine-grained materials at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade that occurs near the bottom of the aquifer near the top of the Wasatch Formation. The clay mineral assemblages of the system reflect the mineralogically immature character of the source sediments. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate and suggestive of minimal transport of the alluvial sediments from their source areas. Chlorite, smectite, smectite-vermiculite intergrade, and illite are the likely phases involved in the sorption of organic carbon and related microbial redox transformations of metals in these sediments. Both the occurrence and abundance of chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite and smectite can therefore exert an important control on the contaminant fluxes and are important determinants of biogeofacies in mountainous, semiarid terrains.

  19. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 1, Text: Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-02-01

    This document has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Rifle sites. That remedial action consists of removing approximately 4,185,000 cubic yards (cy) of tailings and contaminated materials from their current locations, transporting, and stabilizing the tailings material at the Estes Gulch disposal site, approximately six miles north of Rifle. The tailings and contaminated materials are comprised of approximately 597,000 cy from Old Rifle, 3,232,000 cy from New Rifle, and 322,000 cy from vicinity properties and about 34,000 cy from demolition. The remedial action plan includes specific design requirements for the detailed design and construction of the remedial action. An extensive amount of data and supporting information have been generated for this remedial action and cannot all be incorporated into this document. Pertinent information and data are included with reference given to the supporting documents.

  20. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 2, Appendices D and E: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  1. 小口径火炮数控拉线机床设计与研究%Design and research on CNC rifle broaching machine for small caliber piece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭胜龙; 王新科; 景富军

    2012-01-01

    膛线是火炮身管的命脉线,膛线的加工质量决定了火炮的有效射程、命中率和寿命.针对国内外火炮膛线加工技术差距,结合小口径火炮膛线加工工艺,设计了小口径火炮数控拉线机床,并对机床关键结构与控制系统进行了描述.%The rifle is a key factor for rifled barrel , and the rifle processing quality decided the effective firing range, shooting accuracy and lifetime. Aiming at the rifle processing technology gap at home and a-broad, and considering the rifle processing technology for small caliber piece, we designed the CNC rifle broaching machine for small caliber piece, and described its key structures and control system.

  2. Hunting The Ghost Gun: An Analysis Of The U.S. Army Infantry Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    more than counteract the beneficial effect of any semiautomatic rifle” (Canfield, 2009, p. 6). In his letter, MacArthur also mentions utilizing the...overall weapon weight. The design called for construction using lighter materials such as polymers and aircraft grade aluminum. The M16’s polymer

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  4. HOW TO SOLVE THE TASK OF CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF RIFLE AMMUNITION USING THE METHOD OF ASCANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In criminology, there are actual problems of determining the type (machine gun, rifle, large caliber, pistol and a particular model of small rifle for its ammunition, in particular, discovered in the use of weapons. The article proposes a solution to this problem with the use of a new innovative method of artificial intelligence: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASCanalysis and its programmatic toolkit – a universal cognitive analytical system called "Eidos". In the system of "Eidos", we have implemented a software interface that provides input to the system images, and the identification of their external contours on the basis of luminance and color contrast. Typing by multiparameter contour images of specific ammunition, we create and verify the system-cognitive model, with the use of which (if the model is sufficiently reliable, we can solve problems of system identification, classification, study of the simulated object by studying its model and others. For these tasks we perform the following steps: 1 enter the images of ammunitions into the system of "Eidos" and create mathematical models of their contours; 2 synthesis and verification of models of the generalized images of ammunition for types of weapons based on the contour images of specific munitions (multivariate typology; 3 quantification of the similarities-differences of the specific ammunition with generalized images of ammunition of various types and models of small rifle (system identification; 4 quantification of the similarities-differences of the types of munitions, i.e. cluster-constructive analysis

  5. Importance of RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-Stage Renal Failure) and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) in Hemodialysis Initiation and Intensive Care Unit Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Iskender; Yildirim, Fatma; Kayacan, Esra; Bilaloğlu, Burcu; Turkoglu, Melda; Aygencel, Gülbin

    2017-07-01

    Our study evaluated the differences between early and late hemodialysis (HD) initiation in the intensive care unit (ICU) according to the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage renal failure) and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) classifications. On the assumption that early initiation of HD in critical patients according to the RIFLE and AKIN criteria decreases mortality, we retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 68 patients in our medical ICU and divided the patients into 2 groups: Those undergoing HD in no risk, risk, or injury stage according to RIFLE and in stage 0, I, or II according to AKIN were defined as early HD and those in failure stage according to RIFLE and in stage III according to AKIN were defined as late HD. The median age of the patients was 66.5 years, and 56.5% were male. HD was started in 25% and 39.7% of the patients in the early stage in the RIFLE and AKIN classification, respectively. According to RIFLE, HD was started in 61.5% of the surviving patients in the early stage; this rate was 16.4% in the deceased patients (P=0.001). HD was commenced in 69.2% of the surviving patients in AKIN stages 0, I, and II and in 32.7% of the deceased patients (P=0.026). Sepsis (61.5% vs. 94.5%; P=0.001) and mechanical ventilation (30.8% vs. 87.3%; PRIFLE decreased ICU mortality (61.5% vs. 16.4%; P=0.001). In conclusion, in critically ill patients, HD initiation in the early stages according to the RIFLE classification decreased our ICU mortality.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Meteorological Data to Assess Evapotranspiration and Infiltration at the Rifle Site, CO, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faybishenko, B.; Long, P. E.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Christensen, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    Net infiltration to the vadose zone, especially in arid or semi-arid climates, is an important control on microbial activity and solute and green house gas fluxes. To assess net infiltration, we performed a statistical analysis of meteorological data as the basis for hydrological and climatic investigations and predictions for the Rifle site, Colorado, USA, located within a floodplain in a mountainous region along the Colorado River, with a semi-arid climate. We carried out a statistical analysis of meteorological 30-year time series data (1985-2015), including: (1) precipitation data, taking into account the evaluation of the snowmelt, (2) evaluation of the evapotranspiration (reference and actual), (3) estimation of the multi-time-scalar Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), (4) evaluation of the net infiltration rate, and (5) corroborative analysis of calculated net infiltration rate and groundwater recharge from radioisotopic measurements from samples collected in 2013. We determined that annual net infiltration percentage of precipitation varies from 4.7% to ~18%, with a mean of ~10%, and concluded that calculations of net infiltration based on long-term meteorological data are comparable with those from strontium isotopic investigations. The evaluation of the SPEI showed the intermittent pattern of droughts and wet periods over the past 30 years, with a detectable decreasein the duration of droughts with time. Local measurements within the floodplain indicate a recharge gradient with increased recharge closer to the Colorado River.

  7. Sorption of U(VI) to G. uraniireducens and A. palmae under Old Rifle Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, J.; Cabaniss, S.; Howe, K.; Comolli, L.; Long, P.; Stucker, V.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial reduction as a remediation method for uranium contaminated Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been explored with promising results. Although transport models have been improved to include variations in geochemical concentration, reductive microbial processes and adsorption of uranium to minerals, they do not incorporate the presence of microbes as possible sorption surfaces that may influence the overall transport of uranium. Our overall objective is to examine U(VI) sorption to biomass by determining partition coefficients between U(VI) and the microbial species of Geobacter uraniireducens and Acholeplasma palmae. Once these partition coefficients are obtained, they will be incorporated into a thermodynamic model with the geochemical parameters of the Old Rifle Site. Preliminary results indicate that U(VI) sorbs 1000X more strongly to bacteria under atmospheric pCO2 conditions than under 2% pCO2 conditions. U(VI) sorption to the surface of G. uraniireducens is 4X stronger than to the surface of A. Palmae and in high-DIC waters is comparable in strength to reported U(VI)-mineral surface sorption. While the concentration of G. uraniireducens during and after remediation results in relatively small sorption site density, the possibility persists that sorption to G. uraniireducens may retard uranium transport at the geochemical gradients which exist in nature.

  8. The impact of bed temperature on heat transfer characteristic between fluidized bed and vertical rifled tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczuk, Artur; Nowak, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the heat transfer study focuses on assessment of the impact of bed temperature on the local heat transfer characteristic between a fluidized bed and vertical rifled tubes (38mm-O.D.) in a commercial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Heat transfer behavior in a 1296t/h supercritical CFB furnace has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameter of 0.219 and 0.246mm. The heat transfer experiments were conducted for the active heat transfer surface in the form of membrane tube with a longitudinal fin at the tube crest under the normal operating conditions of CFB boiler. A heat transfer analysis of CFB boiler with detailed consideration of the bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient and the contribution of heat transfer mechanisms inside furnace chamber were investigated using mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach. The predicted values of heat transfer coefficient are compared with empirical correlation for CFB units in large-scale.

  9. Mineral transformation and biomass accumulation associated with uranium bioremediation at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Williams, K.H.; Wilkins, M.J.; Hubbard, S.S.

    2009-04-20

    Injection of organic carbon into the subsurface as an electron donor for bioremediation of redox-sensitive contaminants like uranium often leads to mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, both of which can alter the flow field and potentially bioremediation efficacy. This work combines reactive transport modeling with a column experiment and field measurements to understand the biogeochemical processes and to quantify the biomass and mineral transformation/accumulation during a bioremediation experiment at a uranium contaminated site near Rifle, Colorado. We use the reactive transport model CrunchFlow to explicitly simulate microbial community dynamics of iron and sulfate reducers, and their impacts on reaction rates. The column experiment shows clear evidence of mineral precipitation, primarily in the form of calcite and iron monosulfide. At the field scale, reactive transport simulations suggest that the biogeochemical reactions occur mostly close to the injection wells where acetate concentrations are highest, with mineral precipitate and biomass accumulation reaching as high as 1.5% of the pore space. This work shows that reactive transport modeling coupled with field data can be an effective tool for quantitative estimation of mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, thus improving the design of bioremediation strategies.

  10. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  11. [The forensic medical characteristic of the factors associated with a shot from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle and the inflicted injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raĭzberg, S A; Makarov, I Iu; Lorents, A S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to elucidate the structural characteristics of the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle and three regular types of the bullets differing in the head shape fired from it. Morphological features of the injuries inflicted by such bullets are described in conjunction with the peculiarities of precipitation of the shot products in their projection as the prerequisites for their objective differentiation. Results: The study allowed to reveal the composition of the gunshot residues and to determine the maximum distance of their distribution. The specific features of experimental damage inflicted by the shots from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle to the coarse white calico fabric targets were shown to depend on the shot range. The objective signs of the so-called "short-range" shot from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle were described for the first time.

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  13. Tracking transport and transformation of dissolved organic matter using fluorescence spectroscopy at Rifle vadose zone, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Gilbert, B.; Kim, Y.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents the most mobile and active form of natural organic matter. It plays important roles in terrestrial C transport and biogeochemical cycles. Its reactivity makes it sensitive to seasonal variations and climate change. The objective of this study is to investigate the transport and transformation of DOM by tracking the spatial and seasonal variations of DOM concentrations and characteristics throughout the vadose zone and groundwater within a semi-arid floodplain at Rifle, Colorado. Three sets of vertically stratified pore water samplers were installed along a groundwater flow transect, and allowed collection of temporally resolved pore water samples from different depths. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy was used to trace changes in DOM characteristics. The humification index (HIX) was applied to evaluate variations in humification extent of DOM. EEM analysis identified fulvic-like, humic-like, tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like substances as the major fluorescent components of DOM in pore waters. Tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like compounds are typically considered as the recent microbial by-products, and they showed higher concentrations in the deeper vadose zone in late spring, and decrease from spring to winter. HIX values are smaller within the deeper vadose zone (1.5 ̶ 3.5 m) than in the overlying 1.0 m soil water and underlying groundwater samples (≥ 3.5 m), suggesting that some non- or less-humified DOM (or "fresh" microbial-derived DOM) was transferred during late spring. HIX value at each depth increased continuously from late spring to winter, with rapid humification occurring in late spring to early summer. These results suggest an annual cycle in which less humified soil organic matter is transferred into the deeper vadose zone during snowmelt/rainfall events, and then humified further through microbial transformation.

  14. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  15. Surface complexation modeling of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediments from a former mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.P.; Fox, P.M.; Davis, J.A.; Campbell, K.M.; Hayes, K.F.; Long, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    A study of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediment samples from a former uranium mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted under oxic conditions as a function of pH, U(VI), Ca, and dissolved carbonate concentration. Batch adsorption experiments were performed using tailings site at Naturita, Colorado, indicated that possible calcite nonequilibrium of dissolved calcium concentration should be evaluated. The modeling results also illustrate the importance of the range of data used in deriving the best fit model parameters. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16.  Ischemic Stroke Secondary to Aortic Dissection Following Rifle Butt Recoil Chest Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Valiath

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection is not uncommon. We present a patient with left hemiplegia secondary to Stanford type A aortic dissection extending to the supra-aortic vessels, which was precipitated by rifle butt recoil chest injury. The diagnosis of aortic dissection was delayed due to various factors. Finally, the patient underwent successful Bentall procedure with complete resolution of symptoms. This case emphasizes the need for caution in the use of firearms for recreation and to take precautions in preventing such incidents. In addition, this case illustrates the need for prompt cardiovascular physical examination in patients presenting with stroke.

  17. Uranium and Strontium Isotopic Study of the Hydrology of the Alluvial Aquifer at the Rifle Former U Mine Tailings Site, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. N.; Shiel, A. E.; Conrad, M. E.; Williams, K. H.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Wan, J.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Rifle Site consists of a floodplain along the Colorado River that was remediated through the removal of surface material underlying former uranium-vanadium mill tailings. The semi-arid (precip. = ~30 cm/year) catchment for the site has an area of ~1km2. The Rifle Site provides an excellent field laboratory for the study of the fluxes of water and carbon from the vadose zone to groundwater (LBNL SFA2.0, http://esd.lbl.gov/research/projects/sssfa2/). A network of monitoring wells, particularly a set instrumented in the vadose zone, provide the opportunity to closely sample groundwater and vadose zone porewater both in space and time. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variation of vadose zone interaction with groundwater within the Rifle floodplain and provide constraints for a Rifle hydrological model, we have analyzed the Sr isotopic compositions, 234U/238U activity ratios, and d238U of groundwater, vadose zone porewater (sampled through depth-distributed lysimeters) and surface water including the Colorado River. Significant contrasts in 87Sr/86Sr and 234U/238U allow the identification of different sources contributing to Rifle groundwater, while d238U provides an additional tracer and insights into redox processes. Vadose zone porewater is characterized by high 87Sr/86Sr and Sr concentrations and falls at one end of a mixing line with Rifle groundwater, while upgradient groundwater with lower 87Sr/86Sr and Sr concentrations falls at the other end. A mixing model using vadose zone porewater and upgradient groundwater as endmembers suggests that the contribution of vertical recharge through the floodplain increases to ~20% systematically across the floodplain towards the Colorado River. An exception to this pattern is a well located 150m from the river with recent high U concentrations (>300 ppb) and U and Sr isotopic compositions consistent with a 38% vadose zone contribution. U and Sr isotopes show that an irrigation-return ditch that cuts

  18. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Appendix D, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the proposed disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  19. Design of Vibration Absorber using Spring and Rubber for Armored Vehicle 5.56 mm Caliber Rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sukma Nugraha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of vibration absorber using spring and rubber for 5.56 mm caliber rifle armored vehicle. Such a rifle is used in a Remote-Controlled Weapon System (RCWS or a turret where it is fixed using a two degree of freedom pan-tilt mechanism. A half car lumped mass dynamic model of armored vehicles was derived. Numerical simulation was conducted using fourth order Runge Kutta method. Various types of vibration absorbers using spring and rubber with different configurations are installed in the elevation element. Vibration effects on horizontal direction, vertical direction and angular deviation of the elevation element was investigated. Three modes of fire were applied i.e. single fire, semi-automatic fire and automatic fire. From simulation results, it was concluded that the parallel configuration of damping rubber type 3, which has stiffness of 980,356.04 (N/m2 and damping coefficient of 107.37 (N.s/m, and Carbon steel spring whose stiffness coefficient is 5.547 x 106 (N/m2 provides the best vibration absorption. 

  20. Base deformation of full metal-jacketed rifle bullets as a measure of impact velocity and range of fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lucien C

    2015-03-01

    Full metal-jacketed rifle bullets with lead cores and open bases can experience deformation of their cylindrical shapes as they yaw during the penetration of soft tissues. The amount of deformation depends upon the strength of the bullet and the velocity in soft tissue when they go into yaw. The yaw behavior of a bullet in soft tissue depends upon its design (length, ogive shape, ogive length, center of gravity, and pre-impact stability) as it penetrates soft tissue. The yaw characteristics of common spitzer-type military rifle bullets are relatively well known and quite reproducible when fired into suitable soft tissue simulants. This, in turn, results in a relationship between the amount of deformation of the bullet's shank and impact velocity with soft tissue. The specific relationship between impact velocity and bullet deformation must be worked out through empirical testing, but this relationship can be of critical importance in determining impact velocity, which, in turn, relates to range of fire.

  1. Analysis of cobbly soils for cobbles-to-fines corrections to radionuclide concentrations at the New Rifle, Colorado, processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    A contamination depth and cobbly soil characterization study was performed in November and December 1993 at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Projects`s New Rifle, Colorado, processing site. This study was initiated due to a concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) clarifying that the allowable residual contamination in soil should be averaged over the total mass of the soil volume, including cobbles and gravels (i.e., bulk concentration). The New Rifle processing site has a high percentage of cobbles and gravels underlying the pile and other contaminated areas, which preliminary excavation designs have identified for removal and disposal. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative mass percentage and radionuclide concentrations of cobbles and gravels in order to determine the bulk contamination concentrations, revise the underlying excavation design depths, and improve verification methods. Another important goal of the study was to acquire more accurate contamination depth data (profile) for the subpile material. In summary, this recharacterization study will probably reduce the volume of material for excavation/disposal by several hundred thousand cubic yards and significantly reduce the amount of ground water expected to be pumped out of the excavation during cleanup.

  2. Near-surface seismic surveys at Rifle, Colorado for shallow groundwater contamination risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Zelt, C. A.; Levander, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August 2012, we carried out a series of seismic surveys at a site located approximately 0.3 mile east of the city of Rifle in Garfield County, Colorado. The ground water beneath this site was contaminated by former vanadium and uranium ore-processing operations from 1924 through 1958. The site is on an alluvial terrace created by a flood-plain meander of the Colorado River. On the south side, the terrace is bounded by a steep descending slope to the Colorado River; on the other sides, it is bounded by ascending slopes of the more resistant sedimentary rocks of the Wasatch Formation. Although remedial actions have been taken to remove the contaminated surface materials, there are still potential risks from residual materials and redistribution of the contaminated water harming human health. This seismic project, funded by The U.S. Department of Energy, was designed to provide hydrogeologic information through sub-surface velocity model building and imaging of the water aquifer. A 3D compressional wave seismic survey covers an area that is 96 m in the N-S direction by 60 m in the E-W direction. An orthogonal, symmetric receiver and source template was used with 24 receiver lines, 96 channels per receiver line, and 2.5 m between lines. The inline shot and receiver spacing is 2 m and 1 m, respectively. The source was an accelerated weight drop striking a metal plate. The source has a dominant frequency at ~60 Hz, and is down by 20 db at 20 Hz and 150 Hz, providing data suitable for seismic tomography and seismic migration methods. Besides this 3D survey, three other seismic experiments were performed: (1) a 2D multi-component source and receiver survey, (2) a 3D surface wave experiment using 4.5 Hz geophones, and (3) an ambient noise experiment using 4.5 Hz geophones to record passing vehicles and trains. Preliminary results of the data analysis will be presented.

  3. Uranium Bioreduction Rates Across Scales During a Biostimulation Field Experiments at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehikhoo, F.; Bao, C.; Li, L.; Wu, H.; Williams, K. H.; Newcomer, D.; Long, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial evolution of biogeochemical processes at different spatial scales is important (and challenging) for complex, heterogeneous subsurface systems. In this work, we aim to understand the dynamic propagation of uranium bioreduction rates across scales during a field biostimulation experiment at Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected as an electron donor to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and reduce mobile U(VI) to immobile U(IV). Bicarbonate was co-injected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI) to investigate the impact of bicarbonate on the bioreduction of mobile U(VI). We use reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic conductivity and aqueous geochemistry data and to quantify bioreduction rates from the local grid block scale (approximately 0.25 meters) to the field scale (10s of meters). The modeling results showed good agreement with the geochemical measurements in the 17 monitoring wells. The good match indicates that the model has captured the dynamics of the system given our conceptual model of an inverse relationship between bioavailable oxidized Fe and permeability, providing constraints for the estimation of aqueous species, mineral precipitates, and biomass. Our results shows that although the local rates varied by more than two orders of magnitude with the biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, the maximum rates remained at the a few 'hot spots' right at the down gradient of the injection wells where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maximum. These local rates dominated the ';field-scale' rates (10's of m2). At particular locations, the 'hot moments' with maximum bioreduction rates positively corresponded to their distance from the wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced the local bioreduction rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 41.9%, its effect at the field-scale was limited to a maximum of 15.7%, with majority of the domain unaffected. The field-scale rates calculated

  4. Pursue or shoot? Effects of exercise-induced fatigue on the transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursuit task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbeling, N.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Cañal-Bruland, R.; Wurff, P. van der; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate to what degree exercise-induced fatigue influences behavioural choices, participants' transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursue-and-shoot task was assessed. Participants ran on a treadmill and chased a target in a virtual environment and were free to choose when to stop th

  5. Impact of glycemic control on the incidence of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a comparison of two strategies using the RIFLE criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo Araújo de Azevedo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the renal outcome in patients submitted to two different regimens of glycemic control, using the RIFLE criteria to define acute kidney injury. INTRODUCTION: The impact of intensive insulin therapy on renal function outcome is controversial. The lack of a criterion for AKI definition may play a role on that. METHODS: Included as the subjects were 228 randomly selected, critically ill patients engaged in intensive insulin therapyor in a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy. Renal outcome was evaluated through the comparison of the last RIFLE score obtained during the ICU stay and the RIFLE score at admission; the outcome was classified as favorable, stable or unfavorable. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable regarding demographic data. AKI developed in 52% of the patients and was associated with a higher mortality (39.4% compared with those who did not have AKI (8.2% (p60, acute kidney injury and hypoglycemia were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Intensive insulin therapy and a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy were comparable regarding the incidence of acute kidney injury evaluated using RIFLE criteria.

  6. Data Validation Package November 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0659 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0304. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920), with one exception: New Rifle location 0635 could not be sampled because it was inaccessible; a fence installed by the Colorado Department of Transportation prevents access to this location. DOE is currently negotiating access with the Colorado Department of Transportation. Analytes measured at the New Rifle site included contaminants of concern (COCs) (arsenic, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen, selenium, uranium, and vanadium) ammonia as nitrogen, major cations, and major anions. Field measurements of total alkalinity, oxidation- reduction potential, pH, specific conductance, turbidity, and temperature were made at each location, and the water level was measured at each sampled well. A proposed alternate concentration limit (ACL) for vanadium of 50 milligrams per liter (mg/L), specific to the compliance (POC) wells (RFN-0217, -0659, -0664, and -0669) is included in the New Rifle GCAP. Vanadium concentrations in the POC wells were below the proposed ACL as shown in the time-concentration graphs in the Data Presentation section (Attachment 2). Time-concentration graphs from all other locations sampled are also included in Attachment 2. Sampling location RFN-0195 was misidentified for the June/August 2014

  7. Metatranscriptomic Evidence of Chemolithoautotrophy in the Rifle (CO) Subsurface Relevant to C, S, N, and Fe Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, H. R.; Jewell, T. N. M.; Karaoz, U.; Thomas, B. C.; Banfield, J. F.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Although there is a limited understanding of the chemolithoautotrophic activity of aquifer microorganisms, such subsurface microbial activity could greatly influence the cycling of elements such as C, S, N, and Fe. Here, we present transcriptional (RNA-Seq) evidence of the emergence of such chemolithoautotrophic activities in groundwater filter samples from a 2-month experiment in which up to 1.5 mM nitrate (a native electron acceptor) was injected into a perennially suboxic/anoxic aquifer (Rifle, CO) containing a large reservoir of reduced Fe- and S-containing compounds. Illumina sequence data from rRNA-subtracted cDNA libraries was assembled and mapped to phylogenetically binned Rifle metagenome data. Indicative of the activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria, many high-abundance transcripts mapped to the Gallionellaceae family, whose known members are chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that catalyze Fe(II) oxidation. For example, included among the most abundant transcripts were a cold-shock protein and an acyl carrier protein with 96-98% protein sequence identity to Gallionella capsiferriformans and a nitrite reductase (nirS) gene likely belonging to a Sideroxydans relative. The apparent activity of Gallionellaceae members is consistent with 16S rRNA iTag analyses of these samples, which indicated that Gallionella-related taxa accounted for up to ~50% of these communities. Evidence of sulfide oxidation also was apparent in these samples. For example, highly expressed subunits of APS reductase were very similar to those of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic S- and Fe(II)-oxidizing Thiobacillus denitrificans in terms of sequence identity (98-99%) and synteny of the mapped scaffold. Also highly expressed were a ß-Proteobacterial Form II RubisCO gene and a hydrazine oxidoreductase gene (93% identity to the planctomycete KSU-1), the latter strongly indicative of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) activity, which has seldom been reported in aquifer environments. Such

  8. Comparacao dos criterios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO quanto a capacidade de predicao de mortalidade em pacientes graves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Machado Levi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A lesão renal aguda é uma complicação comum em pacientes gravemente enfermos, sendo os critérios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO utilizados para sua classificação. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo a comparação dos critérios citados quanto à capacidade de predição de mortalidade em pacientes gravemente enfermos. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectiva, utilizando como fonte de dados prontuários médicos. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes admitidos na unidade de terapia intensiva. Os critérios de exclusão foram tempo de internamento menor que 24 horas e doença renal crônica dialítica. Os pacientes foram acompanhados até a alta ou óbito Para análise dos dados, foram utilizados os testes t de Student, qui-quadrado, regressão logística multivariada e curva ROC. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 64 anos, com mulheres e afrodescendentes representando maioria. Segundo o RIFLE, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 22,58%, 24,19% e 35,48% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda e em estágios Risk, Injury e Failure, respectivamente. Quanto ao AKIN, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 29,03%, 12,90% e 40,32% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda, estágio I, estágio II e estágio III, respectivamente. Considerando o KDIGO 2012, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 29,03%, 11,29% e 41,94% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda, estágio I, estágio II e estágio III, respectivamente. As três classificações apresentaram resultados de curvas ROC para mortalidade semelhantes. Conclusão: Os critérios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO apresentaram-se como boas ferramentas para predição de mortalidade em pacientes graves, não havendo diferença relevante entre os mesmos.

  9. Uranium Desorption From Contaminated Sediments at the USDOE IFC Research Site in Rifle, CO: From Batch to Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. M.; Hyun, S. P.; Davis, J. A.; Hayes, K.; Dayvault, R.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Uranium contamination in the subsurface is a part of the legacy of nuclear weapons and energy production, resulting from both mining activities and nuclear waste disposal. The Rifle IFC project focuses on gaining a better mechanistic understanding of U mobility in the subsurface and the use of bioremediation to achieve groundwater U concentrations below the MCL at a former U mill tailings site, integrating biological, geochemical, and hydrological studies. As a part of this project we have performed a series of experiments to better understand the U(VI) sorption-desorption and transport behavior under oxidizing conditions at this site. A series of U(VI) desorption experiments on aquifer sediment was conducted at the batch, column, and field scales. As one proceeds from the batch to the field scale, there is an increase in complexity and heterogeneity in both the geochemical and hydrological conditions. A surface-complexation model for U(VI) developed using batch adsorption and desorption experiments on homogenized sediments was applied to describe U(VI) desorption and transport behavior under high alkalinity conditions in a column experiment with the same sediments. An array of multi-level samplers was installed at the Rifle field site in order to investigate U behavior in both 3-dimensional spatial and temporal scales. A high degree of geochemical and hydrological heterogeneity was observed through the investigation of sediment core samples, nonreactive tracer tests, and geochemical groundwater sampling. A U(VI) desorption tracer test was performed in the field under high alkalinity conditions to compare with the batch and column work. The results from these multiple scales investigations are being integrated to assess the impact of the observed field-scale heterogeneities on U reactive transport in contaminated aquifers.

  10. Carrying a rifle with both hands affects upper body transverse plane kinematics and pelvis-trunk coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Joseph F; Hasselquist, Leif; Bensel, Carolyn K

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how carrying a rifle in both hands affects upper body motion and coordination during locomotion. In total, 11 male soldiers walked (1.34 m/s) and ran (2.46 m/s) with a weapon (M4 condition) and without a weapon (NW condition) while kinematic pelvis and trunk data were collected. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare segmental ranges of motion (ROM), pelvis-trunk coordination (continuous relative phase) and coordination variability between gait mode and weapon combinations. Carrying a weapon decreased sagittal plane trunk ROM at both speeds and increased trunk rotation during running. Mean (±SD) transverse plane coordination was more in-phase while carrying a weapon (M4 = 83°±31, NW = 60°±36, p = 0.027) and transverse plane coordination variability decreased (M4 = 23°±3.6, NW = 15°±4.4, p = 0.043). Coordination differences between M4 and NW were similar to differences reported in the literature between individuals with and without back pain. Long-term injury implications due to decreased coordination variability are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Knowledge of the effects of rifle carriage on pelvis-trunk coordination may provide insight into short-term protective strategies and long-term injury mechanisms. These should be considered in occupations requiring individuals to carry torso loads in combination with holding an object in both hands that restricts arm swing.

  11. HOW TO SOLVE THE TASK OF CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF RIFLE AMMUNITION USING THE METHOD OF ASCANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In forensics there is an urgent need to determine the type of rifle (automatic, rifle, large caliber pistol depending on its used ammunition found at the scene of the use of weapons. We offer a solution to this problem with the use of new innovative method of artificial intelligence: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis and its program toolkitwhich is a universal cognitive analytical system called "Eidos". In the "Eidos" system we have implemented the software interface that allows posting of images and identifying their outer contours. By multivariable typing, the system creates a systemic-cognitive model, the use of which, if the model is sufficiently accurate, may be helpful in solving problems of system identification, prediction, classification, decision support and research of the modeled object by studying its model. For this task the following stages: 1 input images of ammunitions into the "Eidos" system and creation of their mathematical models; 2 the synthesis and verification of the models of generalized images of ammunition for types of weapons based on the contour images of specific munitions (multiparameter typing; 3 improving the quality of the model by separating classes for typical and atypical parts; 4 quantification of the similarities-the differences between specific types of munitions with generic images of different types of ammunition of the weapon (system identification; 5 quantification of the similarity-differences between types of ammunition, i.e. cluster-constructive analysis of generalized images of ammunition. A numerical example is given. We also possess a successful experience of solving similar problems in other subject areas

  12. Assessing the Effects of Suomi NPP VIIRS M15/M16 Detector Radiometric Stability and Relative Spectral Response Variation on Striping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern satellite radiometers have many detectors with different relative spectral response (RSR. Effect of RSR differences on striping and the root cause of striping in sensor data record (SDR radiance and brightness temperature products have not been well studied. A previous study used MODTRAN radiative transfer model (RTM to analyze striping. In this study, we make efforts to find the possible root causes of striping. Line-by-Line RTM (LBLRTM is used to evaluate the effect of RSR difference on striping and the atmospheric dependency for VIIRS bands M15 and M16. The results show that previous study using MODTRAN is repeatable: the striping is related to the difference between band-averaged and detector-level RSR, and the BT difference has some atmospheric dependency. We also analyzed VIIRS earth view (EV data with several striping index methods. Since the EV data is complex, we further analyze the onboard calibration data. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test shows that the noise along track direction is the major reason for striping. We also found evidence of correlation between solar diffuser (SD and blackbody (BB for detector 1 in M15. Digital Count Restoration (DCR and detector instability are possibly related to the striping in SD and EV data, but further analysis is needed. These findings can potentially lead to further SDR processing improvements.

  13. A Comparison of Traditional and Novel Definitions (RIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO) of Acute Kidney Injury for the Prediction of Outcomes in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Andrew K.; Mc Gorrian, Catherine; Treacy, Cecelia; Kavanaugh, Edel; Brennan, Alice; Mahon, Niall G.; Murray, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine if newer criteria for diagnosing and staging acute kidney injury (AKI) during heart failure (HF) admission are more predictive of clinical outcomes at 30 days and 1 year than the traditional worsening renal function (WRF) definition. Methods We analyzed prospectively collected clinical data on 637 HF admissions with 30-day and 1-year follow-up. The incidence, stages, and outcomes of AKI were determined using the following four definitions: KDIGO, RIFLE, AKIN, and WRF (serum creatinine rise ≥0.3 mg/dl). Receiver operating curves were used to compare the predictive ability of each AKI definition for the occurrence of adverse outcomes (death, rehospitalization, dialysis). Results AKI by any definition occurred in 38.3% (244/637) of cases and was associated with an increased incidence of 30-day (32.3 vs. 6.9%, χ2 = 70.1; p < 0.001) and 1-year adverse outcomes (67.5 vs. 31.0%, χ2 = 81.4; p < 0.001). Most importantly, there was a stepwise increase in primary outcome with increasing stages of AKI severity using RIFLE, KDIGO, or AKIN (p < 0.001). In direct comparison, there were only small differences in predictive abilities between RIFLE and KDIGO and WRF concerning clinical outcomes at 30 days (AUC 0.76 and 0.74 vs. 0.72, χ2 = 5.6; p = 0.02) as well as for KDIGO and WRF at 1 year (AUC 0.67 vs. 0.65, χ2 = 4.8; p = 0.03). Conclusion During admission for HF, the benefits of using newer AKI classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO) lie with the ability to identify those patients with more severe degrees of AKI who will go on to experience adverse events at 30 days and 1 year. The differences in terms of predictive abilities were only marginal. PMID:23801998

  14. Implementation of RIFLE criteria and assessment of factors that affect the prognosis in patients with acute renal failure in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Alper Usluoğulları

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute renal failure (ARF was seen in 5-20%of patients in intensive care unit (ICU. The disturbancesof metabolic and hormonal functions contribute to increasethe rate of mortality and morbidity in the patientswhose have ARF. In our study, firstly we separated thepatients, have ARF, into the groups as RIFLE classificationafter that we compared the collected data from clinicand laboratory, at the same time we evaluated the factorsmay effects the prognosis of patients.Methods: The fifty patients that have ARF in the intensivecare unit of Başkent Universty Hospital were included.The patients divided into three groups, which are calledrisk, injury and failure according to RIFLE classification.The grouped patients are compared as laboratory andclinical features. We planned that divide the patients intotwo groups as died and alive according to prospective followup, when we put diagnosis, we record the vital signsand laboratory values.Results: There is a considerable difference as statisticalbetween RIFLE groups about insulin resistance (HOMAIR.(p =0,034, p =0,004. When we compare the patientwhether they needs hemodialysis or not, during the patientbeing at intensive care unit, and mortality rate, wesaw considerable difference as statistical (p =0,017, p=0,010, p =0,001. Glucose, insulin level, and HOMA-IRobserved meaningful as statistical in the exitus groups. (p=0,040, p=0.048, p =0,001.Conclusion: We think that the close monitoring of bloodglucose and the controlled insulin treatment may be beneficialby taking into consideration of high mortality rate inthe patient with ARF accompanying hyperglycemia andinsulin resistance.Key words: ARF, RIFLE classification, hyperglycemia,prognosis

  15. Prognosis of acute kidney injury in dogs using RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage renal failure)-like criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y-J; Chang, C-C; Chan, J P-W; Hsu, W-L; Lin, K-W; Wong, M-L

    2011-03-12

    A retrospective case-series study evaluated the prognosis of 853 dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) based on the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage renal failure) criteria, derived from human medicine. The 30-day mortality of dogs with AKI in each class was found to be 23.8 per cent (40 of 168) dogs for Risk, 41.0 per cent (107 of 261) dogs for Injury and 78.5 per cent (333 of 424) dogs for Failure. Using the dogs in the Risk class as the reference, the mortality of dogs in either the Injury or Failure class was significantly higher than that of dogs in the Risk class (PFailure class (three days). Using a multiple logistic regression model, a new score that simultaneously considered RIFLE class, diarrhoea status and serum phosphorus level was calculated to predict prognosis. Evaluation using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) indicated that the new scoring method (AUROC 0.80) was a better prognostic indicator than using RIFLE criteria alone (AUROC 0.73).

  16. Effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on mineral transformation and biomass accumulation during biostimulation experiments at Rifle, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I; Kowalsky, Michael B; Englert, Andreas; Hubbard, Susan S

    2010-03-01

    Electron donor amendment for bioremediation often results in precipitation of secondary minerals and the growth of biomass, both of which can potentially change flow paths and the efficacy of bioremediation. Quantitative estimation of precipitate and biomass distribution has remained challenging, partly due to the intrinsic heterogeneities of natural porous media and the scarcity of field data. In this work, we examine the effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on the spatial distributions of mineral precipitates and biomass accumulated during a biostimulation field experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Field bromide breakthrough data were used to infer a heterogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivity through inverse transport modeling, while the solid phase Fe(III) content was determined by assuming a negative correlation with hydraulic conductivity. Validated by field aqueous geochemical data, reactive transport modeling was used to explicitly keep track of the growth of the biomass and to estimate the spatial distribution of precipitates and biomass. The results show that the maximum mineral precipitation and biomass accumulation occurs in the vicinity of the injection wells, occupying up to 5.4vol.% of the pore space, and is dominated by reaction products of sulfate reduction. Accumulation near the injection wells is not strongly affected by heterogeneities present in the system due to the ubiquitous presence of sulfate in the groundwater. However, accumulation in the down-gradient regions is dominated by the iron-reducing reaction products, whose spatial patterns are strongly controlled by both physical and geochemical heterogeneities. Heterogeneities can lead to localized large accumulation of mineral precipitates and biomass, increasing the possibility of pore clogging. Although ignoring the heterogeneities of the system can lead to adequate prediction of the average behavior of sulfate-reducing related products, it can also lead to an

  17. An investigation into the behaviour of air rifle pellets in ballistic gel and their interaction with bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, G; Beard, J; Allison, R

    2010-07-15

    Although air weapons are considerably lower in power than other firearms, there is increasing concern that serious injuries can result from their misuse. The present study was therefore carried out to improve understanding of the terminal ballistic behaviour of air rifle pellets. Pellets were fired into ballistic gel under a variety of conditions. The pellets penetrated further than anticipated from their low cross-sectional density, and Bloom number was not necessarily a good guide to gel behaviour. Pellet penetration into the gel decreased with increasing gel concentration, and appeared to be linear at higher concentrations. Pointed pellets penetrated up to 50% further than rounded pellets. Power and range affect penetration, but other factors are also important, and power alone is not a simple guide to potential penetration. Test firings were also carried out firing pellets into ballistic gel that contained sections of animal bone. Computed tomography (CT) and visual observation were employed to record the interactions. CT scanning showed potential as a tool for examining pellet damage. The bone appeared to be undamaged, but the pellets were severely deformed on impact. If the pellet strikes the bone at an angle, less energy is absorbed by the impact and the pellet fragments may ricochet and cause further damage in the gel. A tentative model is proposed for estimating the energy absorbed by the impact.

  18. Uranium Bioreduction Rates across Scales: Biogeochemical Hot Moments and Hot Spots during a Biostimulation Experiment at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Chen; Wu, Hongfei; Li, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2014-09-02

    We aim to understand the scale-dependent evolution of uranium bioreduction during a field experiment at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and to immobilize aqueous U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Bicarbonate was coinjected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI). We used reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic and geochemical data and to quantify rates at the grid block (0.25 m) and experimental field scale (tens of meters). Although local rates varied by orders of magnitude in conjunction with biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, field-scale rates were dominated by those orders of magnitude higher rates at a few selected hot spots where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maxima in the vicinity of the injection wells. At particular locations, the hot moments with maximum rates negatively corresponded to their distance from the injection wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced local rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 39.4%, its effect at the field scale was limited to a maximum of 10.0%. We propose a rate-versus-measurement-length relationship (log R' = -0.63

  19. Physico-Chemical Heterogeneity of Organic-Rich Sediments in the Rifle Aquifer, CO: Impact on Uranium Biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Noémie; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Pham, Don Q; O'Brien, Timothy M; Hausladen, Debra; Noël, Vincent; Lallier, Florent; Maher, Kate; Fendorf, Scott; Williams, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Bargar, John R

    2016-01-01

    The Rifle alluvial aquifer along the Colorado River in west central Colorado contains fine-grained, diffusion-limited sediment lenses that are substantially enriched in organic carbon and sulfides, as well as uranium, from previous milling operations. These naturally reduced zones (NRZs) coincide spatially with a persistent uranium groundwater plume. There is concern that uranium release from NRZs is contributing to plume persistence or will do so in the future. To better define the physical extent, heterogeneity and biogeochemistry of these NRZs, we investigated sediment cores from five neighboring wells. The main NRZ body exhibited uranium concentrations up to 100 mg/kg U as U(IV) and contains ca. 286 g of U in total. Uranium accumulated only in areas where organic carbon and reduced sulfur (as iron sulfides) were present, emphasizing the importance of sulfate-reducing conditions to uranium retention and the essential role of organic matter. NRZs further exhibited centimeter-scale variations in both redox status and particle size. Mackinawite, greigite, pyrite and sulfate coexist in the sediments, indicating that dynamic redox cycling occurs within NRZs and that their internal portions can be seasonally oxidized. We show that oxidative U(VI) release to the aquifer has the potential to sustain a groundwater contaminant plume for centuries. NRZs, known to exist in other uranium-contaminated aquifers, may be regionally important to uranium persistence.

  20. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  1. Gunshot injuries to the head and brain caused by low-velocity handguns and rifles. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M; Meissner, C; König, H G; Gehl, H-B

    2004-12-16

    Reconstruction of brain injuries is a basic task of forensic neuropathology. For better understanding of the wound ballistics of gunshot injuries to the brain caused by low-velocity firearms (E(o) 90 min). (1) Imaging procedures provided valuable information on entrance and exit wounds, the missile track and secondary changes. (2) Biometry revealed a destruction zone of ca. 3.6 cm around the permanent track corresponding to the "temporary cavity". (3) Microscopic studies of reactive changes demonstrated axonal injury at sites remote from the permanent cavity that could explain the very early respiratory arrest following low-velocity gunshot injury.

  2. RIFLE 评分评价妊娠并发急性肾损伤的发生和预后%The evaluation value of RIFLE scoring for occurance and outcomes of acute kidney injury in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩云宏; 顾勤; 刘宁

    2014-01-01

    目的:采用RIFLE评分评价重症监护室(ICU)收治的重症孕产妇妊娠并发急性肾损伤(AKI)的发生情况及临床预后情况。方法采用回顾性分析的方法研究2009年6月至2012年6月三年间南京大学医学院附属鼓楼医院ICU收治重症孕产妇的临床资料。采用2004年急性透析质量指导组(ADQI)推荐诊断标准,将入组患者分为非妊娠并发AKI组及妊娠并发AKI组,AKI组组内按RIFLE评分的分期标准分为严重程度不同的“风险期(R)”、“损伤期(I)”、“衰竭期(F)”,比较各期患者住院期间急性生理学和慢性健康状况评分系统Ⅱ(APACHEⅡ)评分、肾功能转归、需要肾脏替代治疗例数、住ICU和住院时间及死亡率等指标。结果3年内共有81例重症孕产妇收住ICU,妊娠并发AKI的发生率为23.5%(19/81),其中10例患者需要肾脏替代治疗,转出ICU时11例患者肾功能完全恢复,4例患者肾功能部分恢复,4例患者肾功能未恢复。根据RIFLE评分的分期标准对妊娠并发AKI患者分组,其中7例符合R期,6例符合Ⅰ期,6例符合F期。R期患者中无发展到F期,Ⅰ期患者中1例发展到F期。F期患者APACHEⅡ评分[(14.5±6.72)分]明显高于R期患者[(6.86±2.79)分](P=0.008),三亚组组间肾功能转归(完全恢复、部分恢复、未恢复)有显著性差异(P=0.026),F期患者住ICU时间[(10.17±5.81)d]较R期[(4.00±4.12)d]患者明显延长(P=0.039)。结论危重孕产妇发生妊娠并发AKI的概率较高,RIFLE评分的不同分期与患者APACHEⅡ评分、肾功能转归及住ICU时间均有关。%Objective Using RIFLE scoring to evaluate the occurance and outcomes of acute kidney injury(AKI) in pregnancy of critically ill obstetric patients who admitted to the intensive care unit(ICU). Methods A retrospective analysis of critically ill obstetric patients who admitted to

  3. Near-Real-Time Geophysical and Biological Monitoring of Bioremediation Methods at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrell, A. N.; Haas, A.; Revil, A.; Figueroa, L. A.; Rodriguez, D.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    Bioremediation has been utilized on subsurface uranium contamination at the Rifle IRFC site in Colorado by injecting acetate as an electron donor. However, successfully monitoring the progress of subsurface bioremediation over time is difficult and requires long-term stewardship considerations to ensure cost effective treatment due to biological, chemical, and hydrological heterogeneity. In order to better understand the complex heterogeneities of the subsurface and the resultant effect on microbial activity, innovative subsurface monitoring techniques must be investigated. The key hypothesis of this work is that a combination of data from electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation reduction potential, and water level sensors will provide sufficient information for identifying and localizing bioremediation activity and will provide better predictions of deleterious biogeochemical change. In order to test the proof-of-concept of these sensing techniques and to deconvolve the redox activity from other electric potential changing events involved in bioremediation, a 2D tank (2.4m x 1.2m x 0.6m) experiment has been developed. Field material obtained from the Rifle IRFC site will be packed in the tank and an artificial groundwater will flow across the tank through constant-head boundaries. The experiment will utilize sensors for electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation-reduction potential, and water level monitoring. Electrode-based microbial monitoring will be used to estimate microbial activity by measuring how much electrical current indigenous bacteria are producing. Self potential monitoring will be used to measure the natural electrical voltage potential between sampled points, providing indications of when and where electrical activity is occurring; such as reduction of radionuclides. In addition to the application of sensing technologies, this work will explore the application of a wireless sensor

  4. Analysis about Rifling Grooves of Small-caliber Ammunition on the Flow Field%膛线沟槽对小口径弹体流场的影响分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵缧; 董富强

    2015-01-01

    早期弹体滚转力矩和马格努斯效应数值计算中多采用简化弹体模型,没有考虑膛线沟槽的影响。但对小口径弹体而言,分析亚音速条件下膛线沟槽的影响对弹道计算至关重要。文中采用Fluent[1]软件对不同攻角和不同滚转速度的流场进行计算,对比光滑弹体和带沟槽弹体的流场差异,得到膛线沟槽对流场的影响规律。分析发现膛线沟槽使得滚转力矩和马格努斯力矩减小。结论认为弹体上的膛线沟槽影响较大,需要在实际工程计算中给予考虑。%In previous studies, rifling grooves generally ignored in simplified model of ammunition when calculating Magnus effect and roll-ing moment of ammunition. However, due to high requirement trajectory of small caliber ammunition, effect of rifling grooves should be studied. With the help of Fluent software, the effect of rifling groove on flow field over small caliber ammunition by comparing CFD results of smooth bullet and rifling grooves bullet. Flow fields for three different angles of attack and three different rolling rates were studied. Re-sults show that the rolling moment and Magnus moment of the bullet smaller if the effect of rifling grooves considered. So the effect of rifling grooves should be considered in practical engineering calculation.

  5. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhoff, Lee; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-15

    Uranium contaminated groundwaters are a legacy concern for the U.S. Department of Energy. Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Challenge (IFC) site have demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduces the ambient soluable uranium concentration, sequestering the radionuclide as uraninite. However, questions remain regarding which microorganism(s) are consuming this acetate and if active groundwater microorganisms are different from active particle-associated bacteria. In this report, 13-C acetate was used to assess the active microbes that synthesize DNA on 3 size fractions [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 micron), groundwater (0.2-8 micron)] over a 24 -day time frame. Results indicated a stronger signal from 13-C acetate associated with the “fines” fraction compared with smaller amounts of 13-C uptake on the sand fraction and groundwater samples during the SIP incubations. TRFLP analysis of this 13-C-labeled DNA, indicated 31+ 9 OTU's with 6 peaks dominating the active profiles (166, 187, 210, 212, and 277 bp peaks using MnlI). Cloning/sequencing of the amplification products indicated a Geobacter-like group (187, 210, 212 bp) primarily synthesized DNA from acetate in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium (166 bp) primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. (277 bp) utilized much of the 13C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria during field-scale acetate addition and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  6. CO2 production rate maxima in the deeper unsaturated zone of a semi-arid floodplain at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Kim, Y.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Hobson, C.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Fluxes of CO2 from soils are important to understand in order to predict subsurface feedbacks to the atmosphere and responses to climate change. Such fluxes are commonly monitored at the soil surface and generally assumed to largely originate within shallow depths. Relatively little is understood on the depth distribution of CO2 production below the rhizosphere. We monitored CO2 fluxes at the soil surface, and measured vertical profiles of vadose CO2 concentrations, matric potentials, and temperatures at the Rifle Site, a saline semi-arid floodplain along the Colorado River in order to determine the significance of deeper vadose zone respiration. Vadose zone CO2 profiles exhibit temperature-dependent seasonal variations, and are consistent with CO2 fluxes measured at the soil surface. The measured vadose zone CO2 concentration profiles combined with gas diffusion coefficients estimated from soil properties indicated that local maxima in rates of CO2 production persist in the deeper vadose zone, about 1 m below the rhizosphere, and above the water table (~3.5 m below the soil surface). We hypothesized that water and oxygen activities, nutrient levels, and temperatures remain favorable for microbial respiration throughout the year in the subrhizosphere, unlike overlying drier soils and the underlying poorly aerated aquifer. Using soils and sediments from the field site, the hypothesized existence of deeper subsurface maxima in CO2 production rate is currently being tested in the laboratory through sediment incubation experiments and in 2.0 m tall vadose zone columns. Initial results from the laboratory support the hypothesized persistence of a subrhizosphere "hot zone" for microbial respiration, partly sustained through seasonal pulses of dissolved and labile organic carbon originating from the rhizosphere. These findings suggest that similar sustained deeper local maxima in respiration rates may occur in many other regions where near-surface conditions are

  7. "Assessment of RIFLE and AKIN criteria to define acute renal dysfunction for HIPEC procedures for ovarian and non ovarian peritoneal malignances".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona-Sánchez, A; Cadenas-Febres, A; Cabrera-Bermon, J; Muñoz-Casares, F C; Casado-Adam, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, J M; López-Andreu, M; Briceño-Delgado, J; Rufián-Peña, S

    2016-06-01

    The acute renal dysfunction (ARD) is a common complication in cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Our aim is evaluate the ARD post-HIPEC procedures using the RIFLE and AKIN criteria. Evaluate the risk factors and analyze ARD's impact on postoperative course. From 2011 to 2014, in a retrospective way using a prospective database were operated by HIPEC procedure. The ARD was analyzed by RIFLE and AKIN criteria. The perioperative features were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to define the risk factors to develop the ARD. 141 patients were treated and analyzed. The ARD was detected in 30.5% (Injury 18.4% and Failure 12.1%) when RIFLE criteria were applied. The multivariate analysis detected that decrease of pH during HIPEC [OR = 29.39 (5.09-169.76)], PCI [OR = 1.07 (1.01-1.15)] and ureteral catheters [OR = 12.71 (1.44-111.85)] were associated to the development of acute renal injury (ARI) post-HIPEC. Decrease of Na during HIPEC [OR = 1.15 (1.01-1.30)], intraoperative inotrope use [OR = 3.83 (1.12-13.09)] and PCI [OR = 1.06 (1.0-1.14)] were associated to acute renal failure (ARF) post-HIPEC. The ARD was related to a higher length of stay hospital (17.2 ± 11 vs. 13.8 ± 8 days) (p = 0.05) but no impact in early survival was observed in ARD group. The widespread use of RIFLE criteria for ARD would have major benefits in terms of accurately diagnosing patients undergone HIPEC procedures. The ARD has a detrimental impact in length of stay hospital. The knowledge of risk factors helps us to prevent the ARD post-HIPEC by means of an aggressive and multidisciplinary perioperative management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [The specific features of the damage to the non-biological and biological simulators of the human body inflicted by the shots from a 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajzberg, S A; Makarov, I Ju; Lorents, A S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the specific constructional features of a 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle designed to use three types of bullets differing in the head shape. Also, the morphological signs of the injuries inflicted by such bullets that can serve as the prerequisites for objective differentiation of the damages are considered. The study revealed peculiarities of experimental damage to the non-biological (plasticine blocks) and biological (bio-mannequins) simulators of homogeneous human tissues inflicted by the shots from the pneumatic rifle from different distances.

  9. 基于ADAMS的自动步枪自动机数值仿真研究%Numerical Simulation Based on ADAMS for Automatic Rifle Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋超杰; 姚养无

    2014-01-01

    An automatic rifle was taken as study object ,the simulation model of the automatic rifle automata was set up by UG and ADAMS ,and the virtual prototype model of the automata was realized in ADAMS/View environment .Through ADAMS simulation analysis function ,the dynamic characteristic curves of the automata were obtained .This study may provide a basis for the design and test of firearms .%以某自动步枪为研究对象,利用 UG 和 ADAMS 软件联合建立了其三维仿真模型,将其导入ADAMS/View环境中得到虚拟样机模型,通过ADAMS自身的仿真分析功能得到了自动机的动力学特性曲线。为枪械设计提供了依据,并大大降低了枪械试验的费用和时间。

  10. A study on the effect of different rifle calibres in euthanisation of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in seal traps in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörner, Torsten; Malmsten, Jonas; Bernodt, Karin; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar

    2013-11-13

    In recent years, the euthanasia of seals has been discussed internationally and concern has been raised regarding the use of rifles, the effect of different calibres, and which calibres are sufficient for humane euthanasia. This study therefore investigated the effect of different firearm calibres on euthanasia of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in traps, and provides information for the development and refinement of regulations for hunting seals in the wild. The effect of different calibres was studied in 19 seals shot in the head and neck at close range. All seals were necropsied and radiographed to characterize the injuries caused by the bullets. All tested calibres, 5.6 mm bullet diameter or larger, and .12 shotgun, were sufficiently effective to cause severe skull fractures, meningeal haemorrhages and instant death. Rifles with 5.6 mm bullet diameter or larger, and a .12 shotgun loaded with a slug fired at close range to the head and neck of grey seals all caused instant death and can therefore be recommended for hunting seals in the wild.

  11. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, February 2011 to January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Banfield, Jill [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chandler, Darrell P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, James A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hettich, Bob [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); VerBerkmoes, Nathan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jaffe, Peter R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kerkhof, Lee J. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peacock, Aaron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The Rifle IFRC continued to make excellent progress during the last 12 months. As noted above, a key field experiment (Best Western) was performed during 2011 as a logical follow-on to the Super 8 field experiment preformed in 2010. In the Super 8 experiment, we successfully combined desorption and bioreduction and deployed a number of novel tracer techniques to enhance our ability to interpret the biogeochemistry of the experiment. In the Best Western experiment, we used the same experimental plot (Plot C) as was used for Super 8. The overarching objective of the Best Western field experiment was to compared the impacts of abiotic vs. biotic increases in alkalinity and to assess the mass of the sorbed pool of U(VI) at Rifle at the field scale. Both of these objectives were met. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that the underlying biogeochemical data sets were obtained that will support a mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes, including remarkable insight into previously unrecognized microbial processes taking place during acetate amendment of the subsurface for a second time.

  12. Organic Carbon Inventories and Vertical Fluxes Through the Vadose Zone into Groundwater at the Rifle, Colorado River Floodplain Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Kim, Y.; Faybishenko, B.; Conrad, M. E.; Christensen, J. N.; Gilbert, B.; Dayvault, R. D.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding carbon inventories and fluxes within the vadose zone and groundwater of semi-arid regions is challenging because of their typically deep profiles, moderately low soil organic carbon (SOC) inventories, low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes, and slow changes in soil inorganic carbon (SIC) inventories. The remediated uranium/vanadium mill tailings site situated on a floodplain at Rifle, Colorado possesses a number of characteristics that facilitate investigation of subsurface carbon fluxes. These include locally derived fill soil having SOC and SIC concentrations representative of the region, established vegetation cover (perennial grasses and shrubs) on the fill, boundaries between the fill and underlying alluvium distinguishable through concentrations of SIC and other chemical components, predictable groundwater flow and interaction with the adjacent Colorado River, and a clearly delineated impermeable lower boundary (Wasatch Formation shale) at depths ranging from 6 to 7.5 m. Environmental characteristics of this site permit year-round sampling of both pore water and pore gas throughout most of the moderately deep (~ 3.5 m) vadose zone. Within this well-defined hydrological system, we recently installed a suite of tensiometers, pore water (vadose zone and groundwater) samplers, gas samplers, and neutron probe access tubes at three sites along a transect aligned with the groundwater flow direction in order to determine inventories and fluxes of water, carbon, and other components. The tensiometer and piezometer measurements are revealing impacts of infiltration and groundwater recharge events, evapotranspiration, and capillary fringe-groundwater interactions. The results of pore water analyses are showing relatively high concentrations of DOC (up to 4 mM) in the vadose zone, and particulate organic carbon (POC) mobile in the capillary fringe. Differences in DOC characteristics are being determined using a variety of analytical techniques. Hydraulic

  13. Redox Fluctuation Influences Viral Abundance in the Reduced Zone of a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer in Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Weber, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Naturally reduced zones (NRZs) within alluvial aquifers contain naturally elevated concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and can play a role in controlling the fate of redox-active contaminants. OC in NRZs stimulates microbial activity through coupling of OC oxidation to reduction of subsurface electron acceptors. Stimulation of the indigenous microbial community also results in the stimulation of the viral community. Viruses are the most abundant biological entity on Earth and can indirectly influence carbon cycling by infecting and lysing host cells, resulting in release of OC bound in biomass. In the alluvial aquifer near Rifle, CO, prior acetate injection resulted in reductive immobilization of U and a reduced zone simulating a NRZ, with elevated ferrous iron and sulfide (53.2-62.5 µM and 0.2-3.1 µM, respectively). To study the effects of redox fluctuations in a RZ, oxygenated groundwater was injected. Prior to injection, groundwater was suboxic (0.05-0.11 mg/L). Amended O2 was immediately consumed in the RZ. While cell numbers didn't significantly increase, viruses increased from 1.1x106-2.1x106 mL-1 to 2.3x106-4.6x106 mL-1. VCR increased 1.8-3.4 fold from 3.9-10.1 to 11.0-17.9, demonstrating microbial activity. These changes were associated with large fluctuations of groundwater dissolved OC, suggesting viral release of OC from cellular biomass. Groundwater ORP decreased from an initial -146 mV - -132 mV to -317 mV - -304 mV, indicating an increase in the supply of available electron donors. Thus, rather than expected oxidative solubilization of U following amendment of O2, soluble U decreased, suggesting likely U reduction in the RZ. Fe and S fluctuated, but changes were not associated with aqueous U. Across the whole floodplain, viral abundance is correlated to groundwater dissolved OC, suggesting that viruses may be contributing to the liberalization of dissolved OC from biomass in NRZs, allowing turnover of carbon and reduction of contaminants of

  14. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting With Vision Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without vision impairment took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, towards a regulation target placed at the end of a 10m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of vision impairment. Visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated vision impairment and normalising this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR is conservative, maximising the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not

  15. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado: Final report. Volume 4, Addenda D1--D5 to Appendix D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, James W.

    1990-02-01

    This radiologic characterization of tho two inactive uranium millsites at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Grand Junction Projects Office, in accord with a Statement of Work prepared by the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. (Jacobs). The purpose of this project is to define the extent of radioactive contamination at the Rifle sites that exceeds US Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) standards for UMTRA sites. The data presented in this report are required for characterization of the areas adjacent to the tailings piles and for the subsequent design of cleanup activities. An orientation visit to the study area was conducted on 31 July--1 August 1984, in conjunction with Jacobs, to determine the approximate extent of contaminated area surrounding tho piles. During that visit, survey control points were located and baselines were defined from which survey grids would later be established; drilling requirements were assessed; and radiologic and geochemical data were collected for use in planning the radiologic fieldwork. The information gained from this visit was used by Jacobs, with cooperation by Bendix, to determine the scope of work required for the radiologic characterization of the Rifle sites. Fieldwork at Rifle was conducted from 1 October through 16 November 1984.

  16. Associação do RIFLE com letalidade e tempo de internação em pacientes críticos com lesão renal aguda RIFLE: association with mortality and length of stay in critically ill acute kidney injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Rosso dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a classificação do RIFLE com a letalidade e tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva e no hospital. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo, observacional e longitudinal aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Instituição. Foram coletados os dados de todos os pacientes internados por mais de 24 horas na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Universitário Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina de setembro de 2007 a março de 2008 e com seguimento até a alta ou óbito. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: com lesão renal aguda e sem lesão renal aguda. O grupo com lesão renal aguda foi classificado conforme o RIFLE e subdividido de acordo com a classe máxima alcançada: risco, injúria ou falência. Não foram incluídas as classes loss e end-stage no estudo. Analisou-se também APACHE II e SOFA. Utilizaram-se os testes t Student e Qui-Quadrado, principalmente. Um pOBJECTIVE: To correlate the RIFLE classification with mortality and length of stay both in the intensive care unit and hospital. METHODS: A prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study, approved by the Institution's Ethics Committee. Data were collected for all patients staying longer than 24 hours in the intensive care unit of Hospital Universitário Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina from September 2007 to March 2008, followed-up either until discharge or death. Patients were divided in two groups: with or without acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injury group was additionally divided according to the RIFLE and sub-divided according to the maximal score in Risk, Injury of Failure. Loss and End-stage classes were not included in the study. APACHE II and SOFA were also evaluated. The t Student and Chi-Square tests were used. A P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The sample included 129 patients, 52 (40.3% with acute kidney injury

  17. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    WEB WATCH (204) Try unearthing some interesting information about archaeology BOOK REVIEWS (206) Teaching and assessing practical skills Book Review: Learn to drive with Sir Isaac Newton DVD REVIEW (207) Bring some sunshine into the classroom EQUIPMENT REVIEWS (208) Robust air puck takes a kicking Flowlog offers sensing options plus multimode datalogging Mastering Chladni figures takes practice but it offers surprises

  18. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinogga, Anna, E-mail: anna_trinogga@gmx.de; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide

  19. Experimental Study of U(VI) Release Kinetics from Aquifer Sediments from a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site (Rifle, Colorado, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.; Campbell, K. M.; Hayes, K. F.; Davis, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Uranium(VI) release kinetics from aquifer sediments from a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado was studied to understand uranium distribution within the sediments. The sediments were sampled at depths of 3.5-3.8 m in December 2004. The samples were air-dried, sieved, and the uranium content in the sediments, determined by gamma-radiometry, was 4.1 μg/g sediment. The labile fraction of U(VI) in the sediments was determined using carbonate/bicarbonate extractions, which should cause complete desorption of U(VI) in the absence of mass transfer limitations. Carbonate/bicarbonate extraction of the sediments showed very slow release kinetics, with only 12 % of the labile U(VI) in the sediments being released during the first 96 hours of extraction. This is much less than found in a previous study at a different mill tailings site (Naturita, Colorado), in which more than 80 % of labile U(VI) was released during the same period of extraction. Up to two months of carbonate/bicarbonate extraction released 1 μg U(VI) per gram of Rifle sediment, which is 25 % of the total U in the sediment. Extraction with an artificial groundwater prepared to simulate the field groundwater chemistry showed 0.26 μg U/g sediment was released during the initial 94 hours of extraction, with a gradual increase of released U(VI) with time, while other major and minor elements (except Si) rapidly reached steady-state concentrations during the first few hours of reaction. Two hypotheses are under consideration to explain the slow U(VI) release kinetics: 1) colloidal clay fraction particles cementing larger grains of the sediments are creating nanoscale interparticle pores that act as a diffusion barrier to U(VI) desorption, and 2) a U(IV) solid phase exists whose oxidation and dissolution control the U(VI) release rate. To test the hypotheses, oxidation and extraction of the sediments have been conducted using oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide. The results of this study are

  20. Pursue or shoot? Effects of exercise-induced fatigue on the transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursuit task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibbeling, Nicky; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Wurff, Peter; Daanen, Hein A M

    2013-01-01

    To investigate to what degree exercise-induced fatigue influences behavioural choices, participants' transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursue-and-shoot task was assessed. Participants ran on a treadmill and chased a target in a virtual environment and were free to choose when to stop the treadmill and shoot at the target. Fatigue increased progressively throughout the 20-minute test. Results indicated that shooting accuracy was not affected by fatigue. However, the distance to the target at which participants decided to shoot showed a U-shaped relationship with fatigue, R(2) = 0.884, p = 0.013. At low fatigue levels (ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]  6.5) shooting distance increased again. At high levels of fatigue, participants stopped running sooner, aimed at the target longer and shot less often. Findings indicate that physiological parameters influence not only perception but also actual transitions between different actions.

  1. Acute kidney injury in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: a comparison between the ‘Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease’ (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marta; Rodrigues, Natacha; Godinho, Iolanda; Gameiro, Joana; Neves, Marta; Gouveia, João; Costa e Silva, Zélia; Lopes, José António

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) systems, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and their ability to predict in-hospital mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock was compared. Materials and methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 457 critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock hospitalized between January 2008 and December 2014. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to evaluate the association between the RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO systems with in-hospital mortality. Model fit was assessed by the goodness-of-fit test and discrimination by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Statistical significance was defined as P RIFLE (84.2%) and KDIGO (87.5%) identified more patients with AKI than AKIN (72.8%) (P RIFLE was not [adjusted OR 2.0 (95% CI 1–4), P = 0.063]. The AUROC curve for in-hospital mortality was similar between the three classifications (RIFLE 0.652, P RIFLE and KDIGO diagnosed more patients with AKI than AKIN, but the prediction ability for in-hospital mortality was similar between the three systems. PMID:28616211

  2. Acute kidney injury in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: a comparison between the 'Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease' (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marta; Rodrigues, Natacha; Godinho, Iolanda; Gameiro, Joana; Neves, Marta; Gouveia, João; Costa E Silva, Zélia; Lopes, José António

    2017-06-01

    Using the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) systems, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and their ability to predict in-hospital mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock was compared. We performed a retrospective analysis of 457 critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock hospitalized between January 2008 and December 2014. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to evaluate the association between the RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO systems with in-hospital mortality. Model fit was assessed by the goodness-of-fit test and discrimination by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Statistical significance was defined as P RIFLE (84.2%) and KDIGO (87.5%) identified more patients with AKI than AKIN (72.8%) (P RIFLE was not [adjusted OR 2.0 (95% CI 1-4), P = 0.063]. The AUROC curve for in-hospital mortality was similar between the three classifications (RIFLE 0.652, P RIFLE and KDIGO diagnosed more patients with AKI than AKIN, but the prediction ability for in-hospital mortality was similar between the three systems.

  3. Injuria Renal Aguda aplicando escala de pRifle en Niños del Hospital Universitario del Valle: características clínicas, manejo y evolución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Restrepo de Rovetto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: to know the epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI in the pediatric population at Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV, a tertiary University Hospital in Cali, Colombia. Methods: We obtained a series of cases through daily surveillance for a seven-month period (June 1 to December 31, 2009 in patients older than 30 days and under 18 years at HUV. We excluded patients with previous diagnosis of chronic renal failure. The new pRIFLE scale was used to define AKI. Results: 27 patients were detected, with mean age of 36 months. Incidence of AKI was 0.38% from pediatric admissions and 6.2% from the pediatric intensive care unit (pICU admissions. The pRIFLE scale at study entrance was: Risk: 2 patients, Injury: 8, Failure: 17. Etiology of AKI was: pre-renal in 89%, primary renal disease in 3.7%, and post-renal in 7.4%. There was an association of AKI with sepsis in 66.7% and 48.2% progressed to septic shock. Six patients required renal replacement therapy, all required peritoneal dialysis. The AKI was multi-factorial in 59.3% and associated with systemic multi-organ failure in 59.3%. At study entry, 63% patients were in pICU. The average hospital stay was 21.3 ± 9.2 days. Six children died, 16 resolved AKI, and nine were left with renal sequelae. Conclusions: We recommended pRIFLE scale for early diagnosis of AKI in all pediatric services. Education in pRIFLE scale, prevention of AKI, and early management of sepsis and hypovolemia is recommended.

  4. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Floyd; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews eight textbooks, readers, and books. Topics include Latin America, colonial America, the Carolinians, women in French textbooks, the Vikings, the Soviet Union, nineteenth-century Black America, and Ernest Rutherford. (TRS)

  5. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides reviews of four computer software packages designed for use in science education. Describes courseware dealing with a variety of tips for teaching physics concepts, chemical reactions in an aqueous solution, mitosis and meiosis, and photosynthesis. (TW)

  6. Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... medicine and biology here an attempt has been made to review the synthesis and biological ... insight into the recent applications of Mannich reaction and its ...... Various thermodynamic parameters were also determined to ...

  7. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Issacharoff. Discourse as Performance . Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989. vii + 161 pp. Reviewed by Gerald Prince, University of Pennsylvania Thomas M. Kavanagh, ed. The Limits of Theory . Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989. 254 pp. Reviewed by André J.M. Prévos, Pennsylvania State University, Worthington Scranton Campus Wendy B. Faris. Labyrinths of Language: Symbolic Landscape and Narrative Design in Modern Fiction . Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1988. 242 pp. Reviewed by Carol Rigolot, Princeton University Eve Tavor Bannet. Structuralism and the Logic of Dissent: Barthes, Derrida, Foucault, Lacan . Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989. 299 pp. Reviewed by Andrew J. McKenna, Loyoyla University of Chicago Gary Saul Morson and Caryl Emerson, eds. Rethinking Bakhtin: Extensions and Challenges . Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1989. Reviewed by Lewis Bagby, University of Wyoming Fernando Moreno. Carlos Fuentes. La mort d'Artemio Cruz: entre le mythe et l'histoire . Paris: Editions Caribeennes, 1989. Reviewed by Susan Levine, Lawrence, Kansas

  8. The effects of Fe-oxidizing microorganisms on post-biostimulation permeability reduction and oxidative processes at the Rifle IFRC site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara Sze-Yue [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-07-02

    Fe oxidation and biomineral formation is important in aquifers because the highly-reactive oxides can control the mobility of nutrients (e.g. phosphate, C) and metals (e.g. arsenic, uranium). Mineral formation also has the potential to affect hydrology, depending on the volume and distribution in pore spaces. In this exploratory study, we sought to understand how microbial Fe-oxidizers and their biominerals affect, and are affected by groundwater flow. As part of work at the Rifle aquifer in Colorado, we initially hypothesized that Fe-oxidizers were contributing to aquifer clogging problems associated with enhanced bioremediation. To demonstrate the presence of Fe-oxidizers in the Rifle aquifer, we enriched FeOM from groundwater samples, and isolated two novel chemolithotrophic, microaerophilic Fe-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, Hydrogenophaga sp. P101 and Curvibacter sp. CD03. To image cells and biominerals in the context of pores, we developed a “micro-aquifer,” a sand-filled flow-through culture chamber that allows for imaging of sediment pore space with multiphoton confocal microscopy. Fe oxide biofilms formed on sand grains, demonstrating that FeOM produce Fe oxide sand coatings. Fe coatings are common on aquifer sands, and tend to sequester contaminants; however, it has never previously been shown that microbes are responsible for their formation. In contrast to our original hypothesis, the biominerals did not clog the mini-aquifer. Instead, Fe biofilm distribution was dynamic: they grew as coatings, then periodically sloughed off sand grains, with some flocs later caught in pore throats. This has implications for physical hydrology, including pore scale architecture, and element transport. The sloughing of coatings likely prevents the biominerals from clogging wells and aquifers, at least initially. Although attached biomineral coatings sequester Fe-associated elements (e.g. P, As, C, U), when biominerals detach, these elements are transported as particles

  9. Design and Simulation of Muzzle Brake in Anti-materiel Rifle%反器材步枪膛口装置设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卓; 王刚; 周峰

    2014-01-01

    某反器材步枪膛口装置为两腔冲击式制退器,由于结构设计原因,枪手在射击时,制退器后喷的火药燃气会产生较大的冲击波﹑声响及火焰,对射手容易造成伤害。为了解膛口装置制退效率的影响因素,优化其结构使其在相同制退效率下,减小冲击波等对射手的伤害,根据三维非定常 Euler 方程,利用 Fluent软件对弹丸飞离改进后膛口装置时的流场建模并进行仿真,并利用 Matlab软件编程对其制退效率进行了数值计算,两者结果相符。结果分析表明:优化后制退器可在保证相同制退效率下,有效地减小冲击波大小,可为解决同类问题提供有价值的借鉴。%The muzzle brake of an anti-materiel rifle is the impacted muzzle brake with two ca-vities.Due to its structural design,when the shooter is shooting,gunpowder gas backfired by the muzzle brake will produce a lot of the shock waves,noise and flame,this will be harm to the shooter.In order to understand the effect factors of the recoil efficiency of the rifle muzzle brake,and optimize its structure to decrease the harm to the shooter under condition of the same recoil efficiency,the process of proj ectile flying away from a three-dimensional muzzle brake was simulated by use of the three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations and the Fluent software.Moreover,the recoil efficiency of the muzzle brake was calculated by means of the Matlab software,and the two results were consistent.The results showed that the improved muzzle brake of the equal efficiency can effectively reduce the shock wave,and can also provide valuable reference for solving the similar problems.

  10. Preliminary virulence evaluation on mutation of pgm attenuates Brucella melitensis 16 strain%布鲁杆菌M16株pgm基因突变活菌苗株毒力初步评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 潘玉焕; 罗德炎; 王希良

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过减毒性实验评价布鲁杆菌M16株pgm基因突变活菌苗株毒力减弱情况,为新型减毒活疫苗的研制和布鲁杆菌感染免疫防御的研究奠定基础.方法 进行布鲁杆菌侵袭实验等动物和细胞实验评价突变菌株的毒力减弱情况.结果 突变菌株在小鼠体内能生存,但较强毒株存活数量有很大减少(P<0.001);突变菌株较强毒株对多粘菌素B更为敏感,存活率与强毒株相比有明显下降(P<0.001);突变菌株LPS较强毒株LPS明显缺失;突变菌株在体外HeLa细胞中能存活但复制减弱.结论 布鲁杆菌M16株pgm基因突变菌株毒力减弱.可作为未来布鲁杆菌新型减毒活疫苗的候选者,有进一步研究的价值.%Objective Evaluate the effect of attenuation and lay the foundation for the research of immunological mechanism of brucella infection and the development of novel live attenuated vaccines. Methods The effect of attenuation is evaluated by brucella invasion experiment, and other animal and cell experiments. Results Compared with wild - type strains, the mutation strains have several aspects different from it: ( 1 ) though the mutation strains of Brucella melitensis 16. can survive in the mouse model, the survival rates in the spleens of the inoculated mice were significantly lower than the wild - type strain; ( 2 ) the mutation strains were more sensitive to PmB than the wild - type parental strain; ( 3 ) the amount of LPS on the mutation strain of Brucella melitensis 16. were seen less than on the wild - type parental strain; (4) the replication rate of mutatation stains in HeLa cell line decreased dramatically although it can survive in it in vitro. Conclusions We have confirmed the attenuated effect of the mutation strain of Brucella melitensis 16, it can be used as a candidate vaccine for the control of brucellosis.

  11. Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Revista alicantina de estudios ingleses

    1995-01-01

    Contiene: M. Carmen África Vidal Claramonte. Traducción, manipulación, desconstrucción. Colección Biblioteca Filológica de Salamanca. Salamanca: Ediciones Colegio de España, 1995 / reviewed by Enrique Alcaraz Varó; Diccionario de uso inglés-español/Spanish-English. Directed by Aquilino Sánchez. Madrid: SGEL, 1993, 450 pp. Diccionario de uso pocket inglés-español/Spanish- English. Directed by Aquilino Sánchez. Madrid: SGEL, 1993, 274 pages / reviewed by Miguel Ángel Campos Pardillo...

  12. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three computer software packages for chemistry education including "Osmosis and Diffusion" and "E.M.E. Titration Lab" for Apple II and "Simplex-V: An Interactive Computer Program for Experimental Optimization" for IBM PC. Summary ratings include ease of use, content, pedagogic value, student reaction, and…

  13. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1966-01-01

    An exhaustive Flora of Delhi, compiled by J. K. Maheshwari, was published by C.S.I.R. in 1963 (for a review see Blumea 13, 1965, p. 174). During the compilation of that flora, 278 line-drawings, illustrating the habits and chief features of the plants found in Delhi, were prepared; they form a welco

  14. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1998-01-01

    BALGOOY, M.M.J, VAN. 1998. Malesian Seed Plants. Volume 2. Portraits of tree families. 307 pp., numerous text figures. Published by Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus, Leiden. ISBN 90-71236-36-6. Paperback. Price: NLG 100.00. This is the second volume of a trilogy [see the review of ‘Spot-characters’ b

  15. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repak, Arthur J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Computer software, audiovisuals, and books are reviewed. Includes topics on interfacing, ionic equilibrium, space, the classification system, Acquired Immune Disease Syndrome, evolution, human body processes, energy, pesticides, teaching school, cells, and geological aspects. Availability, price, and a description of each are provided. (RT)

  16. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  17. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    This review marks the appearance of Volume II, after the publication of Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, in 1990; several more volumes are expected in the future before completion of the Vascular plants as a whole. The present volume contains 73 families out of some 250-500 families which ca

  18. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38 (

  19. Automated QA/QC For Data Management, Curation, And Standardization Of Hydrological, Meteorological, And Biogeochemical Datasets at the Rifle Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Faybishenko, B.; Varadharajan, C.; Agarwal, D.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) "Genomes to Watershed" Science Focus Area field effort at the Rifle site in Colorado, USA, sensor-based hydrological and meteorological datasets and data from laboratory characterization of groundwater samples have been curated and archived in a database (http://ifrcrifle.org). We have developed automated quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) methods to detect and identify errors made while recording, manipulating, formatting, transmitting and archiving data, or due to the malfunctioning of sensors. The focus was on developing and implementing basic QA/QC for the DOE Legacy Management installed SOARS network that collects data from the water-level pressure transducers, vadose zone and groundwater thermistors, as well as the meteorological stations. We developed and implemented QA/QC procedures to identify and flag the sources of erroneous data and cleaned up the water-level time series data using outlier filtering methods. Based on the analysis of field water-level data, we provided recommendations on the reinstallation and calibration of pressure transducers installed in monitoring wells. Additionally, in support of the QC of the geochemical dataset, we developed an approach of flagging the samples based on the evaluation of ionic balance of water samples. We also advanced a visualization system to allow users to plot and download raw data and perform QA/QC of time series data masked by the quality flags.

  20. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma D'Ambrosio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the great interest raised by Maurizio Gabrieli’s review of the book Musical Networks. Parallel Distributed Perception and Performance (various authors; edited by Niall Griffith and Peter M. Todd, MA: MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999 which appeared in our last issue of Analitica, the present review section no longer follows the format used up to now but offers a survey of texts dedicated to the relationship between music analysis and technology. This decision was also made as a result of the request for more information on the subject by many of our readers. In coming issues we plan to extend this bibliography and comment on at least some of the most interesting texts published in recent years, among which we would immediately like to draw attention to the important work by Baroni, Dalmonte and Jacoboni published in 1999 (Le regole della musica. Indagine sui meccanismi della comunicazione, Torino, I Manuali EDT/SIdM, 1999.

  1. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  2. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available For a variety of different reasons, increasing use is now being made of the Internet for the delivery of course materials and/or for the support of teaching and learning activities. The details of the mechanisms used will obviously vary from one situation to another, depending upon the types of problem to be addressed. These may involve mentoring, teaching, monitoring, recording, tutoring, assessing, and so on. In this book, the author attempts to review the educational and administrative considerations of offering courses, course materials or course delivery via the Internet.

  3. REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Bugay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Study Guide: «KUBAN STUDIES. KUBAN IN THE XX CENTURY – THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY. HISTORY. PEOPLE SOCIETY.» Study Guide (electronic version to grade 11 of educational institutions. A.A. Zaitsev, E.V. Morozova, N.V. Plotichkina and O.A. Borisko, M.A. Egupova, A.B. Sazantovich, I.S. Bashkakov, T.I. Belyaeva. Krasnodar: Perspectives on Education, 2015.In a review of a thorough analysis of all the component parts of the book that will surely attract the attention first of all history teachers and students in 11 classes of educational institutions of the region. A comprehensive presentation of the material significantly adds to the course of modern history of Russia and enrich its specific material about the life of the Russian Cossacks and as part of the – of the Kuban Cossacks. Along with the reference materials of pure nature that is needed for this kind of research are presented and informative sections on the socio-economic condition of the region, the interests of different strata of the population, the multinational factor and the religious beliefs of the population. Cossacks in its warlike mentality, and this trait is passed from generation to generation. But the aspirations of the Cossacks in this respect are transparent – protecting the integrity of the Fatherland, faithful service to him, boundless devotion to the Orthodox faith. The important story is linked with the identity of the Russian Cossacks, its mentality, "Kuban" specificity, especially for the rule on different sections of history, to various of its exponents, both military and civilians. As is known from the Cossacks received a development institute of judging for each Ataman smoking, working village judge. Cossacks series comply with the law as applied his own family, and chic plan – in the state, fought against offenders, it is considered in relation to the Cossacks and representatives of different ethnic communities living with the Cossacks, and

  4. 步枪实弹发射枪榴弹后坐过载环境仿真方法%Setback Overload Environment Simulation of Rifle Grenade Live Firing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐绍帅; 王雨时; 闻泉; 黄建强; 龚显益; 喻新连

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide ballistic environment to fuze design,the process of firing rifle grenade using 5.8 mm and 7.62 mm caliber bullet was simulated with the software ANSYS/LS-DYNA,and then the setback over-load-time curve was obtained,the peak of the setback overload was obtained through experiments using the cop-per cylinder pressure measuring principle,which proved the result of simulation.The peak of the setback over-load of firing rifle grenade using bullet was more than 1 9 000 g,and it’s much higher than that of firing rifle grenade using blank.The time that firing rifle grenade using bullet is as short as 120 μs,and closed to the time of impact when fuze was dropping to steel plate from 1.5 m height.The setback overload of firing rifle grenade using 7.62 mm calber bullet is 80% higher than that of firing rifle grenade using 5.8 mm caliber bullet.The set-back overload was lower when the material of the bullet trap was softer,whereas which was higher.%针对步枪实弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载环境特殊,并不是膛压函数的问题,应用 ANSYS/LS-DYNA 有限元仿真软件对5.8 mm 和7.62 mm 口径步枪实弹发射枪榴弹过程进行数值模拟,获得了后坐过载-时间曲线,利用铜柱测压原理实验测得了后坐过载峰值,验证了仿真结果。步枪实弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载峰值最小达19000 g ,远大于步枪空包弹发射时的后坐过载。步枪实弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载持续时间很短,只有120μs 左右,与1.5 m 落高跌向钢板的跌落冲击持续时间接近。7.62 mm 口径枪弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载比5.8 mm 口径枪弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载大80%左右;捕弹器材料软时后坐过载小,反之则较大。

  5. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Jeff, E-mail: jeff.knott@rspb.org.uk [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, Rhys E. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  6. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinogga, Anna; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide variety

  7. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Jeff; Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G; Green, Rhys E

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2g for the carcass and 0.2g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Specific Mixture of Fructo-Oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V Facilitates Partial Non-Responsiveness to Whey Protein in Mice Orally Exposed to β-Lactoglobulin-Derived Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinova, Atanaska I.; Meulenbroek, Laura A. P. M.; van Esch, Betty C. A. M.; Hofman, Gerard A.; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E. M.; Knippels, Léon M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Oral tolerance is a promising approach for allergy prevention in early life, but it strongly depends on allergen exposure and proper immune environment. Small tolerance-inducing peptides and dietary immunomodulatory components may comprise an attractive method for allergy prevention in at-risk infants. This study aimed to investigate whether early oral exposure to β-lactoglobulin-derived peptides (BLG-peptides) and a specific synbiotic mixture of short- and long- chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS/lcFOS, FF) and Bifidobacterium breve (Bb) M-16V (FF/Bb) can prevent cow’s milk allergy (CMA). Three-week-old female C3H/HeOuJ mice were orally exposed to phosphate buffered saline (PBS), whey protein, or a mixture of four synthetic BLG-peptides combined with a FF/Bb-enriched diet prior to intragastric sensitization with whey protein and cholera toxin. To assess the acute allergic skin response and clinical signs of allergy, mice were challenged intradermally with whole whey protein. Serum immunoglobulins were analyzed after a whey protein oral challenge. Cytokine production by allergen-reactivated splenocytes was measured and changes in T cells subsets in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestinal lamina propria were investigated. Pre-exposing mice to a low dosage of BLG-peptides and a FF/Bb-enriched diet prior to whey protein sensitization resulted in a significant reduction of the acute allergic skin response to whey compared to PBS-pretreated mice fed a control diet. Serum immunoglobulins were not affected, but anaphylactic symptom scores remained low and splenocytes were non-responsive in whey-induced cytokine production. In addition, preservation of the Th1/Th2 balance in the small intestine lamina propria was a hallmark of the mechanism underlying the protective effect of the BLG-peptides–FF/Bb intervention. Prior exposure to BLG-peptides and a FF/Bb-enriched diet is a promising approach for protecting the intestinal Th1/Th2 balance and reducing the

  9. The camera, the rifle and the analytical criticism. A review of Cámaras en trance, of Ignacio del Valle Dávila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro de Sousa e Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to make a critical reading of the booK Cámaras en trance and map the main lines of argument, the main contributions to the movement of studies known as Nuevo Cine Latinoamericano and research possibilities that the reading of the work provides.

  10. Water and Carbon Fluxes in a Semi-Arid Region Floodplain: Multiple Approaches to Constrain Estimates of Seasonal- and Depth Dependent Fluxes at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Kim, Y.; Williams, K. H.; Conrad, M. E.; Christensen, J. N.; Bill, M.; Faybishenko, B.; Hobson, C.; Dayvault, R.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of floodplains as links between watersheds and rivers highlights the need to understand water and carbon fluxes within floodplain profiles, from their surface soil, through the vadose zone and underlying groundwater. Here, we present results of field and laboratory measurements conducted to quantify fluxes at a remediated uranium/vanadium mill tailings site on a floodplain at Rifle, Colorado. This semi-arid site has a vegetated, locally derived fill soil that replaced the original milling-contaminated soil to a depth of about 1.5 m. The fill soil overlies about 4.5 m of native sandy and cobbly alluvium containing the shallow aquifer. The aquifer generally drains into the Colorado River and is underlain by low permeability Wasatch Formation shale. Within this system, key issues being investigated include water and carbon fluxes between the vadose zone and aquifer, and CO2 fluxes through the vadose zone soil out to the atmosphere. Magnitudes of these fluxes are typically low, thus challenging to measure, yet increasingly important to quantify given the expansion of arid and semi-arid regions under changing climate. The results of field investigations demonstrated that the annual water table rise and fall are driven by snowmelt runoff into the Colorado River in late spring to early summer. Tensiometer data indicate that net recharge from the deeper part of the vadose zone into groundwater occurs later in summer, after water table decline. The effectiveness of summer evapotranspiration in limiting groundwater recharge is reflected in water potentials decreasing to as low as -3 MPa within the upper 1.5 m of the vadose zone. Examination of the historical precipitation record further indicates that net recharge only occurs in years with above-average precipitation during winter and spring. These short intervals of net recharge also facilitate C transport into groundwater because of higher organic C concentrations in the vadose zone. Fluxes of CO2 measured

  11. Simulation of Flow Field in Gap of Electrochemical Machining by Rifle Cathode of Pull Type with the Stream%拉式顺流膛线阴极电解加工间隙流场分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余涵; 范植坚; 范庆明; 郑雄伟

    2016-01-01

    针对传统膛线阴极电解加工时加工间隙流场发散、电解液逆流使电解机床主轴受力大以及阴极工作齿严重烧伤时整体阴极报废等问题,设计了一种电解液在阴极内部换向、加工间隙顺流、可更换工作齿的大口径深混合膛线拉式阴极结构,采用多物理场仿真软件 COM-SOL 对加工间隙流场进行仿真。结果表明拉式顺流阴极流场分布优于传统拉式正流阴极。在确定拉式顺流阴极结构的前提下,阴极圆锥盘角度为100°、斜小孔倾斜50°、回液小孔孔径为2 mm 时电解液压力损失最小,最有利于电解产物的排除,电解液排除顺畅。%Aiming at the situation of push force of ECM tool spindle because of the spred and inversion of gap flow field,and the scraped cathode because of burned working tooth in traditional electrolytic cathode rifling,a new cathode structure of large diameter,deep and mixing composite rife is designed,by which the electrolyte stream reverses inside,the gap is downsteam and the working tooth is replaceable. The simulation of flow field in the gap by the COMSOL shows that the pull downstream cathode is better than the traditional rifling cathode.Based upon this pull downstream cathode,the electrolyte pressure loss is less and the exclusion of the electrolytic products smoothly while the cathode is with the parameters of cone angle of 100°,the inclination of inclined hole of 50°and the return liquid hole diameter of 2 mm.

  12. [Experimental effect of a shot caused by 4.5 mm cartridges fired from a Norica Dragon air-rifle and a Walther PPK/S air-pistol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedra-Kaźmirska, Anna; Barzdo, Maciej; Kedzierski, Maciej; Szram, Stefan; Berent, Jarosław

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, according to the Weapons and Ammunition Act" an air weapon which has kinetic energy of fired projectiles below 17 J does not require registration and can be bought even on the Internet. Sport and recreational shooting with this weapon does not have to be performed in a special shooting-range, but can be carried on in an open terrain providing "particular caution" is exercised. In this study we presented experimental effects of shooting pneumatic weapons (Norica Dragon air-rifle and Walther PPK/S air-pistol) which had kinetic energy of fired projectiles below 17 J. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of shooting the above weapons at human soft tissues and thin bones of the temple region to empirically evaluate the degree of danger to health and life, which such shots can produce. We used 20% gelatine blocks at 10 degrees C, which were the model of human soft tissues, and fresh calf scapulas, which served as the models of the temporal bone of the human cranium. Before the experiment, we had evaluated the weight of all the projectiles and their initial velocity using a chronograph. By these measures, we calculated the kinetic energy of the fired missiles. After shooting, we estimated if projectiles of different shapes shot from air weapons characterized by different kinetic energy and from different distances penetrated the gelatine blocks and if the said missiles perforated the bones. We also measured the depth of missiles penetration in the gelatine blocks.

  13. Cigarette- and snus-modified association between unprotected exposure to noise from hunting rifle caliber weapons and high frequency hearing loss. A cross-sectional study among swedish hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Honeth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate in this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters if tobacco use modifies the previously observed association, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR, between unprotected exposure to impulse noise from hunting rifle caliber (HRC weapons and high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI. Settings and Design: A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted among Swedish sport hunters in 2012. Materials and Methods: The study was Internet-based and consisted of a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Results: In all, 202 hunters completed a questionnaire regarding the hearing test. Associations were modeled using Poisson regression. Current, daily use of tobacco was reported by 61 hunters (19 used cigarettes, 47 moist snuff, and 5 both. Tobacco users tended to be younger, fire more shots with HRC weapons, and report more hunting days. Their adjusted PR (1–6 unprotected HRC shots versus 0 was 3.2 (1.4–6.7, P < 0.01. Among the nonusers of tobacco, the corresponding PR was 1.3 (0.9–1.8, P = 0.18. P value for the interaction was 0.01. The importance of ear protection could not be quantified among hunters with HRC weapons because our data suggested that the HFHI outcome had led to changes in the use of such protection. Among hunters using weapons with less sound energy, however, no or sporadic use of hearing protection was linked to a 60% higher prevalence of HFHI, relative to habitual use. Conclusion: Tobacco use modifies the association between exposure to unprotected impulse noise from HRC weapons and the probability of having HFHI among susceptible hunters. The mechanisms remain to be clarified, but because the effect modification was apparent also among the users of smokeless tobacco, combustion products may not be critical for this effect.

  14. Ultraviolet-Visible and Fluorescence Analyses Reveal the Spatial and Seasonal Variability of Dissolved Organic Matter through the Vadose Zone to Groundwater at the Rifle, Colorado River Floodplain Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Gilbert, B.; Kim, Y.; Williams, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex and poorly understood mixture of natural organic compounds that play important roles in terrestrial C transport and biogeochemical cycles, and its reactivity makes it sensitive to seasonal variations and longer term climate change. As a component within the LBNL Science Focus Area 2.0, this study is designed to determine the spatial and temporal variability of DOM concentrations and characteristics throughout the vadose zone and groundwater within a semi-arid floodplain at Rifle, Colorado. Three sets of vertically stratified pore water samplers and wells were installed along a groundwater flow transect. These installations allowed acquisition of vertically- and temporally-resolved pore water samples from the vadose zone, capillary fringe, and saturated zone from April 2013 to May 2014. Ultraviolet-visible absorbance (UVA) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy are being applied to trace the changes in DOM characteristics. Initial results indicate that the aromatic C contents (%) of DOM vary with depth and season and exhibit patterns distinct from groundwater. EEM analysis identified fulvic- and humic-like substances as the major fluorescent components of DOM in pore water samples. The concentrations of fulvic- and humic-like matter decreases with depth within the vadose zone, and increases from Spring and Summer to Fall, then decreases in Winter. The trend is consistent with UVA results. Microbial by-product-like components in DOM show higher concentrations in the vadose zone, and decrease from Spring to Winter. Fulvic- and humic-like substances are the only detectable fluorophore components in the groundwater samples. The results from both UVA and EEM suggest that (1) aromatic C or fulvic- and humic-like matter are preferentially adsorbed within shallower sediments during transport; and (2) microbial transformations of DOM composition may occur in the vadose zone, particularly during late Spring

  15. Cigarette- and snus-modified association between unprotected exposure to noise from hunting rifle caliber weapons and high frequency hearing loss. A cross-sectional study among swedish hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeth, Louise; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Rosenhall, Ulf; Nyrén, Olof

    2016-01-01

    To investigate in this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters if tobacco use modifies the previously observed association, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), between unprotected exposure to impulse noise from hunting rifle caliber (HRC) weapons and high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted among Swedish sport hunters in 2012. The study was Internet-based and consisted of a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. In all, 202 hunters completed a questionnaire regarding the hearing test. Associations were modeled using Poisson regression. Current, daily use of tobacco was reported by 61 hunters (19 used cigarettes, 47 moist snuff, and 5 both). Tobacco users tended to be younger, fire more shots with HRC weapons, and report more hunting days. Their adjusted PR (1-6 unprotected HRC shots versus 0) was 3.2 (1.4-6.7), P < 0.01. Among the nonusers of tobacco, the corresponding PR was 1.3 (0.9-1.8), P = 0.18. P value for the interaction was 0.01. The importance of ear protection could not be quantified among hunters with HRC weapons because our data suggested that the HFHI outcome had led to changes in the use of such protection. Among hunters using weapons with less sound energy, however, no or sporadic use of hearing protection was linked to a 60% higher prevalence of HFHI, relative to habitual use. Tobacco use modifies the association between exposure to unprotected impulse noise from HRC weapons and the probability of having HFHI among susceptible hunters. The mechanisms remain to be clarified, but because the effect modification was apparent also among the users of smokeless tobacco, combustion products may not be critical for this effect.

  16. Technical Objective Document for Combat Clothing, Uniforms and Integrated Protective Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    greatest extent possible, current tooling , design, and manufacturing techniques with the new lightweight coposite materials. Prosedlightweihtt hebnets...M16 rifle compatibility. Initiation of Phase II hardware devopment . Initiation of detailed development of scenario for field operationaldewnstration

  17. Frontline Strategies of the National Rifle Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    editor of the NRA’s monthly newsletters “Freedom’s Voice” and the “The EVC Update,” as well as the weekly “Grassroots Alert”. Mr. Caroline’s detailed...responsibilities include: • recruiting, training and mobilization of over 320 Election Volunteer Coordinators ( EVCs ), • coordinating political...Election Volunteer Coordinators The continued training of the Election Volunteer Coordinators’ ( EVC ) gives the NRA a diverse source of influence by

  18. The ’Rakkasans’ Rifle & Headquarters Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Command and General Staff College,Combat Studies Institute,Fort...its ability to figure things out and apply a logical and methodical approach to everything. These two companies were completely different in nature, but...equal in their abilities to accomplish any given task. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as

  19. Canadian Ranger Rifle: Human Factors Requirements Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    nation building through programs such as the Junior Canadian Rangers ( JCR )6. Other tasks of the CR include providing local expertise, guidance, and...Requirements FN Fabrique Nationale HF Human Factors HSI Humansystems® Incorporated JCR Junior Canadian Rangers MOTS Military off the Shelf NATO...support the Junior Canadian Rangers ( JCR ) Program, which helps to achieve national and territorial goals through nation building. DEFICIENCY

  20. Engineering Design Handbook: Recoilless Rifle Weapon Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-15

    given A piezometric efficiency 1 of 0.5 yields, using values of peak acceleration based on Eq. 5-7. Eq. 5-6, 12 V, in. t5 -7) AL 112~j 12P#o. 5) where V...15000 1516 8134 3000 20000 917 7082 20000 1257 6063 30000 996 4054 0.50 1500 6000 1473 4017 0.60 1500 6000 993 393710000 954 2386 10000 658 2392 15000

  1. Texturas de los minerales del grupo de la sílice de la manifestación epitermal El Rifle-Hato Viejo, región de Moa: clasificación, descripción e implicaciones genéticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leduar Ramayo-Cortés

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la región de Moa, Cuba oriental, se localizan varias manifestaciones hidrotermales. Se trata de sistemas vetiformes y brechas hidrotermales con contenidos significativos de metales nobles. La manifestación hidrotermal El Rifle-Hato Viejo se destaca por su extensión, y está formada por brechas y vetas de cuarzo mineralizadas, vinculadas preferentemente a fracturas correspondientes al sistema de fallas NW-SE y se hospeda en rocas sedimentarias del Campaniense Tardío-Daniense. El estudio textural de los minerales del grupo de la sílice permitió el reconocimiento de varias texturas, las cuales fueron clasificadas en tres grupos: 1 texturas de crecimiento primario (calcedonia maciza, costriforme, en peine, cristales zonados, y maciza, 2 texturas de recristalización (mosaico, plumosa y llameante, y 3 texturas de reemplazo (en enrejado, paralelo y radiado. Sobre la base de este análisis se estableció la secuencia deposicional de los diferentes minerales del grupo de la sílice y se reveló la presencia de la paragénesis de alteración adularia-sericita, lo cual indicaría el desarrollo de un sistema epitermal de baja sulfuración. Estas texturas también se usaron para indicar el nivel de emplazamiento dentro del sistema epitermal; en este caso, el emplazamiento de la manifestación El Rifle-Hato Viejo se corresponde con el nivel intermedio o coloiforme-costriforme, el cual se encuentra por encima de la zona propicia para la deposición del oro, por lo que podría esperarse la presencia de contenidos más elevados en profundidad.

  2. Features of blunt wound in back of pig wearing composite armour hit by high speed microstomia Rifle bullet%高速小口径步枪弹致防弹衣后猪背部钝性损伤特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓霞; 赖西南; 王建民; 张波; 李冠桦; 黄艺峰; 苏正林; 王丽丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究某型高速小口径步枪弹(简称某步枪弹)致复合防弹衣保护下的长白猪背部钝性损伤的特点及力学机制.方法 17头长白猪随机数字表法分为实验组(n=9)、对照组(n=5)和压力测定组(n=3).实验组采用复合防弹衣(陶瓷防弹板+超高分子量聚乙烯)防护猪背部,以某步枪弹瞄准背部T8椎体射击防弹衣,观察射击前、后猪心率、动脉血压和血氧饱和度,检测脑电、心电;射击后6h活杀解剖,观察猪病理损伤特点.对照组除射击无弹头的等量弹药的空包弹外,余处理同实验组.压力测定组仅测定某步枪弹射击猪背部时局部压力.结果 实验组、压力测定组防弹衣均未击穿,步枪弹命中防弹衣瞬间,防弹衣后局部肌肉组织压力升高明显,猪心率、动脉收缩压、心电与对照组相比无明显变化,防弹衣后脊髓呈钝挫伤病理改变,心内膜、肺脏、肝脏、肾、脾脏轻度出血.结论某型高速小口径步枪弹击中猪背部复合防弹衣时,防弹衣虽未击穿,但防弹衣后脊髓及胸腹腔脏器组织存在不同程度钝性损伤,这可能与防弹衣快速变形造成的背部钝性撞击,局部压力升高有关.%Objective To investigate the features of back wounds and mechanical mechanism of experimental pigs protected by composite armour hit by high speed microstomia Rifle bullet. Methods A total of 17 pigs were randomly divided into experimental group (re = 9) , control group (n = 5 ) and pressure testing group ( n = 3 ) . Pigs of the experimental group adopt composite armour ( ceramic bulletproof plates + ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene) to protect their back and get shoot by high speed microstomia Rifle bullets aim at T8 back centrum vertebrae. Control group received same procedures as experimental group except shooting e-quivalence cartridge without bullet. Pressure test group was used to measure local timely pressure shooting by Rifle bullet. The pigs

  3. Gunshot wounds: A review of ballistics related to penetrating trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis K. Stefanopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Civilian gunshot injuries from handgun and rifle ammunition vary in severity depending on the anatomic location involved and the different effects from the ballistic properties of the penetrating projectiles. Ballistic factors such as the impact velocity and energy should not be considered in isolation, as their specific effects are determined by the interaction between the projectile and tissues. Increased tissue damage can result from tumbling of non-deforming rifle bullets and deformation of expanding bullets. Both of these mechanisms increase substantially the energy transfer to the wound and its diameter, also producing a pulsating temporary cavity associated with pressure changes within tissue.

  4. Re-Viewing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits her essay, "Students as Readers of Their Classmates' Writing," by providing a review of the literature on peer review over the past three decades and comments on patterns she sees in waves of peer review research and theorizing. She describes her subsequent experience with peer review in her own classes, and…

  5. Book Review: Book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, C. S.

    2015-02-01

    The subject of the theory of vibrations has carried an aesthetic appeal to generations of engineering students for its richness of ideas, and for the intellectual challenges it offers. Also, the diverse range of its applications (covering civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace structures) has provided obvious motivations for its study. For most students, the subject provides, perhaps, the first encounter in substantial application of mathematical tools (differential equations, calculus of variations, Fourier/Laplace transforms, and matrix algebra) to engineering problems. The intimate relationship that the subject of mechanics has with mathematics strikes home probably for the first time. While teaching this subject, the instructor is spoilt for choice in selecting a text book and so are the students who wish to pursue a self-study of the subject. Many luminaries in the field have offered their own exposition of the subject: starting from the classics of Rayleigh, Timoshenko, Den Hartog, Bishop and Johnson, and the works of more recent vintage (e.g., the books by Meirovich, Clough, and Penzien, and works with computational flavour, such as, those by Bathe and Petyt), several works easily come to one's mind. Given this milieu, it requires a distinctive conviction to write a new book on this subject. And, here we have a book, written by a practitioner, which aims to deal with fundamental aspects of vibrations of engineering systems. The scepticism that this reviewer had on the need for having one more such book vanished as he browsed through the book and read selectively a few sections. The author's gift for elegant explanations is immediately noticeable even in such a preliminary reading. After a more careful reading, the reviewer has found this book to be insightful and he considers the book to be a welcome addition to the family of books on vibration engineering. The author has struck a fine balance between physical explanations, mathematical niceties

  6. Curriculum Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Joseph P.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews "Earthquakes and Volcanoes" (grades 3-6), "Metric Football" (a game), and "Happy Metrics I and II" (grades 4-6). Includes format, nature of activities, source, price, and reviewer's comments. (JN)

  7. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews software packages by providing extensive descriptions and discussions of their strengths and weaknesses. Software reviewed include (1) "VISIFROG: Vertebrate Anatomy" (grade seven-adult); (2) "Fraction Bars Computer Program" (grades three to six) and (3) four telecommunications utilities. (JN)

  8. Research Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous,

    1983-01-01

    Research Reviewed: "The Adjustment of Nominal Interest Rates to Inflation: A Review of Recent Literature"; "Role of Government in a Market Economy"; "Economic Analysis and Agricultural Policy"; "Agricultural Research Policy"

  9. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Martin C.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews TIGERS IN THE SNOW: THE BATTLE OF THE BULGE (Strategic Simulations),and the BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG (Softwride). Each narrative review describes the hardware required and provides complete ordering information. (JDH)

  10. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Create Dangerously: The Immigrant Artist at Work, by Edwidge Danticat (reviewed by Colin Dayan Gordon K. Lewis on Race, Class and Ideology in the Caribbean, edited by Anthony P. Maingot (reviewed by Bridget Brereton Freedom and Constraint in Caribbean Migration and Diaspora, edited by Elizabeth Thomas-Hope (reviewed by Mary Chamberlain Black Europe and the African Diaspora, edited by Darlene Clark Hine, Trica Danielle Keaton & Stephen Small (reviewed by Gert Oostindie Caribbean Middlebrow: Leisure Culture and the Middle Class, by Belinda E dmondson (reviewed by Karla Slocum Global Change and Caribbean Vulnerability: Environment, Economy and Society at Risk, edited by Duncan McGregor, David Dodman & David Barker (reviewed by Bonham C. Richardson Encountering Revolution: Haiti and the Making of the Early Republic, by Ashli White (reviewed by Matt Clavin Red and Black in Haiti: Radicalism, Conflict, and Political Change, 1934-1957, by Matthew J. Smith (reviewed by Robert Fatton Jr. Cuba in the American Imagination: Metaphor and the Imperial Ethos, by Louis A. Pérez Jr. (reviewed by Camillia Cowling Seeds of Insurrection: Domination and Resistance on Western Cuban Plantations, 1808-1848, by Manuel Barcia (reviewed by Matt D. Childs Epidemic Invasions: Yellow Fever and the Limits of Cuban Independence, 1878-1930, by Mariola Espinosa (reviewed by Cruz Maria Nazario The Cuban Connection: Drug Trafficking, Smuggling, and Gambling in Cuba from the 1920s to the Revolution, by Eduardo Sáenz Rovner (reviewed by Ivelaw Lloyd Griffith Before Fidel: The Cuba I Remember, by Francisco José Moreno, and The Boys from Dolores: Fidel Castro’s Schoolmates from Revolution to Exile, by Patrick Symmes (reviewed by Pedro Pérez Sarduy Lam, by Jacques Leenhardt & Jean-Louis Paudrat (reviewed by Sally Price Healing Dramas: Divination and Magic in Modern Puerto Rico, by Raquel Romberg (reviewed by Grant Jewell

  11. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Abdel-Motey., C. Urfels., K. Rodriguez., J. Mardikian., J.A. Drobnicki., V. Diodato.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Title:(1 The Library and Information Professional’s Guide to the Internet. (2 Reinvention of the Public Library for the 21st Century. (3 Public Library Collection Development in the Information Age. (4 Making Sense of Journals in the Life Science: From Specialty Origins to Contemporary Assortment. (5 The Holocaust: Memories, Research, Reference. (6 How to Index Your Local Newspaper Using WordPerfect or Microsoft Word for Windows. (7 Effective Utilization and Management of Emerging Information Technologies. (8 Information Technology and Organizations: Challenges of New Technologies. (9 Facilities Planning for School Media and Technology Centers. (10 Libraries Without Walls 2: The Delivery of Library Services to Distance Users. (11 New International Directions in HIV Prevention for Gay and Bisexual Men. (12 Soaring to Excellence Videos: Tools of Our Trade III: Books, the Internet, and Beyond.Author:(1Reviewed by Teresa Abdel-Motey. (2Review by Claire Urfels. (3Reviewed by Dr. Ketty Rodriguez. (4Reviewed by Jackie Mardikian. (5Reviewed by John A. Drobnicki.(6Reviewed by Dr. Virgil Diodato. (7Reviewed by Dr. Lisa M. Covi. (8Reviewed by Tom Zillner. (9Reviewed by Dr. W. Bernard Lukenbill. (10Reviewed by Dr. Elizabeth Buchanan. (11Reviewed by Aisha White. (12Reviewed by Phyllis Tragash

  12. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The African Diaspora: A History Through Culture, by Patrick Manning (reviewed by Joseph C. Miller Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, by David Eltis & David Richardson (reviewed by Ted Maris-Wolf Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery, by Seymour Drescher (reviewed by Gregory E. O’Malley Paths to Freedom: Manumission in the Atlantic World, edited by Rosemary Brana-Shute & Randy J. Sparks (reviewed by Matthew Mason You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery, by Jeremy D. Popkin (reviewed by Philippe R. Girard Fighting for Honor: The History of African Martial Arts in the Atlantic World, by T .J. Desch Obi (reviewed by Flávio Gomes & Antonio Liberac Cardoso Simões Pires Working the Diaspora: The Impact of African Labor on the Anglo-American World, 1650-1850, by Frederick C. Knight (reviewed by Walter Hawthorne The Akan Diaspora in the Americas, by Kwasi Konadu (reviewed by Ray Kea Tradition and the Black Atlantic: Critical Theory in the African Diaspora, by Henry Louis Gates Jr. (reviewed by Deborah A. Thomas From Africa to Jamaica: The Making of an Atlantic Slave Society, 1775-1807, by Audra A. Diptee (reviewed by D.A. Dunkley Elections, Violence and the Democratic Process in Jamaica 1944-2007, by Amanda Sives (reviewed by Douglas Midgett Caciques and Cemi Idols: The Web Spun by Taino Rulers between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, by José R. Oliver (reviewed by Brian D. Bates The Latin American Identity and the African Diaspora: Ethnogenesis in Context, by Antonio Olliz Boyd (reviewed by Dawn F. Stinchcomb Reconstructing Racial Identity and the African Past in the Dominican Republic, by Kimberly Eison Simmons (reviewed by Ginetta E.B. Candelario Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora in the Wider Caribbean, edited by Philippe Zacaïr (reviewed by Catherine Benoît Duvalier’s Ghosts: Race, Diaspora, and U.S. Imperialism in Haitian Literatures, by Jana

  13. Lead exposure at firing ranges-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel; Mielke, Howard; Gulson, Brian; Ball, Andrew S

    2017-04-04

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic substance with well-known, multiple, long-term, adverse health outcomes. Shooting guns at firing ranges is an occupational necessity for security personnel, police officers, members of the military, and increasingly a recreational activity by the public. In the United States alone, an estimated 16,000-18,000 firing ranges exist. Discharge of Pb dust and gases is a consequence of shooting guns. The objectives of this study are to review the literature on blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential adverse health effects associated with the shooting population. The search terms "blood lead", "lead poisoning", "lead exposure", "marksmen", "firearms", "shooting", "guns", "rifles" and "firing ranges" were used in the search engines Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct to identify studies that described BLLs in association with firearm use and health effects associated with shooting activities. Thirty-six articles were reviewed that included BLLs from shooters at firing ranges. In 31 studies BLLs > 10 μg/dL were reported in some shooters, 18 studies reported BLLs > 20 μg/dL, 17 studies > 30 μg/d, and 15 studies BLLs > 40 μg/dL. The literature indicates that BLLs in shooters are associated with Pb aerosol discharge from guns and air Pb at firing ranges, number of bullets discharged, and the caliber of weapon fired. Shooting at firing ranges results in the discharge of Pb dust, elevated BLLs, and exposures that are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. Women and children are among recreational shooters at special risk and they do not receive the same health protections as occupational users of firing ranges. Nearly all BLL measurements compiled in the reviewed studies exceed the current reference level of 5 μg/dL recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (CDC/NIOSH). Thus firing ranges, regardless of type and user classification

  14. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic World, 1450-2000, edited by Toyin Falola & Kevin D. Roberts (reviewed by Aaron Spencer Fogleman The Slave Ship: A Human History, by Marcus Rediker (reviewed by Justin Roberts Extending the Frontiers: Essays on the New Transatlantic Slave Trade Database, edited by David Eltis & David Richardson (reviewed by Joseph C. Miller "New Negroes from Africa": Slave Trade Abolition and Free African Settlement in the Nineteenth-Century Caribbean, by Rosanne Marion Adderley (reviewed by Nicolette Bethel Atlantic Diasporas: Jews, Conversos, and Crypto-Jews in the Age of Mercantilism, 1500-1800, edited by Richard L. Kagan & Philip D. Morgan (reviewed by Jonathan Schorsch Brother’s Keeper: The United States, Race, and Empire in the British Caribbean, 1937-1962, by Jason C. Parker (reviewed by Charlie Whitham Labour and the Multiracial Project in the Caribbean: Its History and Promise, by Sara Abraham (reviewed by Douglas Midgett Envisioning Caribbean Futures: Jamaican Perspectives, by Brian Meeks (reviewed by Gina Athena Ulysse Archibald Monteath: Igbo, Jamaican, Moravian, by Maureen Warner-Lewis (reviewed by Jon Sensbach Left of Karl Marx: The Political Life of Black Communist Claudia Jones, by Carole Boyce Davies (reviewed by Linden Lewis Displacements and Transformations in Caribbean Cultures, edited by Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert & Ivette Romero-Cesareo (reviewed by Bill Maurer Caribbean Migration to Western Europe and the United States: Essays on Incorporation, Identity, and Citizenship, edited by Margarita Cervantes-Rodríguez, Ramón Grosfoguel & Eric Mielants (reviewed by Gert Oostindie Home Cooking in the Global Village: Caribbean Food from Buccaneers to Ecotourists, by Richard Wilk (reviewed by William H. Fisher Dead Man in Paradise: Unraveling a Murder from a Time of Revolution, by J.B. MacKinnon (reviewed by Edward Paulino Tropical Zion: General Trujillo, FDR, and the Jews of Sos

  15. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and the Po st-Creole Imagination: Notes on Fleeing the Plantation,by Michaeline A. Crichlow with Patricia Northover (reviewed by Raquel Romberg Afro-Caribbean Religions: An Introduction to their Historical, Cultural, and Sacred Traditions, by Nathaniel Samuel Murrell (reviewed by James Houk Africas of the Americas: Beyond the Search for Origins in the Study of Afro-Atlantic Religions, edited by Stephan Palmié (reviewed by Aisha Khan Òrì?à Devotion as World Religion: The Globalization of Yorùbá Religious Culture, edited by Jacob K. Olupona & Terry Rey (reviewed by Brian Brazeal Sacred Spaces and Religious Traditions in Oriente Cuba, by Jualynne E. Dodson (reviewed by Kristina Wirtz The Coolie Speaks: Chinese Indentured Laborers and African Slaves of Cuba, by Lisa Yun (reviewed by W. Look Lai Cuba and Western Intellectuals since 1959, by Kepa Artaraz (reviewed by Anthony P. Maingot Inside El Barrio: A Bottom-Up View of Neighborhood Life in Castro’s Cuba, by Henry Louis Taylor, Jr. (reviewed by Mona Rosendahl On Location in Cuba: Street Filmmaking During Times of Transition, by Ann Marie Stock (reviewed by Cristina Venegas Cuba in The Special Period: Culture and Ideology in the 1990s, edited by Ariana Hernandez-Reguant (reviewed by Myrna García-Calderón The Cubans of Union City: Immigrants and Exiles in a New Jersey Community. Yolanda Prieto (reviewed by Jorge Duany Target Culebra: How 743 Islanders Took On the Entire U.S. Navy and Won, by Richard D. Copaken (reviewed by Jorge Rodríguez Beruff The World of the Haitian Revolution, edited by David Patrick Geggus & Norman Fiering (reviewed by Yvonne Fabella Bon Papa: Haiti’s Golden Years, by Bernard Diederich (reviewed by Robert Fatton, Jr. 1959: The Year that Inflamed the Caribbean, by Bernard Diederich (reviewed by Landon Yarrington Dominican Cultures: The Making of a Caribbean Society, edited by Bernardo Vega

  16. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Book Review Editor, Christien Klaufus

    2015-01-01

    Rebel Mexico: Student Unrest and Authoritarian Political Culture During the Long Sixties, by Jaime M. Pensado, 2013, and Specters of Revolution: Peasant Guerrillas in the Cold War Mexican Countryside, by Alexander Aviña, 2014; reviewed by Wil G. PanstersWe are the face of Oaxaca: Testimony and Social Movements, by Lynn Stephen, 2013; reviewed by Jaime HoogestegerMaya Exodus: Indigenous struggle for citizenship in Chiapas, by Heidi Moksnes, 2012; reviewed by Gemma van der HaarLand and Freedom:...

  17. Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaij, H; Oussedik, S; Hoffmeyer, P

    2014-04-01

    The maintenance of quality and integrity in clinical and basic science research depends upon peer review. This process has stood the test of time and has evolved to meet increasing work loads, and ways of detecting fraud in the scientific community. However, in the 21st century, the emphasis on evidence-based medicine and good science has placed pressure on the ways in which the peer review system is used by most journals. This paper reviews the peer review system and the problems it faces in the digital age, and proposes possible solutions.

  18. Research Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1981-01-01

    Research Reviewed: "Global Modeling After Its First Decade"; "Monthly Food Price Forecasts"; "Costs of Marketing Slaughter Cattle: Computerized versus Conventional Auction Systems"; "Survival Strategies for Agricultural Cooperatives"

  19. Proactive Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    . Valid feedback from various stakeholders improved the original design of After Action Reviews into Proactive Reviews, which is helpful for local as well as global companies to learn from experience. The educational design started with personal experience that was shared with colleagues who cooperated...... with solving a task. They found improved ways of doing the job and identified management challenges. They shared their experience with colleagues who did not attend the Proactive Review and addressed the management challenges to the senior management. Proactive Reviews were reported 50-100 times a year...

  20. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus, Book Review Editor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available American Crossings: Border Politics in the Western Hemisphere, edited by Maiah Jaskoski, Arturo C. Sotomayor & Harold A. Trinkunas, 2015; reviewed by Olivier Thomas Kramsch The Remittance Landscape: Spaces of Migration in Rural Mexico and Urban USA, by Sarah Lynn Lopez, 2015; reviewed by Christien Klaufus Latin America’s Emerging Middle Classes; Economic Perspectives, editado por Jeff Dayton-Johnson, 2015; reseñado por Ludolfo Paramio Cities, Business and the Politics of Urban Violence in Latin America, by Eduardo Moncada,2016; reviewed by Gerard Martin Who Counts? The Mathematics of Death and Life after Genocide, by Diane Nelson, 2015; reviewed by Finn Stepputat Owners of the Sidewalk: Security and Survival in the Informal City, by Daniel Goldstein, 2015; reviewed by Griet Steel Beyond Tradition, Beyond Invention: Cosmic Technologies and Creativity in Contemporary Afro-Cuban Religions, edited by Diana Espírito Santo and Anastasios Panagiotopoulos, 2015; reviewed by Ken Chitwood Cuba and the U.S. Empire. A Chronological History, by Jane Franklin, 2016; reviewed by Edgar Göll Haydée Santamaría, Cuban Revolutionary: She Led by Transgression, by Margaret Randall, 2015; Vilma Espín Guillois: el fuego de la libertad, by Yolanda Ferrer Gómez and Carolina Aguilar Ayerra, 2015; reviewed by Dirk Kruijt Revolutionary Ideology and Political Destiny in Mexico, 1928-1934: Lázaro Cárdenas and Adalberto Tejeda, by Eitan Ginzberg, 2015; reviewed by Heather Fowler-Salamini Political Landscapes: Forest, Conservation and Community in Mexico, by Christopher R. Boyer, 2015; reviewed by Mariel Aguilar-Støen A Sentimental Education for the Working Man. The Mexico City Penny Press, 1900-1910, por Robert M. Buffington, 2015; reseñado por Lucas Poy Pesos and Politics: Business, Elites, Foreigners and Government in Mexico, 1854-1940, by Mark Wasserman, 2015; reviewed by Benedicte Bull State Theory and Andean Politics: New Approaches to the Study

  1. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Book Review Editor, Barbara Hogenboom

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rethinking Latin America: Development, Hegemony, and Social Transformation, by Ronaldo Munck (2013; reviewed by Peadar Kirby The Long, Lingering Shadow. Slavery, Race and Law in the American Hemisphere, by Robert J. Cottrol (2013; reviewed by Guno Jones Centering Animals in Latin American History, edited by Martha Few and Zeb Tortorici (2013; reviewed by Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger and Dannieli Firme Herbst River of Hope. Forging Identity and Nation in the Rio Grande Borderlands, by Omar S. Valério-Jiménez (2013; reviewed by Raymond Buve Enabling Peace in Guatemala: The Story of MINUGUA, by William Stanley (2013; reviewed by Dirk Kruijt Governing Indigenous Territories: Enacting Sovereignty in the Ecuadorian Amazon, by Juliet Erazo (2013; reviewed by Veronica Davidov Transnational Activism and National Movements in Latin America: Bridging the Divide, edited by Eduardo Silva (2013; reviewed by Roberta Rice Haiti’s New Dictatorship: The Coup, the Earthquake and the UN Occupation, by Justin Podur (2012; reviewed by Talitha Stam Cuba under Raúl Castro: Assessing the Reforms, por Carmelo Mesa-Lago y Jorge Pérez-López (2013; Cuban Economists on the Cuban Economy, editado por Al Campbell (2013; reseñado por Pablo Ospina Peralta Trumpets in the Mountains: Theater and the Politics of National Culture in Cuba, by Laurie A. Frederik (2012; reviewed by Jacqueline Loss Devoted to Death: Santa Muerte, the Skeleton Saint, by R. Andrew Chesnut (2012; reviewed by José Carlos G. Aguiar Foodscapes, Foodfields and Identities in Yucatán, by Steffan Igor Ayora-Diaz (2012; reviewed by Ester Katz

  2. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1992-01-01

    studies. New Haven, 1990. xiii + 369 pp., W.J. O’Malley, A. Weidemann (eds. - Gisele de Meur, F. Tjon Sie Fat, Representing kinship; Simple models of elementary structures. 1990. (Doctoral thesis. Leiden, published by the author. - Toon van Meijl, Maurice Godelier, Big men and great men; Personifications of power in Melanesia, Cambridge/Paris: Cambridge University Press/Editions de la maison des sciences de l’Homme, 1991, xviii, 328 pp., maps, tables, figures, bibliography, index., Marilyn Strathern (eds. - J.A. de Moor, B.A. Hussainmiya, Orang rejimen; The Malays of the Ceylon rifle regiment. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1990, 185 pp. - Pieter Muysken, J.M.W. Verhaar, Melanesian pidgin and tok pisin; Studies in language companion series 20. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1990, xiv + 409 pp. - Niels Mulder, Paul Voogt, Thailand. Amsterdam/’s-Gravenhage: Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen/NOVIB, 1991. 70 pp. + kaart, slappe kaft., Han ten Brummelhuis, Irene Stengs (eds. - Ton van Naerssen, George Cho, The Malaysian economy; Spatial perspectives. London: Routledge. 1990, 300 pp. - Julianti Parani, J.R. van Diessen, Jakarta/Batavia. Het centrum van het Nederlandse koloniale rijk in Azië en zijn cultuurhistorische nalatenschap. Cantecleer Kunst - Reisgidsen. De Bilt: Cantecleer, 1989. 343 pp. - A. Ploeg, Christopher J. Healey, Pioneers of the mountain forest, University of Sydney, 1985, Oceania Monographs no. 29, v + 64 pp., plates, figures, maps. - Els Postel-Coster, Carla Risseeuw, The fish don’t talk about the water; Gender transformation, power and resistance among women in Sri Lanka, Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1988, 415 pp., also published as Gender transformation, power and resistance among women in Sri Lanka; The fish don’t speak about the water, New Delhi: Manohar Book service, 1991. Ca. 400 pp., - Willem van Schendel, Mya Tan, Myanmar dilemmas and options; The challenge of economic transition in the 1990’s. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies, 1990

  3. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Reviews two textbooks: "Principles of Biochemistry" by Albert L. Lehninger and "Inorganic Chemistry, A Modern Introduction" by Therald Moeller. Also reviews text, study guide, and laboratory manual for Morris Hein's "Foundations of College Chemistry, Fifth Edition" and text/study guide for David A. Ucko's "Basics for Chemistry." (JN)

  4. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powicke, J. C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews of 10 recent books and one new journal ("Catalyst: A Journal of Policy Debate") are provided. Topics of the books reviewed include: economics in modern Britain, world economics, the mixed economy, Milton Friedman's thought, British industry, economic issues, and London as a financial center. (JDH)

  5. BOOK REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Review article:Alain SCHNAPP et al.(eds.).2014.World Antiquarianism.Comparative Perspectives.Los Angeles:Getty Research Institute.ISBN:978-1-60606-148-0,pp.464,23 color and 81 b/w illustrations,4 maps,$60.Reviewed by Sven Günther,Institute for the History of Ancient Civilizations,

  6. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Book Review Editor, Christien Klaufus

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rebel Mexico: Student Unrest and Authoritarian Political Culture During the Long Sixties, by Jaime M. Pensado, 2013, and Specters of Revolution: Peasant Guerrillas in the Cold War Mexican Countryside, by Alexander Aviña, 2014; reviewed by Wil G. PanstersWe are the face of Oaxaca: Testimony and Social Movements, by Lynn Stephen, 2013; reviewed by Jaime HoogestegerMaya Exodus: Indigenous struggle for citizenship in Chiapas, by Heidi Moksnes, 2012; reviewed by Gemma van der HaarLand and Freedom: The MST, the Zapatistas and Peasant Alternatives to Neoliberalism, by Leandro Vergara-Camus, 2014; reviewed by Jonathan DeVoreIndigenous Movements and Building the Plurinational State in Bolivia: Organisation and Identity in the Trajectory of the CSUTCB and CONAMAQ, by Radosław Powęska, 2013; reviewed by Ton SalmanMovimientos estudiantiles en la historia de América Latina IV, coordinado por Renate Marsiske, 2015; reseñado por Andrés Donoso RomoEl corazón de los libros, Alzate y Bartolache: Lectores y escritores novohispanos (S. XVIII, by Mauricio Sánchez Menchero, 2012; reviewed by Helge WendtAurality: Listening and Knowledge in Nineteenth-Century Colombia, por Ana María Ochoa Gautier, 2014; reseñado por Mercedes López RodríguezThe Vanguard of the Atlantic World: Creating Modernity, Nation, and Democracy in Nineteenth-Century Latin America, by James E. Sanders, 2014; reviewed by Michiel BaudMexico’s Once and Future Revolution: Social Upheaval and the Challenge of Rule since the Late Nineteenth Century, by Gilbert M. Joseph and Jürgen Buchenau, 2013; reviewed by Dirk KruijtThe Great Depression in Latin America, coordinado por Paulo Drinot and Alan Knight, 2014; reseñado por Juan Carlos KorolEnhancing Democracy. Public Policies and Citizen Participation in Chile, by Gonzalo Delamaza, 2014; reviewed by Camila Jara IbarraCritical Interventions in Caribbean Politics and Theory, by Brian Meeks, 2014; reviewed by Hebe VerrestBlack Power in the

  7. Proactive Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how a world leading IT-company developed and implemented an innovative and simple educational design for organizational learning called Proactive Review, which was inspired by the thoughts of Senge, Nonaka, & Takeuchi and Cole & Engeström and explored as Design Based Research....... Valid feedback from various stakeholders improved the original design of After Action Reviews into Proactive Reviews, which is helpful for local as well as global companies to learn from experience. The educational design started with personal experience that was shared with colleagues who cooperated...... with solving a task. They found improved ways of doing the job and identified management challenges. They shared their experience with colleagues who did not attend the Proactive Review and addressed the management challenges to the senior management. Proactive Reviews were reported 50-100 times a year...

  8. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience...... with systematic review is used to develop didactic practice end evidence based teaching in different part of the education. Findings: The poster will present how teacher’s training and experiences with systematic review contribute to the nursing education in relation to didactic, research methodology and patient...... sources of evidence influence EBP. Furthermore teachers skills in systematic review will be used to develop systematic reviews on topics in the education where there aren’t any in order to promote Evidence Based Teaching....

  9. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are three computer software packages including "Martin Luther King, Jr.: Instant Replay of History,""Weeds to Trees," and "The New Print Shop, School Edition." Discussed are hardware requirements, costs, grade levels, availability, emphasis, strengths, and weaknesses. (CW)

  10. Film Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  11. Reviews: Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Bretta; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews three books: "The Schoolhome: Rethinking Schools for Changing Families," by Jane Martin; "Godly Play," by Jerome Berryman; and "Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth," by Margulis and Schwartz. (TJQ)

  12. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews seven computer software programs that can be used in science education programs. Describes courseware which deals with muscles and bones, terminology, classifying animals without backbones, molecular structures, drugs, genetics, and shaping the earth's surface. (TW)

  13. Proactive Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    This chapter will explore how to learn from working experience through the use of an educational approach called Proactive Review. From 2005 to 2012, Proactive Review was developed and implemented in a world-class IT company based in more than 40 countries across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa....... This chapter will include some of the theoretical considerations as well as the final educational design for a Proactive Review, as exemplified in a case study from the IT company. The aim of this chapter is to provide a theoretically based and proven educational design for Lessons Learned, including...... recommendations for successful Proactive Reviews. The theory section will explore theories regarding the following two topics: first, how an organization may understand the term “learning”; and second, the starting point of learning and how an organization may maintain a learning environment. The research...

  14. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  15. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Book Review Editor, Barbara Hogenboom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Economic History of the Caribbean since the Napoleonic Wars, by Victor Bulmer-Thomas (2012; reviewed by Gert OostindieSubjects or Citizens: British Caribbean Workers in Cuba, 1900-1960, by Robert Whitney and Graciela Chailloux Laffita (2013; reviewed by Rose Mary AllenDebating Civil-Military Relations in Latin America, editado por David Mares y Rafael Martínez (2014; reseñado por Raul Benitez-ManautComparative Public Policy in Latin America, editado por Jordi Díez y Susan Franceschet (2012; reseñado por Gonzalo DelamazaEntre el desarrollo y el buen vivir. Recursos naturales y conflictos en los territorios indígenas, editado por José Aylwin, Salvador Martí i Puig, Claire Wright y Nancy Yañez (2013; reviewed by Almut Schilling-VacaflorDignity for the Voiceless. Willem Assies’s Anthropological Work in Context, editado por Ton Salman, Salvador Martí i Puig, y Gemma van der Haar (2014; reseñado por Ricardo Calla OrtegaDemocracy in ‘Two Mexicos’; Political Institutions in Oaxaca and Nuevo León, by Guadelupe Correa-Cabrera (2013; reviewed by Jos BartmanWhere the River Ends, by Shaylih Muehlmann (2013; reviewed by Maria L. Cruz-TorresKnowing History in Mexico. An ethnography of Citizenship, by Trevor Stack (2012; reviewed by Raymond BuveFor God and Revolution. Priest, Peasant, and Agrarian Socialism in the Mexican Huasteca, por Mark Saad Saka( 2013; reseñado por Antonio Escobar OhmstedeWorking Women, Entrepreneurs, and the Mexican Revolution: the Coffee Culture of Córdoba, Veracruz, by Heather Fowler-Salamini (2013; reviewed by Robert F. AlegreWar by Other Means. Aftermath in Post-Genocide Guatemala, edited by Carlota McAlister and Diana Nelson (2013; reviewed by Dirk KruijtLucha revolucionaria. Perú, 1958-1967, por Jan Lust (2013; reseñado por Dirk KruijtWomen in War. The Micro-Processes of Mobilization in El Salvador, by Jocelyn Viterna (2013; reviewed by Ralph SprenkelsZero Hunger: Political Culture and Antipoverty Policy in

  16. Graphic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Introduktion til 'graphic review' som en metode til at føre forståelse fra en undervisngsgang til den næste i læreruddannelse og grundskole.......Introduktion til 'graphic review' som en metode til at føre forståelse fra en undervisngsgang til den næste i læreruddannelse og grundskole....

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Clapham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This publication includes reviews of the following books:The Horn of Africa by Kidane Mengisteab. Cambridge: Polity, 2014. £15.99 (pbk.. Pp. 240+index. ISBN: 9780745651217. Review by Christopher Clapham. Ethiopia: the last two frontiers by John Markakis. Woodbridge: James Currey, 2011. Pp. 399. $34.95 (pbk.. ISBN: 9781847010742. Review by Christopher Clapham.Regime change and succession politics in Africa: five decades of misrule, edited by Maurice Nyamanga Amutabi and Shadrack Wanjala Nasong’o. New York and London: Routledge, 2013. Pp. 237+bibliography+index, £80.00 (hbk. ISBN13: 9780415534086. Review by Tim Kelsall.China’s resource diplomacy in Africa: powering development? by Marcus Power, Giles Mohan and May-Tan Mullins. New York and Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2012. Pp. 329 + xix, £63 (hbk.. ISBN: 9780230229129. Review by Pádraig Carmody.Dealing with government in South Sudan: histories of chiefship, community and state by Cherry Leonardi. Suffolk: James Currey (Eastern African Series, 2013. Pp. 224 + notes + bibliography + index. £45.00 (hbk. ISBN: 9781847010674. Review by Jonathan Fisher. 

  18. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus, Book Review Editor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Improbable Conquest: Sixteenth Century Letters from the Rio de la Plata, por Pablo García Loaeza y Victoria L. Garrett, 2015; reseñado por Judith Farberman Urban Space as Heritage in Late Colonial Cuba: Classicism and Dissonance on the Plaza de Armas of Havana: 1754-1828, by Paul Niell, 2015; reviewed by Joseph L. Scarpaci El Jefe Político. Un dominio negociando en el mundo rural del Estado de México. 1856-1911, por Romana Falcón, 2015; reseñado por Raymond Buve Miedo negro, poder blanco en la Cuba colonial, por Jorge Camacho, 2015; reseñado por Oleski Miranda Navarro Revolutionary Parks: Conservation, Social Justice, and Mexico’s National Parks, 1910-1940, by Emily Wakild, 2011; reviewed by Grant Burrier Sandino’s Nation: Ernesto Cardenal and Sergio Ramírez Writing Nicaragua, 1940-2012, by Stephen Henighan, 2014; reviewed by Grace A. Gomashie La cancha peronista. Fútbol y política (1946-1955, edited by Raanan Rein, 2015; reviewed by Alexis Sossa Rojas Chile y la Guerra Fría global, edited by Tanya Harmer and Alfredo Riquelme Segovia, 2014; reviewed by Ángela Vergara Challenging Social Inequality: The Landless Rural Workers Movement and Agrarian Reform in Brazil, edited by M. Carter, 2015; reviewed by Rebecca Tarlau Brazil: Reversal of Fortune, by Alfred P. Montero, 2014; reviewed by Edgar J. Marcolin Latin American Documentary Filmmaking – Major works, by David William Foster, 2013; reviewed by Leontien Cremers Telling and Being told: Storytelling and Cultural Control in Contemporary Yucatec Maya Literatures, por Paul Worley, 2013; reseñado por Ana Ugarte Bachata and Dominican Identity/La bachata y la identidad dominicana, by Julie Sellers, 2014; reviewed by Grant D. Moss Entrepreneurial Selves: Neoliberal Respectability and the Making of a Caribbean Middle Class, by Carla Freeman, 2014; reviewed by Emiel Martens

  19. Ballistics of the 30-06 Rifle Cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    www.hodgdon.com/PDF/Youth%20Loads.pdf. 14. Endris, Graham. DETAIL SPECIFICATION CARTRIDGE,.300 WINCHESTER MAGNUM MATCH, MK 248 MOD 1 DODIC AB43...Jason T. Gomez and Arun Shukla November 2001, pp. 965-979. 10, November 2001, International Journal of Impact Engineering, Vol. 25, pp. 965-979

  20. Basic Rifle Marksmanship Test: Cadre Pretest and Posttest Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    group" do not provide suffi- cient infcrmation for a trainee to modify his own behavior. Further, excessive use of negative reinforcement and...yelled at" and "Not enough individual attention [is] given to firers .... . Negative reinforcement and punishment are two training procedures that use...sversive stimuli as feedback. In negative reinforcement , be- haviors producing escape from an aversive stimulus (e.g., yelling) are strengthened. Thus

  1. Science Curriculum: Shot-Gun or Rifle Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur DeW.; Hatton, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Stating that the shotgun approach to the science curriculum which has evolved for general education purposes is inappropriate for occupational programs, the authors report on research to evaluate the science curriculum for relevance to skills needed in various occupations. (MF)

  2. Magnetic cannon: The physics of the Gauss rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Arsène; Besserve, Pauline; Caussarieu, Aude; Taberlet, Nicolas; Plihon, Nicolas

    2017-07-01

    The magnetic cannon is a simple device that converts magnetic energy into kinetic energy. When a steel ball with low initial velocity impacts a chain consisting of a magnet followed by addition steel balls, the last ball in the chain gets ejected at a much larger velocity. The analysis of this spectacular device involves an understanding of advanced magnetostatics, energy conversion, and the collision of solids. In this article, the phenomena at each step of the process are modeled to predict the final kinetic energy of the ejected ball as a function of a few parameters that can be experimentally measured.

  3. Effects of furosemide on the hearing loss induced by impulse noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriksunov Leonid

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The permanent hearing loss following exposure to intense noise can be due either to mechanical structural damage (tearing caused directly by the noise or to metabolic (biochemical damage resulting from the elevated levels of free radicals released during transduction of the sound overstimulation. Drugs which depress active cochlear mechanics (e.g. furosemide and salicylic acid or anti-oxidants (which counteract the free radicals are effective in reducing the threshold shift (TS following broadband continuous noise. This study was designed to determine whether furosemide can reduce the TS following exposure to impulse noise, similar to its action with continuous broadband noise. Methods Shortly after furosemide injection, mice were exposed to simulated M16 rifle impulse noise produced by different loudspeakers and amplifiers in different exposure settings and, in other experiments, also to actual M16 rifle shots. Results Depending on the paradigm, the simulated noises either did not produce a TS, or the TS was reduced by furosemide. The drug was not effective in reducing TS resulting from actual impulse noise. Conclusion Simulated M16 rifle impulse noise may not truly replicate the rapid rise time and very high intensity of actual rifle shots so that the TS following exposure to such noise can be reduced by these drugs. On the other hand, actual M16 impulse noise probably causes direct (frank mechanical damage, which is not reduced by these drugs.

  4. Literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size...... among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge...

  5. Book reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2009-01-01

    The review consists of two sections: In the first, community education is understood as an invitation to develop transversal, transdisciplinary research on a European level and dealing with adult education in order to improve a social Europe. In the second, the European question is understood...

  6. Courseware Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews of five computer packages: (1) "Algebra Attack" contains games and tests; (2) "Bootstrap Stats" requires learners to write programs while studying probability and statistics; (3) "Geometry and Microcomputers" contains 13 lessons on mathematics and graphics; (4) "Math Grapher" is an algebraic…

  7. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Larry M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the following Human Sexuality books: "Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Human Sexuality" (Francoeur, R.T., 1987); "Annual Editions: Human Sexuality" (Pocs, O., 1987); "Personal Issues in Human Sexuality" (Gordon, S. and Snyder, W., 1986); "Journey Into Sexuality: An Exploratory Voyage" (Reiss, I.L., 1986); and…

  8. Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serig, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the author explores an often-used process in research--the mind map. He uses this method in his own research and artwork. He also uses this extensively with students, particularly master students when they are trying to surround issues in their thesis projects. Mind maps are closely associated with brainstorming, as brainstorming…

  9. Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  10. Book Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    African Research Review Vol. 3 (3), April, 2009. ... his social responsibility in a time of crisis. ... Gagiano's third essay “Anomy and Agony in a Nation in Crisis: Soyinka's ..... Africans, ironically, making them 'homeless' in the land of their birth.

  11. Retrenchment Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieschke, Suzanne M.

    This review of retrenchment in higher education covers background information, basic concerns, suggestions for making cuts, and lessons learned from experience. Contents concern financial pressures, enrollments, faculty relations during retrenchment, services and programs during retrenchment, administration during retrenchment, and case histories…

  12. Audiovisual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Lists and reviews recent audiovisual materials in areas of medical, dental, nursing and allied health, and veterinary medicine; undergraduate, and high school studies. Each is classified as to level, type of instruction, usefulness, and source of availability. Topics include respiration, renal physiology, muscle mechanics, anatomy, evolution,…

  13. Concise review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Jonathan I; Kanczler, Janos; Tare, Rahul;

    2014-01-01

    of diseases associated with an increasingly aged population. This review describes the state of the field and current steps to translate and apply skeletal stem cell biology in the clinic and the problems therein. Challenges are described along with key strategies including the isolation and ex vivo expansion...

  14. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the present state of exploitation of the mineral deposits and ... Mineral fiiels and other energy resources: petroleum, coal, oil shale and radioactive ...... oil shale and radioactive minerals; hydropower; geothermal; biomass fuels; ..... e) International and regional cooperation in mineral resources research, ...

  15. Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna Winata, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    - Peer Review Microbiological analysis of Dringking Water and Soybean Milk, Proceeding International Seminar "Strategy to manage Bio- Eco- Health System for Stabilizing animal health and Productivity to support public health, ISBN: 978-602-8967-69-3, Surabaya-Indonesia 19-20 June 2012 JW Marriot Hotel Surabaya, Faculty of Veterinary medicine- Universitas Airlangga

  16. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Early Childhood, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "La Educacion Preescolar: Desafio y Aventura" (Lavanchy Bobsien); "Working towards Better Childcare" (Peeters and Vandenbroeck, editors); "Children's Savings: A Study in the Development of Economic Behavior" (Sonuga-Barke and Webley); "Curvas de Crecimiento Estaturo-ponderal en Escolares" (Saez Crespo and others); and "Helping Bereaved…

  17. Book review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2004-01-01

    Slowly but steadily the important work ‘Fungi of Australia’ is published. The first volume appeared in two parts and provided an introduction to the series, and consisted of a collection of review essays on various aspects of Australian mycology. Volume 2 is the Catalogue and bibliography of Austral

  18. Research Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1982-01-01

    Research Reviewed: "The Allocation of International Food Aid"; "Journal of a Tamed Bureaucrat: Nils A. Olsen and the BAE, 1925-1935"; "Imperfect Markets in Agricultural Trade"; "The Socioeconomic Impact of Resource Development: Methods for Assessment"; "A Conference on Modeling and Evaluating Policy and Institutional Impacts on Farm Firms: Theory, Research, Policy, and Extension Applications"

  19. REVIEW ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-01-26

    Jan 26, 1997 ... review article, the authors will also refer to other relevant works in .... could tear down the entire politics not just regimes, ushering in civil ... powers are interested in the maintenance of status quo, which is the precondition for.

  20. PEER REVIEWER

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    - PEER REVIEWER Understanding The Dynamics Interaction Within Indonesia Healthcare Competition (Penulis: Indrianty Sudirman). Jurnal International: European Journal of Business and Management ISSN: 2222-1905 (Paper), 2222-2839 (Online), Vol. 4, No.11. Tahun 2012. Hal. 94-100. Penerbit: IISTE www.iiste.org

  1. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Christopher C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Scholarly reviews of nine books are presented. Topics include nuclear deterrence, urban planning in France, human rights in the Republic of China, the United States' support of Israel, U. S. military policy, an analysis of Rousseau's social contract, political influences on the U. S. presidency, the state and political theory, and the loss of…

  2. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews four books: (1) "On Intelligence. . .More or Less: A Bioecological Treatise on Intellectual Development" (Stephen J. Ceci); (2) "Knowing Children: Experiments in Conversation and Cognition" (Michael Siegal); (3) "Adolescents and Their Families: Paths of Ego Development" (S. T. Hauser and others); and (4) "Adolescence: An Anthropological…

  3. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Early Childhood, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "La Educacion Preescolar: Desafio y Aventura" (Lavanchy Bobsien); "Working towards Better Childcare" (Peeters and Vandenbroeck, editors); "Children's Savings: A Study in the Development of Economic Behavior" (Sonuga-Barke and Webley); "Curvas de Crecimiento Estaturo-ponderal en Escolares" (Saez Crespo and others); and "Helping Bereaved…

  4. !Book review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the fact that Soko's book was published in 1994, this is a belated review. The ... in by the further sub-title /zibongo Zesingoni (Ngoni praise poetry). ... two praise poets who are mentioned in the first chapter should have been .... attracts almost the whole population which is keen to witness the crowning of its new.

  5. Books Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    家本, 秀太郎

    1998-01-01

    Books Reviewed: "The Balance of Payments: Free Versus Fixed Exchange Rates"; "The Economics of Irrigation"; "Farmers and a Hungry World"; "French and EEC Grain Policies and Their Price Effects, 1920-1970"; "Growth and Structure in the Economy of Modern Italy"; "Production Yearbook 1966"; "The Cotton Industry: An Essay in American Economic History. Part I. The Cotton Culture and the Cotton Trade"

  6. PEER REVIEWER

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin

    2015-01-01

    - PEER REVIEWER Judul: Environmental Risk Assessment of transgenic cotton in South Sulawesi, Indonesia : Impact on Soil microorganisms (Key Note Lecture) Penulis: Antonius Suwanto, Yusminah hala and Nur Amin. SPIN : Scientific Programme Indonesia Netherlands BIORIN : Biotechnology Research Indonesian Netherlands, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 25 th Februari 2003. Hal. 1-9.

  7. Book reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2009-01-01

    The review consists of two sections: In the first, community education is understood as an invitation to develop transversal, transdisciplinary research on a European level and dealing with adult education in order to improve a social Europe. In the second, the European question is understood as ...

  8. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews three books: (1) "Jeux Populaires Traditionnels pour les Enfants d'aujourd'hui" (Traditional Popular Games for Today's Children) (Jacqueline Theriault and Denise Garon); "Early Childhood Education" (B. Persky and L. Golubchick, editors); and "Playing to Learn: The Young Child, Teacher and the Classroom" (Weininger and Daniel). (AC)

  9. Research Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1986-01-01

    Research Reviewed: "A Note on Explaining Farmland Price Changes in the Seventies and Eighties"; "Rivers of Empire: Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West"; "Agricultural Policies and World Markets"; "The Organization and Performance of the U.S. Food System"

  10. Book reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2004-01-01

    This book is a concise and rewritten version of the author’s ‘Anatomie der Hymenomyceten’, published in 1997 by Koeltz Verlag (CH), which, unfortunately, never has been reviewed in this journal. In almost 500 pages the author leads us through the exciting world of the anatomy, cytology, and histolog

  11. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reviews six books on developmental psychology: (1) "Children and Violence" (David Reiss and others); (2) "Television and the American Child" (George Comstock); (3) "Intellectual Development" (Robert Sternberg and Cynthia Berg); (4) "Context and Development" (Robert Cohen and Alexander Siegel); (5) "Adolescent Identity Formation" (Gerald Adams and…

  12. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Tauer, Loren; Dalrymple, Dana G.; Brink, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Books Reviewed include: A Comprehensive Assessment of the Role of Risk in US Agriculture by Just Richard E., Rulon D. Pope; Providing Global Public Goods: Managing Globalization by Inge Kaul, Pedro Conceicao, Katell Le Goulven and Ronald U. Mendoza; Agricultural Policy Reform-Politics and Process in the EU and US in the 1990s by Wayne Moyer and Tim Josling

  13. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lødrup, Anders Bergh; Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in getting off acid-suppressive medication and partly explain the increase in long-term use of PPI. A number of studies addressing this issue have been published recently. The authors aimed to systematically review the existing evidence of clinically relevant symptoms caused by acid rebound following PPI...

  14. Hyponatremia review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Castellanos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte imbalance in clinical practice; it is also the most under-diagnosed . Morbidity and mortality are significantly increased in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia in contrast to patients whose sodium concentration is normal. This article offers a review addressing epidemiology, diagnosis and therapeutic approach of hyponatremia.

  15. Courseware Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews courseware (Apple II) providing laboratory simulations in atomic physics. Although material is not user-friendly and requires some background, the animations are good representations of electron mass, Thompson e/m, Millikan oil-drop, and mass spectrometer. Recommended for classroom demonstration purposes at high school or introductory…

  16. Research Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1982-01-01

    Research Reviewed: "Specification of Bernoullian Utility Function in Decision Analysis: Comment"; "Linear Programming, Duality, and Cost of Production"; "Changes in the Chicago Corn Basis, 1960-75"; "A Survey of Agricultural Economics Literature"; "The Methodology of Economics (or How Economists Explain)"; "Resources and Development: Natural Resource Policies and Economic Development in an Interdependent World"

  17. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are seven computer software packages for IBM and/or Apple Computers. Included are "Windows on Science: Volume 1--Physical Science"; "Science Probe--Physical Science"; "Wildlife Adventures--Grizzly Bears"; "Science Skills--Development Programs"; "The Clean Machine"; "Rock Doctor"; and "Geology Search." Cost, quality, hardware, and…

  18. Software Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed is a computer software package entitled "Audubon Wildlife Adventures: Grizzly Bears" for Apple II and IBM microcomputers. Included are availability, hardware requirements, cost, and a description of the program. The murder-mystery flavor of the program is stressed in this program that focuses on illegal hunting and game management. (CW)

  19. Literature review :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-03-01

    Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure a simple and basic determinate beam. That is, instead of considering the composite action of the entire roof structure, the engineer evaluates only a single beam that is deemed conservatively to represent an affected rafter or top chord of a truss. This simplification based on assumptions of a complex problem is where significant conservatism can be introduced. Empirical data will be developed to evaluate this issue. Simple wood beams will be tested to failure. More complex and complete sections of roof structures that include composite action will also be tested to failure. The results can then be compared. An initial step in this process involves a literature review of any work that has been performed on roof structure composite action. The following section summarizes the literature review that was completed.

  20. Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    ANIS IRAWAN ANWAR, ANIS IRAWAN ANWAR

    2013-01-01

    - Peer Review IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICHAL ANALYSIS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF ADENOHYPOPHYSIAL CELLS IN THE PITUITARY PARS DISTALIS OF THE OSTRICH (STRUTHIO CAMELUS), Proceeding International Seminar "Strategy to manage Bio-Eco-Health system for stabilizing animal health and productivity to support public health, Surabaya- Indonesia, 19- 20 June 2012 JW Marriot Hotel Surabaya, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine- Universitas Airlangga, Centre Publishing and Printing of Airlangga University (AUP)

  1. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds......, for example, of Paleopathology, should be cross-checked against other sources, for example, CT-scanning, direct inspection (also by endoscopy), and so forth....

  2. Impetigo - review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luciana Baptista

    2014-01-01

    Impetigo is a common cutaneous infection that is especially prevalent in children. Historically, impetigo is caused by either group A β-hemolytic streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus. Currently, the most frequently isolated pathogen is S. aureus. This article discusses the microbiologic and virulence factors of group A β-hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, clinical characteristics, complications, as well as the approach to diagnosis and management of impetigo. Topical agents for impetigo therapy are reviewed.

  3. Review Article '

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Pulses in Human Nutrition: A Review. OFUYA , Z M ... great deal to the energy intake of people all over the world. ... and children, About 20% of the protein presently available ... as constipation and diverticular disease. It is also ... Red kidney bean Phaseolus v__ulga_r_i§ 56.3 — 60.5 31.9 —~ 47.0 17.5 — 37.2.

  4. LLE Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, R.L. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January--March 1992, contains articles on the use of diffraction gratings in laser applications, and the fabrication of gratings for use in these applications. there are two articles on the use of lasers to explore fundamental physics issues and an article on the use of a solid-state diode array for x-ray imaging. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser systems are summarized.

  5. Review - Drokpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligaya Beebe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Daniel Miller. 2008. Drokpa: Nomads of the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya. Kathmandu: Vajra Publications. Daniel J. Miller is a rangeland ecologist who has studied agricultural and pastoral practices around the Himalayas and on the Tibetan Plateau since the 1970s. Drokpa: Nomads of the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya is a collection of photographs published for a general audience. The text's stated purpose is to reach beyond the "restricted readership" of Miller's academic publications and to "[provide] the viewers with a more considerate and compassionate portrait of Tibetan nomads" (6-7. In addition to these generalized goals, Miller's photographic and textual narrative includes the following arguments: ...

  6. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eltringham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Book reviews of the following academic titles: 'Late Modernism' and The English Intelligencer: 'On the Poetics of Community' by Alex Latter, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 276 pp., 2015 'The Writing Occurs as Song: A Kelvin Corcoran Reader' by Andy Brown (ed., Bristol: Shearsman, 260 pp., 2014 'Out of Everywhere 2: Linguistically Innovative Poetry by Women in North America & the UK' by Emily Critchley (ed., Hastings: Reality Street, 362 pp., 2015  'Women’s Experimental poetry in Britain 1970–2010: Body, Time, Locale' by David Kennedy and Christine Kennedy, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 192 pp., 2013

  7. Fighting Prior Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, John

    1990-01-01

    Reviews arguments for and against prior administrative review and censorship of student expression. Suggests that prior review strips any pretense of democracy from many American educational institutions. Argues that prior review is journalistically inappropriate, educationally unsound, and practically illogical. (KEH)

  8. 2008 annual merit review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  9. Reviewer Database

    OpenAIRE

    Chief Editor

    2016-01-01

    REVIEWER DATABASEA S PaddaAarati KrishnanAarti KapilAbdul JilaniAbhaya JoglekarAbhijit PakhareAbhisek MishraAbhishek ArunAbhishek GuptaAbhishek JadhavAbhishek SinghAditi SinghAdrija RoyAdwitiya MukhopadhyayAhmed MandilA SubramanianAjit SahaiAkanksha GautamAkela MohamedAkhila GopinathanAkshay KumarAlankrata JainAli AbediAlisha SyiemliehAmal BasuAmandeep KaurA ChauhanAmarnath GuptaAmar SinhaAmir M KhanAmit KaushikAmit PawaiyaAmit SinghAmrita KansalAmrita SougaijamA WadheraAnand DixtA Neelakanta...

  10. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, M A; Krarup, H; Sand, J M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nearly 45% of all deaths are associated with chronic fibroproliferative diseases, of which the primary characteristic is altered remodelling of the extracellular matrix. A major difficulty in developing anti-fibrotic therapies is the lack of accurate and established techniques...... to estimate dynamics of fibrosis, regression or progression, in response to therapy. AIM: One of the most pressing needs in modern clinical chemistry for fibroproliferative disorders is the development of biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis, and early efficacy for the benefit of patients...... and to facilitate improved drug development. The aim of this article was to review the serological biomarkers that may assist in early diagnosis of patients, separate fast from slow- or nonprogressors, and possibly assist in drug development for fibroproliferative diseases, exemplified by liver fibrosis. The lack...

  11. Invited review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per Torp; Thymann, Thomas; Schmidt, Mette

    2013-01-01

    At birth, the newborn mammal undergoes a transition from a sterile uterine environment with a constant nutrient supply, to a microbe rich environment with intermittent oral intake of complex milk nutrients via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These functional challenges partly explain the relati......At birth, the newborn mammal undergoes a transition from a sterile uterine environment with a constant nutrient supply, to a microbe rich environment with intermittent oral intake of complex milk nutrients via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These functional challenges partly explain...... with NEC may require resection of the necrotic parts of the intestine, leading to short bowel syndrome (SBS), characterised by reduced digestive capacity, fluid loss, and dependency on parenteral nutrition. This review presents the preterm pig as a translational model in pediatric gastroenterology that has...

  12. Book Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The second edition of Computational Physics by Rubin Landau, Manuel Paez and Cristian C. Bordeianu (published by Wiley hit bookshelves in 2007, and is steadily making its way into physics classrooms across the United States. Your reviewer first encountered the book at the Stanford Campus Book Store, where it is presumably being put to good use by students and faculty. The first edition was published in 1997 with Landau and Paez as authors [Computational Physics, 1st edn, Wiley, New York, 1997]. Rubin Landau is a very experienced computational physicist and staff member of the Oregon State University in Corvallis, where he directs the Computational Physics for Undergraduates course and teaches using this book. Landau is an incredibly active teacher to put it mildly – the code for the book is supplied in an accompanying DVD and he also posts applets and video lectures for his courses on his web page (http://www.physics.orst.edu/~rubin/.

  13. Exploration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  14. A combination of scGOS/lcFOS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V protects suckling rats from rotavirus gastroenteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigo-Adrover, M.; Saldaña-Ruíz, S.; van Limpt, K.; Knipping, K.; Garssen, J.; Knol, J.; Franch, A.; Castell, M.; Pérez-Cano, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children, and although more standardized studies are needed, there is evidence that probiotics can help to fight against RV and other infectious and intestinal pathologies. On the other hand, the effects of preb

  15. Book Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-11-01

    Ever since the days of William Blake there has been an underground resistance against the soulless yet triumphant science and its unholy alliance with money, technology and political power. With the nearly undisputed hegemony that science and technological innovation has attained in the post-World War II era, this kind of resistance has resulted in numerous books and articles that in different ways warn against the dark sides of science and the socio-economic system that nourishes a science in degeneration. Classical examples include Herbert Marcuse's One-Dimensional Man (1964), Jacques Ellul's The Technological Society (1965), Theodore Roszak's The Making of a Counter Culture (1968), and Paul Feyerabend's Science in a Free Society (1978). A fair part of the literature written by sociologists and philosophers is not only critical to trends in modern science, but tends to or is overtly anti-science. The book under review belongs in some respects to this heterogeneous literary tradition, but Twilight of the Scientific Age is primarily directed against the institutional system of science and its associated ideology and not against science itself. Indeed, the author is himself a practicing scientist, an astrophysicist, and he emphasizes several times that he firmly believes in science, even that he loves it. He is not a "stupid cultural relativist," he asserts (p. 11), but a critical freethinker independent of dogmatic beliefs.

  16. LLE review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, R.L. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1991, contains articles on the analysis of argon-filled target experiments, and a theoretical analysis of the impact of nonlocal heat transport in laser filamentation in plasmas. In the Advanced Technology section there is an article on mechanisms that affect thin-film conductivity, and a report on the gain characteristics of the 20-cm SSA prototype amplifier to be used in the OMEGA Upgrade. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized. Highlights of the research reported in this issue are: argon radiation from argon-filled, polymer-shell targets is used as a core-temperature diagnostic and density diagnostic of the surrounding region in a regime where the argon line radiation is strongly absorbed. A theoretical analysis of the impact of nonlocal heat transport on laser filamentation in plasmas is developed. The resulting model is compared with experimental observations and the implications for ICF are discussed. A study of thermal conductivity in thin films seeks to identify mechanisms that result in degradation of thin-film conductivity. Identifying these mechanisms can lead to changes in the thin-film manufacture that will improve their resistance to laser damage.

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Jon Fraenkel; The manipulation of custom; From uprising to intervention in the Solomon Islands (Jaap Timmer Clive Moore; Happy isles in crisis; The historical causes for a failing state in Solomon Islands, 1998-2004 (Jaap Timmer Peter Burns; The Leiden legacy; Concepts of law in Indonesia (Bryan S. Turner Terry Crowley; Bislama reference grammar (Kees Versteegh REVIEW ESSAY Matthew Isaac Cohen; Transnational and postcolonial gamelan Lisa Gold; Music in Bali Margaret J. Kartomi; The Gamelan Digul and the prison camp musician who built it; An Australian link with the Indonesian revolution Marc Perlman; Unplayed melodies; Javanese gamelan and the genesis of music theory Ted Solís (ed.; Performing ethnomusicology; Teaching and representation in world music ensembles Henry Spiller; Gamelan; The traditional sounds of Indonesia Andrew N. Weintraub; Power plays; Wayang golek theater of West Java REVIEW ESSAY Victor T. King; People and nature in Borneo Tim Bending; Penan histories; Contentious narratives in upriver Sarawak Rajindra K. Puri; Deadly dances in the Bornean rainforest; Hunting knowledge of the Penan Benalui, 2005 Reed L. Wadley (ed.; Histories of the Borneo environment; Economic, political and social dimensions of change and continuity In: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde no. 162 (2006, no: 4, Leiden

  18. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    , and way of life (Nicholas Tapp K.S. Nathan, Mohammad Hashim Kamali (eds; Islam in Southeast Asia; Political, social and strategic challenges for the 21st century (Bryan S. Turner Andrew Pawley, Robert Attenborough, Jack Golson, Robin Hide (eds; Papuan pasts; Cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples (Lourens de Vries Leo Howe, The changing world of Bali; Religion, society and tourism (Carol Warren Sarah Weiss; Listening to an earlier Java; Aesthetics, gender, and the music of wayang in Central Java (Andrew N. Weintraub REVIEW ESSAY Terry Crowley: Four grammars of Malakula languages Crowley, Terry (ed. by John Lynch; The Avava language of Central Malakula (Vanuatu Crowley, Terry (ed. by John Lynch; Tape: a declining language of Malakula (Vanuatu Crowley, Terry (ed. by John Lynch; Naman: a vanishing language of Malakula (Vanuatu Crowley, Terry (ed. by John Lynch; Nese: a diminishing speech variety of Northwest Malakula (Vanuatu (Alexandre Francois REVIEW ESSAY -- ‘The folly our descendants are least likely to forgive us’: the end of nature in Southeast Asia? Michael R. Dove, Percy E. Sajise, Amity A. Doolittle (eds; Conserving nature in culture; Case studies from Southeast Asia Jeyamalar Kathirithamby-Wells; Nature and nation; Forests and development in peninsular Malaysia Celia Lowe; Wild profusion; Biodiversity conservation in an Indonesian archipelago John F. McCarthy; The fourth circle; A political ecology of Sumatra’s rainforest frontier Budy P. Resosudarmo (ed.; The politics and economics of Indonesia’s natural resources Jeffrey R. Vincent, Rozali Mohamed Ali; Managing natural wealth; Environment and development in Malaysia (David Henley In: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde no. 163 (2007, no: 2/3, Leiden

  19. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-09-01

    upland Southeast Asia. (Guido Sprenger Guido Sprenger, Die Männer, die den Geldbaum fällten; Konzepte von Austausch und Gesellschaft bei den Rmeet von Takheung, Laos. (Oliver Tappe Review Essay Two books on East Timor. Carolyn Hughes, Dependent communities; Aid and politics in Cambodia and East Timor. David Mearns (ed., Democratic governance in Timor-Leste; Reconciling the local and the national. (Helene van Klinken Review Essay Two books on Islamic terror Zachary Abuza, Political Islam and violence in Indonesia. Noorhaidi Hasan, Laskar jihad; Islam, militancy, and the quest for identity in post-New Order Indonesia. (Gerry van Klinken Korte Signaleringen Janneke van Dijk, Jaap de Jonge en Nico de Klerk, J.C. Lamster, een vroege filmer in Nederlands-Indië. Griselda Molemans en Armando Ello, Zwarte huid, oranje hart; Afrikaanse KNIL-nazaten in de diaspora. Reisgids Indonesië; Oorlogsplekken 1942-1949. Hilde Janssen, Schaamte en onschuld; Het verdrongen oorlogsverleden van troostmeisjes in Indonesië. Jan Banning, Comfort women/Troostmeisjes. (Harry Poeze

  20. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, S.

    2006-10-01

    The early 1980s, when I first learned theory, were desperate times for graduate students. We searched frantically for coherent introductions, passing tattered copies of review articles around like samizdat, struggling over obscure references to ancient models of strong interactions, and flocking to lectures—not least those by Joe Polchinski—that promised to really explain what was going on. If only this book had been around, it would have saved much grief. Volume I, The Bosonic String, offers a clear and well organized introduction to bosonic string theory. Topics range from the 'classical' (spectra, vertex operators, consistency conditions, etc.) to the 'modern' (D-branes first appear in an exercise at the end of chapter 1, noncommutative geometry shows up in chapter 8). Polchinski does not hesitate to discuss sophisticated matters—path integral measures, BRST symmetries, etc.—but his approach is pedagogical, and his writing is lucid, if sometimes a bit terse. Chapters end with problems that are sometimes difficult but never impossible. A very useful annotated bibliography directs readers to resources for further study, and a nearly 30-page glossary provides short but clear definitions of key terms. There is much here that will appeal to relativists. Polchinski uses the covariant Polyakov path integral approach to quantization from early on; he clearly distinguishes Weyl invariance from conformal invariance; he is appropriately careful about using complex coordinates on topologically nontrivial manifolds; he keeps the string world sheet metric explicit at the start instead of immediately hiding it by a gauge choice. Volume II includes an elegant introduction to anticommuting coordinates and superconformal transformations. A few conventions may cause confusion—%, Polchinski's stress energy tensor, for instance, differs from the standard general relativistic definition by a factor of -2π, and while this is briefly mentioned in the text, it could easily be

  1. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Clara van Groenendael

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available - Dennis Tedlock, Dennis Tedlock, The Spoken Word - Reaction to R. de Ridder’s review of The Spoken Word and Popul Vuh (BKI 142-I, 1986, pp. 179-182. - J.G. de Casparis, Kenneth R. Hall, Maritime trade and state development in early Southeast Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985, 368 pp. - M. Hekker, J.E. Ellemers, Indische Nederlanders en gerepatrieerden, Muiderberg: Coutinho, 1985. 159 pp., foto’s., R.E.F. Vaillant (eds. - Tineke Hellwig, Els Postel-Coster, Het omheinde kweekbed; Machtsverhoudingen in de Minangkabause familieroman, Delft: Eburon, 233 pp., 1985. - H.A.J. Klooster, Sartono Kartodirdjo, Modern Indonesia, tradition and transformation. A socio-historical perspective, Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1984, xii + 299 pp. - Gert J. Oostindie, W.S.M. Hoogbergen, De Boni-oorlogen 1757-1860. Marronage en guerilla [sic] in Oost-Suriname. Utrecht: Rijksuniversiteit 1985. [Bronnen voor de studie van Afro-amerikaanse samenlevingen in de Guyana’s, 528 pp. - P. Pink, V. M. Clara van Groenendael, The Dalang behind the Wayang. The role of the Surakarta and the Yogyakarta dalang in Indonesian-Javanese society, Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 114, Dordrecht-Holland/Cinnaminson-U.S.A.: Foris publications, 1985, VIII + 242 pp., 3 maps. - P. Pink, J. Kats, De Wajang Poerwa, een vorm van Javaans Toneel, ingeleid door J.J. Ras en H.A. Poeze, Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Indonesische Herdrukken, Dordrecht-Holland/Cinnaminson-U.S.A.: Foris publications, 1984, XL VIII + VIII + 446 pp. - S. Pompe, Hisako Nakamura, Divorce in Java, Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta 1983, xxiii + 145 pp. - J.M.C. Pragt, Wim Bakker, Bali verbeeld, Volkenkundig Museum Nusantara, Delft, 1985, 96 p., 120 afb.

  2. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1969-04-01

    Full Text Available - A. Teeuw, W.J.S. Poerwadarminta, Bahasa Indonesia untuk karang-mengarang. U.P. Indonesia. Jogjakarta 1967. 168 pp. - A. Teeuw, Sutomo Tjokronegoro, Tjukuplah saudara membina bahasa kesatuan kita? P.T. Eresco, Djakarta Bandung 1968. XXIV and 313 pp. - E.C.G. Barrett, William R. Roff, The origins of Malay nationalism. Yale Southeast Asia Studies, 2. Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1967. Pp. XX and 297. - W. Brand, Bram Peper, Grootte en groei van Java’s inheemse bevolking in de negentiende eeuw. Publicatie Nr. 11, Afdeling Zuid- en Zuidoost Azië, Anthropologisch-Sociologisch Centrum, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1967, 151 blz. - M.A. Jaspan, H.J. Heeren, Het land aan de overkant: Transmigratie van Java naar Sumatra. J.A. Boom en Zoon, Meppel, 1967. Pp. VIII, 225, maps, tables, bibliogr. - J.B. Avé, Benedict Sandin, The sea Dayaks of Borneo before white Rajah rule. MacMillan, London-Melbourne-Toronto, 1967. XX, 13 pp. - Tocihi Mabuchi, Alois Pache, Die religiöse vorstellung in der mythen der formosanischen Bergstämme. Studia Instituti Anthropos, Vol. 19, XV + 271 Seiten. Verlag der Missionsdruckerei St. Gabriel, Wien-Mödling 1964. - S. Kooijman, Th. P. van Baaren, Korwars and korwar style. Art and ancestor worship in North-West New Guinea. Art in its context. Museum series: volume 2, Mouton & Co 1968. 104 pp., 69 plates. - R.S. Karni, M.A. Jaspan, Westerly, a quarterly review. Published by the University of Western Australia Press. (Perth, W.A. Special issue: Indonesia, no. 2, October 1966; 93 p., 4 pls. - ,

  3. PETC Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santore, R.R.; Blaustein, B.D.; Friedman, S.; Reiss, J.; Brown, J.; Price, M.M. (eds.)

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the PETC Review is devoted to explaining how the private sector can do business with DOE-and with PETC in particular-and how DOE works with academia, industry, and state and local groups to accomplish objectives of mutual interest. Over the past several years, the notion of cost-sharing'' has been receiving increased attention. Indeed, cost-shared RD D is becoming the norm, not only within DOE but also among other government agencies, including the Department of Defense. It may surprise some of our readership to learn that RD D cost-sharing is not a new government policy. In fact, it has been part of the DOE Acquisition Regulations from their inception in 1977. In lay terms, cost participation, a general kind of cost-sharing, is required for RD D efforts in which the non-Federal participant's goal is commercialization or in situations for which it is reasonable to expect that economic benefits will accrue to the participant as a result of the work. The policy is quite flexible and states that the degree of non-DOEcost participation depends on a number of factors, including the nature of the work performed and the extent of the project risk. As competition for RD D funds increases, it is to be expected that cost-sharing requirements for development, and even for basic research, will increase. Nevertheless, we think that Federal support of RD D will continue to be necessary to maintain this country's leadership in science, technology, industry, and living standards.

  4. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Steve

    2008-11-01

    life and is a condensed history of the development of nuclear physics, political changes and world affairs over the period. It is succinctly arranged and the reader is taken remarkably rapidly through the salient details of the above story in a most readable way. The author states that his intention for the book is to bring the story to a much wider audience than those who work in nuclear or medical physics. Indeed he hopes it will be read by those who might call themselves non-scientists and also young people who might be inspired to pursue a career in physics. Throughout the book salient physics is compartmentalised into bite-sized boxes and explained through analogy, simple diagrams and hardly an equation in sight. Thus one such box entitled 'How to make Nukes work!' should not alarm readers or anti-terror watchdogs. The barest of information is given at all stages; just enough to follow the Rotblat story. In essence the book will be of most use to those who have only the vaguest ideas of the above story. Readers expecting a definitive, well-referenced, chronological tome, backed by a substantial bibliography of primary peer-reviewed papers, will be disappointed. Kit Hill points though to such a definitive work published two years ago by the University of Liverpool. This reviewer felt that maybe the book is a little too thin and in places longed for rather more substance and detail. The author would surely, in his defence, say 'look elsewhere'. This said, it can easily be read cover to cover in one short evening sitting. In a world burgeoned with paperwork to read, that might be considered an advantage. A second disappointment is that there is virtually nothing on the productivity of Rotblat over 30 years as Professor of Medical Physics. This reviewer feels that is a lost opportunity. Kit Hill, personal friend of Jo Rotblat and co-worker with Pugwash, was himself in a similar role (though working mainly with non-ionizing ultrasound radiation) and could have made his

  5. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, J. B.

    2007-02-01

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference to a far better review article or book on modern

  6. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Series presents as an introductory article a characteristically clear résumé of the quantum mechanical background of spectroscopy which, although too condensed to compete with the textbooks, provides an admirable checklist of what one needs to know. Pierre Cerez does the same for the physics of masers and lasers, and follows this with an account of present-day time and frequency standards. The establishment and world-wide distribution of these standards, and the related subjects of length, wavelength and optical frequency standards are covered in detail, and more history is related in a review of past measurements of the speed of light. Now that the measurement of the speed of light has become an irrelevance as a result of its definition as an exact quantity, thus abolishing the need for a direct standard of length, the article by K M Baird is bound to rouse nostalgia. In this connection it is a delight to find reprinted at the end of the volume the text of the article, published in 1773, giving an account of Roemer's method (1676) for measuring the speed of light and the first indication that it is finite. The most significant impact on the measurement of the fundamental constants was made by the discovery of quantum effects and the development of the quantum theory. Planck's constant plays the key role here, and quantum metrology has merged the quantum and classical fields. Thus the volt can be referred to a frequency, through the Josephson effect, in a particularly (and unexpectedly) direct manner, and magnetic field strengths can be compared as a ratio of frequencies, and measured in terms of the gyromagnetic ratio of the proton. Techniques of this sort are reviewed by Brian Petley of the National Physical Laboratory, who also contributes valuable articles on the particular measurements which involve magnetic moments, and a general survey of the significance of the fundamental constants as a whole. Laser spectroscopy has in recent years played an important part in

  7. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, E.

    2006-09-01

    The motion of a charged particle interacting with its own electromagnetic field is an area of research that has a long history; this problem has never ceased to fascinate its investigators. On the one hand the theory ought to be straightforward to formulate: one has Maxwell's equations that tell the field how to behave (given the motion of the particle), and one has the Lorentz-force law that tells the particle how to move (given the field). On the other hand the theory is fundamentally ambiguous because of the field singularities that necessarily come with a point particle. While each separate sub-problem can easily be solved, to couple the field to the particle in a self-consistent treatment turns out to be tricky. I believe it is this dilemma (the theory is straightforward but tricky) that has been the main source of the endless fascination. For readers of Classical and Quantum Gravity, the fascination does not end there. For them it is also rooted in the fact that the electromagnetic self-force problem is deeply analogous to the gravitational self-force problem, which is of direct relevance to future gravitational wave observations. The motion of point particles in curved spacetime has been the topic of a recent Topical Review [1], and it was the focus of a recent Special Issue [2]. It is surprising to me that radiation reaction is a subject that continues to be poorly covered in the standard textbooks, including Jackson's bible [3]. Exceptions are Rohrlich's excellent text [4], which makes a very useful introduction to radiation reaction, and the Landau and Lifshitz classic [5], which contains what is probably the most perfect summary of the foundational ideas (presented in characteristic terseness). It is therefore with some trepidation that I received Herbert Spohn's book, which covers both the classical and quantum theories of a charged particle coupled to its own field (the presentation is limited to flat spacetime). Is this the text that graduate students

  8. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folacci, Antoine; Jensen, Bruce

    2003-12-01

    Thanks to its impressive success in the second half of the 20th century, both in high-energy physics and in critical phenomena, quantum field theory has enjoyed an abundant literature. We therefore greet yet another book on this subject with caution: what can a monograph on quantum field theory bring now that is new, either conceptually or pedagogically? But when it is written by a physicist such as Bryce DeWitt, who has made his own contribution to the collection of field theory books with The Global Approach to Quantum Field Theory, all suspicion is naturally abandoned. One knows in advance that this book can only lead to a genuine enrichment of the literature. DeWitt has made a formidable contribution to various areas of physics: general relativity, the interpretation of quantum mechanics, and most of all the quantization of non-Abelian gauge theories and quantum gravity. In addition, his pedagogical publications, especially the Les Houches schools of 1963 and 1983 [1, 2], have had a great impact on quantum field theory. All this makes the reader keen to pick up his new work and a deeper reading confirms the reviewer's initial enthusiasm. We must begin by alerting the potential readers of this book that it cannot be compared to any other book in the field (unless of course we are talking about references [1] and [2], of which the book under review is an extension and reworking). This uniqueness applies to both the scientific content and the way the ideas are presented. A quick description of this book and a brief explanation of its title should convince the reader of the book's unique quality. For DeWitt, a central concept of field theory is that of `space of histories'. For a field varphii defined on a given spacetime M, the set of all varphii(x) for all x in all charts of M defines its history. It is the space Phi of all possible histories (dynamically allowed or not) of the fields defined on M which is called the `space of histories' by DeWitt. If only

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    John Bowden, Nikolaus Himmelmann (eds; Papers in Austronesian subgrouping and dialectology (Hein Steinhauer Sebastiaan Pompe; The Indonesian Supreme Court; A study of institutional collapse (Bryan S. Turner Gerd R. Zimmermann; Indonesien; Eine geographische Landeskunde (Robert Wessing REVIEW ESSAY Dick van der Meij; Latest editions of Indonesian classical texts A. Teeuw, R. Dumas, Muhammad Haji Salleh, R. Tol, M.J. van Yperen (eds; A merry senhor in the Malay world; Four texts of the Syair Sinyor Kosta Julian Millie; Bidasari; Jewel of Malay Muslim culture. A. Teeuw, S.O. Robson (eds; Bhom?ntaka; The death of Bhoma J. Noorduyn, A. Teeuw; Three Old Sundanese poems In: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (BKI, no. 162 (2006, no: 2/3, Leiden

  10. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-04-01

    Nio Liem, De rechtspositie der Chinezen in Nederlands-Indië 1848-1942; Wetgevingsbeleid tussen beginsel en belang. (Mary Somers Heidhues Zhou Daguan, A record of Cambodia: the land and its people. (Un Leang REVIEW ESSAY Longitudinal studies in Javanese performing arts Benjamin Brinner, Music in Central Java; Experiencing music, expressing culture. Barbara Hatley, Javanese performances on an Indonesian stage; Contesting culture, embracing change. Felicia Hughes-Freeland, Embodied communities; Dance traditions and change in Java. (Matthew Isaac Cohen REVIEW ESSAY Development and reform in Vietnam Stéphanie Balme and Mark Stephanie (eds, Vietnam’s new order; International perspectives on the state and reform in Vietnam. Sujian Guo, The political economy of Asian transition from communism. Ian Jeffries, Vietnam: a guide to economic and political developments. Pietro Masina, Vietnam’s development strategies. (Tran Quang Anh KORTE SIGNALERINGEN Ulbe Bosma, Indiëgangers; Verhalen van Nederlanders die naar Indië trokken. Clara Brinkgreve, Met Indië verbonden; Een verhaal van vier generaties 1849-1949. Jack Botermans en Heleen Tichler, Het vergeten Indië; Stille getuigen van het dagelijks leven in het Indië van toen. Robin te Slaa en Edwin Klijn, De NSB; Ontstaan en opkomst van de Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging, 1931-1935. Mark Loderichs, Margaret Leidelmeijer, Johan van Langen en Jan Kompagnie, Verhalen in Documenten; Over het afscheid van Indië, 1940-1950. Frederik Erens en Adrienne Zuiderweg, Linggadjati, brug naar de toekomst; Soetan Sjahrir als een van de grondleggers van het vrije Indonesië. Peter Schumacher, met medewerking van Gerard de Boer, De zaak Aernout; Hardnekkige mythes rond een Indische moord ontrafeld. Cas Oorthuys, Een staat in wording; Fotoreportage van Cas Oorthuys over het Indonesië van 1947. René Kok, Erik Somers en Louis Zweers, Koloniale oorlog 1945-1949; Van Indië tot Indonesië. H.F. Veenendaal

  11. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherds, P.

    2005-03-01

    superb quotations to include all of them in this review, but one of Bragg's Golden Rules for newcomers to his laboratory should be on the door of every experimental laboratory: 'Never be afraid to carry on an experiment which is declared stupid by the theorists [sic] of the laboratory'. This book is, as its subtitle implies, about Bragg and about his science. Hunter has skilfully and seamlessly interwoven the two strands. At one minute you are reading about the man and at the next you realize you are reading about the science. In writing about the science, Hunter writes knowledgeably and expects the reader to make an effort to understand. In this he is following the precept of Bragg who, when advised to avoid technical terms when lecturing to a lay audience, ridiculed this attitude with a telling metaphor: 'What could be more technical than a description of a football match? To picture the scientist's plight, one must imagine the sports expert being told to describe the match using as little as possible such terms as "ball'' or "goal'', and of course avoiding the very complex ideas involved in "try'' or "offside'' '. Bragg made several major contributions to crystallography and these are described, as already mentioned. One has to concentrate quite hard to follow but the effort is worthwhile and Hunter manages not only to convey the excitement felt by Bragg and his colleagues but also to let the reader feel it too. Bragg interacted strongly with other crystallographers, not least with his father, but also with Pauling. At times there was a close race between Bragg and Pauling, which is fully discussed. Bragg succeeded Rutherford at Cambridge. The appointment was controversial. Under Rutherford the Cavendish Laboratory concentrated on nuclear physics, while Bragg was a crystallographer, with little interest in nuclear physics. However the crystallographic work Bragg encouraged on haemoglobin and DNA led to several Nobel prizes. Bragg's activities in canvassing for Nobel

  12. Writing Rock Music Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donal

    1980-01-01

    Suggests ways student reviewers of rock music groups can write better reviews. Among the suggestions made are that reviewers occasionally discuss the audience or what makes a particular group unique, support general comment with detail, and avoid ecstatic adjectives. (TJ)

  13. AQUATOX Peer Review Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    AQUATOX Release 2 underwent an external peer review in early 2003, and Release 3 underwent an external peer review in late 2008. Reviewers stated model enhancements have made AQUATOX one of the most exciting tools in aquatic ecosystem management.

  14. Environmental Review Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD’s Environmental Review Records page houses environmental reviews made publicly available through the HUD Environmental Review Online System (HEROS). This...

  15. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Saptari

    1994-07-01

    , Harold Brookfield, South-East Asia’s environmental future; The search for sustainability. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1993, xxxii + 422 pp., maps, tables, figures, index., Yvonne Byron (eds. - Antje van der Hoek, Keebet von Benda-Beckmann, De emancipatie van Molukse vrouwen in Nederland. Utrecht: Van Arkel,1992, Francy Leatemia-Toma-tala (eds. - Michael Hitchcock, Brita L. Miklouho-Maklai, Exposing Society’s Wounds; Some aspects of Indonesian Art since 1966. Adelaide: Flinders University Asian studies Monograph No.5, illustrations, 1991, iii + 125 pp - Nico Kaptein, Fred R. von der Mehden, Two Worlds of Islam; Interaction between Southeast Asia and the Middle East.Gainesville etc: University Press of Florida 1993, xiii + 128 pp - Nico Kaptein, Karel Steenbrink, Dutch Colonialism and Indonesian Islam; Contacts and Conflicts 1596-1950. Amsterdam-Atlanta, GA: Rodopi, 1993. - Harry A. Poeze, Rudolf Mrázek, Sjahrir; Politics and exile in Indonesia. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University, Southeast Asia Program, 1994. - W.G.J. Remmelink, Takao Fusayama, A Japanese memoir of Sumatra 1945-1946; Love and hatred in the liberation war. Ithaca: Cornell University (Cornell Modern Indonesia Project Monograph series 71, 1993, 151 pp., maps, illustrations. - Ratna Saptari, Diana Wolf, Factory Daughters; Gender, Household Dynamics, and Rural Industrialization in Java. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. - Ignatius Supriyanto, Ward Keeler, Javanese Shadow Puppets. Singapore (etc.: Oxford University Press, 1992, vii + 72 pp.,bibl., ills. (Images of Asia. - Brian Z. Tamanaha,S.J.D., Juliana Flinn, Review of diplomas and thatch houses; Asserting tradition in a changing Micronesia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992. - Gerard Termorshuizen, Dorothée Buur, Indische jeugdliteratuur; Geannoteerde bibliografie van jeugdboeken over Nederlands-Indië en Indonesië, 1825-1991. Leiden, KITLV Uitgeverij, 1992, 470 pp

  16. Book Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The International Cryogenic Engineering Conferences (ICEC) are held biennially and are medium-scale events (a few hundred participants) involving a wide range of cryogenic specialists. The Proceedings of the 17th Conference reflects this range clearly, comprising four sections. The first, and shortest, presents the texts of (some of) the plenary invited papers and covers topics ranging from `The first collection of liquid hydrogen' to `The application of bulk high-temperature superconductors'. Then follow three sections of approximately equal length (250--300 pages each) covering, respectively, refrigeration, superconductivity and cryogenics. The rapid recent development of closed cycle refrigerators is reflected in the content of the first section and is a firm indicator that the topic of cryogenic engineering is spreading out from its current twin, but limited, areas of the research laboratory and the large-scale particle or energy research facility. Expansion into both industry, commerce and medicine is apparent, as is the provision of facilities for other technologies (for example, high-field magnets for NMR, extending to 1 GHz). Later in this volume some of these future applications are described. The Kleemenko cycle, as lucidly explained by Bill Little, consists of a development of the Joule--Thomson expansion technique for cooling in which the expansion and cooling of a single component gas is replaced by the expansion and cooling of a mixture of gas and liquid phase. Pulse tube coolers now come in a variety of forms and sizes, in single stage and double stage forms, providing a lowest temperature so far of around 2 K with 2 stages or 20 K with a single stage. The ability of this design is to reduce mechanical vibration levels well below those achievable with conventional Gifford--McMahon or Stirling cycle coolers and this volume includes a review of developments of these types, as well as a number of research papers setting out the leading edge of

  17. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallone, B. G.

    2004-01-01

    This book represents the proceedings of the five day programme on IMRT techniques presented at the 2003 American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Summer School held in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The book is essentially an overview of IMRT techniques, discussing the history, the mathematical processes involved in the planning stages, the biological indices for evaluations, the off-line and on-line medical imaging that is required, the various IMRT delivery techniques available, positioning and motion verification, shielding and QA issues, and some clinical applications. There is some additional discussion on modulated electron and proton therapy, views on the clinical and financial impact of IMRT, as well as some speculation on the future uses of IMRT. The fact that the book is an `overview' must be emphasized. Medical physicists who are well-read in IMRT, or have implemented IMRT, even partially, may be a little disappointed with the book. Although specific details were purposely omitted, the well-read physicist would have preferred to go right to the `heart of the matter', something this book fails to do. As is typical of many proceedings-type books, there is a certain level of inconsistency of writing styles, as well as some redundancy between the different chapters. It is unfortunate that such a large volume does not have an index to allow a reader to explore a particular subject pertaining to IMRT. The reader would have to guide himself/herself by the table of contents before each chapter which could be a problem if the reader requires some information quickly. It is interesting to note that the book lends itself to a variety of professionals interested in IMRT, including administrators. It may be a source of help for medical physicists who wish to discuss IMRT issues with higher level administration, for example. Some clinical applications are also reviewed. The lack of details concerning the advantages of IMRT with respect to clinical outcome is

  18. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2005-01-01

    öder-Butterfill Andrew MacIntyre, The power of institutions; Political architecture and governance (Henk Schulte Nordholt Carol Ireson-Doolittle and Geraldine Moreno-Black, The Lao; Gender, power, and livelihood (Guido Sprenger David L. Gosling (with a foreword by Ninian Smart, Religion and ecology in India and Southeast Asia (Bryan S. Turner William C. Clarke, Remembering Papua New Guinea; An eccentric ethnography (Donald Tuzin Review essay Gerben Nooteboom: Competition, collateral damage, or ‘just accidents’? Three explanations of ethnic violence in Indonesia: - Jacques Bertrand, Nationalism and ethnic conflict in Indonesia - Cristina Eghenter, Bernard Sellato, and G. Simon Devung (eds, Social science research and conservation management in the interior of Borneo; Unravelling past and present interactions of people and forests - Nancy Lee Peluso and Michael Watts (eds, Violent environments - Günther Schlee (ed., Imagined differences; Hatred and the construction of identity

  19. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Baal

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available - R.J. Mohr, Bernard J. Siegel, Biennial Review of Anthropology 1963. Stanford University Press. Stanford, California, 1963. 306 pp. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Jean Poirier, Guide d’enquête monographique appliquée aux sociétés malgaches. Faculté des lettres et sciences humaines de Madagascar, Tananarive 1962. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Jean Poirier, L’inventaire ethno-topographique. Departement des sciences humaines, Faculté des lettres et sciences humaines, Université de Madagascar, Tananarive 1963. - H.Th. Fischer, P. van Emst, Panorama der Volken, I (Volken van Amerika en Oceanië, onder redactie van P. van Emst. Romen en zonen, Roermond 1964. 515 blz., vele ills. - C. Nooteboom, W. Frölich, Völkerkundliche Forschungen, Martin Heydrich zum 70. Geburtstag überreicht von Freunden und Schülern, herausgegeben von W. Frölich (Ethnologica, Neue Folge, Band 2, Köln, 1960. 557 S., 46 Tafeln, 116 Abb. - J. van Baal, Claude Levi-Strauss, Totemism. Translated from the French by Rodney Needham. Beacon Press, Boston, 1963. 116 pp. - J.J. Fahrenfort, Luc de Heusch, Le Pouvoir et le Sacré. Annales de Centre d’ Etude des Religions I. Université de Bruxelles. Institut de Sociologie (Solvay 1962. 228 pp. - H.J.M. Claessen, Montserrat Palau Marti, Le Roi-Dieu au Bénin, Sud Togo, Dahomey, Nigeria Occidentale. Collection Mondes d’Outre-mer, Série: Nations. Berger Levrault, Paris 1964. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, F. Sierksma, Profiel van een incarnatie. G.A. van Oorschot, Amsterdam 1964. 244 blz. - B.A.L. Cranstone, Carl A. Schmitz, Wantoat: Art and religion of the Northeast New Guinea Papuans. Translated from the German by Mrs. G.E. van Baaren-Pape. Mouton (the Hague, Paris, 1963. 159 pp. 47 plates. - A.A. Gerbrands, William Fagg, Nigerian images. Lund Humphries, London, 1963. 47 pages, 144 plates by Herbert List. - A.A. Gerbrands, Marcelle Urbain-Faublée, L’art malgache. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1963. 141 pag. 100

  20. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Melaka and Enyan anak Usen, Iban art; Sexual selection and severed heads: weaving, sculpture, tattooing and other arts of the Iban of Borneo (Viktor T. King John Roosa; Pretext for mass murder; The September 30th Movement and Suharto’s coup d’état in Indonesia (Gerry van Klinken Vladimir Braginsky; The heritage of traditional Malay literature; A historical survey of genres, writings and literary views (Dick van der Meij Joel Robbins, Holly Wardlow (eds; The making of global and local modernities in Melanesia; Humiliation, transformation and the nature of cultural change (Toon van Meijl Kwee Hui Kian; The political economy of Java’s northeast coast c. 1740-1800; Elite synergy (Luc Nagtegaal Charles A. Coppel (ed.; Violent conflicts in Indonesia; Analysis, representation, resolution (Gerben Nooteboom Tom Therik; Wehali: the female land; Traditions of a Timorese ritual centre (Dianne van Oosterhout Patricio N. Abinales, Donna J. Amoroso; State and society in the Philippines (Portia L. Reyes Han ten Brummelhuis; King of the waters; Homan van der Heide and the origin of modern irrigation in Siam (Jeroen Rikkerink Hotze Lont; Juggling money; Financial self-help organizations and social security in Yogyakarta (Dirk Steinwand Henk Maier; We are playing relatives; A survey of Malay writing (Maya Sutedja-Liem Hjorleifur Jonsson; Mien relations; Mountain people and state control in Thailand (Nicholas Tapp Lee Hock Guan (ed.; Civil society in Southeast Asia (Bryan S. Turner Jan Mrázek; Phenomenology of a puppet theatre; Contemplations on the art of Javanese wayang kulit (Sarah Weiss Janet Steele; Wars within; The story of Tempo, an independent magazine in Soeharto’s Indonesia (Robert Wessing REVIEW ESSAY Sean Turnell; Burma today Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Robert Taylor, Tin

  1. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2009-05-01

    and sails the boat downstream: Malay Sufi poems of the boat (Suryadi Gilles Gravelle; Meyah: An east Bird’s Head language of Papua, Indonesia (Ian Tupper Penny Edwards; Cambodge: The cultivation of a nation, 1860-1945 (Un Leang J. Stephen Lansing; Perfect order: Recognizing complexity in Bali (Carol Warren Roxana Waterson (ed.; Southeast Asian lives: Personal narratives and historical experience (C.W. Watson Jean DeBernardi; The way that lives in the heart: Chinese popular religion and spirit mediums in Penang, Malaysia (Robert Wessing REVIEW ESSAY Environmental and archaeological perspectives on Southeast Asia Peter Boomgaard; Southeast Asia: An environmental history Peter Boomgaard (ed.; A world of water: Rain, rivers and seas in Southeast Asian histories Ian Glover and Peter Bellwood (eds; Southeast Asia: From prehistory to history Avijit Gupta (ed.; The physical geography of Southeast Asia (Eric C. Thompson

  2. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherds, P. H.

    2004-09-01

    There is a new tradition in England called Apple Day which is held on some day in October. The actual day varies from place to place. For instance, in 2003, 23 October was Apple Day at Woolsthorpe Manor, the house where Isaac Newton was born and where, during the Plague, he is said to have developed the theory of gravity. (For information on future Apple Days see, for example, http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/thingstodo.) Last year in our garden we picked an apple which weighed one pound, thirteen and a half ounces (1 lb 13 1/2 oz or 29 1/2 oz). The following day we went to an Apple Day event where there were many exotic apples on display, varieties which are not sold in shops. One of the varieties there was called 'Twenty Ounce'. By now you may be wondering what all this has to do with the book being reviewed. We shall return to this later. This entertaining book is ostensibly about units, in particular about Imperial and metric units, but there are numerous informative digressions. The author reminds us that almost every country 'with the exception of the United States, North and South Yemen, Burma and Brunei' has gone metric. He points out that the United States (US) became officially metric in 1893. However, as early as 1866, the US legal definition of the metre was 39.370000 inches. He tells us that after World War II the (US) inch was rounded down (from 25.400051) to 25.4 mm. There is no mention that the Imperial (British) inch was simultaneously rounded up from 25.399956 mm to 25.4 mm. The author frequently digresses, covering such matters as the trisection of angles and Eratosthenes' graphic solution for duplicating the cube. There is an informative discussion on the length of the day: appropriately 25 December, which lasts for 24 h and 30 s, is the longest day. He shows how with cycles and epicycles one can construct an ellipse. Ptolemy did not realize the importance of the focus of the ellipse. The author discusses various topics in the development of

  3. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Júlio C.

    2004-04-01

    very skilful way. We can say that he has found an efficient way to solve the usual dilemma in teaching this subject: physics first, mathematics later, but without sacrificing the full consistency of the theory. The book is divided into three parts. In the first, covering five chapters of the 24 in the whole book, Newtonian physics and special relativity are reviewed. This review is done in a manner that prepares the reader for the subsequent discussion of general relativity itself. The principle of relativity, the variational principle, the geometrical content of Newtonian theory and the main ideas behind special relativity are all presented. In general, this first part is quite standard, except for the emphasis on geometrical aspects, such as the employment of different coordinates in a physical problem, the consequences of specific geometries, such as that of a sphere, and the notion of a spacetime manifold. This allows the author to introduce the reader to the idea of non-Euclidean geometries and their intrinsic properties. The heart of the book is, in some sense, in the second part, containing 14 chapters and covering almost two thirds of the book. Here, the principle of equivalence is fully discussed as well as the idea that gravity can be represented by the geometry of spacetime. Gravity is no longer conceived as a force but instead as the curvature of spacetime. First, the author shows how Newtonian gravity can be obtained as the limit of a specific spacetime geometry, which is after all the weak field limit of a general pseudo-Riemannian spacetime. From this, he is able to introduce geometries that represent gravity outside this weak field limit. The general approach followed by the author could be summarized as follows. The equivalence principle is encoded in curved spacetime. When gravitation effects are weak and the velocity small compared with the velocity of light, we can recover Newtonian theory from this spacetime structure. Now, let us assume a specific

  4. Engineering Review Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available -Johann Angerler, Achim Sibeth, Vom Kultobjekt zur Massenware; Kulturhistorische und kunstethnologische Studie zur figürlichen Holzschnitzkunst der Batak in Nordsumatra/Indonesien. Herbolzheim: Centaurus, 2003, 416 pp. [Sozialökonomische Prozesse in Asien und Afrika 8.] -Greg Bankoff, Eva-Lotta E. Hedman ,Philippine politics and society in the twentieth century; Colonial legacies, post colonial trajectories. London: Routledge, 2000, xv + 206 pp. [Politics in Asia Series.], John T. Sidel (eds -Peter Boomgard, Andrew Dalby, Dangerous tastes; The story of spices. London: British Museum Press, 2002, 184 pp. -Max de Bruijn, G.J. Schutte, Het Indisch Sion; De Gereformeerde kerk onder de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie. Hilversum: Verloren, 2002, 254 pp. [Serta Historica 7.] -Laura M. Calkins, Jacqueline Aquino Siapno, Gender, Islam, nationalism and the state in Aceh; The paradox of power, co-optation and resistance. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002, xxi + 240 pp. -H.J.M. Claessen, Deryck Scarr, A history of the Pacific islands; Passages through tropical time. Richmond: Curzon, 2001, xviii + 323 pp. -Matthew Isaac Cohen, Sean Williams, The sound of the ancestral ship; Highland music of West Java. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, xii + 276 pp. -Freek Colombijn, Raymond K.H. Chan ,Development in Southeast Asia; Review and prospects. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002, xx + 265 pp., Kwan Kwok Leung, Raymond M.H. Ngan (eds -Heidi Dahles, Shinji Yamashita, Bali and beyond; Explorations in the anthropology of tourism. Translated and with an introduction by J.S. Eades, New York: Berghahn, 2003, xix + 175 pp. [Asian Anthropologies.] -Frank Dhont, Hans Antlöv ,Elections in Indonesia; The New Order and beyond. With contributions by Hans Antlöv, Syamsuddin Haris, Endang Turmudi, Sven Cederroth, Kaarlo Voionmaa. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004, xii + 164 pp. [Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Monograph Series 88.], Sven Cederroth (eds -Frank Dhont, Aris Ananta

  6. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Nagata

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available - Matthias Stiefel, W.F. Wertheim, Matthias Stiefel, Rejoinder to Duller’s review in BKI 142-I, with comments by H.J. Duller., W.F. Wertheim (eds. - K.A. Adelaar, James T. Collins, The historical relationship of the languages of central Maluku, Indonesia, Pacific Linguistics Series D, No. 47, 1983. - J.G. de Casparis, Antoinette M. Barrett Jones, Early tenth-century Java from the inscriptions. A study of economic, social and administrative conditions in the first quarter of the century, Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde No. 107, Dordrecht/Cinnaminson 1984. XI + 204 pp. - P.J. Drooglever, L. de Jong, Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog, deel 11a, Nederlands-Indië I, eerste en tweede helft, Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden 1984, 1199 pp., kaarten, foto’s. - David T. Hill, Julie Southwood, Indonesia: Law, propaganda and terror, with foreword by W.F. Wertheim, Zed press, 1983, 272 pp., Patrick Flanagan (eds. - V.J.H. Houben, C.Ch. van den Haspel, Overwicht in overleg. Hervormingen van justitie, grondgebruik en bestuur in de Vorstenlanden op Java 1880-1930, VKI 111, Dordrecht: Foris publications, 1985. - Maarten Kuitenbrouwer, J. van Goor, Imperialisme in de marge. De afronding van Nederlands-Indië, Utrecht 1985. - Harry A. Poeze, Hansje Galesloot, De Nederlandse vakbondsperiodieken van het IISG; Systematisch overzicht. Amsterdam: Stichting Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis, 1985, xiv + 241 pp., Tom van der Meer (eds. - Harry A. Poeze, Frits G.P. Jacquet, Sources of the history of Asia and Oceania in the Netherlands. Part II: Sources 1796-1949. München etc.: Saur, 1983, 547 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Mies Campfens, De Nederlandse archieven van het Internationaal Instituut voor sociale geschiedenis te Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Van Gennep, 1984, 294 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Henk Hondius, Inventaris van het archief van de Sociaal-Democratische arbeiders partij (SDAP 1894-1946. Amsterdam

  7. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, C.

    2005-10-01

    but not least, the issue of quantitative and testable predictions. Whether loop quantum gravity will become a physical theory is not clear. Nor is this clear for string theory or any other approach. However, loop quantum gravity provides a fascinating line of research and has much conceptual appeal. The present volume gives both an introduction and a review of this approach, making it suitable for advanced students as well as experts. It is certainly of interest for the readers of Classical and Quantum Gravity.

  8. Reviewer Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available REVIEWER DATABASEA S PaddaAarati KrishnanAarti KapilAbdul JilaniAbhaya JoglekarAbhijit PakhareAbhisek MishraAbhishek ArunAbhishek GuptaAbhishek JadhavAbhishek SinghAditi SinghAdrija RoyAdwitiya MukhopadhyayAhmed MandilA SubramanianAjit SahaiAkanksha GautamAkela MohamedAkhila GopinathanAkshay KumarAlankrata JainAli AbediAlisha SyiemliehAmal BasuAmandeep KaurA ChauhanAmarnath GuptaAmar SinhaAmir M KhanAmit KaushikAmit PawaiyaAmit SinghAmrita KansalAmrita SougaijamA WadheraAnand DixtA NeelakantanAnil PurtyAnimesh JainAnisha MohanAnjali AroraAnjan DattaAnju GahlotAnkita BajpaiAnku SaikiaAnmol GoyalAnu AgrawalAnu BhardwajAnuj JangraAnupama AryaA MohokarAnurag ChaudaryA SrivastavaAr BondArnab GhoshArpan YagnikArpit PrajapatiArshad AyubArti RauthanArun SainiArun SharmaArun ShiraliArun SugumaranArun VargheseArun WanjpeArvind NathArvind SinghAsha RAshish ChauhanAshish SinhaAshish SrivastavaAshish YadavAshok BhardwajAshok SrivastavaAshu GroverAshutosh SarwaAshwani SinhaAshwini KumarAthar AnsariAtul PuthiaAustin OkpanmaAvijit DasAvijit SinghaAvinash SunthliaB P MathurB VermaBabu DilipBadri MisraBaridalyne NongkynrihBhaswati SenguptaBhavana PandeyBhavana PantBhola NathBhupinder AnandBhupinder SinghBhuwan SharmaBiju SomanBimlesh KumarBinod KumarBinod PatroBishwas AcharyaBiswajit PaulB ChakravarthyB MannaC M S RawatC P MishraC M SinghChandra PrabhaChibi RushithaChitrangada MistryD SrivastavaDaksh SharmaDaneshwar SinghDanish ImtiazDebabrata RoyDeep ShikhaDeepa NairDeepak ChopraDeepak GuptaDeepak SharmaDeepika MittalNandanwarD SharmaDevi NairDharma BhattaD GahwaiDheeraj SharmaDhiraj SrivastavaDhrubajyotiDileepanDinesh BhatnagarDipanjan DeyDivya RajaseharanEkta GuptaEmanuel CummingsEnakshi GanguliFabrice JotterandFatma KarasuFomboh RichardGagan GargGajendra GuptaGarima MittalG BandyopadhyayGeetanjali KapoorGeetu SinghGhos AhmedGirish ChavanGirjesh YadavGita NegiGmsubba RaoGnanakshiGobezie TemesgenGokul ShindeGouri PadhyKassa GideboGunjan NathH ChopraHameeda Ali

  9. Peer-review thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bill; Goodman, Maurice

    2016-03-01

    In reply to the news article on challenges for peer-review by Michael Banks “Peer review under the spotlight” (February pp12-13), the editorial by Matin Durrani “Handle with care” cautioning against reforming peer review too fast (February p15) and Robert P Crease's article “Peer review's value” (February p17).

  10. Reviewer acknowledgement 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belizán José M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Contributing reviewers The editor of Reproductive Health would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 9 (2012. Peer review is essential to the reliable communication of science and we appreciate the effort and generosity of our reviewers who give their time to furthering the excellence and integrity of the journal.

  11. Annual Review of Biophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzis, Christos

    2013-07-01

    Annual Review of Biophysics Rees D. Dill K., Williamson J., Annual Reviews Palo Alto, CA, 2010. 581 pp. (hardcover), ISBN: 978-0-8243-1839-0, © 2013 Doody's Review Service. Doody's Review Service. © 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. Writing a book review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, David; Hudson, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Book reviews are a good way to get started with writing for a journal and this Learning and CPD activity takes you through the process of understanding the aims of book review, undertaking practice pieces through to reviewing a book and advice on the dos and don'ts of book reviewing.

  13. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulling, S. A.

    2006-05-01

    classes of systems: quantum mechanics, linear (free) fields, and interacting fields. DeWitt's characteristic tools of effective actions, heat kernels, and ghost fields are developed. Chapters 26 and 31 outline new approaches developed in collaboration with DeWitt's recent students C Molina-Paris and C Y Wang, respectively. The first of these is a ghost-free formulation of gauge theory built on ideas of G A Vilkovisky. The second is a systematic attempt (following J Schwinger, L V Keldysh, and others) to replace the in-out matrix elements by expectation values in a single (initial) state. Most of parts VI and VII consist of special topics, such as anomalies, particle creation by external fields, Unruh acceleration temperature, black holes, and Euclideanization. Chapter 30, on black holes and Hawking radiation, will be very familiar to readers of DeWitt's influential review article [4]. Chapter 28, on anomalies, makes a careful distinction (missing from many treatments) between 'critical' anomalies, which render equations of motion inconsistent in the (would-be) quantum theory, and harmless anomalies that merely invalidate predictions that would classically follow from certain symmetries. The trace anomalies in the stress tensor of matter and the axial-current anomaly in quantum electrodynamics are harmless. Examples of critical anomalies are the chiral anomaly of a spinor field coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field and the anomaly in the conservation law of the stress tensor of certain pathological theories [5]. DeWitt's chapter calculates the trace and chiral anomalies in detail. The axial anomaly is mentioned only in a one-line summary (and not defined or indexed—generally speaking, I found the book's long index surprisingly unhelpful), and the Alvarez Witten anomaly is not mentioned at all. The last two chapters of part VII treat the most important particular quantum field theories. Chapter 34 develops many of the textbook predictions of quantum eletrodynamics from De

  14. Calculus super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Calculus I Super Review includes a review of functions, limits, basic derivatives, the definite integral, combinations, and permutations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much you've learned - and where you need more study. Makes an excellent study aid and textbook companion. Great for self-study!DETAILS- From cover to cover, each in-depth topic review is easy-to-follow and easy-to-grasp - Perfect when preparing for

  15. Book Reviews Volume 3

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Book Reviews Denis McQuail Media Performance: Mass Communication and the Public Interest, Reviewed by Farrel Corcoran. James Donald, Sentimental Education: Schooling, Popular Culture and the Regulation of Liberty London, Reviewed by Sheelagh Drudy Robert Chapman Selling The Sixties: The Pirates and Pop Music Radio, Reviewed by Pat Dunne Bob Franklin, ed. Televising Democracies with a foreword by Bernard Weatherhill , Reviewed by Brian Farrell Tim Congdon et al Paying for Broadc...

  16. Rate Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of September 1, 2011, the Affordable Care Act and rate review regulation require review of rate increases of 10 percent or more. A non-grandfathered health plan...

  17. Reviewer acknowledgement 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Voss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Contributing reviewers Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control would like to thank the following colleagues for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for the journal in 2015.

  18. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  19. Review of manpower resources

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Following the announcement by the Director-General to the Finance Committee in November 1999 that the Management was conducting a review of competencies and critical skills, this paper presents the results of that review.

  20. Marine prostanoids - a review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    The occurrence and structure of prostaglandins including clavulones, punaglandins and claviridenones in marine organisms is reviewEd. by comparison of the spectral data reported the identity of 20-acetoxy claviridenones b and c with 20 acetoxy...

  1. Topical report review status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies.

  2. Peer reviewing made easy

    OpenAIRE

    Halder, Neel; Ramsay, Rosalind; Tyrer, Peter; Casey, Patricia R.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review in scientific journals has existed for over 200 years. This process is currently the accepted way of assessing scientific manuscripts prior to publication for most journals. Despite this, little has been written about the process of peer reviewing, with hardly anything specific to psychiatric journals. This article answers fundamental questions related to peer reviewing and includes practical tips to writing reviews. It will be helpful for those keen on improving their knowledge a...

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylamide (External Review ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB) of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of acrylamide that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that the science is used credibly and appropriately in derivation of the dose-response assessments and toxicological characterization. The draft Toxicological Review of Acrylamide provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment pertaining to a chronic exposure to acrylamide.

  4. Diversifying customer review rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krestel, Ralf; Dokoohaki, Nima

    2015-06-01

    E-commerce Web sites owe much of their popularity to consumer reviews accompanying product descriptions. On-line customers spend hours and hours going through heaps of textual reviews to decide which products to buy. At the same time, each popular product has thousands of user-generated reviews, making it impossible for a buyer to read everything. Current approaches to display reviews to users or recommend an individual review for a product are based on the recency or helpfulness of each review. In this paper, we present a framework to rank product reviews by optimizing the coverage of the ranking with respect to sentiment or aspects, or by summarizing all reviews with the top-K reviews in the ranking. To accomplish this, we make use of the assigned star rating for a product as an indicator for a review's sentiment polarity and compare bag-of-words (language model) with topic models (latent Dirichlet allocation) as a mean to represent aspects. Our evaluation on manually annotated review data from a commercial review Web site demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach, outperforming plain recency ranking by 30% and obtaining best results by combining language and topic model representations.

  5. Reviews of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    "Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24," edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence

  6. Reviews of plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafranov, Vitalii Dmitrievich (ed.); Bakunin, Oleg G. (comps.) [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ' ' Kurchatovskij Inst.' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation). Nuclear Fusion Inst.; Rozhansky, V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24, edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence (orig.)

  7. Algebra & trigonometry super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Algebra and Trigonometry Super Review includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, equations, linear equations and systems of linear equations, inequalities, relations and functions, quadratic equations, equations of higher order, ratios, proportions, and variations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much y

  8. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  9. Recent Reviews. 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornel, Veronica M

    2003-01-10

    Reviews are listed in order of appearance in the sources indicated. In multidisciplinary review journals, only those reviews which fall within the scope of this Journal are included. Sources are listed alphabetically in three categories: regularly issued review journals and series volumes, contributed volumes, and other monographs. Titles are numbered serially, and these numbers are used for reference in the index. Major English-language sources of critical reviews are covered. Encyclopedic treatises, annual surveys such as Specialist Periodical Reports, and compilations of symposia proceedings are omitted. This installment of Recent Reviews covers principally the middle part of the 2002 literature. Previous installment: J. Org. Chem. 2002, 67(20), 7169-74. SUPPORTING INFORMATION AVAILABLE: A file containing this Recent Review compilation in Microsoft Word and the data in rtf format. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.

  10. Recent reviews. 57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornel, V M

    2000-07-14

    Reviews are listed in order of appearance in the sources indicated. In multidisciplinary review journals, only those reviews which fall within the scope of this Journal are included. Sources are listed alphabetically in three categories: regularly issued review journals and series volumes, contributed volumes, and other monographs. Titles are numbered serially, and these numbers are used for reference in the index. Major English-language sources of critical reviews are covered. Encyclopedic treatises, annual surveys such as Specialist Periodical Reports, and compilations of symposia proceedings are omitted. This installment of Recent Reviews covers principally the early part of the 2000 literature. Previous installment: J. Org. Chem. 2000, 65(7), 2267-76. Supporting Information Available: A file containing this Recent Review compilation in Microsoft Word and the data in rtf format. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs. acs.org.

  11. Fires. September-December 07

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    into every NCO and com- pany grade officer course. My guidance to the School is to explore ways to take the best modules from the TIOC, JFO and EW...exchanged its older M16A2 5.56-mm semiautomatic rifles for a pure fleet of M4 carbines with rail systems, complete with sights and “own- the-night” scopes

  12. Effects of Gender, Load, and Backpack on Easy Standing and Vertical Jump Performance. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    OOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOO NUMBER «. TITLE (md Subtitl.) VOLUME II, EFFECTS OF GENDER, LOAD, AND BACKPACK ON EASY STANDING AND...worn or carried and the type of backpack used on parameters of the easy standing and vertical jumping performance of men ajnd women. Fourteen men and...3 - combat gear (Load 2 plus PASGT helmet, PASGT armor vest, simulated M16 rifle); Load A - combat gear and 20-lb backpack oo,; JAM 7» 1473

  13. Automatic Weapons, Machineguns, Hand and Shoulder Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-21

    to manually operate the trigger) Headspace Barrel length Length of rifled bore Direction and twist of rifling Number of lands and grooves Diameter...guns (cal .50 class and larger), with the rear sight elevated to the respective m merking for the ranges to be fired. NOTE: 1) The "zeroing-in" phase is...described in applicable technical manuals , require- ments documents, or manufacturer’s literature. Review all special warnings and safety SOP’s before testing

  14. Writing a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K H; Peh, W C

    2010-05-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) aims to combine the best available scientific evidence with clinical experience and individual judgment of patient needs. In the hierarchy of scientific evidence, systematic reviews (along with meta-analyses) occupy the highest levels in terms of the quality of evidence. A systematic review is the process of searching, selecting, appraising, synthesising and reporting clinical evidence on a particular question or topic. It is currently considered the best, least biased and most rational way to organise, gather, evaluate and integrate scientific evidence from the rapidly-changing medical and healthcare literature. Systematic reviews could be used to present current concepts or serve as review articles and replace the traditional expert opinion or narrative review. This article explains the structure and content of a systematic review.

  15. Review of the Proposed Quarterly Coal Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This Review of the Proposed Quarterly Coal Review is the second of two reports and contains the results of our analysis of issues regarding the publication of a new summary publication, the Quarterly Coal Review. The first report on the QCR was submitted to the Office of Energy Data Operations (OEDO) in January 1981 and included results of our analysis and recommendations concerning data availability and content organization. This report concentrates on data presentation and publication format for the proposed QCR. Comprised of two sections, the report addresses chapter and table formats and presents a detailed analysis of chapter content. The first section of this report, Chapter, Table and Graph Formats, consists of findings and recommendations on the ordering, titling, end notes and cosmetics of the tables proposed for the QCR. The next section, Detailed Analysis of Chapter Content, is the result of a more in-depth analysis of chapters in the QCR.

  16. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  17. 2012 Development Effectiveness Review

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2013-01-01

    The Development Effectiveness Review 2012 Report is the sixth annual corporate performance review of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). It assesses progress in implementing Strategy 2020, ADB’s long-term strategic framework, using the performance indicators, baselines, and targets in the ADB results framework. It analyzes performance trends, identifies strengths and weaknesses, and defines corrective actions. The review takes stock of progress since 2008 and shows whether ADB met its 2012 targ...

  18. Design Review Improvement Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    address the Software Development Review Process given the uniqueness of the CMMI Process. The Software Development Process is extensively covered in...reality places increased burdens upon the reviewers to speed things up, a direct contrast to what they should be doing which is methodically ...interfaces between prime and subcontractors 15 • Analytical methods used for predicted margins During the design review the above data / information

  19. Sscience & technology review; Science Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This review is published ten times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s scientific and technological accomplishments, particularly in the Laboratory`s core mission areas - global security, energy and the environment, and bioscience and biotechnology. This review for the month of July 1996 discusses: Frontiers of research in advanced computations, The multibeam Fabry-Perot velocimeter: Efficient measurement of high velocities, High-tech tools for the American textile industry, and Rock mechanics: can the Tuff take the stress.

  20. Guttmacher policy review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    .... This quarterly review relates state to national and international developments and highlights all aspects of reproductive health policy, drawing the connections between abortion, contraception...

  1. A Review of Integrity™ : Software Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2008-01-01

    Integrity™, an online application for testing both the statistical integrity of the test and the academic integrity of the examinees, was evaluated for this review. Program features and the program output are described. An overview of the statistics in Integrity™ is provided, and the application is

  2. Acknowledgment to reviewers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Editors of the Journal of Sport and Health Science(JSHS) wish to thank the following people and any other reviewer whose name has been inadvertently omitted,for giving your time and expertise to review papers and facilitate the smooth running of JSHS in 2012.

  3. Learning by Reviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwangsu; MacArthur, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Peer review of writing provides an alternative to the traditional approach of practicing writing with feedback from an instructor. Most of the limited research on peer review has examined the general effects or focused on the effects of receiving feedback from peers. The current study focused on the effects of giving feedback, that is, on whether…

  4. Haramaya Law Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) is seeking original submissions in English ... including analysis of domestic or international laws and cases, the African Union ... In general, three consecutive words or more copied from a source should be treated .... If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in ...

  5. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory publishes the Energy and Technology Review Monthly. This periodical reviews progress mode is selected programs at the laboratory. This issue includes articles on in-situ coal gasification, on chromosomal aberrations in human sperm, on high speed cell sorting and on supercomputers.

  6. Bibliographic Coupling: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1974-01-01

    The theory and practical applications of bibliographic coupling are reviewed. The reviewer takes issue with the use of bibliographic coupling for information retrieval and automatic classification on logical grounds, and for reasons relating to uncontrolled citation practices. The usefulness of the procedure for the study of the science of science…

  7. Why Write Book Reviews?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng-Odoom, Franklin

    2014-01-01

    The pressure to publish or perish or, more recently, to be visible or vanish, marginalises a culture of critical reading and reflection that has historically been the province of book reviews. Today, book reviews are roundly rejected by academic bureaucrats as unimportant, easy to write and hence, easy to get published, mere summaries, uncritical…

  8. Review of Assessment Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrui; De Luca, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews 37 empirical studies, selected from 363 articles and 20 journals, on assessment feedback published between 2000 and 2011. The reviewed articles, many of which came out of studies in the UK and Australia, reflect the most current issues and developments in the area of assessing disciplinary writing. The article aims to outline…

  9. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  10. MELCOR Peer Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Dhir, V.K. [Santa Monica, CA. (United States); Gieseke, J.A. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Haste, T.J. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Kenton, M.A. [Gabor, Kenton and Associates, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Leonard, M.T. [Science Applications International Corp., Wolfheze (Netherlands); Viskanta, R. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Heat Transfer Lab.

    1992-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation.

  11. Context-Aware Reviewer Assignment for Trust Enhanced Peer Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    Full Text Available Reviewer assignment is critical to peer review systems, such as peer-reviewed research conferences or peer-reviewed funding applications, and its effectiveness is a deep concern of all academics. However, there are some problems in existing peer review systems during reviewer assignment. For example, some of the reviewers are much more stringent than others, leading to an unfair final decision, i.e., some submissions (i.e., papers or applications with better quality are rejected. In this paper, we propose a context-aware reviewer assignment for trust enhanced peer review. More specifically, in our approach, we first consider the research area specific expertise of reviewers, and the institution relevance and co-authorship between reviewers and authors, so that reviewers with the right expertise are assigned to the corresponding submissions without potential conflict of interest. In addition, we propose a novel cross-assignment paradigm, and reviewers are cross-assigned in order to avoid assigning a group of stringent reviewers or a group of lenient reviewers to the same submission. More importantly, on top of them, we propose an academic CONtext-aware expertise relevanCe oriEnted Reviewer cross-assignmenT approach (CONCERT, which aims to effectively estimate the "true" ratings of submissions based on the ratings from all reviewers, even though no prior knowledge exists about the distribution of stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers. The experiments illustrate that compared with existing approaches, our proposed CONCERT approach can less likely assign more than one stringent reviewers or lenient reviewers to a submission simultaneously and significantly reduce the influence of ratings from stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers, leading to trust enhanced peer review and selection, no matter what kind of distributions of stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers are.

  12. Context-Aware Reviewer Assignment for Trust Enhanced Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Yan; Liu, Guanfeng; Wang, Meng; Wu, Xindong

    2015-01-01

    Reviewer assignment is critical to peer review systems, such as peer-reviewed research conferences or peer-reviewed funding applications, and its effectiveness is a deep concern of all academics. However, there are some problems in existing peer review systems during reviewer assignment. For example, some of the reviewers are much more stringent than others, leading to an unfair final decision, i.e., some submissions (i.e., papers or applications) with better quality are rejected. In this paper, we propose a context-aware reviewer assignment for trust enhanced peer review. More specifically, in our approach, we first consider the research area specific expertise of reviewers, and the institution relevance and co-authorship between reviewers and authors, so that reviewers with the right expertise are assigned to the corresponding submissions without potential conflict of interest. In addition, we propose a novel cross-assignment paradigm, and reviewers are cross-assigned in order to avoid assigning a group of stringent reviewers or a group of lenient reviewers to the same submission. More importantly, on top of them, we propose an academic CONtext-aware expertise relevanCe oriEnted Reviewer cross-assignmenT approach (CONCERT), which aims to effectively estimate the "true" ratings of submissions based on the ratings from all reviewers, even though no prior knowledge exists about the distribution of stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers. The experiments illustrate that compared with existing approaches, our proposed CONCERT approach can less likely assign more than one stringent reviewers or lenient reviewers to a submission simultaneously and significantly reduce the influence of ratings from stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers, leading to trust enhanced peer review and selection, no matter what kind of distributions of stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers are.

  13. Book reviews in medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, K

    1986-01-01

    In a study of book reviews published in four general medical journals over a six-month period, 480 reviews were analyzed. Twenty-five features that reviewers address when evaluating a text were identified, and the frequency of commentary for each feature was determined. The mean number of features addressed per review was 9.0. Reviews averaged 389 words, but review length did not correlate with the length or scope of the book, with the number of features addressed, nor with the reviewer's assessment of the text. Extraneous commentary by the reviewer occurred in 16% of the reviews. This editorializing appeared in lengthier reviews that addressed fewer features. Favorable reviews were far more common than unfavorable ones (88.5% vs. 11.5%). Consequently, for the fifty-five books reviewed in more than one journal, agreement regarding rating of the text was high (86%). Results of this study may provide useful guidelines for reviewers of medical texts.

  14. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  15. Book Reviewers: An Empirical Portrait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Kathleen W.

    1984-01-01

    Reports results of survey questioning "School Library Journal's" reviewers of children's literature in four main areas: review aspects (relating plot, commenting on literary quality); reviewer roles (reviewer, critic); review practices; and personal and professional background (demographic questions). The survey questionnaire and 38…

  16. Reviews in fluorescence 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    ""Reviews in Fluorescence 2010"", the seventh volume of the book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of fluorescence and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. ""Reviews in Fluorescence"" offers an essential reference material for any lab working in the fluoresc

  17. [Iridology: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Léia Fortes; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes

    2008-09-01

    This study is a literature review about Iridology/Irisdiagnose in the period from 1970 to 2005. The objective was to identify the worldwide scientific publications (articles) in this field and the opinions about the method. Twenty-five articles were found, four of them from Brazilian authors. About the category, 1 was literature review, 12 research studies and 12 updates, historical reviews or editorials. The countries that have contributed more with the studies were Brazil and Russia. Fifteen of those are in favor of the method and 10 are against it. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop more studies inside the methodological rigor, once Iridology brings hope to preventive medicine.

  18. Reviews in plasmonics 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    Reviews in Plasmonics 2010, the first volume of the new book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of Plasmonics and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in surface plasmon phenomena and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of Plasmonics. Reviews in Plasmonics offers an essential reference material for any lab working in the Plasmonic

  19. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    development in the early decade, as defined by the scenario, will produce growth primarily in Battlement Mesa, Rifle, and Grand Junction. By 1985, the population of Battlement Mesa is projected to be 8500, the population of Rifle to increase to 8000, and the population of Grand Junction to increase by 2000 persons. Rangely's population is expected to double in this period, and Meeker will increase to 5200. By 1986, population pressures in the south will accelerate the growth rate of Meeker and Rifle and the entire region will experience a growth surge in 1988 induced by the second phase of construction at the oil shale sites. The regional population influx is estimated to increase to 40 600 by 1988 and drop to 38 300 by 1990. This drop reflects the decrease in construction activity at the close of the decade, as specified by the scenario. Difficulties associated with the appraisal of public service needs are discussed in Sec. V. Conceptual problems in adopting adequacy standards are outlined and methodologies employed by other assessments are reviewed. Sources of disagreement over the cost of public facilities are also described. Using standards developed in 1979 by the Colorado Department of Local Affairs, we estimated that the public capital expenditures implied by the scenario-induced population growth would exceed $190 million over the decade. However, if the costs of public facilities in Battlement Mesa are internalized by the company, the total estimated capital costs would be $135 million. Use of a fiscal capacity model, developed by the State of Colorado, projected municipal revenue shortfalls in the early years of the scenario. These estimated shortfalls would be greatest in Meeker and in Rifle. These findings reaffirmed the conclusions of previous studies, which found that after the critical initial years of capital shortages, revenues would be sufficient to finance operating expenses of local government. Comprehensive fiscal planning, however, is handicapped

  20. E-commerce Review System to Detect False Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhar, Manjur

    2017-08-15

    E-commerce sites have been doing profitable business since their induction in high-speed and secured networks. Moreover, they continue to influence consumers through various methods. One of the most effective methods is the e-commerce review rating system, in which consumers provide review ratings for the products used. However, almost all e-commerce review rating systems are unable to provide cumulative review ratings. Furthermore, review ratings are influenced by positive and negative malicious feedback ratings, collectively called false reviews. In this paper, we proposed an e-commerce review system framework developed using the cumulative sum method to detect and remove malicious review ratings.

  1. A Wikipedia Literature Review

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Owen S

    2011-01-01

    This paper was originally designed as a literature review for a doctoral dissertation focusing on Wikipedia. This exposition gives the structure of Wikipedia and the latest trends in Wikipedia research.

  2. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the University of ... The application of analytical procedures in the audit process: A South African ...

  3. Silent screen: book review.

    OpenAIRE

    Ó Drisceoil, Donal

    2007-01-01

    Book Review. Kevin Rockett, Irish film censorship: a cultural journey from silent cinema to internet pornography (Dublin, 2004) and Mary Corcoran and Mark O'Brien (eds), Political censorship and the democratic state: the Irish broadcasting ban (Dublin, 2005)

  4. State Program Integrity Reviews

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State program integrity reviews play a critical role in how CMS provides effective support and assistance to states in their efforts to combat provider fraud and...

  5. Quarks and partons. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschos, E A

    1976-01-01

    This contribution reviews the evidence accumulated over the past year in favor of quarks and partons. Then it applies the quark ideas in order to interpret the neutrino-induced production of charm and the structure of neutral currents.

  6. Computer Center: Software Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhrkopf, Richard, Ed.; Belshe, John F., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews a software package, "Mitosis-Meiosis," available for Apple II or IBM computers with colorgraphics capabilities. Describes the documentation, presentation and flexibility of the program. Rates the program based on graphics and usability in a biology classroom. (CW)

  7. Encyclopedia Reviews 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemier, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Reviews thirteen 1978 edition encyclopedias: Book of Art, Britannica Jr., Britannica 3, Childcraft, Collier's, Compton's. Encyclopedia Americana, Funk & Wagnalls, Merit Students, New Caton, Random House, New Standard, and World Book. (SB)

  8. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  9. Recensione / Recension / Book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Fabio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Book review of:Sette R., Cases on Technologies for Teaching Criminology and Victimology: Methodologies and practices, IGI Global – Information Science Reference, Hershey PA, 2010

  10. Review of idiopathic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of pancreatitis and advances in technology have uncovered the veils of idiopathic pancreatitis to a point where a thorough history and judicious use of diagnostic techniques elucidate the cause in over 80% of cases. This review examines the multitude of etiologies of what were once labeled idiopathic pancreatitis and provides the current evidence on each. This review begins with a background review of the current epidemiology of idiopathic pancreatitis prior to discussion of various etiologies. Etiologies of medications, infections, toxins,autoimmune disorders, vascular causes, and anatomic and functional causes are explored in detail. We conclude with management of true idiopathic pancreatitis and a summary of the various etiologic agents. Throughout this review, areas of controversies are highlighted.

  11. FEATURES AND REVIEWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Waterproof and breathable fabric: A ,Review By Xuanting LIAO , Xiaoqiang MA, Wuhan Vocational Technology College and College of Textile Garment, Wuhan, Hubei Abstract: Waterproof and breathable (W&B) fabric is one of new type of functional textiles gradu

  12. Why We Review Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    As required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA periodically reviews existing registered pesticides to ensure they can be used safely, without unreasonable risks to human health and the environment.

  13. 282 REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    A REVIEW OF LASSA FEVER, AN EMERGING OLD WORLD HAEMORRHAGIC VIRAL .... countries where the disease is endemic (including ... low incidence of Lassa fever in advanced countries of ..... in mobilizing logistics and necessary.

  14. Risk — A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced carcinogenesis in several animal and human models following exposure t0 these estrogen metabolites. This review ... 14 Afîifdfl journal af Reproductive Healïb ... animals and humans. .... studies in a nude mouse model developed by.

  15. Chemical thermodynamics: plenary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegley, B., Jr.

    1990-05-01

    The invited and contributed papers dealing with the applications of chemical thermodynamics to planetary atmospheres research are briefly reviewed. The key areas for future applications of chemical thermodynamics research to planetary atmospheres are also described.

  16. Model Validation Status Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  17. 2015 Reviewer Acknowledgment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    With the effort of all Editorial Board members and reviewers of the Virologica Sinica(VS),the journal got great progress in the year 2015.VS has been newly indexed by SCIE and the yearly download times on Springerlink have reached the highest record in its history.The Editors of the Virologica Sinica would like to thank all the following reviewers for their excellent work for Virologica

  18. Third molars: A review

    OpenAIRE

    E Siva Prasad Reddy; Y Narendranath Reddy

    2009-01-01

    Background: Third molars are teeth that have little functional value and a relatively high rate of associated pain and disease. Their value, as part of the dentition of modern people, is dubious. Types of Studies Reviewed: The authors review the evolution, development. moribidity and treatment of third molars. They access the value of third molars in the 21st century and describe the risks these teeth pose when they develop in the dentition. Conclusions: There is a mandate for the dental prof...

  19. Aircrew Screening Instruments Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    available tools . Several vendors indicated that they will have new selection instruments available within a few months. These are not listed. As noted...AFCAPS-FR-2011-0012 AIRCREW SCREENING INSTRUMENTS REVIEW Diane L. Damos Damos Aviation Services, Inc...June 2007 – August 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aircrew Screening Instruments Review 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA3089-06-F-0385 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  20. Regulatory Review Committee update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, T. [Polishuk, Camman and Steele, London ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The Committee's objectives, current membership and current issues are reviewed. Each current issue, notably the consultation process with the Ministry of Natural Resources, appeal of Ministry actions, orphan wells/security deposits, oilfield fluid disposal and labour code practices review are discussed in some detail. Dissatisfaction with the current appeals process to the Ministry is highlighted, along with a search for an all encompassing solution. The orphan well problem also received considerable attention, with similar demands for a comprehensive solution.

  1. Review of Hydroelasticity Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xu-jun; Wu, You-sheng; Cui, Wei-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Existing hydroelastic theories are reviewed. The theories are classified into different types: two-dimensional linear theory, two-dimensional nonlinear theory, three-dimensional linear theory and three-dimensional nonlinear theory. Applications to analysis of very large floating structures (VLFS)......) are reviewed and discussed in details. Special emphasis is placed on papers from China and Japan (in native languages) as these papers are not generally publicly known in the rest of the world....

  2. Ethics in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Nabet, Cathy; Maret, Delphine; Hamel, Olivier

    2010-12-01

    Since its introduction by the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki, the place held by ethics in biomedical research has been continuously increasing in importance. The past 30 years have also seen exponential growth in the number of biomedical articles published. A systematic review of the literature is the scientific way of synthesising a plethora of information, by exhaustively searching out and objectively analysing the studies dealing with a given issue. However, the question of ethics in systematic reviews is rarely touched upon. This could lead to some drawbacks, as systematic reviews may contain studies with ethical insufficiencies, may be a possible way to publish unethical research and may also be prone to conflict of interest. Finally, informed consent given for an original study is not necessarily still valid at the systematic review level. There is no doubt that routine ethical assessment in systematic reviews would help to improve the ethical and methodological quality of studies in general. However, ethical issues change so much with time and location, and are so broad in scope and in context that it appears illusory to search for a universal, internationally accepted standard for ethical assessment in systematic reviews. Some simple suggestions could nevertheless be drawn from the present reflection and are discussed in the paper.

  3. Online Paper Review Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohey El-Din

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment analysis or opinion mining is used to automate the detection of subjective information such as opinions, attitudes, emotions, and feelings. Hundreds of thousands care about scientific research and take a long time to select suitable papers for their research. Online reviews on papers are the essential source to help them. The reviews save reading time and save papers cost. This paper proposes a new technique to analyze online reviews. It is called sentiment analysis of online papers (SAOOP. SAOOP is a new technique used for enhancing bag-of-words model, improving the accuracy and performance. SAOOP is useful in increasing the understanding rate of review's sentences through higher language coverage cases. SAOOP introduces solutions for some sentiment analysis challenges and uses them to achieve higher accuracy. This paper also presents a measure of topic domain attributes, which provides a ranking of total judging on each text review for assessing and comparing results across different sentiment techniques for a given text review. Finally, showing the efficiency of the proposed approach by comparing the proposed technique with two sentiment analysis techniques. The comparison terms are based on measuring accuracy, performance and understanding rate of sentences.

  4. Cogmed WM training: reviewing the reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinaver, Charles S; Entwistle, Peter C; Söderqvist, Stina

    2014-01-01

    Does Cogmed working-memory training (CWMT) work? Independent groups of reviewers have come to what appears to be starkly different conclusions to this question, causing somewhat of a debate within scientific and popular media. Here, various studies, meta-analyses, and reviews of the Cogmed research literature will be considered to provide an overview of our present understanding regarding the effects of CWMT. These will particularly be considered in light of two recent critical reviews published by Melby-Lervåg and Hulme ( 2013 ) and Shipstead, Hicks, and Engle ( 2012 ) and their arguments and conclusions assessed against current available evidence. Importantly we describe how the conclusions drawn by Melby-Lervåg and Hulme appear to contradict their own findings. In fact, the results from their meta-analysis show highly significant effects of working-memory (WM) training on improving visuospatial WM and verbal WM (both ps CWMT (compared with other training programs). We also conclude that there is current evidence from several studies using different types of outcome measures that shows attention can be improved following CWMT. In a little more than a decade, there is evidence that suggests that Cogmed has a significant impact upon visual-spatial and verbal WM, and these effects generalize to improved sustained attention up to 6 months. We discuss the evidence for improvements in academic abilities and conclude that although some promising studies are pointing to benefits gained from CWMT, more controlled studies are needed before we can make strong and specific claims on this topic. In conclusion, we find that there is a consensus in showing that WM capacity and attention is improved following CWMT. Due to the importance of WM and attention in everyday functioning, this is, on its own, of great potential value.

  5. Exploring Linkablility of Community Reviewing

    CERN Document Server

    Almishari, Mishari

    2011-01-01

    Large numbers of people all over the world read and contribute to various review sites. Many contributors are understandably concerned about privacy; specifically, about linkability of reviews (and accounts) across review sites. In this paper, we study linkability of community reviewing and try to answer the question: to what extent are "anonymous" reviews linkable, i.e., likely authored by the same contributor? Based on a very large set of reviews from a popular site (Yelp), we show that a high percentage of ostensibly anonymous reviews can be linked with very high confidence. This is despite the fact that we use very simple models and equally simple features set. Our study suggests that contributors reliably expose their identities in reviews. This has important implications for cross-referencing accounts between different review sites. Also, techniques used in our study could be adopted by review sites to give contributors feedback about privacy of their reviews.

  6. Reviewer Stances and Writer Perceptions in EFL Peer Review Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hui-Tzu

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that reviewers' stances can impact the efficacy of peer response/review and subsequent revision. The purpose of this classroom-based study was to compare reviewer stances and writer perceptions of/and attitudes toward these stances prior to and after peer review training in an EFL writing class. Eighteen intermediate EFL writers…

  7. Meta-Review: Systematic Assessment of Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, Robert J. Barak and Barbara E. Breier suggested incorporating a regular assessment of the entire program review system into the review schedule in order to ensure that the system itself is as efficient and effective as the programs under review. Barak and Breier's seminal book on the goals and processes of program review has…

  8. 78 FR 47016 - Submission for Review: Request for External Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Request for External Review AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management... on a new information collection request (ICR) 3206-NEW, Request for External Review. As required by... March 11, 2013, 78 FR 15560, which outlined an external review process that would be available...

  9. Peer review guidance: how do you write a good review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas Wesley

    2013-12-01

    Peer review is essential to the quality of scientific publications. As the volume of submissions to these journals increases, the need for an expanding cadre of trained reviewers also increases. Many reviewers do not receive formal training on conducting a peer review or education on the peer review process, however. The author presents an overview of the peer review process and provides guidance for conducting high-quality reviews of manuscripts submitted to The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association and other scientific journals.

  10. 2015 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    In the spring and summer of 2015, the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO or the Office) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented an external peer review of the projects in its research, development and demonstration (RD&D) portfolio. The Office manages a diverse portfolio of technologies across the spectrum of applied RD&D within the dynamic context of changing budgets and Administration priorities. The Office portfolio is organized according to the biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain—from the feedstock source to the end user (see Figure 1)—with major focus on feedstock supply and biomass conversion. The 2015 Project Peer Review took place March 23-27, 2015, outside of Washington, D.C., in Alexandria, Virginia, and evaluated most of the publicly funded projects in BETO’s portfolio. The subsequent Program Management Review took place on June 25, 2015, in Washington, D.C., and provided an Office- level assessment of strategic planning and programmatic initiatives. The peer review process enables external stakeholders to provide feedback on the responsible use of taxpayer funding and develop recommendations for the most efficient and effective ways to accelerate the development of an advanced bioenergy industry. The planning and execution of these reviews was completed over the course of 10 months, and this report includes the results of both events.

  11. ATLAS Review Office

    CERN Multimedia

    Szeless, B

    The ATLAS internal reviews, be it the mandatory Production Readiness Reviews, the now newly installed Production Advancement Reviews, or the more and more requested different Design Reviews, have become a part of our ATLAS culture over the past years. The Activity Systems Status Overviews are, for the time being, a one in time event and should be held for each system as soon as possible to have some meaning. There seems to a consensus that the reviews have become a useful project tool for the ATLAS management but even more so for the sub-systems themselves making achievements as well as possible shortcomings visible. One other recognized byproduct is the increasing cross talk between the systems, a very important ingredient to make profit all the systems from the large collective knowledge we dispose of in ATLAS. In the last two months, the first two PARs were organized for the MDT End Caps and the TRT Barrel Modules, both part of the US contribution to the ATLAS Project. Furthermore several different design...

  12. Peer Reviewer Recognition 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Dear CPCJ Peer Reviewers, As we start 2017, it is again time to say thank you to all the 2016 peer reviewers. Published bimonthly with a global readership, CPCJ is the official organ of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. For the six issues of Volume 53, 2016, 114 articles were published in 963 pages with 756 print pages and 207 online-only pages. Three hundred and forty-six manuscripts were received and 321 were processed by 23 Section Editors and reviewed by 355 peer reviewers. Through your collective efforts and expertise, the quality of CPCJ continues to grow. The journal website had a 0.5% increase in the number of total site visits, with 142,916 visits (as compared to 142,156 in 2015), and the AllenTrack submission site also experienced an increase in usage-new users increased 3.4% during 2016, from 1203 to 1244. Together with the entire editorial team, Dr. Stephen Conley, the Associate Editor of CPCJ, and I would like to thank all the peer reviewers for your tremendous work for the journal over the past twelve months. Because of you our journal is growing and poised to undergo a critical metamorphosis. CPCJ is our journal and it will serve the global readership even better on all matters related to craniofacial conditions by increasing in both quantity and quality in the years to come. Sincerely, Jack C. Yu, Editor, CPCJ Stephen F. Conley, Associate Editor, CPCJ.

  13. Dendrobium micropropagation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Dobránszki, Judit; Zeng, Songjun

    2015-05-01

    Dendrobium is one of the largest and most important (ornamentally and medicinally) orchid genera. Tissue culture is now an established method for the effective propagation of members of this genus. This review provides a detailed overview of the Dendrobium micropropagation literature. Through a chronological analysis, aspects such as explant, basal medium, plant growth regulators, culture conditions and final organogenic outcome are chronicled in detail. This review will allow Dendrobium specialists to use the information that has been documented to establish, more efficiently, protocols for their own germplasm and to improve in vitro culture conditions based on the optimized parameters detailed in this review. Not only will this expand the use for mass propagation, but will also allow for the conservation of important germplasm. Information on the in vitro responses of Dendrobium for developing efficient protocols for breeding techniques based on tissue culture, such as polyploidization, somatic hybridization, isolation of mutants and somaclonal variants and for synthetic seed and bioreactor technology, or for genetic transformation, is discussed in this review. This is the first such review on this genus and represents half a decade of literature dedicated to Dendrobium micropropagation.

  14. Expediting systematic reviews: methods and implications of rapid reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciliska Donna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers and others often require synthesis of knowledge in an area within six months or less. Traditional systematic reviews typically take at least 12 months to conduct. Rapid reviews streamline traditional systematic review methods in order to synthesize evidence within a shortened timeframe. There is great variation in the process of conducting rapid reviews. This review sought to examine methods used for rapid reviews, as well as implications of methodological streamlining in terms of rigour, bias, and results. Methods A comprehensive search strategy--including five electronic databases, grey literature, hand searching of relevant journals, and contacting key informants--was undertaken. All titles and abstracts (n = 1,989 were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Relevance criteria included articles published between 1995 and 2009 about conducting rapid reviews or addressing comparisons of rapid reviews versus traditional reviews. Full articles were retrieved for any titles deemed relevant by either reviewer (n = 70. Data were extracted from all relevant methodological articles (n = 45 and from exemplars of rapid review methods (n = 25. Results Rapid reviews varied from three weeks to six months; various methods for speeding up the process were employed. Some limited searching by years, databases, language, and sources beyond electronic searches. Several employed one reviewer for title and abstract reviewing, full text review, methodological quality assessment, and/or data extraction phases. Within rapid review studies, accelerating the data extraction process may lead to missing some relevant information. Biases may be introduced due to shortened timeframes for literature searching, article retrieval, and appraisal. Conclusions This review examined the continuum between diverse rapid review methods and traditional systematic reviews. It also examines potential implications of streamlined review methods. More of

  15. Book reviews 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilling Axel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This section contains reviews of two Swedish books on international taxation. First, the book Skatteavtal och generalklausuler, Ett komparativt perspektiv (Tax Agreements and General Anti-Avoidance Regulations, A Comparative Perspective is recommended for those who study and work with international tax law. The book analyses how tax treaties’ function to limit contracting states’ taxing powers relates to national GAARs. A comparative analysis is made between Sweden and Canada. In the second review, the doctoral dissertation EU-domstolens restirktionsprövning i mal om de grundläggande frihterna och direkta skatter (The EU Court of Justice’s examination of the restriction requirement in its direct tax case law is reviewed. The dissertation systemizes relevant CJEU’s case law and analyzes the Courts reasoning in deciding whether or not certain tax regulation is in conflict with EU fundamental freedoms.

  16. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  17. Book Reviews 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilling Axel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This section contains three book reviews. First the book Swedish Taxation, Development since 1862 is reviewed. This volume comprises six studies that examine the development of Swedish taxation from 1862 to 2013, and will likely be of great value in future Nordic tax research because of its comprehensiveness. The second review is about a book written in Swedish:Momsfri sjukvård (The VAT exemption for health care. This volume discusses a topical issue and presents convincing recommendations for changes in the Swedish VAT legislation. Finally, the Danish book International Skatteret, i et dansk perspektiv (International Tax Law, in a Danish perspective is presented as highly recommended literature for students and practitioners in the field of international tax law. This volume discusses and illustrates general matters in international tax law, as well as specific matters relevant for Danish international tax law.

  18. Reviews in plasmonics 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Reviews in Plasmonics 2016, the third volume of the new book series from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of Plasmonics and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year’s progress in surface plasmon phenomena and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews in sufficient detail to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of Plasmonics. Reviews in Plasmonics offers an essential source of reference material for any lab working in the Plasmonics field and related areas. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of Plasmonics will find it an invaluable resource.

  19. Reviews in plasmonics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Reviews in Plasmonics 2015, the second volume of the new book series from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of Plasmonics and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year’s progress in surface plasmon phenomena and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews in sufficient detail to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of Plasmonics. Reviews in Plasmonics offers an essential source of reference material for any lab working in the Plasmonics field and related areas. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of Plasmonics will find it an invaluable resource.

  20. Integrative reviews of nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, L H

    1987-02-01

    Integrative reviews of research are a valuable part of the process of creating and organizing a body of literature. It has been argued that integrative reviews should be held to the same standards of clarity, rigor, and replication as primary research. In this paper methods for conducting an integrative review are discussed. Seventeen reviews from nursing journals were examined and compared with a proposed set of criteria for reviews. The results indicated that the majority of integrative reviews in nursing fell short of primary research standards. Guidelines for conducting more rigorous reviews are presented.

  1. POPOVER Review Panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davito, A.; Baker, C.J.; King, C.J.; Costerus, B.; Nelson, T.; Prokosch, D.; Pastrnak, J.; Grace, P.

    1996-04-10

    The POPOVER series of high explosive (HE) certification tests was conducted at the Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF) in Area 4 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The two primary objectives of POPOVER were to certify that: (1) BEEF meets DOE requirements for explosives facilities and is safe for personnel-occupied operations during testing of large charges of conventional HE. (2) Facility structures and equipment will function as intended when subjected to the effects of these charges. After careful analysis of test results, the POPOVER Review Panel concludes that the POPOVER series met both objectives. Further details on the Review Panel`s conclusions are included in Section 7--Findings and Recommendations.

  2. Time Crystals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2017-09-08

    Time crystals are time-periodic self-organized structures postulated by Frank Wilczek in 2012. While the original concept was strongly criticized, it stimulated at the same time an intensive research leading to propositions and experimental verifications of discrete (or Floquet) time crystals -- the structures that appear in the time domain due to spontaneous breaking of discrete time translation symmetry. The struggle to observe discrete time crystals is reviewed here together with propositions that generalize this concept introducing condensed matter like physics in the time domain. We shall also revisit the original Wilczek's idea and review strategies aimed at spontaneous breaking of continuous time translation symmetry. . © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. REVIEWER LIST – 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Chief Editor

    2014-01-01

    REVIEWER LIST – 2014 The Editorial Team would like to thank all those who gave generously of their time and expertise in reviewing the papers for the Indian Journal of Community Health in 2014.AAarti Kapil, New Delhi, IndiaAbhishek SinghAmandeep Kaur, Haldwani, IndiaAmit Kaushik, Safai, IndiaAnu Bhardwaj, Ambala, IndiaAnurag Chaudary, Ludhiana, IndiaA R BondArpan YagnikArvind Kumar Singh, Gorakhpur, IndiaAshish Yadav, Meerut, IndiaAthar Ansari, Aligarh, India BBaridalyne Nongkynrih, New Delhi...

  4. Yoga clinical research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2011-02-01

    In this paper recent research is reviewed on the effects of yoga poses on psychological conditions including anxiety and depression, on pain syndromes, cardiovascular, autoimmune and immune conditions and on pregnancy. Further, the physiological effects of yoga including decreased heartrate and blood pressure and the physical effects including weight loss and increased muscle strength are reviewed. Finally, potential underlying mechanisms are proposed including the stimulation of pressure receptors leading to enhanced vagal activity and reduced cortisol. The reduction in cortisol, in turn, may contribute to positive effects such as enhanced immune function and a lower prematurity rate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental Prosopagnosia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kress

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the published literature on developmental prosopagnosia, a condition in which the ability to recognize other persons by facial information alone has never been acquired. Due to the very low incidence of this syndrome, case reports are sparse. We review the available data and suggest assessment strategies for patients suffering from developmental prosopagnosia. It is suggested that developmental prosopagnosia is not a unitary condition but rather consists of different subforms that can be dissociated on the grounds of functional impairments. On the basis of the available evidence, hypotheses about the aetiology of developmental prosopagnosia as well as about the selectivity of deficits related to face recognition are discussed.

  6. 2013 Development Effectiveness Review

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Development Effectiveness Review (DEfR) is the seventh annual performance review of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the first to apply the revised corporate results framework. The DEfR uses the 89 performance indicators of the revised framework to assess progress in implementing Strategy 2020, ADB’s long-term strategic framework. It evaluates ADB’s strengths and identifies areas where performance needs to be improved. The findings of the 2013 DEfR will inform actions to improve ...

  7. Bolaamphiphiles: A Pharmaceutical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Fariya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of drug discovery is ever growing and excipients play a major role in it. A novel class of amphiphiles has been discussed in the review. The review focuses on natural as well as synthetic bolaamphiphiles, their chemical structures and importantly, their ability to self assemble rendering them of great use to pharmaceutical industry. Recent reports on their ability to be used in fabrication of suitable nanosized carriers for drug as well as genes to target site, has been discussed substantially to understand the potential of bolaamphiphiles in field of drug delivery.

  8. Aeromicrobiology--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Dagal, M; Fung, D Y

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews the presence of microorganisms in air and their sources, the relation of airborne dust and endotoxin, the sources of atmospheric microbial contamination in food-processing plants, the mechanisms of airborne particle deposition, the importance of airborne microbes, the survival of microorganisms in air, methods of air sampling, airborne microbial populations in food-processing plants, control of airborne microorganisms in food-processing plants, and the general issue of microorganisms in air and their impact on food safety. The purpose was to bring together scattered information about airborne microorganisms and review their importance in food protection and sanitation.

  9. Finance Law Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education Finance, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reviews recent state and federal court decisions dealing with issues relevant to educational finance. Within the broad area of elementary-secondary education, specific cases involve allocation of federal school aid, fees charged by public schools for textbooks and instructional materials, property acquisition and school construction, and…

  10. Online Proactive Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    The aim of this study is to explore online, collaborative learning when it takes place in the context of work. The study is based on an educational design of collaborative learning called Proactive Reviews (PR). A PR is the point of departure for an organisational learning process involving...

  11. Local anesthesia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F; Sykes, P; Kubota, Y; Matsuura, H; Lipp, M

    1992-01-01

    Local anesthetics are the most widely administered drugs in dentistry. Significant advances have been made in past decades that have greatly increased both the safety and the efficacy of these important drugs. This paper reviews the history of local anesthesia, pharmacokinetics and clinical implications, techniques, complications, and future directions in the quest for more effective pain control in dentistry.

  12. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  13. A Review of Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Melissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Measles, once a common childhood illness that many older school nurses could recognize without difficulty, needs review again after reemerging from Europe and other continents. A highly contagious disease, which has been referenced since the seventh century, the virus can cause serious illness and death, despite the fact that it is vaccine…

  14. Swaddling : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adele C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; L'Hoir, Monique P.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on s

  15. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  16. Energy and Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    This is the first of two issues commemorating the 30th anniversary of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The early history of the laboratory is reviewed, including: the LLNL-Nevada organization; project Plowshare; the chemistry and materials science department; and development of computer systems. (GHT)

  17. Pancreatic Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabar, Cinthya S; Winter, Jordan M

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is now the third leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States, yet advances in treatment options have been minimal over the past decade. In this review, we summarize the evaluation and treatments for this disease. We highlight molecular advances that hopefully will soon translate into improved outcomes.

  18. Contact dermatitis. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Benezra, C; Burrows, D;

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in our understanding of contact dermatitis. This paper is a review of our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in contact dermatitis and related phenomena, the investigation of these events and the emergence of significant new allergens during...

  19. [Prostatic abscesses. A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, R; Rais, H; Joual, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    We review the literature to the diagnosis and therapeutic aspect of prostatic abscess. The prostatic abscess having become an uncommon disease. The diagnosis of prostatic abscess has been nearly made by transrectal ultrasound and computed tomography scan. The best diagnostic method is considered to be the transrectal ultrasound. The choice therapy was intravenous antibiotic, and drainage by ultrasound guided transperineal percutaneous puncture.

  20. Review of equine piroplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis is caused by one of two erythrocytic parasites Babesia caballi or Theileria equi. Although the genus of the latter remains controversial the most recent designation, Theileria is utilized in this review. Shared pathogenesis includes tick-borne transmission and erythrolysis leadi...

  1. Malawi Urbanization Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    The Malawi Urbanization Review aims to provide fresh perspectives on urbanization in Malawi, by analyzing the current and potential contribution of urbanization to long-term national development and the current institutional and financial capacity of local governments to manage the process. Analyses presented in this report are particularly timely as Malawi is planning for the coming half ...

  2. NRL 2003 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Wauchope, “ Eucalyptus : Integrating Natural Language Input with a Graphical User Interface,” NRL/FR/5510-94-9711, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington...acoustic models, viz., RAM. In essence , both the ocean acoustics R&D 214 2003 NRL Review simulation, computing, and modeling community and the Navy

  3. Swaddling: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleuwen, van Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on s

  4. Review on Superconducting Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hott, Roland; Kleiner, Reinhold; Wolf, Thomas; Zwicknagl, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    Short review of the topical comprehension of the superconductor materials classes Cuprate High-Temperature Superconductors, other oxide superconductors, Iron-based Superconductors, Heavy-Fermion Superconductors, Nitride Superconductors, Organic and other Carbon-based Superconductors and Boride and Borocarbide Superconductors, featuring their present theoretical understanding and their aspects with respect to technical applications.

  5. Reviewing Student Papers Electronically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    In order to consistently give quality feedback to students, the author introduces the revision and automation tools in Microsoft Word 2007. These features, Comments, Tracking, and Changes, are part of the Review group in MS Word 2007. Additionally, the AutoCorrect feature can be used to enhance and support editing endeavors. This article offers a…

  6. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  7. Swaddling : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adele C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; L'Hoir, Monique P.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  8. Swaddling: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  9. Test Reviewing in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  10. Aquaculture Sector Review

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2015-01-01

    This aquaculture sector review (with supply chain mapping) has been implemented within the framework of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) Armenia investment climate reform project implemented by the World Bank Group trade and competitiveness global practice, in partnership with Austria’s federal ministry of finance and Hungarian partnership funding and Hungary Export Import (EXIM...

  11. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish specie

  12. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish species consume medusae and some reasons to suspect that there are even more that do so, are discussed.

  13. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  14. Reviewing and Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H., Ed.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews of three software packages. These are "Ant Farm," a game of problem solving using guess and check or trial and error; "Learning Place Value"; and a set of three utility programs--"Mastering Math: Diagnostic System,""Mastering Math: Worksheet Generator," and "Mastering Math: Management System." (PK)

  15. 2010 Campus Sustainability Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    With this review of campus sustainability efforts in 2010, the editors aim to give readers--those who are often immersed in the day-to-day particulars of sustainability efforts--the same chance to take a step back and take a broader look at where they stand with sustainability in higher education. This inaugural 2010 Campus Sustainability Review…

  16. Swaddling: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on s

  17. Review of LEP results

    CERN Document Server

    Parodi, F

    2001-01-01

    I present a review of the results obtained during 10 years of activity in b-physics at LEP. Special emphasis is put on measurements that attained precisions not even envisaged at the beginning of the LEP programme (V/sub ub/ and Delta m/sub s/). Finally the impact of these measurements on the CKM parameters determination is presented. (16 refs).

  18. 2010 Campus Sustainability Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    With this review of campus sustainability efforts in 2010, the editors aim to give readers--those who are often immersed in the day-to-day particulars of sustainability efforts--the same chance to take a step back and take a broader look at where they stand with sustainability in higher education. This inaugural 2010 Campus Sustainability Review…

  19. A Review of Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Melissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Measles, once a common childhood illness that many older school nurses could recognize without difficulty, needs review again after reemerging from Europe and other continents. A highly contagious disease, which has been referenced since the seventh century, the virus can cause serious illness and death, despite the fact that it is vaccine…

  20. 120 Hz Gun Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, E.

    2005-01-31

    The review was held at SLAC on September 11 and 12, 2001. Presentations concerning the thermal analysis, mechanical design, integration with the laser and accelerator, general beam dynamics considerations, a load lock mechanism, and symmetric power feed options comprised the review. Slides from these presentations are available elsewhere. The review committee was charged with evaluating the 120 Hz gun design including proposed load lock and power feed options and recommending improvements. Broader evaluation of the injector as a whole (including focusing and diagnostic systems that do no impact the envelope of the gun itself) is expected to be covered in a future review and will not be commented on here. In general, the long operational experience with four generations of s-band RF guns at numerous labs worldwide has led to considerable experience in design, fabrication, and operation aspects, and provides an excellent base on which to design the higher duty factor LCLS injector. While open questions remain on obtaining the design performance from these injectors, the microwave design of the gun has reached a state of relative maturity.

  1. Lightning injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2008-08-01

    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  2. Freire Re-Viewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The work of Paulo Freire is associated with themes of oppression and liberation, and his critical pedagogy is visionary in its attempts to bring about social transformation. Freire has created a theory of education that embeds these issues within social relations that center around both ideological and material domination. In this review essay,…

  3. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plata, Charity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  4. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  5. Science & technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is the August, 1995 issue of the Science and Technology review, a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory publication. It contains two major articles, one on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - as applied to materials engineering studies, and one on risk assessment, in this case looking primarily at a health care problem. Separate articles will be indexed from this journal to the energy database.

  6. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish

  7. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  8. Review of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, C.; Particle Data Group; et al.

    2016-10-01

    The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,062 new measurements from 721 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as supersymmetric particles, heavy bosons, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Higgs Boson Physics, Supersymmetry, Grand Unified Theories, Neutrino Mixing, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Cosmology, Particle Detectors, Colliders, Probability and Statistics. Among the 117 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised, including those on Pentaquarks and Inflation. The complete Review is published online in a journal and on the website of the Particle Data Group (http://pdg.lbl.gov). The printed PDG Book contains the Summary Tables and all review articles but no longer includes the detailed tables from the Particle Listings. A Booklet with the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the review articles is also available. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (150 KB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (456 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (155 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (134 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (84 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (871 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (300 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (91 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (330 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (37 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (278 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (7.3 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (2.7 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.8 MB) Mathematical Tools or Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group

  9. Yoga research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a review of empirical studies, review and meta-analysis publications on yoga from the last few years. The review includes demographics/prevalence of yoga as a practice, bibliometric analyses of the yoga publications and the use of yoga for physical fitness and cognitive function. Most of the studies reviewed here involve yoga effects on psychiatric and medical conditions. These include pregnancy, prenatal and postpartum depression; stress, PTSD, anxiety, and obesity; cardiovascular conditions including hypertension; pain syndromes including arthritis, headaches and low back pain; autoimmune conditions including asthma, type II diabetes and multiple sclerosis; immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer; and aging problems including balance, osteoporosis and Parkinson's. The methods and results of those studies are briefly summarized along with their limitations and suggestions for future research. Basically yoga has been more effective than control and waitlist control conditions, although not always more effective than treatment comparison groups such as other forms of exercise. More randomized controlled studies are needed in which yoga is compared to active exercise groups. Having established the physical and mental health benefits of yoga makes it ethically questionable to assign participants to inactive control groups. Shorter sessions should be investigated for cost-effectiveness and for daily practice. Multiple physical and physiological measures need to be added to the self-report research protocols and potential underlying mechanisms need to be further explored. In the interim, the studies reviewed here highlight the therapeutic effects of yoga, a practice that could come to be called yoga therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reviewing manuscripts for biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmel, Gus M

    2010-01-01

    Writing for publication is a complex task. For many professionals, producing a well-executed manuscript conveying one's research, ideas, or educational wisdom is challenging. Authors have varying emotions related to the process of writing for scientific publication. Although not studied, a relationship between an author's enjoyment of the writing process and the product's outcome is highly likely. As with any skill, practice generally results in improvements. Literature focused on preparing manuscripts for publication and the art of reviewing submissions exists. Most journals guard their reviewers' anonymity with respect to the manuscript review process. This is meant to protect them from direct or indirect author demands, which may occur during the review process or in the future. It is generally accepted that author identities are masked in the peer-review process. However, the concept of anonymity for reviewers has been debated recently; many editors consider it problematic that reviewers are not held accountable to the public for their decisions. The review process is often arduous and underappreciated, one reason why biomedical journals acknowledge editors and frequently recognize reviewers who donate their time and expertise in the name of science. This article describes essential elements of a submitted manuscript, with the hopes of improving scientific writing. It also discusses the review process within the biomedical literature, the importance of reviewers to the scientific process, responsibilities of reviewers, and qualities of a good review and reviewer. In addition, it includes useful insights to individuals who read and interpret the medical literature.

  11. Lymphangiosarcoma of dogs : a review : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Williams

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiosarcoma in dogs, an extremely rare tumour with only 16 cases reported in the literature, is reviewed. Lymphangiosarcoma in humans, also very rare, and known in post-mastectomy, chronically-lymphoedematous patients as 'Stewart-Treves' syndrome, is briefly outlined, as well as the various other causes of lymphoedema, both primary and secondary, which usually precede malignancy. Comparisons between human and canine lymphoedema are made when such references were found. The genetic links to primary lymphoedema and the manifestation thereof in humans are mentioned. Lymphangiosarcoma in the majority of human and canine patients is an aggressively malignant tumour with few patients surviving despite various attempted treatments. The tumour most commonly arises in the subcutaneous tissues and rapidly invades underlying tissues and may spread widely internally via haematogenous and lymphatic routes, with frequent pleural and chest involvement. The tumour has been reported mostly in medium- to large-breed dogs, in slightly more males than females, and in an age-range of 8 weeks to 13 years, with more cases aged 5 years and older. Methods of diagnosis, with the variations encountered, including routine histopathology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, tissue culture characteristics and endothelial expression of glycocongugates, are discussed.

  12. Reliance on Simulation in Initial Entry Rifle Marksmanship Training and Future Directions for Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Tables C2 through C5). Table 4 is a snapshot of what occurred. It presents a sample of the drills and the number of repetitions of the drills in each...scenarios, including the Alt C drill, as the training progressed and to conduct fewer grouping drills. Table 4 Number of Repetitions for a Sample ...the associated skills, nor what sequence of drills would work best. So the choice of drills on a given day could easily have been a judgement call

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  14. Lightening the Load of a USMC Rifle Platoon Through Robotics Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    visual aides to the human operators, but to provide audio cues as well, making the robots interact on a more human-like level (Haas and van Erp 2010...This study investigates robots that can literally walk, run, and crawl next to the Marine, as well as respond to verbal commands or visual signals as a...none of them work side- by-side with their human operators. The collaboration or teamwork of the human-robot interaction is critical, especially on

  15. Thermal-Work Strain during Marine Rifle Squad Operations in Afghanistan (March 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    and waist circumference at the navel (anthropometric tape measure) were measured to estimate percent body fat using Wright and Wilmore’s technique...did not allow for weight or waist circumference measurement prior to donning the PSM system, the measurements were obtained at the volunteers...3 mile run time, percent body fat, height, weight, load carried, and waist circumference ) by mission period. Table 4: Volunteer characteristics

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Rifle, Colorado, Disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site in Garfield County, Colorado. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal Sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites, will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Estes Gulch disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Estes Gulch site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP.

  17. Teaching and Assessing Complex Skills in Simulation With Application to Rifle Marksmanship Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    individual performance skills that require complex perceptual motor activity. Examples include certain sports , such as golf and tennis and as studied here...distractions, and a shift from dependence upon external cues to internal ( proprioceptive ) stimuli as a means to guide coordinated task performance (Fitts...and for professional sports like baseball, tennis and golf, the skill is composed of tasks that can be taught individually because there are consistent

  18. Professional soldier assessment of a rifle-mounted target hand-off system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levesque, J.; Banko, K.; Binsch, O.

    2015-01-01

    The miniaturization of digital image acquisition and processing hardware, positional sensors, and batteries has enabled the creation of assisted targeting systems light enough to be integrated onto small firearms to increase the probability of soldiers detecting and hitting targets. As well, the

  19. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 4-2-013 Commodity Engineering Test Procedures, Recoilless Rifle Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-22

    External Fire, and Munition Test Procedures. The critical requirements of the STANAG are: (a) The test is done in an enclosed hearth designed...of STANAG 4240. However, the procedures of the STANAG are not amenable to satisfying the TB due to the confinement of the required hearth . c...within the hearth or bonfire. (4) Observations photographs of any reactions such as burning or explosions. TOP 4-2-013 22 September 2009

  20. Overmatch: Enabling the Infantry Rifle Squad as the Foundation of the Decisive Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ridgeline, carrying in excess of fifty pounds of equipment, for three miles. Montcastle noted the terrain in northwestern Afghanistan was so treacherous ...development of the human dimension. As then-President Eisenhower wrote in a letter to Joseph L. Collins , “There has been much talk of air and sea